WorldWideScience

Sample records for aleta sindelar cvm

  1. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  2. Reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Predko-Engel, A.; Kaminek, M.; Langova, K.; Kowalski, P.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation method (CVM). BACKGROUND: Skeletal maturity estimation can influence the manner and time of orthodontic treatment. The CVM method evaluates skeletal growth on the basis of the changes in the morphology of cervical vertebrae C2

  3. Eficiencia de las aletas con sección transversal no uniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. Rangel Jara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo matemático exacto del perfil de temperatura y por ende de la eficiencia de la aleta con sección transversal no uniforme implica la solución de una ecuación diferencial de Bessel modificada. En este artículo se presenta e implementa una alternativa de cálculo de las funciones de Bessel modificadas de primera y segunda clase que resultan de resolver la ecuación diferencial y que permite la valoración de la eficiencia de la aleta. Se utilizan cuadraturas de Gauss y de Laguerre para la integración numérica de las funciones modificadas de Bessel de cualquier orden. Esta alternativa puede considerarse como una forma más elaborada y precisa, con respecto a las propuestas convencionales para la solución del problema.

  4. Estudio Comparativo de la biología reproductiva del ciclo vital temprano de dos especies de atún (aleta amarilla y aleta azul), para el manejo sostenible de este recurso

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, Yazmin

    2014-01-01

    Los grupos de atún son especies migratorias que dependen de múltiples factores para su desarrollo y supervivencia. El atún aleta amarilla, especie epipelágica, tiene una distribución desde aguas subtropicales a tropicales. Se conoce que las larvas de los peces de aguas cálidas exigen mayor demanda de consumo de oxígeno, mayor requerimiento de ingestión. Además, depende de las temperaturas entre otros factores como el oxígeno disuelto, corrientes, estructura física de la columna de agua para l...

  5. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and...

  6. Detection of Factor XI Deficiency (FXID and Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Siswanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factor XI Deficiency (FXID is caused by imperfect insertion of poly adenine which is resulted in introduction of premature stop codon in FXI gene. Substitution of guanine into thymine in SLC35A3 gene caused Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM. The research was aimed to detect the presence or absence of a genetic defect mainly CVM using SLC35A3 gene and FXID using FXI gene in Indonesian Bali cattle. The presence of this genetic defect may have a significant economic impact on the breeding program. The research of genetic defect was done mostly in dairy cattle, but there was no report for screening of genetic defect in Bali cattle. In this study, 303 fresh blood samples and 22 semen samples which were collected from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding center (BPTU HMT Denpasar, BPT HMT Serading West Nusa Tenggara and district Barru South Sulawesi and artificial insemination centre (BBIB Singosari and BIBD Baturiti were used for screening of FXID and CVM. The amplicons of FXI gene were obtained by using PCR and that for SLC35A3 gene were obtained by using PCR-RFLP method with PstI restriction enzyme. These PCR products were analyzed by using 2% agarose gels electrophoresis. All genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine an allele mutant. The allele mutant was not found in all of the samples. The result of this study showed that CVM and FXID were not detected in Bali cattle from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding and artificial insemination centres.

  7. Estimation of CE–CVM energy parameters from miscibility gap data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Srinivasa Gupta; G Vamsi Madhav; A Pandey; B Nageswara Sarma; S Lele

    2005-04-01

    The powerful framework of cluster expansion–cluster variation methods (CE–CVM) expresses alloy free energy in terms of energy (model) parameters, macroscopic variables (composition and temperature) and microscopic variables (correlation functions). A simultaneous optimization of thermodynamic and phase equilibria data using CE–CVM is critically dependent on giving good initial values of energy parameters, macroscopic and microscopic variables, respectively. No standard method for obtaining the initial values of the energy parameters is available in literature. As a starting point, a method has been devised to estimate the values of energy parameters from consolute point (miscibility gap maximum) data. Empirical relations among energy parameters, temperature (c), composition (c) and 2}/2 at the consolute point, have been developed using CE–CVM free energy functions for bcc and fcc structures in the tetrahedron and tetrahedron–octahedron approximations, respectively. Thus from the observed data of c, c and 2}/2 in the above relations, good initial values of energy parameters can be obtained. Further, a necessary modification to the classical NR method for solving simultaneous nonlinear/transcendental equations with a double root in one variable and a simple root in the other has been presented.

  8. Using S3 cloud storage with ROOT and CvmFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga-Ríos, María; Heikkilä, Seppo S.; Duellmann, Dirk; Meusel, René; Blomer, Jakob; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    Amazon S3 is a widely adopted web API for scalable cloud storage that could also fulfill storage requirements of the high-energy physics community. CERN has been evaluating this option using some key HEP applications such as ROOT and the CernVM filesystem (CvmFS) with S3 back-ends. In this contribution we present an evaluation of two versions of the Huawei UDS storage system stressed with a large number of clients executing HEP software applications. The performance of concurrently storing individual objects is presented alongside with more complex data access patterns as produced by the ROOT data analysis framework. Both Huawei UDS generations show a successful scalability by supporting multiple byte-range requests in contrast with Amazon S3 or Ceph which do not support these commonly used HEP operations. We further report the S3 integration with recent CvmFS versions and summarize the experience with CvmFS/S3 for publishing daily releases of the full LHCb experiment software stack.

  9. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Compensation for Non-commercial Forests under CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-commercial forests in Kunming City,this article conducts survey of 506 households in Kunming City to evaluate their willingness to pay ecological benefit of non-commercial forests,using Contingent Valuation Method(CVM);to analyze factors influencing their willingness to compensate for non-commercial forests,using multivariate statistical analysis method.The results show that income,educational level, housing ownership,outdoor exercise time,whether to be concerned about environmental problems,frequency of obtaining forest-related information monthly and whether understanding non-commercial forests or not,are the most principal factors influencing willingness to pay.

  10. Interception efficiency of CVM-based lightning protection systems for buildings and the fractional Poisson model

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, Harold S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to resolve a question regarding efficiency of a lightning protection system (LPS) for buildings based on the collection volume method (CVM) . The paper has two components. The first, following suggestions of other authors [Abidin and Ibrahim 2004], takes advantage of count data from installed devices, and independent installation-site inspections to develop our statistical analysis. The second component investigates the validity of the underlying theory by introducing a novel methodology of fractional Poisson processes, which are able to reproduce the burstiness of lightning strikes, an essential feature of stochastic time dependence of incidence of lightning strikes. The standard Poisson processes used in the past efforts in this area cannot do that.

  11. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  12. High throughput screening of Pd-alloys for H2 separation membranes studied by hydrogenography and CVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerwaal, R.J.; Dam, B. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage, Julianaweg 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Den Besten, C.; Slaman, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nanuc, D.E.; Boettger, A.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Haije, W.G. [Energy research Centre of The Netherlands, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    The search for and development of stable Pd-based membranes for hydrogen separation applications with resistance to hydrogen embrittlement and cracking is a challenging and time-consuming task. Membrane failure is most often caused by the occurrence of the {alpha}-{beta} phase transition during hydrogen absorption and desorption by the Pd-alloy below the critical temperature. By finding a suitable alloy with a critical temperature below room temperature, the membrane lifetime can be extended tremendously. Here we present a combinatorial approach that enables the fast screening of phase transitions in multi-component Pd-alloys for hydrogen separation membranes by experiments and thermodynamic calculations. The method is applied to the well-documented Pd-Cu alloy compositions. Hydrogenography, a compositional gradient thin film technique, is used to experimentally investigate the alloy compositions. Using a new phenomenological method to determine the critical temperature from hydrogenography measurements, we show that the experimental results and the calculations, using the Cluster Variation Method (CVM), agree well with the phase boundaries and critical temperatures reported in literature. Our results show that the combined capabilities of hydrogenography and CVM enable an efficient screening of promising multi-component alloys for which thermodynamic data are scarce or absent.

  13. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  14. Dinámica de mesoescala y capturas de atún aleta amarilla en el Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usaron datos de captura de la pesquería de atún aleta amarilla (AAA para estudiar la relación entre la variación estacional y espacial del AAA con la presencia/ausencia de estructuras de mesoescala en la entrada al Golfo de California (19º–24ºN y 104º–112ºW. Las capturas de AAA están distribuidas sobre el talud continental, alrededor de islas y montes submarinos la mayor parte del año. Altas concentraciones de lances ocurren alrededor de las islas Marías y Cabo Corrientes a lo largo del año, particularmente en marzo y junio. En febrero y abril se encontró un flujo de agua caliente (>28ºC con un ancho de 1.5 radios de Rossby (~20.6 km que cubre toda la plataforma continental fuera de Cabo Corrientes. Su velocidad media es 0.31 m s–1 y se extiende al norte del bajo Roca Corbetera. La interacción con el agua fría genera una zona frontal alrededor de la cual se concentran las capturas de AAA. En contraste, durante marzo se observó una región de surgencia costera con temperatura superficial del mar de 18ºC, con un ancho de 3.7 radios de Rossby hacia fuera de la costa y cubriendo 2600 km2. Las capturas de AAA ocurren en agua caliente, hacia el norte de la zona de surgencia.

  15. 78 FR 64425 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... that will establish the foundation of, and central framework for, the modern food safety system... special accommodations due to a disability, contact: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to establish the foundation of a modernized, prevention-based food...

  16. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... Rockville Pike, Rockville MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for...

  17. Gestão de risco e os impactos da instrução normativa CVM nº 550: análise empírica Risk management and the effects of CVM instruction 550: empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Andrade de Almeida Burlá

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o efeito da instrução normativa CVM 550 sobre a utilização de derivativos e, consequentemente, a gestão de risco das companhias abertas brasileiras. A resolução exige que as empresas apurem por meio do valor de mercado os instrumentos derivativos em suas demonstrações financeiras trimestrais. No entanto, a deliberação não prevê tratamento contábil para tais tipos de instrumentos. Assim, é suposto que o efeito da norma deve afetar dois grupos de usuários de derivativos: os hedgers (EH e os especuladores (IS. Os resultados empíricos mostram que o risco incorrido pelas empresas se refere, basicamente, à taxa de juros e câmbio. Após a adoção da norma, foram encontradas evidências estatísticas que apontam uma diminuição do uso de derivativos para ambos os grupos. As evidências sugerem que a resolução 550 tem incentivado as empresas a contratarem derivativos com mais prudência, o que indica uma mudança na política de gestão de risco. Para o estudo em questão foi utilizada uma amostra de 107 empresas brasileiras pertencentes aos 10 grandes setores econômicos do ICB, em uma janela de dados de 10 anos (1999 a 2009.The present study examines the effect of CVM normative instruction 550 on the use of derivatives and, consequently, on the risk management of Brazilian companies. The instruction requires companies to disclose the fair value of derivative instruments in their quarterly financial statements. However, this resolution does not establish on the accounting treatment for these types of instruments. Thus, it is supposed that the rule should affect both groups of derivatives users, hedgers (EH and speculators (IS. The empirical results show that the risk the companies incur basically refers to the interest rate and exchange rate. After the adoption of the instruction, statistical evidence was found that shows a decrease in derivative use for both groups. The evidence suggests that instruction 550

  18. Auditor’s Competences: an empirical study on the perception of auditees of companies registered on the CVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed examining the perception of auditee in relation to the competences of the independent auditors listed in the literature. To achieve this objective, the first step was developing a structure with forty competencies of the auditor, grouped into: intellectual skills, personal skills, interpersonal and communication skills, organizational and business management skills. A questionnaire was constructed based on the competences contained on the elaborate structure and sent to employees of publicly traded companies registered on the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. The results revealed that the perception of auditee in relation to the auditor's competences, considering the average was above 3 (scale 1-5, ranging from 3.03 for “lateral thinking” and 3.98 “loyalty” and “ethical behavior”. Moreover, the perception of the auditee who had contact with auditors of higher levels (Partner and Manager was higher and statistically significant, considering the mean, than perception of those who had contact with auditors at lower levels (Trainee/Assistant, Semi-Senior and Senior/Supervisor. Finally, for the most of competences investigated were not significant differences of perception between auditees who had contact with Big Four auditors only, and those who had contact with non-Big Four auditors.

  19. A Case Study of Using CVM to Measure Social Value of Libraries Abroad%CVM应用于图书馆社会价值评估的国外案例介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁顺波; 汪徽志; 曹强

    2011-01-01

    对国外公共图书馆和高校图书馆应用CVM评估其社会价值的案例进行分析,认为采用CVM可以更好地评估其社会价值,同时需要正视CVM所存在的不足,综合采用多种评估方法,并结合我国图书馆的自身特点开展评估。%It is necessary to use CVM to measure the social value of libraries. We study the social value measurements of public libraries and academic libraries abroad by CVM, and conclude that CVM is significant to domestic libraries;Meanwhile we should envisage the defect of CVM, make comprehensive use of several measure methods and integrate with the library specialty to do the measurement activities.

  20. Based on CVM Agro-ecological Compensation in Upstream of Erhai Lake Basin%基于 CVM 意愿调查的洱海流域上游农业生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施翠仙; 郭先华; 祖艳群; 陈建军; 李元

    2014-01-01

    Farmers are the core stakeholders of agro-ecological compensation. Their cognition and participation willingness in agro-ecologi-cal compensation greatly influence the efficiency and sustainability of agro -ecological compensation. In this study, contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to collect information including farmersˊ cognition level of eco-environment and agro-ecological compensation and willingness to accept(WTA)agro-ecological compensation in Eryuan County in the upstream of Erhai lake basin. Agro-ecological compen-sation criteria for adjusting agricultural industry structure were also estimated. Total 350 questionnaires were sent out and valid 305 re-ceived. About 70% of farmers showed correct understanding of ecological environment and high cognition level of agro-ecological compen-sation. More than half of farmers who participated in projects of agro-ecological compensation were satisfied with agro-ecological compensa-tion in 2007-2009, while 42.77% farmers were dissatisfied due to low compensation standards and inequities in agro-ecological compen-sation. Farmers preferred policy compensation and technology compensation. Total amount of the compensation for the whole county should be 3.248 0×108 Yuan(RMB)per year. Of four agricultural structure adjustment modes in Eryuan County, 71.15% farmers chose non-zero WTA. Farmersˊ education level, cognition and participating willingness of agro-ecological compensation showed positive effects on the pref-erence of agro-ecological compensation modes, while family income had a negative effect. This study suggests that raising farmersˊ cognition of agro-ecological compensation and performing pilot scale trials of agro-ecological compensation are essential for sustainability of agro-e-cological compensation.%农民是农业生态补偿的主要利益相关者,其对生态补偿的认知态度和参与意愿直接影响生态补偿项目的实施效果和可持续性。以洱海流域上游水源地洱源

  1. 基于 CVM 的泉州生态文明城市建设民众支付意愿研究%Research on Residents’Willingness to Pay for Construction of Ecological Civilization City in Quanzhou Based on CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 李洪波

    2014-01-01

    运用 CVM 方法和 Logistic 模型对泉州市市民关于开展生态文明城市建设的支付意愿进行调查研究,结果表明:平均支付意愿为110.7元/年,并且户籍、居住年限、学历、收入、对泉州生态文明城市建设的了解程度以及市民认为生态文明城市对其自身生活的影响程度6个因素对支付意愿呈现显著性影响,性别、年龄与职业则对支付意愿影响不大。%Contingent valuation method(CVM)and Logistic Model were employed to investigate urban residents’willingness to pay for construction of ecological civilization city in Quanzhou.The research showed that:(a)Average willingness is 1 10.7 yuan/year;(b)Census register,time living in Quanzhou,education,income levels,understanding of the ecological civilization city,public awareness of ecological civilization city affect the willingness to pay significantly;(c)Gender,age and occupation are not sensitive to it.

  2. CVM Evaluation of Natural Forest Carbon Sinks in Ningbo%基于CVM的宁波天童天然林碳汇贸易研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖翱; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    以宁波天童天然林为例,探讨了将天然林碳汇纳入碳汇贸易的方法和途径,采用条件价值评估法(CVM)估算了天童天然林碳汇价值,并探讨了天然林碳汇贸易的可行性.结果表明:(1)与人工林碳汇相比,天然林碳汇在数量、生态功能和保育价值方面具优势,将天然林碳汇纳入碳汇贸易,是对现有人工林碳汇贸易的有益补充;(2)公众对碳汇贸易普遍持支持和偏好态度,但对碳汇概念认知程度低、对相关政策态度谨慎;(3)据CVM法评估得到天童天然林年均贸易价值合理值约1379万元/a,合2.06万元/t,高于人工林碳汇价格,反映公众对天然林整体生态功能和保护价值的较高支付意愿;(4)影响天然林碳汇价值因素为个人收入、概念了解度、政策支持度和责任的定位;(5)公众对天然林碳汇贸易高度关注、对保护天然林富有热情,所以天然林碳汇进行贸易具有社会基础和可行性.%Taking Tiantong Forest in Ningbo as an example, methods that integrated natural forest into carbon trade market by estimating its carbon sinks and politically feasibility via contingent valuation method (CVM) were discussed. Results indicated that natural forest which has advantages over planted forest in terms of quantity, ecological function and conservation value is a favorable supplement to bring natural forest into current carbon trade. The public supports and prefers natural forest while has limited knowledge of carbon sinks and conservative attitude toward relative policy. Via CVM, carbon sinks of Tiantong Forest is estimated as 13.79 million RMB, that is 20,600 RMB per ton which is higher than that of planted forest reflecting a public preference. Factors affecting WTP include personal income, understanding of related concept, support to the possible policies and awareness self-responsibility. Public awareness and support is the foundation to establish carbon trade of natural forest.

  3. Thermal and friction drop characteristic of heat exchangers with elliptical tubes and smooth fins//Caracterización térmica e hidráulica de intercambiadores de calor con tubos elípticos y aletas lisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Borrajo-Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop and heat transfer are the most important parameters in compact heat exchanger. There is a lack of information in the literature about heat exchanger with elliptical tube. The objective of this work was the experimental characterization of compact heat exchangers models using elliptical tube with eccentricity of 0,5 and smooth fins. The Reynolds numbers and the spacing were varied and always inside laminar regime. The experiments were conducted in an open wind tunnel using sublimation of naphthalene and the heat and mass transfer analogy. As results, the average and local Nusselt number and friction factor for 36 models were obtained. Correlations for Colburn and friction factors were presented. This correlations were obtained for 200aleta isotérmica. Son las primeras correlaciones que se aplican a

  4. 北京地区荷斯坦牛脊椎畸形综合征的调查研究%Investigation on Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in Holstein Cattle of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 乔绿; 张胜利; 郑维韬; 吕小青; 朱玉林; 薛建华; 孙凤俊

    2011-01-01

    Complex Vertebral Malformation(CVM) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by G→T mutation in the SLC35A3 gene. The recessive homozygous form(CV/CV) is lethal and since cartier animals have viability, CVM frequency can be increased by use of carrier bulls in Artificial Insemination(AI). In this study, DNA samples from Holstein bulls(n=242)and cows(n=403)in Beijing district were detected by PCR-SSCP. The results showed that CVM-carrier rates in Holstein bulls and cows were 8.82% and 5.71%,and their gene frequencies were 4.41% and 2.85%, respectively. Our pedigree studies of the carrier cattle in this experiment revealed that the mutation was inherited to him from Penstate lvanhoe Star bull(USA. 1441440, CV). Although the elimination of CVMcarrier bulls from the Holstein world would be the most efficient method to control this genetic disorder, many CVM-carrier bulls were still listed commercially for Al in China. Monitoring the prevalence of CVM-carriers in random selected herds may be helpful in judging the effectiveness of the CVM-control program.%脊椎畸形综合征(Complex Vertebral Malformation,CVM)是由常染色体上SLC35A3基因单碱基突变(G→T)引起的隐性遗传疾病,该基因隐性纯合(CV/CV)时奶牛致死,但CVM携带者表现正常,所以CVM携带者公牛可以通过人工授精技术传播CVM缺陷基因.本研究利用PCR-SSCP方法对北京地区242头公牛样品和403头母牛样品进行了检测分析,研究结果表明,在所检测的样本中,荷斯坦种公牛和母牛CVM携带率分别为8.82%和5.71%,CVM基因频率分别为4.41%和2.85%.通过系谱追踪发现,CVM遗传缺陷的共同祖先是美国名牛"Penstate Ivanhoe Star"(USA.1441440,CV).通过剔除CVM携带者公牛可以有效地控制CVM遗传缺陷的传播,但是,我国许多CVM携带者公牛冻精依然在商业化使用,所以有效地监控CVM携带者在奶牛群中的状况对CVM防控计划是有益的.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach to identify pelagic shark fins by molecular, morphometric and digital correlation data Enfoque multidisciplinario para la identificación de aletas de tiburones pelágicos con datos moleculares, morfométricos y análisis digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Hernández

    2010-04-01

    álisis multivariados basados en 20 mediciones morfométricas, fueron usados para identificar grupos de aletas húmedas y secas de cada especie de tiburón. Adicionalmente, patrones de coloración y forma de la aleta fueron usados conjuntamente para distinguir grupos de aletas secas de las especies de tiburones utilizando correlación digital invariante (relación entre la imagen conocida y la imagen problema, independiente de sus cambios de posición, escala y rotación. Nuestros resultados muestran que el análisis morfométrico es el enfoque menos exacto, mientras que la identificación basada en el ADN y el procesamiento de imágenes fue 100% exitosa para reconocer las especies de tiburones en cuestión. Así, secuencias del ITS2 y caracteres diagnósticos en la morfología, tales como aquellos relacionados al patrón de coloración, permiten la identificación correcta de las especies de tiburones. Por lo tanto, la implementación de herramientas moleculares y/o de imagen permiten confidentemente identificar a las principales especies de tiburones pelágicos involucrados en el desembarque y comercio de aletas en Chile.

  6. 天津地区荷斯坦公牛CVM、DUMPS和CN遗传缺陷检测%Identiifcation of CVM, DUMPS and CN Carriers in Chinese Holstein Bulls in Tianjin Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 谢岩; 范学华; 张毅; 孙东晓; 张胜利; 马毅; 吴周良

    2014-01-01

    本文旨在研究天津地区中国荷斯坦公牛脊椎畸形综合征(Complexvertebralmalformation,CVM)、尿苷酸合酶缺乏症(Deficiencyofuridinemonophosphatesynthase,DUMPS)和瓜氨酸血症(Citrullinemia,CN)3种遗传缺陷的携带者比率及系谱来源。通过PIRA-PCR和PCR-RFLP方法分别对天津奶牛发展中心参加全国青年公牛联合后裔测定和国家良种补贴项目的110头荷斯坦公牛进行了CVM、DUMPS和CN三种遗传缺陷检测。共发现6头CVM隐性有害基因携带公牛,携带者比例为5.45%,隐性有害等位基因频率为2.72%。经过系谱分析,其中4头CVM携带者均为美国公牛Carlin-MIvanhoeBell的后代,另外2头因系谱不完整而无法查询。未检测到DUMPS和CN隐性有害基因携带者。基于此,我国有必要尽快建立荷斯坦牛隐性遗传缺陷监控体系并进行系谱标注,避免携带公牛进入后裔测定和良种补贴项目,以逐步降低我国奶牛群体中遗传缺陷隐性等位基因频率。%This study is aimed to detect carriers of Complex vertebral malformation (CVM), deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and Citrullinemia (CN) in Chinese Holstein bulls in Tianjin area. Polymerase chain reaction-primer introduced restriction analysis (PIRA-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to detect the alleles of CVM, DUMPS and CN among 110 Holstein bullsparticipating in the national progeny test bulls program. As a result, a total of 6 CVM carriers were identiifed. The recessive allele frequency of CVM is 5.45%. After pedigree analysis, out of 6 CVM carriers, 4 bulls are found to the offspring of American Holstein bull“Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell”, and 2 bulls’ pedigrees are incomplete. DUMPS and CN carrier didn’t be identiifed. Based on this, in our country, it is necessary to establish as soon as possible Holstein recessive genetic defect monitoring system and conduct genealogy

  7. 京郊部分牛场荷斯坦母牛脊椎畸形综合征(CVM)遗传缺陷检测%Identiifcation of Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) Carriers in Holstein Cows from Suburban Farms in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韶青; 梁若冰; 云鹏; 杨宇泽; 肖炜; 孙东晓

    2014-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the 4 extron in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3). Homozygous recessive can cause early pregnancy abortion, stillbirth, or cow calf birth deformities, but carriers are normal. Polymerase chain reaction–primer introduced restriction analysis (PIRA-PCR) was used to detect CVM among 552 Holstein cows from Beijing. As a result, a total of 21 CVM carriers were identiifed. The frequency of carriers was 3.80% and the recessive allele frequency of CVM was 1.90%. Our pedigree studies of the carrier cattle in this experiment revealed that, out of 21 CVM carriers, 13 ones inherited mutation from those mothers and 15 ones were found to be the offspring of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell (USA1667366). Based on this, in our country, it is necessary to detect CVM among Holstein cows to prevent the CVM carriers mating and reduce economic losses.%牛脊椎畸形综合征(CVM)是由牛3号染色体上SLC35A3基因第4外显子上的G/T突变引起的隐性遗传疾病,其隐性纯合子可以造成母牛妊娠早期流产、死胎或出生犊牛畸形,而CVM携带者表型正常,无发病表现。本研究利用PIRA-PCR方法对北京地区552头母牛样本进行了检测分析。研究结果表明,所检测的样本中,荷斯坦母牛CVM携带者为21头,携带率为3.80%,有害基因频率为1.90%。通过系谱分析,其中13头携带者的致病基因来源于其母亲,15头CVM携带者为Carlin-MIvanhoeBell(USA1667366)的后代。因此,牛场应当开展母牛CVM筛查,防止CVM携带个体之间的交配,减少经济损失。

  8. Establishment and Application of Molecular Diagnosis of Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM)in Holstein%荷斯坦牛脊椎畸形综合征分子诊断方法的建立与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 张胜利; 赵兴波; 李宁

    2010-01-01

    脊椎畸形综合征(Complex Vertebral Malformation, CVM)是由常染色体上SLC35A3基因单碱基突变(G→T)引起的隐性遗传疾病,该基因隐性纯合(CV/CV)时奶牛致死,但CVM携带者表现正常,所以CVM携带者公牛可以通过人工授精技术传播CVM缺陷基因.本研究自行设计检测CVM特异性PCR引物,扩增长度为173bp,然后利用PCR-SSCP方法对186个公牛样品和140个母牛样品进行了检测分析,该方法简便快捷、准确率高.使用样品宽泛,适合大样本筛选.研究结果表明,在所检测的样本中,荷斯坦种公牛和母牛CVM携带率分别为11.3%和12.1%,并通过系谱追踪发现,CVM遗传缺陷的共同祖先是美国名牛"Penstate Ivanhoe Star"(USA.1441440,CV).通过剔除CVM携带者公牛可以有效地控制CVM遗传缺陷,但是,我国许多CVM携带者公牛冻精依然在商业化使用,所以,有效地监控CVM携带者在奶牛群中的状况对CVM防控计划是有益的.

  9. 基于CVM的三峡国家公园利益相关者支付意愿研究%A Study of Stakeholders′Willingness to Pay for the Three Gorges National Park based on CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉臻; 徐宁蔚

    2016-01-01

    国家公园对生态文明、环境保护等具有重要价值,建立国家公园体制、实施主体功能区制度在中国国家层面得到重视。本文运用CVM法测算三峡国家公园利益相关者对公园开发后的保护和门票的支付意愿( WTP 值),研究显示:两个支付意愿值的排序结果都是游客最高,政府和企业居中,居民最低;在此基础上,分析探讨国家公园的开发导向、管理模式、建设投资和门票经济。%National Park has important value for ecological civilization and environmental protection.Establishment of a national park system and implementation of the main functional areas of the system have been paid attention to by coun-tries and local governments in China.CVM is used to assess the WTP value and protection of Three Gorges National Park after being exploited in this paper.Research shows that the two willingness to pay ranking ( from high to low) is tourists, government and business, residents.On this basis, the paper discusses the development orientation, management mode, construction investment and entrance ticket economy of national park.

  10. Identification of CVM and DUMPS Carriers in Chinese Holstein Bulls%中国荷斯坦公牛脊椎畸形综合征和尿苷酸合酶缺乏症遗传缺陷检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁若冰; 谢岩; 范学华; 张毅; 孙东晓; 张胜利

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在研究中国荷斯坦公牛脊椎畸形综合征(Complex vertebral malformation,CVM)和尿苷酸合酶缺乏症(Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase,DUMPS)两种遗传缺陷的携带者及系谱来源.通过PIRA-PCR和PCR-RFLP方法对参加全国青年公牛联合后裔测定和国家良种补贴项目的、来自全国27个公牛站的691头荷斯坦公牛分别进行了CVM和DUMPS的遗传缺陷检测,共发现34头CVM和1头DUMPS隐性有害基因携带者公牛,携带者比例分别为4.92%和0.14%,隐性有害等位基因频率分别为2.46%和0.07%.经过系谱分析发现,其中28头CVM携带者均为美国公牛Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell的后代,另外6头因系谱不完整而无法查询.1头DUMPS携带者为美国公牛Skokie Sensation Ned后代.因此,我国有必要尽快建立荷斯坦牛隐性遗传缺陷监控体系并进行系谱标注,通过青年公牛预选和选种选配,避免携带者公牛进入后裔测定和良种补贴项目,以逐步降低我国奶牛群体中隐性有害等位基因频率,为提高奶牛群体质量提供依据.

  11. Custo médio ponderado de capital: um estudo dos erros contidos em seu cálculo nas ofertas públicas de aquisições de ações registradas na comissão de valores mobiliários (CVM)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo geral verificar se os Laudos de Avaliação das Ofertas Públicas de Aquisições de Ações (OPA), autorizadas pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários do Brasil (CVM), possuem erros no cálculo do Custo Médio Ponderado de Capital (Weighted Average Cost of Capital - WACC), entre janeiro de 2005 e maio de 2010. Para alcançá-lo, realizou-se uma pesquisa bibliográfica e empírica. Essa última feita por meio do estudo de todos os Laudos de Avaliação das OPA registrados no sítio ...

  12. 最小受偿意愿(WTA)方法对玛曲草地生态系统恢复价值的估算%Economic value estimation of grassland ecosystem restoration of Maqu Using Contingent Valuation Method and willing to accept(CVM-WTA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世华

    2011-01-01

    Contingent Valuation Method(CVM)evolved as a method to quantify the benefits of non-marketed environmental goods and attributes so that they could be entered directly into cost-benefit calculations. This survey-based value elicitation approach queries citizen-consumers in systematic ways to estimate individuals' or willing to accept(WTA)for changes in some environmental amenity. Economic value estimation of grassland ecosystem restoration of Maqu was analyzed based on CVM-WTA with adopting Anchord Payment Card(APC)as its eliciting tools. The results showed that the average WTA of per cattle was 2 545 Yuan,the average WTA of per sheep was 660 Yuan. The total economic value of Maqu grassland restoring was 3.3 × 108 Yuan.%运用最小受偿意愿方法,针对玛曲草地生态系统退化现状,以支付卡问题格式设计调查问卷,并采用入户调查和访谈相结合的方式对138户牧民家庭因减少牲畜数量而愿意接受的最小补偿数量进行了初步调查.结果表明:最小补偿数量牛为2 545元/头,羊为660元/只.如果把玛曲现有的超载牲畜全部折算为羊单位,并按50万只超载羊单位计算,则总的恢复价值为3.3×108元.

  13. Planos de incentivos baseados em opções de ações: uma exposição das distinções encontradas entre as demonstrações contábeis enviadas à CVM e à SEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssander de Antonio Nunes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Os planos de incentivos atrelados a opções de ações são uma forma de remuneração variável, na qual ao funcionário é dada a oportunidade de participar da empresa como acionista. Trata-se de um tipo de incentivo que pode apresentar vantagens para o funcionário e para a empresa. A Contabilidade trata da mensuração dos valores envolvidos e das formas de divulgação desses valores. Normas específicas constam no FASB e no IASB. No Brasil, a matéria é motivo de pareceres e recomendações da CVM e do IBRACON. Este artigo apresenta os fundamentos das opções de ações a funcionários e as normas existentes no tratamento contábil dos planos. No estudo empírico, foram selecionadas 14 companhias abertas nacionais e as informações coletadas demonstram que há diferenças entre o que é divulgado para os órgãos reguladores e o mercado de capitais brasileiro, em comparação à divulgação aos órgãos reguladores e ao mercado de capitais internacional.Stock option plans are one form of variable compensation in which the employee is given the opportunity to participate in the company as a stockholder. This kind of stimulus can mean advantages for employees and companies. Accounting is responsible for measuring and disclosing the amounts involved. Both FASB and IASB present specific rules in this respect. In Brazil, this subject has been discussed in opinions and recommendations by CVM and IBRACON. This article presents the foundations of stock options for employees and existing rules for the accounting treatment of these plans. 14 national publicly-traded companies were selected for the empiric study. The collected information demonstrates that there are differences between what is disclosed to regulators and the capital market in Brazil and in the international context.

  14. Reducing uncertainty and bias in acoustic biomass estimations of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in the southeastern Pacific: transducer motion effects upon acoustic attenuation Reduciendo el sesgo e incertidumbre de las estimaciones hidroacústicas de biomasa de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en el Pacífico suroriental: efectos del movimiento del transductor sobre la atenuación acústica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Saavedra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the loss of sensitivity due to the motion experienced by a hull-mounted transducer and its effects upon the estimated biomass of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in an acoustic survey conducted in the southeastern Pacific, off the Chilean coast, during the austral winter of 2009. Vessel motion data (pitch and roll were registered in situ using a digital clinometer and used to correct the nautical area scattering coefficients (NASC in elementary sampling units of 926 m distance by 10 m depth. These NASC correction factors (NASCcp were calculated using Dunford's algorithm for circular transducers. We found high variability in NASCcp, which averaged 12%, and ranged between 0 and 50%. NASCcp variability was explained significantly by the mean depth of the integrated stratum (33%, the weather condition, as measured by Beaufort's scale (5%, and the vessel course relative to wind direction (2%. The empirical model we used to explain NASC Cp variability may be suitable for correcting bias due to transducer motion in other, past and future, fisheries acoustic surveys targeting mid-water species under rough weather conditions.Se evaluó la pérdida de sensibilidad producida por el movimiento de un transductor montado en el casco y sus efectos sobre la abundancia y biomasa estimada de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en un estudio acústico realizado en el Pacífico suroriental, frente a la costa de Chile, durante el invierno austral de 2009. Los datos de movimiento del barco (cabeceo y balanceo fueron registrados in situ utilizando un clinómetro digital y luego utilizados para estimar la pérdida teórica de sensibilidad del transductor y, finalmente, traducir esta pérdida en factores de corrección del coeficiente de dispersión por área náutica (NASC calculados para intervalos básicos de muestreo de 926 m de distancia por 10 m de profundidad. Los factores de corrección del NASC (NASC Cp fueron calculados

  15. 基于CVM的游憩资源非使用价值评估--以福州乌山风景区为例%Assessment of Non-use Value of Recreational Resources Based on CVM:A Case Study of Wushan Scenic Region in Fuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾明亮; 韩天腾

    2014-01-01

    Through field questionnaire survey,by using contingent valuation method( CVM),the author assessed the monetary non-use value of recreational resources in Wushan scenic region of Fuzhou city. The results indicated that:the rate of willingness to pay of surveyed tourists was 51. 7%;the annual average value of personal willingness to pay was 54. 62 yuan;the non-use value of recreational resources in Wushan scenic region in the year 2011 was 203 million yuan,among them the existence value,option value and heritage value were 94. 192 million,51. 156 million,and 57. 652 million yuan,respectively.%通过实地问卷调查,应用条件价值评估法( CVM)对福州乌山风景区游憩资源的非使用价值进行了货币化评估。结果表明:被调查者的支付意愿率为51.7%;个人年平均支付意愿值为54.62元;2011年乌山风景区游憩资源的非使用价值为2.03亿元,其中存在价值、选择价值和遗产价值分别为9419.2万元、5115.6万元、5765.2万元。

  16. Transformations among CE–CVM model parameters for multicomponent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nageswara Sarma; Shrikant Lele

    2005-06-01

    In the development of thermodynamic databases for multicomponent systems using the cluster expansion–cluster variation methods, we need to have a consistent procedure for expressing the model parameters (CECs) of a higher order system in terms of those of the lower order subsystems and to an independent set of parameters which exclusively represent interactions of the higher order systems. Such a procedure is presented in detail in this communication. Furthermore, the details of transformations required to express the model parameters in one basis from those defined in another basis for the same system are also presented.

  17. The Valuation of Heritage using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam Chooi Chea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage plays a vital part for a nation because it gives an identity to an individual, a community or a nation as it would be able to tell them who they are, where they have come from and what they have accomplished. Malaysia has recognized the importance of living heritage conservation and Malaysia government has emphasized heavily on the living heritage conservation in the country. Melaka has been awarded the UNESCO Heritage Site in year 2008 and realized the need for the historical city to conserve the unique living heritage in Melaka City. This study was conducted in Melaka City with a total sample of 502 visitors in the historical city. The aim of this study was to determine the value of willingness-to-pay by visitors to pay the living heritage charge in the city using single-bounded and double-bounded contingent valuation dichotomous choice method. The results of this study will be able to determine the value of living heritage conservation by the visitors to the historical city and the city council would be able to draw and implement necessary living heritage conservation policies in the historical city.

  18. An Evaluation of the Externality of Cultivated Land Based on CVM:A Case Study of Neihuang County, Henan Province%基于CVM耕地资源利用的外部性评估——以河南省内黄县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳蕊; 赵凯; 王志晓; 薛欧

    2011-01-01

    本文在河南省内黄县进行问卷调查的基础上,首先对各社会经济特征变量做了Pearson相关性检验,然后以LnWTP为因变量进行多元线性回归,最后采用意愿评估法(CVM)对耕地资源利用的外部性进行估算,并分析了其影响因素.研究结果表明:①城镇居民家庭年收入、受教育程度与支付意愿值呈显著正相关;②农村居民年龄和承包耕地面积与支付意愿值呈显著负相关;性别、受教育程度、家庭年收入和年农业收入呈显著正相关;③经估算,河南省内黄县耕地资源利用的外部性单位值为1 1649.45元/hm2(776.63元/亩).因此,应在估算耕地资源总价值、确定征地价格和土地承包经营权流转价格和耕地资源保护决策中应充分考虑耕地资源的外部性.%The study is aimed at assessing the externality value of cultivated land and unraveling influential factors on residents' willingness to pay through a case on Neihuang County, Henan Province. The cultivated land resource, as a type of natural resources, provides not only production functions, but also ecological and social functions as well. The cultivated land utilization benefit system is composed of economic benefit, social benefit, and ecological benefit. The ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization tend to be more for public goods than consumption, so the ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization appear to be external benefits. In current rural land market, the price of cultivated land resources only reflects the production benefits, but seems to fall short of reflecting the other benefits effectively. It is, however, critical to evaluating the externality of the cultivated land resource for decision making and preservation of farmland. This contributes to the prescription of governments on the deal price in rural land market and reasonable expropriation price in order to restrain excessive land development and to

  19. 基于CVM理论的塔里木河流域居民生态认知及支付决策行为研究%Cognitive ecology and payment decision-making behavior based on the theory of CVM in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 薛珍; 陈红梅; 徐崇志

    2016-01-01

    .Differences in family endowment,cognition of environmental value and psychological perception of climate change,cause the heterogeneity factors of residents' willingness to pay.Downstream residents' willingness to pay is an average 29.99% higher than that of upstream residents.Income level does not affect residents' objective and rational cognition of ecological value.Residents with zero willingness were 11.9%,psychological ‘free rider’ and ‘lack trust in government to governance environment’ account for 61.9%.River downstream residents act as the most direct beneficiaries of environment improvement,the proportion of zero willingness to ecological environment protection is only 5.3%.Considering the heterogeneity of residents,local economic and social conditions,environmental evolution trends and resource allocation play an important role in improving the validity and reliability of CVM theory when assessing environmental value.

  20. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are projected to gas-cooled nuclear reactors to compensate the low coolant thermal transport efficiency. The model is described by the temperature distribution equation and the further specific boundary conditions. The adjoint system is used to determine the sensitivity coefficients to the case of interest. Both, the direct model and the perturbative formalism resultant equations are solved. The heat flow rate on a point of the fin and the average temperature excess were the response functionals studied. The half thickness, the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients and the heat flow from the base material were the parameters of interest to the sensitivity analysis. The results obtained through the perturbative method and the direct variation presented, in a general form and within acceptable physical limits, good concordance and excellent representativeness to the analyzed cases. It evidences that the differential formalism is an important tool to the sensitivity analysis and also it validates the application of the methodology in heat transmission problems on extended surfaces. The method proves to be necessary and efficient while elaborating thermal engineering projects. (author)

  1. VALORACIÓN DE LAS ALETAS EN FUNCIÓN DEL TIEMPO EMPLEADO EN PRUEBAS DE NADO Y REMOLQUE DE MANIQUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo Abraldes Valeiras

    2006-01-01

    age of 22.9 ± 0.8 years, average weight of 74.5 ± 8.7 kg, and average height of 175.7 ± 6.8 cm. The subjects swam under two situations, both a distance of 50m, one free swimming and the other swimming while carrying a manikin. These situations were done under each of the following conditions: without fins, with soft fins, with short fins, with hard fins, and with fibre fins. The order of the trials was random and the subjects had at least 30 minutes of recovery between trials. Results show no significant differences between using swim fins or not in the 50m free swim, though there are significant differences in the manikin carry. It was also observed that the hard swim fins contributed to faster times in free swimming and manikin carry. In every case, fatigue had an effect on the second part of the trial, and it was significant in the 50m manikin carry.

  2. 我国资源卫星的社会效益及其CVM评价%Social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite and its CVM evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫相斌; 李一军; 梁迎春; 褚芳芳

    2009-01-01

    应用条件价值法对我国资源卫星的社会效益进行了定量评价.研究发现,民众认为我国资源卫星的社会效益主要体现在促进科学教育、社会生活改善和产业发展等几个方面,我国绝大部分民众在经济条件允许的情况下,愿意为资源卫星的社会效益支付费用.通过对调研数据的分析,估算出我国民众对资源卫星社会效益的总支付意愿约为96.7亿元人民币/年.%Contingent valuation method was adopted to evlauate social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite. We discovered that the public regards China Earth Resource Satellite's social benefit mainly exist in promoting science and education, people's daily life, and industries. Most of public would like to pay for the social benefits of China Earth Resource Satellite under the condition of they have payment ablillity. By analyzing collected data, the total willingness to pay for the social benefit of China Earth Resource Satellite is about 9.67 billion RMB yuan each year.

  3. Evaluation of Economic Value of Gulangyu Tourism Resource Based on CVM%基于CVM的鼓浪屿旅游资源经济价值的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪娇

    2012-01-01

    本文运用条件价值评估法,通过对游客的门票支付意愿调查,对鼓浪屿旅游资源的经济价值进行评估。评估运用SPSS17.0软件,采用卡方列联表相关度分析对支付意愿及支付意愿值的影响因素进行相关分析,结果表明:被调查者的年龄、受教育程度与支付意愿显著相关,而性别、月收入和职业等因素与支付意愿相关不显著;年龄、职业、受教育程度和性别与支付意愿值显著相关,月收入与支付意愿值关系不大。%Applying the method of condition value evaluation,and through the survey of the tourists' intend pay for tickets,the article gives an evaluation of the economic value of Gulangyu island tourism resources.The evaluation uses SPSS17.0 software,and applying a chi-square contingency table analysis to give a correlated analysis of the influence factors on willingness to pay intend.The results show that:the age of the respondents,the education degree and willingness to pay has significant correlation,and gender,monthly income and occupational factors and willingness to pay is not significant;age,occupation,education degree and gender and willingness to pay has significant correlation,the correlation between month income and willingness to pay is not big.

  4. Estudo numérico-experimental da solidificação de material de mudança de fase em torno de tubos com aletas radiais para aplicações em armazenadores de calor latente

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Dias da Silva

    2016-01-01

    O armazenamento térmico é utilizado como um meio de aproveitamento da energia disponível em um determinado período de tempo, que poderá ser utilizada posteriormente. Este deslocamento de energia no tempo é importante, pois possibilita o aumento da eficiência energética do sistema e promove uma utilização mais adequada da energia disponível em algum momento do processo e que poderia ser desperdiçada se não fosse armazenada. Na literatura são escassos os trabalhos em relação a armazenadores de ...

  5. Análisis de la pesca de atún con palangre en el Golfo de México durante las fases de luna nueva y llena

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Federico Noguez Fuentes; Michel Jules Dreyfus León; Humberto Robles Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    Se analizó información de la pesca con palangre del Golfo de México durante el 2001, con la finalidad de detectar las diferencias en la pesca durante las fases de luna llena y luna nueva. Se observó que hay una preferencia a pescar en luna nueva, aunque la captura de atún aleta amarilla, Thunnus albacares (especie objetivo) y la de atún aleta azul, Thunnus thynnus, en términos de captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE), no mostró diferencias. Se analizó además la captura de pez vela, Istiophoru...

  6. Optimización del rendimiento de un propulsor marino y biomimético utilizando cfd

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Vidal, Carlos Gervasio; Rodríguez García, Juan de Dios

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es emplear un procedimiento de CFD (Mecánica de Fluidos Computacional) para optimizar un propulsor marino de inspiración biológica. Este propulsor está basado en un panel ondulante, que imita el movimiento de una aleta de pez, dicho modelo numérico se ha empleado para analizar la hidrodinámica y mejorar el rendimiento, de igual manera la forma de la cola ha sido estudiada como un mecanismo para generar mayores beneficios . Se han analizado tres formas de aleta: r...

  7. Diseño de sistema de disipación de calor para aumentar la eficiencia energética de módulos fotovoltaicos

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano Canalejo, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    En este proyecto se busca la forma de enfriar módulos fotovoltaicos mediante disipadores de calor de superficie extendida. La motivación deriva de la disminución de rendimiento que experimentan los paneles al calentarse, lo cual ocurre muy a menudo debido a su exposición al Sol. Como solución se propone adherir una serie de aletas a la parte posterior del panel que disipen el calor del mismo. En el desarrollo del proyecto se busca la geometría y distribución óptimas de dichas aletas.

  8. What the Neurosurgeon needs to know about Cerebral Developmental Venous anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando Raphael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Venous Angiomas or Developmental venous anomalies (DVA are extreme variations of normal transmedullary veins that are necessary for the drainage of white and gray matter, also are one type of cerebrovascular malformation (CVM, sharing category with capillary telangiectesias, cavernous malformations (CM, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM, each of which may also be associated with a DVA. DVA are the most commonly encountered CVM, accounting for up to 60% of all CVM. We present a review of the literatura

  9. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more understandable to non-scientists by showing how bacterial antimicrobial resistance can develop and spread. All FDA CVM ... Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local ...

  11. Shark fisheries in Central America a review and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La demanda por derivados del tiburón, especialmente aletas y cartílago, ha llevado a una expansión de las pesquerías y del comercio a través de la región. El incremento en el esfuerzo pesquero, las escasas referencias biológicas y la falta de manejo, son factores claves que impactan negativamente esta pesquería. Con el fin de contar con información sobre el estado de las poblaciones, zonas de pesca y crianza, aspectos socioeconómicos y medidas necesarias para la conservación, se llevó a cabo esta investigación. Se identificaron 24 especies de importancia comercial, siendo las más importantes: Carcharhinus falciformis y Nasolamia velox (Guatemala, C. falciformis (Nicaragua, C. falciformis y Mustelus dorsalis (Costa Rica, C. obscurus (El Salvador, C. limbatus (Panamá. Los productos comerciales incluyen carne, aleta, aceite, cartílago y piel. Las aletas son el producto de mayor valor (i.e. aletas caudales secas se venden desde $150 a $400/kg en Costa Rica y son exportadas a Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japón y Estados Unidos.

  12. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  13. Successful customer value management : Key lessons and emerging trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.C.; Lemon, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, firms have paid increasing attention to customer value management (CVM). Through customer-centric management systems, firms aim to maximize customer value. In this article, we put forth six important lessons that firms can employ for successful CVM, integrating available research

  14. 75 FR 22598 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office and Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Management, Food and Drug Administration, 1350 Piccard Dr., PI50-400B, Rockville, MD 20850, 301-796-3793... enter the human food chain immediately at the completion of an investigational study. CVM's monitoring... of new animal drugs do not get into the food supply. CVM issues a slaughter authorization letter...

  15. Continuous Video Modeling to Assist with Completion of Multi-Step Home Living Tasks by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated a relatively new video-based procedure, continuous video modeling (CVM), to teach multi-step cleaning tasks to high school students with moderate intellectual disability. CVM in contrast to video modeling and video prompting allows repetition of the video model (looping) as many times as needed while the user completes…

  16. Using the Contingent Valuation Method for Dollar Valuations of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) for estimating the economic value of a regional public library service is described, and some of the key methodological issues surrounding CVM and other stated preference techniques are discussed with reference to library use and funding contexts. Given the range of valuations that can result…

  17. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  18. [Willingness to pay for ecosystem services of urban river in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Yang, Kai; Tai, Jun; Wu, E-nuo

    2005-03-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most dominating and standard techniques for eliciting the willingness to pay (WTP) for the ecosystem services provided by environment and resources. Taking Zhangjiabang Creek, a model project in the comprehensive management of urban river in China, as a case study, 800 payment card CVM questionnaires were surveyed and 646 as useful questionnaires were feed back in August 2003, then, the mean WTP, 195.07 - 253.04 Yen per person every year in the future 3 years, to the ecosystem services of the urban river was got in the payment card CVM study, and the figure was compared to some other river CVM studies. Distribution shape and range of WTP were probed, and the regression relationship between respondents WTP and their socioeconomic information such as income, education level, donation experience, and environmental attitude was discussed, what's important, an environmental economics explanation was given to the regression results. Some biases which influence the mean WTP of payment card CVM are inspected and corresponding countermeasures were seriously noticed and implemented in the survey. Finally the critiques and controversies that CVM is faced with were advanced, but the reliability of CVM is also given based upon environmental decision-making theory.

  19. First record of Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali from the southeastern Pacific Ocean Primer registro de Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali en el Océano Pacífico suroriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pacific black ghost shark, Hydrolagus melanophasma is reported from deep waters off Chile and is described from specimens collected off Valdivia at depths of 1150 to 1720 m. This species is distinguished from all other members of the genus by its large, curved dorsal fin spine, which extends beyond the dorsal fin apex; a second dorsal fin of uniform height along the caudal peduncle; large pectoral fins extending beyond the pelvic fin insertion; and a uniform black color of the body. Catch records of this species in Chile suggest a discontinuous distribution along the continental slope of the eastern Pacific Ocean, restricted to the Middle America and Atacama trenches. These observations elevate the number of chimaeroid fishes inhabiting Chile to five species.La quimera negra del Pacífico este, Hydrolagus melanophasma es reportada desde aguas profundas frente a Chile y se describe a partir de especímenes colectados en Valdivia en profundidades ente 1150 y 1720 m. Esta especie se diferencia de los otros miembros del género por su larga y curvada espina dorsal, la cual se extiende más allá del ápice de la aleta dorsal; presenta una segunda aleta dorsal de altura uniforme a lo largo del pedúnculo caudal; grandes aletas pectorales que se proyectan sobre la inserción de las aletas pélvicas, además de su coloración negra uniforme en el cuerpo. Los registros de captura de esta especie en Chile sugieren una distribución discontinua a lo largo del talud continental del océano Pacifico este, restringido a las fosas oceánicas de Atacama y Mesoamérica. Estas observaciones aumentan a cinco el número de especies de peces Chimaeriformes que habitan aguas chilenas.

  20. First record of morphological abnormality in embryos of Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895 (Myliobatiformes: Urotrygonidae in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Primer registro de anomalía morfológica en embriones de Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895 (Myliobatiformes: Urotrygonidae en el Pacífico oriental tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Mejía-Falla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of morphological abnormalities in embryos of Roger's roundray Urotrygon rogersi in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. The embryos of two pregnant females caught in artisanal shrimp trawl nets had incomplete, deformed pectoral fins that were separated from the head along the anterior margin. Moreover, one of the embryos presented a fm-like extensión in the dorsal surface. Although the mouths of the embryos were normal and well-formed, the malformations in the pectoral fins could affect their mobility, limiting their capacity to capture preys and escape of predators.Este estudio constituye el primer registro de anormalidad morfológica en embriones de Urotrygon rogersi en el Pacífico oriental tropical. Dos hembras grávidas capturadas con redes de arrastre de camarón en pesca artesanal, presentaron embriones con aletas pectorales deformes e incompletas, y con el margen anterior separado de la cabeza; uno de ellos también presentó una extensión a manera de aleta en la superficie dorsal. Aunque la boca de los embriones fue normal y bien desarrollada, las malformaciones en las aletas pectorales podrían afectar su movilidad, limitando así la capacidad para capturar sus presas y escapar de pre dadores.

  1. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine is cited as the corporate author. Animation Animation ...

  2. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL--21 CFR 514.80 (OMB Control Number 0910-NEW) FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is planning...

  3. 77 FR 45636 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the...

  4. 78 FR 46966 - Food Safety Modernization Act Domestic and Foreign Facility Reinspection, Recall, and Importer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). These fees are... Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Thus, as the...

  5. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... evaluate the issue. back to top FDA Studies Cloning For more than five years, CVM scientists studied ...

  6. Maturation State of Cervical Vertebrae Bone in a Colombian Population with or without Cleft Lip and Palate

    OpenAIRE

    González Carrera, María Clara; Universidad El Bosque; Martínez, Claudia Marcela; Mora Díaz, Íngrid; Universidad El Bosque; Bautista Mendoza, Gloria Rocío; Universidad El Bosque; Palmet Orozco, Sara Patricia; Universidad el Bosque

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the state of bone maturation in a Colombian population with and without cleft lip palate (CLP), using cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) analysis. Methods: A previously calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.76) evaluated the CVM of 145 7-to-18-year-old individuals with and without CLP through lateral radiographs. 73 patients had CLP and 72 did not have the condition. Descriptive and inferential (chi2) statistical analyses were performed to the data (alpha = 0.05). Results: The 7...

  7. Modeling neutralization kinetics of HIV by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in genital secretions coating the cervicovaginal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A McKinley

    Full Text Available Eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM represents a promising "first line of defense" strategy to reduce vaginal HIV transmission. However, it remains unclear what levels of bnAb must be present in CVM to effectively reduce infection. We approached this complex question by modeling the dynamic tally of bnAb coverage on HIV. This analysis introduces a critical, timescale-dependent competition: to protect, bnAb must accumulate at sufficient stoichiometry to neutralize HIV faster than virions penetrate CVM and reach target cells. We developed a model that incorporates concentrations and diffusivities of HIV and bnAb in semen and CVM, kinetic rates for binding (kon and unbinding (koff of select bnAb, and physiologically relevant thicknesses of CVM and semen layers. Comprehensive model simulations lead to robust conclusions about neutralization kinetics in CVM. First, due to the limited time virions in semen need to penetrate CVM, substantially greater bnAb concentrations than in vitro estimates must be present in CVM to neutralize HIV. Second, the model predicts that bnAb with more rapid kon, almost independent of koff, should offer greater neutralization potency in vivo. These findings suggest the fastest arriving virions at target cells present the greatest likelihood of infection. It also implies the marked improvements in in vitro neutralization potency of many recently discovered bnAb may not translate to comparable reduction in the bnAb dose needed to confer protection against initial vaginal infections. Our modeling framework offers a valuable tool to gaining quantitative insights into the dynamics of mucosal immunity against HIV and other infectious diseases.

  8. Willingness to pay for public health services in rural Central Java, Indonesia: methodological considerations when using the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    In the health sectors of low- and middle-income countries, contingent valuation method (CVM) studies on willingness to pay (WTP) have been used to gather information on demand variation or financial perspectives alongside price setting, such as the introduction of user fees and valuation of quality improvements. However, WTP found in most CVM studies have only explored the preferences that consumers express through their WTP without exploring whether they are actually able to pay for it. Therefore, this study examines the issues pertaining to WTP estimation for health services using the conventional CVM. We conducted 202 household interviews in 2008, in which we asked respondents about three types of public health services in Indonesia and assessed WTP estimated by the conventional CVM as well as in the scenario of "resorting to debt" to recognize their budget constraints. We find that all the demand curves for both WTP scenarios show gaps. Furthermore, the gap for midwife services is negatively affected by household income and is larger for the poor. These results prove that CVM studies on WTP do not always reveal WTP in the latter scenario. Those findings suggest that WTP elicited by the conventional CVM is different to that from the maximum price that prevents respondents from resorting to debt as their WTP. In order to bridge this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic, studies should improve the scenarios that CVM analyses use to explore WTP. Furthermore, because valuing or pricing health services based on the results of CVM studies on WTP alone can exacerbate the inequity of access to these services, information provided by such studies requires careful interpretation when used for this purpose, especially for the poor and vulnerable sections of society.

  9. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  10. Modeling weight variability in a pan coating process using Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Turton, Richard

    2006-10-06

    The primary objective of the current study was to investigate process variables affecting weight gain mass coating variability (CV(m) ) in pan coating devices using novel video-imaging techniques and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental information such as the tablet location, circulation time distribution, velocity distribution, projected surface area, and spray dynamics was the main input to the simulations. The data on the dynamics of tablet movement were obtained using novel video-imaging methods. The effects of pan speed, pan loading, tablet size, coating time, spray flux distribution, and spray area and shape were investigated. CV(m) was found to be inversely proportional to the square root of coating time. The spray shape was not found to affect the CV(m) of the process significantly, but an increase in the spray area led to lower CV(m) s. Coating experiments were conducted to verify the predictions from the Monte Carlo simulations, and the trends predicted from the model were in good agreement. It was observed that the Monte Carlo simulations underpredicted CV(m) s in comparison to the experiments. The model developed can provide a basis for adjustments in process parameters required during scale-up operations and can be useful in predicting the process changes that are needed to achieve the same CV(m) when a variable is altered.

  11. Elimination of hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment in children needing orthodontic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Khal, Hessa A.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Rabie, A.B.M. [University of Hong Kong, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-03-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period by correlating the CVM method with the hand-wrist maturation (HWM) method in an attempt to eliminate the need for hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese were randomly selected. The age for girls was between 10 years and 15 years and for boys it was between 12 years and 17 years, so that they were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age. (Spearman's r boys = 0.9206, girls = 0.9363). All the patients in cervical vertebra stage 3 (CVS3) of CVM corresponded to skeletal maturation indicator 2 (SMI2) or SMI3 stages of HWM (around the peak of the growth spurt). The method error was insignificant. CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period. This work will provide dental practitioners with information on jaw growth modification therapy. (orig.)

  12. Genetic variation in VEGF does not contribute significantly to the risk of congenital cardiovascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R Griffin

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have investigated the role of common promoter variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene in causing congenital cardiovascular malformation (CVM. However, results have been discrepant between studies and no study to date has comprehensively characterised variation throughout the gene. We genotyped 771 CVM cases, of whom 595 had the outflow tract malformation Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, and carried out TDT and case-control analyses using haplotype-tagging SNPs in VEGF. We carried out a meta-analysis of previous case-control or family-based studies that had typed VEGF promoter SNPs, which included an additional 570 CVM cases. To identify rare variants potentially causative of CVM, we carried out mutation screening in all VEGF exons and splice sites in 93 TOF cases. There was no significant effect of any VEGF haplotype-tagging SNP on the risk of CVM in our analyses of 771 probands. When the results of this and all previous studies were combined, there was no significant effect of the VEGF promoter SNPs rs699947 (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.95-1.17]; rs1570360 (OR 1.17 [95% CI 0.99-1.26]; and rs2010963 (OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.93-1.16] on the risk of CVM in 1341 cases. Mutation screening of 93 TOF cases revealed no VEGF coding sequence variants and no changes at splice consensus sequences. Genetic variation in VEGF appears to play a small role, if any, in outflow tract CVM susceptibility.

  13. Identification of complex vertebral malformation carriers in Chinese Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yuan

    2008-03-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the nucleotide position 559 in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3), which changes the amino acid sequence of uridine 5'-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine transporter protein from a valine to a phenylalanine in position 180. The elite U.S. Holstein sire Penstate Ivanhoe Star was identified as the common ancestor of the current CVM carriers. Because his offspring, mainly those of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, were used in many countries, CVM has potentially spread into China. In the present study, using the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique, 10 CVM carriers were found among 68 at-risk Chinese Holstein bulls, and 282 carriers were found among 602 at-risk cows. The results of this study indicate that the CVM gene exists in the Chinese Holstein population.

  14. Evaluation of CBS 600 carburized steel as a gear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1979-01-01

    Gear endurance tests were conducted with one lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 gears and one lot of air-melt CBS 600 gears. The gears were 8 pitch with a pitch diameter of 8.89 centimeters (3.5 in.). Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests were also conducted with one lot of CVM AISI 9310, three lots of CVM CBS 600, and one of air-melt CBS 600 material. The rolling-element bars were 0.952 centimeter (0.375 in.) in diameter. The CBS 600 material exhibited pitting fatigue lives in both rolling-element specimens and gears at least equivalent to that of CVM AISI 9310. Tooth fracture failure occurred with the CBS 600 gears after overrunning a fatigue spall, but it did not occur with the CVM AISI 9310 gears. Tooth fracture in the CBS 600 was attributed to excessive carbon content in the case, excessive case depth, and a higher than normal core hardness.

  15. Cardiovascular mortality: quality diagnostics analysis and causal statistics of lethal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina N.N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The high cardiovascular mortality (CVM proves the necessity of verification analysis of cardiovascular death causes. The research goal is to determine the quality, facilities and peculiarities of cardiovascular diseases (CVD of postmortem diagnostics and statistical recording as a cause of death. 1972 successive cases of CVM in Voronezh, Ryazan and Khanty-Mansiysk have been analyzed. The majority of deaths caused by CVD were classified as fatalities occurring outside hospital and in the absence of medical care (88.0%. Incidence of cardiovascular deaths was confirmed by autopsy in 28.3% cases. With increasing age, the incidence of detecting CVD as a cause of death increased, while the frequency of referral to autopsy consistently decreased. Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD forms comprising 48.3% of all CVM were confirmed by autopsy results only in 29.5% of cases. Acute IHD forms (including myocardial infarction accounted for only 11.6% of CVM; however this diagnosis was based on autopsy results in 72.4% of cases. The high death rate outside hospital and in the absence of medical care with the rare referral to autopsy, especially for elderly having chronic CVD, does not provide reliable statistical information on CVM

  16. Efecto de actividades turísticas sobre el comportamiento de fauna representativa de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez,Fernanda; Cubero-Pardo, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Fueron consideradas clave para actividades turísticas en 16 sitios de las Islas Galápagos: la raya sartén marmoleada (Taeniura meyeri), raya águila (Aetobatus narinari), tiburón de aleta blanca (Triaenodon obesus), tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas), cormorán no volador (Phalacrocorax harrisi) y lobo marino de Galápagos (Zalophus califórnianus), con el objetivo de analizar reacciones a corto plazo ante actividades de buceo apnea o "snorkeling", buceo autónomo o "scuba", paseos en bote o "panga-ri...

  17. Efecto de la alometría en la estimación de los parámetros de crecimiento individual del marlín azul Makaira nigricans.

    OpenAIRE

    Jakes Cota, Ulianov

    2013-01-01

    La edad y los parámetros de crecimiento individual (PCI) en peces de pico como el marlin azul Makaira nigricans, usualmente son estimados a partir de cortes transversales de las espinas (CTE) de la aleta dorsal. Para evitar estimaciones sesgadas dada la predominancia de peces grandes en las capturas muestreadas, se deben estimar longitudes a edades previas a su captura (RLs, longitudes retrocalculadas), bajo el supuesto teórico de crecimiento isométrico entre el radio (o diámetro) de los CTE ...

  18. Pesca de atunes y captura incidental por buques de palangre en aguas peruanas y áreas adyacentes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Entre noviembre 1992 y octubre 1993, se capturó 2052 t de atunes por buques atuneros de palangre, las especies más representativas fueron el atún patudo Thunnus obesus y el atún aleta amarilla Thunnus albacares, que en conjunto representaron el 64%. La captura incidental estuvo integrada por tiburones (el más representativo fue el tiburón azul, Prionace glauca), merlines, pez espada, rayas, mantas, tortugas y otros. Las capturas de atún patudo se distribuyeron en tres áreas, siendo la más ...

  19. De serpientes marinas y otros monstruos

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    A mediados de marzo del corriente año distintos medios informaron que en el paraje Arenas Verdes, cerca de la Iocalidad bonaerense de Necochea, se había avistado una especie de "serpiente marina". Más de treinta personas habrían observado un animal “con cabeza de tortuga sostenida por un larguísimo cuello parecido al de un cisne y con aletas a lo largo iguales a las de los dinosaurios". Para otros testigos, se trataría de un animal con "un lomo enorme... de mas o menos tres metros de largo. T...

  20. No es lo mismo ¡peligro, hay tiburones! o ¡tiburones en peligro!

    OpenAIRE

    Baisre, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    La pesca intensiva de los tiburones y en especial de sus aletas (se confecciona un plato para ocasiones y personas especiales) ponen en peligro su existencia. En la zona protegida las Doce Leguas y Nuevitas (Cuba), los turistas pueden alimentarlos, así como también, en otros 200 sitios más de buceo en el mundo. En este artículo se aborda el miedo a los tiburones, la película “Tiburón”, por qué comienza la caza de los tiburones, etc.

  1. BR3: a biologically inspired fish-like robot actuated by SMA-based artificial muscles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Los peces son animales, donde en la mayoría de los casos, son considerados como nadadores muy eficientes y con una alta capacidad de maniobra. En general los peces se caracterizan por su capacidad de maniobra, locomoción silencioso, giros y partidas rápidas y viajes de larga distancia. Los estudios han identificado varios tipos de locomoción que los peces usan para generar maniobras y natación constante. A bajas velocidades la mayoría de los peces utilizan sus aletas pares y / o impares para ...

  2. Growth of the cervical vertebrae in girls from 8 to 17 years. A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Müge; Nebioğlu Dalci, Öykü; İseri, Haluk

    2012-06-01

    An important criterion of orthodontic diagnosis is the determination of the skeletal maturation stage. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is presented as an alternative to skeletal maturation determination. However, studies published to date concerning CVM have generally been cross-sectional. The aim of this investigation was to longitudinally evaluate growth and development with the CVM method. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 41 girls, aged 9-16 years, collected between 1978 and 1984 were used to evaluate changes in C2, C3, and C4 dimensions. The mean values, standard deviations, maximum and minimum values of cervical vertebrae growth, and growth rate were calculated for every age and age interval. Cumulative growth increment was determined by summing annual mean values for each parameter. CVM stages were initially evaluated according to the method of Lamparski. The time differences between the following CVM stages were evaluated with a paired t-test. The total length increment was distinct for C2 but similar for C1, C3, and C4. Total length increments reached their maximum between CVM stages 2 and 3, except for C3. The total length increment of C3 reached its peak 1 year earlier. The height increments of the spinose processes of C2, C3, and C4 were similar. The results showed that height increments were greater than length increments, which was due to changes in the anatomical pattern. Vertical growth displayed a decreasing trend from the upper to the lower cervical vertebrae. Determination of skeletal maturation from dimensional measurements and anatomical changes of the cervical vertebrae will facilitate orthodontic evaluation by eliminating the need for hand-wrist films and, therefore, decrease the patient's exposure to radiation.

  3. Inflammatory responses and side effects generated by several adjuvant-containing vaccines in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noia, M; Domínguez, B; Leiro, J; Blanco-Méndez, J; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Lamas, J

    2014-05-01

    Several of the adjuvants used in fish vaccines cause adhesions in internal organs when they are injected intraperitoneally. We describe the damage caused by vaccines containing different adjuvants in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus and show that internal adhesions can be greatly reduced by injecting the fish in a specific way. Injection of fish with the needle directed towards the anterior part of the peritoneal cavity induced formation of a single cell-vaccine mass (CVM) that became attached to the parietal peritoneum. However, injection of the fish with the needle pointing in the opposite direction generated many small CVM that became attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum and in some cases caused internal adhesions. We describe the structural and cellular changes in the adjuvant-induced CVMs. The CVMs mainly comprised neutrophils and macrophages, although most of the former underwent apoptosis, which was particularly evident from day 3 post-injection. The apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by macrophages, which were the dominant cell type from the first days onwards. All of the vaccines induced angiogenesis in the area of contact between the CVM and the mesothelium. Vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants or microspheres induced the formation of granulomas in the CVM; however, no granulomas were observed in the CVM induced by vaccines containing aluminium hydroxide or Matrix-Q(®) as adjuvants. All of the vaccines induced strong migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity. Although some of these cells remained unattached in the peritoneal cavity, most of them formed part of the CVM. We also observed migration of the cells from the peritoneal cavity to lymphoid organs, indicating bidirectional traffic of cells between the inflamed areas and these organs.

  4. Testing long-period ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes using the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah mainshock: Evaluation of finite-fault rupture characterization and 3D seismic velocity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Robert W.; Aagaard, Brad T.

    2011-01-01

    Using a suite of five hypothetical finite-fault rupture models, we test the ability of long-period (T>2.0 s) ground-motion simulations of scenario earthquakes to produce waveforms throughout southern California consistent with those recorded during the 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. The hypothetical ruptures are generated using the methodology proposed by Graves and Pitarka (2010) and require, as inputs, only a general description of the fault location and geometry, event magnitude, and hypocenter, as would be done for a scenario event. For each rupture model, two Southern California Earthquake Center three-dimensional community seismic velocity models (CVM-4m and CVM-H62) are used, resulting in a total of 10 ground-motion simulations, which we compare with recorded ground motions. While the details of the motions vary across the simulations, the median levels match the observed peak ground velocities reasonably well, with the standard deviation of the residuals generally within 50% of the median. Simulations with the CVM-4m model yield somewhat lower variance than those with the CVM-H62 model. Both models tend to overpredict motions in the San Diego region and underpredict motions in the Mojave desert. Within the greater Los Angeles basin, the CVM-4m model generally matches the level of observed motions, whereas the CVM-H62 model tends to overpredict the motions, particularly in the southern portion of the basin. The variance in the peak velocity residuals is lowest for a rupture that has significant shallow slip (models may need improvement.

  5. Review of tourism resources valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Xiaoye; Cheng Shengkui; Chen Yuansheng

    2006-01-01

    Tourism resources valuation is now a hot issue of the science of tourism resources, resources economics and environmental economics. This paper reviews research progress on tourism resources valuation, introduces its theoretic basis, and elaborates two classical valuation methods: TCM and CVM. And two existing problems are discussed.Firstly, tourism resources value constitution system is still under dispute. This paper puts forward the value constitution system based on present value categories. Secondly, tourism resources valuation methods need further studies because both TCM and CVM have deficiencies. Finally, the paper points out the development direction of tourism resources valuation.

  6. AB125. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanjie; Zhu, Shimiao

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM). The objective of this study was to determine the role of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) in development of cardiovascular events (CVD and CVM). Methods and findings We performed a meta-analysis from population-based observational studies comparing ADT vs control aimed at treating PCa in patients with PCa, reporting either CVD or CVM as outcome. Publications were searched using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of observational studies database up to May 31th 2014, and supplementary searches in publications from potentially relevant journals. 6 studies were identified with a total of 129,802 ADT users and 165,605 controls investigating the relationship between ADT and CVD. The incidence of CVD was 10% higher in ADT groups, although no significant association was observed (HR =1.10, 95% CIs: 1.00-1.21; P=0.06). For different types of ADT, CVD was related with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (HR =1.19, 95% CIs: 1.04-1.36; P<0.001) and GnRH plus oral antiandrogen (AA) (HR =1.46, 95% CIs: 1.03-2.08; P=0.04), but not with AA alone or orchiectomy. For CVM, 119,625 ADT users and 150,974 controls from 6 eligible studies were included, pooled result suggested that ADT was associated with CVM (HR =1.17, 95% CIs: 1.04-1.32; P=0.01). Significantly increased CVM was also detected in GnRH and GnRH plus AA groups. When patients received other treatments (e.g., prostatectomy and radiotherapy) were ruled out of consideration, more increased CVD (HR =1.19, 95% CIs: 1.08-1.30; P<0.001) and CVM (HR =1.30, 95% CIs: 1.13-1.50; P<0.001) were found in men treated with ADT monotherapy. Conclusions ADT is associated with both CVD and CVM. Particularly, GnRH alone and GnRH plus AA can significantly increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with PCa.

  7. AB187. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanjie; Zhu, Shimiao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is no consensus regarding whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM). The objective of this study was to determine the role of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) in development of cardiovascular events (CVD and CVM). Methods We performed a meta-analysis from population-based observational studies comparing ADT vs. control aimed at treating PCa in patients with PCa, reporting either CVD or CVM as outcome. Publications were searched using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of observational studies database up to May 31th 2014, and supplementary searches in publications from potentially relevant journals. Six studies were identified with a total of 129,802 ADT users and 165,605 controls investigating the relationship between ADT and CVD. Result The incidence of CVD was 10% higher in ADT groups, although no significant association was observed (HR =1.10, 95% CIs, 1.00–1.21; P=0.06). For different types of ADT, CVD was related with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (HR =1.19, 95% CIs, 1.04–1.36; P<0.001) and GnRH plus oral antiandrogen (AA) (HR =1.46, 95% CIs, 1.03–2.08; P=0.04), but not with AA alone or orchiectomy. For CVM, 119,625 ADT users and 150,974 controls from 6 eligible studies were included, pooled result suggested that ADT was associated with CVM (HR=1.17, 95% CIs, 1.04–1.32; P=0.01). Significantly increased CVM was also detected in GnRH and GnRH plus AA groups. When patients received other treatments (e.g., prostatectomy and radiotherapy) were ruled out of consideration, more increased CVD (HR =1.19, 95% CIs, 1.08–1.30; P<0.001) and CVM (HR =1.30, 95% CIs, 1.13–1.50; P<0.001) were found in men treated with ADT monotherapy. Conclusions ADT is associated with both CVD and CVM. Particularly, GnRH alone and GnRH plus AA can significantly increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with PCa.

  8. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  9. Dieta y ecomorfología de la ictiofauna del arroyo Manantiales, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diet and ecomorphology of the ichthyofauna of Manantiales stream, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Fernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la correlación entre dieta y morfología de 19 especies de peces del arroyo Manantiales, cabecera del río samborombón, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cuatro grupos tróficos: carnívoros, omnívoros, insectívoros y detritívoros- alguívoros. Se analizaron 12 atributos ecomor-fológicos relacionados con el uso del hábitat y la alimentación con el fin de distinguir patrones ecomorfológicos de las especies y de las especies con el alimento consumido. Se utilizaron técnicas de análisis univariado y multivariado para determinar agrupamientos de especies utilizando los atributos ecomorfológicos y la dieta como descriptores. Los carnívoros se relacionaron con un buen desarrollo de cabeza, boca, aletas caudal y pectoral; y en general con cuerpos comprimidos. Los omnívoros constituyeron un grupo más heterogéneo. Las formas nectónicas de este grupo se relacionaron con un cuerpo comprimido, ojos laterales y tamaño relativamente pequeño de las aletas pectorales y aleta caudal; las formas nectobentónicas se relacionaron con boca pequeña, cuerpo fusiforme y pedúnculo caudal largo; y las formas bentónicas, con cuerpo deprimido, ojos de posición dorsal, boca ínfera y tubo digestivo largo. La única especie nectónica consumidora de insectos sobre la superficie se caracterizó por un cuerpo fuertemente comprimido, ojos laterales, aleta caudal grande y boca grande orientada hacia arriba. Los detritívoros-alguívoros presentaron un tubo digestivo largo, boca ínfera o terminal y aletas caudales largas. La relación significativa dieta-ecomorfología permite sostener que peces de dieta similar convergen hacia atributos ecomorfológicos comunes.The present study addresses the correlation between diet and morphology of 19 fish species that inhabit the Manantiales stream at the headwaters of the samborombón river, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The species were classified into four

  10. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long as FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine ... More in Antimicrobial Resistance National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring ... Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. The Cluster Variation Method: A Primer for Neuroscientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianna J. Maren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs require that the time-varying activation patterns of 2-D neural ensembles be modelled. The cluster variation method (CVM offers a means for the characterization of 2-D local pattern distributions. This paper provides neuroscientists and BCI researchers with a CVM tutorial that will help them to understand how the CVM statistical thermodynamics formulation can model 2-D pattern distributions expressing structural and functional dynamics in the brain. The premise is that local-in-time free energy minimization works alongside neural connectivity adaptation, supporting the development and stabilization of consistent stimulus-specific responsive activation patterns. The equilibrium distribution of local patterns, or configuration variables, is defined in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter (h for the case of an equiprobable distribution of bistate (neural/neural ensemble units. Thus, either one enthalpy parameter (or two, for the case of non-equiprobable distribution yields equilibrium configuration variable values. Modeling 2-D neural activation distribution patterns with the representational layer of a computational engine, we can thus correlate variational free energy minimization with specific configuration variable distributions. The CVM triplet configuration variables also map well to the notion of a M = 3 functional motif. This paper addresses the special case of an equiprobable unit distribution, for which an analytic solution can be found.

  12. 78 FR 28851 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration's Electronic Submission Gateway... technology. Guidance for Industry 108 on How To Submit Information in Electronic Format to CVM Using the FDA... information submitted electronically is limited by its current information technology capabilities and...

  13. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. METHODS: The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed with S...

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Continuous Video Modeling, Video Prompting, and Video Modeling on Task Completion by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the effects of three procedures (video prompting: VP, video modeling: VM, and continuous video modeling: CVM) on task completion by three high school students with moderate intellectual disability. The comparison was made across three sets of fundamentally different tasks (putting away household items in clusters of two items;…

  15. 77 FR 45629 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine. FDA records the official abbreviated application receipt date as...AGDUFA/default.htm or contact Lisa Kable, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV- 10), Food and Drug... the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at: cvmagdufa@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  16. 78 FR 53772 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Information in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine Using the Food and Drug Administration... CFR 11.2 (OMB Control Number 0910-0454)--Extension The Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) accepts... capabilities and the requirements of the Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures final regulation....

  17. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must... certification that the facility will establish and maintain all records required by regulation or order issued... verification of such records. (7) A commitment that current approved or index listed Type B and/or Type...

  18. An Improved TA-SVM Method Without Matrix Inversion and Its Fast Implementation for Nonstationary Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingzhong; Chung, Fu-Lai; Wang, Shitong

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a time-adaptive support vector machine (TA-SVM) is proposed for handling nonstationary datasets. While attractive performance has been reported and the new classifier is distinctive in simultaneously solving several SVM subclassifiers locally and globally by using an elegant SVM formulation in an alternative kernel space, the coupling of subclassifiers brings in the computation of matrix inversion, thus resulting to suffer from high computational burden in large nonstationary dataset applications. To overcome this shortcoming, an improved TA-SVM (ITA-SVM) is proposed using a common vector shared by all the SVM subclassifiers involved. ITA-SVM not only keeps an SVM formulation, but also avoids the computation of matrix inversion. Thus, we can realize its fast version, that is, improved time-adaptive core vector machine (ITA-CVM) for large nonstationary datasets by using the CVM technique. ITA-CVM has the merit of asymptotic linear time complexity for large nonstationary datasets as well as inherits the advantage of TA-SVM. The effectiveness of the proposed classifiers ITA-SVM and ITA-CVM is also experimentally confirmed.

  19. The Application of Contingent Valuation Method in the Measurement of Heritage Resource: A Review%意愿调查法在我国遗产资源价值评价领域的应用与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卫华; 郭玮

    2013-01-01

    从中国知网选取97篇相关论文作为样本,从研究领域、主要发表期刊、所属学科、具体研究内容、研究过程、关键技术等方面进行了统计分析,对使用CVM在遗产价值评价方面的研究进行了梳理、述评,并对当前研究中存在的问题进行评析,旨在明晰CVM在遗产资源价值评价中的研究现状及发展进程.%Reasonable application of CVM is a shift from qualitatively describing change processes for the valuation of heritage resources to quantify them. We selected 97 papers of CVM used in heritage resource valuation from the CNKI as its samples. This paper clarified research status and development process of CVM in the evaluation of the value of heritage resources from the following 6 aspects: statistic and analysis of research fields; mainly published journals; research disciplines; concrete research contents; research progresses and survey technologies. We commented current studies' contribution and problem. Our purpose designed to clear CVM research in the evaluation of the value of heritage resources development process.

  20. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  1. WHAT ARE THE REASONS CAUSING INDEPENDENT AUDIT FIRMS TO CANCEL THEIR REGISTRATION AT THE REAL ESTATE VALUE COMMISSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio M. Uchida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study pursues to explain the reasons why some free auditing firms unregistered themselves from the CVM. This is a valuable theme for academic scenario considering the quantitative data verified. The research used information from companies listed in the Stock Market and other corporations authorized to operate by the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB and by CVM during the period from 1998 to 2009. It was applied as the methodological approach the multiple case studies with the selection of three national independent accounting firms from the state of São Paulo, which all have their registrations cancelled with the CVM. It was verified the activities of the independent auditing companies with legal requirements and technical support relating these activities required by the regulators and by normalization of the profession. It was verified that the companies decided to cancel their registration due to the lack of cost/ benefit relation to perform the requirements requested by the CVM, BCB and the Federal Council of Accounting (CFC. It was concluded that the intrinsic risk of the independent auditing activity is higher than the economical and financial benefits of the activity.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergensYongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  3. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (PECDD) IN CYP1A2(-L-)KNOCKOUT (KO) AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergensYongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  4. AcEST: DK946374 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |R1AB_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus (strain A59) GN=rep PE=1 SV=1 Length = 7176 Scor...jct: 6581 DVCWSHVLWDYAKDSVFCSSTYK--VCKYTDLQC 6612 >sp|P0C6X8|R1AB_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus

  5. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Giri,1 Basanta Kumar Shrestha,2 Rajiv Yadav,2 Tika Ram Ghimire21Department of Orthodontics, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 2Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. Results: A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson's contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Conclusion: Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification

  6. Evaluación de Intercambiadores de Calor Compactos de Tubos Aletados Evaluation of Compact Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presenta el análisis térmico teórico de un intercambiador de calor compacto, con y sin condensación de agua en el lado del aire. El fenómeno de la condensación del vapor de agua en la corriente de aire entrante produce una película de agua en la superficie cubriéndola en forma parcial o completa. El análisis considera varias configuraciones geométricas con respecto a: la superficie de las aletas y a la forma de los tubos considerando la forma circular tradicional y también un caso para tubos planos. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan la eficiencia de la aleta en ambos casos: una aleta totalmente seca (sin condensación y a una totalmente húmeda es decir, totalmente cubierta por la película de condensado. Se concluye que la metodología propuesta es una buena alternativa de análisis y caracterización de un intercambiador, ya que los resultados obtenidos coinciden con los reportados en la literaturaThis study presents a theoretical thermal analysis of a compact heat exchanger, with and without water condensation on the air side. The phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the entering air current produces a film of water on the surface, partially or completely covering the surface. The analysis considers various geometric configurations with respect to the surfaces of the fins and the form of the tubes, including the traditional round form as well as flattened tubes. The results obtained reflect the efficiency of the fins in both cases , including a completely dry fin (no condensation and a completely wet fin, that is completely covered with a film of condensate. It is concluded that the methodology proposed is a good alternative for the analysis and characterization of a heat exchanger since the results agree with those reported in the literature

  7. Revisión taxonómica y geográfica de Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae Taxonomic and geographic revision of Bryconamericus peruanus (Teleostei, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Román-Valencia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectúa un análisis taxonómico y geográfico de Bryconamericus peruanus y se compara con las especies de este género presentes en las vertientes del Pacífico sur en Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Bryconamericus peruanus restringe su distribución al sistema hidrográfico del Pacífico en Perú y se plantea que algunas formas del Pacífico y Amazonas de Ecuador son especies por describir. Los caracteres asociados al dimorfismo sexual, como ganchos en todas las aletas con radios excepto la aleta caudal, son útiles en la diferenciación de B. peruanus y Bryconamericus sp.1 con respecto a B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 y Bryconamericus sp. 3. De acuerdo con la forma (de la mandíbula superior, longitud aleta dorsal-hipurales y longitud pedúnculo caudal, el análisis de componentes principales distingue 2 grupos de especies: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3 y II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 y Bryconamericus sp. 2.Axonomic and geographic status of Bryconamericus peruanus were analyzed and compared with species belonging to the genus Bryconamericus that occurs in the Pacific basin from Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Distribution range of B. peruanus is restricted to Peruvian drainages and the populations from the Pacific basin and those located at the Amazons in Ecuador are regarded new species. The presence of hooks on all the fins, except on the caudal fin, was the most reliable character to separate populations of B. peruanus and Bryconamericus sp.1 from B. brevirostris, B. dahli, B. guaytarae, B. miraensis, Bryconamericus sp. 2 and Bryconamericus sp. 3. According to the form upper jaw, dorsal fin-hypurals distance and caudal peduncle length from the principal component analysis, 2 groups are distinguished: I B. peruanus, B. brevirostris, B.guaytarae, B. miraensis y Bryconamericus sp. 3, and II B. dahli, Bryconamericus sp. 1 and Bryconamericus sp. 2.

  8. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  9. Langstroth hive construction with cement-vermiculite Construção de colméia Langstroth com cimento-vermiculita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Affonso Lorenzon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated vermiculite is a light-weight and cheap product that, because of its thermal resistance, has become a valuable insulating material. With regard to its use in beekeeping, this research tested whether the box for honey bees constructed with cement-vermiculite mortar (CVM presents physical characteristics similar to those of wood. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, for eight months. The cement-vermiculite mortar was compared with a control material (pinewood, in the construction of Langstroth boxes and boards, in a completely randomized design, with respect to thermal control, thermal conductivity and its capacity to absorb and lose water. The production cost for a CVM box was estimated. There were no internal temperature differences between CVM and wooden boxes. Thermal conductivity values for CVM and pinewood were similar. CVM absorbed more water and lost water faster than pinewood. Since CVM boxes can be easily constructed, at a low cost and with similar characteristics as traditional boxes, made of wood, the material can be recommended for use in non-migratory beekeeping.A vermiculita expandida é um material leve, barato e sua resistência térmica permite sua utilização como material isolante. Referente ao seu uso na Apicultura, esta pesquisa testou se a caixa para abelhas melíferas construída com argamassa cimento-vermiculita (ACV apresenta características similares às da madeira. O estudo foi realizado em Seropédica (ERJ, Brasil, durante oito meses. Comparou-se a argamassa com o material controle, que foi a madeira pinho, em caixas de abelhas e em placas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, quanto ao: controle térmico, a condutividade térmica, a capacidade de absorver e perder água. O custo de produção da caixa ACV para abelhas foi estimado. Não se observaram diferenças da temperatura interna entre as caixas de ACV e de madeira. A condutividade térmica foi similar nas placas de ACV

  10. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM risk (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.52 to 3.34, p = 0.555). In conclusion, high levels of drinking and low physical activity appear to increase the risk for cardiovascular and all

  11. Evaluación del método de maduración ósea de las vértebras cervicales de Baccetti en pacientes de 8 a 15 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerik Alvarado Torres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de maduración relaciona la edad biológica del individuo con la edad cronológica pero la variación entre ellas puede ser grande, esto en razón a las diferencias individuales en el ritmo de desarrollo. Durante este proceso los pacientes pueden presentar maduración precoz, normal o tardía. Objetivo: Evaluar el método de maduración ósea de las vértebras cervicales (CVM de Baccetti en una población mexicana. Materiales y métodos: La muestra fue de 298 radiografías laterales de cráneo de las edades de 8 a 15 años. Se realizó la estadística descriptiva y se comparó mediante pruebas de t de Student en cada grupo de edad con los resultados del método CVM. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas en todos los grupos de la población. En los grupos de 8 y 9 años los estadios de maduración se encontraron adelantados en comparación con dicho método. En la población de mujeres de 10 años se encontró una pausa en el crecimiento, quedando por detrás del mismo grupo de CVM; mientras que en hombres de este grupo de edad también se presenta una pausa hasta llegar a igualarse con el grupo CVM. Los grupos de 11 a 15 años se encontraron retrasados en los estadios de maduración en comparación con el método CVM.. Conclusiones: La maduración ósea se presentó en forma anticipada en relación a los parámetros establecidos en el método CVM por lo que éste no es aplicable a la población estudiada.

  12. 两种磁共振血管成像序列对脑静脉畸形的比较影像学研究%Comparative Imaging Study of Two Sequences of MR Angiography in Dioagnosis of Cerebral Venous Malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王任水; 李晶; 曲林涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the diagnostic value of Venous Blood Oxygenation Dependent MR1 (VEN_BOLD) and time of flight MR angiography(TOF-MRA) in cerebral venous malformation (CVM). Methods Using 1.5T superconducting MRI scanner, 13 cases of our hospital are diagnosed by the contrast imaging analysis of TOF-MRA and VENBOLD. Results Original axial images of TOF-MRA not only could display drainage vein of all cases, but also could observe 3D images of maximum intensity prolection(MIP). Among these original axial images, only 6 cases could show few pulp vein, however, VENBOLD could clear display drainage vein and more pulp veins of all CVM cases. Conclusion TOF-MRA could directly show 3D images of drainage vein of CVM, however, VEN_BOLD could clear display drainage vein and more pulp veins of CVM, The combining of TOF-MRA and VENBOLD could be the necessary supplement sequence for CVM diagnosis.%目的 探讨磁共振静脉血氧水平依赖成像(VEN-BOLD)和时间飞跃法血管成像(TOF-MRA)对静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法 采用1.5T超导磁共振扫描仪对我院收治的13例CVM患者进行TOF-MRA和VEN-BOLD对比成像分析.结果 TOF-MRA原始轴位图像可显示全部13例CVM的引流静脉,并可进行最大密度投影重建(MIP) 3D图像观察,但仅6例原始图像可显示稀少的髓静脉,而VEN-BOLD可清晰显示全部13例CVM的引流静脉及更多的髓静脉.结论 TOF-MRA可对CVM的引流静脉进行3D直观显示;而VEN-BOLD可清晰准确地显示CVM的引流静脉及髓静脉,二者结合可作为CVM诊断必要的补充序列.

  13. Study of multicomponent diffusion and transport phenomena. Technical report, July 1, 1984--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hiroshi

    1995-09-01

    This progress report summarizes a project to treat the diffusion and transport phenomena in multicomponent systems from an atomistic point of view mainly by means of a kinetic method based on the Cluster Variation Method (CVM)-Path Probability Method (PPM) formalism. As is well known, the CVM has established itself as one of the most systematic methods of statistical thermodynamics, and macroscopic phenomena treated by thermodynamics can thus be investigated atomistically in great detail. The author describes work in a number of different applications, summarized here by the section titles: percolation threshold in electronic conduction {beta}-alumina type solid electrolytes; mixed alkali effect; chemical diffusion problem; soft lattice gas model and rigid lattice gas model; diffusion in semiconductors; diffusion in ordered alloys; kinetics of relaxation process of hopping ionic conduction.

  14. Application of the contingent valuation method in a developing country: a case study of the Yusufeli dam in northeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Emre; Yetiş, Ulkü

    2010-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants and dams often play an important role in developing countries in terms of their contribution to economy. In accordance with the energy policies of Turkish Republic, Yusufeli Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant in Northeastern Turkey have been initiated. In this study, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was conducted in Yusufeli Village to determine the environmental costs of the Yusufeli Project. The purpose is to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) of Yusufeli Village residents for restoration of the environmental impacts of the dam project and also to investigate the underlying economic, psychological, and social motivations for WTP. WTP was calculated as US$761 per person which can further be used in the cost-benefit analysis. The results from the study suggest that application of the CVM in rural and urban areas located in the same region can show differences.

  15. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Dalili

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method is one of them. At first the detection of the peak in mandibular growth was based on the analysis of the second through sixth cervical vertebrae in six developmental stages. But a few improvements of the original CVM analysis were still needed. In this method, the peak in mandibular growth was determined based on the analysis of the second through fourth cervical vertebrae in five developmental stages. This method is easy, applicable and more valid than hand-wrist analysis method.

  16. lane-Curvature Method:A New method for Local Obstacle Avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Lee, Sang Kee [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The lane-curvature method (LCM) presented in this paper is anew local obstacle avoidance method for indoor mobile robots. The method combines curvature-velocity method (CVM) with a new directional method called the lane method. The lane method divides the environment into lanes taking the information on obstacles and desired heading of the robot into account; then it chooses the best lane to follow to optimize travel along a desired heading. A local heading is then calculated for entering and following the best lane, and CVM uses this heading to determine the optimal translational and rotational velocities, considering the heading direction, physical limitations, and environmental constraints. By combining both the directional and velocity space methods, LCM yields safe collision-free motion as well as smooth motion taking the dynamics of the robot into account. Experiments using the mobile robot Xavier, show the efficiency of the proposed method. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Client value models provide a framework for rational library planning (or, phrasing the answer in the form of a question).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorsel, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/ service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library's ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs) establish a common definition of value elements-or a "value vocabulary"-for libraries and their clients, thereby providing a basis upon which to make rational planning decisions regarding product/service acquisition and development. The CVM concept is borrowed from business and industry, but its application has a natural fit in libraries. This article offers a theoretical consideration and practical illustration of CVM application in libraries.

  18. Assessing sport brand value through use of the contingent valuation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lucy Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first attempt to estimate customer-based brand equity with the contingent valuation method (CVM for a service-oriented product. We assess the value of a sport brand, IRONMAN triathlon, utilizing the CVM - one of the few available measures for estimating intangible product values. The equity of the IRONMAN brand was derived from consumers’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours by asking consumers (i.e., triathletes who have experiences with IRONMAN and non-IRONMAN branded events about their willingness to pay for an IRONMAN and generic non-IRONMAN triathlon events. We found (1 the presence of price premiums that sport consumers were willing to pay for the branded sport product and (2 the estimated brand equity value of approximately $102 million for IRONMAN Half-distance events, and $123 million for IRONMAN Full-distance event.

  19. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  20. Endometritis Increases Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Follicular Fluid and Cervico-vaginal Mucus in the Buffalo Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Jones; Kumar, Harendra; Gupta, Harihar Prasad; Jan, Mustapha Hussain; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Patra, Manas Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb; Abraham, Asha; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2016-11-17

    Emerging evidence shows that some of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated not only in the endometrium but also in the follicular fluid of cows with endometritis. Developing a cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) based test has the potential for becoming a pen-side test because of the ease of sample collection. The present study describes the results of two different experiments. The first experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of endometritis on the proinflammatory cytokines of follicular fluid based on the reproductive tracts of buffalo collected at a slaughter house Buffalo genitalia were categorized into purulent endometritis (PE), cytological endometritis (CE), and non-endometritis (NE) based on the white-side test and endometrial cytology, respectively (n = 14/group). Each group was subdivided into follicular and mid-luteal stage (n = 7/stage) and the follicular fluid was collected from the largest follicle. Second experiment was done to study the difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the CVM of repeat breeders with subclinical endometritis presented to the clinic. CVM was collected from the repeaters (n = 10) and non-repeaters (n = 10) through aseptic trans-vaginal aspiration. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNFα were quantitated through bovine specific ELISA kits. Significantly higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα) along with low intra-follicular estradiol in buffaloes of PE and CE groups suggest that endometritis impedes the follicular steroidogenesis. Significantly higher concentration of IL-1β and TNF-α in the CVM of repeaters indicate their potential as a pen-side diagnostic test for CE.

  1. Measure of Watershed Ecological Compensation Standard Based on WTP and WTA

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dawei; RONG, Jinfang; Yang, Na; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Liao River Basin was taken as the research object and field surveys were conducted in Fudedian, the source of Liao river mainstream and Panjin, the estuary of Liao River. Through the questionnaires, the willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) of the residents in Liao River Basin were analyzed. Then based on analysis of the existing ecological compensation standard measuring methods, the WTP and WTA using contingent valuation method (CVM) were measured and analy...

  2. 3D磁敏感加权成像在脑静脉畸形诊断中的价值%The role of 3D susceptibilitv weighted imaging in the evaluation of cerebral venous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁鸣; 王德杭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of 3D susceptibility weighted imaging(SWI) in the diagnosis of cerebral venous malformation (CVM). Methods Thirty CVM patients were examined with a 3. OT MRI scanner. The sequences included the conventional MRI, 3D SWI and contrast enhanced T1WL Comparisons were made among SWI, contrast enhanced T1W1 and conventional sequences. The image quality of CVM was graded. Results SWI could demonstrate conspicuously both numerous deep medullary veins and collector veins as the contrast enhanced MRI did, which were hardly visible on Tl-weighted images or T2-weighted images. Conclusion SWI is a sensitive sequence for detecting CVMs. It allows better visualization of CVMs without contrast agents.%目的 探讨3D磁敏感加权成像(SWI)技术对脑静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法 30例CVM形患者采用3.0T磁共振常规MRI序列(T1WI、T2WI)、3D SWI及T1WI增强扫描,根据CVM血管显影情况对常规MRI序列、3D SWI及T1WI增强扫描进行分级比较.结果 SWI能显著显示常规T1WI、T2WI很难显示的髓静脉及引流静脉,并与增强扫描图像有很好的对应.结论 SWI是检出CVM较为敏感的序列,在不用造影剂情况下使静脉畸形血管获得较好的显示.

  3. Estimating the Value of Medal Success at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Johnson, Bruce; Mason, Daniel; Whitehead, John

    2011-01-01

    We estimate Canadians’ willingness to pay (WTP) for success by Team Canada in the 2010 Winter Olympics. The Canadian government subsidized elite athletes in the run up to the 2010 Games through the Own the Podium program, which was designed to increase Canada’s medal count. WTP estimates from a contingent valuation method (CVM) study using data from nationally representative surveys before and after the Games suggest that Own the Podium generated intangible benefits of between 3 and 5 times i...

  4. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Dalili

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery) and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is one of them. At first the dete...

  5. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) can predict outcomes in ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure who have been referred for cardiac transplantation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Zakliczyński, Michał; Andrejczuk, Mariusz; Mościński, Mateusz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) patients is an important element for management. There are several risk stratification models that can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with HF, such as Aaronson's scale, CVM-HF (CardioVascular Medicine Heart Failure), the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) and the Munich score. These models fail to adequately address the impact of multiorgan dysfunction on prognosis. The classical Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score consists of...

  6. Value-Focused Thinking Model to Evaluate SHM System Alternatives From Military end User Requirements Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Klimaszewski Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    The article describes Value-Focused Thinking (VFT) model developed in order to evaluate various alternatives for implementation of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system on a military aircraft. Four SHM system alternatives are considered based on: visual inspection (current approach), piezoelectric (PZT) sensors, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) sensors. A numerical example is shown to illustrate the model capability. Sensitivity analyses are perfor...

  7. Contingent Valuation: A Comparison of Referendum and Voluntary Contribution Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Contingent valuation methods (CVM) are integral in valuating non-market environmental issues. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed and analysed, as well as numerous studies on willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) discrepancies. Despite the concentrated and persistent focus on achieving efficient mechanisms, controversies and limitations remain. This paper applies an open-ended approach to the referendum (majority voting) method for contingent valuation as advised by Gree...

  8. Domestic Research on Using Contingent Valuation Method to Assess Library Value: A Review%国内运用条件价值法(CVM)评估图书馆价值的研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莲香; 杨卫红

    2012-01-01

    条件价值评估法(CVM)是一种通过调研来评价非市场物品与资源经济价值的最常用工具。利用它可以以确凿的事实表明,投资图书馆不仅可以产生不可替代的社会效益,而且还可以带来可观的经济回报。国内关于CVM评估图书馆价值的研究涉及对CVM的介绍、可行性分析、操作步骤、实证检验等内容。在今后的研究中,要面向国际学术动态,探索并建立CVM应用的系统、完善的本土化理论体系和方法,更加准确地应用CVM。%The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most significant approaches of non-market valuation techniques which has been used widely. It can be used with solid facts suggest that Investing to library can not only cause the irreplaceable social benefits, but also will bring about considerable economic returns. Domestic Research on Using CVM to Value library valuation relates to the introduction of the theory, feasibility analysis, Operation steps, Empirical tests etc. In the future research should be geared to the needs of international academic developments, exploring and establishing CVM application system, and improving the localization theory system and method, more accurately applied in CVM.

  9. Calorific value of Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca wood: Relationships with tree growth, wood density and rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Carmen Sotelo; Weber, John C. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Sahel Office, B.P. E 5118 Bamako (Mali); Silva, Dimas Agostinho da; Bolzon de Muniz, Graciela Ines [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Av. Lothario Meissner, 900, CEP.: 80270-170-Curitiba (Brazil); Garcia, Rosilei A. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Instituto de Florestas, Departamento de Produtos Florestais, BR 465, km 07, 23890-000, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are native tree species in the West African Sahel and provide wood for fuel, construction and other essential products. A provenance/progeny test of each species was established at one relatively dry site in Niger, and evaluated at 13 years. Gross calorific value of the wood was determined for a random sample of trees in each test: gross CV and CVm{sup 3} = gross calorific value in MJ kg{sup -1} and MJ m{sup -3}, respectively. The major objectives were to determine if gross CV was positively correlated with wood density and tree growth, and if gross CV and/or CVm{sup 3} varied with rainfall gradients in the sample region. Provenances were grouped into a drier and more humid zone, and correlations were computed among all trees and separately in each zone. Results indicated that gross CV was not significantly correlated with density in either species. Gross CV was positively correlated with growth of P. africana (but not B. aegyptiaca) only in the drier zone. Gross CVm{sup 3} was positively correlated with growth of both species, and the correlations were stronger in the drier zone. Multiple regressions with provenance latitude, longitude and elevation indicated that provenance means for gross CV increased, in general, from the drier to the more humid zones. Regressions with gross CVm{sup 3} were not significant. Results are compared with earlier research reports from the provenance/progeny tests and with other tropical hardwood species; and practical implications are presented for tree improvement and conservation programs in the region. (author)

  10. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M Gregory; Lai, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of "immune exclusion" based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers-a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates.

  11. Relationship between maturation indices and morphology of the midpalatal suture obtained using cone-beam computed tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hong-Ik; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kang, Kyung-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Woo; Chang, Na-Young; Lee, Keun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether predicting maturation of the midpalatal suture is possible by classifying its morphology on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images and to investigate relationships with other developmental age indices. Methods The morphology of the midpalatal suture was assessed by using CBCT images of 99 patients. Axial plane images of the midpalatal suture were classified into five stages according to the classification scheme. To make the assessment more accurate, the morphology and fusion of the midpalatal suture were additionally investigated on coronal cross-sectional planar images and volume-rendered images. Bone age was evaluated using the hand and wrist method (HWM) and cervical vertebrae method (CVM); dental age (Hellman's index), sex, and chronological age were also assessed. To evaluate relationships among variables, Spearman's rho rank test was performed along with crosstabs using contingency coefficients. Results The HWM and CVM showed strong correlations with the maturation stage of the midpalatal suture, while other indices showed relatively weak correlations (p CBCT stage; the HWM demonstrated slightly higher values (p < 0.0001). Based on the HWM, the midpalatal suture was not fused until stage 6 in both sexes. Conclusions Among developmental age indices, the HWM and CVM showed strong correlations and high associations, suggesting that they can be useful in assessing maturation of the midpalatal suture. PMID:27896208

  12. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  13. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume.

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6–18 years of age. CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P<0.05. Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The multiple regression model with the greatest R2 had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4 as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status.

  15. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Urbano

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1 and/or αPS3βPS (PS3 integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2 integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM. These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  16. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  17. PS integrins and laminins: key regulators of cell migration during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Jose M; Domínguez-Giménez, Paloma; Estrada, Beatriz; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic development, there are numerous cases where organ or tissue formation depends upon the migration of primordial cells. In the Drosophila embryo, the visceral mesoderm (vm) acts as a substrate for the migration of several cell populations of epithelial origin, including the endoderm, the trachea and the salivary glands. These migratory processes require both integrins and laminins. The current model is that αPS1βPS (PS1) and/or αPS3βPS (PS3) integrins are required in migrating cells, whereas αPS2βPS (PS2) integrin is required in the vm, where it performs an as yet unidentified function. Here, we show that PS1 integrins are also required for the migration over the vm of cells of mesodermal origin, the caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM). These results support a model in which PS1 might have evolved to acquire the migratory function of integrins, irrespective of the origin of the tissue. This integrin function is highly specific and its specificity resides mainly in the extracellular domain. In addition, we have identified the Laminin α1,2 trimer, as the key extracellular matrix (ECM) component regulating CVM migration. Furthermore, we show that, as it is the case in vertebrates, integrins, and specifically PS2, contributes to CVM movement by participating in the correct assembly of the ECM that serves as tracks for migration.

  18. Subsurface fault geometries in Southern California illuminated through Full-3D Seismic Waveform Tomography (F3DT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, En-Jui; Chen, Po

    2017-04-01

    More precise spatial descriptions of fault systems play an essential role in tectonic interpretations, deformation modeling, and seismic hazard assessments. The recent developed full-3D waveform tomography techniques provide high-resolution images and are able to image the material property differences across faults to assist the understanding of fault systems. In the updated seismic velocity model for Southern California, CVM-S4.26, many velocity gradients show consistency with surface geology and major faults defined in the Community Fault Model (CFM) (Plesch et al. 2007), which was constructed by using various geological and geophysical observations. In addition to faults in CFM, CVM-S4.26 reveals a velocity reversal mainly beneath the San Gabriel Mountain and Western Mojave Desert regions, which is correlated with the detachment structure that has also been found in other independent studies. The high-resolution tomographic images of CVM-S4.26 could assist the understanding of fault systems in Southern California and therefore benefit the development of fault models as well as other applications, such as seismic hazard analysis, tectonic reconstructions, and crustal deformation modeling.

  19. A retrospective review of cases preoperatively diagnosed by radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Anupam; Cohen, Liza M; Lissner, Gary S; Karagianis, Achilles G

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study is to examine orbital lesions identified on preoperative radiologic imaging as cavernous venous malformations (CVMs), identify their imaging characteristics, and determine if these may help differentiate CVMs from other intraorbital masses. An IRB-approved retrospective chart review over 30 years was undertaken identifying lesions "consistent with cavernous hemangioma" on radiologic studies, which were subsequently surgically resected with a tissue diagnosis. All radiologic images (CT and MRI) obtained preoperatively were re-reviewed by a single masked neuroradiologist. The pattern of contrast enhancement on sequential MRI views was used to determine whether the enhancing characteristics helped identify CVMs compared to other intraorbital masses. Fifty-seven orbital lesions consistent with a CVM were identified on imaging. Fourteen (25%) of them were resected, of which nine (64%) were found to be CVMs on pathologic examination. Five (36%) were found to be a different lesion, most commonly schwannoma (21%). On imaging, CVMs tended to display heterogeneous progressive enhancement, whereas other tumors, in particular schwannomas, enhanced at their maximum level immediately. Based on these characteristics, on re-review, the masked neuroradiologist was able to differentiate a CVM versus other tumors for all 14 imaging cases. This study suggests that examining the pattern of contrast enhancement may help to correctly differentiate a CVM from other isolated, encapsulated orbital lesions on CT/MR imaging.

  20. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  1. MRI对脑静脉畸形的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of MRI in cerebral venous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛磊; 朱蒙蒙; 王明皓; 崔文; 刘圆圆; 朱斌

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨MRI对脑静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法:收集本院18例脑静脉畸形病例,均行磁共振T1WI、T2WI、FLAIR、SWI、DWI、MRA及T1 Wl增强扫描的资料.结果:CVM位于幕下5例,幕上13例,18例均呈典型的“海蛇头”征.MRI显示髓静脉呈长T1长T2信号,引流静脉呈短T1稍长T2信号或长T1长T2信号.FLAIR上髓静脉为稍高信号,引流静脉为低信号或稍高信号.SWI及DWI上髓静脉和引流静脉均为低信号.增强呈“海蛇头”样改变,即多条髓静脉呈辐射状汇入粗大的引流静脉.结论:MRI能明确诊断脑静脉畸形.T1WI增强扫描及SWI均较敏感.SWI对CVM的诊断价值明显优于常规MRI序列.%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of MRI in cerebral venous malformations (CVM). Methods: 18 patients of CVM were collected, and all of them underwent T1 WI, T2WI. FLAIR. SWI. DWI. MRA. And T,W1 enhancement scans. Results:CVMs were located in infra in five cases, and supra tentorium in thirteen eleven patients. Eighteen presented the typical " caput medusae" appearance. As for MRI plain scans.the medullary veins showed hypointensity in T1 WI and hyperintensity in T2WI, while, the drainage veins featured hyperintensity in T1 WI and hyperintensity in T2 WI. FLAIR sequences manifested less medullary veins with hyperintensity and drainage veins with hypointensity or hyperintensity. Both the medullary and the drainage veins appeared hypointensity in DWI and SWI. After enhancement, numerous radiating medullary veins gathered together into one or two larger drainage veins and flowed into superficial or deeper veins. Demonstrating the so-called "Caput Medusae" appearance. Conclusion: MRI is the first choice for suspected CVM patients thus providing more diagnostic information. T1 WI enhancement and SWI are sensitive to manifesting CVMs. SWI diagnosis of CVM is significantly superior to conventional MRI sequences.

  2. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    énero Notropis se distribuyen a lo largo del centro de México y regiones adyacentes, algunas especies llegan a cuencas del sur del país. Se han reconocido dos grupos: un clado sureño y uno en la parte central del país. En este último, Notropis calientis fue descrito como un complejo de especies que habita las partes altas de las cuencas donde se distribuyen. Con base en características morfométricas, merísticas y genéticas, se describen dos nuevas especies que emanan del complejo Notropis calientis. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. se diagnostica por presentar: 7, rara vez 8 radios ramificados en la aleta pélvica (vs. 8 rara vez 7 o 9 en las otras especies dentro del complejo N. calientis y 9 rara vez 8 escamas transversales (vs. 10 rara vez 11 o 9 en N. grandis y N. calientis. Una línea lateral oscura y delgada corre a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el pedúnculo caudal. Veintiséis posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas en el gen citocromo b. Notropis granáis sp. nov. presenta 6, rara vez 7 radios ramificados en la aleta anal (vs. 7, rara vez 8 o 6 en N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis y N. aulidion y 8, rara vez 7 o 9 en N. calbazas y N. amecae; 42, rara vez 40-41 y 43-45 escamas en una línea lateral (vs. 40 rara vez 37-39 en N. calabazas; 35-36, rara vez 37-39 y 33-34 en N. amecae; 35, rara vez 31-34 y 36 en N. marhabatiensis y N. calientis y 34 rara vez 30-33 y 35 in N. aulidion y 11, rara vez 10 o 12 branquiespinas en el primer arco branquial. La línea lateral se extiende a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta dorsal, con un segmento ligeramente convexo. Los adultos de esta especies son de mayor tamaño (longitud estándar= o = 42.6, SD= 4.69 (vs. N. calientis (n=55, o = 33.3, SD=3.28 y N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, o = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p o = 6.1% a 7.4%. Para N. granáis fueron de o = 6.3% a 8.1%.

  3. The preliminary study of the efficiency of using cervical vertebral maturation in the evaluation of growth level of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%颈椎骨成熟度用于女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者骨骼生长发育评价的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涤清; 陈自强; 李明

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the reliability of cervical vertebral maturation(CVM)and to verify the possibility in the growth evaluation of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients as a helpful supplementary to the Risser sign. Methods Coronal and lateral full-length spine X-ray film and left handwrist radiographs of 77 female adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis were selected from January 2010 to Octorber 2010. The interval period between lateral length of the spine and left hand-wrist radiographs did not exceed 3 months. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas handwrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The results were analyzed by Spearman correlation with patients Risser sign, chronological age, and menarche period. Results There were strong correlations between CVM and SMI or Risser sign(r =0. 862 and 0. 762,P <0. 01). While in 26 patients whose Risser sign were 0- Ⅰ , the correlation between CVM and SMI was more pronounced(r = 0. 761, P < 0. 01),compared with the correlation between Risser sign and SMI(r = 0. 641, P < 0. 01). Conclusions CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth evaluation and can be used as a helpful supplementary to Risser sign.%目的 通过对颈椎骨成熟度(CVM)、Fishman骨成熟度指标(SMT)及Risser征之间的相关性进行研究,探讨CVM作为Risser征的补充指标应用于对女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者骨骼生长发育评价的可行性.方法 选取2010年1月至10月77例女性青少年特发性脊柱侧凸患者,行脊柱全长正侧位X线片及左手正位X线片检查,拍摄时间间隔不超过3个月.以CVM分期对颈椎C2~C4进行分期,Fishman提出的SMI分期评估骨龄.所得结果均与患者Risser征及实际年龄、月经初潮时间作Spearman相关性分析.结果 CVM分期与SMI分期、Risser征均呈明显相关(r=0.862和0.762,P<0.01).Risser征与SMI分期间有相关性(r=0.801,P<0.01).在26例Risser征0

  4. The Struggle for the Rule of Law in Romania as an EU Member State: The Role of the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Carp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relations between the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism, the rule of law, and the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality in relation to Romania as an EU Member State. The European Commission has not provided a definition of the rule of law, but only a theoretical one. Despite this, the way it has influenced in practice many non-EU Member States that have a strong relationship with the EU is significant. The article raises the question whether the EU may demand from EU Member States like Romania that they respect the rule of law. The Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM was established in 2006, based on Romania’s Treaty of Accession. It monitors, by means of periodical Reports, compliance with the rule of law standards. The article analyses two Reports from July 2012 and January 2013, by relating their contents to the principles of proportionality, subsidiarity and the EU obligation to respect the constitutional norms of Member States. The conclusion is that the way the CVM works does not contradict these principles. These CVM Reports also mention the Constitutional Court and the People’s Advocate (the Romanian Ombudsman because these institutions are considered by the European Commission to be fundamental for compliance with rule of law standards – combating high-level corruption and ensuring the independence of the judiciary. The conclusion is that the rule of law is not only a theoretical concept with different meanings at the national level, but that there is also an EU rule of law acquis, which is a specific part of the EU acquis.

  5. Estimating Ecological Value of Small Hydropower Using Contingent Valuation Method: An Application to Tongjiqiao Reservoir in Zhejiang " Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Hongyun; Zhao Liange; Zhang Tong

    2012-01-01

    The small hydropower (SHP) will be less competitive in the absence of environmental value. The lack of information has become an important obstacle challenging decision-makers in resource-use choices. This paper is an application of contingent valuation method (CVM) in rural China to estimate the willing- ness-to-pay (WTP) for environmental services provided by exiting hydropower station. Using the single-bounded and dichotomous- choice CVM, the ecological value of Tongjiqiao Reservoir (TJQR) is estimated, and the annual mean WTPs of single-bounded and double-bounded CVM estimation are 141.05 and 219.52 Yuan (RMB)/a, respectively. The 95% confidence interval of annual WTP on an average is 118.47, 166.79 Yuan (RMB)/a and 204.41, 236.22 (Yuan RMB)/a, respectively. In contrast, double-bounded model could obtain much more information of WTP of the inves- tigated, thus reducing the confidence interval of estimation, and enhancing the estimation accuracy of the WTP. According to the estimated mean WTP of the double-bounded CVM, the total eco- system service value of the TJQR is 15.54 million Yuan (RMB). Compared with the conventional electricity of fossil power and large hydropower, the SHP will be less competitive in the absence of non-market value, ignoring that the environmental impacts of existing SHP will undermine the healthy development of clean energy sector.

  6. Evolution of ANB and SN-GoGn angles during craniofacial growth: A retrospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Oyonarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of the ANB and SN-GoGn angles throughout development, in a longitudinal sample of Caucasian patients. Materials and Methods: Historical cephalometric records from North American individuals available at the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Legacy Growth Collection website were used to carry out an exploratory longitudinal study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontically untreated males and females were included. Individuals with three or more longitudinal cephalometric records at pre- and post-pubertal stages, with at least one postpubertal radiograph available in vertebral cervical maturation stage (cervical vertebral maturation 5 or 6, were selected. Seventy-one individuals met the inclusion criteria. ANB, SNA, SNB, and SN-GoGn angles were measured. Individuals were classified according to the latest postpubertal ANB angle available and grouped by CVM. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the cephalometric variables, and differences between genders were analyzed. Results: Forty-five individuals were classified as skeletal Class I at the end of growth, 17 as Class II, and 9 as Class III. ANB values decrease as growth occurs in every group (average ANB decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 1.5°, Class II - 0.7°, and Class III - 3.1°. For SN-GoGn angle, a constant reduction was observed as skeletal maturation increased (Average SN-GoGn decrease between the stages CVM 1 and 6: Class I - 4°, Class II - 2.5°, and Class III - 4.9°. Conclusions: ANB and SN-GoGn angles decrease during growth. The magnitude varies depending on individual sagittal characteristics, Class III individuals displaying the greatest reduction, and Class II individuals the least.

  7. Economic value of instream flow for non-commercial whitewater boating using recreation demand and contingent valuation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was $Y higher, and the level of $Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from $55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum $97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about $220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  8. Virtual Reality Pain Control During Burn Wound Debridement of Combat-Related Burn Injuries Using Robot-Like Arm Mounted VR Goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    sessions as part of their recovery. For patients with severe burns, wound care/debridement typically involves cleaning the wound and scrubbing dead skin... Surgical Research (C.V.M., M.M., A.M., K.G., L.L.M., P.A.D.), Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam, Houston, Texas; and University of Washington (H.G.H...Seattle, Washington. Supported by U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research. Hoffman’s time was funded with help from the Gustavus and Louise Pfieffer

  9. Estrutura de propriedade e de controle das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil Ownership and control in brazilian limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Mendes Aldrighi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its main objective to measure the magnitude of deviations between control rights and cash-flow rights for the ultimate shareholder with the largest voting rights of limited liability companies in Brazil. Furthermore, it pinpoints how these discrepancies are generated, evaluating the relative importance of the issuance of preferred stocks with no voting rights, pyramidal arrangements of ownership, and cross-shareholdings. The data set embraces 602 companies that in 2001 complied with the mandatory requirement of filing to the CVM.

  10. 环境条件评估法%An Introduction to Contingent Valuation Method in Environmental Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭有德

    2006-01-01

    环境评估方法众多.条件评估方法(Contingent Valuation Method,CVM)是近来较为常用的方法,它包括向人们询问因环境质量改善而愿意支付(Willingness to Pay,WTP)的最大数量;或者,询问因放弃环境质量改善而愿意接受(Willingness to AcceptCompensation,WTAC)的最少补偿数额.介绍了CVM方法的基本步骤,并对相关问题进行初步探讨.

  11. Ingeniería básica de una planta de producción de policloruro de vinilo (PVC) granular

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Domínguez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    En el presente proyecto se lleva a cabo la ingeniería básica de una planta de producción de policloruro de vinilo (PVC) granular a partir de cloro y etileno como materias primas. Esta planta posee una capacidad de producción anual de 55.000 toneladas al año. El complejo industrial en el cual transcurre este proceso consta de dos plantas de fabricación distintas: la de cloruro de vinilo (CVM) y posteriormente la del propio policloruro de vinilo. En la primera de ellas tien...

  12. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, A; Narain, M; Padhi, S; Hirschauer, J; Levshina, T; McBride, P; Sehgal, C; Slyz, M; Rynge, M; Malik, S; Stupak, J

    2013-01-01

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  13. Calculating and testing cultivated land protection externality using Contingent Valuation Method%基于CVM的耕地保护外部性估算与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛海鹏; 王文龙; 张安录

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for estimating cultivated land protection externality. The proposed CVM was based on reconstruction of cultivated land utilization benefit system and defined cultivated land protection externality. The paper discussed in detail specific techniques of sample size and distribution, determination of leading technology, pay/compensation interval setting, hypothetical market scenario setting, evasion of deviation, pretreatment of survey data, and results validity/reliability tests. The results showed that ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands included public goods with mixed classes across categories. These classes were provided by joint ventures between the pure positive externalities and the private sector (mainly farmers). This could be estimated by using CVM and other non-market valuation methods. The willingness to pay of inter-viewee for this service was heavily restricted and influenced by their levels of socioeconomic development. The recognition of eco-logical and social benefits of cultivated lands of farmers and urban residents formed the main causality factor for the differences in payment ratio between urban residents and rural farmers. Urban residents were more familiar with ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands than rural/farm households. This was probably a key factor influencing the willingness to pay for ecological services. Farm households preferred voluntary labor as mean of payment, while both money and voluntary labor were more preferred by urban residents. The probable reason for this was that farm households had more leisure time than urban residents. Unitary cultivated land protection externality for Jiaozuo City was 1.91×108 Yuan·a−1 and the cultivated land protection externality per unit area of cultivated land was 993.7 Yuan·hm−2·a−1 base on CVM. CVM validity and reliability test was a critical element of CVM theory, method and practice. This was

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0981 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0981 ref|ZP_02661606.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Salmonella enter...ica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. SL480] ref|YP_002113683.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Sal...monella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. CVM19633] gb|ACF90718.1| O-antigen conversion p... gb|EDY29641.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. SL480] ZP_02661606.1 0.040 23% ...

  15. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole;

    2001-01-01

    was characterized by shortening of the cervical and thoracic parts of the vertebral column due to multiple hemivertebrae, fused and misshaped vertebrae, and scoliosis. Symmetrical flexures of the carpal joints and the metacarpophalangeal joint in combination with a slight lateral rotation of the phalanges also were...... present. Similar low-grade arthrogryposis was present in the posterior limbs. Fifty percent of the calves had heart malformation. Other malformations occurred in a few calves. Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is proposed as the designation for this defect. A genetic etiology is indicated because cases...

  16. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  17. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, Aram [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Bhattacharya, Saptaparna [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Narain, Meenakshi [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Padhi, Sanjay [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Hirschauer, Jim [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Levshina, Tanya [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McBride, Patricia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sehgal, Chander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slyz, Marko [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rynge, Mats [Information Sciences Inst., Marina del Rey, CA (United States); Malik, Sudhir [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stupak, III, John [Purdue Univ. Northwest, Hammond, IN (United States)

    2013-08-04

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  18. An overview of methods and applications to value informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmanschap, Marc A; van Exel, Job N A; van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares several applied valuation methods for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes: the proxy good method; the opportunity cost method; the contingent valuation method (CVM); conjoint measurement (CM); and valuation of health effects in terms of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and well-being. The comparison focuses on three questions: what outcome measures are available for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes; whether these measures are compatible with the common types of economic evaluation; and, when applying these measures, whether all relevant aspects of informal care are incorporated. All types of economic evaluation can incorporate a monetary value of informal care (using the opportunity cost method, the proxy good method, CVM and CM) on the cost side of an analysis, but only when the relevant aspects of time costs have been valued. On the effect side of a cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis, the health effects (for the patient and/or caregiver) measured in natural units or QALYs can be combined with cost estimates based on the opportunity cost method or the proxy good method. One should be careful when incorporating CVM and CM in cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, as the health effects of patients receiving informal care and the carers themselves may also have been valued separately. One should determine whether the caregiver valuation exercise allows combination with other valuation techniques. In cost-benefit analyses, CVM and CM appear to be the best tools for the valuation of informal care. When researchers decide to use the well-being method, we recommend applying it in a cost-benefit analysis framework. This method values overall QOL (happiness); hence it is broader than just HR-QOL, which complicates inclusion in traditional health economic evaluations that normally define outcomes more narrowly. Using broader, non

  19. Turbulent Bubbly Flow in a Vertical Pipe Computed By an Eddy-Resolving Reynolds Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    induced turbulence of the underlying flow and the modification of the turbulent quantities by the dispersed bubbles. Due to the lack of realisable data...is modelled with the coefficient CVM taking the standard value of 0.5. Other forces which mainly act in the lateral direc- tion, like the lift, wall... values were used for αG = 0.033 and the mean gas velocity, in accordance with the case 4 from Hosokawa and Tomiyama (2009). The domain was 160D long in

  20. Valoración económica de la actividad recreativa en el río Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Sanjurjo Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Informal recreation activities derived from Colorado River water flow produce economic benefits. In order to prove this, we used a contingent valuation method (CVM, based on a survey applied to 100 visitors originating mainly from San Luis Rio Colorado; a single bounded econometric analysis was performed on the referendum question of willingness to pay (WTP. Many regressions using Probit and Logit models were run to obtain different estimators of central tendency of WTP. The estimated annual profit from such activities is between 1.9 and 6 million pesos a year.

  1. The confirmation of a work hypothesis: a new caldera in the center of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; La confirmacion de una hipotesis de trabajo: una nueva caldera en el centro del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguita Virella, Francisco; Pal Verma, Surendra; Milan, Marcos; Garcia Cacho, Luis; Samaniego M, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most relevant aspects of the current volcanology and the genesis process of the collapse calderas, a process is described on the location and confirmation of a new caldera (the Mazahua) in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas destacados de la vulcanologia actual y el proceso de genesis de las calderas de colapso, se describe el proceso de localizacion y confirmacion de una nueva caldera (la Mazahua) en la parte central del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM).

  2. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  3. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  4. A Vs30-derived Near-surface Seismic Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow material properties, S-wave velocity in particular, strongly influence ground motions, so must be accurately characterized for ground-motion simulations. Available near-surface velocity information generally exceeds that which is accommodated by crustal velocity models, such as current versions of the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-S4) or the Harvard model (CVM-H6). The elevation-referenced CVM-H voxel model introduces rasterization artifacts in the near-surface due to course sample spacing, and sample depth dependence on local topographic elevation. To address these issues, we propose a method to supplement crustal velocity models, in the upper few hundred meters, with a model derived from available maps of Vs30 (the average S-wave velocity down to 30 meters). The method is universally applicable to regions without direct measures of Vs30 by using Vs30 estimates from topographic slope (Wald, et al. 2007). In our current implementation for Southern California, the geology-based Vs30 map of Wills and Clahan (2006) is used within California, and topography-estimated Vs30 is used outside of California. Various formulations for S-wave velocity depth dependence, such as linear spline and polynomial interpolation, are evaluated against the following priorities: (a) capability to represent a wide range of soil and rock velocity profile types; (b) smooth transition to the crustal velocity model; (c) ability to reasonably handle poor spatial correlation of Vs30 and crustal velocity data; (d) simplicity and minimal parameterization; and (e) computational efficiency. The favored model includes cubic and square-root depth dependence, with the model extending to a depth of 350 meters. Model parameters are fit to Boore and Joyner's (1997) generic rock profile as well as CVM-4 soil profiles for the NEHRP soil classification types. P-wave velocity and density are derived from S-wave velocity by the scaling laws of Brocher (2005). Preliminary assessment of the new model

  5. Análise crítica da literatura didática brasileira sobre princípios contábeis e sua relação com a formação do bacharel em Ciências Contábeis : estudo sobre instituições de ensino superior da cidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Junior, José Hernandez

    2002-01-01

    Atualmente, no Brasil, há três versões de Princípios Contábeis (Princípios Contábeis Geralmente Aceitos emanados da Legislação Societária, Princípios Fundamentais de Contabilidade emanados do Conselho Federal de Contabilidade e Princípios Fundamentais de Contabilidade emanados do Ibracon - Instituto dos Auditores Independentes do Brasil e da CVM - Comissão de Valores Mobiliários). Essa diversidade de versões confunde os autores de livros didáticos e técnicos de contabilidade e, conseqüentemen...

  6. Laser Atmospheric Absorption Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    ccccceccccccccGcccocccec- ecce aocoococoocooooo&ooooooo&ooeoeo I3033OO09O00OQ000000Q0 ff» M. nt c O Z> CO CO I • ■ I ■ ■ I 0(W(\\J<V>QPA𔃺𔃺’<l<’>M...UJUJUJUJUtUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJUJU UUJUJLJUJUJUJuJ > HOMoe »oojdionno\\fii’NH>jiNiinn\\i* vj)m(VTJNff>>NHa] j«cvm«)»oir’Otf ocMd-Komcotr^d-ireDir HNviiaifnoifiCiHcc JU.XWr-f

  7. AcEST: DK947036 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TYK--VCKYTDLQC 6612 >sp|P0C6X8|R1AB_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus (strain 2) GN=rep P...E D C+S Sbjct: 62 FLRREGMRQYGECLHSCPSGYYGHRAPDMNRCARCRIENCDSCFS 106 >sp|P0C6X9|R1AB_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronav...irus (strain A59) GN=rep PE=1 SV=1 Length = 7176 Score = 30.4 bits (67), Expect = 2

  8. Obtención de un patrón cromático digital para ser utilizado en la mejora genética por selección masal de la variedad Half Black-Blue o Diamante del pez ornamental Guppy (Poecilia reticulata; Peters, 1859

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scotto Espinoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo determina un patrón digitalizado computarizado basado en la cantidad de píxeles. S e encontró ocho tonos de color azul característico tanto en el cuerpo como en la aleta dorsal para ser utilizado en el potencial mejoramiento genético por selección masal del patrón cromático de la variedad comercial Half Black - Blue o Diamante del pez orna mental Guppy ( Poecilia reticulata . De diez parejas de padrillos escogidos con un promedio de ochenta crías F1 por cada pareja (Total = 734 , s e seleccion aron al azar los doce animales machos más atractivos por su belleza cromática subjetiva, dividido en d os grupos, uno de color azul y otro de color celeste para encontrar un patrón digital cromático matemático por el número de píxeles.

  9. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  10. Some thoughts on the beginning of prehistoric archery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco Javier

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the possible origin of prehistoric archery during the Upper Solutrean in Mediterranean Iberia. From analysis of the light arrowheads of the Extracantabrian Solutrean (barbed and tanged point and the shouldered points of Mediterranean type are established the ballistics characteristic of this type of tool kit. These characteristics permit us to establish some hypothesis on the function in relation to their mounting and propulsion.

    En este trabajo se aborda el posible origen de la arquería prehistórica durante el Solutrense Superior en la vertiente mediterránea de la Península Ibérica. A partir del análisis de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense Extracantábrico (punta de aletas y pedúnculo y punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo se establecen las características balísticas de este tipo de utillaje. Estas características permiten establecer algunas hipótesis sobre su funcionalidad en relación a los sistemas de engaste y propulsión.

  11. Revisión taxonómica del género Pimelodella, Eigenmann y Eigenmann, 1888 (pisces, siluriformes: heptapteridae de la región transandina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Castaño Mauricio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Pimelodella Eigenmann (Heptapteridae, son siluriformes fácilmente identificables por el proceso occipital delgado que se conecta a la placa nucal, aleta adiposa larga y las franjas laterales negras a lo largo del cuerpo. El género se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en la zona tropical de América del sur hasta Costa Rica, muchas de las especies son comunes, pero muy pobremente conocidas. Dentro de los ejemplares revisados de la región transandina de Colombia,
    algunos se encontraron determinados hasta el género y otros mal determinados en la especie. De las siete especies que se encuentran reportadas para esta región (P. chagresi, P. odynea, P. eutaenia, P. grisea, P. modestus, P. reyesi y P. macrocephala se encontró que P. macrocephala no está colectada en los institutos visitados. En los resultados obtenidos se encontraron evidencias morfométricas y merísticas de cuatro grupos diferentes a los grupos reportados, dos hacen parte del sistema del río Magdalena, uno al sistema Caribe–Guajiro y uno al sistema del Pacífico (Colombia.

  12. Parásitos de alevinos de gamitana (Colossoma macropomum y paco (Piaractus brachypomus cultivados en el C.I. Quistococha, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alcántara Bocanegra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En acuicultura, los peces son susceptibles al ataque de virus, bacterias, hongos y ectoparásitos. Estos organismos se tornan en un serio problema cuando los peces se encuentran con bajas defensas naturales, se crían en altas densidades y/o se altera drásticamente la calidad de agua. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la fauna de parásitos presentes en alevinos de paco (Piaractus brachypomus y gamitana (Colossoma macropomum provenientes de estanques del Centro de Investigación Quistococha del IIAP. Un total de 30 ejemplares de cada especie fueron examinados a través de la preparación de frotis fresco de branquias, piel, aletas y tubo digestivo. Entre las dos especies estudiadas, gamitana demostró una mayor prevalencia de infestación, mayor intensidad de parásitos y mayor índice de infestación parasitaria. Los alevinos de paco mostraron una mayor resistencia a la propagación y al ataque de parásitos. Se identificaron monogeneos de las familias Dactylogyridae y Gyrodactylidae, solo en gamitana, mientras que el protozoo ciliado Trichodina se halló exclusivamente en paco. Los parásitos identificados no causaron ninguna mortalidad en los peces.

  13. Primer registro de melanismo en Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, 1833 (Perciformes, Cheilodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El melanismo en peces es poco frecuente, se expresa en una mayor cantidad de especies de aguas límnicas que marinas. Se reporta la captura de un ejemplar hembra de Cheilodactylus variegatus, con melanismo completo. El individuo fue capturado con arpón mediante buceo apnea, en la localidad de Caleta Piedra Azul, norte de Chile. Su longitud estándar es 33,6 cm y su peso total 960 g. Morfológicamente no hay diferencias con los ejemplares de coloración normal. La coloración general del cuerpo es gris oscura, con bandas verticales levemente más claras en el flanco. Las aletas no presentan en sus extremos la tonalidad anaranjada característica de la especie. Se discute la validez del efecto de una infección por tremátodos como agente causal del melanismo, debido a que es una mutación que ocurre en el receptor de melacortina (MC1R. La condición melánica en Ch. variegatus, es muy rara, es la primera vez que se reporta para esta especie, donde la expresión de un color oscuro, sería beneficiosa para ejemplares que habiten fondos con poca vegetación y entre grietas.

  14. Stated preferences for the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. A contingent valuation study of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jiune-Jye; Liu, Jin-Tan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2005-05-01

    Within the process of calculating the true costs of illness, physical pain is a component of intangible, or human, costs. One method of estimating the monetary value of such costs is the 'contingent valuation method' (CVM), a stated preference method based upon the elicitation of levels of willingness to pay (WTP) facilitated through surveys. This study is amongst the first of its kind to apply CVM to the estimation of the cost of the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. We assume that a painkilling drug has been invented to mitigate physical pain with the advantages of validity and instantaneity, and without any side effects. The WTP of each of the respondents is determined by a two-step sequential-bidding process. The maximum WTP under log normal distribution was NT 1791 US dollars/day (65.1 US dollars), whilst under Weibull distribution it was NT 1913 US dollars/day (69.6 US dollars). Older respondents, those with higher household income, fall injuries, longer periods of hospitalization, or with a perceived demand for the painkilling drug in excess of one day, displayed a positive independent effect on the eliciting of their WTP. In addition, respondents with higher 'out-of-pocket' expenses, or where the interview took place 2 years or more after the injury occurred, responded with a lower WTP.

  15. Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Elwood L.; Carline, Robert; Guldin, Richard W.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1993-09-01

    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than 1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of the international standardization by the economic evaluation of environmental impacts; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Kankyo compact no keizai hyoka ni yoru kokusai hyojunka no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of the international standardization, conducted was a R and D of `the economic evaluation method of environmental impacts.` Survey/analysis were conducted of the trends in the U.S. and Europe where the study on environmental costs is advancing, and study systems were constructed in cooperation with Resources for the Future (RFF), the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute, the University of London, etc. As to impact analysis models, the development of environmental excrement transfer models has been finished, and the development of D-R relational equations which reflected characteristics in Japan has been started. In the joint study with the U.S. RFF, conducted were survey/analysis using the CVM (contingent valuation method). By the comparison of the survey data with actual medical data and comparison with the economic value conversion method, etc., validity and consistency of the CVM method were verified. As a result, it was found that these survey data could be explained without inconsistency. A case study of the environmental cost evaluation was made for electric power, iron/steel and electricity, and it was verified that this developmental method was fully applicable to the environmental impact evaluation of the actual production system. 27 refs., 33 figs., 89 tabs.

  17. Regional brainstem expression of Fos associated with sexual behavior in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamson, Dwayne K; Watson, Neil V

    2004-05-01

    This study utilized Fos expression to map the distribution of activated cells in brainstem areas following masculine sexual behavior. Males displaying both appetitive and consumatory sexual behaviors (Cop) were compared to animals prevented from copulation (NC) and to socially isolated (SI) animals. Following copulation, Fos was preferentially augmented in the caudal ventral medulla (CVM), a region mediating descending inhibition of penile reflexes, and which may be regulated by a forebrain circuit that includes the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Copulation-induced Fos was observed in the medial divisions of both the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DC) and trapezoid bodies (Tz), areas which are part of a circuit processing auditory information. In addition, the medullary linear nucleus (Li) displayed comparable amounts of Fos in Cop and NC as compared to the SI animals. Other regions of the pontomedullary reticular system, which may mediate sleep and arousal, did not exhibit Fos expression associated with consumatory sexual behavior. We suggest that Fos is associated with the inhibition of sexual behavior following ejaculation in the CVM, and that auditory information arising from the DC and Tz is combined with copulation-related sensory information in the subparafasicular nucleus and projected to the hypothalamus. In addition, equal amounts of Fos expression observed in the Li in both the Cop and NC animals suggests that this region is involved in sexual arousal. Overall, the data suggest that processing by brainstem nuclei directly contributes to the regulation of mating behavior in male rats.

  18. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies.

  19. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks.

  20. CVM在高校图书馆价值评估中的实证研究%Empirical Studies on Assessment of the Value of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宇光; 范玉祥

    2013-01-01

    CVM has an advantageous position in assessing the value of articles,and is also proved a practi-cable application in the value evaluation of the library.As an essential support of the college teaching and researching,it’s significant to assess the value of the libraries precisely.This study,with the application of CVM to a questionnaire in the library of Hefei University of Technology and with the help of the statis-tic software SPSS18,draws the conclusion of ROI>1.%条件价值评估法(CVM)在评估物品的非使用价值方面具有无以比拟的优势,对图书馆的价值评估更是近年来一项切实可行有效的应用研究。运用 CVM,以合肥工业大学图书馆为例,进行问卷调查,最后运用 spss18软件统计分析回收的数据,得出投资回报率>1的结论。

  1. Governança corporativa: uma análise de sua relação com o desempenho econômico-financeiro de empresas cotadas no Brasil nos anos de 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Catapan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar si existe una relación entre el gobier- no corporativo y el desempeño financiero de las empresas brasileñas que cotizan en bolsa (BM & FBOVESPA, teniendo en cuenta los años 2010-2012. Por lo tan- to, los datos se obtuvieron de la Divext —sistema de divulgación de la Comisión de Valores Mobiliarios de Brasil (CVM y de Empresas de Software Net— y tam- bién de la CVM. Se utilizó regresión con datos de panel para analizar la relación. El resultado mostró una relación directa entre el valor de mercado percibido de las empresas y el nivel de divulgación. Este resultado ilustra que cuanto mayor es la divulgación de la información, más alto es el valor de mercado de las empresas. Además de la relación significativa entre el valor de mercado y el gobierno cor- porativo, se encontró una relación entre el Índice de Gobierno Corporativo y dos variables: la q de Tobin y rendimiento de los activos.

  2. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  3. Impact of Perceived Importance of Ecosystem Services and Stated Financial Constraints on Willingness to Pay for Riparian Meadow Restoration in Flanders (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y.; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  4. Impact of perceived importance of ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on willingness to pay for riparian meadow restoration in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  5. Methodology for the study of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; Metodologia para el estudio del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Surendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is an structure 20 to 150 kilometers wide an {approx}1000 km long, oriented approximately east-west, from nearby Puerto Vallarta up until Veracruz; it contains a great number ({approx}7000) of volcanic apparatus or volcanic centers (Verma, 1987a, and the cited references in this paper). Fig. 1 represents the location of some of its main volcanic centers. The MVB forms part of the ring of fire that extends all along the circumpacific region (see Fig. 2) named this way because it refers to a very high volcanoes population (many of them active volcanoes), to its seismic activity and to the large geothermal manifestations. [Espanol] El Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM) es una estructura de 20 a 150 kilometros de ancho, {approx}1,000 km de largo, orientada aproximadamente este-oeste desde cerca de Puerto Vallarta hasta Veracruz; contiene gran numero ({approx}7,000) de aparatos o centros volcanicos (Verma, 1987a, y las referencias citadas en este trabajo). La figura 1 presenta la localizacion de algunos de sus principales centros volcanicos. El CVM forma parte del llamado anillo del fuego, que se extiende a todo lo largo de la region circumpacifica (vease la Fig. 2), denominada asi porque se trata de una poblacion muy alta de volcanes (mucho de ellos activos), de la actividad sismica y de grandes manifestaciones geotermicas.

  6. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  7. Comparing Contingent Valuation, Conjoint Analysis and decition Panels: An Application to the valuation of reduced damages from air pollution in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, B.; Strand, J.; Saelensminde, K.; Wenstoep, F.

    1996-12-31

    The need for assessing values of non-market goods has led to the development of two main groups of valuation approaches, those based on revealed preferences, and those on stated preferences (SP). One of the stated preference approaches, the Contingent Valuation Method, has recently been heavily criticized and alternative SP valuation approaches have appeared. This report discusses three SP approaches to eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, namely open-ended contingent valuation (OE-CVM), conjoint analysis (CA) and multi-attribute utility theory applied to decision panels of experts (DPE). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others and the relation between WTP estimates from the approaches cannot be predicted on prior arguments alone. The three approaches are applied in three different surveys, seeking valuation of specific damages due to air pollution in Norway. In all cases studied, OE-CVM yields the lowest average WTP estimate, while those from CA and EDP are similar. Possible explanations are offered, based on the principle differences between the approaches and on particular features of the three surveys. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Identification of feigned mental retardation using the new generation of malingering detection instruments: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Lili O; Berry, David T R; Clark, Jessica A; Sollman, Myriam J; Cardi, Michelle; Hopkins, Jaclyn; Werline, Dellynda

    2007-12-01

    A recent Supreme Court decision--Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002)--prohibiting the execution of mentally retarded (MR) defendants may have raised the attractiveness of feigning this condition in the criminal justice system. Unfortunately, very few published studies have addressed the detection of feigned MR. The present report compared results from tests of intelligence, psychiatric feigning, and neurocognitive faking in a group of 26 mild MR participants (MR) and 25 demographically matched community volunteers asked to feign MR (CVM). Results showed that the CVM suppressed their IQ scores to approximate closely the level of MR participants. WAIS-III and psychiatric malingering measures were relatively ineffective at discriminating feigned from genuine MR. Although neurocognitive malingering tests were more accurate, their reduced specificity in MR participants was of potential concern. Revised cutting scores, set to maintain a Specificity rate of about .95 in MR clients, were identified, although they require cross-validation. Overall, these results suggest that new cutting scores will likely need to be validated to detect feigned MR using current malingering instruments.

  9. [Sincerity of effort: isokinetic evaluation of knee extension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, R; Demaiti, G; Sartorio, F; Orlandini, D; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method to evaluate the sincerity of the muscular maximal effort performed in a dynamometric isokinetic test of knee flexion-extension. The coefficient of variation of the peak torque (CV) and 3 new indices were analysed: (1) the average coefficient of variation calculated on the complete peak torque curve (CVM); (2) the slope of the regression line in an endurance test (PRR); (3) the correlation coefficient of the peak torques in the same endurance test (CCR). Twenty healthy subjects underwent assessment in two different trials, maximal (MX) and 50% submaximal (SMX), with 20 minutes of rest between trials. Each trial consisted of 4 tests, each of 3 repetitions, at angular speed of 30, 180, 30, and 180 degrees/s, respectively, and 1 test of 15 repetitions at 240 degrees/s. Our findings confirmed the ability of CV to detect a high percentage of sincere efforts: at 30 degrees/s Sensibility (Sns)=100% and Specificity (Spc)=70%; at 180 degrees/s Sns=75%, Spc=95%. The 3 new indices here proposed showed high characteristics of Sns and Spc, generally better than those of CV. CVM showed at 180 degrees/s Sns=90% and Spc=100%, while at 30 degrees/s Sns=90%, Spc=75%. PRR was the best index identifying all the efforts, except one (Sns=100%, Spc=95%). The CCR coefficient showed Sns and Spc values both of 90%.

  10. Comparative analysis of CFD models for jetting fluidized beds: Effect of particle-phase viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Pei; Kai Zhang; Gang Xu; Yongping Yang; Dongsheng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Under the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of simulating gas-solid two-phase flow,the accuracy of the hydrodynamic prediction is strongly affected by the selection of rheology of the particulate phase,for which a detailed assessment is still absent.Using a jetting fluidized bed as an example,this work investigates the influence of solid theology on the hydrodynamic behavior by employing different particle-phase viscosity models.Both constant particle-phase viscosity model (CVM) with different viscosity values and a simple two-fluid model without particle-phase viscosity (NVM) are incorporated into the classical twofluid model and compared with the experimental measurements.Qualitative and quantitative results show that the jet penetration depth,jet frequency and averaged bed pressure drop are not a strong function of the particle-phase viscosity.Compared to CVM,the NVM exhibits better predictions on the jet behaviors,which is more suitable for investigating the hydrodynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with a central jet.

  11. Multi-view L2-SVM and its multi-view core vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengquan; Chung, Fu-lai; Wang, Shitong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel L2-SVM based classifier Multi-view L2-SVM is proposed to address multi-view classification tasks. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier does not have any bias in its objective function and hence has the flexibility like μ-SVC in the sense that the number of the yielded support vectors can be controlled by a pre-specified parameter. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier can make full use of the coherence and the difference of different views through imposing the consensus among multiple views to improve the overall classification performance. Besides, based on the generalized core vector machine GCVM, the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier is extended into its GCVM version MvCVM which can realize its fast training on large scale multi-view datasets, with its asymptotic linear time complexity with the sample size and its space complexity independent of the sample size. Our experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier for small scale multi-view datasets and the proposed MvCVM classifier for large scale multi-view datasets.

  12. Economic valuation of informal care: the contingent valuation method applied to informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) to determine a monetary value of informal care. We discuss the current practice in valuing informal care and a theoretical model of the costs and benefits related to the provision of informal care. In addition, we developed a survey in which informal caregivers' willingness to accept (WTA) to provide an additional hour of informal care was elicited. This method is better than normally recommended valuation methods able to capture the heterogeneity and dynamics of informal care. Data were obtained from postal surveys. A total of 153 informal caregivers and 149 care recipients with rheumatoid arthritis returned a completed survey. Informal caregivers reported a mean WTA to provide a hypothetical additional hour of informal care of 9.52 Euro (n=124). Many hypotheses derived from the theoretical model and the literature were supported by the data.CVM is a promising alternative for existing methods like the opportunity cost method and the proxy good method to determine a monetary value of informal care that can be incorporated in the numerator of any economic evaluation.

  13. Loss of col8a1a function during zebrafish embryogenesis results in congenital vertebral malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ryan S; Wilm, Thomas P; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-02-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles ((m531, vu41, vu105)) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue.

  14. Preparation forest environmental services valuation based on improved contingent valuation method%森林环境价值CVM评估有效性改进的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志坚; 杜丽永; 杨加猛

    2013-01-01

    基于有效性改进的条件价值评估方法(CVM)越来越成为森林环境价值评估的选择.提高评估对象的可测度性和降低假想市场导致的偏差是森林环境价值CVM评估有效性改进的两个途径.前者可通过增加内生性和外生性信息实现;后者的实现方式包括WTA与WTP之差、引导技术选择偏差、范围效应、假想偏差、策略偏差、次序效应等偏差的降低.针对研究中存在的森林环境效用的多样化与CVM调查中无差异核心估值设计的矛盾,以及森林环境价值CVM评估有效性改进的研究范围较窄且研究方法较单一等问题,提出了通过设计差异化的核心估值以提高不同群体对森林环境价值的正确感知,以及增加对森林典型公共产品的研究并整合性应用CVM有效性改进的方法.%Recent studies on the invalidity of contingent valuation method (CVM) have mainly focused on two aspects. First, the issue of scalability of the environmental goods' non-use value due to the survey respondents' lack of familiarity with the value of those environmental goods, and secondly the biases and errors arising from the respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to accept (WTA) were more likely to be an expression of preference rather than the real intention to purchase in the real market. CVM valuation on forest environmental service could be improved in two ways. Firstly, to improve survey respondents' familiarity with forest's environmental value by focusing on the increase in extrinsic information rather than the increase in intrinsic information. The use of photograph showing the background and the description of environmental goods, conducting face to face interview, together with the use of visual-simulation technique to show differential changes in forest ecological system, will increase survey respondents' degree of perception on the environmental goods to be valued. Secondly, biases and errors resulting from the

  15. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to epithelium and thereby achieve prolonged retention. I first measured the long range penetration of MPP compared

  16. Contingent Valuation of the Economic Benefits of Restoring Basin Ecosystem with Validity Improvement:A Case Study for Yangtz River Ecosystem%基于有效性改进的流域生态系统恢复条件价值评估——以长江流域生态系统恢复为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志坚; 杜丽永; 蒋瞻

    2011-01-01

    综合利用有效性改进的方法对流域生态系统恢复的价值进行评估,具体方法包括:①采用二分式选择法作为引导技术以模拟真实市场并解决调查中"没有回应的问题;②设计恰当的核心估值问题并通过图片展示克服CVM的"假想特性";③通过大样本发放、多次调查和调查员培训缩小CVM"假设偏差"以及"调查者偏差";④使用开放式和支付卡式问卷进行预调查以获得二分式选择问卷调查的投标值;⑤分析WTP支付水平影响因素的边际效用以减少"范围问题"的干扰;⑥利用中值法估计WTP分布函数以避免函数"右偏"并减少"厚尾"问题的困扰;⑦根据样本中两次均回答"否"的比例数选择对数logit模型以降低估计结果的偏差;⑧由于WTP的标准误以及95%置信区间都要比单界模式下的估计结果更为精确,故选择双界二分法测算WTP值.通过上述方法测算的南京市民对于长江流域生态系统恢复的支付意愿为270.7元/户·年,而大幅提高居民家庭收入水平是提高居民支付意愿最为有效的途径.%The improved contingent valuation methods (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic benefits of restoring ecosystem of Yangtze-river Basin in Nanjing in this paper.The improved methods were approached as: ① choosing dichotomous choice questionnaire (DCQ) as a questionnaire-guide technology to simulate the real markets and to resolve the problems of "no-respond" in the survey; ② designing the appropriate key questions to resolve the "imaginary character" problems by picture-showing; ③ reducing the CVM "hypothetical bias" and "investigator bias" through increasing the samples and survey times as well as training investigators; ④ combining open questionnaire and payment-card questionnaire as pre-survey technology to get the bidding value of DCQ survey; ⑤ reducing the interference of "scope effect" by analyzing the marginal impact of payment factors;

  17. Application and value of MRI in the diagnosis of cerebral venous malformation.%脑静脉性血管畸形MRI应用及价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀兰; 田为中; 李瑗; 陈锦华; 陈小云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the application and evaluation of a variety of imaging sequences of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing cerebral venous malformation (CVM). Methods The distribution of 22 CVM cases and corresponding MR features were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients underwent conventional routine MRI sean and following examinations including 18 cases with extra enhanced TIWI, 8 cases with contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE MRA), 3 eases with 3D time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D TOFMRA) and 6 cases with susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) were processed. Results he conventional routine MRI scans of draining veins were shown as long T1 and long T2 signal intensities except for few short T2 signal intensifies. Most oft. he conventional routine MRI scans of medullary veins were unclear and shown as long T1 and long T2 or iso T2 signal intensities, and after enhancement, several radial medullary veins were dearly shown afflux into bulky drain veins, demonstrating typical “jellyfish head” appearance or “centipede” and “roots shape” changes.The SWI was rather susceptible to CVM with low intensity on draining veins and medullary veins. Conclusion The characteristic representation of CVM can be achieved by combining a variety of imaging methods, which provided significant value in the diagnosis of CVM and assessment of corresponding eomplieatious.%目的 探讨MRI多种成像序列在脑静脉性畸形诊断中的应用及评价.方法 回顾性分析22例CVM分布及MR征象.常规平扫后,其中18例加做增强后TWI扫描,CE-MRA 8例,3D-TOFMRA 3例,SWI 6例.结果 MRI平扫显示引流静脉(或导静脉)通常为长T长T信号影,少数为短T信号;髓静脉为长T、长T或等T信号,大部分显示不佳,增强后可清晰显示多根髓静脉呈放射状汇入粗大的引流静脉,呈典型"水母头"状或"蜈蚣"、"树根状"改变.SWI显示CVM更为敏感,引流静脉和髓

  18. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    especie Salaria fluviatilis. En este estudio demostramos morfológica y molecularmente que estas poblaciones marroquíes constituyen una nueva especie, para la cual proveemos una descripción formal. Los siguientes caracteres diagnósticos distinguen a la nueva especie descrita del resto de especies de blenios de agua dulce: cabeza sin una fila diagonal de puntos oscuros o manchas en las mejillas; tentáculo supraocular grueso y simple (no ramificado; 13-15 dientes en la mandíbula superior y 14-16 en la inferior; 16-17 radios blandos en la aleta anal; distancia preorbital corta (índice cefálico: 2.9-3.8; altura de la region anterior de la aleta dorsal corta (índice dorsal: 0.8-1.3 y 34 vértebras. Las distancias genéticas mitocondriales y nuclear entre la nueva especie de Salaria y las otras dos especies son altas, especialmente en la región control (18%, mientras que estas distancias genéticas variaron entre 2-3% para el gen nuclear S7. Estos caracteres morfológicos y moleculares diferencian a la nueva especie del resto de blenios de agua dulce del género (Salaria fluviatilis y S. economidisi. La nueva especie está confinada a la cuenca del río Sebou en Marruecos y debería ser considerada como En Peligro (EN de acuerdo a las categorías de la lista roja.

  19. Morphological and genetic comparative analyses of populations of Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae from Central Mexico, with description of a new species Análisis comparativo morfológico y genético de diferentes poblaciones de Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes:Goodeidae del Centro de México, con la descripción de una especie nueva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2008-12-01

    lago de Chapala, mientras que el otro incluye las poblaciones de los lagos de Zacapu y Cuitzeo. Se emplearon 4 poblaciones para los análisis morfométricos identificándose 2 morfotipos, 1 de la localidad del manantial La Luz en la cuenca del bajo Lerma y el otro a los lagos de Zacapu y Cuitzeo. Con estas 2 fuentes de evidencia, la población de La Luz es considerada como una nueva especie Zoogoneticus purhepechus n. sp. La especie nueva difiere de su especie hermana, Z. quitzeoensis por tener una distancia preorbital más corta (PrOL/SL o = 0.05 -0.06, la base de la aleta dorsal más larga (DFL/SL o = 0.17-0.20 y presentar entre 13 y 14 radios en la aleta dorsal. La especie nueva difiere de las 2 especies descritas en el género (Zoogoneticus tequila y Z. quitzeoensis en 10 posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas para el gen citocromo b. Zoogoneticus purhepechus se distribuye por las cuencas de los ríos Ameca, Armería, Santiago y bajo Lerma, así como en el lago de Chapala. Z. purhepechus debe ser considerada en peligro de extinción de acuerdo a los criterios del MER (Aii,Bi,Ci,Di y de la UICN (A-1,b,c,e.

  20. A new EEG measure using the 1D cluster variation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Alianna J.; Szu, Harold H.

    2015-05-01

    A new information measure, drawing on the 1-D Cluster Variation Method (CVM), describes local pattern distributions (nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor) in a binary 1-D vector in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter h for the specific case where the fractions of elements in each of two states are the same (x1=x2=0.5). An example application of this method would be for EEG interpretation in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), especially in the frontier of invariant biometrics based on distinctive and invariant individual responses to stimuli containing an image of a person with whom there is a strong affiliative response (e.g., to a person's grandmother). This measure is obtained by mapping EEG observed configuration variables (z1, z2, z3 for next-nearest neighbor triplets) to h using the analytic function giving h in terms of these variables at equilibrium. This mapping results in a small phase space region of resulting h values, which characterizes local pattern distributions in the source data. The 1-D vector with equal fractions of units in each of the two states can be obtained using the method for transforming natural images into a binarized equi-probability ensemble (Saremi & Sejnowski, 2014; Stephens et al., 2013). An intrinsically 2-D data configuration can be mapped to 1-D using the 1-D Peano-Hilbert space-filling curve, which has demonstrated a 20 dB lower baseline using the method compared with other approaches (cf. SPIE ICA etc. by Hsu & Szu, 2014). This CVM-based method has multiple potential applications; one near-term one is optimizing classification of the EEG signals from a COTS 1-D BCI baseball hat. This can result in a convenient 3-D lab-tethered EEG, configured in a 1-D CVM equiprobable binary vector, and potentially useful for Smartphone wireless display. Longer-range applications include interpreting neural assembly activations via high-density implanted soft, cellular-scale electrodes.

  1. Residents' willingness to pay for improving environmental quality in Beijing City%北京市环境质量改善的居民支付意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝路; 邹骥

    2009-01-01

    以北京市空气质量与地表水环境质量改善的经济评价为例,采用开放式问卷的意愿调查价值评估法(CVM),通过2004年与2007年2次调查,研究了居民对环境质量改善最大支付意愿(WTP)的影响因素及变化趋势.结果表明,居民对北京空气质量和地表水环境质量改善的平均最大WTP分别从2004年的83.52~93.48,71.28~84.84元/年,提高至2007年的366.48~399.48,302.52~366.72元/年;最大WTP占家庭收入的比例分别从2004年的0.28%,0.24%,提高至2007年的1.63%~1.78%,1.35%~1.64%,居民对于工资扣除形式的支付方式的接受程度逐渐提高:收入、年龄、受教育程度以及环境介质接触程度等因素对居民环境质量改善最大WTP的影响显著.%Monetary values on environmental quality in Beijing using contingent valuation method (CVM) were studied. Two surveys were conducted to find residents' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improving air and water quality in 2004 and 2007. The questionnaire was designed in an open-ended manner. The payment vehicle was a direct payroll deduction. The annual mean WTP increased significantly in four years. Residents were willing to contribute a greater portion of their incomes to improve the environment in 2007 than in 2004. Income, age, education and exposures to the environment had significant impacts on the WTP. CVM had gradually become a feasible non-market valuation approach in China.

  2. AUDITORIA INDEPENDENTE: PRINCIPAIS INFRAÇÕES QUE ACARRETAM EM PROCESSO ADMINISTRATIVO SANCIONADOR PELA COMISSÃO DE VALORES MOBILIÁRIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fusiger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho realizado pelo auditor independente é relevante para os usuários das informações contábeis, tendo em vista que ele apresenta uma opinião quanto às demonstrações contábeis terem sido elaboradas conforme as normas, ou não, e se são fidedignas. Dessa forma, qualidade e confiabilidade são indispensáveis em seu trabalho, sendo que, para atingir essas características, o auditor independente também precisa seguir regras e normas emitidas pelos órgãos reguladores. Erros e fraudes, presentes em demonstrações contábeis auditadas, podem ocorrer por negligência ou imperícia na execução da auditoria independente, resultando em desconfiança e fazendo com que a relevância de seu trabalho seja reduzida. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as principais infrações cometidas por auditores independentes, pessoas físicas ou jurídicas, as quais acarretam em processos administrativos sancionadores, julgados pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. Para isso, buscaram-se os processos administrativos sancionadores julgados pela CVM entre 1º de janeiro de 2007 e 31 de agosto de 2013. Foi examinado cada um dos 19 processos encontrados, levando-se em conta as acusações, as instruções e as deliberações da CVM infringidas. Além disso, através da interpretação dos processos, identificaram-se as normas brasileiras profissionais e técnicas do auditor independente. Conclui-se que a infração de maior ocorrência refere-se à emissão de relatório inadequado, seguida da ausência ou execução inadequada do planejamento e dos procedimentos de auditoria, além dos problemas com o registro de auditor independente.

  3. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “paco” en relación a los factores ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narda Dinis Vásquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones Fernando Alcántara del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Iquitos, Perú. Fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas y 60 post larvas colectados de tanques de concreto de 1,05 m2 con una profundidad de 0,70 cm y 60 alevinos provenientes de un estanque de tierra de 60 m2 con una profundidad de 1,5 m. La necropsia de los peces se realizó a razón de un pez por día con la finalidad de colectar muestras frescas, examinándose para ello la piel, aletas, fosas nasales, ojos, sangre, branquias, aparato digestivo, órganos internos, vejiga gaseosa y el tejido muscular. Se utilizaron cuatro métodos para la fijación y coloración: Gray & Wess, Tricrómico de Gomorris, Hematoxilina y Carmalúmen de Mayer. Los índices parasitarios estuvo representada por ecto y endoparásitos pertenecientes a cuatro clases: Protozoa, Oomyceta, Monogenoidea y Nematoda. El parásito monogeneo identificado como Mymarothecium viatorum presentó mayor prevalencia con 43,33% y una abundancia de 2046 individuos, en contraste con el nematodo Rondonia rondoni que sólo mostró una prevalencia de 6,67% con una abundancia de 14 individuos. De los factores ambientales registrados la temperatura fue la única que mostró una correlación positiva frente a la abundancia de los parásitos.

  4. Evaluación de la pesca de tiburón en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarcia Camilo B.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La pesca de tiburón en Colombia ha sido poco documentada y estudiada, contándose solo con unos cuantos
    trabajos realizados por instituciones gubernamentales y algunas universidades. Colombia registra algunos
    de los valores más bajos en cuanto a captura de tiburón en las regiones Caribe y Pacífica, promediando
    valores de 94t y 512t anuales respectivamente; donde la flota industrial captura el 70% y el restante 30%
    corresponde a la flota artesanal. Estas capturas se dan principalmente como pesca incidental de pesquerías
    más grandes (i.e. atún y camarón, aunque existe una pesca dirigida. Las principales artes involucradas son
    el palangre (tanto de fondo como de superficie y la red agallera. En la costa pacífica las principales especies
    capturadas son Sphyrna lewini, Carcharhinus falciformis y las del género Mustelus spp.; mientras en el Caribe
    son especies de los géneros Rhizoprionodon y Carcharhinus. Los principales productos extraídos son las aletas, cuya remoción no es ilegal dentro del territorio nacional, y la carne, siendo las primeras utilizadas solo para
    exportación y las segundas, principalmente, para consumo nacional. No existe información acerca de abundancia, frecuencia, composición y captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE de las especies capturadas. Esta carencia de información genera problemas en el manejo del recurso y exalta la necesidad de iniciar investigaciones que ayuden a llenar los vacíos existentes.

  5. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “paco” en relación a los factores ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narda Dinis-Vásquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones Fernando Alcántara del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Iquitos, Perú. Fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas y 60 post larvas colectados de tanques de concreto de 1,05 m2 con una profundidad de 0,70 cm y 60 alevinos provenientes de un estanque de tierra de 60 m2 con una profundidad de 1,5 m. La necropsia de los peces se realizó a razón de un pez por día con la finalidad de colectar muestras frescas, examinándose para ello la piel, aletas, fosas nasales, ojos, sangre, branquias, aparato digestivo, órganos internos, vejiga gaseosa y el tejido muscular. Se utilizaron cuatro métodos para la fijación y coloración: Gray & Wess, Tricrómico de Gomorris, Hematoxilina y Carmalúmen de Mayer. Los índices parasitarios estuvo representada por ecto y endoparásitos pertenecientes a cuatro clases: Protozoa, Oomyceta, Monogenoidea y Nematoda. El parásito monogeneo identificado como Mymarothecium viatorum presentó mayor prevalencia con 43,33% y una abundancia de 2046 individuos, en contraste con el nematodo Rondonia rondoni que sólo mostró una prevalencia de 6,67% con una abundancia de 14 individuos. De los factores ambientales registrados la temperatura fue la única que mostró una correlación positiva frente a la abundancia de los parásitos.

  6. Some observations concerning the judicial reform in Romania. Is there no matter more pressing than the fight against corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Gherasim‑Proca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Before being an element of constitutional order, the judicial system is a public service. Arbitrating disputes, conflict resolution and prosecuting crimes are, first of all, valuable functions for the community. This article presents the Romanian judiciary especially from this perspective. The relation between politics and the judiciary was particularly problematic in recent years. The judicial institutions’ struggle for autonomy was accompanied by unprecedented political crises. Yet, the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM continuously encouraged institutional reform, initiating very active anti-corruption policies, as well as the implementation of new civil and criminal procedure rules. At the same time, we can notice the rapid increase in the volume of new causes recorded by courts of law in civil matters, which entails the risk of severe deterioration of public legal services and requires an appropriate administrative response.

  7. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  8. Farmer's Willingness-to-Pay for Environment and Human Health and Adoption of IPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Juyong

    2004-01-01

    Although chemical control of pestsincreases crop production, it brings a lot of damage to environment and human health. There exist a number of alternative methods that are not so harmful to environment and human health. However, whether and how much in extent these technologies adopted are plausible depends on the comparison of benefitcost between chemical control and the alternative control methods (such as Integrated Pest Management, IPM) and farmers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for environment and human health. Using contingent valuation method (CVM), the author investigates farmers' WTP for environment and human health, recognizes the factors influencing WTP, and accordingly points out the importance of pest control technology extension and government regulation of pesticides.

  9. Teaching and assessing nutrition competence in a changing curricular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Sarah K

    2008-01-01

    In the past, the required introductory veterinary nutrition course at Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) has provided 29 hours of didactic lectures, with student performance evaluated by short-answer or multiple-choice questions. Because of a 50% reduction in allotted course credits and a change in prerequisites for admission, the course is being redesigned to focus on three of 29 nutrition competencies outlined by the American College of Veterinary Nutrition. Professional communication skills will be developed through small-group learning experiences, case-based problems, and videotaped interviews with standardized clients to teach and assess nutrition competencies. Assessment strategies will differ from traditional multiple-choice examinations and include pre- and post-course self-efficacy ratings, written evaluations from trained standardized clients, and oral and written evaluations from coaches or facilitators.

  10. Existence domains for invariant reactions in binary regular solution phase diagrams exhibiting two phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nageswara Sarma; S Srinivas Prasad; S Vijayvergiya; V Bharath Kumar; S Lele

    2003-06-01

    The thermodynamic origin of various types of phase diagrams in simple binary systems exhibiting two phases (e.g. a liquid and a solid phase) has been examined using the regular solution model. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of each of these types are identified in terms of the appropriate intersections of the miscibility gap boundaries (in solid/liquid phases) and the liquidus/solidus/iso- curves. Thus, the regions of occurrence of the different types of possible phase diagrams in the space of the regular solution interchange energy parameters (, ) are clearly delineated. This analysis makes it easier to make intelligent initial selections of model (energy) parameters for their optimization in the calculation of phase diagrams using thermodynamic models such as CALPHAD/CVM.

  11. Pruebas no paramétricas para procesos poisson no homogéneos

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    El análisis de varios tipos de fenómenos aleatorios que ocurren en el tiempo, en ocasiones se realiza bajo el supuesto de un proceso estocástico Poisson no homogéneo (PPNH), sin la validación previa de este supuesto. Esta investigación propone un método estadístico para probar este supuesto, método que se basa en una caracterización de los PPNH. El método considera la utilización de las estadísticas de Cramér-von Mises (CVM), como una prueba de bondad de ajuste para la distribución Poisson, y...

  12. Valuation on non-use values of biodiversity by contingent valuation method in Changbai Mountain Biosphere Reserve in China%长白山自然保护区生物多样性非使用价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛达元

    2000-01-01

    应用条件价值法(CVM),通过支付意愿(WTP)调查,于1996年对长白山自然保护区生物多样性的存在价值、遗产价值和选择价值进行了实际的量化评估.调查表返回603份,反馈率64.56%,其中74.02%的反馈者愿意为保护长白山自然保护区支付费用,平均支付中位值为每人每年33.3元人民币.研究表明,该保护区生物多样性非使用价值达43.19亿元,其中存在价值为主要形式.

  13. Study Progress on Valuation of Environmental Economic Profit and Loss in China%中国环境经济损益价值评估研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛显强; 鲍强

    2000-01-01

    阐述了中国环境经济损益价值评估的理论与方法的来源,水、气、固废、噪声、综合环境经济损失等方面的评估研究.指出国内应用最多的是基于市场的方法,而支付意愿调查法(CVM)的应用则显得不成熟;从业人员多为工程技术背景,经济学基础薄弱阻碍了我国环境经济价值评估工作的进一步发展和完善.

  14. Bone density assessment for evaluation of gender differences in cervical vertebral maturation: A computed tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, K.; Baskaranarayanan, Balashanmugam; Nagarajan, D.; Selvarani, R.; Vijjaykanth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is a vital tool for assessing the biological maturation of the orthodontic patient to evaluate the amount of mandibular bone growth left. Aim: To assess and visualize the cervical vertebral morphology (bone density) of orthodontic patients of the age group 9,16,27 years. Material and Methods: Twenty four subjects with age group of 9,16,27 who were randomly selected and subjected to 3d tomographic study to estimate the biological age of the orthodontic patients by analyzing c1 c2 and c3 vertebrae. Result: The results showed that bone density of males is lesser than females in 9 and 16 years, whereas they have more bone density than females in 27 years. Conclusion: The study provides qualitative method of assessing the biological age of the patient by using images of cervical vertebrae by three dimensional approach. Hence it can be useful for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan. PMID:27829750

  15. KESEDIAAN MEMBAYAR PETANI KOPI UNTUK PERBAIKAN LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fembriarti Erry Prasmatiwi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims were, first to measure the level of farmers’ willingness to pay the external cost to improve the environment and second, examine the determinant factors. The experiment was conducted in District Sumberjaya and Sekincau, West Lampung District during June-October 2009. Contingent Valuation Method (CVM was used to answer the first purpose, while ordinal logit regression analysis was used to answer the second purpose. Factors of farmland area, land productivity, household income, educational level, number of family labor, and knowledge of farmers about the benefits of forests had positive influence on WTP while distance of farmers’ house to the forest had negative influence. The increase of WTP was needed to reduce environmental damage due to forest conversion to coffee plantation; moreover, environment improvement hopefully could restore the function of forest where coffee trees were planted.

  16. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  17. Functions and Mechanisms of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Arno J. Müller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. Several examples argue that FGF signalling is used in multi-step morphogenetic processes to achieve and maintain a transitional state of the cells required for the control of cell fate. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl and Breathless (Btl is particularly well studied. These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell–cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. Here, we will address the current knowledge of the biological functions of FGF signalling in the fly on the tissue, at a cellular and molecular level.

  18. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  19. Securitization, Credit Rating and Issuers’ Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palmada Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growth of securitization through Credit Receivables Investment Funds (Fundos de Investimento em Direitos Creditórios - FIDCs in Brazil in recent years, this work aims to investigate empirically the relationship between securitization and credit rating in the Brazilian market. All issues of FIDCs held by banks and registered in the CVM from 2005 to July 2010 were analyzed. The two hypotheses discussed by Gorton and Souleles (2005 were confirmed to Brazilian financial institutions. There is evidence of an implied contract between the transferor companies and investors in securitizations made via FIDCs. Companies with higher credit risk, worst ratings, tend to securitize more. However no relationship was found between securitization and asset value, amount of loans or capital ratio.

  20. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  1. 浅论顾客价值管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2007-01-01

    近几年来,顾客价值管理(Customer Value Management,CVM)越来越受到国内外众多企业的重视,并在许多行业和企业中取得了巨大的成功。市场的主导力量已经由企业转移到顾客手中,这就要求企业必须从以企业为中心转向以顾客价值为中心,进行顾客价值管理。将顾客价值管理列为企业经营战略的核心战略,这是20世纪90年代以来现代企业的最新理念。

  2. Dor muscular e atividade de creatina quinase após ações excêntricas: uma análise de cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O exercício excêntrico máximo promove queda da capacidade de geração de força, aumento de dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT e extravasamento de creatina quinase (CK no sangue. No entanto, essas respostas ao exercício excêntrico demonstram alta variabilidade interindivíduos. OBJETIVOS: Classificar e analisar essas respostas segundo a vulnerabilidade individual, por meio da magnitude da redução dos níveis de força após exercício excêntrico. MÉTODOS: Dezoito sujeitos (11 homens e sete mulheres com idade entre 18 e 71 anos saudáveis realizaram cinco séries de seis ações excêntricas máximas para flexores do cotovelo em dinamômetro isocinético (90°s- 1, amplitude de movimento de 80 a 20°. Foram analisadas contração voluntária muscular concêntrica máxima (CVM, DMIT e CK pré, pós (exceto CK, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h após o protocolo. Os indivíduos foram classificados como "baixos" (BR e "altos" respondedores (AR ao pico de queda de CVM pós-exercício seguindo-se uma análise de cluster e comparação entre grupos para CVM, DMIT e CK com teste-t independente. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre BR e AR indicou maiores valores de queda de CVM para o grupo AR (AR: -30,7 ± 3,3%; BR: -14,1 ± 2,2%, p < 0,001 e maior DMIT também para o grupo AR (AR: 33,0 ± 8,6 mm; BR: 10,2 ± 2,5 mm, p = 0,033; no entanto, os valores de pico de atividade de CK não diferiram entre os grupos (AR: 232,1 ± 54,8 UI.L- 1; BR: 306,1 ± 82,3 UI.L- 1, p = 0,490. CONCLUSÃO: A classificação dos indivíduos em grupos de baixos e altos respondedores foi importante para demonstrar que o grupo mais responsivo à queda de força após exercício excêntrico também evidencia maiores níveis de DMIT; contudo, para a CK essa relação não pôde ser estabelecida.

  3. Pair correlations and structure factor of the J1-J2 square lattice Ising model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alejandra I.; Stariolo, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    We compute the structure factor of the J1-J2 Ising model in an external field on the square lattice within the Cluster Variation Method. We use a four point plaquette approximation, which is the minimal one able to capture phases with broken orientational order in real space, like the recently reported Ising-nematic phase in the model. The analysis of different local maxima in the structure factor allows us to track the different phases and phase transitions against temperature and external field. Although the nematic susceptibility is not directly related to the structure factor, we show that because of the close relationship between the nematic order parameter and the structure factor, the latter shows unambiguous signatures of the presence of a nematic phase, in agreement with results from direct minimization of a variational free energy. The disorder variety of the model is identified and the possibility that the CVM four point approximation be exact on the disorder variety is discussed.

  4. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEMS IN CHINA’S SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FOOD ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosheng Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, a large number of small and medium-sized food enterprises (food SMEs rarely adopt the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP system, which results in a low product quality. Some local governments have encouraged food SMEs to implement HACCP systems through financial subsidies, but because of an incomplete understanding of the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing HACCP systems in food SMEs, relevant policies have not enhanced the adoption rate of HACCP systems. Based on our questionnaire survey data of 132 food SMEs in China's Henan, Guangdong, and Zhejiang provinces, this study estimates Chinese food SMEs' WTP for implementing HACCP systems by a double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM. According to the estimated results, the WTP for implementing HACCP systems under the log-logistic model is approximately 115,714 Chinese RMB (113,149 Chinese RMB for the log-normal model.

  5. Valuation Method 0f Urban Open Space Economic Value: Contingent Valuation Method%城市开放空间经济价值评估方法研究——假设评估法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 付喜娥

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了国外城市开放空间经济价值评估方法:常规市场评估技术、显示偏好法、表达偏好法.重点介绍了在国外广泛运用的表达偏好法中的假设评估法CVM (Contingent Valuation Method)在国外的研究进展,并详细阐述了CVM的发展历史、经济学原理、应用方法与步骤.最后讨论了CVM在我国城市规划、风景园林规划、政府决策中的实际意义与应用前景.

  6. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  7. Nível de convergência dos princípios contábeis brasileiros e norte-americanos às normas do IASB: uma contribuição para a adoção das IFRS por empresas brasileiras The convergence level of the brazilian and american accounting principles with IASB standards: a contribution to brazilian companies' adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Alves Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar em que nível as informações contábeis divulgadas nos mercados: brasileiro e norte-americano atendem aos requisitos da adoção inicial das IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards. A adoção das IFRS por companhias abertas brasileiras nas suas demonstrações contábeis consolidadas foi exigida pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM na Instrução CVM 457/07. Por meio de uma pesquisa descritiva quanto aos seus objetivos e utilizando-se dos procedimentos técnicos de pesquisa documental e de análise de conteúdo clássica, foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis elaboradas para o ano de 2008 de acordo com os US GAAPs e os BR GAAPs de 20 empresas brasileiras listadas simultaneamente na Bolsa de Valores de Nova York (NYSE e na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA e calculou-se o índice de disclosure proposto na pesquisa de Lopes e Rodrigues (2007. A pesquisa apontou para índices de disclosure calculados para o Form 20F maiores do que aqueles calculados para as Demonstrações Financeiras Padrão (DFP, confirmando um nível de convergência maior entre US GAAP e IFRS e sugerindo que, em função da adoção das IFRS as demonstrações contábeis em BR GAAP tendem a se modificar substancialmente aumentando o n��vel de divulgação. Além disso, os resultados confirmam para a amostra, o exposto na literatura selecionada de que o setor de atuação e o tamanho da empresa influem diretamente no disclosure das informações. Em relação aos auditores, o fato de as demonstrações serem auditadas pelas empresas globais de auditoria conhecidas como Big Four não foi determinante na extensão do disclosure.This study aimed to assess the extent to which accounting information disclosed in the Brazilian and North American markets meet the requirements for the initial adoption of IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards. The Brazilian Securities Commission (CVM

  8. Numerical methods of microirrigation lateral design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kettab A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contributes to the hydraulic analysis of the lateral microirrigation by using the numerical methods: the control volumes method “CVM” and the Runge-Kutta method “RK4”. These methods are relatively simple to manipulate and agree to the use of the partial differential equations of the first order. The CVM method warrants to follow the hydraulic phenomenon step by step and facilitates iterative development; whereas, the RK4 method is used in the integration and the solution of the differential equations system. The risk of divergence, as the slowness of the computation is avoided by the recourse to the interpolation using the polynomial of Lagrange in order to accelerate the convergence toward the solution. The models of calculation used have the advantage to be simple, fast, precise, and allow their extension to large microirrigation network.

  9. Resposta da frequência cardíaca durante o exercício isométrico de pacientes submetidos à reabilitação cardíaca fase III Heart rate responses during isometric exercises in patients undergoing a phase III cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana H. Leite

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A magnitude das respostas cardiovasculares depende dos componentes estático e dinâmico bem como da duração e intensidade da contração realizada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as respostas da frequência cardíaca (FC frente a diferentes percentuais de contração isométrica em 12 pacientes (63±11,6 anos; média±dp com doença da artéria coronária e/ou fatores de risco para ela, participantes de um programa de reabilitação cardíaca fase III. MÉTODOS: A variação da frequência cardíaca (ΔFC foi avaliada durante as contrações voluntárias máximas (CVM; 5" e 10" de duração e submáximas (CVSM; 30 e 60% da CVM-5, até exaustão muscular de preensão palmar, utilizando-se um dinamômetro (hand grip. Adicionalmente, o RMSSD dos iR-R em ms (índice representante da modulação vagal cardíaca foi calculado em repouso (pré-contração nos últimos 30 segundos da CVSM e na recuperação (pós-contração. RESULTADOS: A ΔFC apresentou maiores valores em CVM-10 vs CVM-5 (17±5,5 vs 12±4,2 bpm, p0,05. RMSSD de repouso reduziu-se (pBACKGROUND: The magnitude of cardiovascular responses is dependent on the static and dynamic components as well as the duration and intensity of the contraction performed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the heart rate responses to different percentages of isometric contractions in 12 patients (63±11.6 years with coronary artery disease and/or risk factors for coronary artery disease that were participating in a phase III cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: Heart rate variation (ΔHR was evaluated during maximum (MVC, five and ten seconds in duration and submaximal (SMVC, 30 and 60% of MVC-5, until muscle exhaustion voluntary contraction, using a handgrip dynamometer. Additionally, the representative index of cardiac vagal modulation (RMSSD index was calculated at rest (pre-contraction, at the final 30 seconds of SMVC and during recovery (post-contraction. RESULTS: ΔHR showed higher values in MVC-10

  10. Inclusão do Risco País na Metodologia de Determinação do Custo do Capital Próprio em Avaliação de Empresas em Mercados Emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Almeida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo desenvolve a idéia de que, ao contrário do senso comum, o prêmio de risco país deve ser calculado como a diferença entre o prêmio pago pelas taxas reais brasileiras em relação às americanas e o risco soberano, definido como o diferencial entre as taxas dos títulos soberanos dos dois países negociados nos Estados Unidos. Tal conclusão vai contra o que é praticado comumente nos laudos de avaliação enviados à Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM para suportar preços em ofertas públicas de aquisição de ações para fechamento de capital.

  11. AcEST: BP913580 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0C6V1|R1A_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) Align length 42 Score (bit) 32.7...0C6V1|R1A_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) GN=1a PE=1 SV=1 Length = 4474 Sc...jct: 4431 SYVLTHDVCQVCGFWRDGSCSCVGTGSQFQSKDTNFLNGFGV 4472 >sp|P0C6V0|R1A_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus...FLNGFGV 4466 >sp|P0C6U9|R1A_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain 2) GN=1a PE=3 SV=1 L...KGKLSGLRLNKDLSTEEIWEVL 693 >sp|P0C6U7|R1A_CVHOC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Human coronavirus

  12. AcEST: BP913314 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) Align length 42 Score (bit) 32.7 E-value 0.89 Report BL... polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) GN=1a PE=1 SV=1 Length = 4474 Score = 32.7 bits (73), Exp...RDGSCSCVGTGSQFQSKDTNFLNGFGV 4472 >sp|P0C6V0|R1A_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain...1A_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain 2) GN=1a PE=3 SV=1...B_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus (strain A59) GN=rep PE=1

  13. AcEST: BP915656 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available X Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id P0C6V1 Definition sp|P0C6V1|R1A_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus... >sp|P0C6V1|R1A_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) GN=1a PE=1 SV=1 Length = 4... + Sbjct: 4431 SYVLTHDVCQVCGFWRDGSCSCVGTGSQFQSKDTNFLNGFGV 4472 >sp|P0C6V0|R1A_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus...KDTNFLNGFGV 4466 >sp|P0C6U9|R1A_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain 2) GN=1a PE=3 SV...DVEKGKLSGLRLNKDLSTEEIWEVL 693 >sp|P0C6U7|R1A_CVHOC Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Human coronavirus OC43 GN=1a

  14. AcEST: DK952790 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IDQRKLPNSY 26 >sp|P0C6V1|R1A_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus...: 3192 FPSEISVVMHLQWL 3205 >sp|P0C6V0|R1A_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (strain A59) ...VMHLQWL 3202 >sp|P0C6U9|R1A_CVM2 Replicase polyprotein 1a OS=Murine coronavirus (...35 FPSEISVVMHLQWL 3148 >sp|P0C6Y0|R1AB_CVMJH Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus (strain JHM) GN...MHLQWL 3205 >sp|P0C6X9|R1AB_CVMA5 Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Murine coronavirus

  15. Facilitating cartilage volume measurement using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maataoui, Adel, E-mail: adel.maataoui@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gurung, Jessen, E-mail: jessen.gurung@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns, E-mail: h.ackermann@add.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [Biological and Molecular Imaging, ZIK OncoRay - Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Khan, M. Fawad, E-mail: fawad@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative cartilage volume measurement (CVM) using different slice thicknesses. Materials and methods: Ten knees were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI (Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 3D gradient echo sequence (FLASH, fast low-angle shot). Cartilage volume of the medial and lateral tibial plateau was measured by two independent readers in 1.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm slices using the Argus software application. Accuracy and time effectiveness served as control parameters. Results: Determining cartilage volume, time for calculation diminished for the lateral tibial plateau from 384.6 {+-} 127.7 s and 379.1 {+-} 117.6 s to 214.9 {+-} 109.9 s and 213.9 {+-} 102.2 s to 122.1 {+-} 60.1 s and 126.8 {+-} 56.2 s and for the medial tibial plateau from 465.0 {+-} 147.7 s and 461.8 {+-} 142.7 s to 214.0 {+-} 67.9 s and 208.9 {+-} 66.2 s to 132.6 {+-} 41.5 s and 130.6 {+-} 42.0 s measuring 1.5 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm slices, respectively. No statistically significant difference between cartilage volume measurements was observed (p > 0.05) while very good inter-reader correlation was evaluated. Conclusion: CVM using 1.5 mm slices provides no higher accuracy than cartilage volume measurement in 5 mm slices while an overall time saving up to 70% is possible.

  16. China urban resident's willingness to pay for carbon dioxide emission reductions%我国城镇居民对CO2减排的支付意愿调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾贤刚

    2011-01-01

    The factors which affect Chinese urban resident's willingness to pay (WTP) for CO2 emission reductions were investigated by using contingent valuation method (CVM).China urban resident's WTP was 132 yuan/year for reducing CO2emissions by 30% until the year 2050, 216 yuan/year for a reduction of 60%, and 264 yuan/year for a reduction of 85%.Through the general regression model analysis, it was found that the urban resident's education level, household's annual per capita income, job type, city location, cognitive level on climate change and environmental awareness were closely correlated with the WTP, and how the costs for reducing CO2 emissions should be shared among countries also had significant impact on the WTP.%运用权变评价法(CVM)调查了我国城镇居民对CO2减排的支付意愿.结果表明,我国城镇居民愿意为到2050年全球CO2_减排30%而每年支付132元;减排60%而每年支付216元;减排85%而每年支付264元.一般线性同归模型分析结果显示,城镇居民的受教育程度、家庭年收入、职业类型、所在城市、对气候变化的认知程度和环境意识,都对CO2减排的支付意愿有显著影响;而且不同的CO2减排成本分配方案对人们的支付意愿也有显著影响.

  17. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA. CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages.

  18. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Landis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies such as next generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with next generation sequencing gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high throughput functional testing of variants, contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offspring, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialogue between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients.

  19. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-02-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5-8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs.

  20. Evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros derivativos nas demonstrações contábeis: uma análise das empresas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luís Darós

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da perspectiva de governança corporativa e de acordo com a Instrução Normativa 235 da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - CVM, este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa empírica sobre as formas de evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros derivativos nas Demonstrações Contábeis divulgadas no Brasil. Foram analisadas as Demonstrações Contábeis das vinte maiores empresas brasileiras não financeiras classificadas de acordo com a receita líquida. Como resultado constatou-se que a grande maioria das empresas não atende às determinações da CVM e não evidencia, de forma clara, concisa e objetiva, as informações referentes às suas operações envolvendo instrumentos financeiros derivativos. As principais divergências estão na falta de avaliação dos instrumentos a preços de mercado, ausência de divulgação das políticas de investimento em derivativos e falta de controle do risco de mercado, câmbio e crédito.In the context of financial statement disclosure and in accordance with determinations by the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, this study presents rules and ways to disclose derivatives in financial statements. In the empirical analysis, we examined the financial statements of the twenty biggest public companies arranged by revenue. We verified that many companies do not comply with the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission's determinations and do not present a clear, concise and objective disclosure of related financial information. The main problems were related to the lack of evaluation in terms of fair value, lack of dissemination of investment policies in derivatives and quantitative and qualitative control of market, credit and exchange risks.

  1. Preparedness and disaster response training for veterinary students: literature review and description of the North Carolina State University Credentialed Veterinary Responder Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Dianne; Martin, Michael P; Tickel, Jimmy L; Gentry, William B; Cowen, Peter; Slenning, Barrett D

    2009-01-01

    The nation's veterinary colleges lack the curricula necessary to meet veterinary demands for animal/public health and emergency preparedness. To this end, the authors report a literature review summarizing training programs within human/veterinary medicine. In addition, the authors describe new competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder training at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU CVM). From an evaluation of 257 PubMed-derived articles relating to veterinary/medical disaster training, 14 fulfilled all inclusion requirements (nine were veterinary oriented; five came from human medical programs). Few offered ideas on the core competencies required to produce disaster-planning and response professionals. The lack of published literature in this area points to a need for more formal discussion and research on core competencies. Non-veterinary articles emphasized learning objectives, commonly listing an incident command system, the National Incident Management System, teamwork, communications, and critical event management/problem solving. These learning objectives were accomplished either through short-course formats or via their integration into a larger curriculum. Formal disaster training in veterinary medicine mostly occurs within existing public health courses. Much of the literature focuses on changing academia to meet current and future needs in public/animal health disaster-preparedness and careers. The NCSU CVM program, in collaboration with North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Emergency Programs and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, operates as a stand-alone third-year two-week core-curriculum training program that combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. The authors report here its content, outcomes, and future development plans.

  2. El Complejo Cultural del Neolítico Final - Edad del Bronce en el País Vasco Cantábrico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gorrochategui

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Neolítico Final a la Edad del Bronce reconocemos en el área cantábrica del País Vasco una serie de manifestaciones culturales: dólmenes, túmulos, cuevas de habitación, cuevas sepulcrales y poblados al aire libre. Estos restos de la actuación humana nos hablan de un poblamiento básico al aire libre, aunque se siguieron utilizando las cuevas. El único poblado al aire libre excavado en la zona hasta la fecha, Ilso Betaio, se localiza en una zona de montaña, a 712 m. de altitud. Consiste en una serie de fondos de cabaña pedregosos, circulares, de unos 8 m. de diámetro, con un hogar central excavado en el terreno. El fenómeno más original de ésta época es el constituido por el megalitismo, durante el cual se ocupan las diversas alineaciones montañosas desde 200 a más de 1000 m. de altitud. Esta ocupación constituye un verdadero proceso de colonización con la extensión de tierras agrícolas y pastizales a costa del bosque. La secuencia cultural dista mucho de ser conocida con   detalle pues las excavaciones realizadas hasta la fecha son escasas y los testimonios materiales a menudo poco relevantes. Constatamos una primera etapa microlítica durante la 2ª mitad del cuarto milenio a. de C. (Neolítico Final a la que sigue otra con puntas de flecha foliáceas (y posteriormente de aletas y pedúnculo durante el Calcolítico, ya en la 2ª mitad del tercer milenio. La etapa campaniforme, yuxtapuesta o no a la anterior, apenas está representada, como los metales correspondientes al Bronce Antiguo o Medio (ya dentro del 2º milenio. Sin embargo, presuponemos que a medida que se realicen nuevas excavaciones se irán determinando de manera más fidedigna estas etapas finales del complejo cultural aquí abordado puesto que el País Vasco cantábrico ha demostrado ser a lo largo de la historia una zona sometida a diversas influencias exteriores.

  3. Efecto de actividades turísticas sobre el comportamiento de fauna representativa de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador Short-term effects of tourism activities on the behavior of representative fauna on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda González-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron consideradas clave para actividades turísticas en 16 sitios de las Islas Galápagos: la raya sartén marmoleada (Taeniura meyeri, raya águila (Aetobatus narinari, tiburón de aleta blanca (Triaenodon obesus, tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas, cormorán no volador (Phalacrocorax harrisi y lobo marino de Galápagos (Zalophus califórnianus, con el objetivo de analizar reacciones a corto plazo ante actividades de buceo apnea o "snorkeling", buceo autónomo o "scuba", paseos en bote o "panga-ride" y caminatas. Para cada especie se documentó su comportamiento al momento del encuentro con los turistas y su reacción ante dicha situación. El uso del Análisis de Correspondencias reveló que el tipo de reacción de las especies depende significativamente de la actividad turística, a excepción de las rayas sartén marmoleada y águila. Asimismo, los análisis indican que, a nivel de especie, cada actividad turística estuvo asociada significativamente con reacciones animales particulares. Esto sugiere que las especies analizadas son sensibles ante determinadas actividades turísticas, por lo que se deberían implementar recomendaciones de manejo a fin de garantizar la sustentabilidad del ecoturismo.This study focused on the short-term reactions of six key species (Taeniura meyeri, Aetobatus narinari, Triaendon obesus, Chelonia mydas, Phalacrocorax harrisi, and Zalophus califórnianus during tourism activities (SCUBA diving, panga-ride, snorkeling, and hiking at 16 tourist sites on the islands. For each species we recorded its behavior when first encountering tourists and its reaction following this encounter. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that the type of reaction of the species depended significantly on the type of touristic activity, with the exception of the black spotted and eagle rays. Moreover, the analysis showed that, for each species, the different tourist activities were significantly associated with particular animal activities

  4. Uso de obturadores en cirugía oral y maxilofacial: Presentación de cinco casos clínicos Use of obturators in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Velázquez-Cayón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos creados en el maxilar, principalmente tras cirugía resectiva de tumores malignos, traumatismo o defectos congénitos, deben ser corregidos con el fin de recuperar los consecuentes déficits en el habla, la deglución, la masticación y la estética. Para ello contamos con dos amplias posibilidades: reconstrucción quirúrgica o colocación de un obturador protésico maxilar. En este artículo llevamos a cabo una revisión de la literatura reciente y clásica sobre obturadores palatinos, ilustrándola mediante 5 casos clínicos con esta opción terapéutica. Hemos encontrado descritas una amplia variedad de modificaciones para los distintos tipos de obturadores, como la fabricación de aletas nasales, colocación de obturadores de forma inmediata tras la cirugía, el hecho de ahuecar el aditamento obturador, etc. En nuestra práctica hemos observado una serie de ventajas en la colocación de este tipo de prótesis de forma posquirúrgica diferida y en estrecha colaboración con su médico responsable.Defects created in the maxillary bone, principally after surgical resection of malignant tumors, trauma or congenital defects, must be corrected to eliminate the resulting speech, swallowing, and chewing defects and restore the cosmetic appearance. Two major options available are surgical reconstruction or the placement of a maxillary obturator prosthesis. The recent and classic literature on palatal obturators is reviewed and five clinical cases treated with a palatal obturator are reported. A large variety of modifications have been reported for different types of obturators, such as nasal wings, immediate postoperative obturator prosthesis placement, etc. In the authors' experience, deferred postoperative obturator placement in close collaboration with the responsible doctor has advantages.

  5. Variação da regulagem no perfil transversal de aplicação com distribuidores centrífugos Variation in the adjustment of an application transversal profile with centrifugal broadcaster spreaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Salim Farret

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os distribuidores centrífugos revolucionaram a tecnologia de aplicação de produtos sólidos na agricultura por apresentarem grande capacidade de campo operacional e pela grande amplitude de dosagens que consegue aplicar. No entanto, este equipamento apresenta alguns inconvenientes, como a dificuldade em aplicar homogeneamente o material na largura de trabalho utilizada, mesmo com uma aparente facilidade de regulagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar tratamentos relacionados a regulagens operacionais buscando equilibrar e uniformizar o perfil transversal de distribuição, com a maior capacidade de campo operacional, para os diferentes produtos sólidos. A máquina avaliada foi um distribuidor centrífugo de produtos sólidos bidisco. Os resultados nos levam a concluir que as velocidades média e alta da esteira transportadora para a distribuição de calcário e a velocidade baixa para a distribuição de aveia fornecem uma ampla e suficiente faixa de dosagens com a variação de abertura da comporta dosadora. O aumento da vazão e do adiantamento da posição das aletas possibilita maior capacidade de campo operacional ao conjunto mecanizado, pela possibilidade de operar com maior largura útil de aplicação e maior velocidade de deslocamento. A largura máxima recomendada de aplicação foi de 13,5 metros para o calcário e para a aveia.Centrifugal broadcaster spreaders have been a breakthrough technology in the application of solid materials in agriculture because they have a high performance in field operations and are able to apply a broad range of rates. However, this equipment has some disadvantages, such as the difficulty in homogenously applying the material although adjusting is a relatively simple task. The objective of this study was to compare treatments of operational adjustments in order to balance and uniformize the transversal pattern of distribution, aiming a higher field operational capacity, for different solid

  6. Considerations on a Brachauchenius skeleton (Pliosauroidea from the lower Paja Formation (late Barremian of Villa de Leyva area (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hampe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A nearly complete pliosaurid skeleton has been discovered in the Barremian deposits (Formación Paja of Villa de Leyva in early 2004. The new find belongs to the genus Brachauchenius and consists of the cranium with a slightly damaged and partially concretionally covered occipital region and a neck with 13 cervical vertebrae. The trunk, both forelimbs and the left hindlimb are preserved. The posterior part of the pelvic girdle and the caudal vertebrae are lacking. The Colombian Brachauchenius represents the first re-occurrence of the non-rhomaleosaurid pliosaurs after a Berriasian-Hauterivian hiatus. Anfang 2004 wurde das nahezu vollständige Skelett eines Pliosauriers in den Ablagerungen des Barremium (Formación Paja von Villa de Leyva entdeckt und freigelegt. Der Neufund ist der Gattung Brachauchenius zuzuordnen. Überliefert sind das Cranium mit leicht beschädigter und teilweise konkretionär überdeckter Occipitalregion und eine Halswirbelsäule bestehend aus 13 Wirbeln. Das Rumpfskelett, beide Vorderextremitäten sowie die linke Hinterextremität sind erhalten. Der hintere Abschnitt des Beckengürtels und der Schwanzbereich fehlen. Der kolumbianische Brachauchenius stellt das erste Wiedererscheinen der nicht-rhomaleosauriden Pliosaurier nach dem Berriasium-Hauterivium Hiatus dar. Un esqueleto de pliosaurio, casi completo, fué descubierto en depósitos barremianos (Formación Paja de Villa de Leyva, a comienzos del año 2004. El nuevo hallazgo consiste de un cráneo que tiene la región occipital parcialmente dañada e incompletamente incluida en una concreción y el cuello representado por 13 vértebras cervicales. El tronco, ambos miembros anteriores y sólo un miembro posterior están preservados. La parte posterior de la aleta pélvica y las vértebras caudales no están preservadas. El nuevo especimen fósil se incluye en el género Brachauchenius. El Brachauchenius colombiano representa la primera reaparición de pliosaurios no

  7. Contingent Valuation of the Economic Benefits of Forest Environmental Resource with Validity Improvement ---A case study for Wuyishan national natural reserve%基于有效性改进的森林环境资源条件价值评估--以武夷山自然保护区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国常宁; 杨建州; 冯祥锦

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation accounting of forest environmental resource as the basis of Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation and Green GDP Accounting, whether we assess its value reasonably or not, will accelerate the progress of bringing forest resource assessment into accounting system of Environmental and economic integration. Contingent Value Method ( CVM) as a mostly used direct valuation method of environment and resources, is vital important to the valuation of non-market good or service, espe-cially the non-use value of environment and resources. However, because of the numerous component of non-use value, we should implement the systematically classification on actual accounting research and then reckon it respectively. This paper did some supply and demand analysis of Forest Environmen-tal Resource on the basis of these argument, adopted the Open-end Payment Card Method as the guid-ance of CVM, made an investigation on urban residents'willingness to pay for ecological forest in Wuy-ishan Natural Reserve, defined the specific composition of forest social value based on logistic model and factor analysis, according to the non-parametric estimation calculated the average willingness to pay for ecological forest resource, and greatly improved the validity of research findings.%森林环境资源价值评估是实施生态效益补偿和绿色GDP 核算的重要基础,对其进行科学合理的定价,将加快推动森林资源纳入环境经济一体化核算工作的进程。条件价值法( CVM)作为森林环境资源价值评估的一种直接方法,对于评估“非市场化产品或服务”的价值,特别是森林环境资源的社会价值具有重要意义。考虑到该类非使用价值的分量众多,实际核算时应先进行系统分类,然后逐一加以测算。本文正是在此基础上,通过森林环境资源的供求分析,采用开放式支付卡法作为CVM的引导技术,对武夷山自然保护区居民消费意愿进

  8. Eletromiográfia do reto femoral em diferentes equipamentos proprioceptivos no meio aquático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Noronha Martins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A propriocepção é uma variável imprescindível para prevenção e reabilitação das lesões do joelho, podendo ser estimulada por diferentes equipamentos, os quais ainda não foram testados em meio aquático. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade eletromiográfica (EMG do músculo reto femoral de atletas no meio aquático frente a três diferentes equipamentos proprioceptivos (cama elástica, disco proprioceptivo e balancim. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por dez jogadores de futsal profissional, sem histórico de lesões musculoesqueléticas (últimos três meses, com 23,1 (±1,5 anos e índice de massa corporal 25,2 (±0,5 kg/m². A aquisição do sinal EMG do reto femoral do membro dominante foi adquirido por eletrodos de superfície, aproximadamente 2,5 cm da posição distal do ponto motor. O nível da água foi ajustado individualmente (entre a região umbilical e o processo xifoide e a temperatura mantida a 32 °C. As avaliações compreenderam o repouso, a contração voluntária máxima (CVM antes e depois dos experimentos e os estímulos proprioceptivos (cama elástica, disco proprioceptivo e balancim em apoio unipodal. Os dados (média ± erro padrão foram comparados pelo teste-t pareado e pela ANOVA para medidas repetidas seguida de teste Bonferrroni (post hoc. RESULTADOS: A EMG da CVM antes (221,0 ± 134 RMS/µVolts e depois (243,0 ± 154,0 RMS/µVolts foi semelhante (p = 0,129. No meio aquático, a cama elástica, o balancim e o disco apresentaram respectivamente 24,5 (±4,3, 33,9 (±4,3 e 32,5 (±6,7 %CVM. A atividade EMG do reto femoral na cama elástica foi 8% menor que o balancim e 9,5% que o disco proprioceptivo (p < 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: No meio aquático os equipamentos proprioceptivos promovem a ativação do reto femoral. Entretanto, a cama elástica apresenta menor atividade que o disco e o balancim, sugerindo-se que este equipamento deva ser utilizado no início da estimulação proprioceptiva.

  9. Influencing Factors of the Willingness to Pay for Non-Use Value Evaluation of Sanjiang Wetland%三江平原湿地非使用价值支付意愿的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯磊; 敖长林; 焦扬

    2012-01-01

    Wetland is a kind of important ecosystem on the earth. To better protect wetland ecosystems, Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a worldwide popular method for evaluating the economic value of ecosystems was applied to evaluate the non-use value of Sanjiang Plain wetland. A questionnaire of payment card CVM was developed for the survey study. We sent out the questionnaires to 552 respondents, and received 513 usable responses. Data analysis reveals that the willingness to pay of Sanjiang Plain wetland is RMB 71.66 per year. The result of descriptive analysis shows the distribution of willingness to pay and its variation patterns under the influence of each factor. The influencing factors are refined using principal component analysis. With ordered category Logit model, three factors are identified to be the most important among all that influence the willingness to pay for non-use value evaluation of Sanjiang wetland, individual average annual income, educational background and the attitude of environment protect. This study makes it possible to compare the revenue of Development and protection of Sanjiang Plain wetland, and provides a theoretical foundation to make related policies for the government.%为了更好地保护三江平原湿地生态系统,应用条件价值评估法(CVM)这一当前国际上流行的生态系统经济价值评价方法,对三江平原湿地的非使用价值进行评价.研究中采用实地调研的方式,进行支付意愿问卷调查,共发放支付卡式CVM问卷552份,回收有效问卷513份.得出三江平原湿地2007年人均支付意愿为71.66元/年.通过对问卷数据的描述性统计,得到支付意愿的分布情况和在各单一因素影响下的变化规律.用主成分分析简化影响因素,运用有序多分类Logit模型,得到在所有影响因素中,个人平均年收入、个人受教育程度以及个人环保态度是影响受访者对三江平原湿地非使用价值支付意愿的主要因素.研究

  10. 基于支付能力与支付意愿的居民生活用水水价承受能力研究——以广州市番禺区为例%Affordability of domestic water price based on ability and willingness to pay -A case study of Panyu District of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国宁; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    The affordability of domestic water price was quantified based on residents' ability to pay (ATP) and willingness to pay (WTP), by using the extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model and the contingent valuation method (CVM). Taking the Panyu district of Guangzhou as an example, we carefully analyzed ATP and WTP of residents living in urban and rural areas respectively. The statistics was calculated on the basis of the surveys and historical dataset on the domestic water expenditure from 2005 to 2009. Furthermore, we analyzed the affordability of domestic water price in 2011. The residents whose income was on and over average can afford the domestic water and their basic water demands were satisfied during the period of 2005 to 2009. However, the residents whose income was below average are unable to pay for the domestic water, which was very common in the rural areas. It was therefore very necessary to place emphasis on these people living in the rural areas. The result based on CVM indicated that the residents are willing to pay 2.163 yuan/m3 for domestic water in 2011. When the domestic water price increases from 2.00 yuan/m3 to 2.15 yuan/m3, the residents whose income was on average should be able to pay for the domestic water.%从支付能力和支付意愿的角度,应用扩展线性支出系统(ELES)模型和条件价值评估法(CVM),定量研究居民生活用水水价承受能力.以广州市番禺区为例,通过2005~2009年截面数据资料和问卷调查数据,定量研究了城镇和农村居民生活用水水价支付能力和支付意愿,并分析了201 1年番禺区居民对新调整居民生活用水水价的承受能力.结果表明,2005~2009年,达到平均收入水平的番禺区居民对水价具有支付能力,其基本用水需求能得到满足,但低收入户,尤其是农村低收入户的水价支付能力有限,是水价改革应重点关注的对象;CVM调查结果显示,番禺区居民对2011年生活用

  11. Influences of torque and joint angle on heart rate responses during isometric exercise in young men Influência do torque e do ângulo articular nas respostas da freqüência cardíaca durante exercício isométrico em homens jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Quitério

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of joint angle on heart rate (HR responses induced by isometric exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men (23.8 ± 2.5 years old underwent isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC tests lasting 10 sec using an electronic dynamometer under the following experimental conditions: knee extension at angles of 60º and 90º and knee flexion at angles of 30º and 90º angles. Their HR was recorded at rest (65 sec, during MVC (10 sec and during the recovery period (120 sec. The data on mean maximum torque (MMT and HR variation (deltaHR were analyzed using the Friedman test with the Dunn post-hoc test, and their correlation was analyzed using the Spearman test (alpha= 0.05. RESULTS: 1 MMT was significantly higher at 60º and 90º knee extension than at 30º and 90º knee flexion (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do ângulo articular nas respostas da freqüência cardíaca (FC induzida pelo exercício isométrico. MÉTODOS: Dez homens saudáveis (23,8 ± 2,5 anos foram submetidos a testes de contração voluntária máxima (CVM isométrica, durante 10s, em um dinamômetro eletrônico, nas seguintes condições experimentais: extensão do joelho nos ângulos de 60º e 90º e flexão do joelho nos ângulos de 30º e 90º. A freqüência cardíaca foi registrada durante o repouso (65s, durante a CVM (10s e durante o período de recuperação (120s. Os dados de torque médio máximo (TMM e de variação da FC (deltaFC foram analisados usando teste de Friedman, com pós-teste de Dunn, e sua correlação foi analisada usando o teste de Spearman (alfa= 0,05. RESULTADOS: 1 TMM foi significativamente maior nos ângulos de 60º e 90º de extensão em relação aos ângulos de 30º e 90º de flexão (p< 0,05, enquanto entre os dois ângulos de flexão e entre os dois de extensão não foram encontradas diferenças significativas; 2 deltaFC foi similar em todas as condições experimentais; 3 Não foi encontrada correlação entre

  12. 基于不同评估方法的养殖池塘富营养化环境成本研究——以上海青浦地区常规鱼类养殖池塘为例%Approaches to Assessment of Environmental Costs of Eutrophication of Aquaculture Ponds-A Case Study of a Conventional Fish Pond in Qingpu Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨怀宇; 唐克勇; 范晓赟; 杨正勇

    2012-01-01

    Environmental cost of aquaculture in pond was assessed, using the replacement cost method, material balance method, contingent valuation method ( CVM) and COD price method. Results of the assessment show a decreasing order of replacement cost method (4 400 RMB -a-1 ? Hm-2) , COD price method (4 191. 99 RMB ? A-1 ? Hm-2) , material balance method (3 925.76 RMB ? A-1 ? Hm-2) , and contingent valuation method (2 007. 8 RMB ? A-1 ? Hm-2). It is held that the assessment using the COD price method is probably the closest to the true value of the environmental cost on the premises that the costs of time and money are not counted. The environmental costs estimated using the four methods account for about 6% - 14% of the total economic profit of the operation, which indicates that it is necessary to adopt relevant measures to administer aquacultural pollution of the environment.%采用物料平衡法、置换成本法、条件价值评估法(CVM)和COD价格法对池塘养殖环境成本进行评估.结果显示,基于4种评估方法估算得到的池塘养殖环境成本由大到小依次为置换成本法(4 400元·a-1· hm-2)、COD价格法(4 191.99元·a-1·hm-2)、物料平衡法(3 925.76元·a-1·hm-2)和CVM法(2 007.8元·a-1·hm-2),认为在不考虑时间和经济成本的前提下,基于COD价格法测算得到的结果可能最接近于环境成本的真实值.采用4种评估方法测得的环境成本占常规鱼类养殖经济总收益的6%~14%,表明采取相关措施防治水产养殖环境污染很有必要.

  13. EMPIRICALLY STUDY ON COMPENSATION WILL OF GRASSLAND ECOLOGY IN INNER MONGOLIA%内蒙古草原生态补偿意愿的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩芳; 王芳; 长青; 刘鑫

    2011-01-01

    草原生态补偿意愿是确定草原生态补偿标准的莺要参考,理论上补偿意愿包括补偿主体的支付意愿和补偿对象的受偿意愿.利用条件价值评估法(CVM)研究补偿主体的支付意愿和补偿对象的受偿意愿.通过采用SPSS软件中的皮尔逊相关分析法得出如下结论:内蒙占地区居民对草原生态补偿的支付意愿是23.10元/hm2·年;内蒙古草原牧区牧民的受偿意愿是1944.75/hm2·年.影响支付意愿的因素主要是被访者的受教育程度(即学历水平)、对草原生态环境的认知程度和家庭人口;影响受偿意愿的因素主要是牲畜饲养方式和牧民居住地距离旗政府所在地的距离.%The compensation will of grassland ecology is the important reference to determine the compensation standards of grassland ecology. This paper theoretically put forward that the compensation will should include the paying willingness of compensation object and the accepting willingness of compensation subject. The paper issued the paying willingness of compensation subject and the accepting willingness of compensation object by CVM. Through using SPSS software of pearson correlation analysis, its conclusion is that the paying willingness of grassland ecological compensation in Inner Mongolia is 23.10 yuan/hm2 every year. And the accepting willingness of the nomads in Inner Mongolia grassland is 1944.75 yuan/hm2 every year. The main factors of paying willingness are education degree of the respondent (i.e. degree level ) and the cognition about grassland ecological environment and family population .And the factors of the accepting willingness are the raising livestock way and the distance from residence to the seat of government flag.

  14. Eletromiografia do bíceps braquial em contrações dinâmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucenildo Silva Cerqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A reprodutibilidade da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície (EMG é mais estudada em protocolos que envolvem contrações isométricas. Alguns fatores relacionados às contrações dinâmicas podem contribuir para a instabilidade do sinal mioelétrico e dificultar a reprodutibilidade da medida da EMG. OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade teste-reteste e quantificar o erro técnico da medida da frequência mediana (FM e da amplitude (root mean square, RMS da EMG, em contrações dinâmicas e estáticas. MÉTODOS: Dez sujeitos foram testados em dois dias, sendo a atividade EMG registrada na maior porção do bíceps braquial. No primeiro dia foi feito o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM e de contração voluntária máxima (CVM. No segundo dia foram realizadas duas séries de 10 contrações dos flexores do cotovelo com 75% de 1RM, entremeadas por 1 h em repouso. Antes de cada série foi realizada uma CVM. RESULTADOS: Para a FM e RMS foi observado alto coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para o sinal do bíceps braquial (CCI = 0,90-0,98 para a FM; CCI = 0,89-0,94 para o RMS e de baixo para moderado coeficiente de variação (CV = 2,5-6,2% para a FM; CV = 14,6-16,3% para o RMS em ambos os testes. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre teste e reteste (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A FM e o RMS apresentam alta confiabilidade e baixo a moderado erro em contrações estáticas e dinâmicas, possibilitando o uso da EMG para investigação da fadiga e de desordens neuromusculares.

  15. Uma avaliação do nível de evidenciação das companhias abertas, no Brasil, no tocante aos instrumentos financeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vieira da Costa Junior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho é o de levantar o quadro atual da política de evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros por parte das companhias abertas no Brasil, através de suas demonstrações contábeis (data base de 31.12.2000. Uma pesquisa junto a 215 companhias abertas foi levada a efeito visando a avaliar se a divulgação de fatores de risco de mercado e de sua gestão foi feita adequadamente (de forma qualitativa e quantitativa, se as estratégias dispensadas ao uso dos instrumentos financeiros foram adequadamente reveladas, se foram computados e revelados os valores justos dos instrumentos financeiros, enfim, se os ditames da Instrução CVM nº 235/95, de 23.03.95, foram observados rigorosamente pelas companhias abertas. O resultado da pesquisa indicou que as companhias abertas no Brasil, não prestam informações adequadas em suas demonstrações contábeis, no que concerne aos instrumentos financeiros.This paper aimed to investigate the current stage of the disclosure policy of publicly-held companies in Brazil with respect to financial instruments, by means of the analysis of their financial statements (fiscal year ending at December 31st 2000. A research of 215 publicly-held companies was realized in order to evaluate the adequate disclosure (qualitatively and quantitatively speaking of risk market factors and their management, the adequate revelation of the strategies for using financial instruments, the adequate calculation and revelation of the fair values of the financial instruments, and finally, if the paragraphs of CVM Instruction nº. 235/95, from March 23rd 1995, were strictly observed by the publicly-held companies. Moreover, the role of the independent auditors in this context was evaluated through the analysis of their audit opinions. The research result indicated that the publicly-held companies in Brazil do not render appropriate information about the financial instruments in their financial statements, with the

  16. O ativo diferido das empresas que entraram para o mercado de capitais brasileiro no anode 2007: uma análise empírica = The active deferred companies enterea for the brasilian capital markets in the 2007: an empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo verificar se os gastos contabilizados no ativo diferido das empresas que entraram para o mercado de capitais brasileiro (BOVESPA no ano de 2007 possuem a capacidade de impactar significativamente seus resultados econômicos. Para atingir o objetivo proposto realizou-se um levantamento a partir dos dados publicados na homepage da CVM. A pesquisa tem caráter descritivo e a abordagem adotada dá-se tanto qualitativa quanto quantitativamente, utilizando-se para a análise e interpretação dos dados a técnica de análise documental. São escrutadas as demonstrações contábeis consolidadas e as notas explicativas de 63 das 92 companhias que entraram para o mercado de capitais brasileiro no ano de 2007.Verifica-se que, deste contexto, 35 empresas apresentam valores considerados ‘Relevantes’ se comparados a outras contas do seu balanço patrimonial, muito embora que em apenas 2 destas tenha sido observado, clara e objetivamente, uma significativa capacidade de impactar em seus resultados econômicos. The present study has the objective to verify if the accounting spending of the Deferred Asset ofcompanies that entered for the Brazilian Capital Market (BOVESPA in the year of 2007 they ownthe capacity of producing significant impact in yours economic results. To reach the proposedgoal, an survey study was going accomplished with data published in the CVM Homepage. Theresearch has an descriptive character and used the Documental Analysis technique for the dataanalysis and interpretation. The approach adopted was both qualitative and quantitative. 63among 92 companies that entered for the Brazilian Capital Market in the year of 2007 arescrutinized through of their consolidated financial statement and explanatory note. In 35companies of this context are presented values that considered ‘Material’ if compared to othersaccounts of your balance sheet, however in only 2 have been observed, clear and objectively

  17. Standarde de integritate privind aleşii locali. Regimul juridic al incompatibilităţilor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Carmen CURT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the problem of incompatibilities of local officials in the Romanian society, in light of the EU Anticorruption Report (2014 and the findings of the last CVM Report on Romania (2015. These reports emphasize that corruption risk factors at local level are mostly related to public procurement and imply local officials. In this respect, recent attempts of changing the integrity legal framework by the Parliament put serious questions regarding political support of curbing corruption strategies and public policies. The study focuses upon analysing the consequences of these legal amendments of the integrity framework. As a consequence, the article’s findings answer the question related to alleged need of a legislation change. Also, the article analizes the most recent constitutional jurisprudence and the jurisprudence of the High Court of Cassation and Justice in order to highlight general patterns and the most important principles of interpretation and application of the integrity legal framework. Conclusions propose solutions in terms of raising the standards of public integrity and assuring stability of the integrity framework.

  18. Dividendos e informação assimétrica: análise do novo mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Maurício Franco Moreiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em dezembro de 2000, a Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Bovespa criou uma listagem em que diferenciava as empresas que voluntariamente aceitassem práticas de governança corporativa adicionais àquelas exigidas pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. A finalidade da inovação era estreitar a relação entre as empresas e os seus investidores, diminuindo a assimetria informacional e dando maior segurança ao investidor. O objetivo neste artigo é testar os efeitos gerados por essa iniciativa sobre a informação assimétrica do mercado acionário. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de eventos tendo como variável central a política de dividendos. O resultado revela que as companhias que aderiram aos mercados com graus diferenciados de governança apresentam menores graus de informação assimétrica e, desse modo, inseriram-se em um ambiente institucional mais seguro. Em outras palavras, a iniciativa da Bovespa teve êxito ao mitigar o problema da informação assimétrica no mercado acionário brasileiro.

  19. On the structure of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemann, L.; Eberth, J.; Neumann, W.; Zobel, V.

    1982-09-01

    Mean lifetimes of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge have been measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. The states in 66Zn have been studied through the reaction 55Mn( 14N, 2pnγ) 66Zn at E = 47 MeV, those in 70Ge through the reaction 56Fe( 16O, 2pγ) 70Ge at E = 46 MeV. The measurements were performed with a plunger apparatus with a piezo-electric distance regulation. The mean lifetimes in 66Zn were measured to be 66 ± 4ps (5 - state), 43 ± 2 ps (6 - state), 192 ± 15 ps (7 - state), and 2.7 ± 1.2 ps (9 - state), those of 70Ge 19.7 ± 2 ps (5 - state), 51 ± 4 ps (6 - state), and 25.2 ± 1.4 ps (7 - state). Deduced B ( Ml) and B( E2) values are compared with theoretical predictions of a two-proton cluster-vibration coupling model (CVM) which describes these states as couplings of g {9}/{2} ⊗ (fp shell) proton clusters to zero, one and higher phonon excitations of the corresponding Ni and Zn cores. Good overall agreement between the theoretical values and the experimental data was found.

  20. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su

    2016-07-01

    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.

  1. 我国荷斯坦种公牛CVM遗传缺陷基因的分子检测%Identification of Complex Vertebral Malformation Carriers in Chinese Holstein Bulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学华; 张毅; 公维嘉; 谢岩; 孙东晓; 王雅春; 俞英; 张沅

    2010-01-01

    研究运用引入酶切位点聚合酶链式反应(PIRA-PCR)方法检测牛脊柱畸形综合症(CVM)在我国荷斯坦种公牛中的携带情况.共检测了来自全国14个公牛站的587头种公牛,结果表明:携带者56头,携带率为9.54%.系谱分析确认40头携带者公牛是Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell的后代.对公牛信息统计显示,2001-2007年各年度出生的种公牛都保持较高的CVM携带率(8.22%~15.56%).美国、加拿大和澳大利亚是我国引进公牛的主要来源国,进口公牛的CVM携带率分别为11.37%、3.73%和14.29%.此外,本研究还对我国荷斯坦牛CVM遗传缺陷的控制和CVM携带公牛的利用提出建议.

  2. A pedigree-analysis approach to the descriptive epidemiology of autosomal-recessive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, W Y N; Nicholas, F W; James, J W

    2007-03-17

    We describe a pedigree-analysis approach to estimating descriptive epidemiological parameters for autosomal-recessive disorders when the ancestral source of the disorder is known. We show that the expected frequency of carriers in a cohort equals the gene contribution of the ancestral source to that cohort, which is equivalent to the direct (additive) genetic relationship of that ancestor to the cohort. Also, the expected incidence of affected foetuses ranges from (1/2)F* to F*, where F* is the mean partial inbreeding coefficient (due to the ancestor) of the cohort. We applied this approach to complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein-Friesians in Australia, for which the ancestral source is a USA-born bull, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell. The estimated frequency of carriers was 2.47% for the 1992-born and 4.44% for the 1997-born cohort of Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. The estimated incidence of affected foetuses/calves was considerably less than one per thousand, ranging from 0.0024 to 0.0048% for the 1992-born cohort, and from 0.0288 to 0.0576% for the 1997-born cohort. These incidences correspond to expected numbers of affected female foetuses/calves ranging from 2 to 4 for the 1992-born cohort and from 28 to 56 for the 1997-born cohort. This approach is easy to implement using software that is readily available.

  3. Study on Willingness to Pay for Typhoid Vi Vaccine in Lingchuan County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗支付意愿调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董柏青; 吴兴华; 杨进; 龚健; 廖和壮; WU Xun; Christine Poulos; Dohyeong Kim; Andrew Nyamete; John Clemens

    2008-01-01

    目的 评估广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗的支付意愿,为开展疫苗推广活动提供依据.方法 应用条件价值法(Contingent Valuation Method,CVM)评估居民对伤寒Vi多糖疫苗的支付阈值,使用Prob-it模型进行"价格-接受率"曲线拟合.结果 广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗的"价格-接受率"模型为:p=Probit-1(0.88952-0.46296X),平均支付意愿为10.41元,95%可信区间为6.67~16.24元.结论 在广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区,Vi多糖疫苗定价应在10元左右,CVM可较好评估居民对疫苗的支付意愿.

  4. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    2017-01-01

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  5. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs, i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs and compensation VMs (CVMs. MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD, and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast. The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  6. Career attitudes of first-year veterinary students before and after a required course on veterinary careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Richard E; Griffith, Emily H

    2014-01-01

    Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a required, one-credit-hour course at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM), which meets once weekly during veterinary students' first semester. Lectures in this course are presented by one or more veterinarians representing diverse career areas. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed before the first class meeting in 2011 (PRE) and at the end of the semester (POST) to assess if students' career interests changed during the semester. The survey collected basic demographic data and students' preferences (on a Likert scale) for 17 veterinary career paths. Out of 63 students, 36 (57%) in the POST survey said that their career interests had changed during the semester, and 17 of the 26 students (65%) who gave a reason credited the careers course as one factor in reconsidering their career choice. Only 3 of the 17 career paths had statistically significant PRE/POST survey differences in Likert response frequency (equine practice, pathology, and wildlife medicine), but both informal discussions with students and responses to open-ended survey questions indicated that many students valued the introduction to unfamiliar veterinary career areas. Careers in Veterinary Medicine is a vital component of recent career-planning initiatives in the college, which will be especially important to veterinary students as they face continued changes in the profession, such as the increased debt load of the new graduate and the threat of veterinary workforce oversupply.

  7. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment.

  8. Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Huang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM. Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM. The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value.

  9. Willingness to Pay for Air Quality Improvements in Klang Valley Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Afroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research employed contingent valuation method (CVM to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP of the respondents to improve the air quality in Klang Valley. The samples were divided according to different question formats i.e. open ended(OE, dichotomous choice(DC and payment card(PC. The objective of this study is to investigate the convergent validity of contingent valuation estimates by comparing the WTP values of different question formats. The comparison of responses to different question formats in terms of positive response rate, valid zero, rejection of contingent market was carried out using the z-tests. Paired t-tests of equivalent means were also conducted to test the equality of the mean value of the WTP of the respondents for different question formats. The results of the study suggested that the WTP values of the respondents do not differ significantly across different question formats and the WTP values of the respondents using the DC format were the highest. However due to the nature of the question format, the mean WTP values using the DC method would normally be higher than those of OE and PC. The aggregate WTP value of the respondents was RM0.91 billion for air quality improvement in Klang Valley.

  10. Localized muscle fatigue: review of three experiments Fadiga muscular localizada: revisão de três estudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue considerably affects rehabilitation and ergonomics. Many approaches to this complex phenomenon, ranging from physiological to psychological, have been used to obtain meaningful fatigue measurements. However, none of the methods in the literature measure fatigue directly. It is therefore of considerable interest to determine which indirect methods best represent the state. Method: Fatiguing contraction was measured at maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and 40% MVC in the biceps brachii, quadriceps and erector spinae muscles (three separate experiments. The most-reported objective measurements (contraction force, median electromyographic frequency, heart rate, muscle bed oxygenation and muscle blood volume and subjective measurements (visual analog score, body part discomfort rating and perceived exertion rate were simultaneously recorded. The data from the three experiments underwent separate statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, linear mixed effects (to examine force fatigue predictability and trend analysis (with between and within-subject correlations were calculated. Results: Univariate ANOVA on all objective variables showed that gender was a significant factor (pContexto: A fadiga afeta consideravelmente a reabilitação e ergonomia. Muitas abordagens a este fenômeno complexo, incluindo fisiológicas e psicológicas, têm sido utilizadas para obter medidas significativas da fadiga. No entanto, nenhum dos métodos descritos na literatura mede diretamente a fadiga. É, portanto de interesse a determinação de quais dos métodos indiretos melhor representa a condição de fadiga. Método: A fadiga por contração foi medida na contração voluntária máxima (CVM e 40% da CVM em músculos bíceps braquial, quadríceps e músculos eretores da coluna (três avaliações independentes. As medidas objetivas mais relatadas (força de contração, freqüência mediana na eletromiografia, freqüência cardíaca, oxigena

  11. Ecosystem Services Valuation of Lakeside Wetland Park beside Chaohu Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems are one of the three great ecosystems on Earth. With a deepening of research on wetland ecosystems, researchers have paid more and more attention to wetland ecosystem services such as flood mitigation, climate control, pollution prevention, soil-erosion prevention, biodiversity maintenance, and bio-productivity protection. This study focuses on a lakeside wetland ecosystem in Hefei, a city in central China, and estimates the value of ecosystem services such as material production, air purification, water conservation, biodiversity, recreation, species conservation, education and scientific research. We adopted the market value method, carbon tax method, afforestation cost method, shadow engineering method and contingent value method (CVM using questionnaire survey data during the study period. The results show that the total value of the ecosystem services of Lakeside Wetland Park was 144 million CNY in 2015. Among these services, the value of society service is the maximum at 91.73 million CNY, followed by ecological service and material production service (42.23 million CNY and 10.43 billion CNY in 2015 respectively. When considering wetland ecosystems for economic development, other services must be considered in addition to material production to obtain a longer-term economic value. This research reveals that there is scope for more comprehensive and integrated model development, including multiple wetland ecosystem services and appropriate handling of wetland ecosystem management impacts.

  12. Economic Valuation of Mangrove Restoration in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Suprapto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forest is one of the important ecosystems in Karimunjawa, Indonesia. It provides a variety of services both ecologically and economically. However, over-exploited activity, such as timber theft, can be threatening the sustainability of mangrove forest in Karimunjawa now and in the future. Thus, the improved management for mangrove forest is necessary to ensure its sustainability, and it is depending on how people value the conservation from economic and environment consideration. This study examines the factors influencing on the willingness to pay (WTP of respondents for mangrove restoration in Karimunjawa. A total of 502 respondents were interviewed using census method. The method employed is Contingent Valuation Method (CVMSingle Bounded. In CVM, the logit model was defined based on dichotomous choice method to estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP randomly with three different starting bid value. Findings showed that local awareness of the importance of the values given by mangroves was popularized among local communities. The findings also indicated that respondents who are higher education and have more income were more likely to pay for the mangrove restoration.

  13. International innovations in optical finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  14. Economic assessment of urban watersheds: developing mechanisms for environmental protection of the Feijão river, São Carlos - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH Machado

    Full Text Available In order to determine the willingness of the population of São Carlos (a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil to pay for the environmental protection (WTP of the Feijão River's watershed, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM, as well as the bidding-games technique, were used. In October 2010, 280 questionnaires were applied to a probabilistic sample of the population. A multivariate logistic regression model was built, creating five scenarios adjusted to the age and probability to pay according to the significant variables found. Concerning the WTP, 56% of the interviewees showed willingness to pay a monthly amount using the water bill as a vehicle for this. The WTP average was 1.94 US Dollar (USD, with a standard deviation of 1.91 USD. The total annual amount for the scenario that considers the whole population over 18 years old was of USD 3,930,616.80. The main argument for the negative WTP was that the interviewees could not afford it (14%.

  15. Phishing Web Image Segmentation Based on Core Vector Machine%基于核心向量机的钓鱼网页图像分割方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尚方

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new core vector machine based image segmentation algorithm phishing sites. Support vector machine for image segmentation for phishing pages long training time-consuming drawback, this paper presents the core vector machine based on image segmentation thinking fishing website, the article gives specific steps of the algorithm and the method of experimental validation, results show that the CVM-based image segmentation performance of phishing pages have greatly improved.%本文提出了一种新的,基于核心向量机的钓鱼网站图像分割算法。针对支持向量机用于钓鱼网页图像分割训练时耗较长的缺点,本文提出了基于核心向量机的钓鱼网页图像分割思想,文章中给出了算法的具体步骤,并对该方法进行了实验验证,结果表明基于CVM的钓鱼网页图像分割性能获得很大的改善。

  16. Endurance and failure characteristics of main-shaft jet engine bearings at 3x10 to the 6th power DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm and a thrust load of 66 721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44X1 million and 3.0x1 million DN, 84 483 and 74 800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3x1 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0x1 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  17. Endurance and failure characteristic of main-shaft jet engine bearing at 3 million DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, E. N.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Signer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Groups of thirty 120-mm bore angular-contact ball bearings were endurance tested at a speed of 12,000 and 25,000 rpm (1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, where DN is the product of the bearing bore in mm and the shaft speed in rpm) and a thrust load of 66,721 N. The bearings were manufactured from a single heat of VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. At 1.44 million and 3.0 million DN, 84,483 and 74,800 bearing test hours were accumulated, respectively. Test results were compared with similar bearings made from CVM AISI M-50 steel run under the same conditions. Bearing lives at speeds of 3 million DN with the VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel were nearly equivalent to those obtained at lower speeds. A combined processing and material life factor of 44 was found for VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel. Continuous running after a spall has occurred at 3.0 million DN can result in a destructive fracture of the bearing inner race.

  18. EAM Analysis of the Lattice Parameter Effect in Order-Disorder Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothée Nsongoa; Guoliang CHEN; Xiaodong NI

    2001-01-01

    The embedded atom method was used to theoretically analyze the effect of the lattice parameter variation on the order-disorder transformation in binary alloys. The simple model was considered in which the configuration energy E as function of the lattice parameter a and the long-range order parameter σ was given by Taylor expansion at σ=0. The following results were found for AB alloy, at T=0 K, the stable state exists in the completely ordered phase which was also found in the case of A3B or AB3 compounds .The order-disorder was found to be a secondorder transition. Only one kind of order-disorder was found for AB alloy. Three groups of order-disorder transformation can be observed for the A3B or AB3 compound. For the group Ⅰ when the temperature is below the critical temperature, the order-disorder is a first order transformation. For the group Ⅱ, the order-disorder transformation is a first order transition.For the group Ⅲ, the order-disorder transformation is found to be a second order transition.The lattice parameter variations have a significant effect on E2 coefficient, which is related to the ordering energy. These results are in a good agreement with those obtained by using EAM (embedded atom method) and CVM (cluster variation method) calculations.

  19. An estimation of the willingness to pay for biodiesel: a pilot study of diesel consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathmanathan Sivashankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka’s energy policy presumes that the country will be meeting 20% of its energy requirements by non-conventional renewable energy resources by 2020. This study attempts to assess diesel vehicle owners’ willingness to pay (WTP for Jatropha biodiesel and the factors affecting their decisions. The Contingent valuation method (CVM was used to elicit the WTP for the non-marketed biodiesel, which leads to a hypothetical allocation. For diesel vehicle users, a single bid approach was used at Rs.121/= per litre (€ 0.83. The study was carried out in Kandy region among diesel vehicle users. The factors affecting WTP were estimated using probit regression and WTP was estimated using nonparametric estimation techniques. The mean WTP for biodiesel by the diesel vehicle users was Rs.109 per litre (€ 0.74 for lower bound levels. The median WTP was Rs.124/= per litre (€ 0.85. Elderly respondents with higher education are less likely to pay for biodiesel in both samples. Married respondents with higher income are more likely to pay higher prices for biodiesel.

  20. Evolução da Qualidade das Práticas de Governança Corporativa: um Estudo das Empresas Brasileiras de Capital Aberto Não Listadas em Bolsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Flávio Vieira de Medeiros Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the evolution of the quality of corporate governance practices by Brazilian companies that are non listed on the stock exchange from 2003 through 2007. The data were collected through System DIVEXT of the CVM. As a proxy for determining the quality of corporate governance practices, the Corporate Governance Index of the Brazilian Companies Unlisted on Stock Exchange was used, calculated from a set of 14 binary and objective questions. The results of the research show that half of the companies under study had a good level of governance. Concerning the Transparency dimension, the findings showed that there had been an improvement in the drafting of financial reports and that legal deadlines were being met. Furthermore, approximately half of the companies had contracted some form of global auditing. In the Composition and Functioning of Advice there were no signs of improvement, due to less concern over demands concerning the number of members, independence and length of mandate. The results of the Structure of Control and Behavior show that the vast majority of the companies had no agreements between shareholders. This is a positive improvement in good governance practices.

  1. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  2. Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Cemani Chicken and Their Potential Use as Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Jannah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to screen and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from gastrointestinal (GI tract of Cemani chicken, one of Indonesian local chicken and to investigate their potential use as probiotics. LAB were isolated from GI tract using MRSA and GYPA media and incubated anaerobically. Selected LAB were determined their probiotic properties with several assays. Identification of selected LAB was based on 16S rDNA sequences, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Ninety five bacteria were isolated and characterized as lactic acid bacteria (Gram positive, catalase negative, non sporeforming and acid producing. Twenty four isolates of LAB demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli JCM 1649 and Salmonella enteritidis B2586, and three selected isolates, i.e. CCM011, CSP004, and CVM002 showed the highest inhibition activity. The isolates had characters of high cell surface hydrophobicity and inter-isolate coaggregation ability of LAB, high survival at low pH, high phytase and protease activity (but no amylase and lipase activity, weak coaggregation with pathogen and no resistance to the examined antibiotics. The isolates were identified based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as Lactobacillus salivarius, however, each isolate had different profiles of sugar fermentation. Therefore the three LAB isolates had potential application as probiotics for chicken.

  3. Hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system for carbon fiber reinforced plastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Banshoya, Hidehiko; Shingo, Ii; Takeda, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    This study develops a delamination detection system by extending our previous approach for monitoring surface cracks in a large-scale composite structure. In the new system, numerous thin glass capillaries are embedded into a composite structure, and internal pressure in the built-in capillary sensors, based on comparative vacuum monitoring (CVM), is maintained as a vacuum. When delamination is induced, the capillary sensors located within the delaminated area are breached, and atmospheric air flows into the capillaries. The consequent pressure change within the capillaries is then converted into axial strain in a surface-mounted optical fiber through a transducing mechanism, which is connected to the capillaries. By monitoring the strain distribution along the optical fiber, it is possible to identify a transducing mechanism in which the pressure change occurred and thus to specify the location of the delamination. This study begins by establishing a novel sensor embedding/extracting method. The airflow characteristic in the capillary sensors is then comprehensively evaluated, determining the basic performance of the new system. The proposed detection technique is validated by taking a step-by-step approach, and finally the hierarchical fiber-optic delamination detection system is demonstrated. A further advance to be combined with a self-healing concept is also discussed.

  4. Audit Quality in Brazil: A Study of the Judgment of the Independent Auditors on Adoption of the Adjustment to Present Value in Construction and Engineering Companies Listed on BM&F-Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Audit quality is a complex issue and difficult to measure on the audit quality level in the Brazilian stock exchange. Most of the companies listed on the on the stock exchange are audited by companies called the Big Four and in this context, the market assigns to them pretext of higher quality in their performances when compared with the non-Big Four companies. In Brazil, recent financial scandals while international accounting and auditing standards were been adopted. This provides an opportunity to analyze the adequacy of audit services to the convergence process. Given the scenario, the problem arises: Have the audit firms uniform quality, based on the technical criteria of their judgment when the proper adoption of CPC 12 – adjustment to present value by Brazilian listed companies? The objective of this study is to investigate the uniformity in the quality of services performed by audit firms in Brazil about Brazilian listed companies based on adoption to CVM deliberation number 564/08. This paper consists on the analysis of the accounting reports, reference form and the Auditors of the companies of the construction and engineering sector in years 2010 and 2011, revealing among its main findings the absence of uniform quality in the independent auditor’s report based on the adoption to the adjustment to present value.

  5. Correlations of flow harmonics in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xiangrong; Xu, Haojie; Song, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    Using the event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics VISH2+1 with MC-Glauber, MC-KLN, and AMPT initial conditions, we investigate the correlations of flow harmonics, including the symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(m, n)$, the normalized symmetric cumulants $NSC(m, n)$, and the Pearson correlation coefficients $C(v_{m}^{2}, v_{n}^{2})$ in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb collisions. We find $SC^{v}(m, n)$ is sensitive to both initial conditions and the specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s$. A comparison with the recent ALICE data show that our hydrodynamic calculations can qualitatively describe the data of $SC^{v}(3, 2)$ and $SC^{v}(4, 2)$ for various initial conditions, which demonstrate that $v_2$, $v_4$ are correlated and $v_2$, $v_3$ are anti-correlated. Meanwhile, the predicted symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(5, 2)$, $SC^{v}(5, 3)$, and $SC^{v}(4, 3)$ reveal that $v_2$ and $v_5$, $v_3$ and $v_5$ are correlated, $v_3$ and $v_4$ are anti-correlated in most centrality classes. We also find $NSC^{v}(3, 2)$ and $C(v_{3}^{2}, v_{2}^{2})$, which ...

  6. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowman Dwight D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to provide a background to current concerns relative to the possible resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones, this review summarizes various studies in which lack of efficacies (LOEs have been observed in dogs on macrocyclic lactone preventives relative to the United States of America. Some of these studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, others have appeared in various reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA of the USA as New Animal Drug Application (NADA summaries, and one appeared as a letter to US veterinarians. This review also discusses reports relating to the potential problem of heartworm resistance in microfilariae and third-stage larvae, as well as molecular markers associated with resistance to macrocyclic lactones within Dirofilaria immitis. As more work is being done in this area of great concern relative to the protection of dogs from infection using this class of preventives, it seems timely to summarize what is known about heartworms, their potential resistance to treatment, and the means of selecting for resistance genes in populations of this helminth in the laboratory and in the field.

  7. Model Podejmowania Decyzji w Oparciu o Wartości Służący Ocenie Wariantów Systemu Monitorowania Stanu Technicznego Struktury Statków Powietrznych z Punktu Widzenia Wymagań Użytkownika Wojskowego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimaszewski Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Niniejszy artykuł opisuje model podejmowania decyzji w oparciu o wartości (ang. Value-Focused Thinking - VFT opracowany w celu oceny różnych wariantów wdrożenia systemu monitorowania stanu technicznego struktury (ang. Structural Health Monitoring - SHM wojskowego statku powietrznego. Rozpatruje się cztery warianty wspomnianego systemu (SHM oparte na: kontroli wzrokowej (aktualne podejście, czujnikach piezoelektrycznych (PZT, czujnikach światłowodowych z siatką Bragga (FBG i czujnikach próżniowych (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring - CVM. Przedstawiono przykład numeryczny w celu zilustrowania możliwości modelu. Analizy wrażliwości są wykonane dla takich wartości jak koszt, wydajność, dostępność statku powietrznego oraz poziom gotowości technologicznej (Technology Readiness Level - TRL, aby zbadać wpływ tych parametrów na całkowitą wartość informacji z zakresu stanu technicznego struktury dostarczanych przez określony wariant systemu SHM.

  8. One medicine, one university: the DVM/MPH program at the University of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Hershow, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign College of Veterinary Medicine (UIUC-CVM) and the University of Illinois-Chicago School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) are in the fourth year of a collaborative Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Master of Public Health dual-degree program. The two campuses, one urban and one rural, are 150 miles apart but are sister schools within the University of Illinois system. This article describes the origin of the program, how the program functions across two campuses, its academic focus, required coursework, and research projects designed to fulfill the program's capstone requirements. The article shows how two campuses can be linked through a combination of online and on-site didactic coursework, briefly describes innovative proposals for projects within the United States and abroad, and highlights faculty committed to educating cross-trained public-health professionals while addressing the national need for veterinarians trained in public health. The authors also discuss how the dual-degree program has led to the formation of the Illinois Center for One Medicine, One Health (ICOMOH), an intra-university collaboration focusing on the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health.

  9. Comparison of the effectiveness of one- and two-suture prosthesis used to correct left laryngeal hemiplegia in the equine: followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricle ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Cindy; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    The effectiveness of one or two suture prothesis in performing laryngoplasty was compared. Forty-six horses treated for left laryngeal hemiplegia at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU-CVM) between January 1987 and April 1991 were included in the study. Thirty-seven of the horses were treated with two sutures, while nine were treated with one suture. All horses, after recovering from general anesthesia, were sedated the following day and were subjected to a transendoscopic neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser ablation of the left laryngeal ventricle. Ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, reduction or elimination of respiratory noise, owner or trainer satisfaction, were compared for the two suture prosthetic procedures using chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test. No statistical significant differences were found for performance, reduction of noise, and owner or trainer satisfaction. The use of one or two sutures seemed to have no effect on the effectiveness of prosthetic laryngoplasty procedure followed by Nd:YAG ventricular ablation.

  10. Study of the efficacy of prosthetic laryngoplasty followed by Nd:YAG laser ventricular ablation for treatment of left laryngeal hemiplegia in the horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brenda; Tate, Lloyd P.; Correa, Maria T.

    1992-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to assess the efficacy of laryngoplasty surgery followed by Nd:YAG laser laryngeal ventricular ablation. Forty-three horses were included in the study that were treated at North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU- CVM) January 1987 and September 1990. Questions asked of the owners or trainers of the horses related to complications that the horses may have had since leaving the hospital, ability to perform after treatment relative to before treatment, how respiratory noise after treatment related to before treatment, results of follow-up endoscopic exams, additional surgery that may have been performed, and owner satisfaction with the procedure. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the success of the procedure. Success was defined as a reduction of noise or improvement in performance ability. Results of the test indicated that the two procedures had an effect in reducing respiratory noise (p equals 0.0001) and increasing performance (p equals 0.0017).

  11. Simulation of time-dependent pool shape during laser spot welding: Transient effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Georg; Ludwig, Andreas; Sahm, Peter R.

    2003-12-01

    The shape and depth of the area molten during a welding process is of immense technical importance. This study investigates how the melt pool shape during laser welding is influenced by Marangoni convection and tries to establish general qualitative rules of melt pool dynamics. A parameter study shows how different welding powers lead to extremely different pool shapes. Special attention is paid to transient effects that occur during the melting process as well as after switching off the laser source. It is shown that the final pool shape can depend strongly on the welding duration. The authors use an axisymmetric two-dimensional (2-D) control-volume-method (CVM) code based on the volume-averaged two-phase model of alloy solidification by Ni and Beckermann[1] and the SIMPLER algorithm by Patankar.[2] They calculate the transient distribution of temperatures, phase fractions, flow velocities, pressures, and concentrations of alloying elements in the melt and two solid phases (peritectic solidification) for a stationary laser welding process. Marangoni flow is described using a semiempirical model for the temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. The software was parallelized using the shared memory standard OpenMP.

  12. A Lock—Based Cache Coherence Protocol for Scope Consistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟武; 施巍松; 等

    1998-01-01

    Directory protocols are widely adopted to maintain cache coherence of distributed shared memory multiprocessors.Although scalable to a certain extent,directory protocols are complex enough to prevent it from being used in very large scale multiprocessors with tens of thousands of nodes.his paper proposes a lock-based cache coherence protocol for scope consistency.In does not rely on directory information to maintain cache coherence.Instead,cache coherence is maintained through requiring the releasing processor of a lock to stroe all write-notices generated in the associated critical section to the lock and the acquiring processor invalidates or updates its locally cached data copies according to the write notices of the lock.To evaluate the performance of the lock-based cache coherence protocol,a software SDM system named JIAJIA is built on network of workstations.Besides the lock-based cache coherence protocol,JIAJIA also characterizes itself with its shared memory organization scheme which combines the physical memories of multiple workstations to form a large shared space.Performance measurements with SPLASH2 program suite and NAS benchmarks indicate that,compared to recent SVM systems such as CVM,higher speedup is achieved by JIAJIA.Besides,JIAJIA can solve large scale problems that cannot be solved by other SVM systems due to memory size limitation.

  13. Chinese Public’s Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emissions Reductions:A Case Study from Four Provinces/Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hong-Xia; LÜ Yan-Li; LI Yan

    2014-01-01

    Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to investigate the Chinese public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a policy to reduce CO2 emissions. Face to face interviews were conducted to collect 1,653 valid questionnaires from Beijing, Shanghai, Shandong province, and Fujian province. A model was constructed to understand the factors that influence WTP. The results indicate that the Chinese public is willing to pay CNU201.86 annually to support the policy of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Participants from Beijing show the highest WTP, followed by participants from Fujian and Shandong, while those from Shanghai report the lowest WTP. The findings reveal that participants with higher income, higher satisfaction with their current life, and awareness of climate issues are willing to pay more for CO2 emissions reductions. In addition, those who are young, male and members of the Communist Party also indicate a higher WTP. The results imply that translating the public’s willingness to protect climate into actions should be taken into account in China’s low carbon policy. There is a need to consider the difference in degree of willingness, among different social groups, to pay for emissions reductions if the market-based mechanisms such as carbon tax were designed to facilitate emissions reductions.

  14. Limited Multiple-Writer: An Approach to Dealing with False Sharing in Software DSMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢向辉; 韩承德

    2000-01-01

    False sharing is one of the most important factors impacting the performance of DSM (distributed shared memory) systems. The single-writer ap proach is simple, but it cannot avoid the ping-pong effect of the data page thrashing, while the multiple-writer approach is effective for false sharing but with high cost. This paper proposes a new approach, called limited multiple-writer (LMW) to han dling multiple writers in software DSM. It distinguishes two kinds of multiple-writer as lock-based form and barrier-based form, and handles them with different policies. It discards the Twin and Diff in traditional multiple-writer approach, and simplifies the implementation of niultiple-writer in software DSM systems. The implementa tion of LMW in a CVM (Coherent Virtual Machine) software DSM system, which is based on a network of workstations, is introduced. Evaluation results show that for some applications such as SOR (Successive Over-Relaxation), LU (Lower triangular and Upper triangular), FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation), and IS (Integer Sorting), LMW provides a significant reduction inexecution time (11%, 16%, 33% and 46%) compared with the traditional multiple-writer approach on the platform.

  15. Assessing Value of a Statistical Life in Road Traffic Safety by Contingent Value Method with Single and Double Bounded Dichotomy%道路交通安全统计生命价值评价研究——基于单边界和双边界二分式条件价值法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文歌; 赵胜川

    2013-01-01

    为提高道路交通安全统计生命价值(VOSL)评估的精确性和可靠性,比较研究单边界二分式和双边界二分式条件价值法(CVM).采用单边界与双边界二分式2种格式设计调查问卷,利用2项Logit (BL)和多项Logit (MNL)模型构建VOSL评价模型.以大连市私家车出行者为调查对象实施交通意向调查,根据调查数据进行模型参数标定和显著性检验,最终获得VOSL评估值,并分析其影响因素.结果表明:双边界二分式VOSL评价模型命中率更高,其支付意愿(WTP)估计的置信区间范围更小,具有更高的精确性;双边界二分式VOSL评估值为59.8万元,其评估结果更为合理;个人驾龄、学历和家庭月收入3大因素对道路交通安全VOSL影响显著.

  16. 我国大气污染相关统计生命价值的meta分析%Meta-analysis of contingent valuation studies on air pollution-related value of statistical life in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓程; 陈仁杰; 阚海东; 应晓华

    2013-01-01

    目的:该研究汇总现有大气污染相关的条件评价法(contingent valuation methods,CVM)研究,探究统计生命价值(value of statistical life,VSL)与影响因素间的关系,并估算我国大气污染相关的VSL,定量化和货币化大气污染相关的健康影响.方法:meta回归分析来研究VSL和社会经济相关人口特征之间关系.结果:个人收入水平及受教育程度可能与VSL存在正相关关系,而家庭人口数与VSL可能为负相关;我国大气污染相关VSL约为86万元,城镇VSL约为159万元,农村VSL约为32万元.结论:VSL估算值能较好地反映城镇人口对大气污染健康危害的支付意愿情况;由于我国农村地区CVM研究的不足,对农村VSL估算较为保守;与国外研究结果相比,我国大气污染相关的VSL相对较低.

  17. WILLINGNESS TO PAY DAN ABILITY TO PAY PELANGGAN RUMAH TANGGA SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP PELAYANAN AIR BERSIH DARI PDAM KOTA SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRM Bambang Irawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the WTP and ATP value of household customers as theirrespond on additional benefit will be received from PDAM programs will be carried out on year 2004.Beside that, this study also analyzes all significance variables affecting WTP and ATP value.This research applying contingent valuation survey method (CVM using 500 of sample size from37,054 of targeted population covering all PDAM customers in the Solo city. The sampling techniqueapplied is proportionate stratified random sampling, and the analysis tool put on this study iseconometrics with a white heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors & covariance model (whiteheteroskedasticity-corrected standard errors & covariance model.This research shows that the WTP value is relatively small and the ATP value is about 20% onaverage below the water bill they paid. One of reasons causing the WTP value reasonably small is thatthe respondent being sampled perceives that their answers will only become a “permit” for the PDAM tomake a policy of increasing tariff. These yields are also being expected to help the PDAM in takingpolicies relate to water tariff determination particularly from the demand side.Keyword: Willingness to Pay (WTP, Ability to Pay (ATP, Contingen Valuation.

  18. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  19. Measure of Watershed Ecological Compensation Standard Based on WTP and WTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei; XU; Jinfang; RONG; Na; YANG; Wen; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,Liao River Basin was taken as the research object and field surveys were conducted in Fudedian,the source of Liao river mainstream and Panjin,the estuary of Liao River. Through the questionnaires,the willingness to pay ( WTP) and willingness to accept ( WTA) of the residents in Liao River Basin were analyzed. Then based on analysis of the existing ecological compensation standard measuring methods,the WTP and WTA using contingent valuation method ( CVM) were measured and analyzed. Without considering other factors,and based on using the nonparametric estimation method,it was concluded the ecological compensation standard of Liao River Basin was 160. 72 yuan/person·years. When considering other factors,using the parametric estimation we obtain that the ecological compensation standard of Liao River Basin was 255. 97 yuan/person·years. Measuring the respondents’ WTP and WTA at the same time and processing the average can actually reflect the respondents’ real WTP,thus to a certain extent solving the problems of high compensation caused by formulating ecological compensation standards according to measuring WTP of respondents separately. In addition,the policy suggestions have been proposed from three aspects including financial transfer payment,ecological compensation forms and public participation system. This will not only protect residents’ right to know and strengthen public participation and supervision,but also benefit the comprehensive implementation of ecological environment of Liao River Basin and establishment of a long-term mechanism of water resources protection.

  20. Changes on facial profile in the mixed dentition, from natural growth and induced by Balters' bionator appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rocha Goes Landázuri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the facial profile changes induced by Balters' bionator appliance in Class II division 1 patients, at mixed dentition stage. METHODS: The sample consisted of 28 prepubertal individuals at stages 1 and 2 of skeletal maturation (CVM, which were divided in two groups. The experimental group consisted of 14 individuals (7 boys and 7 girls, initial mean age of 8y12m which were treated with Balters' bionator appliance for 14.7 months. The effects of treatment were compared to a control group of 14 subjects (7 boys and 7 girls, initial mean age of 8y5m with Class II malocclusion, division 1, not orthodontically treated, which were followed up for 15.4 months. The statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results showed that the Balters' bionator appliance promoted a significant increase on the mentolabial angle, in addition to demonstrating a tendency to reduce the facial skeletal convexity, to restrict the maxillary growth and to increase the nasolabial angle and the lower anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the Balters' bionator appliance improved the facial profile of children treated at mixed dentition stage.

  1. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) can predict outcomes in ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure who have been referred for cardiac transplantation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Zakliczyński, Michał; Andrejczuk, Mariusz; Mościński, Mateusz; Zembala, Marian

    2014-06-01

    Risk stratification in heart failure (HF) patients is an important element for management. There are several risk stratification models that can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with HF, such as Aaronson's scale, CVM-HF (CardioVascular Medicine Heart Failure), the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) and the Munich score. These models fail to adequately address the impact of multiorgan dysfunction on prognosis. The classical Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score consists of: total bilirubin, INR (international normalized ratio) and creatinine level. There are some modifications of the MELD scale: MELD-XI, which excludes the INR score; the mod-MELD score, in which INR is replaced with albumin levels; and MELD-Na, which consists of the bilirubin and creatinine levels, INR ratio and the sodium level. Therefore, the MELD score systems are markers of multisystem dysfunction (renal, cardiac, hepatic). It is important that they are composed of routinely collected laboratory measures which are easy to use.

  2. Assessing Local Communities’ Willingness to Pay for River Network Protection: A Contingent Valuation Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP. The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation.

  3. The Economic Benefits to Conserve Melaka City’s Living Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chooi Chea Chiam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritage is everyone's legacy and living heritage would be able to tell us who we are, where we have come from and what we have accomplished. It is a source of strength and confidence that puts the changes of society into perspective and helps us to build a better future for ourselves and the future generations. The Malaysia government has highlighted the importance of conservation of a living heritage and has since been promoting heavily the heritage conservation for many years, adjusting its role to meet changing needs and circumstances, following recognition of the importance of living heritage. Melaka implemented a RM2 heritage charge on per night accommodation since April 2012 after recognising the needs for the city to conserve the unique living heritage in Melaka City. This study was conducted in Melaka City, one of UNESCO Heritage Site listings. A total sample of 502 was collected from the visitors in Melaka City for this study.The aim of this study was to determine the value of willingness-to-pay by visitors to pay the heritage charge in the city using single-bounded contingent valuation dichotomous choice method (single-bounded CVM-DC.

  4. Residents' Willingness to Pay for Improving Air Quality in Jinan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Yisheng; Wang Qian; Wang Wei

    2007-01-01

    Along with the progress of urbanization and environmental deterioration, residents' desire for improved air quality is increasing. In order to quantify an individual's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improved air quality in Jinan of eastern China, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed. A sample of 1,500 residents was chosen on the basis of multistage sampling methods with face-to-face interviews by using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenario questions which were designed to elicit the respondents' WTP. Results showed that 59.7% of respondents were able to express their WTP and the mean WTP is 100 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per person per year. A probit model on the probability of a positive WTP and a regression model were developed to find the relationship between endogenous variables and WTP. Most parameters in the econometric analysis had the expected sign. Annual household income and expenditure on treating respiratory diseases significantly influence WTP. The rates of positive WTP and the monetary amount are larger for men than for women. Results also showed that people who lived in more polluted areas were willing to pay more for clean air. Unlike developed countries, clean air may only be considered as a public good in China in that more than 40% of respondents had no incentive to bear the costs of attempting to achieve better air quality, which indicates the relatively low environmental consciousness.

  5. Análisis de Factores en la Evaluación de una Sembradora al Voleo para el Cultivo de Arroz (Oriza Sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyana M. J. Octavio

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available En los terrenos de la Universidad Nacional, Sede de Medellín, Facultad de Agronomía, se realizó una calibración estadística de un equipo de siembra fertilización, de enganche hidráulico y aplicación al voleo mediante transmisión de potencia del toma de fuerza (tdf por rueda de fricción (Equipo APOLO SAV 73. Las pruebas se efectuaron en los años 1976 y 1977. Se utilizó semilla de arroz de las variedades CICA 4 Y CICA 6. Se diseñó un experimento factorial para observar los perfiles transversales de la deposición de la semilla, habiéndose recogido en lienzos de 0.50 x 0.50 mts2, distanciados a 2.5 metros, á partir del centro de la vía del tractor y perpendiculares a ella, a ambos lados, para cubrir una distancia total, transversal, de 15 metros. Se recogieron cuatro repeticiones que se tomaron en bloques distanciados tres metros (sobre el eje de recorrido del tractor. Se tomó como variable dependiente, el número de semillas/lienzo, fácilmente convertible, en los cálculos, a kqrms/ Ha. Como variables independientes se observaron: apertura de la salida de la tolva al plato de distribución (Q1 = 16.08 cm.2, Q2 =42.30 cm2 , Q3 = 73.50 cm.2; altura de toma de fuerza (H1 = 0.78 m., H2 = 0.90 m., H3 = 0.70 m.; posición de la aleta del plato distribuidor (P1 = 0°, P2 -= 13.08°, P3 = 18.27° y la distancia transversal del perfil (D 1 =0 metros, D2 =2.5 metros, D3 =5.0 metros, D4 = 7.5 metros, D5= 10.0 metros; esta última se conformó así para facilitar el ajuste de curvas, mas, sin embargo, corresponde al perfil transversal con centro en D3 =5.0 metros = 0 (Centro del tractor; el semi-perfil izquierdo (D2 = -2.5 metros, D1= -5.0 metros y el semi-perfil derecho (D4 = +2.5 metros, D5 = +5.0 metros; velocidad de operación (V 1 = 4.54 KPH, V2 = 6.18 KPH, V3 = 9.68 KPH. Se tuvieron 405 tratamientos y un total de 1.620 muestras. Se efectuaron análisis de Varianza, pruebas de DUNCAN y análisis de regresión múltiple, en una

  6. Edad y crecimiento del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en el Pacífico suroriental (Diciembre 1994-Septiembre 1996 Age and growth of swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in the southeastem Pacific (December 1994-September 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la edad y crecimiento del pez espada en el área de pesca del océano Pacífico suroriental frente a la costa de Chile, mediante el conteo y medidas de anillos en secciones transversales de la segunda espina de la aleta anal. El examen del borde de las secciones y el análisis del incremento marginal permitió establecer la formación de un anillo de crecimiento anual. Los parámetros de crecimiento del pez espada fueron estimados utilizando medidas de longitud retrocalculada proporcional a la edad, mediante regresiones no lineales para medidas de longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla y radio de la espina, a la edad actual y pretérita. En estas relaciones se emplearon dos modelos: (i el modelo I correspondiente a una relación lineal y (ii el modelo II a una relación potencial. Este último fue seleccionado ya que presentó un mejor ajuste y el valor t o de la ecuación de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy, fue más cercano al origen. El test multivariado (T² de Hote-lling mostró diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre sexos, lo que fue corroborado por la prueba de Chen. Los parámetros de crecimiento en longitud para machos fueron: longitud asintótica (L∞ = 275,1 cm; coeficiente de crecimiento (K = 0,1774 año-1 y edad longitud cero (t o = -2,1076 año. En hembras la L∞ = 304,7 cm; K = 0,1533 año-1 y t o = -2,0571 año. En el crecimiento en peso sólo se estimó el peso asintótico (W∞ mediante la relación longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla-peso total, siendo 278,7 kg en machos y 406,7 kg en hembras.Swordfish age and growth of were determined in the fishing área of the southeastem Pacific off the Chilean coast by counting and measuring the rings in cross sections of the second spine of the anal fin. The examination of the edge of the sections and the analysis of the marginal increment allowed us to establish the formation of one growth ring per year. The swordfish growth parameters were

  7. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    peligro de extinción es el de los pejerreyes del género Basilichthys. A lo largo Chile, este género posee tres especies morfológicas con distribución disjunta: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Las dos últimas sobreponen su distribución en el río Aconcagua y no son fácilmente diferenciables morfológicamente. Para evaluar la eficacia en la identificación de estas especies al utilizar marcadores moleculares, se analizó el 9 % del ADN mitocondrial (Región Control y COI de organismos obtenidos desde el río Loa (21°41' S al río Valdivia (39°50' S y adicionando un análisis merístico en organismos pertenecientes a las especies B. microlepidotus y B. australis. El análisis filogenético muestra que los individuos de B. semotilus forman un haplogrupo separado de las otras especies del género, sin embargo, B. australis y B. microlepidotus serían parte de un mismo grupo monofilético. Un segundo análisis, el cual incluye información merística, no muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas en la cantidad de escamas de la línea lateral, y número de rayos en las aletas entre B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Estos resultados no sustentan la clasificación actual, separando claramente un grupo presente en el extremo norte del país (B. semotilus y un segundo grupo en Chile central el cual debería ser llamado B. microlepidotus. Esta información será importante para revisar el estado de conservación de la ictiofauna chilena.

  8. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  9. Age and growth of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in the southeastern Pacific off Chile (2001 Edad y crecimiento del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en el Pacífico suroriental frente a Chile (2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Cerna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The age and growth of swordfish (Xiphias gladius in the southeastern Pacific off Chile were estimated for 511 males and 632 females using samples collected from longline fisheries in 2001. Lower jaw fork length (LJFL measurements ranged from 100 to 265 cm for males and 116 to 289 cm for females. Age estimates were obtained using cross sections of the second anal fin ray. Both the monthly average marginal increment and the analysis of the edge type indicated periodicity in the formation of growth bands, with the hyaline band forming in the summer (December-March. The relationship between the ray radius and LJFL was nonlinear. The growth was modeled using standard and generalized Von Bertalanffy equations. Swordfish growth was best described by the standard equation, with the foliowing parameters: L∞ = 279 cm, K = 0.158, t0 = -2.65 for males, and L∞ = 321 cm, K = 0.133, t0 = -2.46 for females. The analysis of growth curves revealed that females are significantly larger than males. A comparison of growth rates between differ-ent studies shows that swordfish in the southeastern Pacific off Chile grow faster than those from the north-western Pacific (Taiwan, southwestem Pacific (Australia, and other regions (Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, but their growth rates are very similar to those of the swordfish from the central North Pacific (Hawaii.La edad y el crecimiento del pez espada (Xiphias gladius en el Pacífico suroriental frente a Chile fue estimado para 511 machos y 632 hembras con muestras obtenidas en la pesquería de palangre durante el 2001. La distribución de la longitud mandíbula inferior horquilla (LMIH varió entre 100 y 265 cm en machos y 116 y 289 cm en hembras. La edad fue estimada en secciones transversales de la segunda espina de la aleta anal. El promedio mensual del incremento marginal así como el análisis del tipo de borde indica una periodicidad en la formación de bandas de crecimiento donde la formación de la banda

  10. Dos aproximaciones a la metodología de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como rectangulares y constituyen la sección recta de la viguetería de losas aligeradas Two approaches to design methodology at T sections bending moment in reinforced concrete which behave as rectangular sections and constitute the straight sections of beams of light slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Christian Chanchí Golondrino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza dos aproximaciones sobre la ecuación de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como secciones rectangulares y que trabajan como viguetería de losas aligeradas. La primera aproximación discute la viabilidad de usar el ancho del nervio de la vigueta en lugar de usar el ancho efectivo de la aleta, dentro del proceso de la obtención del acero, requerida para asumir un momento flexionante; la segunda aproximación discute la viabilidad de aproximar la ecuación cuadrática que rige la obtención del área del acero requerida para obtener un momento flexionante en una ecuación lineal, cuyas únicas variables son el área del acero y la altura efectiva de la sección T. Se ha dimensionado geométricamente un conjunto de secciones de losas aligeradas siguiendo los requisitos del título C13 de la norma sismo resistente colombiana NSR98, los cuales se obtuvieron para un modelo simplemente apoyado, cuya luz varía entre [2 - 7] m y el ancho del casetón ente [0.30 - 1] m. El dimensionamiento antes mencionado fue utilizado para sensibilizar la efectividad de cada una de las aproximaciones propuestas respecto a la solución general para la obtención del área del acero de la sección T que se comporta como rectangular.This article presents two approaches on the moment design equation of T shaped beams. Particularly the beam's T cross section analyzed behaves like a rectangular cross section when the beam works like a component of a slab system built from a set of T shaped beams. The first approach discusses the feasibility to use the web width instead of effective flange width to obtain the steel area associated to the moment solicitation of T shaped beam. The second approach discusses the feasibility to approach the quadratic equation used to obtain the steel required to take the bending moment into linear equation related to variables such as steel area and the effective depth

  11. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    y 7,1% otros teleósteos. Entre los tiburones, la especie más relevante fue el tiburón azulejo (Prionace glauca, 16,5%o, seguido por el tiburón jaquetón (Carcharhinus spp., 6,9%. Entre los atunes e istiofóridos, el marlín rayado (Tetrapturus audax, 8,0% y el atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, 4,9% fueron también importantes (≥ 4% en número. Se reporta el número de ejemplares por especie, su rendimiento nominal en número y peso, y el peso promedio eviscerado, además de los estadísticos descriptivos de talla. La estructura poblacional de pez espada estuvo dominada por machos y no se registraron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos. Se observaron ejemplares con altos valores de IG durante todos los cruceros, principalmente durante diciembre-febrero, lo que sugiere un area reproductiva para esta especie. El tiburón azulejo mostró una predominancia de machos, y se observaron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos, posiblemente debido a una segregación espacial y temporal.

  12. 基于Meta分析的自然资源效益转移方法的实证研究%An Empirical Study of Meta-Regression Benefit Transfer of Natural Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 王尔大

    2011-01-01

    国外对资源价值评估方法的研究正向系统化方向发展,但由于受到时间、成本等约束条件的影响,不可能对资源价值逐一进行现场调查和评价,因此效益转移方法(Benefit Transfer Method)应运而生.成为目前国外自然资源价值评价领域关注的热点.通过建立效益转移数据库,应用目前国外最流行的基于Meta分析的函数效益转移方法,对我国森林公园、风景名胜区、湿地、湖泊等在内的自然资源的价值进行评价.通过Meta函数效益转移的样本外有效性检验,平均效益转移误差为26.64%,转移值与"真实值"之间在统计上没有显著的差异.统计检验的结果表明,效益转移方法是一种有效的资源价值评价方法,在一定程度上可以作为我国自然资源开发与项目决策的有效参考,是对我国资源环境价值评价方法的有效补充和扩展.%It is generally difficult to reflect natural resources and environment economic value by market price systems. Accurate understanding and reasonably valuating resources value can provide a basis for effective protection and development of resources and the environment.Developed countries have built relevant theories and methods on natural resources valuation. The travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) as well as a combination of the TCM and CVM are the primary approaches to estimate natural resources value, which have been widely used in European countries and the United States. But time and budget constraints often do not allow a new study, therefore calling for an alternative approach for non-market valuation known as the benefit transfer. There appear a few published studies on the transfer benefits of the environment value in China. This paper introduces the benefit transfer method. First, we reviewed definitions and applications of the benefit transfer and meta-analysis techniques, as well as procedures in performing a meta-analysis. An

  13. 基于Cox模型的农户对政策性森林保险支付意愿研究%Study on Farmers' Willingness to Pay for Policy Forest Insurance Based on Cox Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彧挥; 林雅敏; 孔祥智

    2013-01-01

    以首批政策性森林保险试点省份湖南、福建、江西三省农户为研究对象,采用多界二分选择文件方式的条件评估法(CVM)共获取364份有效问卷,计算出湖南、福建和江西三省农户对政策性森林保险的支付意愿值分别为3.61元/亩、2.18元/亩、1元/亩;在此基础上,利用Cox比例风险模型分析了影响农户支付意愿值的因素.研究发现:已接受森林保险的农户对目前的支付价格基本满意;其次,家庭规模越大、土壤产量状况越低、林地面积越大、对森林保险的重视程度越高,农户对政策性森林保险的支付意愿就越高,且男性比女性的支付意愿高.最后,提出了相关政策建议:加大政策性森林保险宣传力度;结合各省的实际情况,改善政策性森林保险的制度设计;同时提高保险公司服务水平,加强保险市场的监管工作;加强推进农村金融体系建设.%Based on the data from household survey in Hunan, Fujian, and Jiangxi, this paper applied contingent valuation method (CVM) to analyze the WTP of policy forest insurance. By using 364 valid questionnaires, the paper estimated the farmers' WTP for policy forest insurance. They are 3. 61 yuan/acre in Hunan, 2. 18 yuan/ acre in Fujian, and 1 yuan/acre in Jiangxi. Then, the paper analyzed factors which influence farmers' WTP by using Cox proportional hazard model, and concluded that, when the family size is bigger, the soil yield is lower and the forest area is bigger, attention to policy forest insurance is more, and then, farmers' WTP for policy forest insurance will be higher. Besides, Men' WTP for policy forest insurance is higher than women. Finally, the following suggestions are given: first, strengthening the publicity of policy forest insurance, second, improving policy forest insurance system based on local conditions, improving insurance companies' service levels and enhancing the management of policy forest insurance market

  14. 耕地生态补偿相关利益群体博弈分析与解决路径%The Game Theory Analysis and Solution Path on the Stakeholders Involved in Farmland Ecological Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱慧; 蔡银莺; 张安录

    2012-01-01

    对宏观层面中央政府与地方政府、地方政府与地方政府和微观层面农民与市民之间博弈分析,投出促使均衡结果合理化方案,采用的研究方法是博弈论与条件价值法(CVM).结果表明:①博弈结果难以达成(保护,补偿)协议,实现社会福和量大化,必须依靠中央政府作为媒介进行协商,采取管制与激励相结合的制度安排.②激励的实现通过微观层面利益主体受偿意愿与支付意愿而定,支付不够补偿,中央财政补贴,支付盈余则上缴中央财政,以湖北为例,农民每亩耕地应得到174元补偿,市民每户居民应支付246.6元,中央政府每亩耕地给予农民148.5元补偿.③宏观层面依据徽观层面需求意愿与支付意愿的赤字或者盈余,确定区域之间应支付补偿或者获得补偿.研究成果能为区域内部和区域之间耕地生态补偿标准提供依据,为尽快制定耕地生态补偿机制及政策、实现利益群体福利均衡提供借鉴与参考.%The purpose of this paper is to find out rationalization scenario to promote balance result, by macro-level among the central government and local government, local government and local government and by micro-level between farmers and citizens. The contingent value method (CVM) and game theory are employed. The results show that: (1) the game result is difficult to reach ( protection, compensation) agreement, so in order to maximize social welfare, we must rely on the central government as a medium of consultation through the combination of control and incentive arrangements. (2) Incentives are fulfilled through willingness to pay and willingness to accept of the micro-level interests. If willingness to pay is less than compensation, the central financial departments will subsidize, otherwise, surplus will turn to the central government. Taking Hubei Province as an example, farmers will gain 174 Yuan (RMB) per mu of cultivated land compensation, per household in

  15. 中巴地球资源卫星社会效益支付意愿的影响因素%Influencing Factors of the Willingness to Pay for the Social Benefit of the China-Brazil Earth Resource Satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳芳; 敖长林; 焦扬; 李一军

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地发挥中巴地球资源卫星的社会效益,同时为中巴地球资源卫星的使用和管理部门提供决策参考依据,应用条件价值法(CVM),采用支付意愿问卷调查的方式,通过数据统计和回归分析,对中巴地球资源卫星的社会效益进行定量评价,得到了影响中巴地球资源卫星社会效益支付意愿的主要因素.共发放问卷2330份,收回有效问卷2285份,通过对问卷数据的描述性统计,得到支付意愿的分布情况和在各单一因素影响下的变化规律.用主成分分析简化影响因素,运用二元Logit回归模型和Tobit模型,得到在所有的影响因素中,对中巴地球资源卫星的重视性、个人平均年收入是影响被调查者对中巴地球资源卫星社会效益的支付意愿的主要因素.研究结论使得中巴地球资源卫星的收益和成本的比较成为可能,为政府制定相关政策提供理论基础.%In order to better promote the social benefit of the China-Brazil earth resource satellite and to provide decision reference for its application and administration, this article conducted the quantitative evaluation on the China-Brazil earth resource satellite's social benefit by the means of the contingent valuation method (CVM) and the questionnaire surveys and concluded the major factors that influence the willingness to pay for the social benefit through data statistics and regression analysis. 2330 questionnaires had been sent out and 2285 valid questionnaires were received. Based on the descriptive statistics of valid and reliable questionnaires, it describes the distribution of the willingness to pay and the variation rules under each single factor. The influencing factors are simplified by principal component analysis. In accordance with the application of the binary logit model and the tobit model, it is concluded that the importance attached to the China-Brazil earth resource satellite and the average annual income are the

  16. 基于双边界二分式条件价值法的农户耕地补偿意愿评估%An evaluation of farmers’ willingness for compensation for cultivated land based on the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱慧

    2015-01-01

    条件价值法是目前资源环境经济价值货币评估中较为广泛的应用方法,其经济理论基础虽已趋完善,但准确性仍受质疑,而双边界二分式条件价值法是可以最大限度地减少偏差的支付诱导方式。本文将双边界二分式CVM模型引入农民对耕地资源保护补偿意愿的经济价值评估研究中,为平衡同一主体受偿意愿与支付意愿存在较大的差异性,基于不同的假想市场,以武汉市450份农村居民意愿为例,进行农户对耕地资源保护的接受意愿和支付意愿的实证分析,以探索条件价值评估法双边界二分式意愿引导技术在我国应用的适用性。研究表明:农户的受偿意愿每亩在309.30~650.39元之间,其点估计值为477.47元;支付意愿在206.87~380.38元之间,其点估计值为290.86元。根据我国国情、补偿时空差异性和实施的可操作性,确定具有一定弹性的耕地资源保护补偿意愿标准为每亩290.86~477.47元之间。%The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to evaluate the economic value of environmental resources. Although the economic theory behind the CVM has improved, its accuracy has been questioned. The double-bounded dichotomous choice method can minimise the error induced through payment. Using the double-bounded dichotomous choice method, this study analyses farmers’ wilingness to be compensated for cultivated land compared to their wilingness to pay or accept. It constructs a different hypothetical market based on a questionnaire sent to 450 rural residents in Wuhan as an example and explores the application of the double-bounded dichotomous choice method in China. Research shows that farmers’ wilingness to accept compensation is 309.30–650.39 RMB per Mu (1hm2=15Mu ), with point estimates of 477.47 RMB; and their wilingness to pay is 206.87–380.38 RMB, with point estimates of 290.86 RMB. According to the situation in China regarding

  17. Craniofacial morphology of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoko Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A complete unilateral cleft lip and palate generally results in asymmetry of the midface. The lack of continuity in the perilabial musculature through the midline contributes to a malpositioning of the underlying osseus structures which are often underdeveloped. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the craniofacial morphology among children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty as compared with children without cleft lip and palate at the same pubertal age. Methods: A series of 14 consecutively treated subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty were compared with 14 pubertal stage-matched controls with normal craniofacial structure. Pubertal stage was determined with cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method improved by Baccetti et al, 2002. Lateral cephalograms were used for comparison. An unpaired t-test was run for 14 subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 14 normal subjects. Results: There were significant cephalometric differences in anterior cranial base length (p = .002, cranial base length (p = .001, maxillary length (p = .000, mandibular length (p = .000, mandibular ramus height (p = .000, mandibular body length (p = .002, and upper anterior face height (p = .004. There was no significant cephalometric difference in posterior cranial base length (p = .051, lower anterior face height (p = .206, posterior face height (p = .865, growth pattern/ facial type (p = .202. Conclusion: There were craniofacial morphology differences between children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty and children without cleft lip and palate at the age of pubertal. Children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty had shorter length of the anterior cranial base, cranial base, maxilla, mandible, mandibular

  18. Effect of conventional TENS on pain and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in TMD patients Efeito da TENS convencional sobre a dor e a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos mastigatórios em pacientes com DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    feminino, 19 portadores de DTM (média de 23,04 anos ± 3,5 e 16 normais (média de 23,3 anos ± 3,0. A TENS (modo convencional, 150 Hz foi aplicada uma vez em ambos os grupos, por 45 min. O exame EMG de superfície (ganho de 100 vezes e freqüência de amostragem de 1 kHz e a escala visual analógica (EVA foram realizados antes e imediatamente depois da aplicação da TENS. Os dados da EVA e os valores da "root mean square" (RMS foram analisados pelo teste t de Student. Observou-se que, na situação de repouso, os indivíduos com DTM apresentam um aumento da atividade EMG dos músculos elevadores da mandíbula em relação aos do grupo controle. Na contração voluntária máxima (CVM, não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos. Nos portadores de DTM, a TENS reduziu a dor, a atividade EMG da porção anterior do músculo temporal e aumentou a atividade dos músculos masseteres durante a CVM. É possível concluir que apenas uma aplicação da TENS é efetiva para reduzir a dor, porém não atua de forma homogênea sobre as características da atividade elétrica dos músculos avaliados.

  19. Avaliação da ativação neuromuscular em indivíduos com escoliose através da eletromiografia de superfície Assessment of neuromuscular activation in individuals with scoliosis using surface electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Bassani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar o potencial da eletromiografia (EMG de superfície para a avaliação da eficiência neuromuscular e da fadiga muscular localizada dos extensores lombares em indivíduos com escoliose. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 20 indivíduos divididos igualmente em dois grupos, (1 Grupo com Escoliose e (2 Grupo Controle, que foram submetidos a um teste de indução dos músculos extensores lombares a fadiga, o qual constituiu da realização de uma contração voluntária máxima isométrica (CVM, e realização de um teste com esforço a 80% da CVM. Foram coletados simultaneamente sinais de força e eletromiográficos (sinal EMG. O sinal EMG foi processado no domínio da freqüência, utilizando-se a transformada rápida de Fourier (FFT, por meio da mediana da freqüência (MF, e no domínio do tempo, pelo cálculo do valor root mean square (RMS. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância one-way para verificar as diferenças entre os dois grupos. Para verificar a simetria entre os lados direito e esquerdo, foi realizado o teste t pareado. O nível de significância adotado foi 0,05. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que indivíduos com escoliose apresentaram: (1 simetria de ativação neuromuscular entre os lados; (2 menor eficiência neuromuscular; (3 maior capacidade de resistir a fadiga; e (4 valores de força 42,6% menores que os indivíduos do GC. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que a EMG de superfície corresponde a um efetivo instrumento de avaliação funcional da escoliose, embora o protocolo estabelecido tenha limitado a participação dos indivíduos com escoliose, do ponto de vista da eficiência neuromuscular.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of surface electromyography (EMG for assessing neuromuscular efficiency and localized muscle fatigue in the lumbar extensors, in individuals with scoliosis. METHODS: Twenty individuals participated

  20. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  1. Public NIMBY Attitude Survey and WTA Estimate of Waste Incineration Facility%垃圾焚烧设施公众“邻避”态度调查与受偿意愿测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽旋; 彭晓春; 关恩浩; 张越南; 黄思宇

    2012-01-01

    采用条件价值评估法(CVM),在广州番禺生活垃圾焚烧设施四个选址周围发放调查问卷1 517份,对垃圾焚烧设施周围居民接受设施选址的受偿意愿进行研究.结果表明:垃圾焚烧设施的选址受到公众的普遍关注,居民倾向于拒绝获得经济补偿接受设施选址,选址周围居民的个人年均受偿意愿为5 057.76元,并受居民收入水平、年龄等因素明显影响.可见,垃圾焚烧设施强烈的“邻避效应”非单纯经济补偿政策可以解决,应首先利用科学、规范选址、建设与运营,尽可能降低垃圾焚烧环境风险,构建开放型的公众参与城市固体废物处理处置决策机制与公众环保知识宣传机制等,保证公众对垃圾焚烧信息获取、决策参与和全过程监督,在此基础上,构建体现垃圾运输成本的阶梯式收费机制配合多形式的焚烧设施周围居民生态补偿机制,方能扭转垃圾焚烧设施“邻避效应”为“迎臂效应”.%In this paper, 1517 questionnaires were distributed in four locations of Panyu district waste incineration facility and residents' wiliness to accept (WTA) was study using CVM method. The results show that the location of waste incineration facility receives attention from the public. Residents tend to refuse win economic compensation to accept facility location, and average annual personal willingness to accept is 5 057.76 Yuan. Residents' income level and age and so on have a significant impact on the WTA. The findings show that ecological compensation alone can't relieve NIMBY emotion. Scientific, standardized location, construction and operation should be used to reduce waste incineration environmental risk, open public urban waste disposal decision making mechanism and public environmental protection knowledge publicity mechanism should be built to ensure public information acquisition, decision-making participation and whole-process supervision. Then, on this basis

  2. Disclosure ambiental dos produtores de etanol com ações listadas na Bovespa e Nyse - Environmental disclosure by ethanol producers listed on the Bovespa and Nyse stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Luiz Vellani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ao mesmo tempo em que a empresa proporciona valor aos seus acionistas, também pode fornecer educação, cultura, lazer e justiça social aos funcionários; e ainda, não prejudicar a vida e a diversidade dos ecossistemas. Ou seja, a empresa pode atuar em três dimensões da Sustentabilidade Empresarial: Econômica, Social e Ambiental. Este artigo foca nessa última. Alguns setores como o do etanol, por serem muitas vezes divulgado como um setor ligado a energia renovável, deveriam ser exemplo de evidenciação ambiental. Este artigo objetiva responder ao seguinte questionamento: como as empresas produtoras de etanol, com ações listadas na BOVESPA e NYSE, informam sobre os gastos e benefícios incorridos nas atividades ambientais: por meio de palavras apenas ou valores monetários são também divulgados? Há um padrão na evidenciação? Por meio de uma Pesquisa Estudo de Caso, conclui-se que as empresas produtoras de etanol com ações listadas na BOVESPA e NYSE evidenciam informações ambientais por meio de textos escritos e não financeiros contidos dos relatórios contábeis enviados à SEC e CVM. Valores dos gastos e benefícios ambientais não são citados por completo. Percebe-se que há um padrão, mas ainda em evolução. Pode-se dizer que as empresas ainda informam somente o exigido por leis e órgãos fiscalizadores. Não foram encontradas evidências de relatórios econômico-financeiro-ambientais. At the same time a firm provides value to its stockholders, it can offer education, culture, leisure activities and social justice to its employees and not harm life and ecosystem diversity. In other words, the firm can act in the three dimensions of corporate sustainability: economic, social and environmental. This article focuses on the latter. The ethanol sector, often portrayed as being linked to renewable energy, should serve to exemplify environmental disclosure. This article seeks to answer the following question: how do

  3. Evidenciação Contábil das Informações Ambientais: Uma Análise das Empresas da Serra Gaúcha Listadas na Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Eckert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma sociedade que se fundamenta na transparência, na responsabilidade social e na Governança Corporativa, entende-se ser necessário conhecer como as empresas estão evidenciando as informações ambientais. Neste sentido, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de verificar se as empresas da região turística da Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA, seguidoras das Práticas de Governança Corporativa, evidenciam em seus relatórios e nas demonstrações contábeis as informações de cunho ambiental. Desse modo, para a coleta dos dados, foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis, especialmente as Notas Explicativas, o Relatório da Administração, o Relatório de Sustentabilidade, o site das empresas e da BM&FBOVESPA e da CVM. Os dados apresentados foram extraídos do Relatório de Sustentabilidade, do Balanço Social, do Relatório da Administração e do site das empresas, pois nas demais demonstrações não foram encontradas informação relacionada ao meio ambiente. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que as empresas enfatizam sua imagem divulgando essas informações demonstrando um retrato positivo perante à sociedade, seja com a intenção de amenizar os impactos ambientais ou por questão de marketing, ou para obter vantagem em relação à concorrência.  Accounting Disclosure of Environmental Information: An Analysis of the Companies from Serra Gaucha Listed on the Bovespa – In a society that is based on transparency, social responsibility and corporate governance, it is necessary to know how companies are highlighting the environmental information. In this sense, this study aims to verify that the companies of the tourist area of Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, listed on the BM&FBOVESPA, followers of Corporate Governance Practices, evidence in their reports and financial statements the environment-related information . Thus, for the data collection, the Financial Statements were analyzed

  4. Rodízio de firmas de auditoria: a experiência brasileira e as conclusões do mercado Rotation of audit firms: the brazilian experience and the market's conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Queiroz de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O rodízio de firmas de auditoria foi introduzido no Brasil por ocasião dos escândalos corporativos de instituições financeiras na emissão das demonstrações contábeis e adotado pela CVM - Comissão de Valores Mobiliários às empresas registradas na Bolsa de Valores do Brasil. Tendo como objetivo a preservação da independência do auditor e a diminuição dos erros contábeis e fraudes relacionados ao processo de auditoria das demonstrações contábeis, o rodízio de firmas é um assunto polêmico, pois afeta a relação comercial e profissional dos auditores com seus clientes bem como toda a estrutura de mercado das firmas de auditoria. O artigo foi desenvolvido com base na evolução histórica do conceito de rodízio de firmas de auditoria, na avaliação das pesquisas realizadas sobre o assunto em outros países e nas estruturas filosóficas que determinam os princípios éticos que são atrelados à Contabilidade e à Auditoria. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo sobre os aspectos inerentes do rodízio de firmas de auditoria. Essa pesquisa coletou a opinião de 127 profissionais do mercado financeiro, sendo 84 executivos de empresas que trabalham ou influenciam na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis e 43 auditores independentes que atuam diretamente no processo de auditagem das contas contábeis. A principal conclusão obtida foi a confirmação de que o rodízio de firmas de auditoria não tem capacidade de assegurar a independência do auditor no seu trabalho e não diminui os riscos de erros contábeis e de fraudes na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis.The rotation of audit firms was introduced in Brazil as a result of the corporate scandals involving financial institutions in the issue of their financial statements, and adopted by the CVM - Brazilian Securities Commission for publicly traded companies in Brazil. Aiming to preserve the independence of the auditor and to reduce frauds and

  5. 小鼠体外成熟与激素超排卵母细胞核型分析%COMPARISON OF MOUSE OOCYTE KARYOTYPES BETWEEN HORMONE INDUCTION OVULATION AND CULTURE IN VITRO MATURATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝素华; 龚春柳; 吴锐辉; 陈仲贤; 胡一骏; 曾如辉; 谢庆东; 黄天华

    2003-01-01

    目的: 评价激素超排(HIO)和体外培养成熟(CVM)两种方法对小鼠卵母细胞染色体的影响. 方法: 通过HIO与CVM分别获得100个、80个成熟小鼠卵母细胞,制备染色体标本进行核型分析. 结果: 在HIO组,超单倍体率、非整倍体率、染色体结构畸变率、结构畸变卵母细胞率、退化卵母细胞率和染色体分离均数依次为2.0 %、4.0 %、2.0 %、2.0 %、8.0 % 和0.13;在CVM组,上述实验参数依次为4.0 %、8.0 %、7.5 %、6.3 %、12.5 %和0.325;两组所有实验参数经统计学处理没有显著差异. 结论: 经体外培养成熟的与经激素超排的小鼠卵母细胞其质量和染色体核型没有本质上的差异.将此结果外推到人类,提示未成熟卵母细胞经体外培养成熟在人类辅助生殖领域具有广泛的应用前景.

  6. Study of Patients’ Willingness to Pay for a Cure of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted that have investigated patient profiles in Asia. This paper analyzes patient willingness to pay (WTP as a function of patient disease severity, health-related quality of life (HRQL, and smoking behavior in Taiwan. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using in-person interviews with COPD patients. A hypothetical scenario was designed and presented to ascertain each subject’s willingness to pay (WTP for a cure for COPD. Methods: A survey of subjects with COPD was performed in Taiwan. The contingent valuation method (CVM was employed to measure patient financial burden, which was analyzed along with covariates that included various types of health-related quality of life (HRQL, severity level, and demographic background. Multivariate regression and simulation methods were employed for analysis. Results: A total of 142 subjects were interviewed, with an average annual WTP of approximately $1422 USD (or 42,662.37 NTD, New Taiwan Dollars. The annual WTP for patients 55 years of age or younger, $5709.06, was the highest and equivalent to approximately one-third of Taiwan average annual personal income or quadruple the spending amount of the Taiwan National Bureau of Health Insurance (NBHI for each COPD patient. Current cigarette smokers were willing to pay a substantially higher amount than former smokers and nonsmokers, which reflects a psychological desire for redemption in COPD patients. Conclusions: The results of this study provide directions for the relevant authorities regarding the alleviation of suffering as a result of COPD. Appropriate health promotion measures, such as measures to reduce tobacco usage, early diagnosis, and active treatment, may be necessary to contain the escalating costs related to COPD and to prevent this epidemic from worsening.

  7. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Cai

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses and reference antisera (antibodies. Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS. In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses, we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  8. COMUNICACIÓN DE LOS RESULTADOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN OBSERVACIONAL: ANÁLISIS MEDIANTE LA GUÍA STROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galera Llorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la publicación de la investigación biomédica se detectan deficiencias que han llevado a la aparición de guías cuyo seguimiento mejora la calidad de la comunicación. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el cumplimiento de los criterios de la Iniciativa Strobe para la publicación de estudios observacionales. Métodos: Análisis descriptivo transversal de los estudios observacionales de las áreas Cardiovascular y Metabolismo (CVM publicados en 6 revistas españolas a lo largo de 2009 mediante la aplicación de los 34 puntos de la Iniciativa STROBE. Se describieron las frecuencias de las variables cualitativas y los estimadores muestrales y de dispersión de las variables cuantitativas. El análisis comparativo entre revistas se realizó mediante el test ANOVA (p<0,05. Resultados: En 2009 se publicaron 74 estudios observacionales en las revistas evaluadas. Los más frecuentes fueron estudios de cohortes 45 (60,8% y transversales 28 (37,8%. En cuanto al objetivo principal, la mayoría fueron sobre patología 55 (74,3%, seguidos de fármacos e intervenciones no farmacológicas 15 (20,3% y diagnóstico 4 (5,4%. La media de criterios cumplidos fue de 20 sobre 34 (DE±3,7, con un máximo de 24 (DE±2 en Gaceta Sanitaria y un mínimo de 19 (DE±2,8 en Hipertensión. Conclusiones: Solo algo más de la mitad de los artículos cumplían las recomendaciones de la Iniciativa STROBE. Los apartados de Resultados y Métodos fueron los que mostraron más carencias.

  9. Cement Production and Sustainable Rural Farming Livelihood in Nigeria: Striking a Sensible Balance Through Environmental Legislation and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke O. Okojie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertook the damage valuation of cement production induced air pollution on rural farming livelihood, assessed the impact on farmers’ profitability as well as investigating the corporate social responsibility investment of the cement companies in the producing host communities in Nigeria. It then examined how legislation and enforcement can be made to strike a sensible balance between the environmental damage enabled by cement pollution and ensuring a sustainable farming livelihood. A two stage simple random sampling procedure was adopted for the paper to select a total of 120 respondentsin the target and control areas. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Dichotomous–Choice Contingent Valuation Method (DC- CVM that terminated into the logit model and the budgetary analysis. The total Willingness-To-Pay (WTP/annum to avert the negative externalities on the host communities’ farming livelihood was N3.21 billion. The profitability in farming in the target cement producing area with respect to thenet farm income and the rate of return to capital investment were lower in the target as compared to the control area. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR investments ofthe cement producing companies were small compared to the profits realized by them. The proportions of the CSR investments with respect to the company’s profits were between 0.4% and 1.6% for the five years considered in the paper. Efforts have been made by the government to enact laws, regulations and standards to ensureenvironmentally sound and sustainable environment though the institution initially put in place to implement them was not given legal powers of enforcement. Things are however changing with the establishment of another with such powers. It is only by such proper implementation, a sensible balance can be struck between uncontrolled cement dust pollution associated with excess profits to the cement producers and sustainable

  10. Public health campaign to promote hand hygiene before meals in a college of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (pveterinary students successfully improved hand hygiene before meals.

  11. Monetizing the social benefits of landfill mining: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation survey in a rural area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, Dimitris; Menegaki, Maria; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Despite the emerging global attention towards promoting waste management policies that reduce environmental impacts and conserve natural resources, landfilling still remains the dominant waste management practice in many parts of the world. Owing to this situation, environmental burdens are bequeathed to and large amounts of potentially valuable materials are lost for future generations. As a means to undo these adverse effects a process known as landfill mining (LFM) could be implemented provided that economic feasibility is ensured. So far, only a few studies have focused on the economic feasibility of LFM from a private point of view and even less studies have attempted to economically justify the need for LMF projects from a social point of view. This paper, aiming to add to the limited literature in the field, presents the results of a survey conducted in a rural district in Greece, by means of the Contingent Valuation method (CVM) in order to estimate society's willingness to pay for LFM programs. According to the empirical survey, more than 95% of the respondents recognize the need for LFM programs. Nevertheless, only one-fourth of the respondents are willing to pay through increased taxes for LFM, owing mainly to economic depression and unemployment. Those who accept the increased tax are willing to pay about €50 per household per year, on average, which results in a mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the entire population under investigation of around €12 per household per year. The findings of this research work provide useful insights about the 'dollar-based' benefits of LFM in the context of social cost-benefit analysis of LFM projects. Yet, it is evident that further research is necessary.

  12. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Water Supply: Application of the Contingent Valuation Method; Evidence from Jigjiga Town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Kebede Hundie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water problem in developing countries like Ethiopia is twofold: low coverage levels and poor quality that require urgent attention to reduce associated health and social consequences. Understanding this fact, the government and NGOs are currently carrying out several activities to improve the coverage and quality of water supply. To this end, willingness to pay of households that are expected to be benefited from the project should be analysed. The central objective of this study is, hence, to estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP of households for better-quality water service provision and identify its determinants by using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM in Jigjiga city. We estimate Willingness to Pay (WTP for better quality of water supply service on cross-sectional survey of households in Jigjiga city taking 210 sample households randomly drawn. The highest relative WTP for improved water supply service was found in the city with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with the current water supply both in terms of quality and quantity. Response to the hypothetical scenario shown that sampled households stated that their mean WTP of 94 cents per 20 litres. The results of logit model revealed that household income, family size, water source, age of the respondent and bid value have significant effects on WTP for improved water service provision. The implication is that it is better take into account the socio-economic characteristics of the households in planning and designing water supply projects, which may serve to set rigorous demand oriented projects that can sustain the service delivery.

  13. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  14. Earthquake source tensor inversion with the gCAP method and 3D Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Ross, Z.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and apply a method to invert earthquake seismograms for source properties using a general tensor representation and 3D Green's functions. The method employs (i) a general representation of earthquake potency/moment tensors with double couple (DC), compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), and isotropic (ISO) components, and (ii) a corresponding generalized CAP (gCap) scheme where the continuous wave trains are broken into Pnl and surface waves (Zhu & Ben-Zion, 2013). For comparison, we also use the waveform inversion method of Zheng & Chen (2012) and Ammon et al. (1998). Sets of 3D Green's functions are calculated on a grid of 1 km3 using the 3-D community velocity model CVM-4 (Kohler et al. 2003). A bootstrap technique is adopted to establish robustness of the inversion results using the gCap method (Ross & Ben-Zion, 2013). Synthetic tests with 1-D and 3-D waveform calculations show that the source tensor inversion procedure is reasonably reliable and robust. As initial application, the method is used to investigate source properties of the March 11, 2013, Mw=4.7 earthquake on the San Jacinto fault using recordings of ~45 stations up to ~0.2Hz. Both the best fitting and most probable solutions include ISO component of ~1% and CLVD component of ~0%. The obtained ISO component, while small, is found to be a non-negligible positive value that can have significant implications for the physics of the failure process. Work on using higher frequency data for this and other earthquakes is in progress.

  15. Effects of Board of Directors' Characteristics on the Quality of Accounting Information in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Holtz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the board of directors' responsibilities is to monitor the quality of information disclosed in financial reports. The board's structural and compositional characteristics can affect the quality of reported accounting information. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the board's structural and compositional characteristics on the quality of accounting information of companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (Bolsa de Mercadorias e Futuros - BM&FBovespa. Specifically, the characteristics studied were the size and independence of the board of directors and separation of the roles of chairman and executive director. Accounting information relevance and earnings informativeness were used as proxies for the quality of accounting information. The sample included non-financial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa with annual stock market liquidity higher than 0.001, covering the period from 2008–2011. Data were collected from the Economática® database and directly from companies' annual reports and reference forms available on the Securities Commission (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - CVM or BM&FBovespawebsites. Data analysis was undertaken using the multiple regression technique for calculating the models of accounting information relevance and earnings informativeness. The results reveal that, for companies that trade stocks on the BM&FBovespa in the Brazilian market, the characteristics of board independence and separation of the roles of chairman and executive director positively influence the quality of reported accounting information, specifically regarding the relevance of equity. Earnings informativeness is positively affected by board independence and negatively affected by larger board size (more than nine members. Overall, the results corroborate international studies such as those of Vafeas (2000, Firth, Fung, and Rui (2007, Ahmed, Hossain, and Adams (2006 and

  16. [Evaluation of cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem: a case study in a water conservation area of Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Guo, Zong-xiang; Yang, Huai-yu; Yang, Zheng-yong

    2009-12-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years, which has not only contributed great economic value, but also presented cultural value for human beings. With the development and upgrading of Chinese economy and culture, these values will be highlighted further. To evaluate the cultural service value of pond aquaculture ecosystem would provide a scientific base to the policy-making to avoid or reduce the wrong design-making or avoid the policy-malfunction, and also, to promote the development of aquaculture and related recreational fishing industry, increase the added value of aquaculture and the income of fish-farmers, and promote the economic development of rural area. Based on the survey data from the aquaculture ponds in the water conservation area of Dianshan Lake in Qingpu District of Shanghai and the related statistical data, the cultural service value including recreational value and existence value of the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the area was estimated by means of travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM). The total cultural service value of this ecosystem was about 213 million Yuan x a(-1) or 231296. 69 Yuan x hm(-2) x a(-1), being 5. 25 times of the market value of aquaculture products, among which, recreational value was about 189 million Yuan x a(-1), and existence value was about 24 million Yuan x a(-1). It was suggested that in the construction of new rural areas of Shanghai, sufficient attention should be paid on the full play of the cultural service value of aquaculture pond ecosystem.

  17. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  18. Attributes, knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm in dogs among members of a national hunting dog club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, Barton W; Lutzy, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2011-03-22

    The Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) has cited an increasing number of reports of failure of heartworm prophylaxis in dogs. Failures may be due to resistance of L(3)-L(4) stage Dirofilaria immitis to the macrocyclic lactone class of compounds used for prophylaxis, lack of compliance with and understanding of administration of prophylactics, individual differences in drug absorption or metabolism, or a combination of these factors. Using the latest scientific information, the American Heartworm Society (AHS) and Companion Animal Parasite Council (CAPC) have developed guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of heartworm infection in dogs. This study summarizes the knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors relating to prevention of heartworm among members of a national hunting dog club, visitors to the club website, and attendees at club-sponsored events. These factors can have a direct effect on the success of heartworm prophylaxis. Results suggest that the dog owners lack confidence in the accuracy of the heartworm test to identify infection, the efficacy of products sold for prevention of heartworm, and the effectiveness of treatment to eliminate adult heartworms from infected dogs. Knowledge about when to begin heartworm preventive medication in a new puppy and the timing of heartworm tests was also lacking among a substantial number of respondents. In order to increase acceptance of prophylaxis and reduce the likelihood of a false conclusion of prophylactic failure, education of dog owners should focus on the need for an appropriately timed annual heartworm test and the importance of administering the last dose of monthly heartworm preventative after the last possible day of potential transmission.

  19. Evaluation of the Skeletal Maturation Using Lower First Premolar Mineralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Mártha I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental age assessment is very useful in the pediatric dentist’s and orthodontist’s everyday practice. The eventual lack of correlation between dental age, skeletal maturation and chronological age can influence treatment procedures regarding mostly their application time. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between dental age based on the calcification stages of the first lower premolar (PM1i and skeletal maturity stages using cervical vertebrae (C2, C3, C4 among Romanian individuals and to determine the clinical value of the first premolar as a growth evaluation index. Material and methods: In a sample of 30 patients (13 males, 17 females ranging in age from 9 to 15 years (mean age 11.2 years we examined the orthopantomography radiographs (OPT and lateral cephalometric radiographs of each case. Results: The biological development of girls is about 1.5 years more advanced than in boys. When the Demirjian Index was at stage F, then CVS was at stage 3.4, which means that in developmental stage “F” (according to Demirjian index premolars are indicators of the optimal time for orthodontic treatment. We found a significant correlation (R = 0.871, p <0.001 between CVM and Demirjian's index. Conclusions: The correlation shown in this study will allow clinicians to use mandibular first premolar as an adjunctive tool to assess adolescent growth spurt, combined with the evaluation of the cervical vertebrae. The results also show the usefulness of the assessment of the development of dental status as a simple diagnostic test to determine the biological age of the population

  20. 基于Copula函数和极值理论的金融传染度量——测度美国次贷危机对重要经济体的传染效应%Financial Contagion Measurement Based on Copula Function & Extreme Value Theory——Contagion Effects of Sub-Prime Loan Crisis on the World's Most Powerful Economies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立甫; 高铁梅; 姚坚

    2013-01-01

    基于Copula函数和极值理论研究美国次贷危机对重要经济体的传染效应,首先根据信息准则来选取Copula函数,然后用Cvm和Ks统计量来检验Copula函数的拟合程度,确保选取合适的Copula函数,并在此基础上计算一般相关系数和尾部相关系数;实证发现使用尾部相关系数度量金融传染并不可靠,因此基于Copula函数和极值理论的POT模型,构造了尾部附近相关系数并通过实证分析了其用于金融传染的有效性.结果表明发达国家所受传染较重,中国所受传染较轻.%The paper studies the contagion effects of Sub-prime loan crisis on the world's most powerful economies based on Copula function & extreme value,in which Copula function is selected according to information criterion,then goodness of fit is tested by Cvm & Ks statistics,for proper Copula functions.Based on the Copulas,general correlation coefficients and tail dependence coefficients are calculated,which are discovered unreliable for estimating financial contagion.Therefore,the authors construct coefficients of tail near dependence based on Copula function and extreme value theory,then analyze theirs effectiveness empirically.The results show developed countries are infected seriously and china lightly.

  1. Analysis of the Influencing Factors for Willingness to Pay of Payment for Ecosystem Services of River Basin: A Case of Changsha Reach of Xiang Jiang River Basin%流域生态补偿支付意愿的影响因素分析——以湘江流域长沙段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超显; 彭福清; 陈鹤

    2012-01-01

    以湘江流域长沙段为例,运用结构方程模型和CVM调查数据对流域生态补偿支付意愿的影响因素进行分析。研究发现,以"外部特征"、"现状评价"、"心理特征"取代传统研究的"个人社会经济特征"作为"支付意愿"的主要影响因素更具全面性和解释力;运用结构方程模型比传统回归模型分析更具整体建构性和优越性;居民的支付意愿不仅取决于外部条件和现实能力,也取决于居民的心理特征。%This paper was to analyze the influencing factors of willingness to pay (WTP) for payment for ecosystem services of river basin by structural equation model and CVM datas on the case of Changsha reach of Xiang Jiang River basin.Findings of this study could be drawn as follows:it is more comprehensive explanatory power to treat external characteristics, current situation evaluation, psychological trait as the main influencing factors of WTP than traditional research regarding personal soeio-economic characteristics as the influencing factor of WTP. The analytical method of structural equation model is more superior and constructive of overall than that of traditional regression equation.The WTP for payment for ecosystem services not only depends on external condition and existing ability, but also depends on psychological trait.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS POR MEIO DE INDICADORES DE ATIVIDADE: UMA APLICAÇÃO DO MÉTODO AHP BUSINESS EVALUATION USING ACTIVITY INDICATORS: AN APPLICATION OF AHP METHOD ABSTRACT EVALUACIÓN DE EMPRESAS UTILIZANDO INDICADORES DE ACTIVIDAD: UNA APLICACIÓN DEL MÉTODO AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kroenke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em definir, por meio de indicadores de atividade e utilizando o método de Análise Hierárquica de Processos (AHP, uma classificação, em forma de ranking, dos resultados auferidos pelas empresas do setor metal mecânico listadas na  Bovespa. A pesquisa classifica-se como descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Foram coletadas as demonstrações contábeis consolidadas Balanço Patrimonial e Demonstração do Resultado do Exercício, e extraídos os indicadores de atividade prazo médio de estocagem, prazo médio de pagamento a fornecedores e prazo médio de cobrança. A coleta de dados para a análise foi realizada no sítio da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (www.cvm.gov.br. O método AHP, desenvolvido por Saaty, faz parte da Escola Americana de Análise Multicritério e permite o estabelecimento de graus de preferência entre suas alternativas, que no artigo são os indicadores contábeis de atividade. As matrizes de preferências foram obtidas por meio da análise das componentes principais dos dados utilizados, considerando-se o primeiro eixo fatorial. A escala de Lootsma foi usada na adequação dos pesos. O rankingapontou, como primeira colocada, a Aços Villares em 2004, a Eluma nos anos de 2005 e 2006 e a Mangels, em 2007 e 2008. Obtidos os rankings parciais, construiu-se o ranking geral do período analisado por meio do sistema de pontos corridos, que considerou o posicionamento anual de cada empresa. O critério de desempate foi o indicador do prazo de estocagem. Assim, estabeleceu-se a Mangels e a Aços Villares como as duas empresas mais bem posicionadas no período em termos de atividade.The objective of the article consists of defining, through activity indicators, a classification in order of ranking, of the income earned by companies of the  section mechanical metal listed in Bovespa using the method of Hierarchical Analysis of Processes  (AHP. The research is classified as

  3. USDA Stakeholder Workshop on Animal Bioinformatics: Summary and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Adelson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An electronic workshop was conducted on 4 November–13 December 2002 to discuss current issues and needs in animal bioinformatics. The electronic (e-mail listserver format was chosen to provide a relatively speedy process that is broad in scope, cost-efficient and easily accessible to all participants. Approximately 40 panelists with diverse species and discipline expertise communicated through the panel e-mail listserver. The panel included scientists from academia, industry and government, in the USA, Australia and the UK. A second ‘stakeholder’ e-mail listserver was used to obtain input from a broad audience with general interests in animal genomics. The objectives of the electronic workshop were: (a to define priorities for animal genome database development; and (b to recommend ways in which the USDA could provide leadership in the area of animal genome database development. E-mail messages from panelists and stakeholders are archived at http://genome.cvm.umn.edu/bioinfo/. Priorities defined for animal genome database development included: (a data repository; (b tools for genome analysis; (c annotation; (d practical application of genomic data; and (e a biological framework for DNA sequence. A stable source of funding, such as the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS, was recommended to support maintenance of data repositories and data curation. Continued support for competitive grants programs within the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES was recommended for tool development and hypothesis-driven research projects in genome analysis. Additional stakeholder input will be required to continuously refine priorities and maximize the use of limited resources for animal bioinformatics within the USDA.

  4. USDA Stakeholder Workshop on Animal Bioinformatics: Summary and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamernik, Debora L; Adelson, David L

    2003-01-01

    An electronic workshop was conducted on 4 November-13 December 2002 to discuss current issues and needs in animal bioinformatics. The electronic (e-mail listserver) format was chosen to provide a relatively speedy process that is broad in scope, cost-efficient and easily accessible to all participants. Approximately 40 panelists with diverse species and discipline expertise communicated through the panel e-mail listserver. The panel included scientists from academia, industry and government, in the USA, Australia and the UK. A second 'stakeholder' e-mail listserver was used to obtain input from a broad audience with general interests in animal genomics. The objectives of the electronic workshop were: (a) to define priorities for animal genome database development; and (b) to recommend ways in which the USDA could provide leadership in the area of animal genome database development. E-mail messages from panelists and stakeholders are archived at http://genome.cvm.umn.edu/bioinfo/. Priorities defined for animal genome database development included: (a) data repository; (b) tools for genome analysis; (c) annotation; (d) practical application of genomic data; and (e) a biological framework for DNA sequence. A stable source of funding, such as the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), was recommended to support maintenance of data repositories and data curation. Continued support for competitive grants programs within the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) was recommended for tool development and hypothesis-driven research projects in genome analysis. Additional stakeholder input will be required to continuously refine priorities and maximize the use of limited resources for animal bioinformatics within the USDA.

  5. LA MATEMATICA BORROSA Y EL PRECIO DE EQUILIBRIO: UNA APLICACIÓN A LAS AGUAS DEPURADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terceño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de conocer el valor de los bienes carentes de mercado, nuestro objetivo a lo largo del presente artículo es la propuesta de un mecanismo para su determinación. Partiendo del método de valoración contingente (CVM utilizado en un entorno crisp, se aporta una metodología para agregar las opiniones inciertas con el objeto de obtener el precio de equilibrio. Un análisis posterior permitirá analizar la conveniencia de fijar subvenciones o impuestos sobre los mismos. La inexistencia de observaciones pasadas nos lleva a utilizar instrumentos de la teoría de los Fuzzy Sets. Para ello se seleccionarán dos grupos de expertos, unos que representarán a los demandantes y otro a los oferentes. Mediante sucesivas fases de petición de opinión y de suministro de información se determinarán ambos precios, y su intersección permitirá obtener el precio de equilibrio, de acuerdo con la teoría clásica. A lo largo del trabajo se han establecido criterios para determinar el número máximo de las mismas, teniendo presente la dispersión de las opiniones y su variación en dos fases consecutivas. En último lugar se realiza una aplicación del mismo para la determinación del precio de equilibrio del agua depurada en la provincia de Alicante (España. Para ello se ha realizado una encuesta a las empresas depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR como oferentes y a los agricultores y empresas distribuidoras de aguas como demandantes.

  6. Determining Factors for Delisting of Companies Listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the capital market has attracted the interest of scholars and researchers, motivated to understand the process of going public and trading securities of companies on a stock exchange. In this research context, an aspect had been neglected, something which indi cates a gap in the body of knowledge about the capital market and corporate governance: delisting of companies. We aim to identify the determining factors for delisting companies from the Commodity & Futures Exchange BOVESPA (BM&FBOVESPA. Methodologically, this research has related a set of variables collected from secondary data available on the database of the Securities Commission of Brazil (CVM, BM&FBOVESPA, and Economatica. By analyzing 227 listing cancellations, between 2001 and 2012, the results indicate that de listing of companies from BM&FBOVESPA is determined by the following factors: (i greater concentration of ownership and control; (ii lower free float; (iii lower liquidity of shares; (iv greater availability of cash; and (v larger size. The fact that the controlling shareholder is a public or private company determines significant differences in the decision to delist. While in the first case cash availability is the most important factor, in the second liquidity is the main determining factor for delisting. From the academic viewpoint, this research extends the studies on delisting, still incipient in the Brazilian capital market context. For the capital market, identifying the characteristics of companies prone to cancel listing may prevent investors concerned about inherent risks at the time of acquiring shares by the controlling group interested in delisting.

  7. Aspectos Comportamentais no Julgamento Profissional dos Auditores Independentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Emerson Firmino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos evidenciam que a adoção das International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS proporcionou melhorias na qualidade das informações contábeis. Mas, o conjunto de Procedimentos descritos nas IFRSs é fortemente afetado pelo julgamento profissional dos contadores. O mesmo fato ocorre com o auditor, que deve avaliar se a aplicação das normas resulta em fair presentation. Esse julgamento dependerá da interpretação do auditor sobre o nível de probabilidade associada a determinadas expressões presentes no texto das normas contábeis. Alguns autores evidenciam que existem diferenças significativas na interpretação das expressões verbais de probabilidade entre os auditores e que aspectos comportamentais estão influenciando a emissão do parecer de auditoria. Diante desse cenário, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar como se comportam os auditores no julgamento de situações subjetivas, inseridos em um cenário pessimista ou otimista, no momento da avaliação dos critérios de reconhecimento e/ou mensuração, quando da execução dos trabalhos da auditoria. A amostra desta pesquisa é composta por 258 auditores independentes com registro de responsáveis técnicos junto à Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. Os resultados obtidos, por intermédio da análise das respostas dos auditores para situações subjetivas, sugerem que o julgamento do auditor em situações de subjetividade é influenciado por aspectos comportamentais, sendo que eles podem apresentar opiniões distintas em seus relatórios.

  8. Research on Subsidy Mechanism of the Willingness of Farmers’to Adopt Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology---Taking Vegetable Waste Composting Technology as an Example in Gaocheng District of Hebei Province%农户采纳蔬菜清洁生产技术补贴机制研究--以藁城区蔬菜堆肥化处理技术为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 王丽英; 甘寿文; 魏风友; 焦兵华

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable waste composting technology is considered as an important technology of vegetable cleaner production. However the high cost of the application and time consuming resulting the existence of barriers to technology promotion. It is an effective ways of correcting the externality of technology application to incent farmers’technology adoption behavior through subsidies policy. The study applies the method of contingent valuation method (CVM) to understand the farmers’willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and cognition of environmental quality and cleaner production with 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. Then based on descriptive statistics analysis of willingness to pay and willingness to accept,this paper put forward six policy suggestions,including fully respect the willingness of farmers,improving the operating mechanism of subsidies,establishing investment and financing system, improving the education training system, setting up a system of subsidies and perfecting the management and supervision mechanism, in order to actively guide the farmers’ environmental protection production behavior and provide reference and empirical evidence for developing effective policies for cleaning production of vegetables.%以河北省藁城市142个样本为例,运用意愿价值评估方法,调查了示范区农户在实施补贴前提下,采纳蔬菜废弃物堆肥化处理技术的补贴意愿,以及对于环境质量及清洁生产的认知。在此基础上,提出蔬菜清洁生产补贴机制6点政策建议,以期为引导农户的环保生产行为、制定有效的蔬菜清洁生产技术补贴政策提供参考借鉴和实证依据。

  9. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-10-07

    Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses) and reference antisera (antibodies). Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS). In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses), we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  10. 农业生态系统文化服务的支付意愿与受偿意愿的差异性分析——以上海池塘养殖为例%Difference between the WTP and WTA in cultural service value evaluation of agriculture ecosystems: Shanghai pond aquaculture case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓赟; 杨正勇; 唐克勇; 杨怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years and has been not only a major source of food, but also provided cultural service. The development of service industry in agriculture has further highlighted the value of pond aquaculture. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), one of several methods for evaluating non-market values, has been widely used data analysis. However, there has remained much controversy on the effectiveness and stability of CVM. One such hot spot of discussion has been strategic bias, a significant disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA), in evaluation of environment products and services values. Current literature has shown that few researches exist on the evaluation of cultural service values of aquaculture ecosystems. This paper used pond aquaculture in Qingpu, Jiading and Fengxian Districts of Shanghai to evaluate the cultural services values and discuss the difference between WTP and WTA as given by Tobit and Mulit-Logit models. The results showed that WTP was affected by the income, education, interest and satisfaction with pond environments of the interviewees. A significant positive relationship existed between WTP and the above factors. WTA was also influenced by incomeand satisfaction with pond environments. WTA was significantly positively related to income. But satisfaction with pond environment was negatively related to both WTP and WTA. Household income, register, age and interest in pond activities of interviewee were the main influence factors on WTA/WTP asymmetry. The average WTA/WTP ratio was 5 : 1. Income, substitution, endowment and prospect effects as well as property right affected the differences between WTP and WTA. Due to deviations in interviewees' understandings of WTA, responses were higher than the real pond value. Based on this fact, WTP was used as the preferred assessment method. The average value of WTP of the investigated area was 163.75 Yuan per person. Then

  11. 南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性非使用价值评估%Evaluating the non-use value of biodiversity of the radial sand ridge field of southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相景昌; 陈爽; 余成; 李广宇

    2014-01-01

    生物多样性非使用价值主要指生物多样性在环境和生态系统方面的服务功能,非使用价值评估对生物多样性保护与可持续利用具有重要意义.本文运用条件价值评估法(CVM),设计支付卡式调查问卷,对南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性的非使用价值进行评估.在允许零支付意愿(WTP=0)的问卷引导方式、以个人为支付单位,以及规避零支付意愿、以家庭为支付单位两种情况下,分别计算居民对生物多样性保护的支付意愿,进而推算出生物多样性的非使用价值;并采用相关分析和回归分析方法,进一步探讨公众支付意愿的影响因素及影响程度.结果表明,允许 WTP=0情况下,受访者的平均支付意愿为96.2元·(a·人)-1;规避 WTP=0中,平均支付意愿为232.96元·(a·户)-1,两者差异在可接受范围内;南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性的非使用价值为每年5.32~5.92×108元.同时,受访者收入、对生物多样性及其受用海工程影响等相关知识的认知程度,是居民支付意愿的主要影响因素,其中收入水平的影响最为显著.研究结果可为海岸带综合开发空间协调与生态补偿政策制定提供科学依据.%The total economic value of natural resources includes use value and non-use value.The non-use value of biodiversity mainly consists of the services in aspects of environment and ecological systems.Evaluating the non-use value of biodiversity has significances to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.In this case study,the contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to evaluate the non-use value of the biodiversity in the Radial Sand Ridge Field of Southern Yellow Sea.A questionnaire of payment card CVM was developed for the survey study, which was designed with two guidance modes:one was to allow“WTP=0”and to pay by individual person;the other was to avoid“WTP=0”and to pay by household unit.Then the study calculated the residents

  12. Percepção do Rodízio de Auditoria sob o olhar dos Auditores Independentes = The perception of audit rotation within the independent auditors’ view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Conti Quevedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O rodízio de auditoria no Brasil foi criado por iniciativa do Banco Central do Brasil (BACEN em resposta a escândalos que ocorreram e que colocaram em risco a imagem das firmas de Auditoria. Posteriormente, o rodízio foi adotado pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM, englobando as sociedades anônimas de capital aberto, registradas na bolsa de valores. A rotatividade se tornou um assunto polêmico, à medida que influencia, de alguma forma, no relacionamento dos auditores com seus clientes, bem como em todo o mercado das empresas de auditoria, questionando-se, dessa forma, sua efetividade. Considerando tais fatos, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar junto aos auditores independentes sua percepção sob o rodízio de auditoria, buscando compreender se são favoráveis ou não a esse procedimento. Dessa maneira, a pesquisa avaliou a percepção de 64 auditores independentes de 6 empresas de auditoria diferentes, por meio da abordagem survey, com perguntas abertas e fechadas. Constatou-se, principalmente, que: 58% dos auditores acreditam que o rodízio conseguiu inibir os escândalos contábeis; 56% acreditam que os custos envolvidos na rotatividade do rodízio superam os ganhos; 76% acreditam que o conhecimento acumulado gera vício de trabalho; 48% acreditam que os auditores se aproximam do cliente caso não haja o rodízio. Por outro lado, 64% afirmam que há perda de eficácia nos trabalhos de auditoria com a implementação do rodízio e que 74% das empresas auditadas não aderiram ao CAE, com o intuito de prolongar o prazo de 5 para 10 anos de uma mesma empresa de auditoria. Os achados desta pesquisa, quando comparados à opinião dos órgãos públicos de contabilidade em relação ao rodízio, revelam contradição. Enquanto 91% dos auditores pesquisados defendem o rodízio, seja por rotatividade da empresa ou por rotatividade do auditor independente, o CFC e o IBRACON não são favoráveis ao sistema. Por outro lado, a CVM

  13. Efeitos de dois parâmetros antropométricos no comportamento do sinal mecanomiográfico em testes de força muscular Effects of two anthropometric parameters in the behavior of the mechanomyographic signal on muscle force tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Polato

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da mecanomiografia (MMG ser uma técnica com crescente destaque em investigações relativas ao fenômeno da contração muscular, poucos trabalhos se dedicaram a entender os possíveis efeitos de variáveis antropométricas no sinal de MMG. Portanto, o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da dobra cutânea e do perímetro do braço no comportamento do sinal de MMG nos domínios do tempo e da freqüência em diferentes níveis de contração isométrica. Participaram do estudo 21 indivíduos do sexo masculino (24,9 ± 7,8 anos e 21 do feminino (20,7 ± 2,5 anos, todos destros. O protocolo experimental constou de um teste de contração voluntária máxima (CVM que permitiu determinar cinco cargas percentuais administradas durante os testes de força (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% e 100% da CVM. Um acelerômetro biaxial foi colocado sobre o ventre muscular do bíceps braquial direito. O sinal de MMG foi analisado nos domínios do tempo, mediante o comportamento da amplitude do sinal, por meio do cálculo da raiz média quadrática (valor RMS, e da freqüência, através da freqüência mediana (FM calculada a partir do seu espectro de potência. Estes parâmetros foram extraídos a partir dos sinais gerados na direção X, perpendicular às fibras musculares. Foram também medidos os parâmetros antropométricos dobra cutânea biciptal (BD_DC_B e perímetros de braço relaxado (BD_PR e contraído (BD_PC no terço médio do braço direito. Ambos os grupos apresentaram um comportamento decrescente da FM com o nível de contração. O valor RMS apresentou comportamento crescente com a carga para ambos os grupos. Houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p In spite of being a useful method on muscle contraction analysis, few studies have been dedicated to understand how some anthropometrical parameters can interfere in the mechanomyographic (MMG signal properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of skinfold

  14. Avaliação da fadiga muscular pela mecanomiografia durante a aplicação de um protocolo de EENM Muscle fatigue assessment by mechanomyography during application of NMES protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Faller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM é uma técnica bastante utilizada na área da reabilitação em fisioterapia, porém a instalação da fadiga ocorre de maneira mais rápida se comparada à contração voluntária. Na prática clínica, torna-se necessário monitorar a fadiga muscular em protocolos de EENM, visando adequar os parâmetros da corrente elétrica e prolongar o tempo de estimulação. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi utilizar a mecanomiografia como meio de avaliação da fadiga muscular periférica durante a aplicação de um protocolo de EENM. MÉTODOS: Um sistema de aquisição de sinais mecanomiográficos (MMG e um protocolo experimental foram desenvolvidos. Durante os ensaios in vivo com 10 voluntários, foram realizados testes de contração voluntária máxima (CVM para extensão do joelho. Realizou-se uma fase de potencialização com contrações dinâmicas produzidas por EENM a 10% da CVM (100 Hz, 400 µm no músculo quadríceps femoral, e o protocolo de EENM propriamente dito ocorreu a 30% da CVM (50 Hz, 400 µm. Simultaneamente, foram adquiridos os sinais de MMG RMS (amplitude e MMG MPF (frequência do músculo reto femoral e de torque (amplitude para a extensão do joelho. RESULTADOS: A linha de tendência da MMG RMS foi descendente, indicando que a MMG RMS relaciona-se à amplitude do torque. Porém, a MMG MPF não teve uma boa correlação com o torque para este protocolo de EENM. CONCLUSÕES: A MMG pode ser aplicada simultaneamente à EENM, pois não ocorre interferência elétrica, e pode ser utilizada na realização de movimentos funcionais na contração muscular gerada por EENM. Artigo registrado no Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR sob o número ACTRN12609000866202.BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES is a widely used technique for rehabilitation in physical therapy, however it causes muscle fatigue more rapidly than does voluntary

  15. Remuneração dos Executivos das Companhias Estatais e Privadas de Energia Elétrica com Maiores Ativos Listadas na BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Paganoto Tinoco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O mercado trabalha ofertando diversas formas de remuneração aos executivos. A política de remuneração entra como um importante instrumento de motivação por parte das empresas, com fito na otimização dos resultados e no atingimento de metas. Devido à importância da atenção dada à remuneração de altos executivos do mercado, este trabalho teve como objetivo discutir como são materializadas as formas de remuneração das 4 maiores empresas estatais e 4 maiores empresas privadas do setor energético. Para concluir os objetivos de pesquisa, foram analisados os anexos 24, na seção 13 dos relatórios de referência, da Instrução Normativa CVM no 480/2009, das empresas e foram investigadas as abordagens dadas por cada companhia ao tema de remuneração dos executivos. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que entre as diferenças encontradas estão uma proporção maior de remuneração aos executivos por meio de remuneração fixa nas empresas de controle estatal, enquanto nas companhias de controle privado observa-se um maior equilíbrio. Além disso, as companhias de controle privado remuneram um valor maior do que as companhias de controle estatal. Apesar de na teoria os objetivos das empresas privadas e das empresas estatais serem diferentes, tais características não se manifestam de maneira relevante na composição das remunerações, sendo grande parte composta por remuneração fixa, benefícios e bônus (PLR e apenas uma companhia privada realizando remuneração por meio de ações.

  16. Integrating Green Fiscal Reforms into the Agricultural Transformation Agenda: Panacea for Boosting Soil Enrichment and Water Conservation for Sustainable Food Production in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Okojie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria had a booming agricultural industry and prominent world market shares in many of its commodities at independence. With the continuous decline in these, the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA has been floated to promote twelve commodities in production along their value chains. Various innovations and expected benefits feature in the programme. The cultivation methods and other activities within the nodes of the value chains do not however specify green growth strategy promoted by green fiscal reform policies. This implies the shortchanging of green growth strategy in the national development process and so the compromising of sustainability. This paper valued the environmental services loss resulting from deforestation associated with “slash and burn” arable crop expansion and the benefits of “green grabbing” - the deliberate appropriation of nature in the ATA. The profitability of food crop production with and without green fiscal reform policies integration was also assessed. Sampling procedures that included the stratified, simple random and purposive sampling were used at various stages depending on the objective. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. The analytical tools adopted were the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM of the referendum type, on-day site travel cost method and the budgetary analysis. Results showed that 66.37% forest land use changes occurred in a seven year periods for arable food crops expansion. The environmental services loss as depicted by the Willingness To Pay (WTP was averagely N0.60billion/year. The stock recreation value derived from “green grabbing” for the same period with 5% of the Nigerian population of 150 million visiting the Obudu Mountain Resort (OMR for recreational purposes considered was N4.41 x 1012 million. The recreation use benefits of the OMR based on the Marshalian consumer surplus computation was slightly higher for the same period. Profitability

  17. Reflexos da Lei n.º 11.638/07 nos indicadores contábeis das empresas têxteis listadas na BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Em dezembro de 2007, foi promulgada no Brasil a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007, que alterou a Lei das Sociedades Anônimas. Alterações significativas foram impostas pela lei, entre elas a adoção das normas brasileiras de contabilidade em conformidade com as normas internacionais, que implica em diversas mudanças nas demonstrações contábeis. Nessa percepção de mudanças nas demonstrações contábeis, podem ocorrer também alterações nos indicadores contábeis utilizados na análise de balanços. Nesse contexto, o artigo objetiva verificar se houve reflexos estatisticamente significativos nos indicadores contábeis após a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007. Realizou-se um estudo descritivo com uma abordagem quantitativa. A coleta dos dados ocorreu por meio das Demonstrações Financeiras Padronizadas (DFPs de 2000 a 2008 disponibilizadas no sítio da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. A amostra por acessibilidade compreendeu 16 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa classificadas no setor de consumo cíclico, no subsetor tecidos, vestuário e calçados, segmento fios e tecidos que possuíam todas as DFPs do período de 2000 a 2008. Aplicaram-se as técnicas estatísticas de regressão linear com base no Modelo de Koyck e de correlações canônicas. Os resultados mostraram que há correlação canônica estatisticamente significativa entre os indicadores contábeis antes de vigorar a Lei n.º 11.638 (2007 com os indicadores contábeis após vigorar a Lei n.º 11.638/07. Conclui-se, de maneira geral, de acordo com as empresas pesquisadas, que os indicadores contábeis não sofreram alteração estatisticamente significativa pelo fato de as demonstrações contábeis serem elaboradas atendendo aos preceitos da Lei n.º 11.638 (2007.

  18. Thermodynamic integration based on classical atomistic simulations to determine the Gibbs energy of condensed phases: Calculation of the aluminum-zirconium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.-P.; Gheribi, A. E.; Chartrand, P.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, an in silico procedure to generate a fully coherent set of thermodynamic properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is proposed. The procedure is applied to the Al-Zr system because of its importance in the development of high strength Al-Li alloys and of bulk metallic glasses. Cohesive energies of the studied condensed phases of the Al-Zr system (the liquid phase, the fcc solid solution, and various orthorhombic stoichiometric compounds) are calculated using the modified embedded atom model (MEAM) in the second-nearest-neighbor formalism (2NN). The Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is parameterized in this work using ab initio and experimental data found in the literature for the AlZr3-L12 structure, while its predictive ability is confirmed for several other solid structures and for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic integration (TI) method is implemented in a general MC algorithm in order to evaluate the absolute Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solutions. The entropy of mixing calculated from the TI method, combined to the enthalpy of mixing and the heat capacity data generated from MD/MC simulations performed in the isobaric-isothermal/canonical (NPT/NVT) ensembles are used to parameterize the Gibbs energy function of all the condensed phases in the Al-rich side of the Al-Zr system in a CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron approximation are used to define the Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solid solution respectively for their entire range of composition. Thermodynamic and structural data generated from our MD/MC simulations are used as input data to parameterize these thermodynamic models. A detailed analysis of the validity and transferability of the Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is presented throughout our work by comparing the predicted properties obtained

  19. Non-market valuation of forest resources in Guiyang City of Guizhou Province based on comparative analysis of WTP and WTA%基于支付意愿和受偿意愿比较分析的贵阳市森林资源非市场价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽君; 赵翠薇

    2011-01-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) was adopted to investigate the residents' willingness to participate, to pay, and to accept the compensation in the process of protecting the forest resources in Guiyang City of Guizhou Province, Southwest China.Based on this investigation,the major socio-eeonomic factors affecting the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept compensation (WTA) were analyzed, and the models of the residents' basic status and their WTP or WTA were built to estimate the non-market valuation of forest resources in the city.It was expected that this study could provide scientific basis for the establishment of the standards in protecting and eco-compensating the forest resources in Guiyang, and accordingly, lead to the decrease of the economic losses from environmental damage and the healthy and orderly evolvement of forest eco-environment.%采用条件价值法,调查了贵阳市居民保护森林资源过程中的参与意愿、支付意愿和受偿意愿,并以此为依据,对影响支付意愿和受偿意愿的主要社会经济因子进行统计分析,构建贵阳市居民基本情况与支付意愿和受偿意愿之间的评价模型,并对贵阳市森林资源的非市场价值进行评估,希望能对贵阳市森林资源的保护以及生态补偿标准的制定提供科学依据,从而减少由于生态环境的破坏引起的经济损失,使贵阳市森林生态环境向着健康有序的方向发展.

  20. Factors Influencing of Urban and Rural Residents' Willingness to Pay for Non-market Value of Arable Land%城乡居民对耕地非市场价值支付意愿的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢昕昕; 赵凯; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    155 effective data from Huludao City, Liaoning were analyzed by Pearson related coefficient and multiple regression model based on CVM theory to study the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents for non-market value of arable land for perfecting the protection policy of arable land and maintain microcosmic body interest of arable land protection. The results showed that the factors influencing willingness to pay of urban residents were age, annual family income, education status, acceptant level to externality of arable land utilization and the factors influencing willingness to pay of rural residents were family income level, family population number, education status, whether or not village cadre and annual family agricultural income. The common factors influencing willingness to pay of urban and rural residents were age, annual family income, family population number and education level.%研究影响城乡居民对耕地资源非市场价值支付意愿的因素对于完善耕地保护政策,切实维护耕地保护微观主体利益具有重要的理论和实践价值.根据在辽宁葫芦岛市调研的155个有效样本数据,结合CVM理论,运用Pearson相关系数和多元回归模型从城乡居民支付意愿视角对影响耕地资源非市场价值的因素进行了研究.结果表明,影响城镇居民支付意愿的因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、文化程度和对耕地利用外部性的认可程度;影响农村居民的支付意愿的因素主要有家庭收入水平、家庭人口数、文化程度、是否为村干部和家庭年农业收入;城乡居民的共同影响因素主要有年龄、家庭年收入、家庭人口数和文化程度.

  1. Information security management: a proposal to improve the effectiveness of information security in the scientific research environment; Gestao da seguranca da informacao: uma proposta para potencializar a efetividade da seguranca da informacao em ambiente de pesquisa cientifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandria, Joao Carlos Soares de

    2009-07-01

    The increase of the connectivity in the business environment, combined with the growing dependency of information systems, has become the information security management an important governance tool. Information security has as main goal to protect the business transactions in order to work normally. In this way, It will be safeguarding the business continuity. The threats of information come from hackers' attacks, electronic frauds and spying, as well as fire, electrical energy interruption and humans fault. Information security is made by implementation of a set of controls, including of the others politics, processes, procedures, organizational structures, software and hardware, which require a continuous management and a well established structure to be able to face such challenges. This work tried to search the reasons why the organizations have difficulties to make a practice of information security management. Many of them just limit to adopt points measures, sometimes they are not consistent with their realities. The market counts on enough quantity of standards and regulations related to information security issues, for example, ISO/IEC 27002, American Sarbanes-Oxley act, Basel capital accord, regulations from regulatory agency (such as the Brazilians ones ANATEL, ANVISA and CVM). The market researches have showed that the information security implementation is concentrated on a well-defined group of organization mainly formed by large companies and from specifics sectors of economy, for example, financial and telecommunication. However, information security must be done by all organizations that use information systems to carry out their activities, independently of its size or economic area that it belongs. The situation of information security in the governmental sector of Brazil, and inside its research institutions, is considered worrying by the Brazilian Court of Accounts (TCU). This research work presents an assessment and diagnostic proposal

  2. Study on Shanghai Residents’ Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emission Reduction in Electric Power Industry%上海居民对电力行业CO2减排支付意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘骏

    2016-01-01

    The article uses CVM contingent valuation method to build up Logit regression model based on 5436 units survey data in order to estimate Shanghai residents’ willingness to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy instead of coal-fired power generation. The result shows that most of Shanghai residents hold supportive attitude to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy. Rate of support to use natural gas-fired power generation instead of coal-fired power generation is 7 times as much as to use nuclear power generation instead of coal-fired power generation. It figures out that increased natural gas power generation contributes to realization of emission reduction targets. Otherwise, the model shows that age, income level, education level and residence period of Shanghai residents as four social economic characteristics significantly affect results of their willingness to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy.%利用条件价值评估法,对5436组有效调查问卷数据,建立Logit回归模型,估算上海地区民众对代替煤电进行CO2减排策略的支付意愿。结果表明,大多数上海民众对CO2减排策略持支持的态度,对天然气发电代替煤电的支付意愿大约是核电代替煤电的7倍,并发现增加天然气发电更加有利于减排目标的实现。另外模型显示,居民的年龄、收入水平、受教育程度、居住年限等四项社会经济特征显著影响着支付意愿结果。

  3. Evaluation of the Loses of Noise Pollution in Macao with Contingent Valuation Method%澳门噪音污染损害价值的条件估值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金平; 王志石

    2006-01-01

    条件价值评估法(Contingent Valuation Method, CVM)是评估环境污染的经济损失价值的有效方法之一.在CVM研究方法发展的同时,应用范围亦不断扩大.本次调查通过询问人们对环境质量改善的支付意愿(Willingness To Pay, WTP)或忍受环境损失的受偿意愿(Willingness To Accept, WTA),探求澳门噪音污染的损害程度,为政府部门提供决策依据.试验以等距离随机抽样法访问了1 920人,回收样本956个.本研究对研究方法作了一些新的尝试:①对调查的误差进行了统计学分析;②在假设受访者是诚实和有信用的前提下,问卷采用双向投标卡博弈的问卷设计,对受访者同时进行WTA和WTP之引导试验,减少分开调查时可能出现的策略性偏差;③对影响噪音污染意愿调查结果的9项因素进行了统计学分析, 给出了回归方程.研究结果显示, 被访者的月收入、家庭规模和对噪音的关注程度影响其支付意愿和受偿意愿.2003年澳门噪音污染的年经济损失(以WTP方法试验的结果, 得到澳门噪音污染的最小损害)为5.32亿MOP/a(MOP为澳门元, 1美元=8.033MOP); 以WTA方法试验的结果,得到澳门噪音污染的最大损害为10.6亿MOP/a; 如果取CVM之中值,估算出澳门噪音污染的年损害值为7.98亿MOP/a.还对WTP与WTA之间的差异原因进行了讨论.

  4. 洽川湿地生态系统服务的使用价值和非使用价值评估%The Use and Non-use Values of Ecosystem Services for Hechuan Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方兰; 王浩; 袁渊; 王超亚; 王思博; 胡阗洋

    2015-01-01

    洽川湿地地处黄河中游秦、晋、豫交汇处,是黄河流域最大的温泉湖泊型湿地,也是《诗经》名篇《关雎》的诞生地。本研究在实地考察和问卷调查基础上,从使用价值和非使用价值两个方面来评估湿地的整体价值。结果显示,洽川湿地生态系统服务功能的年度使用价值为792.36×108元。采用条件价值评估法(CVM)对洽川湿地的非使用价值进行了评估,其年度非使用价值约为62.7×108元。本研究还就洽川湿地的《诗经》文化价值是否影响受访者支付意愿进行了对照组分析,结果显示其文化价值将在很大程度上影响受访者的支付意愿。%Hechuan wetland is located in the mid-Yellow River and at the intersection of Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan provinces in China. It is the largest hot spring lake wetland in the Yellow River basin and the birthplace of Guanju, a famous poem in theBook of Songs. Based on field investigations and questionnaires, we valued Hechuan Wetland ecosystem services, considering use values and non-use values. The annual use value of Hechuan Wetland ecosystem services is 79.236 bilion CNY. The contingent valuation method was applied to value the annual non-use value, which is 6.27 bilion CNY. We examined how the historical and cultural value of theBook of Songs affected respondents’ willingness to pay by establishing a control group. Results suggest that historical and cultural value does have a strong inlfuence on wilingness to pay.

  5. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ying

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, producing the safe, high quality and nutritious vegetable products has become the common goal of the food producers and consumers. In doing so, Chinese government vigorously promotes clean production technology of vegetables for the source control and production process control. Unfortunately, lots of vegetables residues are still thrown away after the harvest, which has caused severe environmental pollution in producing areas. Vegetable waste composting technology, an important technology of vegetable cleaner production, has low requirements for technology conditions and is suitable for the promotion of rural households. But it needs additional investment costs including retting pond construction costs during application process and its personal income is less than the social benefits brought by the technology itself, which makes it difficult to mobilize the enthusiasm of farmers to adapt cleaner technology and the technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingent valuation method(CVM to understand the farmers' willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay(WTP by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with

  6. 居民生态系统服务支付意愿研究——以高淳桠溪镇为例%Analysis on the Willingness of Payment for Ecosystem Services of Residents——Taking Yaxi Town, Gaochun as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷; 史艳华; 殷冬; 李祥妹

    2015-01-01

    以南京市高淳桠溪镇生态慢城为研究对象,应用条件价值法(CVM),基于问卷调查,以生态系统服务支付为突破口,分析政府、当地居民、游客等不同个体对生态系统服务支付(PES)的认知及支付意愿,通过构建多元回归分析模型,探讨影响个体生态系统服务支付意愿的主要因素.分析发现,无论是地方政府还是当地农户,对生态系统服务支付体系的了解都非常少,这需要环保与建设部门加大宣传力度.另一方面,本地居民对于生态建设的关注度较低,对生态建设的支付意愿更加低,仅有部分农户愿意拿出收入的2.5%支付生态服务系统,84%的被调查农户认为生态建设是政府的责任.基于此,研究认为,桠溪镇未来生态建设中应加大居民的参与度,采取自下而上、农户参与式生态建设的途径,增进农户对生态系统服务支付的认知,提升个体对地方生态建设及生态服务系统的支付意愿,只有这样才能更有效地建成以生态立足的国际慢城.

  7. Valuing Non-market Benefits of Rehabilitation of Hydrologic Cycle Improvements in the Anyangcheon Watershed: Using Mixed Logit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Kong, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research the findings from a discrete-choice experiment designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with the Anyangcheon watershed improvements in Rep. of Korea. The Anyangcheon watershed has suffered from streamflow depletion and poor stream quality, which often negatively affect instream and near-stream ecologic integrity, as well as water supply. Such distortions in the hydrologic cycle mainly result from rapid increase of impermeable area due to urbanization, decreases of baseflow runoff due to groundwater pumping, and reduced precipitation inputs driven by climate forcing. As well, combined sewer overflows and increase of non-point source pollution from urban regions decrease water quality. The appeal of choice experiments (CE) in economic analysis is that it is based on random utility theory (McFadden, 1974; Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985). In contrast to contingent valuation method (CVM), which asks people to choose between a base case and a specific alternative, CE asks people to choice between cases that are described by attributes. The attributes of this study were selected from hydrologic vulnerability components that represent flood damage possibility, instreamflow depletion, water quality deterioration, form of the watershed and tax. Their levels were divided into three grades include status quo. Two grades represented the ideal conditions. These scenarios were constructed from a 35 orthogonal main effect design. This design resulted in twenty-seven choice sets. The design had nine different choice scenarios presented to each respondent. The most popular choice models in use are the conditional logit (CNL). This model provides closed-form choice probability calculation. The shortcoming of CNL comes from irrelevant alternatives (IIA). In this paper, the mixed logit (ML) is applied to allow the coefficient’s variation for random taste heterogeneity in the population. The mixed logit model(with normal distributions for the attributes) fit the

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF IPO PROCESSES THAT OCCURRED IN BRAZIL DURING THE LAST DECADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a challenge sought by all economically developed societies. National systems articulate public and private resources so as to shape a more innovative society, capable of ideating and promoting processes, products and services with increasing levels of differentiation before those existing. The search for innovation and the creation of competitive advantages is even greater in the corporate environment, a microeconomic locus where innovation can be measured by efforts and results obtained. Likewise, the number of companies that seek to open themselves to the capital market with views to accumulating resources so as to sustain their strategic growth plans, increases. During the last decade, 245 companies opened their capital in Brazil but only 40% of these went to São Paulo´s Stock Exchange Market (Bovespa negotiate their shares. Upon making its Initial Public Offering (IPO the company has to expose to the stock exchange market its true situation in several areas which are ruled by the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. They produce extensive documentation in the form of a robust prospect that is made available to any potential investor. The prospect is known at the capital market as the source that portrays the largest amount of information concerning the company that announced their IPO. It is a legal document but, at the same time, one that in highlight contains, all the attributes and differentials that the company expects the market to evaluate. Thus, by means of secondary sources, all ground on the prospects of IPOs that took place, research was conducted to acknowledge the level of innovation each company presented at the time of their IPO and, at the same time, to measure the performance of the value of stocks that the respective IPO obtained. Subsequently a set of structured qualitative interviews posing to evaluate the results of the quantitative research, was conducted. The quantitative analysis of data collected

  9. Estimating Urban and Rural Residents’ Willingness to Pay for Safe Oil:A Survey in 17 Provinces of China%城乡居民安全食用油支付意愿测算∗--基于全国17个省市的问卷调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦明; 李玥; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    With the development of social economy,the life that consumers pursuit is developing from subsistence to nutritional health.Based on Contingent Value Method,this paper estimates how much consumers in urban and rural would like to pay for safe oil and analyzes the influencing factors of WTP.The results show that urban consumers would like to pay 18·57% higher than the price of ordinary oil,while the rural consumers pay 15·32% higher than.What’s more,urban and rural residents’willingness to pay is mainly influenced by household characteristics,information awareness and bid values.In addition, individual characteristics of rural residents affect the payment.In particular,the effect of age of urban and rural residents is just opposite on the payment.Finally,it puts forward accordingly policy suggestions.%随着社会经济的发展和人民生活水平的提高,消费者对生活的追求正从温饱型向营养健康型转变。文章在 CVM 二分法问卷调查的基础上,运用二元 Logit 模型分别测算城乡居民对于安全食用油的支付意愿,并对影响其支付意愿的因素进行分析。结果表明,城乡居民对安全食用油的支付溢价分别为原价的18·57%和15·32%。同时,城乡居民对安全食用油的支付意愿主要受到家庭特征、信息认知和投标值的影响。此外,个体特征对农村居民关于该支付意愿也具有影响。特别地,年龄对城乡居民关于该支付意愿的影响正好相反。在此基础上,本文提出了相关政策建议。

  10. Clinical, manometric and profilometric evaluation after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: comparison between the modified Duhamel and the transanal rectosigmoidectomy techniques Avaliação clínica, manométrica e profilométrica após correção cirúrgica para doença de Hirschsprung: comparação entre as técnicas de Duhamel modificado e a retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Soares Martins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate fecal continence, anorectal manometry (AM and profilometry (P, in patients operated for congenital megacolon, using either the modified Duhamel technique (MDT or the modified transanal rectosigmoidectomy (MTR technique. METHODS: 42 patients were evaluated clinically and via AM and P, for postoperative control. The resting, coughing, voluntary contraction, maintained voluntary contraction and perianal stimulation pressures were investigated. The rectosphincteric reflex was tested and the simple and enhanced pressure curves were evaluated. The three-dimensional profilometric outline was produced. Student's t, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a continência fecal, a manometria anorretal (MAR e a profilometria (PFM, em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico do megacolo congênito pelas técnicas de Duhamel modificado (DM ou de retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada (RTM. MÉTODOS: 42 pacientes foram clinicamente avaliados e submetidos à MAR e PFM para controle pós-operatório. Foram pesquisadas as pressões no repouso (PR, à tosse (T, à contração voluntária (CV, à contração voluntária mantida (CVM e à estimulação perianal (EPA. O reflexo reto-esficteriano (RRE foi testado e as curvas pressóricas simples e potencializada foram avaliadas. Foi elaborado traçado tridimensional de PFM. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, Qui-Quadrado e exato de Fisher para análise estatística (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A MAR mostrou médias de PR=53,44 mmHg para DM e 60,67 mmHg para RTM; CV média = 94,50 mmHg para o grupo DM e 95,47 mmHg para o grupo RTM. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A forma das CPS e CPP não apresentou diferença estatística, independentemente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas operatórias foram manometricamente equivalentes. DM determinou maior incidência de constipação pós-operatória que RTM. A

  11. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  12. Reflejos de la Ley n.º 11.638/07 en los Indicadores Contables de las Empresas Textiles Listadas en la BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En diciembre de 2007, fue promulgada en el Brasil la Ley n.º11.638 (2007, que alteró la Ley de las Sociedades Anónimas. Alteraciones significativas fueron impuestas por la ley, entre ellas la adopción de las normas brasileñas de contabilidad en conformidad con las normas internacionales, que implica en diversas mudanzas en las demostraciones contables. En esa percepción de mudanzas en las demostraciones contables, pueden ocurrir también alteraciones en los indicadores contables utilizados en el análisis de balances. En ese contexto, el artículo objetiva verificar si hubo reflejos estadísticamente significativos en los indicadores contables después de la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007. Fue realizado un estudio descriptivo con un abordaje cuantitativo. La colecta de los datos ocurrió por medio de las Demostraciones Financieras Estandarizadas (DFPs de 2000 a 2008 a disposición en el sitio de la Comisión de Valores Mobiliarios (CVM. La muestra por accesibilidad comprendió 16 empresas listadas en la BM&FBovespa clasificadas en el sector de consumo cíclico, en el subsector tejidos, vestuario y calzados, segmento hilos y tejidos que poseían todas las DFPs del período de 2000 a 2008. Se aplicaron las técnicas estadísticas de regresión lineal con base en el Modelo de Koyck y de correlaciones canónicas. Los resultados mostraron que hay correlación canónica estadísticamente significativa entre los indicadores contables antes de entrar en vigor la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007 con los indicadores contables después de entrar en vigor la ley 11.638/07. Se concluye de manera general, de acuerdo con las empresas pesquisadas, que los indicadores contables no sufrieron alteración estadísticamente significativa por el hecho de las demostraciones contables ser elaboradas atendiendo a los preceptos de la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007.

  13. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  14. A comparison between the solar energy collection by fix and tracking collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, John D [San Diego State University, San Diego (United States)

    2000-07-01

    clearness index K{sub t}. [Spanish] Se ha elaborado una simulacion matematica realistica de la recoleccion de energia solar termica de un colector de aire de placa plana, seis disenos de colectores evacuados fijos y dos disenos de colectores evacuados Port Hardy de Columbia Britanica y Edmonton, Alberta y Daggett, California en los Estados Unidos. Las diferencias en la recoleccion de energia solar por los diferentes disenos de colector se originan solamente por diferencias en la geometria del colector puesto que se usan las mismas orientaciones del colector, absorbedor selectivo y los datos de radiacion solar en las simulaciones para todos los disenos de colector. Se ha encontrado que la recoleccion de energia solar en Canada por colectores de aire de placa plana es significativamente inferior que la de los tubos fijos evacuados y los que siguen la trayectoria del sol y las temperaturas de operacion mas bajas. Esto ocurre a causa de las altas perdidas termicas del colector de aire de placa plana y la baja insolacion solar y temperaturas bajas ambientales de invierno en Canada. Los colectores de alta concentracion que siguen la trayectoria que recolectan la radiacion no difusa no recolectan tanta energia solar a bajas temperaturas como todos los colectores fijos evacuados de Port Hardy en Canada en donde hay un numero limitado de dias claros. Los colectores fijos tubulares evacuados (tipos Dewar) recolectan la mayor parte de la energia solar a bajas temperaturas. A temperaturas mas altas recolectan la menor cantidad de energia que todos los colectores evacuados. Esto es debido a su baja concentracion y por tanto mayores perdidas de radiacion. Las aletas verticales al vacio y la mayor concentracion configuraron los colectores de vidrio evacuados a altas temperaturas. La recoleccion de energia solar en Daggett es mucho mayor que la de las dos estaciones Canadienses debido a la alta insolacion solar y temperaturas ambientes de moderadas a tibias. Mediante la rotacion de los

  15. Síntese e caracterização do compósito Al2O3 -YAG e do Al2O3-YAG e Al2O3 aditivados com Nb2O5 Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 -YAG composite and Al2O3-YAG and Al2O3 with Nb2O5 additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Cabral

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O compósito Al2O3-YAG possui alta resistência à corrosão e à fluência em ambientes agressivos, o que permite vislumbrar aplicações bastante atrativas, tais como aletas de motores a jato e de turbinas a gás. Este compósito também apresenta elevada dureza e alta resistência à abrasão possibilitando o seu emprego em blindagens balísticas. Nesse estudo os pós precursores de Al2O3, Y2O3 e Nb2O5 foram homogeneizados em moinho de bolas planetário por 4 h, secados em estufa a 120 ºC por 48 h, desaglomerados e peneirados. O compósito Al2O3-YAG foi produzido a partir das misturas de Al2O3-Y2O3 a 1300 ºC por 2 h. Foram produzidas amostras de Al2O3-YAG, Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 e Al2O3 com Nb2O5. Posteriormente os pós foram prensados uniaxialmente a 70 MPa. A sinterização foi feita a 1400 e 1450 ºC. Os pós como recebidos e os processados foram caracterizados quanto à área de superfície específica e ao tamanho médio de partícula. Os materiais sinterizados foram caracterizados por densidade e porosidade aparente pelo método de Arquimedes e avaliados quanto à retração e à perda de massa. Os resultados mostraram que são necessários ainda ajustes nas condições de sinterização da composição Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 para melhorar a densificação e a retração, que foram baixas, da ordem de 60 e 3%, respectivamente. O Al2O3 aditivado com Nb2O5, por sua vez, apresentou uma densificação satisfatória, de 96% e uma retração em torno de 15%.The Al2O3-YAG composite exhibits high corrosion and creep resistance in aggressive environments, which provides quite glimpse attractive applications such as jet engine vanes and as gas turbines. This composite also shows high hardness and wear resistance allowing its use in ballistic armor. In this study, precursor powders of Al2O3, Y2O3 and Nb2O5 were homogeneously mixed in a planetary ball mill for 4 h, dried in an oven at 120 ºC for 48 h, sieved and deagglomerated. The Al2O3-YAG composite

  16. Comprometimento respiratório secundário a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus Respiratory abnormalities following Crotalus durissus snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available São analisados três pacientes que apresentaram comprometimento da função respiratória após acidente por Crotalus durissus. As manifestações respiratórias surgiram nas primeiras 48 horas após a picada do ofídio e consistiram de dispnéia, taquipnéia, uso da musculatura acessória da respiração (casos 1 e 2 e batimento das aletas nasais (caso 2. Dois pacientes (casos 1 e 2 apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda. O diagnóstico desta complicação no caso 1 foi clínico pois o paciente apresentou apnéia. O paciente do caso 2, 24 horas após o acidente ofídico apresentou dificuldade respiratória intensa e períodos de apnéia sendo intubado, permanecendo em respiração espontânea. Houve agravamento dos sinais clínicos de insuficiência respiratória e a determinação de pH e gases do sangue arterial mostrou em relação ao exame inicial elevação da pressão parcial de gás carbônico (40 mmHg para 50,3 mm Hg caracterizando insuficiência ventilatória aguda. Ambos foram tratados com emprego de ventilação artificial mecânica, tendo o paciente do caso 1 permanecido no ventilador durante 33 dias e o do caso 2 durante 15 dias. Ambos desenvolveram insuficiência renal aguda, necessitaram de diálise peritoneal e recuperaram a função renal. A paciente do caso 3, apesar dos sintomas e sinais de comprometimento respiratório não apresentou alterações do pH e gases arteriais. Espirometria realizada 58 horas após o acidente mostrou capacidade vital forçada (CVF e volume espirado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 abaixo do previsto (60 e 67% respectivamente. As espirometrias realizadas nos dias subseqüentes evidenciaram melhora progressiva destes parâmetros. No 10º dia após o acidente constatou-se aumento de 20% da CVF e de 17% do VEF1 comparativamente ao exame inicial. A relação entre VEF1 e a CVF manteve-se praticamente inalterada e em valores próximos ao previsto, caracterizando distúrbio ventilatório do tipo

  17. Evaluación de la reproducción inducida del blanquillo ( Sorubim cuspicaudus Littmann, Burr Nass, 2000 con ovaprim®.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Atencio G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El blanquillo ( Sorubim suspicaudus Littmann, Burr &Nass, 2000 presenta características de importanciapara la acuicultura, destacándose la calidad de sucarne y el alto valor comercial. No se reproduce enconfinamiento, por lo que es necesario sureproducción inducida con sustancias hormonales.Responde bien a la inducción con extracto de pituitariade capa (EPC; sin embargo, no se ha evaluado suinducción con extracto de análogos deGonodotropine Releasing Hormone de salmón(sGnRH-a y domperidone en un vehículo inerte. Porlo tanto, entre mayo y noviembre/02, se evaluó eldesempeño reproductivo del blanquillo inducido condiferentes dosificaciones de Ovaprim®: 0.25 (T2,0.050 (T3 y 0.75 ml/kg de peso vivo (T4, aplicadoen una sola dosificación, por inyección en la basede la aleta pectoral. Además, un grupo fue inducidocon 8 mg EPC/kg de peso vivo (TI, en dos inyeccionesde 10 y7 90% de la dosis total, con intervalo de 6horas, por vía intramuscular. Se indujeron entre seisy nueve hembras por tratamiento con igual númerode machos. El desempeño reproductivo fue evaluadomediante el índice de ovulación (hembras ovuladas/hembras tratadas, tasa de fertilización medida a las4 horas pos-eclosión (HPF, tasa de eclosión medidaa las 10 HPF y la fecundidad tanto absoluta comorelativa. El Ovaprim® mostró ser efectivo para inducirla ovulación del blanquillo en las dosificacionesevaluadas (0.25 a 0.75 mL/kg, con respuestassimilares en el desempeño reproductivo a lasobtenidas en EPC. La ovulación con Ovaprim® seobtuvo entre las 12.8 y 14.0 horas con temperaturapromedio del agua de 27.3ºC. El índice de ovulaciónosciló entre 66.7% (T2 y 83.3% (T3; la tasa defertilización osciló entre 88.0% (T3 y 42.0% (T1; latasa de eclosión osciló entre 83.7% (T3 y 40.3%(T1;la fecundidad absoluta osciló entre 40370.6 (T1 y82992.5 ovocitos/hembra (T2; la fecundad relativa,expresada en gramos de ovocitos/kg de hembra,osciló entre 32.1 (T3 y 63.1(T2; el di

  18. Alteraciones del desarrollo embrionario, poliaminas y estrés oxidativo inducidos por plaguicidas organofosforados en Rhinella Arenarum Alterations in embryonic development, polyamines and oxidative stress induced by organophosphates in Rhinella arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Inés Lascano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas organofosforados (OP son masivamente aplicados en el Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, afectando al ecosistema. Utilizamos un modelo embrionario de anfibios (Rhinella arenarum para estudiar mecanismos por los cuales OP como metilazinfos (MA y clorpirifos (CP podrían provocar teratogénesis. Los embriones fueron desarrollados en diferentes concentraciones de MA o CP hasta opérculo completo (OC, analizando: malformaciones, histología, glutatión reducido (GSH y enzimas antioxidantes, poliaminas, actividad de ornitina-decarboxilasa (ODC y proteínaquinasa- C (PKC. Ambos OP provocaron un incremento tiempo/concentración-dependiente de malformaciones, llegando a 100% de teratogénesis en estadios avanzados y a las mayores concentraciones, incluyendo: exogastrulación, curvaturas de aleta caudal, acortamiento axial, edema, y atrofia branquial. Se evidenció una condición de estrés oxidativo creciente: las enzimas GSH-dependientes (S-transferasa (GST, peroxidasa y reductasa fueron inducidas tempranamente a bajas concentraciones, pero inhibidas en el estadio de OC a altas concentraciones, junto con una caída significativa de GSH (62% para MA. MA incrementó significativamente (18X la actividad de ODC en OC, aumentando los niveles de putrescina (60% pero disminuyendo espermidina (56% y espermina (100%; CP disminuyó en estadios tempranos la actividad de ODC y niveles de poliaminas. La disminución de poliaminas podría deberse al incremento de degradación por poliamino-oxidasa, contribuyendo al estrés oxidativo inducido por OP. Esto causaría la disminución de GSH, y la activación de PKC en OC (55%, que participaría en el control positivo de GST y ODC. Finalmente, el estrés oxidativo y la disminución en los niveles de poliaminas podrían ser causantes de alteraciones del desarrollo embrionario.Organophosphate (OP pesticides are widely applied in the region of Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, affecting the ecosystem. We

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    . Erickson-Owens, J. Mercer, D. Thulier, W. Oh, M. VanVleetABS 18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INDUCED LABOR AND FETAL STRESS HORMONE RELEASE • S. Wellmann, A. Koslowski, K. Spanaus, R. Zimmermann, T. BurkhardtABS 19. ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC FUNCTION IN PRETERM INFANTS: MATURATIONAL PATTERNS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATION TIME • M.D. Patel, A.T. James, P.J. McNamara, A. Jain, O. Franklin, A. Mathur, C. Lee, A. Hamvas, G.K. Singh, L. Mertens, P.T. LevyABS 20. LONGITUDINAL CARDIAC CHANGES IN PRETERM INFANTS WITH PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO A PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS • K. de Waal, N. PhadABS 21. NOVEL NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENTS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF NORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR ADAPTATION IN TERM & NEAR TERM INFANTS • L. Mahoney, D. Wertheim, J.R. Fernandez Alvarez, N. Aiton, H. Rojas-Anaya, P. Seddon, H. RabeABS 22. PERFUSION INDEX USED AS A SIXTH VITAL SIGN IN PRETERM INFANTS LEADS TO EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SHOCK AND BETTER OUTCOMES • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L. Balasubramanian, V. Kannappan, R.M. SahadevanABS 23. EARLY CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS • K.W. Olsson, R. Sindelar, A. JonzonABS 24. UK SURVEILLANCE OF SURGICAL LIGATION OF THE PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA IN PREMATURE BABIES PRIOR TO FIRST DISCHARGE HOME • A. Lakshmanan, L. Lee, T. Crosby, W. KelsallABS 25. CURRENT PRACTICES ON HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY • S. Vrancken, L. Frijns, K. Liem, J. Hopman, J. Lemson, A. van Heijst, W. de BoodeABS 26. NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC MYOCARDIAL PROPERTIES IN ELBW NEONATES • T. Kovacs, G. Mogyorosy, A. Kertesz, A. Borbely, Z. Papp, Gy. BallaABS 27. PRIOR CLINICAL DESCRIPTION BIASES ASSESSMENT OF CAPILLARY REFILL TIME • E. Murphy, S. Coleman, S. Hill, C. Henry, D. Morris, D. SharkeyABS 28. AFTERLOAD REDUCTION IN CATECHOLAMINE-RESISTANT SHOCK IN EXTREME PREMATURITY: NOVEL THERAPY WITH OLD DRUG FOR AN UNRECOGNIZED FACTOR IN SHOCK • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L

  20. Massage therapy in the management of myogenic TMD: a pilot study Massoterapia para o tratamento da DTM miogênica: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kise Capellini

    2006-01-01

    reduz a qualidade de vida e a produtividade das pessoas que têm tal distúrbio. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar se a massagem produz alívio da dor e/ou alterações eletromiográficas (EMG. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Para tanto, utilizou-se um questionário para selecionar portadores de DTM, os quais foram divididos em 2 grupos diferentes. A idade dos voluntários variou de 19 a 22 anos. O grupo experimental foi formado por 6 portadores de DTM submetidos ao tratamento pela massagem e a 4 sessões EMG (a 1ª sessão ocorreu antes do tratamento e as outras nos 1º, 15º e 30º dias depois do tratamento. O grupo controle foi composto por 6 portadores de DTM submetidos às mesmas 4 sessões EMG. Durante o registro eletromiográfico, foi pedido aos voluntários para manter a posição de repouso mandibular (PRM e realizar contração voluntária máxima (CVM. O tratamento consistiu em 15 sessões de massagem na face e pescoço e na aplicação da Escala Visual Analógica (EVA para avaliar o nível de dor. As sessões de massagem tiveram 30 minutos de duração e foram realizadas diariamente. Os sinais EMG foram processados para obter Root Mean Square (RMS que foi normalizado pela CVM. RESULTADO: Foi demonstrado que: (1 RMS-PRM do masseter direito do grupo experimental foi maior na 1ª sessão EMG em comparação com a 2ª sessão EMG e (2 houve redução estatisticamente significante para os valores de EVA pós-massagem. CONCLUSÃO: A AMOstra é pequena para delinear qualquer conclusão, sendo necessários mais estudos a respeito da massagem no tratamento das DTMs miogênicas.

  1. 城市公园游憩资源非使用价值评估——以南京市玄武湖公园为例%Evaluation of the Non-Use Value of Recreational Resources in Urban Parks: A Case Study of Xuanwu Lake Park, Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔峰; 丁风芹; 何杨; 杜林华; 颜廷凯

    2012-01-01

    Urban parks are often the main natural landscape, a key place for residents and visitors, and have important ecological, economic and social benefits. However, as cities grow, landscape planning and design commercializes, and recreational activity increases, urban parks are encroached upon and sometimes destroyed. This is mainly allowed to happen because public consciousness of resources and environmental protection is low. The economic development value of recreational resources is often emphasized, but the non-use value of recreational resources is neglected so that the total value of recreational resources is underestimated. The park of Xuanwu Lake in Nanjing is an example we profile in this paper. The non-use value of the recreational resources was researched quantitatively by adopting the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and an investigation of the willingness of tourists to pay (WTP). Four hundred payment card CVM questionnaires were surveyed and 369 were returned. Distribution shape and rule of willingness to pay were probed. We found that most visitors (62.1%) have a willingness to pay the non-use value of the recreational resources at Xuanwu Lake Park. The total non-use value of this recreational resource was 473 × 10 6 Yuan in 2011, the existence value is 307 × 10 6 Yuan per year, the bequest value is 88 × 10 6 Yuan per year and the option value is 79 × 10 6 Yuan per year. The relationship between population features and WTP shows that educational level and age are significantly correlated with WTP; however, gender, guest source area, monthly income, tourist understanding about Xuanwu Lake park, and other factors were not correlated with WTP. Monthly income is obviously correlated with the value of WTP, though other factors are not. This study promotes visitor cognition of the recreational resource value of urban parks, strengthens their awareness of environmental protection, and provides a scientific basis for related organizations to plan, manage

  2. Agrupación de Cuencas hidrográficas de acuerdo con el tipo de suelo Agrupamento de microbacias em função do tipo de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho visou analisar os atributos do relevo através das variáveis: altitude máxima (HM; altitude média (Hmd; altitude mínima (Hm; a amplitude altimétrica (H; comprimento médio de vertente (CVm; comprimento mínimo de deflúvio (Cd; declividade média da amostra circular (I e integral hipsométrica (IH, integral volumétrica (IV, altura média da integral volumétrica (hIV, altura média da integral hipsométrica (hIH e desenvolvimento da erosão (DE obtidos em 4 microbacias de terceira ordem de ramificação e três unidades de solo da bacia do Rio Capivara – Botucatu (SP, tendo como base cartográfica: fotografias aéreas coloridas, Carta Topográfica de Botucatu e Carta de solos do Município de Botucatu – SP. A distinção dos solos foi realizada através da análise de agrupamentos e de componentes principais. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que os métodos se mostraram interessantes para indicação dos grupos semelhantes de microbacias. O primeiro componente principal possibilitou a discriminar as microbacias em função dos maiores valores das variáveis hIV, hIH, H, DE e I, indicando que quanto maior o valor da variável observada para a microbacia, maior será o poder discriminatório, enquanto que o maior valor do segundo componente principal, para variáveis do relevo, resultou em função dos maiores valores de HM, HMD e Hm. As variáveis hIV e hIH foram as que apresentaram maior poder discriminatório na formação dos grupos de microbacias mais similares.

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los atributos de relieve a través de las variables: altura máxima (HM; altitud media (Hmd; altura mínima (Hm; amplitud altimétrica (H, longitud media de la pendiente (CVm; longitud mínima de la escorrentía (Cd, pendiente media de la muestra circular (I y integral hipsométrica (IH; el volumen total (IV, la altura media de la integral volumétrica (hVI; la altura

  3. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa Audit costs and corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores dos serviços de auditoria e serviços extras contratados junto às empresas de auditoria independente. Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre governança corporativa, custos de auditoria e de serviços extra-auditoria, foram analisadas as informações disponibilizadas por 131 empresas no primeiro semestre de 2010. As proxies de governança utilizadas foram: desvio de direitos dos cinco maiores acionistas, participação em segmentos diferenciados de governança da Bolsa de Mercadoria e Futuros & Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BM&FBovespa, existência de comitê de auditoria e de departamento de auditoria interna. Os resultados apontam para uma relação negativa entre governança e custos de auditoria, sugerindo que, no mercado brasileiro, predomina o efeito risco. Ou seja, melhores práticas de governança reduzem os riscos (judiciais e de perda da reputação da auditoria externa permitindo a cobrança de valores menores. A literatura internacional não é unânime quanto ao sinal, embora a maioria dos estudos apresente uma relação positiva, a favor do efeito demanda. De acordo com este efeito, melhor governança implica em maiores exigências junto ao serviço da auditoria acarretando elevação dos valores cobrados. A relação encontrada também é negativa entre os valores dos serviços extras e as boas práticas de governança. Apesar de as pesquisas não comprovarem a influência destes custos sobre a perda da independ

  4. 武夷山自然保护区生态旅游系统能值分析%An emergy analysis on the ecotourism system of Wuyishan Natural Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪波; 李燕燕

    2009-01-01

    能值理论与分析方法已经被广泛应用于对人类社会和自然界研究的各个层面.将武夷山国家自然保护区视为生态旅游系统,运用能值理论及其分析方法对其进行讨论和研究.由于传统的能值方法未能完全反映生态旅游系统的一切价值,研究中将条件价值法(CVM)与能值分析相结合,试图能够完整的体现出生态旅游系统的全部价值.在此认识的基础上提出了理想能值交换率等概念.并且将对该系统的研究结果与类似系统进行了横向比较.研究结果表明:(1)武夷山自然保护区生态旅游系统能值密度为7.31×10~(11) sej/m~2,低于福建省的16.02×10~(11) sej/m~2;而人均能值量为2.80×10~(16) sej/m~2,高于福建省人均能值5.75×10~(15) sej/m~2;净能值产出率为3.60,略高于广西恭城月柿生态农业旅游经济系统的2.79;武夷山自然保护区生态旅游系统理想能值交换率为0.70.(2)武夷山自然保护区自然环境条件良好,发展潜力较大;社区经济欠发达,居民生活水平较低;系统生产效率低,与外界贸易失衡,生态旅游处于探索阶段.%Emergy theory and analysis method have been applied in the ecological science and other relative fields. In this paper, Wuyishan national natural reserve in Fujiang province of China is taken as a system, emergy analysis has been used to study its ecotourism situation. The entire value of an ecotourism system can not be completely presented by the traditional method of emergy analysis, therefore, CVM is introduced in order to compensate this, so that a complete value of the system can be presented. In this way, some of new concepts of emergy are proposed such as ideal exchange emergy ratio. The results of this study have been compared with other similar study. This study indicates that: (1) the emergy density of the ecotourism system of Wuyishan natural reserve is 7.31×10~(11) sej/m~2, lower than the average of that of Fujian Province(16

  5. Curva dose-resposta do exercício em hipertensos: análise do número de sessões para efeito hipotensor Curva dosis-respuesta del ejercicio en hipertensos: análisis del número de sesiones para efecto hipotensor Dose-response curve to exercise in hypertensive individuals: analysis of the number of sessions to the hypotensive effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O efeito do exercício na pressão arterial já é conhecido, entretanto a curva dose-resposta do efeito hipotensor do exercício em hipertensos ainda não está clara. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a curva dose-resposta do número de sessões necessárias para causar efeito hipotensor em indivíduos hipertensos. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 88 indivíduos, com 58 ± 11 anos, divididos em grupo experimental (GE - composto de 48 integrantes de um programa de exercício físico (PEF de 3 meses, 3 vezes por semana, com 40' de exercício aeróbio a 70% do VO2máx e exercícios musculares a 40% da CVM - e grupo-controle (GC - 40 indivíduos que não realizaram PEF. As pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD foram mensuradas antes de cada uma das 36 sessões no GE e avaliadas por MAPA no GC. Observaram-se as diferenças na PA, o índice de variação (D% e o efeito hipotensor máximo (EHM% entre as sessões. Os dados foram expressos por M ± DP, e usou-se teste t e correlação, considerando p FUNDAMENTO: Ya se conoce el efecto del ejercicio en la presión arterial, sin embargo, la curva dosis-respuesta del efecto hipotensor del ejercicio en hipertensos no está aclarada aún. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la curva dosis-respuesta del número de sesiones necesarias para causar efecto hipotensor en individuos hipertensos. MÉTODOS: El estudio estaba conformado por 88 individuos, con 58 ± 11 años, divididos en grupo experimental (GE -conformado por 48 integrantes de un programa de ejercicio físico (PEF de tres meses, tres veces por semana, con 40' de ejercicio aerobio al 70% del VO2máx y ejercicios musculares al 40% de la capacidad voluntaria máxima (CVM; y grupo-control (GC con 40 individuos que no realizaron el PEF. Se midieron las presiones arteriales sistólica (PAS y diastólica (PAD del GE antes de cada una de las 36 sesiones y en el GC se las evaluaron por monitoreo ambulatorio de presión arterial (MAPA. Se observaron las

  6. Atividade elétrica dos músculos oblíquos externos e multífidos durante o exercício de flexoextensão do quadril realizado no Cadillac com diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo Electrical activity of external oblique and multifidus muscles during the hip flexion-extension exercise performed in the Cadillac with different adjustments of springs and individual positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson F. Loss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Apesar do amplo uso do Pilates na Fisioterapia, há poucos estudos que avaliaram a ativação elétrica dos músculos nos exercícios. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo sobre a ativação elétrica dos multífidos (MU e oblíquos externos (OE durante a flexoextensão do quadril (FEQ no Cadillac. MÉTODOS: Oito mulheres praticantes de Pilates por seis meses realizaram 10 repetições de FEQ nas situações: mola baixa (MB, mola fixada a 30 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; mola alta (MA, mola fixada a 90 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; posição próxima (PP, distância de 10 cm da fixação da mola; posição distante (PD, distância de 30 cm da fixação da mola. Dados cinemáticos e de eletromiografia (EMG foram coletados sincronizadamente, e os músculos monitorados bilateralmente foram os OE e os MU. Cada movimento de FEQ foi recortado em duas fases (extensão e flexão. O sinal de EMG foi calculado e normalizado usando a contração voluntária máxima (CVM. O Wilcoxon test foi usado para investigar diferenças entre as situações (pBACKGROUND: Despite of the widepread use of Pilates in Physical Therapy, there are few studies that have assessed the muscle electrical activation during Pilates exercises. OBJECTIVE: Verify the influence of different spring adjustments and individual positions on the electrical activation of multifidus (MU and oblique external (OE muscles during hip flexion-extension (HFE exercise on the Cadillac. METHODS: Eight women practicing Pilates exercises for at least six months performed 10 repetitions of HFE in the following situations: Lower Spring, spring fixed at 30 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Higher Spring, spring fixed at 90 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Near Position, distance of 10 cm from the fixed spring. Distant Position, distance of 30 cm from

  7. Valoração econômica dos benefícios ambientais percebidos pela população da bacia do Educandos provenientes do PROSAMIM Economic valuation of environmental benefits perceived by the Educandos basin population proceeding from PROSAMIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellem Andrezza Araújo Freitas

    2010-09-01

    on the stream banks. The main target of this research consists in the economical evaluation of environmental benefits perceived by the population in the Educandos basin proceeding from PROSAMIM, using the Contingent Valuation Method - CVM to estimate individual willingness to pay for the environmental improvement. We estimated a sample size corresponding to 1,070 questionnaires, taking into account an error of 3% and significance level of 5%. In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the people were willing to pay R$ 13.73 per month toward implementing the PROSAMIM, for an annual total of R$46,325,074.92 per year. Analyzing the influence of socioeconomic variables on the acceptance probability of paying for environmental benefits, we concluded that the probability was greater among those with a higher income. We also concluded that, the actions of PROSAMIM have generated significant improvements for the population of Manaus from the environmental as well as the social point of view.

  8. 安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)患者上下颌骨生长发育特点的研究%Growth charactristics of mandible and maxilla in patients with ClassⅡ malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋镜明; 赵祝; 宋扬; 黄闯; 郝文君; 金作林

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)上下颌骨生长的特点,为安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)的临床治疗时机和治疗方法的选择提供参考.方法:收集安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)患者837 例(男332 例,女505 例).按CVM骨龄分期分组,测量头影侧位片,应用Win Ceph 6.0软件进行分析,SPSS 13.0进行方差分析后进行组间多重对比(CS1- CS6).结果:男性组:下颌骨水平部、下颌升支、下颌骨总长度,在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4期有明显增长;上腭长度、上颌总长度,在CS2- CS3期有明显增长.女性组:上颌骨总长度、下颌骨水平部、下颌骨总长度,在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4期有明显增长.结论:男女下颌骨生长高峰出现在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4时期;上颌生长高峰男性出现在CS1- CS2之间和CS2- CS3之间,女性出现在CS1- CS2之间和CS3- CS4之间.%Objective: To study the growth charactristics of mandible and maxilla in patients with Class II malocclusion. Methods: The records of 837 untreated subjects with Class II malocclusion ( 332 males and 505 females ) were selected in the orthodontic clinic. The patients were divided into 6 groups according to their CVM. Win Ceph 6. 0 was used for cephalometric analysis. The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: In male group significant increase of Go-Gn, Cd-Go and Cd-Gn was observed in CS1-CS2 and CS2-CS3, significant increase of ANS-PNS and Cd-A was found in CS2-CS3. In Female group significant increase of Cd-A, Go-Gn and Cd-Gn was found in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4. Conclusion: The length of mandibular ramus and mandibular body may significantly growth in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4 in the male and female. The significant growth of maxilla is in CS1-CS2 and CS2-CS3 in the male and in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4 in the female.

  9. Land Transference Compensation of Pankou Hydropower Station Project's Resettlement Area%潘口水电站移民安置区土地流转补偿标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灵辉; 陈银蓉; 梅昀

    2011-01-01

    会福利改进标准,要实现安置区土地向移民转移过程的社会福利改进,需要对利益受损的安置区集体和居民给予相应的补偿以弥补其福利损失.本文以湖北省竹山县潘口水电站为例,在对竹山县溢水镇、宝丰镇两个乡(镇)5个移民安置点的73户安置区居民进行问卷调查的基础上,运用条件价值法(CVM)对安置区土地流转的补偿标准进行了实证研究,研究结果表明:潘口水电站移民安置区土地流转补偿执行标准均未达到农地实际价值的一半,水田的补偿程度为49.54%.旱地的补偿程度为为44.54%,安置区集体和居民没有获得充分的补偿,因此,需要提高安置区土地流转补偿标准,使安置区居民也能和移民一样地分享到水利水电工程带来的增值收益.

  10. Análise das práticas de evidenciação de informações obrigatórias, não-obrigatórias e avançadas nas demonstrações contábeis das sociedades anônimas no Brasil: um estudo comparativo dos exercícios de 2002 e 2005 Analysis of mandatory, non-mandatory and advanced information disclosure practices in financial statements of companies in Brazil: a comparative study between 2002 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Rodrigues Ponte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o mundo se discute sobre a transparência e a qualidade na divulgação das informações contábeis. No sentido de contribuir para esse debate, o presente estudo procura responder à seguinte questão de pesquisa: Quais as mudanças percebidas na evidenciação de informações obrigatórias, não-obrigatórias e avançadas praticada pelas sociedades anônimas no Brasil? Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória-descritiva, cujas amostras são de natureza não-probabilística acidental. Foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis de 95 empresas, referentes ao exercício de 2002, e 119 alusivas ao exercício de 2005. No tocante aos itens recomendados pelos pareceres nos 15/87, 17/89 e 19/90 da CVM, a pesquisa revela a não-ocorrência de melhoria das práticas de disclosure das companhias estudadas. Com relação às informações contábeis de natureza avançada e não-obrigatória propugnadas pelas práticas de governança corporativa, verifica-se um avanço na sua evidenciação pelas empresas analisadas, que dispensam atenção especial à divulgação de suas práticas de responsabilidade social e do Balanço Social, das Demonstrações do Fluxo de Caixa (DFC e do Valor Adicionado (DVA.All over the world, there have been discussions on transparency and quality in the disclosure of accounting information. Aiming at contributing towards this debate, this study seeks to answer the following research question: What are the perceived changes in the disclosure of mandatory, non-mandatory and advanced accounting reporting experienced by companies in Brazil? Financial statements from 95 companies were assessed, referring to corporate annual reports of 2002 and from 119 companies referring to corporate annual reports of 2005. Concerning items recommended in rules numbers 15/87, 17/89 and 19/90 by the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, this research reveals that there was no improvement in the disclosure practices of the companies

  11. 骨龄在评估颅面生长发育中的应用及其影响因素%The application of skeletal age in the assessment of craniofacial growth and development and related influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉莉

    2016-01-01

    准确的骨龄评估可以评价个体发育所处的阶段,为正畸临床选择矫治时机和预测颅面生长发育潜力提供重要的参考依据。本文从骨龄评估颅面生长发育的研究现状、影响骨龄评估颅面生长发育准确性的因素、骨龄评估颅面生长发育的改进与发展趋势三个方面展开论述,观点总结如下。①手腕骨龄,尤其是Fishman手腕骨龄分期法是一种有机的、相对简单并可靠的骨龄评估方法;颈椎骨龄分期法不用接受额外的X线照射,易于观察下颌生长高峰期,尤其是适应当今影像数字化趋势的颈椎骨龄定量分期法;②骨龄准确性受种族、性别、评定方法本身特点等因素的影响,应找到适合特定患者的骨龄评估方法;③环境因素,尤其是生物钟长期紊乱可导致骨发育异常,影响骨龄评估的准确性,提出通过调节生物钟治疗颅面生长发育异常的新方法,并期望发现评价颅面生长发育的新指标、新标准,提高骨龄评估生长发育的准确性。%Accurate skeletal age evaluation can assess the stage of individual development,and therefore provide the important refer-ence for orthodontists to choose proper treatment timing and predict the growth potential. This paper explores three aspects,including the research status of the assessment of craniofacial growth and development,the influencing factors of skeletal age evaluation accuracy, and the improvement and development of skelatal age evaluation. The views are summarized as follows:①The hand-wrist skeletal age, especially Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators ( SMI) ,is organic, simple and reliable. The method of Cervical Vertebrae Maturation ( CVM) , especially Quantitative Cervical Vertebral Maturation ( QCVM) , has attracted more and more attention, and there is no need for additional x-ray exposure and it is easy to observe the mandibular growth peak. ②The accuracy of skeletal age

  12. 武汉市农田生态环境保育补偿标准测算%Calculation of the compensation criteria for ecological environment conservation of farmland in Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣; 蔡银莺

    2011-01-01

    实地调研的基础上,运用条件价值评估法对武汉市农田生态环境保育的受益、保育方进行面对面的问卷调查,分析估箅出受访者对武汉市农田生态环境的支付意愿和受偿意愿.对366份有效问卷进行分析表明:1)居民普遍认识到了保育农田生态环境的重要性,在对农药、化肥不同程度限制施用下,82.12%的受访市民对农田生态环境保育有支付意愿,74.45%的受访农户有受偿意愿;2)当化肥、农药施用在不同限制强度下,市民对农田生态环境保育的支付意愿和农户的受偿意愿均随着限制程度的增强而提高,市民对农田生态环境保育的补偿意愿为3351.53~7277.25元/hm2,农户的受偿意愿为3866.55~7624.43元/hm2;3)市民支付意愿的高低与其性别、文化程度、婚姻状况和食品开支比例呈相关关系,农户的受偿意愿高低与其性别、年龄、从事农业年限和是否兼业相关.%In this paper, with contingent valuation method (CVM), an empirical study on farmers and urban residents in Wuhan was carried out and their willingness to accept and pay for farmland ecosystem service under different limits on pesticides and fertilizers application were revealed. Based on the result of statistical analysis of 366 questionnaires, it was showed that the most residents in Wuhan have recognized the importance of field ecological environment conservation. Under the different hypotheses, about 82.12% of citizens have a positive willingness to preserve the field ecoligical environment, while the farmers' acceptation rate is 74.45%. Under the different hypotheses, the citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) are between 3 351.53- 7 277.25 yuan( RMB)/hm2, while the farmers' willingness to accept (WTA) are between 3 866.55 -7 624.43 yuan( RMB)/hm2. Both the WTP and WTA have a positive relationship with the pesticides and fertilizers application' limitation extend. What's more, the citizens'WTP are obviously

  13. Willingness of Caregivers of Seniors to Pay Home Rehabilitation Care Services and Its Influencing Factors%上海277名老年人家庭照顾者居家康复护理支付意愿及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉; 张曙映; 周兰姝

    2013-01-01

      目的了解老年人家庭照顾者对于支付老年人居家康复服务费用的意愿以及愿意支付多少费用,并探讨其影响因素.方法用条件价值评估法调查了上海市277名老年人家庭照顾者,调查问卷主要包括4个部分:对居家康复护理服务及调查情况的描述,照顾者对居家康复护理服务的支付意愿,照顾者社会经济学特征,对问卷的理解程度.结果绝大多数照顾者对居家康复护理服务持肯定态度,愿意支付一定费用的照顾者有182名(65.7%),159名(87.4%)对每次康复护理的费用愿意支付低于40元.影响照顾者对居家康复护理服务的因素有:年龄、家族疾病史、分担照顾责任的人数、是否和老年人共同居住、家庭人口数、家庭月收入(P<0.05).结论照顾者对老年人居家康复护理服务持肯定态度,但支付意愿偏低,且支付意愿受到多种因素影响.%Objective To understand the willingness of caregivers to pay home rehabilitation care services and analyze its influencing factors. Methods The survey was conducted among 277 family caregivers of seniors with contingent valuation method (CVM). Results There were 182 (65.7%) caregivers showing willingness to pay home rehabilitation care services; while caregivers in this study had various degrees of willingness to pay. And 159 (87.4%) caregivers would like to pay less than 40 yuan for home rehabilitation care service per time. The influencing factors of willingness to pay the services included age, family medical history, the number of people caring the seniors, living together with the senior or not, family size and monthly family income (P<0.05). Conclusion Family caregiver hold positive attitude toward home rehabilitation care services but with low willingness to pay, which suggests health service providers should vigorously provide home rehabilitation care services to meet the urgent need of caregivers.

  14. 游客对旅游地教育服务的支付意愿研究%Study on Tourists' Willingness to Pay for Educational Services in Sightseeing Places

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文首文; 魏东平

    2012-01-01

    为有计划性、引导性的倡导使用者付费的理念,建立公开透明、科学合理的定价机制,运用条件价值评估法(CVM)对全国12个省12个旅游景区的中国游客进行了实地抽样调查,分析游客对教育服务项目的支付意愿。基于2800份有效问卷数据,获得了受访者支付意愿的分布形态和规律,构建了游客支付意愿与其影响因素之间关系的模型。结果显示:49.40%的游客愿意支付教育服务费用,平均支付额度为28.6元;游客的年龄、婚姻状态、学历、职业、收入与其教育服务支付意愿之间存在显著性关系,旅游地游客教育水平也直接影响游客的支付意愿,而性别与其支付意愿没有屁著的差异。同时,游客的年龄、学历、职业、收入对支付方式的影响较大,64.1%的游客想通过门票支付,27.5%的游客想通过小费支付。%By conducting a survey on Chinese tourists in 12 sightseeing places of 12 provinces in China with Contingent Valuation Method(CVM), this essay analyzes tourists' willingness to pay for educational services in sightseeing places, aims at advocating the concept of paying the charges in good planning & guidance, and at establishing a transparent and reasonable pricing system. Data of 2 800 effective questionnaires show the distribution and regulation of the paying willingness of the interviewees. A model indicating the paying willingness of the tourists and the influencing factors is finalized. The result states that 49.40% of the tourists are willing to pay the educational services in sightseeing places at an average amount of 28.6 yuan, which is largely related to the tourist' s age, marriage status, education background, occupation income, and the sightseeing-place's educational capability of coaching and guiding visitors, not much with gender. Meanwhile, the payment term is greatly affected by age, education background, occupation and

  15. 降低 PM2畅5健康风险的支付意愿及影响因素研究%Study on the Willingness to Pay for Reductions of Health Risks Caused by PM2 .5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志华; 郑睿臻; 曾贤刚; 邢光超

    2016-01-01

    运用意愿调查法调查了北京市和南昌市居民对降低PM2.5年均浓度的支付意愿。结果表明:北京居民愿意为降低PM2.5年均浓度的30%、45%和60%而平均每月支付71.60元、85.66元和94.31元;南昌居民仅愿意为降低30%和50%而平均每月支付31.43元和52.47元。运用Logit逐步回归分析表明:北京居民对PM2.5相关后果的判断、南昌居民对PM2.5可控性的判断分别显著影响是否愿意支付。半对数多元逐步回归表明:影响北京居民支付意愿大小的因素较多,PM2.5对社会的影响程度、风险发生可能性、风险持续时间和风险可控性等均表现出显著影响;而显著影响南昌居民支付意愿大小的因素仅有社会的影响程度、平等性与年龄3项。%This paper investigates resident's willingness to pay ( WTP ) for reductions of health risks that are caused by PM2.5 in Beijing and Nanchang by contingent valuation method (CVM).Results show that the WTP of Beijing residents-was 71.65yuan/month for reducing the concentration of PM 2.5 by 30%, 85.66 yuan/month for a reduction of 45%, and 94.31yuan/month for a reduction of 60%.The WTP of Nanchang residents is 31.43 and 52.47 yuan/month for reducing the concentration of PM 2.5 by 30%and 50%.The Logit model result showes that the judgment of consequences related to PM2.5 of Beijing residents showes significant effect , but judgment of controllability of Nanchang residents have strong influ-ence on the willing to pay or not .The OLS result shows many different factors have strong effect on the amount of willingness to pay of Beijing residents, such as, duration of risk, possibility of risk, anger, income.Three factors-possibility of risk, equality of risk and age-showed significant influence on the amount of willingness to pay of Nanchang residents .

  16. Different Property Rights and Farmers’ Willingness to Pay:Comparative Analysis of Three Management Patterns of Small-scale Irrigation%产权安排与农户投资意愿:三种小型水利设施管护方式的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昕; 陆迁

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes farmers’ willingness to pay for small-scale irrigations from the perspective of different property rights,using the survey data collected of 888 farmers in the two irrigation areas of Jinghui and Wei in Shanxi Province by applying CVM,Hanemann model and logistic models.The results of Hanemann model estimation show that farmers are willing to pay 131.22 yuan on average and they are willing to pay 129.42 yuan,129.55 yuan,132.76 yuan respectively under the arrangement of private ownership,collective ownership and mixed ownership respectively.Besides,base price and willingness to pay are negatively correlated.Logistic model estimation indicates that social capital has a significant positive impact on farmers ’ willingness to pay under different property rights due to low supervising and cooperating cost;water cognition and the number of farmers have a significant negative impact on the willingness to pay under private ownership due to clear prop⁃erty rights.Under the management of water association,willingness to pay is significantly affected by farmers’ income.This is because the higher farmers’ income is,the more economic strength they have for the construc⁃tion of small-scale irrigations.%基于产权变动视角,利用陕西省泾惠渭灌区888户农户的调查数据,采用Hanemann模型对小型水利设施的投资意愿进行实证分析,并运用Logistic模型考察私人产权、集体产权和混合产权制度安排下农户小型水利设施投资意愿的影响因素。标底价为单独自变量的Hanemann 模型估计结果表明:农户的平均投资意愿是131.22元,在私人产权、集体产权和混合产权情景下,农户愿意支付的价格分别为129.42元、129.55元、132.76元;标底价格与投资意愿呈负相关关系。Logistic 模型估计结果表明,社会资本因节约监督成本和协商成本对村集体管理、用水协会管理和私人承包经营管理方式下农

  17. The willingness to pay of elderly people's family caregivers for social support services%老年人家庭照顾者对社会支持性服务支付意愿的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉; 万霞; 周兰姝

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the willingness to pay of elderly people's family caregivers for social support services and how much they could afford. Methods: We investigated 277 family caregivers of seniors by Contingent Valuation Method (CVM). Results: ① Willing to pay or not: 190 (68.6%) caregivers had willingness to pay for the general support service. Caregivers' willingness to pay for different services was different, too. The top five items were rehabilitation service (182, 65.7%), patient referral service (178,64.3%), community meal delivery service (177, 61.7%), modifying safe environment of home setting (167,60.2%),assistance of daily life activities, such as bathing, dressing, eating, toileting, etc.(166,59.9%). ② How much they want to pay: The amount they want to pay was different, but was low in general. They just wanted to pay 600-800 RMB per month for general service. Conclusion: The attitude of family caregiver to social support services is positive and they may have different willingness to pay for different services. It suggested that health care providers should carry out caregiver support services which could meet their urgent needs.%目的:了解老年人家庭照顾者是否愿意支付照顾者社会支持性服务的费用;了解照顾者对社会支持性服务愿意支付费用的具体金额.方法:用条件价值评估法调查了277名老年人家庭照顾者.结果:①是否愿意支付:对总体支持服务有支付意愿的照顾者共190人(68.6%);愿意支付费用的照顾者对具体支持服务项目的支付意愿不同,按照人数从高到低顺序排在前5位的有:康复训练182人(65.7%)、就诊转诊178人(64.3%)、社区送餐171人(61.7%)、家居安全环境改造167人(60.2%)、日常生活活动(沐浴、穿衣、进餐、如厕等)166人(59.9%).②具体支付金额:照顾者对社会支持性服务愿意支付不同程度的金额,总体来说,愿意支付的金额偏低,对总体支

  18. Biofeedback and the electromyographic activity of pelvic floor muscles in pregnant women Biofeedback na atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do assoalho pélvico em gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta L. A. Batista

    2011-10-01

    álise exploratória dos resultados de três sessões de biofeedback na atividade eletromiográfica em mulheres gestantes. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu 19 gestantes nulíparas com gravidez de baixo risco. Foram realizadas três sessões de biofeedback eletromiográfico compostas por contrações lentas e rápidas, utilizando-se como método de avaliação dos resultados as médias das amplitudes normalizadas da eletromiografia (EMG de superfície. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear com efeitos mistos, sendo que os dados da EMG foram normalizados pela contração voluntária máxima (CVM. RESULTADOS: Após as sessões de biofeedback, constatou-se um aumento crescente na amplitude eletromiográfica a cada contração realizada e a cada sessão, entretanto essa diferença só foi estatisticamente significante para a comparação entre a primeira contração tônica de cada sessão (p=0.03. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos indicam que três sessões de treinamento com biofeedback melhoraram a atividade eletromiográfica dos MAPs em gestantes de baixo risco no segundo trimestre. A efetividade do protocolo necessita ser futuramente investigada em estudo randomizado controlado.

  19. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores dos serviços de auditoria e serviços extras contratados junto às empresas de auditoria independente. Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre governança corporativa, custos de auditoria e de serviços extra-auditoria, foram analisadas as informações disponibilizadas por 131 empresas no primeiro semestre de 2010. As proxies de governança utilizadas foram: desvio de direitos dos cinco maiores acionistas, participação em segmentos diferenciados de governança da Bolsa de Mercadoria e Futuros & Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BM&FBovespa, existência de comitê de auditoria e de departamento de auditoria interna. Os resultados apontam para uma relação negativa entre governança e custos de auditoria, sugerindo que, no mercado brasileiro, predomina o efeito risco. Ou seja, melhores práticas de governança reduzem os riscos (judiciais e de perda da reputação da auditoria externa permitindo a cobrança de valores menores. A literatura internacional não é unânime quanto ao sinal, embora a maioria dos estudos apresente uma relação positiva, a favor do efeito demanda. De acordo com este efeito, melhor governança implica em maiores exigências junto ao serviço da auditoria acarretando elevação dos valores cobrados. A relação encontrada também é negativa entre os valores dos serviços extras e as boas práticas de governança. Apesar de as pesquisas não comprovarem a influência destes custos sobre a perda da independ

  20. 二分选择模型在滨海旅游经济价值评价中的应用%The Application of Dichotomous Choice Model in Valuing Coastal Tourism Economic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李作志; 王尔大; 苏敬勤

    2012-01-01

    本文以大连滨海旅游资源为例,采用二分选择模型条件评价法(CVM)评价海水和沙滩质量改善的经济价值,探索滨海旅游资源生态补偿的价值。研究发现采用Logit二分选择模型估算旅游者意愿支付(WTP)比采用Probit模型更适合滨海旅游资源经济价值评价;在计算WTP的均值解时,采用线性效用差函数更为简单实用。将该方法用于大连旅游景区海水和沙滩质量价值评价的研究,结果表明:采用Logit和Probit模型能够得到一致的WTP;文中采用单解释变量模型可以反应多个解释变量模型的计算结果;测算得到海水沙滩质量改善的非使用价值为215元/人,进而对旅游或环境资源的保护和可持续利用可以有更明确的定量认识。这种经济价值研究方法与过程对探索滨海旅游资源生态补偿的定性研究具有重要意义。%In this paper, we valued seawater and sand quality in Dalian beach area using the contingent valuation method (CVM) of dichotomous choice models, and explored the values of coastal tourism resources Eco-compensation. The researches indicate that it is more appropriate to use Logit dichotomous choice model for estimating tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) than using Probit model under discrete CVM. In calculating the mean value of WTP, it is more simplistic to apply a linear utility difference model. This model directly utilized to measure the economic value of Dalian coastal park seawater and sand quality. The results revealed that: (a) a consistent result was achieved in WTP measurement using both Logit and Probit dichotomous choice models; (b) using a single explanatory variable could generate the same results as using multiple explanatory variable model; (c) the estimated non-use value of the beach quality in Dalian coastal park is 215 RMB per person, and based on the result, sustainable protection and development of tourism or environmental

  1. 干旱区绿洲农田土壤污染生态补偿标准测算——以白银、金昌市郊农业区为例%Calculation of the compensation criteria for ecological restoration of the contaminated arid oasis soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 南忠仁; 郭奇; 贾艳艳; 沈子露

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the contingent valuation method(CVM) was used to analyze the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) the compensation for recovering the heavy metal contaminated soil in arid oasis areas,using Baiyin and Jinchang suburb farmland as a case study.Based on the result of statistical analysis of 382 questionnaires,it was showed that 91.79% of farmers in this area have recognized the impact of soil contamination.41.62% of respondents were against to abandon the contaminated cropland because of less life safeguard,so reasonable compensation standard in ecological restoration project is an important issue.Econometrics model analysis indicated the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) were between 746.45-862.73 Yuan(RMB) /hm2.The acute WTA data had a positive relationship with the family population,education and the areas of the cropland.The farmers' gender,age and their income had little affection on WTA.The results showed that the farmers' WTA was based on the income of crops planting which was 840 Yuan(RMB) /hm2 pre year in this areas.%文中基于环境价值评估法(CVM)为干旱区绿洲农田土壤重金属污染防治生态补偿政策进行了计量经济学的模型分析,测算了农户对当地实施生态补偿的受偿意愿。在382个调查样本中,91.79%的受访村民认为所在地目前土壤污染问题十分严重并已造成了食用人群健康风险,制定合理的生态补偿标准是保障生态修复工程的核心因素。受偿意愿调查结果显示,干旱区绿洲农田受重金属污染的农户的年平均受偿意愿(MWPA)在746.45-862.73元/hm2之间,影响该数额的主要因素为农户家庭人口、户均耕地面积以及农户受教育程度。该结果说明受访农户提出的受偿意愿是以当地种植基本粮食作物的年收入840元/亩为基础的,但未包括当地农业生产的生态效益损失和对人群健康影响的损失,且受经济欠发达地区农户年均收入较低和信息获取渠

  2. 基于条件价值法的武夷山风景名胜区遗产资源非使用价值评估%The Non-Use Value of Heritage Resources in Wuyishan Scenery District Using the Contingent Valuation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游巍斌; 何东进; 洪伟; 刘翠; 俞建安; 陈炳容; 朱建琴; 纪志荣; 陈晓芳

    2014-01-01

    Located in northwestern Fujian,China,Wuyi Mountain is the most outstanding area for biodiversity conservation in southeast China and a refuge for a large number of ancient,relic and endemic species.Wuyishan Scenery District (WSD),one of four sub-regions in Wuyi Mountain,has been disturbed more severely compared to the other three sub-regions,although in general all of the four regions have been well protected under strict management.The value of heritage resources in WSD plays an important role in attracting tourism and is an inseparable composition of the world mixed heritage site of Mount Wuyi.Here,the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of tourists and the non-use value of WSD were evaluated using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and payment card approaches.The results indicate that the annual average WTP was 29.67 CNY in 2009,with uncertainty factors.The socio-economic characteristics of respondents including income,education,love of tour,and protection awareness were significant between-groups factors; gender and age were not significant.Respondents with a higher education level or income,stronger love of tour or protection awareness to WSD were more willing to pay for the sustainable existence of the heritage site;gender and age had no relationship to WTP.%武夷山是我国4个世界文化与自然双遗产地之一,武夷山风景名胜区作为遗产地内文化和自然遗产资源最为集中、开发最早的对外旅游窗口,其遗产资源价值高,在武夷山双遗产地中具有重要地位.运用条件价值法对武夷山风景名胜区受访者支付意愿与非使用价值进行评估.结果表明:在考虑不确定性因素影响下,2009年武夷山风景名胜区受访游客人均支付价值为29.67元/年.收入、学历、对旅游的热爱程度、遗产保护意识4个受访者特征变量在各分组水平下的支付意愿存在显著差异(p<0.05);性别、年龄无显著差异(p<0.05).收入越高、学历越高、对旅游的热爱

  3. 上海地区池塘养殖生态服务价值的时空差异分析%Spatial-temporal variations in eco-service values of pond aquaculture in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正勇; 唐克勇; 杨怀宇; 范晓赟

    2013-01-01

    池塘养殖在中国渔业生产体系中占有重要的位置,它具有食物供给、空气(气温)调节、文化休憩服务等多重生态服务价值,同时也会对环境造成一定的负面影响,即存在环境成本.为进一步厘清池塘养殖生态服务价值的变化规律,本文基于前期研究成果,在构建池塘养殖生态服务价值评估体系的基础上,采用市场价值法(MVM)、旅行成本法(TCM)、条件价值评估法(CVM)、影子工程法(SEM)等方法对上海嘉定、青浦、奉贤地区的池塘养殖生态服务价值进行了系统评估,并分析了池塘养殖生态服务价值的时空分布差异,对因地制宜促进池塘养殖产业的发展提出了建议.结果表明:1)2011年,嘉定、青浦、奉贤3区的池塘养殖生态服务价值分别为0.822 8亿元、8.462 8亿元和15.588 4亿元,相当于各区池塘养殖产业经济价值的2.69倍、1.94倍和2.17倍,约合94.08万元·hm-2、20.00万元·hm-2和32.73万元.hm-2,池塘养殖生态服务价值巨大且时空分布差异明显;2)嘉定、青浦、奉贤未实现的池塘养殖生态服务价值是各区池塘养殖食物供给净价值的5.46倍、1.23倍、0.46倍,具有巨大的潜在生态经济效益;3)受养殖经济效率时间变化的影响,2010-2011年研究区常规鱼类养殖规模大幅减少,青虾、南美白对虾逐渐成为主要的养殖品种;4)池塘养殖生态服务价值时间分布集中且波动明显,大部分服务价值集中于第3季度,其中文化休憩服务价值主要集中于4-9月,空气调节价值主要集中于7-12月,而气温调控价值集中于5-9月;5)养殖规模对生态服务价值的时空分布具有重要影响,池塘养殖生态服务价值整体服从规模效应,但不同类型的生态服务价值的时间分布规律并不统一.养殖经营者应积极调整池塘养殖经营战略,大力发展休闲渔业,提高池塘生态服务价值的实现化程度,政府需要制定并执行

  4. Rural Residents' Awareness of Environmental Protection and Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection:A Case Study of the Nabanhe Nature Reserve%农村居民对环境保护的认知程度及支付意愿研究——以纳板河自然保护区居民为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳乐山; 郭建卿

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus on whether rural residents are willing to pay for environmental protection.Some people suggest that the rural residents are too poor to pay, or too illiterate to concern environmental protection, whereas others indicate that rural residents tend to be more reliant on the environment and natural resources and consequently they would pay attention to the status of the environment.With Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) the authors analyzed cognition and willingness of rural residents in the Nanbanhe Nature Reserve to pay for environmental protection in their community.Questions designed for surveys on 300 rural households in the Reserve were intended to investigate rural residents' willingness to pay for conserving the environment.Some conclusions can be drawn.More than half of the residents consider that economic development is as important as environmental conservation, and about a quarter of the residents think that environmental conservation is more important than economic development.However, people are generally reluctant to act in environmental conservation for various reasons.One reason they raised is that they believe that the government should do the job.Other reasons include that those who damage the environment should do the job.This shows that rural residents have more cognition than action regarding environmental protection.Many rural residents believe that environmental protection is the responsibility of the government.The willingness to pay for environmental conservation varies greatly with different payment vehicles.Rural residents prefer to pay in the form of labor rather than cash.The willingness to pay in the form of cash is 46.88 Yuan/year/household accounting for 0.36% of the household income of the rural residents.In the form of labor the willingness to pay becomes 249.24 Yuan/year/household with a labor wage rate of 30 Yuan/day, accounting for 1.94% of the household income.In fact, rural residents' willingness to pay

  5. Assessing Non-market Value of Cultivated Land in Ecologically Fragile Areas of Three Gorges Reservoir%三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广东; 邱道持; 王平

    2011-01-01

    经济补偿是破解耕地保护外部效应外溢的有效途径.耕地非市场价值是耕地保护外部效应的核心,合理评估这部分价值对耕地保护经济补偿标准的确定具有重要的参考价值.本文运用条件价值法对三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值进行了评估,对712份有效问卷统计分析表明:①生态脆弱与贫困耦合地区居民对耕地保护及耕地非市场价值的认知存在一定差异,经济、文化、社会、政府、心理等因素影响到民众的认知水平.②农户对耕地非市场价值支付意愿率达到76.77%,城镇居民支付意愿率仅占到64.87%.受访者往往将耕地价值与自身的切身利益结合,更多地表现为理性经济人而非理性社会人.③Probit回归与Logit回归分析表明,经济社会特征对受访者的决策产生一定影响.收入限制成为影响农户决策的主导因素,而捐赠历史与耕地保护认知成为影响城镇居民决策的主导因素.④农户与城镇居民的最大支付意愿分别为157.92元/(户·a)和206.28元/(户·a).受访者单位耕地支付意愿为607.65元/(hm2·a),最终评估出三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值约为104.26×108元.%Economic compensation is an effective way to break the external benefits spillover of cultivated land protection which is mainly composed of non-market value of cultivated land, so it is of great reference value for reasonably fixing the economic compensation criterion in cultivated land protection. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is used to evaluate the non-market value of cultivated land in ecologically fragile areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir according to 712 valid questionnaires. Several conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The cognition of different residents about the significance of protection cultivated land and the non-market value of cultivated land is in varying degrees, which is decided by how the economic, cultural, social

  6. Influence Factors of Willingness to Pay for Vegetable Cleaner Production Technology Subsidies: Taking the Questionnaire Investigation on the Application of Vegetable Residue Composting Technology as an Example%蔬菜清洁生产技术补贴支付意愿影响因素研究 ——以蔬菜残体堆肥化技术应用调查为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 周清波; 甘寿文; 王丽英; 魏风友; 焦兵华

    2016-01-01

    technology promotion is not smooth. It is of great and practical significance to investigate the influence mechanism of technology application, assess subsides policy effectiveness and encourage farmers environmentally and friendly produce behavior. The goal of this study is thus to use the contingentvaluation method(CVM)to understand the farmers'willingness to subsidize for heap retting pool construction fee and to analyze the direction and intensity of influence factors of willingness to pay (WTP)by using a Logistic econometric model and the 142 questionnaires in Gaocheng City of Hebei Province. The results indicated that the direct cost of production and operation was an important factor to affect the WTP of technology subsidies and individual labor time and social relationship were the internal control factors that affects the WTP, while the policy measures based on technology subsidies was an important factor to affect the WTP and environmental cognition factor of soil pollution presented a reverse relationship with WTP. It thus proposed three policy suggestions to guide farmers to use the composting technology, which included:advancing the technology innovation of safe and high efficient vegetable production, fully playing the important role of the vegetable professional cooperative organization, establishing an effective subsidies mechanism of vegetable clean production to improve the efficiency of agricultural ecological subsidies.

  7. 碳排放权市场结构相依特征研究:规则藤方法%Dependence Structure of Carbon Emission Markets:Regular Vine Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡根华; 吴恒煜; 邱甲贤

    2015-01-01

    applying the sequential maximum likelihood method to describe the characteristics of the dependence structure of the carbon emission trading market. It is shown that the t-copula function can capture the dependence of the markets in the unconditional context, indicating that the carbon emission trading market has significant symmetric tails. Besides, the Gaussian copula function and Frank copula function describe the dependence of Dec11EUA and Dec14EUA conditional on Dec10EUA, Dec12EUA and Dec13EUA, and the dependence of Dec12EUA and Dec14EUA conditional on Dec10EUA and Dec13EUA indicating that there are no tails in the market. Furthermore, the paper tested the performance of the modeled regular vine copula framework by using the Goodness-of-fit tests of the White’ s information matrix equation and the combination of probability integral transform ( PIT) approach and empirical copula process ( ECP ) , which is based on the bootstrap method and Cramer von Mises ( CvM) test statistics. The results show that the modeled regular vine copula framework performs well to describe the nonlinear dependence structure of the carbon emission market. This result provides some references to the discussion of the hedging strategy within the carbon emission trading market and with other capital markets. It is also beneficial to improve the accuracy of the risk management and pricing strategies in the carbon emission market.