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Sample records for aleta sindelar cvm

  1. SCEC CVM-Toolkit (CVM-T) -- High Performance Meshing Tools for SCEC Community Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Ely, G. P.; Olsen, K. B.; Withers, K.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Plesch, A.; Shaw, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    The SCEC Community Velocity Model Toolkit (CVM-T) enables earthquake modelers to quickly build, visualize, and validate large-scale 3D velocity meshes using SCEC CVM-H or CVM-4. CVM-T is comprised of three main components: (1) a current SCEC community velocity model for Southern California, (2) tools for extracting meshes from this model and visualizing them, and (3) an automated test framework for evaluating new releases of CVMs using SCEC’s AWP-ODC forward wave propagation software and one, or more, ground motion goodness of fit (GoF) algorithms. CVM-T is designed to help SCEC modelers build large-scale velocity meshes by extracting material properties from the most current version of Community Velocity Model H (CVM-H) and to provide a consistent interface as new CVM-H versions are developed. The CVM-T software provides a highly-scalable interface to CVM-H 6.2 (and later) voxets. Along with an improved interface to CVM-H material properties, the CVM-T software adds a geotechnical layer (GTL) to CVM-H 6.2+ based on Ely’s Vs30-derived GTL. The initial release of CVM-T also extends the coverage region for CVM-H 6.2 with a Hadley-Kanamori 1D background. Smoothing is performed within the transition boundary between the core model and the 1D background. The user interface now includes a C API that allows applications to query the model either by elevation or depth. The Extraction and Visualization Tools (EVT) include a parallelized 3D mesh generator which can quickly generate meshes (consisting of Vp, Vs, and density) from either CVM-H or CVM-4 with over 100 billion points. Python plotting scripts can be employed to plot horizontal or profile slices from existing meshes or directly from either CVM. The Automated Test Framework (ATF) is a system for quantitatively evaluating new versions of CVM-H and ensuring that the model improves against prior versions. The ATF employs the CruiseControl build and test framework to run an AWP-ODC simulation for the 2008 Chino

  2. Asiago spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasella, L.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of AT 2016cvm (also known as PTSS-16hxs), discovered 20160613.771 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82 m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm).

  3. Reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Predko-Engel, A.; Kaminek, M.; Langova, K.; Kowalski, P.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation method (CVM). BACKGROUND: Skeletal maturity estimation can influence the manner and time of orthodontic treatment. The CVM method evaluates skeletal growth on the basis of the changes in the morphology of cervical vertebrae C2

  4. Eficiencia de las aletas con sección transversal no uniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes A. Rangel Jara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cálculo matemático exacto del perfil de temperatura y por ende de la eficiencia de la aleta con sección transversal no uniforme implica la solución de una ecuación diferencial de Bessel modificada. En este artículo se presenta e implementa una alternativa de cálculo de las funciones de Bessel modificadas de primera y segunda clase que resultan de resolver la ecuación diferencial y que permite la valoración de la eficiencia de la aleta. Se utilizan cuadraturas de Gauss y de Laguerre para la integración numérica de las funciones modificadas de Bessel de cualquier orden. Esta alternativa puede considerarse como una forma más elaborada y precisa, con respecto a las propuestas convencionales para la solución del problema.

  5. APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTATAL ECONOMICS CONCEPTS AND PRECEPTS TO CVM FIELD SURVEY PROCEDURES

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, John C.; Stoll, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental economics (EE) axioms are directly applied in this paper to contingent valuation method (CVM) field survey procedures. The implications of EE concepts and precepts for conceptualizing and handling potential CVM biases and framing effects also are discussed. It is concluded that EE concepts and precepts provide useful principles and guidelines for CVM field survey procedures.

  6. Estimaciones in situ de la fuerza de blanco (TS) de la merluza de tres aletas

    OpenAIRE

    Lillo, S.; Bahamonde, R.; C. Cancino; J. Saavedra; Saavedra, A.; Flores, F.

    2007-01-01

    En el presente informe se entregan los resultados del proyecto FIP 2005-29, cuyo objetivo general es estimar mediante métodos in situ, la fuerza de blanco de la especie merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis). El enfoque metodológico propuesto consideró dos formas para la estimación de la fuerza de blanco. El primero correspondió al método de estimación de TS in situ, en el cual las mediciones acústicas se realizan con los peces en su ambiente natural y en el que la identificación d...

  7. Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) in an Italian Holstein calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex Vertebral Malformation, a congenital and lethal genetic defect of Holstein breed, has been recently observed in different Countries all over the world. In this paper the AA describe the clinical and radiological aspects of CVM in a two day old female calf. The disease was characterized by low body weight, symmetrical arthrogryposis and partial rotation of all legs and scoliosis. Calf was alert and showed physiological appetite, but was not able to maintain the quadrupedal stance. Radiographs of the vertebral column showed multiple vertebral anomalies, including hemivertebrae, fused and misshapen vertebrae and ribs and scoliosis, that affected mainly the caudal, cervical and thoracic regions. At necropsy, besides the skeleton anomalies, complex malformation of the heart was observed, which included atrial and interventricular defects and patent ductus arteriosus. This is the first case of CVM completely documented and genetically tested in Italy

  8. CVM-X: Calibrating contingent values with experimental auction markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We design and implement a method, CVM-X, to calibrate hypothetical survey values using experimental auction markets. We test the procedure using consumer willingness-to-pay for irradiated/nonirradiated meat. Our results show that calibration factors for those who favor the irradiation process (0.67-0.69) are less severe than for those with an initial dislike of the process (0.55-0.59), suggesting that calibration may be commodity specific

  9. Evaluation of the Utility Function of an Environmental asset: Contingent valuation Method (CVM)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Bouchrika; FAKHRI, ISSAOUI; Habib, Jouber

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the Contingent valuation Method (CVM) as an efficient method allowing to modify the utility level, of an economic agent to following the consumption of environmental goods. In the absence of the market for natural assets, the CVM allows us to create a hypothetical market to evaluate the economic value of those assets by purchase and sale transactions. However, this valuation can be constrained with the quality problem of the physical nature of those envir...

  10. DETECTION OF RECESSIVE MUTATIONS (CVM, BLAD AND RED FACTOR INHOLSTEIN BULLS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betka LOGAR

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.

  11. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and...

  12. Detection of Factor XI Deficiency (FXID and Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Siswanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factor XI Deficiency (FXID is caused by imperfect insertion of poly adenine which is resulted in introduction of premature stop codon in FXI gene. Substitution of guanine into thymine in SLC35A3 gene caused Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM. The research was aimed to detect the presence or absence of a genetic defect mainly CVM using SLC35A3 gene and FXID using FXI gene in Indonesian Bali cattle. The presence of this genetic defect may have a significant economic impact on the breeding program. The research of genetic defect was done mostly in dairy cattle, but there was no report for screening of genetic defect in Bali cattle. In this study, 303 fresh blood samples and 22 semen samples which were collected from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding center (BPTU HMT Denpasar, BPT HMT Serading West Nusa Tenggara and district Barru South Sulawesi and artificial insemination centre (BBIB Singosari and BIBD Baturiti were used for screening of FXID and CVM. The amplicons of FXI gene were obtained by using PCR and that for SLC35A3 gene were obtained by using PCR-RFLP method with PstI restriction enzyme. These PCR products were analyzed by using 2% agarose gels electrophoresis. All genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine an allele mutant. The allele mutant was not found in all of the samples. The result of this study showed that CVM and FXID were not detected in Bali cattle from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding and artificial insemination centres.

  13. Valuing Riparian Forests Restoration: a CVM Application in Corumbatai River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano Brugnaro

    2010-01-01

    This study is an application of CVM to a specific area in Brazil, the Corumbatai river basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, aiming to estimate the value attached by affected people to a hypothetical riparian forest restoration project. The method used was the double bounded dichotomous choice under a logit model. Data were obtained by street-intercept interviews with a net sample of 930 individuals, 20 years or older, living in seven municipalities (cities and respective rural areas) that contai...

  14. Using S3 cloud storage with ROOT and CvmFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga-Ríos, María; Heikkilä, Seppo S.; Duellmann, Dirk; Meusel, René; Blomer, Jakob; Couturier, Ben

    2015-12-01

    Amazon S3 is a widely adopted web API for scalable cloud storage that could also fulfill storage requirements of the high-energy physics community. CERN has been evaluating this option using some key HEP applications such as ROOT and the CernVM filesystem (CvmFS) with S3 back-ends. In this contribution we present an evaluation of two versions of the Huawei UDS storage system stressed with a large number of clients executing HEP software applications. The performance of concurrently storing individual objects is presented alongside with more complex data access patterns as produced by the ROOT data analysis framework. Both Huawei UDS generations show a successful scalability by supporting multiple byte-range requests in contrast with Amazon S3 or Ceph which do not support these commonly used HEP operations. We further report the S3 integration with recent CvmFS versions and summarize the experience with CvmFS/S3 for publishing daily releases of the full LHCb experiment software stack.

  15. Estimation of CE–CVM energy parameters from miscibility gap data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Srinivasa Gupta; G Vamsi Madhav; A Pandey; B Nageswara Sarma; S Lele

    2005-04-01

    The powerful framework of cluster expansion–cluster variation methods (CE–CVM) expresses alloy free energy in terms of energy (model) parameters, macroscopic variables (composition and temperature) and microscopic variables (correlation functions). A simultaneous optimization of thermodynamic and phase equilibria data using CE–CVM is critically dependent on giving good initial values of energy parameters, macroscopic and microscopic variables, respectively. No standard method for obtaining the initial values of the energy parameters is available in literature. As a starting point, a method has been devised to estimate the values of energy parameters from consolute point (miscibility gap maximum) data. Empirical relations among energy parameters, temperature (c), composition (c) and 2}/2 at the consolute point, have been developed using CE–CVM free energy functions for bcc and fcc structures in the tetrahedron and tetrahedron–octahedron approximations, respectively. Thus from the observed data of c, c and 2}/2 in the above relations, good initial values of energy parameters can be obtained. Further, a necessary modification to the classical NR method for solving simultaneous nonlinear/transcendental equations with a double root in one variable and a simple root in the other has been presented.

  16. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Compensation for Non-commercial Forests under CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-commercial forests in Kunming City,this article conducts survey of 506 households in Kunming City to evaluate their willingness to pay ecological benefit of non-commercial forests,using Contingent Valuation Method(CVM);to analyze factors influencing their willingness to compensate for non-commercial forests,using multivariate statistical analysis method.The results show that income,educational level, housing ownership,outdoor exercise time,whether to be concerned about environmental problems,frequency of obtaining forest-related information monthly and whether understanding non-commercial forests or not,are the most principal factors influencing willingness to pay.

  17. Informe final. Proyecto FIP No. 2002-20. Evaluación hidroacústica del stock desovante de merluza de tres aletas,en su unidad de pesquería, año 2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Godoy, A.R.; Céspedes Michea, R.A.; Ojeda Cerda, V.; Adasme Martínez, L. M.; Díaz Ramos, E.J.C.; Oliva L., J.; Córdova Masanes, J.G.; Espejo Vidal, M. G.; Muñoz Rubio, L.F.; Chong Follert, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    En el presente informe se evalúa el stock desovante de merluza de tres aletas en el período de máxima actividad reproductiva, a través del método hidroacústico, la zona coomprendida entre la latitud 47° y 51°LS.

  18. Informe final corregido. Proyecto FIP 2004-08. Evaluación hidroacústica del stock parental de merluza de tres aletas en su unidad de pesquería, año 2004 (FASE I y II)

    OpenAIRE

    Lillo V., S.; Díaz Ramos, E.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    El presente informe tiene como objetivo evaluar el stock desovante de merluza de tres aletas en el período de máxima actividad reproductiva, a través del método hidroacústico, en la zona comprendida entre la latitud 47°OO S. y 51°OO´S.

  19. Interception efficiency of CVM-based lightning protection systems for buildings and the fractional Poisson model

    CERN Document Server

    Haller, Harold S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to resolve a question regarding efficiency of a lightning protection system (LPS) for buildings based on the collection volume method (CVM) . The paper has two components. The first, following suggestions of other authors [Abidin and Ibrahim 2004], takes advantage of count data from installed devices, and independent installation-site inspections to develop our statistical analysis. The second component investigates the validity of the underlying theory by introducing a novel methodology of fractional Poisson processes, which are able to reproduce the burstiness of lightning strikes, an essential feature of stochastic time dependence of incidence of lightning strikes. The standard Poisson processes used in the past efforts in this area cannot do that.

  20. 脑静脉畸形的MRI诊断%MRI diagnosis of cerebral venous malformation (CVM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解明; 宋段; 柴宇宁; 马占姝; 吴冠和

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨MRI对脑静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法 收集我院9例CVM患者资料进行回顾性分析.3例行CT平扫检查,9例行MRI T1WI、T2WI、T2FLAIR、T1WI增强扫描,其中有3例行3D TOF MRA扫描,2例行VEN BOLD SENSE 扫描.结果 CVM位于幕下5例,幕上4例.3例CT平扫均未见CVM直接征象,其中2例发现异常病灶,1例未见异常.5例MRI平扫显示髓静脉呈长T1长T2信号,中央静脉干呈长T1短T2 信号或长T1长T2信号,FLAIR上髓静脉为稍高信号,中央静脉干为稍低信号或稍高信号,增强呈典型的"水母"征或"树根"征表现.2例MRI平扫显示条管状流空低信号,增强呈条状高信号.1例MRI平扫显示类圆形等长T1、等长T2信号,中心可见流空信号.增强MRA显示髓静脉呈放射状汇入中央静脉并见引流入上矢状窦.1例术前只诊断为血管畸形,未能明确分型.结论 MRI多序列成像对脑静脉畸形绝大多数可明确诊断,MRI增强及VEN BOLD SENSE 序列是发现脑静脉畸形最敏感的方法,应做为CVM的首选检查方法.%Objective To investigate the value of MRI in diagnosis of cerebral venous malformation (CVM).Methods 9 cases in our hospital patients with CVM data were analyzed retrospectively.3 routine CT scan examination, 9 routine MRI T1WI, T2WI,T2FLAIR, T1WI enhanced scan, of which three routine 3D TOF MRA scans, two routine VEN BOLD SENSE scan.Results 5 cases were the infratentorial, 4 cases of supratentorial.3 cases CT scan showed no direct signs of CVM, including two cases of unusual lesions, 1 case was normal.MRI scan showed five cases of medullar veins elongated T1 long T2 signal, the central vein stem elongated T1 and short T2 signal or long T1 long T2 signal, FLAIR signal slightly higher on the medullar vein, the central vein was slightly lower or slightly higher signal , enhancing showed a typical "Jellyfish" sign or the "root" sign performance.MRI scan showed two cases of tubular flow void of low signal to enhance

  1. Análisis socioeconómico e interrelación de las pesquerías de sardina y atún aleta azul en la región noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de las engordas de atún aleta azul en las costas de Baja California cambió el destino de las capturas de sardina, ya que antes se destinaban al mercado de congelados y a la elaboración de harina de pescado, y en la actualidad se utilizan como alimento para el atún aleta azul. Esto generó un efecto socioeconómico positivo para los armadores y pescadores de pelágicos menores, ya que la llegada de grandes capitales foráneos para el desarrollo de las engordas de atún mejoró los precios de la sardina, e hizo más rentable su pesquería.

  2. Valuing riparian forests restoration: a CVM application in Corumbatai river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Brugnaro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is an application of CVM to a specific area in Brazil, the Corumbatai river basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, aiming to estimate the value attached by affected people to a hypothetical riparian forest restoration project. The method used was the double bounded dichotomous choice under a logit model. Data were obtained by street-intercept interviews with a net sample of 930 individuals, 20 years or older, living in seven municipalities (cities and respective rural areas that contain the basin. Protest bid responses were not excluded in a first approximation, resulting in a R$ 2.06 mean willingness to pay (WTP for the riparian forest restoration, equivalent to approximately R$ 274,000 per month (R$ 1.00 equivalent to US$ 0.52 at the survey period when accounting for about 133,000 residences in the area. It was observed an expressive number of "no-no" responses from people ascribing the problem to government and farmers and suspecting on misuse of funds by the official agencies involved.Para este estudo, foi aplicado o CVM (Contingent Valuation Method a uma área específica do Brasil, a bacia do rio Corumbataí, no estado de São Paulo, visando estimar o valor atribuído pela população afetada a um hipotético projeto de reposição de matas ciliares. O método utilizado foi o de escolha dicotômica com limite duplo, sob o modelo da distribuição logística. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas nas ruas, numa amostra líquida de 930 pessoas com 20 anos ou mais, moradoras de sete municípios que englobam a bacia. Numa primeira aproximação, não se excluíram as manifestações de protesto, resultando em R$ 2,06 como valor médio da disposição a pagar pela reposição de matas ciliares, o que equivale a aproximadamente R$ 274 mil por mês, quando computadas as aproximadamente 133 mil residências na área. Observou-se um grande número de respostas "não-não" de pessoas que atribuem o problema ao governo e agricultores e

  3. Captura de atún aleta azul en Baja California, México: ¿pesquería regional o maquiladora marina?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Jesús del Moral-Simanek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El atún aleta azul, capturado por la flota mexicana en las costas de la península de Baja California, se destinaba al enlatado local, para ofrecer a los consumidores nacionales un producto barato y con valor nutritivo alto. Sin embargo, esto cambió en la última década con la llegada de inversionistas, sobre todo japoneses. Ahora el atún se captura, engorda y exporta a los mercados japonés y estadounidense, que pagan un precio elevado, para satisfacer su demanda de sashimi. Esto tiene repercusiones positivas en el orden social y económico en México y Japón; determinadas a partir del trabajo de campo directo e indirecto realizado en el marco de esta investigación. Además, se identificaron algunas similitudes entre el comportamiento de las empresas estudiadas y la industria maquiladora de exportación, lo que abrió un debate sobre el tema.

  4. Dinámica de mesoescala y capturas de atún aleta amarilla en el Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usaron datos de captura de la pesquería de atún aleta amarilla (AAA para estudiar la relación entre la variación estacional y espacial del AAA con la presencia/ausencia de estructuras de mesoescala en la entrada al Golfo de California (19º–24ºN y 104º–112ºW. Las capturas de AAA están distribuidas sobre el talud continental, alrededor de islas y montes submarinos la mayor parte del año. Altas concentraciones de lances ocurren alrededor de las islas Marías y Cabo Corrientes a lo largo del año, particularmente en marzo y junio. En febrero y abril se encontró un flujo de agua caliente (>28ºC con un ancho de 1.5 radios de Rossby (~20.6 km que cubre toda la plataforma continental fuera de Cabo Corrientes. Su velocidad media es 0.31 m s–1 y se extiende al norte del bajo Roca Corbetera. La interacción con el agua fría genera una zona frontal alrededor de la cual se concentran las capturas de AAA. En contraste, durante marzo se observó una región de surgencia costera con temperatura superficial del mar de 18ºC, con un ancho de 3.7 radios de Rossby hacia fuera de la costa y cubriendo 2600 km2. Las capturas de AAA ocurren en agua caliente, hacia el norte de la zona de surgencia.

  5. Gestão de risco e os impactos da instrução normativa CVM nº 550: análise empírica Risk management and the effects of CVM instruction 550: empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Andrade de Almeida Burlá

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o efeito da instrução normativa CVM 550 sobre a utilização de derivativos e, consequentemente, a gestão de risco das companhias abertas brasileiras. A resolução exige que as empresas apurem por meio do valor de mercado os instrumentos derivativos em suas demonstrações financeiras trimestrais. No entanto, a deliberação não prevê tratamento contábil para tais tipos de instrumentos. Assim, é suposto que o efeito da norma deve afetar dois grupos de usuários de derivativos: os hedgers (EH e os especuladores (IS. Os resultados empíricos mostram que o risco incorrido pelas empresas se refere, basicamente, à taxa de juros e câmbio. Após a adoção da norma, foram encontradas evidências estatísticas que apontam uma diminuição do uso de derivativos para ambos os grupos. As evidências sugerem que a resolução 550 tem incentivado as empresas a contratarem derivativos com mais prudência, o que indica uma mudança na política de gestão de risco. Para o estudo em questão foi utilizada uma amostra de 107 empresas brasileiras pertencentes aos 10 grandes setores econômicos do ICB, em uma janela de dados de 10 anos (1999 a 2009.The present study examines the effect of CVM normative instruction 550 on the use of derivatives and, consequently, on the risk management of Brazilian companies. The instruction requires companies to disclose the fair value of derivative instruments in their quarterly financial statements. However, this resolution does not establish on the accounting treatment for these types of instruments. Thus, it is supposed that the rule should affect both groups of derivatives users, hedgers (EH and speculators (IS. The empirical results show that the risk the companies incur basically refers to the interest rate and exchange rate. After the adoption of the instruction, statistical evidence was found that shows a decrease in derivative use for both groups. The evidence suggests that instruction 550

  6. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomic cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transportation of SNF may cause an additional radiation exposure to human beings. It means that the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for the public who live near the shipments route. Before the SNF transportation is performed, the route selection is concluded based on the radiological risk estimated with RADTRAN code in existing method generally. It means the existing method for route selection is based only on the radiological health risk but there are not only the impacts related to the radiological health risk but also the socioeconomic impacts related to the cost. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection on transporting SNF is proposed based on cost estimation because there are several costs in transporting SNF. The total cost consists of radiological health cost, transportation cost, and socioeconomic cost. Each cost is defined properly to the characteristics of SNF transportation and many coefficients and variables describing the meaning of each cost are obtained or estimated through many surveys. Especially to get the socioeconomic cost, contingent valuation method (CVM) is used with a questionnaire. The socioeconomic cost estimation is the most important part of the total cost originated from transporting SNF because it is a very dominant cost in the total cost. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be supported with the proposed method reasonably and unnecessary or exhausting controversies about the shipments could be avoided

  7. Measuring the Value of Windbreak and Sand–fixation in the Sandstorm Measuring the Value of Windbreak and Sand–fixation in the Sandstorm CVM's Different Inquiry Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Bo; Zeng, Yinchu; Lü, Yarong; Yabe, Mitsuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Contingent Value Method (CVM), this paper uses a telephone interview to random sampling residents in Beijing to survey the annual household's willingness to pay for the value of windbreak and sand–fixation effects in the Sandstorm Source Control Project around the Beijing and Tianjin (Project); at the same time the annual economic value of the Program is calculated. The result of the research shows that in Beijing, with open–ended method, per household's willingness to pay for Pr...

  8. Análisis del contenido estomacal y la razón de isótopos estables de carbono (13C) y nitrógeno (15N) del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) del Océano Pacífico Oriental.

    OpenAIRE

    Román Reyes, José Cristóbal

    2005-01-01

    Las agregaciones del atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares), el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata) y el delfín tornillo (Stenella longirostris) son frecuentes en el Océano Pacífico oriental tropical. A pesar del considerable interés, la asociación entre el atún aleta amarilla y las especies de delfines no se comprende totalmente. La hipótesis de que la asociación está basada en la alimentación ha sido explorada a través del estudio del contenido estomacal, la cual está limitada sólo a desc...

  9. Based on CVM Agro-ecological Compensation in Upstream of Erhai Lake Basin%基于 CVM 意愿调查的洱海流域上游农业生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施翠仙; 郭先华; 祖艳群; 陈建军; 李元

    2014-01-01

    Farmers are the core stakeholders of agro-ecological compensation. Their cognition and participation willingness in agro-ecologi-cal compensation greatly influence the efficiency and sustainability of agro -ecological compensation. In this study, contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to collect information including farmersˊ cognition level of eco-environment and agro-ecological compensation and willingness to accept(WTA)agro-ecological compensation in Eryuan County in the upstream of Erhai lake basin. Agro-ecological compen-sation criteria for adjusting agricultural industry structure were also estimated. Total 350 questionnaires were sent out and valid 305 re-ceived. About 70% of farmers showed correct understanding of ecological environment and high cognition level of agro-ecological compen-sation. More than half of farmers who participated in projects of agro-ecological compensation were satisfied with agro-ecological compensa-tion in 2007-2009, while 42.77% farmers were dissatisfied due to low compensation standards and inequities in agro-ecological compen-sation. Farmers preferred policy compensation and technology compensation. Total amount of the compensation for the whole county should be 3.248 0×108 Yuan(RMB)per year. Of four agricultural structure adjustment modes in Eryuan County, 71.15% farmers chose non-zero WTA. Farmersˊ education level, cognition and participating willingness of agro-ecological compensation showed positive effects on the pref-erence of agro-ecological compensation modes, while family income had a negative effect. This study suggests that raising farmersˊ cognition of agro-ecological compensation and performing pilot scale trials of agro-ecological compensation are essential for sustainability of agro-e-cological compensation.%农民是农业生态补偿的主要利益相关者,其对生态补偿的认知态度和参与意愿直接影响生态补偿项目的实施效果和可持续性。以洱海流域上游水源地洱源

  10. Distribución de la abundancia de atún aleta amarilla (Tunnus albacares) y su relación con la concentración de pigmentos fotosintéticos medidos por satélite en aguas al sur de México

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega García, Sofía; Lluch Cota, Salvador

    1996-01-01

    En este trabajo se relacionan gráficamente la distribución de las concentraciones de pigmentos fotosintéticos derivadas de composiciones mensuales de imágenes producidas por la lectura del sensor Coastal Zone Color Scaner del satélite Nimbus-7, con mapas de abundancia de atún aleta amarilla derivados de los datos de bitácoras de la flota atunera mexicana para el periodo 1984-1986. Los resultados del estudio muestran una relación entre la distribución de frentes de color, independientemente de...

  11. 基于 CVM 的泉州生态文明城市建设民众支付意愿研究%Research on Residents’Willingness to Pay for Construction of Ecological Civilization City in Quanzhou Based on CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 李洪波

    2014-01-01

    运用 CVM 方法和 Logistic 模型对泉州市市民关于开展生态文明城市建设的支付意愿进行调查研究,结果表明:平均支付意愿为110.7元/年,并且户籍、居住年限、学历、收入、对泉州生态文明城市建设的了解程度以及市民认为生态文明城市对其自身生活的影响程度6个因素对支付意愿呈现显著性影响,性别、年龄与职业则对支付意愿影响不大。%Contingent valuation method(CVM)and Logistic Model were employed to investigate urban residents’willingness to pay for construction of ecological civilization city in Quanzhou.The research showed that:(a)Average willingness is 1 10.7 yuan/year;(b)Census register,time living in Quanzhou,education,income levels,understanding of the ecological civilization city,public awareness of ecological civilization city affect the willingness to pay significantly;(c)Gender,age and occupation are not sensitive to it.

  12. Thermal and friction drop characteristic of heat exchangers with elliptical tubes and smooth fins//Caracterización térmica e hidráulica de intercambiadores de calor con tubos elípticos y aletas lisas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Borrajo-Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop and heat transfer are the most important parameters in compact heat exchanger. There is a lack of information in the literature about heat exchanger with elliptical tube. The objective of this work was the experimental characterization of compact heat exchangers models using elliptical tube with eccentricity of 0,5 and smooth fins. The Reynolds numbers and the spacing were varied and always inside laminar regime. The experiments were conducted in an open wind tunnel using sublimation of naphthalene and the heat and mass transfer analogy. As results, the average and local Nusselt number and friction factor for 36 models were obtained. Correlations for Colburn and friction factors were presented. This correlations were obtained for 200aleta isotérmica. Son las primeras correlaciones que se aplican a

  13. CVM Evaluation of Natural Forest Carbon Sinks in Ningbo%基于CVM的宁波天童天然林碳汇贸易研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖翱; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    以宁波天童天然林为例,探讨了将天然林碳汇纳入碳汇贸易的方法和途径,采用条件价值评估法(CVM)估算了天童天然林碳汇价值,并探讨了天然林碳汇贸易的可行性.结果表明:(1)与人工林碳汇相比,天然林碳汇在数量、生态功能和保育价值方面具优势,将天然林碳汇纳入碳汇贸易,是对现有人工林碳汇贸易的有益补充;(2)公众对碳汇贸易普遍持支持和偏好态度,但对碳汇概念认知程度低、对相关政策态度谨慎;(3)据CVM法评估得到天童天然林年均贸易价值合理值约1379万元/a,合2.06万元/t,高于人工林碳汇价格,反映公众对天然林整体生态功能和保护价值的较高支付意愿;(4)影响天然林碳汇价值因素为个人收入、概念了解度、政策支持度和责任的定位;(5)公众对天然林碳汇贸易高度关注、对保护天然林富有热情,所以天然林碳汇进行贸易具有社会基础和可行性.%Taking Tiantong Forest in Ningbo as an example, methods that integrated natural forest into carbon trade market by estimating its carbon sinks and politically feasibility via contingent valuation method (CVM) were discussed. Results indicated that natural forest which has advantages over planted forest in terms of quantity, ecological function and conservation value is a favorable supplement to bring natural forest into current carbon trade. The public supports and prefers natural forest while has limited knowledge of carbon sinks and conservative attitude toward relative policy. Via CVM, carbon sinks of Tiantong Forest is estimated as 13.79 million RMB, that is 20,600 RMB per ton which is higher than that of planted forest reflecting a public preference. Factors affecting WTP include personal income, understanding of related concept, support to the possible policies and awareness self-responsibility. Public awareness and support is the foundation to establish carbon trade of natural forest.

  14. 京郊部分牛场荷斯坦母牛脊椎畸形综合征(CVM)遗传缺陷检测%Identiifcation of Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM) Carriers in Holstein Cows from Suburban Farms in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韶青; 梁若冰; 云鹏; 杨宇泽; 肖炜; 孙东晓

    2014-01-01

    Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary defect of Holstein dairy cattle. It is caused by a point mutation from G to T at the 4 extron in bovine solute carrier family 35, member 3 gene (SLC35A3). Homozygous recessive can cause early pregnancy abortion, stillbirth, or cow calf birth deformities, but carriers are normal. Polymerase chain reaction–primer introduced restriction analysis (PIRA-PCR) was used to detect CVM among 552 Holstein cows from Beijing. As a result, a total of 21 CVM carriers were identiifed. The frequency of carriers was 3.80% and the recessive allele frequency of CVM was 1.90%. Our pedigree studies of the carrier cattle in this experiment revealed that, out of 21 CVM carriers, 13 ones inherited mutation from those mothers and 15 ones were found to be the offspring of Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell (USA1667366). Based on this, in our country, it is necessary to detect CVM among Holstein cows to prevent the CVM carriers mating and reduce economic losses.%牛脊椎畸形综合征(CVM)是由牛3号染色体上SLC35A3基因第4外显子上的G/T突变引起的隐性遗传疾病,其隐性纯合子可以造成母牛妊娠早期流产、死胎或出生犊牛畸形,而CVM携带者表型正常,无发病表现。本研究利用PIRA-PCR方法对北京地区552头母牛样本进行了检测分析。研究结果表明,所检测的样本中,荷斯坦母牛CVM携带者为21头,携带率为3.80%,有害基因频率为1.90%。通过系谱分析,其中13头携带者的致病基因来源于其母亲,15头CVM携带者为Carlin-MIvanhoeBell(USA1667366)的后代。因此,牛场应当开展母牛CVM筛查,防止CVM携带个体之间的交配,减少经济损失。

  15. CVM研究中支付意愿问卷“内容依赖性”的实证研究——以上海城市内河生态恢复CVM评估为例%Empirical Study on "Content-dependency" of WTP for Ecological Service in CVM Research:A Case Study of CVM in Water Environmental Restoration of Urban Rivers in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼飞

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of CVM have been questioned by many economists for quite a long time for its survey nature in spite of its wide application. One of the main issues raised is the ' content-dependency' of WTP estimates in that they are not invariant to the inclusion of other goods in the survey questionnaire. This paper investigates the context-dependent effects of WTP for ecosystem restoration of the urban river in Shanghai, China. Four schemes and parallel questionnaire investigations are designed and conducted aiming at how the same policy change is valued in different contexts, such as the different scale, the different order, and the amount of goods. Based on 720 sample, employing the t-test and comparing the WTP estimates, the results show that: (a) the WTP is not sensible to the dimension of surface water environment valuated; ( b) the sum of WTP for different parts of the surface water environment is larger than the valuation placed on it as a whole; (c) WTP 13 higher when the change in water services is valued earlier in the survey instrument than later; and (d) WTP for a river is smaller when it is valued as apart of regional river than that valued on its own. The exsistence of scope insensitivity, embedding eflect, sequencing effects and part-whole effect of WTP was proved in this study which is consistent with the report in literatures. In this case income effect and substitute effect are the main reasonable explanation to the phenomenon above. These findings are consistent with underlying economic theory, so deviation caused by the phenomenon should be considered when results from a CVM study are adopted in policy analysis.%为检验意愿价值评估法(Contingent Valuation Method,CVM)中争论的焦点问题——支付意愿的问卷“内容依赖性”,本文以上海城市内河生态修复为评估对象,构建CVM的假想市场,设计评估顺序、评估对象尺度、嵌套物品等四重方案,通过720份问卷平行调查对同

  16. Evaluation of the Non-use Values of Shanghai Yuyuan Garden Based on the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)%基于CVM的上海豫园非使用价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪斌

    2012-01-01

    建筑遗产是人类文化遗产中的一种重要文化资源,它具有使用价值和非使用价值.以上海豫园为例,采用条件价值法对其非使用价值进行评估,得到上海豫园每年的非使用价值为4 969.84万元.这从一定程度上反映了建筑遗产作使用价值的货币化结果,由此提醒人们在建筑遗产保护与利用过程中应注重其内在价值,不要片面追求建筑遗产的使用价值,同时也为建筑遗产保护与利用决策提供一定的参考.%Architectural heritage is an important historic and cultural heritage resource. It possesses use values and non-use values. The amount of non-use values of Shanghai Yuyuan Garden, as the study object, is estimated as 49.698 4 million yuan through the contingent valuation method (CVM). This estimated result reflects to some degree the monetary non-values of architectural heritage. It will be of active meaning and referential value for policy making of conservation and rational utilization of architectural heritage, and reminds people not to excessively pursue the use value of architectural heritage.

  17. Reducing uncertainty and bias in acoustic biomass estimations of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in the southeastern Pacific: transducer motion effects upon acoustic attenuation Reduciendo el sesgo e incertidumbre de las estimaciones hidroacústicas de biomasa de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en el Pacífico suroriental: efectos del movimiento del transductor sobre la atenuación acústica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Saavedra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the loss of sensitivity due to the motion experienced by a hull-mounted transducer and its effects upon the estimated biomass of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis in an acoustic survey conducted in the southeastern Pacific, off the Chilean coast, during the austral winter of 2009. Vessel motion data (pitch and roll were registered in situ using a digital clinometer and used to correct the nautical area scattering coefficients (NASC in elementary sampling units of 926 m distance by 10 m depth. These NASC correction factors (NASCcp were calculated using Dunford's algorithm for circular transducers. We found high variability in NASCcp, which averaged 12%, and ranged between 0 and 50%. NASCcp variability was explained significantly by the mean depth of the integrated stratum (33%, the weather condition, as measured by Beaufort's scale (5%, and the vessel course relative to wind direction (2%. The empirical model we used to explain NASC Cp variability may be suitable for correcting bias due to transducer motion in other, past and future, fisheries acoustic surveys targeting mid-water species under rough weather conditions.Se evaluó la pérdida de sensibilidad producida por el movimiento de un transductor montado en el casco y sus efectos sobre la abundancia y biomasa estimada de merluza de tres aletas (Micromesistius australis en un estudio acústico realizado en el Pacífico suroriental, frente a la costa de Chile, durante el invierno austral de 2009. Los datos de movimiento del barco (cabeceo y balanceo fueron registrados in situ utilizando un clinómetro digital y luego utilizados para estimar la pérdida teórica de sensibilidad del transductor y, finalmente, traducir esta pérdida en factores de corrección del coeficiente de dispersión por área náutica (NASC calculados para intervalos básicos de muestreo de 926 m de distancia por 10 m de profundidad. Los factores de corrección del NASC (NASC Cp fueron calculados

  18. Environmental cost of pond aquiculture in Shanghai: an empirical analysis based on double-bounded dichotomous CVM method%上海池塘养殖环境成本——基于双边界二分式CVM法的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克勇; 杨正勇; 杨怀宇; 范晓赟

    2012-01-01

    池塘养殖具有食品供给、空气质量调节、文化服务等多重功能,但在其生产过程中也会产生环境成本.正确认识池塘养殖的正、负生态服务价值,对于避免养殖生产过程中存在的盲目和短视、保持水产养殖业本身的可持续发展、促进水产养殖经济与环境的和谐发展具有重要的现实意义.依据双边界二分式CVM法,通过随机抽样调查法获得当地居民对于环境污染时的受偿意愿(WTA)水平,利用STATA10.0软件定量核算了2010年上海环淀山湖地区的池塘养殖环境成本为1982.26万元/a,约合5105元·a-1·hm-2).研究表明,居民家庭收入、受教育程度、年龄等社会经济因素对居民的环境污染受偿意愿具有显著性的影响,但其具体的影响力大小和方向还有待进一步的探讨.研究同时表明,双边界二分式CVM法具有较强的稳定性,政府应综合考虑各种因素,制定并执行针对性、公平性的生态补偿政策.%At present, academics on the ecological services value research focus on the positive aspects, while the negative service values, such as environment cost, is received little attention. Pond aquaculture performs multiple functions, including aquatic products supply, air quality adjustment as well as culture service and so forth. As a kind of special ecological system, the pond aquaculture also has the environment cost in its production process. A clear cognition of the positive and negative ecological services values in pond aquaculture will be a great significance to avoid the blindness and short-term version in the process of production, keep the development of pond aquaculture sustainable and promote the development of aquaculture in harmony with the environment protection. This paper firstly adopts double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM) and random cluster sampling method to attain the local residents' willing to accept (WTA) , 354 questionnaires were sent

  19. The Valuation of Heritage using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam Chooi Chea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage plays a vital part for a nation because it gives an identity to an individual, a community or a nation as it would be able to tell them who they are, where they have come from and what they have accomplished. Malaysia has recognized the importance of living heritage conservation and Malaysia government has emphasized heavily on the living heritage conservation in the country. Melaka has been awarded the UNESCO Heritage Site in year 2008 and realized the need for the historical city to conserve the unique living heritage in Melaka City. This study was conducted in Melaka City with a total sample of 502 visitors in the historical city. The aim of this study was to determine the value of willingness-to-pay by visitors to pay the living heritage charge in the city using single-bounded and double-bounded contingent valuation dichotomous choice method. The results of this study will be able to determine the value of living heritage conservation by the visitors to the historical city and the city council would be able to draw and implement necessary living heritage conservation policies in the historical city.

  20. The Valuation of Heritage using Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)

    OpenAIRE

    Chiam Chooi Chea

    2013-01-01

    Heritage plays a vital part for a nation because it gives an identity to an individual, a community or a nation as it would be able to tell them who they are, where they have come from and what they have accomplished. Malaysia has recognized the importance of living heritage conservation and Malaysia government has emphasized heavily on the living heritage conservation in the country. Melaka has been awarded the UNESCO Heritage Site in year 2008 and realized the need for the historical city t...

  1. Transformations among CE–CVM model parameters for multicomponent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nageswara Sarma; Shrikant Lele

    2005-06-01

    In the development of thermodynamic databases for multicomponent systems using the cluster expansion–cluster variation methods, we need to have a consistent procedure for expressing the model parameters (CECs) of a higher order system in terms of those of the lower order subsystems and to an independent set of parameters which exclusively represent interactions of the higher order systems. Such a procedure is presented in detail in this communication. Furthermore, the details of transformations required to express the model parameters in one basis from those defined in another basis for the same system are also presented.

  2. An Evaluation of the Externality of Cultivated Land Based on CVM:A Case Study of Neihuang County, Henan Province%基于CVM耕地资源利用的外部性评估——以河南省内黄县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳蕊; 赵凯; 王志晓; 薛欧

    2011-01-01

    本文在河南省内黄县进行问卷调查的基础上,首先对各社会经济特征变量做了Pearson相关性检验,然后以LnWTP为因变量进行多元线性回归,最后采用意愿评估法(CVM)对耕地资源利用的外部性进行估算,并分析了其影响因素.研究结果表明:①城镇居民家庭年收入、受教育程度与支付意愿值呈显著正相关;②农村居民年龄和承包耕地面积与支付意愿值呈显著负相关;性别、受教育程度、家庭年收入和年农业收入呈显著正相关;③经估算,河南省内黄县耕地资源利用的外部性单位值为1 1649.45元/hm2(776.63元/亩).因此,应在估算耕地资源总价值、确定征地价格和土地承包经营权流转价格和耕地资源保护决策中应充分考虑耕地资源的外部性.%The study is aimed at assessing the externality value of cultivated land and unraveling influential factors on residents' willingness to pay through a case on Neihuang County, Henan Province. The cultivated land resource, as a type of natural resources, provides not only production functions, but also ecological and social functions as well. The cultivated land utilization benefit system is composed of economic benefit, social benefit, and ecological benefit. The ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization tend to be more for public goods than consumption, so the ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization appear to be external benefits. In current rural land market, the price of cultivated land resources only reflects the production benefits, but seems to fall short of reflecting the other benefits effectively. It is, however, critical to evaluating the externality of the cultivated land resource for decision making and preservation of farmland. This contributes to the prescription of governments on the deal price in rural land market and reasonable expropriation price in order to restrain excessive land development and to

  3. 基于CVM多情景下的耕地生态效益农户支付/受偿意愿分析——以河南省焦作市为例%Assessment of WTP/WTA on Ecological Benefits of Cultivated Land Based on CVM Multiple Scenarios: A Case Study of Jiaozuo City, Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高汉琦; 牛海鹏; 方国友; 梅泽勇

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Contingent Value Method (CVM) has been widely used to estimate the non-market value of the environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate change trends which can reflect the farmer household' s willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) for ecological benefits of cultivated land using market simulation and the CVM, and to set different scenarios of the assessment areas under the future development model. A new ecological benefit measurement method combined with different scenarios was developed, which has a certain flexible interval so as to meet the dynamic requirements of ecological compensation for cultivated land. Meanwhile, exploring the asymmetry relationship between WTA and WTP using the developed method was aimed at determining a more reasonable characterization scale to measure the ecology benefits. Based on the major factors affecting the characteristics of land ecological services function, change processes of land ecological service fimction in different scenarios in Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, were simulated. Moreover, the land ecological benefit was assessed by the payment card continuous mode of the CVM to investigate the WTP and WTA by the respondents. Results show that 1) the average WTP and WTA of the respondents gradually increased with the assumed deteriorating environment. The WTP of every household per year based on three formulated scenarios were estimated to be 74.7 Yuan, 116 Yuan, 162.9 Yuan, respectively. The WTA are 458.3 Yuan, 497.2 Yuan, 754.8 Yuan; 2) With increasing awareness of land protection, respondents have been already aware of the existence of the land ecological benefit, showing that 82.95% of the respondents have a positive WTP to protect agricultural land. However, different payment tools may cause the deviation in WTE Deviation mainly comes from the prudent degrees of respondents, who regard the compulsory labor and pay as a payment tool, but the former

  4. 基于CVM理论的塔里木河流域居民生态认知及支付决策行为研究%Cognitive ecology and payment decision-making behavior based on the theory of CVM in the Tarim River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 薛珍; 陈红梅; 徐崇志

    2016-01-01

    .Differences in family endowment,cognition of environmental value and psychological perception of climate change,cause the heterogeneity factors of residents' willingness to pay.Downstream residents' willingness to pay is an average 29.99% higher than that of upstream residents.Income level does not affect residents' objective and rational cognition of ecological value.Residents with zero willingness were 11.9%,psychological ‘free rider’ and ‘lack trust in government to governance environment’ account for 61.9%.River downstream residents act as the most direct beneficiaries of environment improvement,the proportion of zero willingness to ecological environment protection is only 5.3%.Considering the heterogeneity of residents,local economic and social conditions,environmental evolution trends and resource allocation play an important role in improving the validity and reliability of CVM theory when assessing environmental value.

  5. Public support for hosting the Olympic Summer Games in Germany: The CVM approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Wicker; John C. Whitehead; Daniel S. Mason; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    Cities throughout the world continue to weigh the merits of hosting major sport events, including the Olympic Games. These events are considered desirable due to a range of benefits, including economic and/or tourism development. In addition, previous research has shown that hosting the Olympics may confer intangible benefits for cities and their residents. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation method estimate of the monetary value of intangible benefits to Germans of host...

  6. Introduction to Displacements, Strains and Stresses in a 1D CVM-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This lecture note contains an introduction to displacements, strains and stresses in an one-dimensional sg-FVM model of a tensile test bar.......This lecture note contains an introduction to displacements, strains and stresses in an one-dimensional sg-FVM model of a tensile test bar....

  7. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are projected to gas-cooled nuclear reactors to compensate the low coolant thermal transport efficiency. The model is described by the temperature distribution equation and the further specific boundary conditions. The adjoint system is used to determine the sensitivity coefficients to the case of interest. Both, the direct model and the perturbative formalism resultant equations are solved. The heat flow rate on a point of the fin and the average temperature excess were the response functionals studied. The half thickness, the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficients and the heat flow from the base material were the parameters of interest to the sensitivity analysis. The results obtained through the perturbative method and the direct variation presented, in a general form and within acceptable physical limits, good concordance and excellent representativeness to the analyzed cases. It evidences that the differential formalism is an important tool to the sensitivity analysis and also it validates the application of the methodology in heat transmission problems on extended surfaces. The method proves to be necessary and efficient while elaborating thermal engineering projects. (author)

  8. Economic evaluation of recreation - comparison of the travel cost model (TCM) and the contingent valuation method (CVM)

    OpenAIRE

    Antoušková, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Tourism that takes place in nature sites benefits from the fact that nature is considered to be a public good. There is no fee charged for being in nature and using nature for recreational purposes. Prevailing nature-based tourism destinations are admission free. To evaluate the economic value of recreation, various methods for valuation of environmental goods are commonly used. The most widely used methods are the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. This paper focuses on c...

  9. A method for selection of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation route considering socioeconomical cost based on contingent valuation method (CVM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can cause radiation exposure to people and the environment. Therefore, the radiological risk should be estimated and managed quantitatively for people who live near the transportation route. Before the SNF transportation takes place, a route selection is generally made based on the radiological risk estimated from the RADTRAN code. Existing methods for route selection are usually based on only the risks of radiological health. However, there are several costs associated with transporting SNF, including socioeconomic costs. In this study, a new method and its numerical formula for route selection related to the transporting SNF are proposed based on these various costs. The total cost consists of radiological health, transportation, and socioeconomics cost. In particular, the contingent valuation method is used to estimate the socioeconomic costs. Consequently, the socioeconomic cost is extremely dominant, so the socioeconomic cost estimation is very important. The route selection regarding SNF transportation can be reasonably supported with the proposed method. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Economic Value of Gulangyu Tourism Resource Based on CVM%基于CVM的鼓浪屿旅游资源经济价值的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪娇

    2012-01-01

    本文运用条件价值评估法,通过对游客的门票支付意愿调查,对鼓浪屿旅游资源的经济价值进行评估。评估运用SPSS17.0软件,采用卡方列联表相关度分析对支付意愿及支付意愿值的影响因素进行相关分析,结果表明:被调查者的年龄、受教育程度与支付意愿显著相关,而性别、月收入和职业等因素与支付意愿相关不显著;年龄、职业、受教育程度和性别与支付意愿值显著相关,月收入与支付意愿值关系不大。%Applying the method of condition value evaluation,and through the survey of the tourists' intend pay for tickets,the article gives an evaluation of the economic value of Gulangyu island tourism resources.The evaluation uses SPSS17.0 software,and applying a chi-square contingency table analysis to give a correlated analysis of the influence factors on willingness to pay intend.The results show that:the age of the respondents,the education degree and willingness to pay has significant correlation,and gender,monthly income and occupational factors and willingness to pay is not significant;age,occupation,education degree and gender and willingness to pay has significant correlation,the correlation between month income and willingness to pay is not big.

  11. Sagitta chilensis nueva especie de quetognato en fiordos australes chilenos (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae) Sagitta chilensis a new species of chaetognath in Chilean fjords (Chaetognatha, Aphragmophora, Sagittidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Villenas; Sergio Palma

    2006-01-01

    Se describe por primera vez una nueva especie de quetognato del orden Aphragmophora, Sagitta chilensis n. sp., colectada en fiordos australes chilenos. Se analizaron 1065 ejemplares colectados entre la boca del Guafo y el canal Pulluche en noviembre de 2002. Estos ejemplares presentaron marcadas diferencias morfológicas con otras especies afines, como estructuras puntiagudas en el collarete y aletas, forma de aletas anteriores y posteriores, posición de las vesículas seminales y presencia de ...

  12. Successful customer value management: key lessons and emerging trends

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Lemon, Katherine N.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, firms have paid increasing attention to customer value management (CVM). Through customer-centric management systems, firms aim to maximize customer value. In this article, we put forth six important lessons that firms can employ for successful CVM, integrating available research knowledge and best practices: (1) Use CVM to improve business performance; (2) ensure that CVM is more customer driven than IT driven; (3) adopt customer lifetime value as a core metric; (4) inves...

  13. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller Peter; Jonzon Anders; Rieger-Fackeldey Esther; Sindelar Richard; Schulze Andreas; Sedin Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV). It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs) followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]). Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome a...

  14. 基于CVM的新疆天池湿地生态系统服务功能非使用价值评估%Estimation of the non-tratable value of Xinjang Tianchi wetland ecosystem service function bassced on the CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞玥; 何秉宇

    2012-01-01

    There are many environmental resources in the Xinjiang Tianchi ecosystem.Because these resources can be used by market exchange,so we can estimate the value of these resources into the currency.The contingent valuation method is a direct approach that can be used to provide non-tratable value of natural resources.In this paper,based on the contingent valuation method,450 questionnaires had been sent out with 412 fed back.The willingness to pay for the protection of Xinjiang Tianchi wetland sustainable development was investigated.The estimated value of the ecosystem services was about 52 million Yuan per year.The research showed that:(1)The mean value of WTP to the ecosystem services of Xinjan Tanchi Wetland was 91.205Yuan(RMB) per person annually;(2) Statistical sample showed the female's willingness to pay was higher than male's.The willingness to pay increased with the education degree,and decreased along with the age and income growth.(3)The age,the monthly income,the level of the education,profession and the level of the understanding to Xinjan Tanchi Wetland were the major factors influencing the willingness to pay.The conclusion would provide beneficial reference for restoring the ecosystem services of Xinjan Tanchi Wetland.%新疆天池湿地拥有大量的环境资源,但由于这些资源中很多不能进行市场交换,所以无法直接进行货币化评价。条件价值评估法(CVM)是当前可用于确定环境物品非市场和非使用价值的有效方法。文中采用条件价值评估法,于2011年8月,在新疆天池景区发放了450份CVM问卷,共回收412份有效问卷。分析了保护新疆天池湿地永续发展的支付意愿,并对新疆天池湿地的生态系统服务功能非使用价值进行估算,得出新疆天池生态系统服务功能非使用价值约为0.52亿元/年。研究表明:1)游客对保护天池永续发展的平均支付意愿为91.205元。2)统计样本显示:男性的支付意愿略高于女性的支付意愿;支付意愿随着被调查者的受教育程度的上升呈上升趋势;支付意愿随着被调查者对天池湿地了解程度的深入呈上升趋势;支付意愿随着被调查者的年龄与月收入的增长呈下降趋势。3)受访问者的年龄、月收入、受教育程度、职业及对天池的了解程度对支付意愿有显著影响。希望通过此研究能够为新疆天池湿地保护区生态修复建设提供一定的参考依据。

  15. Personality-based approach to environmental valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinphurmsukskul, Nopasom

    2015-01-01

    One methodological shortcoming of the contingent valuation method (CVM) is that it allows for both accidental and deliberate misreporting of individual preferences. In CVM surveys the preferences of people for an environmental improvement are measured in terms of their willingness to pay (WTP) to get that improvement or the project that yields it. The WTP respondents state in CVM interviews is interpreted as the monetary equivalent of the utility they expect from the environmental improvement...

  16. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations among newborns in Monchegorsk (north-west Russia: a register-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A. Postoev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cardiovascular malformations (CVM are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods. A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results. The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 newborns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions. The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM.

  17. Shark fisheries in Central America a review and update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigo Rojas M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La demanda por derivados del tiburón, especialmente aletas y cartílago, ha llevado a una expansión de las pesquerías y del comercio a través de la región. El incremento en el esfuerzo pesquero, las escasas referencias biológicas y la falta de manejo, son factores claves que impactan negativamente esta pesquería. Con el fin de contar con información sobre el estado de las poblaciones, zonas de pesca y crianza, aspectos socioeconómicos y medidas necesarias para la conservación, se llevó a cabo esta investigación. Se identificaron 24 especies de importancia comercial, siendo las más importantes: Carcharhinus falciformis y Nasolamia velox (Guatemala, C. falciformis (Nicaragua, C. falciformis y Mustelus dorsalis (Costa Rica, C. obscurus (El Salvador, C. limbatus (Panamá. Los productos comerciales incluyen carne, aleta, aceite, cartílago y piel. Las aletas son el producto de mayor valor (i.e. aletas caudales secas se venden desde $150 a $400/kg en Costa Rica y son exportadas a Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japón y Estados Unidos.

  18. Draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis strains ATCC 33317 and JB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the draft genome sequences of Streptococcus bovis type strain ATTC 33317 (CVM42251) isolated from cow dung and strain JB1 (CVM42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. Strains were subjected to Next Generation sequencing and the genome sizes are approximately 2 MB and 2.2 MB, respectively....

  19. The migrations of Drosophila muscle founders and primordial germ cells are interdependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, Vincent; Dunipace, Leslie; Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Sun, Jingjing; Trisnadi, Nathanie; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-09-01

    Caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells migrate from posterior to anterior of the Drosophila embryo as two bilateral streams of cells to support the specification of longitudinal muscles along the midgut. To accomplish this long-distance migration, CVM cells receive input from their environment, but little is known about how this collective cell migration is regulated. In a screen we found that wunen mutants exhibit CVM cell migration defects. Wunens are lipid phosphate phosphatases known to regulate the directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGC and CVM cell types interact while PGCs are en route to the somatic gonadal mesoderm, and previous studies have shown that CVM impacts PGC migration. In turn, we found here that CVM cells exhibit an affinity for PGCs, localizing to the position of PGCs whether mislocalized or trapped in the endoderm. In the absence of PGCs, CVM cells exhibit subtle changes, including more cohesive movement of the migrating collective, and an increased number of longitudinal muscles is found at anterior sections of the larval midgut. These data demonstrate that PGC and CVM cell migrations are interdependent and suggest that distinct migrating cell types can coordinately influence each other to promote effective cell migration during development. PMID:27578182

  20. Successful customer value management : Key lessons and emerging trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.C.; Lemon, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, firms have paid increasing attention to customer value management (CVM). Through customer-centric management systems, firms aim to maximize customer value. In this article, we put forth six important lessons that firms can employ for successful CVM, integrating available research

  1. Using the Contingent Valuation Method for Dollar Valuations of Library Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) for estimating the economic value of a regional public library service is described, and some of the key methodological issues surrounding CVM and other stated preference techniques are discussed with reference to library use and funding contexts. Given the range of valuations that can result…

  2. Pretreatment of human cervicovaginal mucus with pluronic F127 enhances nanoparticle penetration without compromising mucus barrier properties to herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Laura M; Lai, Samuel K; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  3. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  4. First record of Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali from the southeastern Pacific Ocean Primer registro de Hydrolagus melanophasma James, Ebert, Long & Didier, 2009 (Chondrichthyes, Chimaeriformes, Holocephali en el Océano Pacífico suroriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bustamante

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Pacific black ghost shark, Hydrolagus melanophasma is reported from deep waters off Chile and is described from specimens collected off Valdivia at depths of 1150 to 1720 m. This species is distinguished from all other members of the genus by its large, curved dorsal fin spine, which extends beyond the dorsal fin apex; a second dorsal fin of uniform height along the caudal peduncle; large pectoral fins extending beyond the pelvic fin insertion; and a uniform black color of the body. Catch records of this species in Chile suggest a discontinuous distribution along the continental slope of the eastern Pacific Ocean, restricted to the Middle America and Atacama trenches. These observations elevate the number of chimaeroid fishes inhabiting Chile to five species.La quimera negra del Pacífico este, Hydrolagus melanophasma es reportada desde aguas profundas frente a Chile y se describe a partir de especímenes colectados en Valdivia en profundidades ente 1150 y 1720 m. Esta especie se diferencia de los otros miembros del género por su larga y curvada espina dorsal, la cual se extiende más allá del ápice de la aleta dorsal; presenta una segunda aleta dorsal de altura uniforme a lo largo del pedúnculo caudal; grandes aletas pectorales que se proyectan sobre la inserción de las aletas pélvicas, además de su coloración negra uniforme en el cuerpo. Los registros de captura de esta especie en Chile sugieren una distribución discontinua a lo largo del talud continental del océano Pacifico este, restringido a las fosas oceánicas de Atacama y Mesoamérica. Estas observaciones aumentan a cinco el número de especies de peces Chimaeriformes que habitan aguas chilenas.

  5. First record of morphological abnormality in embryos of Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895 (Myliobatiformes: Urotrygonidae in the Tropical Eastern Pacific Primer registro de anomalía morfológica en embriones de Urotrygon rogersi (Jordan & Starks, 1895 (Myliobatiformes: Urotrygonidae en el Pacífico oriental tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Mejía-Falla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of morphological abnormalities in embryos of Roger's roundray Urotrygon rogersi in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. The embryos of two pregnant females caught in artisanal shrimp trawl nets had incomplete, deformed pectoral fins that were separated from the head along the anterior margin. Moreover, one of the embryos presented a fm-like extensión in the dorsal surface. Although the mouths of the embryos were normal and well-formed, the malformations in the pectoral fins could affect their mobility, limiting their capacity to capture preys and escape of predators.Este estudio constituye el primer registro de anormalidad morfológica en embriones de Urotrygon rogersi en el Pacífico oriental tropical. Dos hembras grávidas capturadas con redes de arrastre de camarón en pesca artesanal, presentaron embriones con aletas pectorales deformes e incompletas, y con el margen anterior separado de la cabeza; uno de ellos también presentó una extensión a manera de aleta en la superficie dorsal. Aunque la boca de los embriones fue normal y bien desarrollada, las malformaciones en las aletas pectorales podrían afectar su movilidad, limitando así la capacidad para capturar sus presas y escapar de pre dadores.

  6. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... Pin it Email Print The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a ...

  7. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ... efforts are underway in both veterinary and human medicine to preserve the effectiveness of these drugs. One ...

  8. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary ... The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) produced a nine-minute animation explaining how ...

  9. Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... issue of antimicrobial resistance is that the subject material appears abstract and is complex. This video was ... can develop and spread. All FDA CVM produced material may be copied, reproduced, and distributed as long ...

  10. Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ensign, Laura M.; Lai, Samuel K.; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diff...

  11. Willingness to pay for public health services in rural Central Java, Indonesia: methodological considerations when using the contingent valuation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Aiko; Kondo, Masahide; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Okubo, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    In the health sectors of low- and middle-income countries, contingent valuation method (CVM) studies on willingness to pay (WTP) have been used to gather information on demand variation or financial perspectives alongside price setting, such as the introduction of user fees and valuation of quality improvements. However, WTP found in most CVM studies have only explored the preferences that consumers express through their WTP without exploring whether they are actually able to pay for it. Therefore, this study examines the issues pertaining to WTP estimation for health services using the conventional CVM. We conducted 202 household interviews in 2008, in which we asked respondents about three types of public health services in Indonesia and assessed WTP estimated by the conventional CVM as well as in the scenario of "resorting to debt" to recognize their budget constraints. We find that all the demand curves for both WTP scenarios show gaps. Furthermore, the gap for midwife services is negatively affected by household income and is larger for the poor. These results prove that CVM studies on WTP do not always reveal WTP in the latter scenario. Those findings suggest that WTP elicited by the conventional CVM is different to that from the maximum price that prevents respondents from resorting to debt as their WTP. In order to bridge this gap in the body of knowledge on this topic, studies should improve the scenarios that CVM analyses use to explore WTP. Furthermore, because valuing or pricing health services based on the results of CVM studies on WTP alone can exacerbate the inequity of access to these services, information provided by such studies requires careful interpretation when used for this purpose, especially for the poor and vulnerable sections of society.

  12. WHAT ARE THE REASONS CAUSING INDEPENDENT AUDIT FIRMS TO CANCEL THEIR REGISTRATION AT THE REAL ESTATE VALUE COMMISSION?

    OpenAIRE

    Inácio M. Uchida; Napoleão V. Galegale; Carlos Hideo Arima

    2015-01-01

    This study pursues to explain the reasons why some free auditing firms unregistered themselves from the CVM. This is a valuable theme for academic scenario considering the quantitative data verified. The research used information from companies listed in the Stock Market and other corporations authorized to operate by the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB) and by CVM during the period from 1998 to 2009. It was applied as the methodological approach the multiple case studies with the selection of...

  13. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  14. Elimination of hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment in children needing orthodontic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period by correlating the CVM method with the hand-wrist maturation (HWM) method in an attempt to eliminate the need for hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese were randomly selected. The age for girls was between 10 years and 15 years and for boys it was between 12 years and 17 years, so that they were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age. (Spearman's r boys 0.9206, girls = 0.9363). All the patients in cervical vertebra stage 3 (CVS3) of CVM corresponded to skeletal maturation indicator 2 (SMI2) or SMI3 stages of HWM (around the peak of the growth spurt). The method error was insignificant. CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period. This work will provide dental practitioners with information on jaw growth modification therapy. (orig.)

  15. Modeling weight variability in a pan coating process using Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Katakdaunde, Manoj; Turton, Richard

    2006-10-06

    The primary objective of the current study was to investigate process variables affecting weight gain mass coating variability (CV(m) ) in pan coating devices using novel video-imaging techniques and Monte Carlo simulations. Experimental information such as the tablet location, circulation time distribution, velocity distribution, projected surface area, and spray dynamics was the main input to the simulations. The data on the dynamics of tablet movement were obtained using novel video-imaging methods. The effects of pan speed, pan loading, tablet size, coating time, spray flux distribution, and spray area and shape were investigated. CV(m) was found to be inversely proportional to the square root of coating time. The spray shape was not found to affect the CV(m) of the process significantly, but an increase in the spray area led to lower CV(m) s. Coating experiments were conducted to verify the predictions from the Monte Carlo simulations, and the trends predicted from the model were in good agreement. It was observed that the Monte Carlo simulations underpredicted CV(m) s in comparison to the experiments. The model developed can provide a basis for adjustments in process parameters required during scale-up operations and can be useful in predicting the process changes that are needed to achieve the same CV(m) when a variable is altered.

  16. Elimination of hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment in children needing orthodontic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Khal, Hessa A.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Rabie, A.B.M. [University of Hong Kong, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-03-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period by correlating the CVM method with the hand-wrist maturation (HWM) method in an attempt to eliminate the need for hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese were randomly selected. The age for girls was between 10 years and 15 years and for boys it was between 12 years and 17 years, so that they were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age. (Spearman's r boys = 0.9206, girls = 0.9363). All the patients in cervical vertebra stage 3 (CVS3) of CVM corresponded to skeletal maturation indicator 2 (SMI2) or SMI3 stages of HWM (around the peak of the growth spurt). The method error was insignificant. CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period. This work will provide dental practitioners with information on jaw growth modification therapy. (orig.)

  17. Genetic variation in VEGF does not contribute significantly to the risk of congenital cardiovascular malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R Griffin

    Full Text Available Several previous studies have investigated the role of common promoter variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene in causing congenital cardiovascular malformation (CVM. However, results have been discrepant between studies and no study to date has comprehensively characterised variation throughout the gene. We genotyped 771 CVM cases, of whom 595 had the outflow tract malformation Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, and carried out TDT and case-control analyses using haplotype-tagging SNPs in VEGF. We carried out a meta-analysis of previous case-control or family-based studies that had typed VEGF promoter SNPs, which included an additional 570 CVM cases. To identify rare variants potentially causative of CVM, we carried out mutation screening in all VEGF exons and splice sites in 93 TOF cases. There was no significant effect of any VEGF haplotype-tagging SNP on the risk of CVM in our analyses of 771 probands. When the results of this and all previous studies were combined, there was no significant effect of the VEGF promoter SNPs rs699947 (OR 1.05 [95% CI 0.95-1.17]; rs1570360 (OR 1.17 [95% CI 0.99-1.26]; and rs2010963 (OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.93-1.16] on the risk of CVM in 1341 cases. Mutation screening of 93 TOF cases revealed no VEGF coding sequence variants and no changes at splice consensus sequences. Genetic variation in VEGF appears to play a small role, if any, in outflow tract CVM susceptibility.

  18. [Temporal stability of river ecological restoration based on the assessment of contingent valuation method: a case study of Shanghai urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Whether the assessment results of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) have temporal stability is an important issue in examining the reliability of CVM findings, and also, is critical to decide whether CVM can be applied to evaluate the ecosystem services value in China. Taking the ecological restoration along the Caohejing River in Shanghai as a case, three CVM survey schemes with one month apart and two years apart were designed. Then, 426, 498, and 200 questionnaires in these surveys were comparatively analyzed, respectively. The mean values of the willingness to pay (WTP) from the three surveys were 14. 2, 14. 1, and 18. 0 RMB, and the median values were 5, 5, and 10 RMB, respectively. With the comparison of the WTP distribution and the main statistics, the analysis of the factors affecting the WTP, and the test of the significances of temporal variables, it was found that the CVM results from the surveys with one-month apart had temporal stability, while those from the surveys with two years apart presented definite difference. PMID:23898647

  19. Cálculo de los dientes de engranajes abierto al flujo plástico // Calculation of plastic flow resistance in teeth of open gear transmissions.

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Cabello Eras; R. Goytisolo Espinosa; J. Moya Rodríguez; E. Alvarez

    2000-01-01

    La falla por fluencia friccional del material de los flancos de los dientes es frecuente en engranajes abiertos, mal lubricadosy de baja dureza, estando caracterizada por la formación de aletas en la cabeza y los lados de los dientes, y de lomos ycanaletas en la zona polar de los dientes.A pesar de lo antes planteado, en diferentes normas de cálculo de engranajes no se ofrece un método de cálculo paraprevenir esta falla, en la que tiene una notable influencia la fricción entre las superficies...

  20. ANATOMÍA Y ONTOGENIA DE SEMILLAS DE HELICTERES LHOTZKYANA (STERCULIACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María González; Carmen L. Cristóbal

    2010-01-01

    Fueron estudiadas la anatomía y la ontogenia de las semillas de H. Lhotzkyana, con el fin de conocer la estructura y el origen de su aleta. Fueron analizadas semillas maduras de H. baruensis, representante del género, con el fin de comparar los dos tipos de semillas. La exotesta está constituída por esclereidas alargadas longitudinalmente, la endotesta está formada por células parenquimáticas con peque&...

  1. Tres nuevas especies de hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus (teleostei: characiformes: characidae), y clave para especies de la cuenca del río orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    García, Carlos; Román, Cesar; Prada, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Se describen tres nuevas especies de Hyphessobrycon grupo heterorhabdus de lacuenca alta del río Orinoco, Orinoquia Colombiana. Hyphessobrycon mavro sp. n.se distingue de los otros Hyphessobrycon conocidos de la cuenca del Orinoco porpresentar 4 a 6 dientes en el maxilar, 17 dientes en el dentario, por la longitud del hocico9,9-15,2 % LC y la ausencia de ganchos en las aletas en machos. Hyphessobrycon nigersp. n. puede distinguirse por presentar nueve dientes en el dentario, cinco escamas con...

  2. Metodología para el estudio de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense extracantábrico

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Ibáñez, Francisco Javier

    1998-01-01

    En este trabajo se propone una nueva metodología para el estudio de las puntas ligeras de proyectil del Solutrense Extracantábrico: la punta de aletas y pedúnculo y la punta de muesca de tipo mediterráneo. Mediante una ficha de trabajo para cada tipo se analizan sus principales características tecnológicas y morfométricas. Los datos obtenidos de cada una de las variables consideradas permiten un conocimiento exhaustivo de las cualidades balísticas y de l...

  3. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 1. Cloud tracking and phase space description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    We study the evolution of warm convective cloud fields using large eddy simulations of continental and trade cumulus. Individual clouds are tracked a posteriori from formation to dissipation using a 3-D cloud-tracking algorithm, and results are presented in the phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space). The CvM space is shown to contain rich information on cloud field characteristics, cloud morphology, and common cloud development pathways, together facilitating a comprehensive understanding of the cloud field. In this part we show how the meteorological (thermodynamic) conditions that determine the cloud properties are projected on the CvM phase space and how changes in the initial conditions affect the clouds' trajectories in this space. This part sets the stage for a detailed microphysical analysis that will be shown in part II.

  4. Inflammatory responses and side effects generated by several adjuvant-containing vaccines in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noia, M; Domínguez, B; Leiro, J; Blanco-Méndez, J; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Lamas, J

    2014-05-01

    Several of the adjuvants used in fish vaccines cause adhesions in internal organs when they are injected intraperitoneally. We describe the damage caused by vaccines containing different adjuvants in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus and show that internal adhesions can be greatly reduced by injecting the fish in a specific way. Injection of fish with the needle directed towards the anterior part of the peritoneal cavity induced formation of a single cell-vaccine mass (CVM) that became attached to the parietal peritoneum. However, injection of the fish with the needle pointing in the opposite direction generated many small CVM that became attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum and in some cases caused internal adhesions. We describe the structural and cellular changes in the adjuvant-induced CVMs. The CVMs mainly comprised neutrophils and macrophages, although most of the former underwent apoptosis, which was particularly evident from day 3 post-injection. The apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by macrophages, which were the dominant cell type from the first days onwards. All of the vaccines induced angiogenesis in the area of contact between the CVM and the mesothelium. Vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants or microspheres induced the formation of granulomas in the CVM; however, no granulomas were observed in the CVM induced by vaccines containing aluminium hydroxide or Matrix-Q(®) as adjuvants. All of the vaccines induced strong migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity. Although some of these cells remained unattached in the peritoneal cavity, most of them formed part of the CVM. We also observed migration of the cells from the peritoneal cavity to lymphoid organs, indicating bidirectional traffic of cells between the inflamed areas and these organs.

  5. The contingent valuation method in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, T

    1999-05-01

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a survey-based, hypothetical and direct method to determine monetary valuations of effects of health technologies. This comprehensive review of CVM in the health care literature points at methodological as well as conceptual issues of CVM and on willingness to pay as a measure of benefits compared with other measures used in medical technology assessment. Studies published before 1998 were found by searching computerised databases and former review literature. Studies were included, when performing CVM using original data and meeting qualitative criteria. Theoretical validity of CVM was sufficiently shown and there were several indications of convergent validity. No results on criterion validity and only a few on reliability were found. There was widespread use of different elicitation formats, which make comparisons of studies problematic. Direct questions were seen problematic. First bids used in bidding games influenced the monetary valuation significantly (starting point bias). There were indications that the range of bids of payment cards also affected the valuation (range bias). However, no strategic bias was found. The influence of different states of valuation (ex-ante, ex-post) and of payment methods, as well as the possible aggregation of the results of decomposed scenarios rather than more complex holistic scenarios, were rarely investigated. Further methodological analysis and testing seems to be necessary before CVM may be used in health care decision making. Important research topics are the connection of assessment of different elicitation methods and criterion validity as well as tests on reliability according to methodological issues. Concerning conceptual issues, the analysis of the influence of different states of evaluation and of the status of the respondents as diseased or non-diseased, as well as the aggregation of results of decomposed scenarios, proved to be topics of further research. PMID:10538292

  6. Screening for toxic phorbol esters in jerky pet treat products using LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishshanka, Upul; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Chattopadhaya, Chaitali; Kijak, Philip J; Chu, Pak-Sin; Reimschuessel, Renate; Tkachenko, Andriy; Ceric, Olgica; De Alwis, Hemakanthi G

    2016-05-01

    Since 2007, the U.S. FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) has been investigating reports of pets becoming ill after consuming jerky pet treats. Jerky used in pet treats contains glycerin, which can be made from vegetable oil or as a byproduct of biodiesel production. Because some biodiesel is produced using oil from Jatropha curcas, a plant that contains toxic compounds including phorbol esters, CVM developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) screening method to evaluate investigational jerky samples for the presence of these toxins. Results indicated that the samples analyzed with the new method did not contain Jatropha toxins at or above the lowest concentration tested. PMID:27038400

  7. AB125. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanjie; Zhu, Shimiao

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM). The objective of this study was to determine the role of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) in development of cardiovascular events (CVD and CVM). Methods and findings We performed a meta-analysis from population-based observational studies comparing ADT vs control aimed at treating PCa in patients with PCa, reporting either CVD or CVM as outcome. Publications were searched using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of observational studies database up to May 31th 2014, and supplementary searches in publications from potentially relevant journals. 6 studies were identified with a total of 129,802 ADT users and 165,605 controls investigating the relationship between ADT and CVD. The incidence of CVD was 10% higher in ADT groups, although no significant association was observed (HR =1.10, 95% CIs: 1.00-1.21; P=0.06). For different types of ADT, CVD was related with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (HR =1.19, 95% CIs: 1.04-1.36; P<0.001) and GnRH plus oral antiandrogen (AA) (HR =1.46, 95% CIs: 1.03-2.08; P=0.04), but not with AA alone or orchiectomy. For CVM, 119,625 ADT users and 150,974 controls from 6 eligible studies were included, pooled result suggested that ADT was associated with CVM (HR =1.17, 95% CIs: 1.04-1.32; P=0.01). Significantly increased CVM was also detected in GnRH and GnRH plus AA groups. When patients received other treatments (e.g., prostatectomy and radiotherapy) were ruled out of consideration, more increased CVD (HR =1.19, 95% CIs: 1.08-1.30; P<0.001) and CVM (HR =1.30, 95% CIs: 1.13-1.50; P<0.001) were found in men treated with ADT monotherapy. Conclusions ADT is associated with both CVD and CVM. Particularly, GnRH alone and GnRH plus AA can significantly increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with PCa.

  8. AB187. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuanjie; Zhu, Shimiao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is no consensus regarding whether androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM). The objective of this study was to determine the role of ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) in development of cardiovascular events (CVD and CVM). Methods We performed a meta-analysis from population-based observational studies comparing ADT vs. control aimed at treating PCa in patients with PCa, reporting either CVD or CVM as outcome. Publications were searched using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library Central Register of observational studies database up to May 31th 2014, and supplementary searches in publications from potentially relevant journals. Six studies were identified with a total of 129,802 ADT users and 165,605 controls investigating the relationship between ADT and CVD. Result The incidence of CVD was 10% higher in ADT groups, although no significant association was observed (HR =1.10, 95% CIs, 1.00–1.21; P=0.06). For different types of ADT, CVD was related with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) (HR =1.19, 95% CIs, 1.04–1.36; P<0.001) and GnRH plus oral antiandrogen (AA) (HR =1.46, 95% CIs, 1.03–2.08; P=0.04), but not with AA alone or orchiectomy. For CVM, 119,625 ADT users and 150,974 controls from 6 eligible studies were included, pooled result suggested that ADT was associated with CVM (HR=1.17, 95% CIs, 1.04–1.32; P=0.01). Significantly increased CVM was also detected in GnRH and GnRH plus AA groups. When patients received other treatments (e.g., prostatectomy and radiotherapy) were ruled out of consideration, more increased CVD (HR =1.19, 95% CIs, 1.08–1.30; P<0.001) and CVM (HR =1.30, 95% CIs, 1.13–1.50; P<0.001) were found in men treated with ADT monotherapy. Conclusions ADT is associated with both CVD and CVM. Particularly, GnRH alone and GnRH plus AA can significantly increase the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with PCa.

  9. Review of tourism resources valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Xiaoye; Cheng Shengkui; Chen Yuansheng

    2006-01-01

    Tourism resources valuation is now a hot issue of the science of tourism resources, resources economics and environmental economics. This paper reviews research progress on tourism resources valuation, introduces its theoretic basis, and elaborates two classical valuation methods: TCM and CVM. And two existing problems are discussed.Firstly, tourism resources value constitution system is still under dispute. This paper puts forward the value constitution system based on present value categories. Secondly, tourism resources valuation methods need further studies because both TCM and CVM have deficiencies. Finally, the paper points out the development direction of tourism resources valuation.

  10. [Evaluation of professional exposure to chloride vinyl monomer and vinyl idene chloride for a pharmaceutical packaging worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsi, F; De Grandis, D; Laurelli, R; Narda, R; Pietrantonio, E; Scarlini, E; Soldati, P S

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by Judicial Policy investigations of Prosecution's Office. The event was connected by a professional founded suspicion disease of a pharmaceutical worker. First information coming from the Authority indicated a chloride vinyl monomer (CVM) exposure. We applied a chemical risk assessment method to estimate real professional exposure. The method was based on the productive cycle, physical and chemical and toxicological properties. The method combined to environmental data permitted to formulate etiological hypothesis. The worker during drugs packaging was exposed to CVM and vinylidene chloride (CVDM) caused by blister warming and by glue deposition. We explain the evaluations by which we could consider the pollutant different distribution in workplaces.

  11. ANATOMÍA Y ONTOGENIA DE SEMILLAS DE HELICTERES LHOTZKYANA (STERCULIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María González

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Fueron estudiadas la anatomía y la ontogenia de las semillas de H. Lhotzkyana, con el fin de conocer la estructura y el origen de su aleta. Fueron analizadas semillas maduras de H. baruensis, representante del género, con el fin de comparar los dos tipos de semillas. La exotesta está constituída por esclereidas alargadas longitudinalmente, la endotesta está formada por células parenquimáticas con pequeños grupos de células taníferas.  El principal mechanical layer de la semilla es el exotegmen, formado por macroesclereidas radialmente alargadas, el meso y endotegmen son taniníferos. El presente estudio muestra que la aleta de las semillas de H. Lhotzkyana se desarrolla a partir del rafe, and consists of parenchymatic cells sourronding the rapheal vascular bundle and both sclerenchymatic epidermis

  12. Dieta y ecomorfología de la ictiofauna del arroyo Manantiales, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Diet and ecomorphology of the ichthyofauna of Manantiales stream, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M Fernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudio la correlación entre dieta y morfología de 19 especies de peces del arroyo Manantiales, cabecera del río samborombón, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cuatro grupos tróficos: carnívoros, omnívoros, insectívoros y detritívoros- alguívoros. Se analizaron 12 atributos ecomor-fológicos relacionados con el uso del hábitat y la alimentación con el fin de distinguir patrones ecomorfológicos de las especies y de las especies con el alimento consumido. Se utilizaron técnicas de análisis univariado y multivariado para determinar agrupamientos de especies utilizando los atributos ecomorfológicos y la dieta como descriptores. Los carnívoros se relacionaron con un buen desarrollo de cabeza, boca, aletas caudal y pectoral; y en general con cuerpos comprimidos. Los omnívoros constituyeron un grupo más heterogéneo. Las formas nectónicas de este grupo se relacionaron con un cuerpo comprimido, ojos laterales y tamaño relativamente pequeño de las aletas pectorales y aleta caudal; las formas nectobentónicas se relacionaron con boca pequeña, cuerpo fusiforme y pedúnculo caudal largo; y las formas bentónicas, con cuerpo deprimido, ojos de posición dorsal, boca ínfera y tubo digestivo largo. La única especie nectónica consumidora de insectos sobre la superficie se caracterizó por un cuerpo fuertemente comprimido, ojos laterales, aleta caudal grande y boca grande orientada hacia arriba. Los detritívoros-alguívoros presentaron un tubo digestivo largo, boca ínfera o terminal y aletas caudales largas. La relación significativa dieta-ecomorfología permite sostener que peces de dieta similar convergen hacia atributos ecomorfológicos comunes.The present study addresses the correlation between diet and morphology of 19 fish species that inhabit the Manantiales stream at the headwaters of the samborombón river, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The species were classified into four

  13. ASSESSMENT OF IMMUNE RESPONSES TO PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ITS ALLERGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergensYongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  14. COMPARISON OF OVERALL METABOLISM OF 1,2,3,7,8-PENTACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (PECDD) IN CYP1A2(-L-)KNOCKOUT (KO) AND C57BL/6N PARENTAL STRAINS OF MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment of immune responses to Penicillium chrysogenum and characterization of its allergensYongjoo Chung1, Michael E Viana2, Lisa B Copeland3, and MaryJane K Selgrade3, Marsha D W Ward3. 1 UNC, SPH, Chapel Hill, NC, 2NCSU, CVM, Raleigh, NC, 3US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP,...

  15. Ab initio calculation of the bcc Mo-Al (molybdenum-aluminium) phase diagram: Implications for the nature of the {zeta}{sub 2}-MoAl phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales-Ormeno, Pablo Guillermo [Computational Materials Science Laboratory, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463-CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Petrilli, Helena Maria [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Meca-hat nica, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05315-970 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: hmpetril@macbeth.if.usp.br; Schoen, Claudio Geraldo [Computational Materials Science Laboratory, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463-CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: schoen@usp.br

    2005-09-15

    The metastable phase diagram of the bcc-based ordering equilibria in the Mo-Al system has been calculated by the cluster expansion method, through the combination of FP-LAPW and CVM. The results are discussed with reference to the structure and stability of the {zeta}{sub 2}-MoAl high temperature phase.

  16. The Cluster Variation Method: A Primer for Neuroscientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianna J. Maren

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs require that the time-varying activation patterns of 2-D neural ensembles be modelled. The cluster variation method (CVM offers a means for the characterization of 2-D local pattern distributions. This paper provides neuroscientists and BCI researchers with a CVM tutorial that will help them to understand how the CVM statistical thermodynamics formulation can model 2-D pattern distributions expressing structural and functional dynamics in the brain. The premise is that local-in-time free energy minimization works alongside neural connectivity adaptation, supporting the development and stabilization of consistent stimulus-specific responsive activation patterns. The equilibrium distribution of local patterns, or configuration variables, is defined in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter (h for the case of an equiprobable distribution of bistate (neural/neural ensemble units. Thus, either one enthalpy parameter (or two, for the case of non-equiprobable distribution yields equilibrium configuration variable values. Modeling 2-D neural activation distribution patterns with the representational layer of a computational engine, we can thus correlate variational free energy minimization with specific configuration variable distributions. The CVM triplet configuration variables also map well to the notion of a M = 3 functional motif. This paper addresses the special case of an equiprobable unit distribution, for which an analytic solution can be found.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Cubana strains isolated from agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report draft genomes of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Cubana strain CVM42234 isolated from chick feed in 2012 and Salmonella Cubana strain 76814 isolated from swine in 2004. The genome sizes are 4,975,046 and 4,936,251 base pairs, respectively....

  18. ELICITING WILLINGNESS TO PAY IN OBSTETRICS: COMPARING A DIRECT AND AN INDIRECT VALUATION METHOD FOR COMPLEX HEALTH OUTCOMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bijlenga; G.J. Bonsel; E. Birnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare direct and indirect willingness to pay (WTP) elicitation methods in terms of feasibility, reliability, and comparability. The application is obstetrics, where always both a mother's and a child's health are at stake. Methods: An open-ended contingent valuation method (CVM) as a

  19. Effect of tube plugging in the thermalhydraulic performance of 'U' tube steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermalhydraulic performance of Angra II steam generator has been simulated using the model developed by Braga, C.V.M., 'Thermohydraulic model for steam generator of PWR power plants', in steady state, with plugging up to 40% of total number of tubes. (E.G.)

  20. Depletion of penicillin G residues in sows after intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US-FDA CVM has not established a tolerance for penicillin residues in swine tissues, but across much of Europe and Asia a tolerance of 50 ppb penicillin G is in effect. In the US, heavy sows are often treated with extra-label doses of penicillin G, however appropriate pre-slaughter withdrawal p...

  1. Characterization of cumulus cloud fields using trajectories in the center of gravity versus water mass phase space: 2. Aerosol effects on warm convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiblum, Reuven H.; Altaratz, Orit; Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham; Kostinski, Alexander B.; Khain, Alexander P.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Fredj, Erick; Dagan, Guy; Pinto, Lital; Yaish, Ricki; Chen, Qian

    2016-06-01

    In Part I of this work a 3-D cloud tracking algorithm and phase space of center of gravity altitude versus cloud liquid water mass (CvM space) were introduced and described in detail. We showed how new physical insight can be gained by following cloud trajectories in the CvM space. Here this approach is used to investigate aerosol effects on cloud fields of warm cumuli. We show a clear effect of the aerosol loading on the shape and size of CvM clusters. We also find fundamental differences in the CvM space between simulations using bin versus bulk microphysical schemes, with the bin scheme precipitation expressing much higher sensitivity to changes in aerosol concentrations. Using the bin microphysical scheme, we find that the increase in cloud center of gravity altitude with increase in aerosol concentrations occurs for a wide range of cloud sizes. This is attributed to reduced sedimentation, increased buoyancy and vertical velocities, and increased environmental instability, all of which are tightly coupled to inhibition of precipitation processes and subsequent feedbacks of clouds on their environment. Many of the physical processes shown here are consistent with processes typically associated with cloud invigoration.

  2. 75 FR 6037 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... of new animal drugs do not get into the food supply. CVM issues a slaughter authorization letter to... Investigational Animals Not Intended for Immediate Slaughter in Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary... Intended for Immediate Slaughter In Electronic Format to the Center for Veterinary Medicine.''...

  3. 75 FR 6034 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    .... Under this authority, CVM issues to a new animal drug sponsor (sponsors) a slaughter authorization... Agriculture (USDA),also monitors the slaughter of animals treated with investigational new animal drugs under... Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry on How to Submit a Notice of Intent to Slaughter for...

  4. Use of a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay PCR Method to Detect the Complex Vertebral Malformation in Some Chinese Holstein Sires%部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征携带状况的检测和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帅; 赵学明; 朱化彬; 杜卫华; 王栋; 郝海生; 王宗礼

    2011-01-01

    摘本研究旨在对部分中国荷斯坦种公牛脊柱畸形综合征(Complex vertebral malformation,CVM)致病基因的携带状况进行筛查.应用错配PCR突变分析技术(PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay,PCR-MAMA)建立了针对CVM致病基因的特异性检测方法.利用PCR-MAMA法检测了154头荷斯坦种公牛,发现了24头CVM阳性个体,阳性率为15.58%.结果显示,应对中国荷斯坦种公牛进行全面的针对CVM的检测.%This experiment was conducted to test some Chinese Holstein sires for complex vertebral malformation (CVM). In this study, a simple, rapid PCR mismatch amplification mutation assay (PCR- MAMA) was developed to detect the mutation allele. Out of 154 tested Holstein sires, 24 sires (15. 58%) were identified to be CVM carriers by PCR- MAMA. The results indicate that all the Chinese Holstein sires should be tested for CVM.

  5. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Veterinary Medicine home page at http://www.fda.gov/cvm. (b) A completed medicated feed mill license must..., manufacturing, processing, packaging, and holding such animal feeds conform to current good manufacturing... (HFV-220), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl.,...

  6. Consumer Valuation of the Second Generation of Genetically Modified (GM) Foods with Benefits Disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jae-Hwan; Harrison, R. Wes

    2006-01-01

    Employing contingent valuation method (CVM), the study explores whether or not consumers risk/benefit beliefs and knowledge about GM foods affect their behavior as measured by willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for GM beef with benefits. The results demonstrate that risk/benefit perceptions play a significant role to elicit WTP for GM beef with benefits

  7. The Application of Contingent Valuation Method in the Measurement of Heritage Resource: A Review%意愿调查法在我国遗产资源价值评价领域的应用与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卫华; 郭玮

    2013-01-01

    从中国知网选取97篇相关论文作为样本,从研究领域、主要发表期刊、所属学科、具体研究内容、研究过程、关键技术等方面进行了统计分析,对使用CVM在遗产价值评价方面的研究进行了梳理、述评,并对当前研究中存在的问题进行评析,旨在明晰CVM在遗产资源价值评价中的研究现状及发展进程.%Reasonable application of CVM is a shift from qualitatively describing change processes for the valuation of heritage resources to quantify them. We selected 97 papers of CVM used in heritage resource valuation from the CNKI as its samples. This paper clarified research status and development process of CVM in the evaluation of the value of heritage resources from the following 6 aspects: statistic and analysis of research fields; mainly published journals; research disciplines; concrete research contents; research progresses and survey technologies. We commented current studies' contribution and problem. Our purpose designed to clear CVM research in the evaluation of the value of heritage resources development process.

  8. WHAT ARE THE REASONS CAUSING INDEPENDENT AUDIT FIRMS TO CANCEL THEIR REGISTRATION AT THE REAL ESTATE VALUE COMMISSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio M. Uchida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study pursues to explain the reasons why some free auditing firms unregistered themselves from the CVM. This is a valuable theme for academic scenario considering the quantitative data verified. The research used information from companies listed in the Stock Market and other corporations authorized to operate by the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB and by CVM during the period from 1998 to 2009. It was applied as the methodological approach the multiple case studies with the selection of three national independent accounting firms from the state of São Paulo, which all have their registrations cancelled with the CVM. It was verified the activities of the independent auditing companies with legal requirements and technical support relating these activities required by the regulators and by normalization of the profession. It was verified that the companies decided to cancel their registration due to the lack of cost/ benefit relation to perform the requirements requested by the CVM, BCB and the Federal Council of Accounting (CFC. It was concluded that the intrinsic risk of the independent auditing activity is higher than the economical and financial benefits of the activity.

  9. 76 FR 72422 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Effectiveness... draft guidance for industry 217 entitled ``Evaluating the Effectiveness of Anticoccidial Drugs in Food... and food-producing mammals. Draft guidance for industry 217 supersedes the CVM draft guidance...

  10. Assessment of skeletal maturation with permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jamal Giri,1 Basanta Kumar Shrestha,2 Rajiv Yadav,2 Tika Ram Ghimire21Department of Orthodontics, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, 2Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Assessment of growth status of a patient is a key component in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing patients with skeletal discrepancy. Skeletal maturation based on hand-wrist radiograph and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM are commonly used methods of growth assessment. Studies have shown that stages of dental calcification can also be used to assess skeletal maturation status of an individual, whereas other studies have suggested that the relationship between dental calcification and skeletal maturation should be interpreted with caution owing to racial variation. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between permanent mandibular second molar calcification stages and skeletal maturity assessed by CVM among a group of Nepalese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and sixty-eight digital radiographs (84 orthopantomograms and 84 lateral cephalograms were obtained from the records of 84 patients who sought orthodontic treatment in Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit, Department of Dentistry, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu. Two parameters were used in this study, namely, CVM stages from lateral cephalogram and Demirjian index (DI stages from orthopantomogram. The evaluation of digital radiographs was carried out on a computer screen with a resolution of 1,280×800 pixels. The association between DI stages of permanent mandibular second molar and CVM stages was assessed. Results: A statistically significant association was found between DI and CVM stages for both male and female subjects with Pearson's contingency coefficient value of 0.751 and 0.766 for male and female subjects, respectively. Conclusion: Skeletal maturation can be reliably assessed with dental calcification

  11. Evaluación de Intercambiadores de Calor Compactos de Tubos Aletados Evaluation of Compact Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se presenta el análisis térmico teórico de un intercambiador de calor compacto, con y sin condensación de agua en el lado del aire. El fenómeno de la condensación del vapor de agua en la corriente de aire entrante produce una película de agua en la superficie cubriéndola en forma parcial o completa. El análisis considera varias configuraciones geométricas con respecto a: la superficie de las aletas y a la forma de los tubos considerando la forma circular tradicional y también un caso para tubos planos. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan la eficiencia de la aleta en ambos casos: una aleta totalmente seca (sin condensación y a una totalmente húmeda es decir, totalmente cubierta por la película de condensado. Se concluye que la metodología propuesta es una buena alternativa de análisis y caracterización de un intercambiador, ya que los resultados obtenidos coinciden con los reportados en la literaturaThis study presents a theoretical thermal analysis of a compact heat exchanger, with and without water condensation on the air side. The phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the entering air current produces a film of water on the surface, partially or completely covering the surface. The analysis considers various geometric configurations with respect to the surfaces of the fins and the form of the tubes, including the traditional round form as well as flattened tubes. The results obtained reflect the efficiency of the fins in both cases , including a completely dry fin (no condensation and a completely wet fin, that is completely covered with a film of condensate. It is concluded that the methodology proposed is a good alternative for the analysis and characterization of a heat exchanger since the results agree with those reported in the literature

  12. Especie nueva del género Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae del río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia A new fish species of the genus Bryconamericus (Teleostei: Characidae from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Román-Valencia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una especie nueva del género Bryconamericus Eigenmann, 1907 de la cuenca río Fonce, sistema río Magdalena, Colombia. La especie se distingue de sus congéneres por el número de radios anteriores de la aleta anal cubiertos por una hilera de escamas (4-11 vs. 11-26, excepto de B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003, de la cual se distingue por el mayor número de radios ramificados en la aleta anal 19-26 vs. 16-17 y de escamas en la línea lateral (39-45 vs. 31-32; en machos, por un número reducido de espinas sobre los radios en las aletas (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pélvicas 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorales 2-6 vs. 9-28 y dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18. Se suministran datos ecológicos del hábitat del nuevo taxon y una clave taxonómica para las especies de la cuenca de los ríos Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú y Ranchería.A new fish species of Bryconamericus Eigenmann 1907 is described from the Fonce river, Magdalena Basin of Colombia. The species can be distinguished from all congeners by the number of anterior anal fin rays covered by a scales row (4-11 vs.11-26, except B. orinocoense Román-Valencia 2003 with 1-6, from which is distinguished by the higher number of branched anal fin rays 19 -26 vs. 16-17 and lateral line scales (39-45 vs.31-32; in males, by the spines number on each fins rays (anal 2-10 vs. 9-23, pelvic 2-9 vs. 8-20, pectorals 2-6 vs.9-28 and dorsal 3-6 vs. 6-18. Ecological data of the aquatic habitat of the new taxon are presented and a key to species of Bryconamericus from Cauca-Magdalena, Sinú and Ranchería rivers in Colombia is provided.

  13. Use of Ionizing Radiation by the students of the Faculty of Odontology of the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Radiographic Techniques evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis an evaluation of the radiographic techniques was made by the students in the clinics of the Faculty of Odontology in the Universidad de San Carlos. The sample was 56 students of fourth and fifth year, an survey form was designed including information about radiographic technique, pacient, film seting up, cone alineation, furthermore exposure repetitions and its cause. It was conclude that paralelism technique is used by 46% of the students, 41% bicectriz technique, 13% both techniques, 100 % aleta mordible. Regarding to equipment set up previous to exposure 88% of the students sets the equipment in acceptable way, 88% used XCP accesory to hold the film without desinfection procedures and it was not set up properly. A 92% of the evaluated student had to repeat the exposures due to wrong application of radiographic techniques

  14. Operation experience with the new ICPC solar collector and double-effect absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, Williams S [Colorado State University (United States); Winston, Roland; O' Gallagher, Joseph J [University of Chicago, (United States); Henkel, Tom [Solar Enterprises International (United States); Christiansen, Rich [Ohio State University (United States); Bergquam, Jim [Sacramento State University (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In 1998 two new technologies were demonstrated for the first time in a commercial building: a new ICPC solar collector and the solar operation of a double effect (2E) chiller. This paper presents an update on the operation of this system. Daily collection efficiencies of nearly 50% were achieved. The two differently oriented absorber fins had nearly identical performance. [Spanish] En 1998 se demostraron por vez primera nuevas tecnologias en un edificio comercial: un nuevo colector solar y ICPC y la operacion solar de un enfriador de doble efecto (2E) este articulo presenta una actualizacion de la operacion de este sistema. Se lograron eficiencias de recoleccion diaria de casi el 50%. Los dos absorbedores con aletas orientadas en forma diferente tenian casi rendimientos identicos.

  15. Langstroth hive construction with cement-vermiculite Construção de colméia Langstroth com cimento-vermiculita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Affonso Lorenzon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated vermiculite is a light-weight and cheap product that, because of its thermal resistance, has become a valuable insulating material. With regard to its use in beekeeping, this research tested whether the box for honey bees constructed with cement-vermiculite mortar (CVM presents physical characteristics similar to those of wood. The experiment was carried out at Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, for eight months. The cement-vermiculite mortar was compared with a control material (pinewood, in the construction of Langstroth boxes and boards, in a completely randomized design, with respect to thermal control, thermal conductivity and its capacity to absorb and lose water. The production cost for a CVM box was estimated. There were no internal temperature differences between CVM and wooden boxes. Thermal conductivity values for CVM and pinewood were similar. CVM absorbed more water and lost water faster than pinewood. Since CVM boxes can be easily constructed, at a low cost and with similar characteristics as traditional boxes, made of wood, the material can be recommended for use in non-migratory beekeeping.A vermiculita expandida é um material leve, barato e sua resistência térmica permite sua utilização como material isolante. Referente ao seu uso na Apicultura, esta pesquisa testou se a caixa para abelhas melíferas construída com argamassa cimento-vermiculita (ACV apresenta características similares às da madeira. O estudo foi realizado em Seropédica (ERJ, Brasil, durante oito meses. Comparou-se a argamassa com o material controle, que foi a madeira pinho, em caixas de abelhas e em placas, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, quanto ao: controle térmico, a condutividade térmica, a capacidade de absorver e perder água. O custo de produção da caixa ACV para abelhas foi estimado. Não se observaram diferenças da temperatura interna entre as caixas de ACV e de madeira. A condutividade térmica foi similar nas placas de ACV

  16. Client value models provide a framework for rational library planning (or, phrasing the answer in the form of a question).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Moorsel, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Libraries often do not know how clients value their product/ service offerings. Yet at a time when the mounting costs for library support are increasingly difficult to justify to the parent institution, the library's ability to gauge the value of its offerings to clients has never been more critical. Client Value Models (CVMs) establish a common definition of value elements-or a "value vocabulary"-for libraries and their clients, thereby providing a basis upon which to make rational planning decisions regarding product/service acquisition and development. The CVM concept is borrowed from business and industry, but its application has a natural fit in libraries. This article offers a theoretical consideration and practical illustration of CVM application in libraries.

  17. Assessing the comprehensive restoration of an urban river: an integrated application of contingent valuation in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Qiuxia; Lin, Liqing; Lv, Huafang; Wang, Yao

    2013-08-01

    Around 2000, China began to address the comprehensive restoration of its urban rivers and attempt to restore river ecosystem services. This paper reports an integrated contingent valuation of the ecosystem services of Zhangjiabang Creek in Shanghai, which is in the most developed region of China. A total of 1440 questionnaires were delivered, and 1153 were returned as usable in August 2008. The willingness to pay for the restoration of the urban river is 20.22 RMB (2.91 USD) per month per household under the payment card and 110.64 RMB (15.92 USD) under the dichotomous format. Several important methodological issues of the contingent valuation method (CVM) are observed, including the disparity between willingness to pay and willingness to accept, the difference between payment card and dichotomous choice question formats, and the comparison of different models in welfare estimation using dichotomous choice data. Several new findings are disclosed for these three issues of CVM. PMID:23707722

  18. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Dalili

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method is one of them. At first the detection of the peak in mandibular growth was based on the analysis of the second through sixth cervical vertebrae in six developmental stages. But a few improvements of the original CVM analysis were still needed. In this method, the peak in mandibular growth was determined based on the analysis of the second through fourth cervical vertebrae in five developmental stages. This method is easy, applicable and more valid than hand-wrist analysis method.

  19. Governança corporativa: uma análise de sua relação com o desempenho econômico-financeiro de empresas cotadas no Brasil nos anos de 2010-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Catapan; Romualdo Douglas Colauto

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar si existe una relación entre el gobier- no corporativo y el desempeño financiero de las empresas brasileñas que cotizan en bolsa (BM & FBOVESPA), teniendo en cuenta los años 2010-2012. Por lo tan- to, los datos se obtuvieron de la Divext —sistema de divulgación de la Comisión de Valores Mobiliarios de Brasil (CVM) y de Empresas de Software Net— y tam- bién de la CVM. Se utilizó regresión con datos de panel para analizar la relación. El resultado m...

  20. Assessing sport brand value through use of the contingent valuation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lucy Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a first attempt to estimate customer-based brand equity with the contingent valuation method (CVM for a service-oriented product. We assess the value of a sport brand, IRONMAN triathlon, utilizing the CVM - one of the few available measures for estimating intangible product values. The equity of the IRONMAN brand was derived from consumers’ perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours by asking consumers (i.e., triathletes who have experiences with IRONMAN and non-IRONMAN branded events about their willingness to pay for an IRONMAN and generic non-IRONMAN triathlon events. We found (1 the presence of price premiums that sport consumers were willing to pay for the branded sport product and (2 the estimated brand equity value of approximately $102 million for IRONMAN Half-distance events, and $123 million for IRONMAN Full-distance event.

  1. Estimating residents' willingness to pay for groundwater protection in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Danh Thanh; Huynh, Khai Viet

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is facing the pollution and it needs to be protected. Searching literature reviews on economic valuation techniques, the contingent valuation method (CVM) has been popularly applied to estimate the economic value of water protection. This approach is based on a hypothetical scenario in which respondents are requested through questionnaires to reveal their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for the water protection project. The study used the approach of CVM to analyze the households' motivations and their WTP for the program of groundwater protection in the Mekong Delta. The study performed that the residents in the delta were willing to pay approximately 141,730 VND (US6.74) per household a year. Groundwater could be an inferior good with the negative income effect found in the demanding for clean groundwater. Respondent's gender and groundwater-related health risk consideration were factors sensitively affecting the probability of demanding for groundwater protection.

  2. Detection of cytomegalovirus in urine of HIV-infected patients by DNA-DNA hybridization comparison with virus isolation, immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Valdivia

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase test directed against early viral antigens, and DNA-DNA hybridization were compared with viral isolation for their abilities to detect Cytomegalovirus (CVM in the urine of 89 HIV infected patients. From the 100 urine samples collected, 70 were found positive by at least one method. Considering viral isolation as the "gold standard" technique, immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase had a sensitivity of 92.3% and88% respectively, with a specificity in both cases of 95%. DNA-DNA hybridization showed a sensitivity of 90% but with lower (60% specificity. All of the three assays were effective in detecting CVM from urine and the technical advantage of each is discussed.

  3. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  4. Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV. It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs followed by a shorter inspiratory time (Sindelar et al, J Appl Physiol, 2005 [Epub ahead of print]. Changes in lung mechanics, as observed in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome and after surfactant treatment, might therefore influence the inspiratory activity when applying PAV early after surfactant treatment. Objective To investigate the regulation of breathing and ventilatory response in surfactant-depleted young cats during PAV and during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP early after surfactant instillation in relation to phrenic nerve activity (PNA and the activity of PSRs. Methods Seven anesthetized, endotracheally intubated young cats were exposed to periods of CPAP and PAV with the same end-expiratory pressure (0.2–0.5 kPa before and after lung lavage and after surfactant instillation. PAV was set to compensate for 75% of the lung elastic recoil. Results Tidal volume and respiratory rate were higher with lower PaCO2 and higher PaO2 during PAV than during CPAP both before and after surfactant instillation (p Conclusion PSR activity and the control of breathing are maintained during PAV in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation, with a higher ventilatory response and a lower breathing effort than during CPAP.

  5. Computing Additive Chained Volume Measures of GDP Subaggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Dumagan, Jesus C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper derives formulas for additive "chained volume measures" (CVMs) of GDP subaggregates depending on the underlying GDP quantity index. In turn, this paper explains why the formulas used in current practice yield nonadditive CVMs. This paper's additive formulas have significant practical implications given that nonadditivity prevails in all countries that have adopted the CVM framework for GDP and considering that more countries will be adopting this framework.

  6. Histopathology of protozoal infection in animals: a retrospective study at the University of Philippines College of Veterinary Medicine (1972-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Baticados, Abigail M.; Baticados, Waren N.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the first parasitological survey of protozoal infections on tissue slide sections of field cases processed at the histopathology laboratory of the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB). Over 80% of the field cases were from Region 4 (CALABARZON) and the rest were equally distributed from other areas of the Philippines, namely: Region 2 (Cagayan Valley), Metropolitan Manila (National Capital Region), Region III (Central ...

  7. Earthquake Risk Information and Risk Aversive Behavior: Evidence from a Survey of Residents in Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuo Kawawaki

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between provision of earthquake risk information and residents' willingness to pay (WTP) for disaster risk reduction by the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), using questionnaire survey data on the purchase of earthquake insurance in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan. Degree of disaster risk aversion and subjective probability of loss are estimated as parameters of expected utility function in a discrete choice model. The results suggest that when more pr...

  8. Securitization, Credit Rating and Issuers’ Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Palmada Fernandes; Hsia Hua Sheng; Mayra Ivanoff Lora

    2014-01-01

    Given the growth of securitization through Credit Receivables Investment Funds (Fundos de Investimento em Direitos Creditórios - FIDCs) in Brazil in recent years, this work aims to investigate empirically the relationship between securitization and credit rating in the Brazilian market. All issues of FIDCs held by banks and registered in the CVM from 2005 to July 2010 were analyzed. The two hypotheses discussed by Gorton and Souleles (2005) were confirmed to Brazilian financial institutions. ...

  9. Securitization, Credit Rating and Issuers’ Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio P Fernandes; Hsia Hua Sheng; Mayra Ivanoff Lora

    2014-01-01

    Given the growth of securitization through Credit Receivables Investment Funds (Fundos de Investimento em Direitos Creditórios - FIDCs) in Brazil in recent years, this work aims to investigate empirically the relationship between securitization and credit rating in the Brazilian market. All issues of FIDCs held by banks and registered in the CVM from 2005 to July 2010 were analyzed. The two hypotheses discussed by Gorton and Souleles (2005) were confirmed to Brazilian financial institutions. ...

  10. Valuing quality improvements in environmental goods: a case study for the Ticino river

    OpenAIRE

    Buchli, Loa; Filippini, Massimo; Maggi, Rico; Soguel, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Where prices are missing as an indicator of value, economic non-market valuation represents an important tool for efficient and transparent decision-making. Given that environmental goods and services are often priceless, environmental economists have a long history of applying valuation tools. Two prominent valuation approaches are the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and the Travel Cost Method (TCM). They have until recently been considered as competing valuation approaches. A main advanta...

  11. 3D磁敏感加权成像在脑静脉畸形诊断中的价值%The role of 3D susceptibilitv weighted imaging in the evaluation of cerebral venous malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁鸣; 王德杭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of 3D susceptibility weighted imaging(SWI) in the diagnosis of cerebral venous malformation (CVM). Methods Thirty CVM patients were examined with a 3. OT MRI scanner. The sequences included the conventional MRI, 3D SWI and contrast enhanced T1WL Comparisons were made among SWI, contrast enhanced T1W1 and conventional sequences. The image quality of CVM was graded. Results SWI could demonstrate conspicuously both numerous deep medullary veins and collector veins as the contrast enhanced MRI did, which were hardly visible on Tl-weighted images or T2-weighted images. Conclusion SWI is a sensitive sequence for detecting CVMs. It allows better visualization of CVMs without contrast agents.%目的 探讨3D磁敏感加权成像(SWI)技术对脑静脉畸形(CVM)的诊断价值.方法 30例CVM形患者采用3.0T磁共振常规MRI序列(T1WI、T2WI)、3D SWI及T1WI增强扫描,根据CVM血管显影情况对常规MRI序列、3D SWI及T1WI增强扫描进行分级比较.结果 SWI能显著显示常规T1WI、T2WI很难显示的髓静脉及引流静脉,并与增强扫描图像有很好的对应.结论 SWI是检出CVM较为敏感的序列,在不用造影剂情况下使静脉畸形血管获得较好的显示.

  12. A MARKET OPPORTUNITY STUDY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW SPORT HORSE SERVICE AT THE MSU VETERINARY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Eric R.; Lloyd, James W.

    2002-01-01

    The potential need for several new services within the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) is unknown. However, based on focus groups and practitioner surveys conducted over the last several years, potential new services were identified: overnight emergency, behavior medicine, equine sports medicine, dentistry, oncology and exotic animal medicine. Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine (MSU-CVM) has recently expanded its equine research, diagnostic and therapy capabilities ...

  13. Historical Perspective on the Regulation of Antimicrobial Residues in Food in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Margaret Ann

    2011-01-01

    In the US, antimicrobials used in animals for both therapeutic and growth promotion purposes are considered animals drugs. Antimicrobial drugs are used in animals to treat and prevent disease, and to increase production. Before any animal drug can be legally marketed in the US, the drug’s sponsor must have a New Animal Drug Application (NADA) approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Within FDA, the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is responsible for determining when an an...

  14. Calorific value of Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca wood: Relationships with tree growth, wood density and rainfall gradients in the West African Sahel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Carmen Sotelo; Weber, John C. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Sahel Office, B.P. E 5118 Bamako (Mali); Silva, Dimas Agostinho da; Bolzon de Muniz, Graciela Ines [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Av. Lothario Meissner, 900, CEP.: 80270-170-Curitiba (Brazil); Garcia, Rosilei A. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Instituto de Florestas, Departamento de Produtos Florestais, BR 465, km 07, 23890-000, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Prosopis africana and Balanites aegyptiaca are native tree species in the West African Sahel and provide wood for fuel, construction and other essential products. A provenance/progeny test of each species was established at one relatively dry site in Niger, and evaluated at 13 years. Gross calorific value of the wood was determined for a random sample of trees in each test: gross CV and CVm{sup 3} = gross calorific value in MJ kg{sup -1} and MJ m{sup -3}, respectively. The major objectives were to determine if gross CV was positively correlated with wood density and tree growth, and if gross CV and/or CVm{sup 3} varied with rainfall gradients in the sample region. Provenances were grouped into a drier and more humid zone, and correlations were computed among all trees and separately in each zone. Results indicated that gross CV was not significantly correlated with density in either species. Gross CV was positively correlated with growth of P. africana (but not B. aegyptiaca) only in the drier zone. Gross CVm{sup 3} was positively correlated with growth of both species, and the correlations were stronger in the drier zone. Multiple regressions with provenance latitude, longitude and elevation indicated that provenance means for gross CV increased, in general, from the drier to the more humid zones. Regressions with gross CVm{sup 3} were not significant. Results are compared with earlier research reports from the provenance/progeny tests and with other tropical hardwood species; and practical implications are presented for tree improvement and conservation programs in the region. (author)

  15. Estimating the Value of Medal Success at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Brad; Johnson, Bruce; Mason, Daniel; Whitehead, John

    2011-01-01

    We estimate Canadians’ willingness to pay (WTP) for success by Team Canada in the 2010 Winter Olympics. The Canadian government subsidized elite athletes in the run up to the 2010 Games through the Own the Podium program, which was designed to increase Canada’s medal count. WTP estimates from a contingent valuation method (CVM) study using data from nationally representative surveys before and after the Games suggest that Own the Podium generated intangible benefits of between 3 and 5 times i...

  16. FDA Proposal for Establishing Microbiological Acceptable Daily Intakes for Antimicrobial Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, A. Haydée

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the effect of very low levels of antimicrobials present as residues in food on the human intestinal microflora of the consumer has been a scientific concern both nationally and internationally. Prior to 1990, this issue had not been formally addressed by the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). From the human food safety perspective, the evaluation of toxicological effects of drug residues did not include adverse effects on the human intestinal microflora. Following the 1992 ...

  17. The Payment Vehicle Used in CV Studies of Environmental Goods Does Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ivehammar, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the payment vehicle on the valuation of an environmental good with the contingent valuation method (CVM). Results from three CV studies comparing different payment vehicles by using split samples when valuing environmental encroachment caused by roads in Sweden are presented and compared to results from other such split-sample studies of payment vehicle effects. The results are consistent and show that the payment vehicle affects the valuation, but not always...

  18. Domestic Research on Using Contingent Valuation Method to Assess Library Value: A Review%国内运用条件价值法(CVM)评估图书馆价值的研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莲香; 杨卫红

    2012-01-01

    条件价值评估法(CVM)是一种通过调研来评价非市场物品与资源经济价值的最常用工具。利用它可以以确凿的事实表明,投资图书馆不仅可以产生不可替代的社会效益,而且还可以带来可观的经济回报。国内关于CVM评估图书馆价值的研究涉及对CVM的介绍、可行性分析、操作步骤、实证检验等内容。在今后的研究中,要面向国际学术动态,探索并建立CVM应用的系统、完善的本土化理论体系和方法,更加准确地应用CVM。%The contingent valuation method (CVM) is one of the most significant approaches of non-market valuation techniques which has been used widely. It can be used with solid facts suggest that Investing to library can not only cause the irreplaceable social benefits, but also will bring about considerable economic returns. Domestic Research on Using CVM to Value library valuation relates to the introduction of the theory, feasibility analysis, Operation steps, Empirical tests etc. In the future research should be geared to the needs of international academic developments, exploring and establishing CVM application system, and improving the localization theory system and method, more accurately applied in CVM.

  19. Effects of Propofol, a Sedative-Hypnotic Drug, on the Lipid Profile, Antioxidant Indices, and Cardiovascular Marker Enzymes in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Olubukola Akanni; Olugbenga Akinwonmi; Oluwatosin A Adaramoye

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the activity of anaesthetic propofol on biological processes has been attracting attention. The effect of propofol on biochemical indices in animals is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of propofol on lipid profile, antioxidant indices, and cardiovascular marker (CVM) enzymes in rats. The study consists of three groups of seven rats each. Group one received corn oil (Control) while groups two and three received propofol (doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight, resp....

  20. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume. PMID:26384903

  1. Determination of tricaine residues in fish by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochetto, Cristina B; Reimschuessel, Renate; Gieseker, Charles; Cheely, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), as an anesthetic drug for select aquaculture species. It was approved for use as a handling aid with a 3 week withdrawal time. The drug is rapidly metabolized and excreted; therefore, CVM approved its use without requiring a regulatory method for drug residues in tissues. However, there are concerns that the drug may be used to sedate fish during transport to slaughter. A regulatory method will enable monitoring for unsafe residues of this drug resulting from extralabel use. We present a quantitative method, using LC at a target level of 0.1 mg/kg (ppm), for three different farmed species: salmon (Salmo salar); tilapia (Oreochromis spp.); and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The assay begins with an acetonitrile extraction, followed by filtration and mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cleanup. The extracts are analyzed by reversed-phase LC with UV detection at 320 nm. The method was validated by using fish fillets with incurred residues, control fish fillets, and fish fillets fortified at half the target level, the target level, and twice the target level (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 ppm, respectively). For all species, accuracy is > or =80% and the RSD is < or =10%. The method complies with CVM performance criteria for the determination of veterinary drug residues. PMID:19714996

  2. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP.

  3. Circular Vibration Planing of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Nandita Kalyanakumara; Moriwaki, Toshimichi; Shibasaka, Toshiro; Nakamoto, Keiichi

    Circular vibration milling (CVM) is achieved by vibrating a milling cutter about the machine tool spindle axis in a circular path, in addition to its rotary motion. CVM has been proven capable of producing better surface finishes on difficult to cut materials. However, the CVM process is far slower than conventional milling process. In circular vibration planing (CVP) process, the cutting tool is clamped without rotation and fed at a speed comparable to the feed speed of conventional milling. By superimposing circular vibration motion, necessary cutting speed could be achieved keeping the feed speed at realistic values. Inconel 718 was machined by CVP and conventional milling at a similar feed rate. It was observed that CVP could reduce tool wear and hence produce better surface finishes than conventional milling. A geometric simulation showed a major difference between uncut chip shapes of the two processes. The difference of uncut chip shapes suggests that in CVP process, less rubbing occurs between tool flank face and work before the tool penetrates in to the work to form a chip. The reduced rubbing of the flank face is proposed as the reson for reduced tool wear in CVP when compared with conventional milling.

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ram Byun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6–18 years of age. CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P<0.05. Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables exhibited statistically significant correlations (P<0.05. The multiple regression model with the greatest R2 had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4 as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status.

  5. [WTP guidance technology: a comparison of payment card, single-bounded and double-bounded dichotomous formats for evaluating non-use values of Sanjiang Plain ecotourism water resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Guang; Wang, Qiu-Dan; Li, Chen-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) is the most widespread method to assess resources and value of environmental goods and services. The guidance technology of willingness to pay (WTP) is an important means of CVM. Therefore, the study on the WTP guidance technology is an important approach to improve the reliability and validity of CVM. This article conducted comprehensive evaluation on non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain by using payment card, single-bound dichotomous choice and double-bound dichotomous choice. Results showed that the socio-economic attributes were consistent with the willingness to pay in the three formats, and the tender value, age, educational level, annual income and the concern level had significant effect on the willingness to pay, while gender and job did not have significant influence. The WTP value was 112.46 yuan per capita with the payment card, 136.15 with the single-bound dichotomous choice, and 168.74 with the double-bound dichotomous choice. Comprehensive consideration of the nature of the investigation, investigation costs and statistical techniques, the result of double-bound dichotomous choice (47.86 x 10(8) yuan · a(-1)) was best in accordance with the reality, and could be used as non-use value of eco-tourism water resources in Sanjiang Plain. The format of questionnaire was very important to improve its validity, and made a great influence on the WTP. PMID:25757326

  6. Valuing climate protection through willingness to pay for biomass ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Johnson, Nicholas H. [Environmental Policy Program, Department of Social Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931-1295 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    This study uses a multi-part, split-sample contingent valuation method (CVM) and fair share (FS) survey to better understand the public's valuation of mitigating global climate change through its willingness to pay for biomass or 'cellulosic' ethanol. In addition to a basic CVM question, a related scenario was developed that asked half of the survey respondents to state their fair share cost to lessen a potential food shortage in the next decade, also through the expanded use of cellulosic ethanol. Three alternative biomass feedstocks were assessed: farming residues, forestry residues and paper mill wastes, and municipal solid wastes. Overall a slightly larger proportion of respondents were WTP extra for cellulosic ethanol in the basic CVM scenario than in the FS scenario, though no significant differences were found in the WTP for the different feedstocks. Bid curve lognormal regression results for the two models were similar, supporting the idea that asking a FS rather than a conventional WTP question may be justifiable in some circumstances, such as in cases of a national emergency. (author)

  7. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  8. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  9. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae, de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2009-08-01

    énero Notropis se distribuyen a lo largo del centro de México y regiones adyacentes, algunas especies llegan a cuencas del sur del país. Se han reconocido dos grupos: un clado sureño y uno en la parte central del país. En este último, Notropis calientis fue descrito como un complejo de especies que habita las partes altas de las cuencas donde se distribuyen. Con base en características morfométricas, merísticas y genéticas, se describen dos nuevas especies que emanan del complejo Notropis calientis. Notropis marhabatiensis sp. nov. se diagnostica por presentar: 7, rara vez 8 radios ramificados en la aleta pélvica (vs. 8 rara vez 7 o 9 en las otras especies dentro del complejo N. calientis y 9 rara vez 8 escamas transversales (vs. 10 rara vez 11 o 9 en N. grandis y N. calientis. Una línea lateral oscura y delgada corre a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el pedúnculo caudal. Veintiséis posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas en el gen citocromo b. Notropis granáis sp. nov. presenta 6, rara vez 7 radios ramificados en la aleta anal (vs. 7, rara vez 8 o 6 en N. marhabatiensis, N. calientis y N. aulidion y 8, rara vez 7 o 9 en N. calbazas y N. amecae; 42, rara vez 40-41 y 43-45 escamas en una línea lateral (vs. 40 rara vez 37-39 en N. calabazas; 35-36, rara vez 37-39 y 33-34 en N. amecae; 35, rara vez 31-34 y 36 en N. marhabatiensis y N. calientis y 34 rara vez 30-33 y 35 in N. aulidion y 11, rara vez 10 o 12 branquiespinas en el primer arco branquial. La línea lateral se extiende a partir del origen de la aleta pectoral hasta el origen de la aleta dorsal, con un segmento ligeramente convexo. Los adultos de esta especies son de mayor tamaño (longitud estándar= o = 42.6, SD= 4.69 (vs. N. calientis (n=55, o = 33.3, SD=3.28 y N. marhabatiensis sp. nov. (n=30, o = 30.5, SD=7.57 (F = 16.87; p o = 6.1% a 7.4%. Para N. granáis fueron de o = 6.3% a 8.1%.

  10. A general software module for CAMAC, equipment and composite variable control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current PS controls application software has a strong hierarchical structure of software modules which translate user-friendly commands into the intricacies of hardware devices. Starting from the most elementary hardware level, these are: (i) the ''interface module'' (IM), which hides the various CAMAC commands so as to provide a standard access to each type of CAMAC module; (ii) the ''equipment module'' (EM) presents a simple standard software interface of each process equipment. There is one EM for each type of equipment and all process equipment is accessed through EMs via IMs; (iii) the ''composite variable module'' (CVM) provides control of abstract beam variables. It involves control of several and possibly different kinds of equipment. Setting a CVM results in appropriate setting of all relevant equipment through calls to their EMs. For the LEP Preinjector (LPI) a new generation of application software is being implemented based on the experiments with the current system and the technological evolution since its conception. The logical levels of IM, EM and CVM are kept, but their managerial and housekeeping functions are merged into a single module: the ''General Module'' (GM). This paper represents the characteristics of the GM, its decomposition into housekeeping and management activities ones to supervise device specific controls, and its structuring into logic and data modules. This results in a unique frame for all modules in the application hierarchy. It is transparent to the programmes so that the development of specific IMs, EMs and CVMs reduces to editing appropriate data tables, developing specific codes or re-using existing ones. This new generation of application software follows modern ideas on conceptual modelling by data abstraction and object-oriented programming. (orig.)

  11. The Struggle for the Rule of Law in Romania as an EU Member State: The Role of the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Carp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relations between the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism, the rule of law, and the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality in relation to Romania as an EU Member State. The European Commission has not provided a definition of the rule of law, but only a theoretical one. Despite this, the way it has influenced in practice many non-EU Member States that have a strong relationship with the EU is significant. The article raises the question whether the EU may demand from EU Member States like Romania that they respect the rule of law. The Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM was established in 2006, based on Romania’s Treaty of Accession. It monitors, by means of periodical Reports, compliance with the rule of law standards. The article analyses two Reports from July 2012 and January 2013, by relating their contents to the principles of proportionality, subsidiarity and the EU obligation to respect the constitutional norms of Member States. The conclusion is that the way the CVM works does not contradict these principles. These CVM Reports also mention the Constitutional Court and the People’s Advocate (the Romanian Ombudsman because these institutions are considered by the European Commission to be fundamental for compliance with rule of law standards – combating high-level corruption and ensuring the independence of the judiciary. The conclusion is that the rule of law is not only a theoretical concept with different meanings at the national level, but that there is also an EU rule of law acquis, which is a specific part of the EU acquis.

  12. A general software module for CAMAC, equipment and composite variable control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneels, A.; Skarek, P.

    1986-06-01

    Current PS controls application software has a strong hierarchical structure of software modules which translate user-friendly commands into the intricacies of hardware devices. Starting from the most elementary hardware level, these are: (i) the "interface module" (IM), which hides the various CAMAC commands so as to provide a standard access to each type of CAMAC module; (ii) the "equipment module" (EM) presents a simple standard software interface of each process equipment. There is one EM for each type of equipment and all process equipment is accessed through EMs via IMs; (iii) the "composite variable module" (CVM) provides control of abstract beam variables. It involves control of several and possibly different kinds of equipment. Setting a CVM results in appropriate setting of all relevant equipment through calls to their EMs. For the LEP Preinjector (LPI) a new generation of application software is being implemented based on the experiments with the current system and the technological evolution since its conception. The logical levels of IM, EM and CVM are kept, but their managerial and housekeeping functions are merged into a single module: the "General Module" (GM). This paper represents the characteristics of the GM, its decomposition into housekeeping and management activities ones to supervise device specific controls, and its structuring into logic and data modules. This results in a unique frame for all modules in the application hierarchy. It is transparent to the programmes so that the development of specific IMs, EMs and CVMs reduces to editing appropriate data tables, developing specific codes or re-using existing ones. This new generation of application software follows modern ideas on conceptual modelling by data abstraction and object-oriented programming.

  13. Excited states in 146Sm and 147Sm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, J.; Sujkowski, Z.; Hammarén, E.; Liukkonen, E.; Piiparinen, M.; Lindblad, Th.; Ryde, H.; Paar, V.

    1980-03-01

    The 144, 146Nd(α, χn) and 146,148Nd( 3He, χn) reactions with Eα = 20-43 MeV and E3He , = 19-27 MeV are used to investigate excited states in the isotopes 146Sm and 147Sm. The experiments involve measurements of singles γ-ray spectra and conversion electron spectra, γ-ray angular distributions and three-parameter ( Eγ- Eγ-time) coincidences. From these experiments information is obtained for states with spin up to I = 13 +and I = {27}/{2}-, respectively. These states are interpreted within the framework of the cluster-vibration model (CVM) as well as the shell model. In the latter approach, the energies of several well established states, in both isotopes, are calculated using empirical singleparticle energies, empirical two-particle interaction matrix elements and angular momentum algebra. The average deviation between the calculated and the experimental energies is less than 100 keV. The CVM calculations involve the coupling of a three-particle neutron cluster to the quadrupole vibration of the core. For 147Sm, these calculations reproduce the observed sequence of states based on the I π = {7}/{2}- ground state, as well as the sequence of states based on the I π = {13}/{2}+ excited state. The CVM calculations also reproduce the ground band in 146Sm, while for the negative parity states based on the cluster (f {7}/{2}i {13}/{2}) 3 --10 - an additional shift in energy is expected due to the mixing with octupole phonons.

  14. Economic value of instream flow for non-commercial whitewater boating using recreation demand and contingent valuation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was $Y higher, and the level of $Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from $55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum $97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about $220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  15. Estimating Ecological Value of Small Hydropower Using Contingent Valuation Method: An Application to Tongjiqiao Reservoir in Zhejiang " Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Hongyun; Zhao Liange; Zhang Tong

    2012-01-01

    The small hydropower (SHP) will be less competitive in the absence of environmental value. The lack of information has become an important obstacle challenging decision-makers in resource-use choices. This paper is an application of contingent valuation method (CVM) in rural China to estimate the willing- ness-to-pay (WTP) for environmental services provided by exiting hydropower station. Using the single-bounded and dichotomous- choice CVM, the ecological value of Tongjiqiao Reservoir (TJQR) is estimated, and the annual mean WTPs of single-bounded and double-bounded CVM estimation are 141.05 and 219.52 Yuan (RMB)/a, respectively. The 95% confidence interval of annual WTP on an average is 118.47, 166.79 Yuan (RMB)/a and 204.41, 236.22 (Yuan RMB)/a, respectively. In contrast, double-bounded model could obtain much more information of WTP of the inves- tigated, thus reducing the confidence interval of estimation, and enhancing the estimation accuracy of the WTP. According to the estimated mean WTP of the double-bounded CVM, the total eco- system service value of the TJQR is 15.54 million Yuan (RMB). Compared with the conventional electricity of fossil power and large hydropower, the SHP will be less competitive in the absence of non-market value, ignoring that the environmental impacts of existing SHP will undermine the healthy development of clean energy sector.

  16. Impact of ultrasound on solid–liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Meullemiestre, Alice; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Maache-Rezzoug, Z.; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6 g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm2) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditio...

  17. A Vs30-derived Near-surface Seismic Velocity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Shallow material properties, S-wave velocity in particular, strongly influence ground motions, so must be accurately characterized for ground-motion simulations. Available near-surface velocity information generally exceeds that which is accommodated by crustal velocity models, such as current versions of the SCEC Community Velocity Model (CVM-S4) or the Harvard model (CVM-H6). The elevation-referenced CVM-H voxel model introduces rasterization artifacts in the near-surface due to course sample spacing, and sample depth dependence on local topographic elevation. To address these issues, we propose a method to supplement crustal velocity models, in the upper few hundred meters, with a model derived from available maps of Vs30 (the average S-wave velocity down to 30 meters). The method is universally applicable to regions without direct measures of Vs30 by using Vs30 estimates from topographic slope (Wald, et al. 2007). In our current implementation for Southern California, the geology-based Vs30 map of Wills and Clahan (2006) is used within California, and topography-estimated Vs30 is used outside of California. Various formulations for S-wave velocity depth dependence, such as linear spline and polynomial interpolation, are evaluated against the following priorities: (a) capability to represent a wide range of soil and rock velocity profile types; (b) smooth transition to the crustal velocity model; (c) ability to reasonably handle poor spatial correlation of Vs30 and crustal velocity data; (d) simplicity and minimal parameterization; and (e) computational efficiency. The favored model includes cubic and square-root depth dependence, with the model extending to a depth of 350 meters. Model parameters are fit to Boore and Joyner's (1997) generic rock profile as well as CVM-4 soil profiles for the NEHRP soil classification types. P-wave velocity and density are derived from S-wave velocity by the scaling laws of Brocher (2005). Preliminary assessment of the new model

  18. Calculating and testing cultivated land protection externality using Contingent Valuation Method%基于CVM的耕地保护外部性估算与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛海鹏; 王文龙; 张安录

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for estimating cultivated land protection externality. The proposed CVM was based on reconstruction of cultivated land utilization benefit system and defined cultivated land protection externality. The paper discussed in detail specific techniques of sample size and distribution, determination of leading technology, pay/compensation interval setting, hypothetical market scenario setting, evasion of deviation, pretreatment of survey data, and results validity/reliability tests. The results showed that ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands included public goods with mixed classes across categories. These classes were provided by joint ventures between the pure positive externalities and the private sector (mainly farmers). This could be estimated by using CVM and other non-market valuation methods. The willingness to pay of inter-viewee for this service was heavily restricted and influenced by their levels of socioeconomic development. The recognition of eco-logical and social benefits of cultivated lands of farmers and urban residents formed the main causality factor for the differences in payment ratio between urban residents and rural farmers. Urban residents were more familiar with ecological and social benefits of cultivated lands than rural/farm households. This was probably a key factor influencing the willingness to pay for ecological services. Farm households preferred voluntary labor as mean of payment, while both money and voluntary labor were more preferred by urban residents. The probable reason for this was that farm households had more leisure time than urban residents. Unitary cultivated land protection externality for Jiaozuo City was 1.91×108 Yuan·a−1 and the cultivated land protection externality per unit area of cultivated land was 993.7 Yuan·hm−2·a−1 base on CVM. CVM validity and reliability test was a critical element of CVM theory, method and practice. This was

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0981 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0981 ref|ZP_02661606.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Salmonella enter...ica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. SL480] ref|YP_002113683.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Sal...monella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. CVM19633] gb|ACF90718.1| O-antigen conversion p... gb|EDY29641.1| O-antigen conversion protein [Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str. SL480] ZP_02661606.1 0.040 23% ...

  20. The contingent valuation method: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a simple, flexible nonmarket valuation method that is widely used in cost-benefit analysis and environmental impact assessment. However, this method is subject to severe criticism. The criticism revolves mainly around two aspects, namely, the validity and the reliability of the results, and the effects of various biases and errors. The major objective of this paper is to review the recent developments on measures to address the validity and reliability issues arising out of different kinds of biases/errors and other related empirical and methodological issues concerning contingent valuation method

  1. Snowmass Energy Frontier Simulations using the Open Science Grid (A Snowmass 2013 whitepaper)

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, A; Narain, M; Padhi, S; Hirschauer, J; Levshina, T; McBride, P; Sehgal, C; Slyz, M; Rynge, M; Malik, S; Stupak, J

    2013-01-01

    Snowmass is a US long-term planning study for the high-energy community by the American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields. For its simulation studies, opportunistic resources are harnessed using the Open Science Grid infrastructure. Late binding grid technology, GlideinWMS, was used for distributed scheduling of the simulation jobs across many sites mainly in the US. The pilot infrastructure also uses the Parrot mechanism to dynamically access CvmFS in order to ascertain a homogeneous environment across the nodes. This report presents the resource usage and the storage model used for simulating large statistics Standard Model backgrounds needed for Snowmass Energy Frontier studies.

  2. UCVM: Open Source Software for Understanding and Delivering 3D Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Physics-based ground motion simulations can calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through 3D velocity models of the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) framework to help researchers build structured or unstructured velocity meshes from 3D velocity models for use in wave propagation simulations. The UCVM software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Currently, the platform supports multiple California models, including SCEC CVM-S4 and CVM-H 11.9.1, and has been designed to support models from any region on earth. UCVM is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. In this presentation, we describe improvements to the UCVM software. The current version, UCVM 14.3.0, released in March of 2014, supports the newest Southern California velocity model, CVM-S4.26, which was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations using CVM-S4 as the starting model (Lee et al., this meeting), and the Broadband 1D velocity model used in the CyberShake 14.2 study. We have ported UCVM to multiple Linux distributions and OS X. Also included in this release is the ability to add small-scale stochastic heterogeneities to extract Cartesian meshes for use in high-frequency ground motion simulations. This tool was built using the C language open-source FFT library, FFTW. The stochastic parameters (Hurst exponent, correlation length, and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio) can be customized by the user. UCVM v14.3.0 also provides visualization scripts for constructing cross-sections, horizontal slices, basin depths, and Vs30 maps. The interface allows researchers to visually review velocity models . Also, UCVM v14.3.0 can extract

  3. UCVM: An Open Source Software Package for Querying and Visualizing 3D Velocity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D.; Small, P.; Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Chen, P.; Lee, E. J.; Taborda, R.; Olsen, K. B.; Callaghan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic velocity models provide foundational data for ground motion simulations that calculate the propagation of earthquake waves through the Earth. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has developed the Unified Community Velocity Model (UCVM) package for both Linux and OS X. This unique framework provides a cohesive way for querying and visualizing 3D models. UCVM v14.3.0, supports many Southern California velocity models including CVM-S4, CVM-H 11.9.1, and CVM-S4.26. The last model was derived from 26 full-3D tomographic iterations on CVM-S4. Recently, UCVM has been used to deliver a prototype of a new 3D model of central California (CCA) also based on full-3D tomographic inversions. UCVM was used to provide initial plots of this model and will be used to deliver CCA to users when the model is publicly released. Visualizing models is also possible with UCVM. Integrated within the platform are plotting utilities that can generate 2D cross-sections, horizontal slices, and basin depth maps. UCVM can also export models in NetCDF format for easy import into IDV and ParaView. UCVM has also been prototyped to export models that are compatible with IRIS' new Earth Model Collaboration (EMC) visualization utility. This capability allows for user-specified horizontal slices and cross-sections to be plotted in the same 3D Earth space. UCVM was designed to help a wide variety of researchers. It is currently being use to generate velocity meshes for many SCEC wave propagation codes, including AWP-ODC-SGT and Hercules. It is also used to provide the initial input to SCEC's CyberShake platform. For those interested in specific data points, the software framework makes it easy to extract P and S wave propagation speeds and other material properties from 3D velocity models by providing a common interface through which researchers can query earth models for a given location and depth. Also included in the last release was the ability to add small

  4. Valoración económica de la actividad recreativa en el río Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Sanjurjo Rivera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Informal recreation activities derived from Colorado River water flow produce economic benefits. In order to prove this, we used a contingent valuation method (CVM, based on a survey applied to 100 visitors originating mainly from San Luis Rio Colorado; a single bounded econometric analysis was performed on the referendum question of willingness to pay (WTP. Many regressions using Probit and Logit models were run to obtain different estimators of central tendency of WTP. The estimated annual profit from such activities is between 1.9 and 6 million pesos a year.

  5. Estrutura de propriedade e de controle das empresas de capital aberto no Brasil Ownership and control in brazilian limited liability companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Mendes Aldrighi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its main objective to measure the magnitude of deviations between control rights and cash-flow rights for the ultimate shareholder with the largest voting rights of limited liability companies in Brazil. Furthermore, it pinpoints how these discrepancies are generated, evaluating the relative importance of the issuance of preferred stocks with no voting rights, pyramidal arrangements of ownership, and cross-shareholdings. The data set embraces 602 companies that in 2001 complied with the mandatory requirement of filing to the CVM.

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  7. An overview of methods and applications to value informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmanschap, Marc A; van Exel, Job N A; van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner B F

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares several applied valuation methods for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes: the proxy good method; the opportunity cost method; the contingent valuation method (CVM); conjoint measurement (CM); and valuation of health effects in terms of health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and well-being. The comparison focuses on three questions: what outcome measures are available for including informal care in economic evaluations of healthcare programmes; whether these measures are compatible with the common types of economic evaluation; and, when applying these measures, whether all relevant aspects of informal care are incorporated. All types of economic evaluation can incorporate a monetary value of informal care (using the opportunity cost method, the proxy good method, CVM and CM) on the cost side of an analysis, but only when the relevant aspects of time costs have been valued. On the effect side of a cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis, the health effects (for the patient and/or caregiver) measured in natural units or QALYs can be combined with cost estimates based on the opportunity cost method or the proxy good method. One should be careful when incorporating CVM and CM in cost-minimization, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, as the health effects of patients receiving informal care and the carers themselves may also have been valued separately. One should determine whether the caregiver valuation exercise allows combination with other valuation techniques. In cost-benefit analyses, CVM and CM appear to be the best tools for the valuation of informal care. When researchers decide to use the well-being method, we recommend applying it in a cost-benefit analysis framework. This method values overall QOL (happiness); hence it is broader than just HR-QOL, which complicates inclusion in traditional health economic evaluations that normally define outcomes more narrowly. Using broader, non

  8. The confirmation of a work hypothesis: a new caldera in the center of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; La confirmacion de una hipotesis de trabajo: una nueva caldera en el centro del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguita Virella, Francisco; Pal Verma, Surendra; Milan, Marcos; Garcia Cacho, Luis; Samaniego M, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    After synthesizing the most relevant aspects of the current volcanology and the genesis process of the collapse calderas, a process is described on the location and confirmation of a new caldera (the Mazahua) in the central part of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB). [Espanol] Tras sintetizar los aspectos mas destacados de la vulcanologia actual y el proceso de genesis de las calderas de colapso, se describe el proceso de localizacion y confirmacion de una nueva caldera (la Mazahua) en la parte central del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM).

  9. Estimation of the Economic Surpuls in a Water Trading Market : The cose of Northern Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    The size of the ecomomic surplus of a water trading market was estimated using the CVM-trigonometric method for the first time in the world. A study area of about 68,000 square kilometers in the north of the State of Victoria, Australia was selected. This is one of the centers of the irrigation agriculture of Australia and is managed by a watar distribution, Government-owned corporation called G-MW. The investigation period covered was an irrigation season from August, 2009 to May, 2010, and ...

  10. Revisión taxonómica del género Pimelodella, Eigenmann y Eigenmann, 1888 (pisces, siluriformes: heptapteridae de la región transandina de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Castaño Mauricio

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de Pimelodella Eigenmann (Heptapteridae, son siluriformes fácilmente identificables por el proceso occipital delgado que se conecta a la placa nucal, aleta adiposa larga y las franjas laterales negras a lo largo del cuerpo. El género se encuentra ampliamente distribuido en la zona tropical de América del sur hasta Costa Rica, muchas de las especies son comunes, pero muy pobremente conocidas. Dentro de los ejemplares revisados de la región transandina de Colombia,
    algunos se encontraron determinados hasta el género y otros mal determinados en la especie. De las siete especies que se encuentran reportadas para esta región (P. chagresi, P. odynea, P. eutaenia, P. grisea, P. modestus, P. reyesi y P. macrocephala se encontró que P. macrocephala no está colectada en los institutos visitados. En los resultados obtenidos se encontraron evidencias morfométricas y merísticas de cuatro grupos diferentes a los grupos reportados, dos hacen parte del sistema del río Magdalena, uno al sistema Caribe–Guajiro y uno al sistema del Pacífico (Colombia.

  11. Cetacean diversity and distribution in the coast of Gipuzkoa and adjacent waters, southeastern Bay of Biscay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS, E., SALAZAR, J.M., STHEPANIS, R. de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2003, se ha realizado un seguimiento continuo a las poblaciones de cetáceos de la costa guipuzcoana, siguiendo los protocolos de muestreo de cetáceos en mar de la Sociedad Española de Cetáceos. Se ha estudiado la diversidad, la densidad, la distribución espacial y temporal de estas especies. Los resultados indican la presencia de 12 especies de cetáceos en el área, y la importancia de la misma para cinco de ellas, especialmente para el delfín mular (Tursiops truncatus. El delfín común (Delphinus delphis, el calderon de aleta larga (Globicephala melas, el delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba y el cifio de cuvier (Ziphius cavirostris son especies altamente representadas en el área. Se han definido las principales áreas de distribución de estas especies con el fin de dar los primeros pasos para la creación de un Área Marina Protegida en el área.

  12. CVM在高校图书馆价值评估中的实证研究%Empirical Studies on Assessment of the Value of University Libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘宇光; 范玉祥

    2013-01-01

    CVM has an advantageous position in assessing the value of articles,and is also proved a practi-cable application in the value evaluation of the library.As an essential support of the college teaching and researching,it’s significant to assess the value of the libraries precisely.This study,with the application of CVM to a questionnaire in the library of Hefei University of Technology and with the help of the statis-tic software SPSS18,draws the conclusion of ROI>1.%条件价值评估法(CVM)在评估物品的非使用价值方面具有无以比拟的优势,对图书馆的价值评估更是近年来一项切实可行有效的应用研究。运用 CVM,以合肥工业大学图书馆为例,进行问卷调查,最后运用 spss18软件统计分析回收的数据,得出投资回报率>1的结论。

  13. Interventions for improving the fertility of crossbred cows subjected to artificial insemination under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a follow-up to a study that assessed the various factors affecting conception rate in cows bred by artificial insemination (AI), several interventions were tested for their effectiveness in overcoming the major problems that were identified. Treatment of repeat-breeder cows that were diagnosed as having sub-clinical endometritis with 100 μg E.coli lipopolysachharide (LPS) or LPS + autologous serum resulted in reduced incidence of abnormalities in the appearance and consistency of cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) and a significant decrease in pH of CVM from around 7.7 to 7.2. Treatment of repeat-breeder cows that were suspected of having luteal deficiency with two injections of 500 mg progesterone on days 5 and 11 after AI resulted in 30% of the animals conceiving compared with 20% conception in controls. Filtration of frozen and thawed bull semen through Sephadex columns significantly decreased the concentration of dead and abnormal sperms. The CR in cows inseminated with filtered semen was 57%, compared with 22% in cows inseminated with unfiltered semen. A number of refresher training courses were held for reproduction scientists, field veterinarians and farmers on the causes of infertility and to introduce the latest reproductive technologies for improving fertility in dairy animals. (author)

  14. Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Elwood L.; Carline, Robert; Guldin, Richard W.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1993-09-01

    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than 1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.

  15. Radiological Indicators of Bone Age Assessment in Cephalometric Images. Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka-Zając, Magdalena; Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Derwich, Marcin; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Łoboda, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to assess bone age accurately is important and allows to diagnose the patient correctly and to plan orthodontic treatment appropriately. The aim of the work is to present views of different authors on the subject of using cephalometric images to determine bone age and its significance for conducting appropriate orthodontic treatment. Publications from the PubMed medical database were analyzed. Search criteria: bone age assessment, CVM method. Ultimately, 36 papers out of 1354 publications were selected. The research of many authors confirms the usefulness of various methods using cephalometric images to assess skeletal age. Currently, the CVM method devised by Baccetti et al. is the most frequently mentioned one in literature. It seems that bone age assessment methods based on evaluating the morphological structure of the cervical vertebrae in cephalometric images can clearly differentiate skeletal maturity in children regardless of their race or sex. Bearing in mind the constant technological progress in medicine and stomatology, bone age assessment methods need to be perfected in order to alleviate their impact on the patient as much as possible. PMID:27536337

  16. Multi-view L2-SVM and its multi-view core vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengquan; Chung, Fu-lai; Wang, Shitong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a novel L2-SVM based classifier Multi-view L2-SVM is proposed to address multi-view classification tasks. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier does not have any bias in its objective function and hence has the flexibility like μ-SVC in the sense that the number of the yielded support vectors can be controlled by a pre-specified parameter. The proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier can make full use of the coherence and the difference of different views through imposing the consensus among multiple views to improve the overall classification performance. Besides, based on the generalized core vector machine GCVM, the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier is extended into its GCVM version MvCVM which can realize its fast training on large scale multi-view datasets, with its asymptotic linear time complexity with the sample size and its space complexity independent of the sample size. Our experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed Multi-view L2-SVM classifier for small scale multi-view datasets and the proposed MvCVM classifier for large scale multi-view datasets.

  17. Seasonal determinations of algal virus decay rates reveal overwintering in a temperate freshwater pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew M; Short, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    To address questions about algal virus persistence (i.e., continued existence) in the environment, rates of decay of infectivity for two viruses that infect Chlorella-like algae, ATCV-1 and CVM-1, and a virus that infects the prymnesiophyte Chrysochromulina parva, CpV-BQ1, were estimated from in situ incubations in a temperate, seasonally frozen pond. A series of experiments were conducted to estimate rates of decay of infectivity in all four seasons with incubations lasting 21 days in spring, summer and autumn, and 126 days in winter. Decay rates observed across this study were relatively low compared with previous estimates obtained for other algal viruses, and ranged from 0.012 to 11% h(-1). Overall, the virus CpV-BQ1 decayed most rapidly whereas ATCV-1 decayed most slowly, but for all viruses the highest decay rates were observed during the summer and the lowest were observed during the winter. Furthermore, the winter incubations revealed the ability of each virus to overwinter under ice as ATCV-1, CVM-1 and CpV-BQ1 retained up to 48%, 19% and 9% of their infectivity after 126 days, respectively. The observed resilience of algal viruses in a seasonally frozen freshwater pond provides a mechanism that can support the maintenance of viral seed banks in nature. However, the high rates of decay observed in the summer demonstrate that virus survival and therefore environmental persistence can be subject to seasonal bottlenecks. PMID:26943625

  18. Impact Analysis of Irrigation Projects: an Application of Contingent Valuation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Michailidis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply in rural and urban areas is an issue of primary concern, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study is to estimate some socioeconomic and environmental values of three irrigation lakes, constructed at Panagitsa village (Region of Central Macedonia, Prefecture of Pella. The study area is characterized, especially during the summer session, of limited water supply for irrigation purposes. Although the majority of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM studies have been restricted to environmental goods, this method can applied to public goods in general. It is assumed that the consumers satisfaction of water supply service, their opinions about the water management system and its affordability might have an impact on their Willingness to Pay (WTP.Various outputs were defined and each ones economic value was estimated. Water supply, recreation, health effects, social impact, environmental consequences and some more outputs were valued through the CVM. These values can assist managers and policy makers in making decisions regarding the opportunity cost of the irrigation projects, their management options and the projects alterations or preservations. These values of the irrigation projects outputs are estimated under the assumption that all other wetlands or water resources in the region remain unchanged.

  19. Stated preferences for the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. A contingent valuation study of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jiune-Jye; Liu, Jin-Tan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2005-05-01

    Within the process of calculating the true costs of illness, physical pain is a component of intangible, or human, costs. One method of estimating the monetary value of such costs is the 'contingent valuation method' (CVM), a stated preference method based upon the elicitation of levels of willingness to pay (WTP) facilitated through surveys. This study is amongst the first of its kind to apply CVM to the estimation of the cost of the removal of physical pain resulting from permanently disabling occupational injuries. We assume that a painkilling drug has been invented to mitigate physical pain with the advantages of validity and instantaneity, and without any side effects. The WTP of each of the respondents is determined by a two-step sequential-bidding process. The maximum WTP under log normal distribution was NT 1791 US dollars/day (65.1 US dollars), whilst under Weibull distribution it was NT 1913 US dollars/day (69.6 US dollars). Older respondents, those with higher household income, fall injuries, longer periods of hospitalization, or with a perceived demand for the painkilling drug in excess of one day, displayed a positive independent effect on the eliciting of their WTP. In addition, respondents with higher 'out-of-pocket' expenses, or where the interview took place 2 years or more after the injury occurred, responded with a lower WTP.

  20. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  1. Determining the value of reductions in radiation risk using the contingent valuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to develop feasible methodology to obtain Won per man-rem conversion factor that can be used in regulatory analysis in Korea. A comparative analysis of the value placed on reductions in risks from occupational radiation exposure and car accidents was conducted to the employees in nuclear power plants and nuclear institutes in Korea. The double bounded dichotomous choice approach was used in the context of the contingent valuation method (CVM). A web-based on-line survey questionnaire was used to elicit willingness-to-pay(WTP) values for predefined 20% reductions of the risks. WTP for safety goods to reduce the risks were estimated and values of a statistical life were calculated from the mean WTPs. The mean value of statistical life was 2.41 billion Won for car accidents and 3.93 billion Won for radiation exposure. Conversion factor for radiation dose was calculated as 2.03 million Won per man-rem, which is not different from $2000/man-rem used in US NRC. CVM could be one of the efficient ways to value radiation exposure reduction in monetary term

  2. Contingent valuation method applied to survey on personal preferences on choice of electric power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey was conducted on personal preferences regarding their choice of electric power source to verify the applicability of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to such analysis. The survey was carried out on local and urban inhabitants in two steps, first by mail and thereafter by direct interview. A choice of four typical forms of power source was presented: nuclear, coal, hydro and green power; and the question was asked whether the respondent would be willing to pay additional charge for specifying their preferable power source. The mail survey indicated more than half of the respondents hold some willingness to pay either for disuse of nuclear power or expansion of green power. The interview survey revealed various complex motives lying behind their answers. Consequently, it was found that their preference is significantly correlated to their personal image or knowledge of power sources, their thinking or attitude toward energy conservation, their sense of consumption and their private view of life. It is concluded that CVM is pertinently applicable to quantitative analysis of individual opinions, particularly in terms of their motivation to participate in national energy issues. A number of modifications, however, should be required to be brought to the survey design in order to ensure smooth application in practice. (author)

  3. Assessing Conformance with Benford’s Law: Goodness-Of-Fit Tests and Simultaneous Confidence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesperance, M.; Reed, W. J.; Stephens, M. A.; Tsao, C.; Wilton, B.

    2016-01-01

    Benford’s Law is a probability distribution for the first significant digits of numbers, for example, the first significant digits of the numbers 871 and 0.22 are 8 and 2 respectively. The law is particularly remarkable because many types of data are considered to be consistent with Benford’s Law and scientists and investigators have applied it in diverse areas, for example, diagnostic tests for mathematical models in Biology, Genomics, Neuroscience, image analysis and fraud detection. In this article we present and compare statistically sound methods for assessing conformance of data with Benford’s Law, including discrete versions of Cramér-von Mises (CvM) statistical tests and simultaneous confidence intervals. We demonstrate that the common use of many binomial confidence intervals leads to rejection of Benford too often for truly Benford data. Based on our investigation, we recommend that the CvM statistic Ud2, Pearson’s chi-square statistic and 100(1 − α)% Goodman’s simultaneous confidence intervals be computed when assessing conformance with Benford’s Law. Visual inspection of the data with simultaneous confidence intervals is useful for understanding departures from Benford and the influence of sample size. PMID:27018999

  4. Impact of perceived importance of ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on willingness to pay for riparian meadow restoration in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Aertsens, Joris; Liekens, Inge; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo

    2014-08-01

    The strategic importance of ecosystem service valuation as an operational basis for policy decisions on natural restoration has been increasingly recognized in order to align the provision of ecosystem services with the expectation of human society. The contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely used to quantify various ecosystem services. However, two areas of concern arise: (1) whether people value specific functional ecosystem services and overlook some intrinsic aspects of natural restoration, and (2) whether people understand the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules given in the contingent scenarios. Using a peri-urban riparian meadow restoration project in Flanders, Belgium as a case, we explored the impacts of residents' perceived importance of various ecosystem services and stated financial constraints on their willingness-to-pay for the proposed restoration project employing the CVM. The results indicated that people tended to value all the benefits of riparian ecosystem restoration concurrently, although they accorded different importances to each individual category of ecosystem services. A longer payment scheme can help the respondents to think more about the flow of ecosystem services into future generations. A weak temporal embedding effect can be detected, which might be attributed to respondents' concern about current financial constraints, rather than financial bindings associated with their income and perceived future financial constraints. This demonstrates the multidimensionality of respondents' financial concerns in CV. This study sheds light on refining future CV studies, especially with regard to public expectation of ecosystem services and the temporal dimension of ecosystem services and payment schedules.

  5. Governança corporativa: uma análise de sua relação com o desempenho econômico-financeiro de empresas cotadas no Brasil nos anos de 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Catapan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar si existe una relación entre el gobier- no corporativo y el desempeño financiero de las empresas brasileñas que cotizan en bolsa (BM & FBOVESPA, teniendo en cuenta los años 2010-2012. Por lo tan- to, los datos se obtuvieron de la Divext —sistema de divulgación de la Comisión de Valores Mobiliarios de Brasil (CVM y de Empresas de Software Net— y tam- bién de la CVM. Se utilizó regresión con datos de panel para analizar la relación. El resultado mostró una relación directa entre el valor de mercado percibido de las empresas y el nivel de divulgación. Este resultado ilustra que cuanto mayor es la divulgación de la información, más alto es el valor de mercado de las empresas. Además de la relación significativa entre el valor de mercado y el gobierno cor- porativo, se encontró una relación entre el Índice de Gobierno Corporativo y dos variables: la q de Tobin y rendimiento de los activos.

  6. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of the international standardization by the economic evaluation of environmental impacts; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Kankyo compact no keizai hyoka ni yoru kokusai hyojunka no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of the international standardization, conducted was a R and D of `the economic evaluation method of environmental impacts.` Survey/analysis were conducted of the trends in the U.S. and Europe where the study on environmental costs is advancing, and study systems were constructed in cooperation with Resources for the Future (RFF), the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute, the University of London, etc. As to impact analysis models, the development of environmental excrement transfer models has been finished, and the development of D-R relational equations which reflected characteristics in Japan has been started. In the joint study with the U.S. RFF, conducted were survey/analysis using the CVM (contingent valuation method). By the comparison of the survey data with actual medical data and comparison with the economic value conversion method, etc., validity and consistency of the CVM method were verified. As a result, it was found that these survey data could be explained without inconsistency. A case study of the environmental cost evaluation was made for electric power, iron/steel and electricity, and it was verified that this developmental method was fully applicable to the environmental impact evaluation of the actual production system. 27 refs., 33 figs., 89 tabs.

  7. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies.

  8. Methodology for the study of the Mexican Volcanic Belt; Metodologia para el estudio del Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Surendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is an structure 20 to 150 kilometers wide an {approx}1000 km long, oriented approximately east-west, from nearby Puerto Vallarta up until Veracruz; it contains a great number ({approx}7000) of volcanic apparatus or volcanic centers (Verma, 1987a, and the cited references in this paper). Fig. 1 represents the location of some of its main volcanic centers. The MVB forms part of the ring of fire that extends all along the circumpacific region (see Fig. 2) named this way because it refers to a very high volcanoes population (many of them active volcanoes), to its seismic activity and to the large geothermal manifestations. [Espanol] El Cinturon Volcanico Mexicano (CVM) es una estructura de 20 a 150 kilometros de ancho, {approx}1,000 km de largo, orientada aproximadamente este-oeste desde cerca de Puerto Vallarta hasta Veracruz; contiene gran numero ({approx}7,000) de aparatos o centros volcanicos (Verma, 1987a, y las referencias citadas en este trabajo). La figura 1 presenta la localizacion de algunos de sus principales centros volcanicos. El CVM forma parte del llamado anillo del fuego, que se extiende a todo lo largo de la region circumpacifica (vease la Fig. 2), denominada asi porque se trata de una poblacion muy alta de volcanes (mucho de ellos activos), de la actividad sismica y de grandes manifestaciones geotermicas.

  9. Comparing Contingent Valuation, Conjoint Analysis and decition Panels: An Application to the valuation of reduced damages from air pollution in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, B.; Strand, J.; Saelensminde, K.; Wenstoep, F.

    1996-12-31

    The need for assessing values of non-market goods has led to the development of two main groups of valuation approaches, those based on revealed preferences, and those on stated preferences (SP). One of the stated preference approaches, the Contingent Valuation Method, has recently been heavily criticized and alternative SP valuation approaches have appeared. This report discusses three SP approaches to eliciting willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental goods, namely open-ended contingent valuation (OE-CVM), conjoint analysis (CA) and multi-attribute utility theory applied to decision panels of experts (DPE). Each approach has advantages and disadvantages relative to the others and the relation between WTP estimates from the approaches cannot be predicted on prior arguments alone. The three approaches are applied in three different surveys, seeking valuation of specific damages due to air pollution in Norway. In all cases studied, OE-CVM yields the lowest average WTP estimate, while those from CA and EDP are similar. Possible explanations are offered, based on the principle differences between the approaches and on particular features of the three surveys. 35 refs., 10 tabs.

  10. Comparative analysis of CFD models for jetting fluidized beds: Effect of particle-phase viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Pei; Kai Zhang; Gang Xu; Yongping Yang; Dongsheng Wen

    2012-01-01

    Under the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of simulating gas-solid two-phase flow,the accuracy of the hydrodynamic prediction is strongly affected by the selection of rheology of the particulate phase,for which a detailed assessment is still absent.Using a jetting fluidized bed as an example,this work investigates the influence of solid theology on the hydrodynamic behavior by employing different particle-phase viscosity models.Both constant particle-phase viscosity model (CVM) with different viscosity values and a simple two-fluid model without particle-phase viscosity (NVM) are incorporated into the classical twofluid model and compared with the experimental measurements.Qualitative and quantitative results show that the jet penetration depth,jet frequency and averaged bed pressure drop are not a strong function of the particle-phase viscosity.Compared to CVM,the NVM exhibits better predictions on the jet behaviors,which is more suitable for investigating the hydrodynamics of gas-solid fluidized bed with a central jet.

  11. Loss of col8a1a function during zebrafish embryogenesis results in congenital vertebral malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ryan S; Wilm, Thomas P; Smith, Jeff; Bagnat, Michel; Dale, Rodney M; Topczewski, Jacek; Johnson, Stephen L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2014-02-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations (CVM) occur in 1 in 1000 live births and in many cases can cause spinal deformities, such as scoliosis, and result in disability and distress of affected individuals. Many severe forms of the disease, such as spondylocostal dystostosis, are recessive monogenic traits affecting somitogenesis, however the etiologies of the majority of CVM cases remain undetermined. Here we demonstrate that morphological defects of the notochord in zebrafish can generate congenital-type spine defects. We characterize three recessive zebrafish leviathan/col8a1a mutant alleles ((m531, vu41, vu105)) that disrupt collagen type VIII alpha1a (col8a1a), and cause folding of the embryonic notochord and consequently adult vertebral column malformations. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a transient loss of col8a1a function or inhibition of Lysyl oxidases with drugs during embryogenesis was sufficient to generate vertebral fusions and scoliosis in the adult spine. Using periodic imaging of individual zebrafish, we correlate focal notochord defects of the embryo with vertebral malformations (VM) in the adult. Finally, we show that bends and kinks in the notochord can lead to aberrant apposition of osteoblasts normally confined to well-segmented areas of the developing vertebral bodies. Our results afford a novel mechanism for the formation of VM, independent of defects of somitogenesis, resulting from aberrant bone deposition at regions of misshapen notochord tissue.

  12. Economic valuation of informal care: the contingent valuation method applied to informal caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Bernard; Brouwer, Werner; van Exel, Job; Koopmanschap, Marc

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results of the application of the contingent valuation method (CVM) to determine a monetary value of informal care. We discuss the current practice in valuing informal care and a theoretical model of the costs and benefits related to the provision of informal care. In addition, we developed a survey in which informal caregivers' willingness to accept (WTA) to provide an additional hour of informal care was elicited. This method is better than normally recommended valuation methods able to capture the heterogeneity and dynamics of informal care. Data were obtained from postal surveys. A total of 153 informal caregivers and 149 care recipients with rheumatoid arthritis returned a completed survey. Informal caregivers reported a mean WTA to provide a hypothetical additional hour of informal care of 9.52 Euro (n=124). Many hypotheses derived from the theoretical model and the literature were supported by the data.CVM is a promising alternative for existing methods like the opportunity cost method and the proxy good method to determine a monetary value of informal care that can be incorporated in the numerator of any economic evaluation.

  13. How Much Are Floridians Willing to Pay for Protecting Sea Turtles from Sea Level Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh; Von Holle, Betsy; Wright, James; Milon, J. Walter; Bossick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is posing a great inundation risk to coastal areas. Some coastal nesting species, including sea turtle species, have experienced diminished habitat from SLR. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used in an effort to assess the economic loss impacts of SLR on sea turtle nesting habitats for Florida coasts; and to elicit values of willingness to pay (WTP) of Central Florida residents to implement certain mitigation strategies, which would protect Florida's east coast sea turtle nesting areas. Using the open-ended and dichotomous choice CVM, we sampled residents of two Florida communities: Cocoa Beach and Oviedo. We estimated the WTP of households from these two cities to protect sea turtle habitat to be between 42 and 57 per year for 5 years. Additionally, we attempted to assess the impact of the both the respondents' demographics and their perception toward various situations on their WTP value. Findings include a negative correlation between the age of a respondent and the probability of an individual willing to pay the hypothetical WTP amount. We found that WTP of an individual was not dependent on prior knowledge of the effects of SLR on sea turtle habitat. The greatest indicators of whether or not an individual was willing to pay to protect sea turtle habitat were the respondents' perception regarding the trustworthiness and efficiency of the party which will implement the conservation measures and their confidence in the conservation methods used. Respondents who perceive sea turtles having an effect on their life were also more likely to pay.

  14. Contingent Valuation of the Economic Benefits of Restoring Basin Ecosystem with Validity Improvement:A Case Study for Yangtz River Ecosystem%基于有效性改进的流域生态系统恢复条件价值评估——以长江流域生态系统恢复为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志坚; 杜丽永; 蒋瞻

    2011-01-01

    综合利用有效性改进的方法对流域生态系统恢复的价值进行评估,具体方法包括:①采用二分式选择法作为引导技术以模拟真实市场并解决调查中"没有回应的问题;②设计恰当的核心估值问题并通过图片展示克服CVM的"假想特性";③通过大样本发放、多次调查和调查员培训缩小CVM"假设偏差"以及"调查者偏差";④使用开放式和支付卡式问卷进行预调查以获得二分式选择问卷调查的投标值;⑤分析WTP支付水平影响因素的边际效用以减少"范围问题"的干扰;⑥利用中值法估计WTP分布函数以避免函数"右偏"并减少"厚尾"问题的困扰;⑦根据样本中两次均回答"否"的比例数选择对数logit模型以降低估计结果的偏差;⑧由于WTP的标准误以及95%置信区间都要比单界模式下的估计结果更为精确,故选择双界二分法测算WTP值.通过上述方法测算的南京市民对于长江流域生态系统恢复的支付意愿为270.7元/户·年,而大幅提高居民家庭收入水平是提高居民支付意愿最为有效的途径.%The improved contingent valuation methods (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic benefits of restoring ecosystem of Yangtze-river Basin in Nanjing in this paper.The improved methods were approached as: ① choosing dichotomous choice questionnaire (DCQ) as a questionnaire-guide technology to simulate the real markets and to resolve the problems of "no-respond" in the survey; ② designing the appropriate key questions to resolve the "imaginary character" problems by picture-showing; ③ reducing the CVM "hypothetical bias" and "investigator bias" through increasing the samples and survey times as well as training investigators; ④ combining open questionnaire and payment-card questionnaire as pre-survey technology to get the bidding value of DCQ survey; ⑤ reducing the interference of "scope effect" by analyzing the marginal impact of payment factors;

  15. Muco-inert nanoparticle probes and drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ying

    2011-12-01

    Mucus coats the exposed surfaces of the eyes and respiratory, gastrointestinal (GI) and cervicovaginal (CV) tracts, and protects mucosal tissues against pathogens and other foreign particulates. Most foreign particles are effectively trapped in mucus through steric and adhesive interactions, and are rapidly eliminated by different mucus clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, mucus also immobilizes conventional drug and gene carriers, thereby precluding sustained and targeted drug delivery to mucosal sites. Synthetic particles engineered with muco-inert surfaces, and some viruses, can readily penetrate mucus gel, and may serve as useful probes to understand the biophysical barrier properties of mucus. Improved understanding of the mucus barrier could provide insights into methods to enhance drug and gene delivery at mucosal surfaces, as well as understanding the occasional failure of mucus to protect against infection or injury. Recently, muco-inert nanoparticles were developed by conjugating a dense layer of low MW polyethylene glycol to particle surfaces. Since they are slowed only by steric obstruction from the mucus mesh, various sized muco-inert nanoparticles can be used to probe the microstructure and microrheology of mucus. I applied this technique to determine whether the mucus barrier may be altered by exogenous factors, including the presence of detergent, pH changes and synthetic nanoparticles. I first studied the microrheology of native human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), and found that CVM behaves as a viscoelastic solid at length scales ≥ 1 microm (preventing large particles from diffusing through) but as a viscoelastic liquid at length scales up to at least 500 nm (allowing smaller particles to diffuse through low viscosity fluid-filled pores). Treating CVM with a nonionic detergent, N9, shifted the viscoelastic liquid-solid transition point to epithelium and thereby achieve prolonged retention. I first measured the long range penetration of MPP compared

  16. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    especie Salaria fluviatilis. En este estudio demostramos morfológica y molecularmente que estas poblaciones marroquíes constituyen una nueva especie, para la cual proveemos una descripción formal. Los siguientes caracteres diagnósticos distinguen a la nueva especie descrita del resto de especies de blenios de agua dulce: cabeza sin una fila diagonal de puntos oscuros o manchas en las mejillas; tentáculo supraocular grueso y simple (no ramificado; 13-15 dientes en la mandíbula superior y 14-16 en la inferior; 16-17 radios blandos en la aleta anal; distancia preorbital corta (índice cefálico: 2.9-3.8; altura de la region anterior de la aleta dorsal corta (índice dorsal: 0.8-1.3 y 34 vértebras. Las distancias genéticas mitocondriales y nuclear entre la nueva especie de Salaria y las otras dos especies son altas, especialmente en la región control (18%, mientras que estas distancias genéticas variaron entre 2-3% para el gen nuclear S7. Estos caracteres morfológicos y moleculares diferencian a la nueva especie del resto de blenios de agua dulce del género (Salaria fluviatilis y S. economidisi. La nueva especie está confinada a la cuenca del río Sebou en Marruecos y debería ser considerada como En Peligro (EN de acuerdo a las categorías de la lista roja.

  17. Morphological and genetic comparative analyses of populations of Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae from Central Mexico, with description of a new species Análisis comparativo morfológico y genético de diferentes poblaciones de Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis (Cyprinodontiformes:Goodeidae del Centro de México, con la descripción de una especie nueva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2008-12-01

    lago de Chapala, mientras que el otro incluye las poblaciones de los lagos de Zacapu y Cuitzeo. Se emplearon 4 poblaciones para los análisis morfométricos identificándose 2 morfotipos, 1 de la localidad del manantial La Luz en la cuenca del bajo Lerma y el otro a los lagos de Zacapu y Cuitzeo. Con estas 2 fuentes de evidencia, la población de La Luz es considerada como una nueva especie Zoogoneticus purhepechus n. sp. La especie nueva difiere de su especie hermana, Z. quitzeoensis por tener una distancia preorbital más corta (PrOL/SL o = 0.05 -0.06, la base de la aleta dorsal más larga (DFL/SL o = 0.17-0.20 y presentar entre 13 y 14 radios en la aleta dorsal. La especie nueva difiere de las 2 especies descritas en el género (Zoogoneticus tequila y Z. quitzeoensis en 10 posiciones nucleotídicas fijadas para el gen citocromo b. Zoogoneticus purhepechus se distribuye por las cuencas de los ríos Ameca, Armería, Santiago y bajo Lerma, así como en el lago de Chapala. Z. purhepechus debe ser considerada en peligro de extinción de acuerdo a los criterios del MER (Aii,Bi,Ci,Di y de la UICN (A-1,b,c,e.

  18. Residents' willingness to pay for improving environmental quality in Beijing City%北京市环境质量改善的居民支付意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宝路; 邹骥

    2009-01-01

    以北京市空气质量与地表水环境质量改善的经济评价为例,采用开放式问卷的意愿调查价值评估法(CVM),通过2004年与2007年2次调查,研究了居民对环境质量改善最大支付意愿(WTP)的影响因素及变化趋势.结果表明,居民对北京空气质量和地表水环境质量改善的平均最大WTP分别从2004年的83.52~93.48,71.28~84.84元/年,提高至2007年的366.48~399.48,302.52~366.72元/年;最大WTP占家庭收入的比例分别从2004年的0.28%,0.24%,提高至2007年的1.63%~1.78%,1.35%~1.64%,居民对于工资扣除形式的支付方式的接受程度逐渐提高:收入、年龄、受教育程度以及环境介质接触程度等因素对居民环境质量改善最大WTP的影响显著.%Monetary values on environmental quality in Beijing using contingent valuation method (CVM) were studied. Two surveys were conducted to find residents' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improving air and water quality in 2004 and 2007. The questionnaire was designed in an open-ended manner. The payment vehicle was a direct payroll deduction. The annual mean WTP increased significantly in four years. Residents were willing to contribute a greater portion of their incomes to improve the environment in 2007 than in 2004. Income, age, education and exposures to the environment had significant impacts on the WTP. CVM had gradually become a feasible non-market valuation approach in China.

  19. AUDITORIA INDEPENDENTE: PRINCIPAIS INFRAÇÕES QUE ACARRETAM EM PROCESSO ADMINISTRATIVO SANCIONADOR PELA COMISSÃO DE VALORES MOBILIÁRIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fusiger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho realizado pelo auditor independente é relevante para os usuários das informações contábeis, tendo em vista que ele apresenta uma opinião quanto às demonstrações contábeis terem sido elaboradas conforme as normas, ou não, e se são fidedignas. Dessa forma, qualidade e confiabilidade são indispensáveis em seu trabalho, sendo que, para atingir essas características, o auditor independente também precisa seguir regras e normas emitidas pelos órgãos reguladores. Erros e fraudes, presentes em demonstrações contábeis auditadas, podem ocorrer por negligência ou imperícia na execução da auditoria independente, resultando em desconfiança e fazendo com que a relevância de seu trabalho seja reduzida. Assim, este estudo teve por objetivo identificar as principais infrações cometidas por auditores independentes, pessoas físicas ou jurídicas, as quais acarretam em processos administrativos sancionadores, julgados pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. Para isso, buscaram-se os processos administrativos sancionadores julgados pela CVM entre 1º de janeiro de 2007 e 31 de agosto de 2013. Foi examinado cada um dos 19 processos encontrados, levando-se em conta as acusações, as instruções e as deliberações da CVM infringidas. Além disso, através da interpretação dos processos, identificaram-se as normas brasileiras profissionais e técnicas do auditor independente. Conclui-se que a infração de maior ocorrência refere-se à emissão de relatório inadequado, seguida da ausência ou execução inadequada do planejamento e dos procedimentos de auditoria, além dos problemas com o registro de auditor independente.

  20. Evaluación de la pesca de tiburón en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarcia Camilo B.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La pesca de tiburón en Colombia ha sido poco documentada y estudiada, contándose solo con unos cuantos
    trabajos realizados por instituciones gubernamentales y algunas universidades. Colombia registra algunos
    de los valores más bajos en cuanto a captura de tiburón en las regiones Caribe y Pacífica, promediando
    valores de 94t y 512t anuales respectivamente; donde la flota industrial captura el 70% y el restante 30%
    corresponde a la flota artesanal. Estas capturas se dan principalmente como pesca incidental de pesquerías
    más grandes (i.e. atún y camarón, aunque existe una pesca dirigida. Las principales artes involucradas son
    el palangre (tanto de fondo como de superficie y la red agallera. En la costa pacífica las principales especies
    capturadas son Sphyrna lewini, Carcharhinus falciformis y las del género Mustelus spp.; mientras en el Caribe
    son especies de los géneros Rhizoprionodon y Carcharhinus. Los principales productos extraídos son las aletas, cuya remoción no es ilegal dentro del territorio nacional, y la carne, siendo las primeras utilizadas solo para
    exportación y las segundas, principalmente, para consumo nacional. No existe información acerca de abundancia, frecuencia, composición y captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE de las especies capturadas. Esta carencia de información genera problemas en el manejo del recurso y exalta la necesidad de iniciar investigaciones que ayuden a llenar los vacíos existentes.

  1. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “paco” en relación a los factores ambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narda Dinis-Vásquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones Fernando Alcántara del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Iquitos, Perú. Fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas y 60 post larvas colectados de tanques de concreto de 1,05 m2 con una profundidad de 0,70 cm y 60 alevinos provenientes de un estanque de tierra de 60 m2 con una profundidad de 1,5 m. La necropsia de los peces se realizó a razón de un pez por día con la finalidad de colectar muestras frescas, examinándose para ello la piel, aletas, fosas nasales, ojos, sangre, branquias, aparato digestivo, órganos internos, vejiga gaseosa y el tejido muscular. Se utilizaron cuatro métodos para la fijación y coloración: Gray & Wess, Tricrómico de Gomorris, Hematoxilina y Carmalúmen de Mayer. Los índices parasitarios estuvo representada por ecto y endoparásitos pertenecientes a cuatro clases: Protozoa, Oomyceta, Monogenoidea y Nematoda. El parásito monogeneo identificado como Mymarothecium viatorum presentó mayor prevalencia con 43,33% y una abundancia de 2046 individuos, en contraste con el nematodo Rondonia rondoni que sólo mostró una prevalencia de 6,67% con una abundancia de 14 individuos. De los factores ambientales registrados la temperatura fue la única que mostró una correlación positiva frente a la abundancia de los parásitos.

  2. Southampton international airport: an environmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplen, J.G.F. [Southampton Business School, Southampton Institute (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the effect of airport noise on residents living within the locality of Southampton International Airport (SIA). It briefly reviews the hedonic pricing method, contrasting it with the contingent valuation method (CVM), explaining why the latter approach is more relevant in this case. Problems generated by the airport and the airport authority's approach to reaching individual solutions, in conjunction with the local authorities of Eastleigh and Southampton, are discussed; these include air pollution, emissions and odour. Most of these are addressed to the satisfaction of the majority of local residents, with the exception being night aircraft noise, which has resulted in much local controversy. A local survey of residents' preferences is detailed and analysed in an attempt to quantify the cost to local residents. A discussion of sources of bias is included, along with considerations and recommendations. (author)

  3. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  4. Numerical methods of microirrigation lateral design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kettab A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work contributes to the hydraulic analysis of the lateral microirrigation by using the numerical methods: the control volumes method “CVM” and the Runge-Kutta method “RK4”. These methods are relatively simple to manipulate and agree to the use of the partial differential equations of the first order. The CVM method warrants to follow the hydraulic phenomenon step by step and facilitates iterative development; whereas, the RK4 method is used in the integration and the solution of the differential equations system. The risk of divergence, as the slowness of the computation is avoided by the recourse to the interpolation using the polynomial of Lagrange in order to accelerate the convergence toward the solution. The models of calculation used have the advantage to be simple, fast, precise, and allow their extension to large microirrigation network.

  5. Histopathology of protozoal infection in animals: a retrospective study at the University of Philippines College of Veterinary Medicine (1972-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M. Baticados

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the first parasitological survey of protozoal infections on tissue slide sections of field cases processed at the histopathology laboratory of the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM at the University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB. Over 80% of the field cases were from Region 4 (CALABARZON and the rest were equally distributed from other areas of the Philippines, namely: Region 2 (Cagayan Valley, Metropolitan Manila (National Capital Region, Region III (Central Luzon and Region VI (Western Visayas. Histopathological analyses of tissue sections from 51 archived cases (1972-2010 of parasitic aetiology were performed. Microscopic examination of a total of 286 histopathological slides revealed the presence of several protozoa, including sarcosporidiosis, hepatic coccidiosis, intestinal coccidiosis, balantidiosis and leucocyto-zoonosis. In addition, the finding of Balantidium and Sarcocystis may have zoonotic implications and can therefore be used as markers of public health importance.

  6. Existence domains for invariant reactions in binary regular solution phase diagrams exhibiting two phases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nageswara Sarma; S Srinivas Prasad; S Vijayvergiya; V Bharath Kumar; S Lele

    2003-06-01

    The thermodynamic origin of various types of phase diagrams in simple binary systems exhibiting two phases (e.g. a liquid and a solid phase) has been examined using the regular solution model. The necessary conditions for the occurrence of each of these types are identified in terms of the appropriate intersections of the miscibility gap boundaries (in solid/liquid phases) and the liquidus/solidus/iso- curves. Thus, the regions of occurrence of the different types of possible phase diagrams in the space of the regular solution interchange energy parameters (, ) are clearly delineated. This analysis makes it easier to make intelligent initial selections of model (energy) parameters for their optimization in the calculation of phase diagrams using thermodynamic models such as CALPHAD/CVM.

  7. Dor muscular e atividade de creatina quinase após ações excêntricas: uma análise de cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O exercício excêntrico máximo promove queda da capacidade de geração de força, aumento de dor muscular de início tardio (DMIT e extravasamento de creatina quinase (CK no sangue. No entanto, essas respostas ao exercício excêntrico demonstram alta variabilidade interindivíduos. OBJETIVOS: Classificar e analisar essas respostas segundo a vulnerabilidade individual, por meio da magnitude da redução dos níveis de força após exercício excêntrico. MÉTODOS: Dezoito sujeitos (11 homens e sete mulheres com idade entre 18 e 71 anos saudáveis realizaram cinco séries de seis ações excêntricas máximas para flexores do cotovelo em dinamômetro isocinético (90°s- 1, amplitude de movimento de 80 a 20°. Foram analisadas contração voluntária muscular concêntrica máxima (CVM, DMIT e CK pré, pós (exceto CK, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h após o protocolo. Os indivíduos foram classificados como "baixos" (BR e "altos" respondedores (AR ao pico de queda de CVM pós-exercício seguindo-se uma análise de cluster e comparação entre grupos para CVM, DMIT e CK com teste-t independente. RESULTADOS: A comparação entre BR e AR indicou maiores valores de queda de CVM para o grupo AR (AR: -30,7 ± 3,3%; BR: -14,1 ± 2,2%, p < 0,001 e maior DMIT também para o grupo AR (AR: 33,0 ± 8,6 mm; BR: 10,2 ± 2,5 mm, p = 0,033; no entanto, os valores de pico de atividade de CK não diferiram entre os grupos (AR: 232,1 ± 54,8 UI.L- 1; BR: 306,1 ± 82,3 UI.L- 1, p = 0,490. CONCLUSÃO: A classificação dos indivíduos em grupos de baixos e altos respondedores foi importante para demonstrar que o grupo mais responsivo à queda de força após exercício excêntrico também evidencia maiores níveis de DMIT; contudo, para a CK essa relação não pôde ser estabelecida.

  8. Correlation between USTER Test and Seriplane Checkout for Linen Yarn%亚麻纱线USTER测试与黑板检验的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金; 董锁拽; 朱碧霞; 王伶; 费君; 周文龙

    2008-01-01

    对亚麻纱线LISTER条干仪测试和黑板检验指标之间的相关关系进行了研究.研究结果表明,USTER检测的匀度值(CVm)和黑板检验结果具有满意的相关关系;USTER检验的细节指标和黑板检验的结果有良好和合理的相关关系;而USTER检验的棉结指标和麻纱的黑板检验结果的相关关系并不合理.通过研究建立了相应的检测体系,亚麻纱线的USTER指标完全可以作为亚麻纱线的质量控制指标,并在生产中进行应用.

  9. Análise comparativa entre as normas contábeis nacionais e as internacionais em relação à forma de tratamento do cálculo do resultado de equivalência patrimonial Comparison of Brazilian and international accounting standards for patrimonial equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Silva Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available São notórios os esforços para uma convergência de normas contábeis domésticas para normas internacionais. Vários fatores, porém, dificultam essa tendência à convergência. Uma dessas dificuldades reside em mensurar os investimentos permanentes pelo Método de Equivalência Patrimonial (MEP. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar as diferenças entre as normas da CVM, do IASB e da Lei 6.404/1976 no tratamento do cálculo do resultado de equivalência patrimonial, bem como o impacto desse resultado no lucro líquido, na distribuição de dividendos e no patrimônio líquido da empresa investidora. Objetiva-se, também, analisar a forma mais coerente no tratamento do cálculo de equivalência patrimonial. Apresentam-se, inicialmente, os métodos de avaliação de investimento e as diferenças no reconhecimento e mensuração dos investimentos permanentes, segundo as normas, para posteriormente apresentar um exemplo ilustrativo que contemple simulações sobre tais normas. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa exploratória, documental e qualitativa. Verificou-se que a mais importante diferença na maneira pela qual as normas tratam o MEP reside na forma de tratamento do lucro-não-realizado para o grupo, que afeta o lucro líquido, o patrimônio líquido e a distribuição de dividendos. Ainda, entende-se que a forma mais coerente de tratamento do lucro-não-realizado é dada pela CVM.Efforts for the convergence of Brazilian standards towards international accounting standards are well known. However one of the persisting difficulties is the measurement of permanent investments according to the Patrimonial Equivalence Method (PEM. This research analyzed the differences between the calculation of the patrimonial equivalence according to CVM and the IASB and Law 6.404/1976 as well as the impact on company net profit, dividend distribution and net equity in order to find the most coherent treatment. Evaluation methods and differences in

  10. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEMS IN CHINA’S SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FOOD ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosheng Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, a large number of small and medium-sized food enterprises (food SMEs rarely adopt the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP system, which results in a low product quality. Some local governments have encouraged food SMEs to implement HACCP systems through financial subsidies, but because of an incomplete understanding of the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing HACCP systems in food SMEs, relevant policies have not enhanced the adoption rate of HACCP systems. Based on our questionnaire survey data of 132 food SMEs in China's Henan, Guangdong, and Zhejiang provinces, this study estimates Chinese food SMEs' WTP for implementing HACCP systems by a double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM. According to the estimated results, the WTP for implementing HACCP systems under the log-logistic model is approximately 115,714 Chinese RMB (113,149 Chinese RMB for the log-normal model.

  11. Farmer's Willingness-to-Pay for Environment and Human Health and Adoption of IPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Juyong

    2004-01-01

    Although chemical control of pestsincreases crop production, it brings a lot of damage to environment and human health. There exist a number of alternative methods that are not so harmful to environment and human health. However, whether and how much in extent these technologies adopted are plausible depends on the comparison of benefitcost between chemical control and the alternative control methods (such as Integrated Pest Management, IPM) and farmers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for environment and human health. Using contingent valuation method (CVM), the author investigates farmers' WTP for environment and human health, recognizes the factors influencing WTP, and accordingly points out the importance of pest control technology extension and government regulation of pesticides.

  12. Determining the value of reductions in radiation risk using the contingent valuation method: results for the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the authors' previous study an Internet survey had been conducted for employees in nuclear related industries and institutes in Korea and the monetary value placed on reductions in risks from occupational radiation exposure and car accidents had been estimated. This paper presents the results of the follow-up study using the same methodology for the general public. The double bounded dichotomous choice (DBDC) approach was used and willingness-to-pay (WTP) values for predefined 20% reductions of the car accidents and radiation exposure risks were elicited. WTP for the reductions of the risk were estimated and values of a statistical life were calculated from the mean WTPs. For the general public, the mean value of statistical life was 2.67 billion Won for car accidents and 2.28 billion Won for radiation exposure. Discussions on the use of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for determining the monetary value of risk reductions and recommendations for further study were given

  13. Willingness to pay for green electricity in Japan as estimated through contingent valuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaic and wind-turbine energy systems, are considered to be environmentally sound from the viewpoint of carbon-dioxide emissions and resource depletion. The cost of energy supplied from renewable energy systems is higher than that of conventional fossil-fuel systems, and this hinders the wider spread of renewable energy systems. Global environmental problems, however, are becoming more obvious. There is a movement to defray the additional cost of electricity generated in environmentally-sound processes. In this paper, we report the results of a survey using the contingent valuation method (CVM) of the willingness of Japanese households to pay more, in the form of a flat monthly surcharge, for renewable energy. The median value of willingness to pay for renewable energy by Japanese households is estimated at about 2000 yen (around 17 US$ with the exchange rate 115 yen/US$) per month per household. (Author)

  14. Functions and Mechanisms of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Arno J. Müller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular signalling via growth factors plays an important role in controlling cell differentiation and cell movements during the development of multicellular animals. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF signalling induces changes in cellular behaviour allowing cells in the embryo to move, to survive, to divide or to differentiate. Several examples argue that FGF signalling is used in multi-step morphogenetic processes to achieve and maintain a transitional state of the cells required for the control of cell fate. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, FGF signalling via the receptor tyrosine kinases Heartless (Htl and Breathless (Btl is particularly well studied. These FGF receptors affect gene expression, cell shape and cell–cell interactions during mesoderm layer formation, caudal visceral muscle (CVM formation, tracheal morphogenesis and glia differentiation. Here, we will address the current knowledge of the biological functions of FGF signalling in the fly on the tissue, at a cellular and molecular level.

  15. Inclusão do Risco País na Metodologia de Determinação do Custo do Capital Próprio em Avaliação de Empresas em Mercados Emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José de Almeida

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo desenvolve a idéia de que, ao contrário do senso comum, o prêmio de risco país deve ser calculado como a diferença entre o prêmio pago pelas taxas reais brasileiras em relação às americanas e o risco soberano, definido como o diferencial entre as taxas dos títulos soberanos dos dois países negociados nos Estados Unidos. Tal conclusão vai contra o que é praticado comumente nos laudos de avaliação enviados à Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM para suportar preços em ofertas públicas de aquisição de ações para fechamento de capital.

  16. Nível de convergência dos princípios contábeis brasileiros e norte-americanos às normas do IASB: uma contribuição para a adoção das IFRS por empresas brasileiras The convergence level of the brazilian and american accounting principles with IASB standards: a contribution to brazilian companies' adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Alves Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar em que nível as informações contábeis divulgadas nos mercados: brasileiro e norte-americano atendem aos requisitos da adoção inicial das IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards. A adoção das IFRS por companhias abertas brasileiras nas suas demonstrações contábeis consolidadas foi exigida pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM na Instrução CVM 457/07. Por meio de uma pesquisa descritiva quanto aos seus objetivos e utilizando-se dos procedimentos técnicos de pesquisa documental e de análise de conteúdo clássica, foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis elaboradas para o ano de 2008 de acordo com os US GAAPs e os BR GAAPs de 20 empresas brasileiras listadas simultaneamente na Bolsa de Valores de Nova York (NYSE e na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA e calculou-se o índice de disclosure proposto na pesquisa de Lopes e Rodrigues (2007. A pesquisa apontou para índices de disclosure calculados para o Form 20F maiores do que aqueles calculados para as Demonstrações Financeiras Padrão (DFP, confirmando um nível de convergência maior entre US GAAP e IFRS e sugerindo que, em função da adoção das IFRS as demonstrações contábeis em BR GAAP tendem a se modificar substancialmente aumentando o n��vel de divulgação. Além disso, os resultados confirmam para a amostra, o exposto na literatura selecionada de que o setor de atuação e o tamanho da empresa influem diretamente no disclosure das informações. Em relação aos auditores, o fato de as demonstrações serem auditadas pelas empresas globais de auditoria conhecidas como Big Four não foi determinante na extensão do disclosure.This study aimed to assess the extent to which accounting information disclosed in the Brazilian and North American markets meet the requirements for the initial adoption of IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards. The Brazilian Securities Commission (CVM

  17. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Maria Bortolon; Alfredo Sarlo Neto; Thaís Barreto Santos

    2013-01-01

    O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores ...

  18. Conflicting Interest in the Production of Wind Energy: Public Demand for Shores without Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Müürsepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to countries with longer experience in the field, Estonia has not actively included public opinion into the planning process of new wind farms. Wind farms in Estonia are built mainly on the coast, 90% of which is covered with natural surface. The paper investigates, using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM, the willingness of Estonian inhabitants to pay for preserving the Estonian coastal zone wind turbines free. Total demand of Estonian adult population for Estonian shores in their natural condition without wind turbines is found to be considerable 23.4 million euro annually. The demand of the population for the preservation of the nature underlines the need for changes in national strategies for the wind power sector.

  19. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  20. Estimating farmers' willingness to pay for climate change adaptation: the case of the Malaysian agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Junsheng, Ha; Akhtar, Rulia; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Kari, Fatimah Binti

    2015-02-01

    This paper estimates Malaysian farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. We used the contingent valuation method (CVM) for a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues in the Malaysian agricultural sector. Structured questionnaires were distributed among the sampled farmers. The study found that 74 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme and that several socioeconomic and motivation factors have greater influence on their WTP. This paper clearly specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support policy makers to better design an efficient adaptation framework for adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25632900

  1. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change. PMID:25613801

  2. The foregone recreation value of Lake Ülemiste. Ülemiste järve kaotatud rekreatiivne väärtus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Pädam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Soviet times Lake Ülemiste has been closed to public access. The current practice of Tallinn may entail unnecessary losses of benefits to the local population. The aim of this paper is to find the value of the foregone benefits. In order to find this value, a contingent valuation (CVM survey was conducted involving a sample of the adult population of Tallinn. According to the survey the average willingness to pay is 6.6 Euro and the recreational benefits foregone were estimated to 1.8 million Euros annually. In order to safeguard the quality of the drinking water, additional measures may be needed. Discounted over a 30 year period allows investments of a maximum of 26 million Euro. Applying the current investment plan of Gothenburg to Tallinn shows that the recreational value of opening the lake to the public is sufficiently large to cover Gothenburg’s coal filter investments to be carried out in Tallinn.

  3. Application of the genetic algorithm to blume-emery-griffiths model: Test Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium properties of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEO) model Hamiltonian with the arbitrary bilinear (1), biquadratic (K) and crystal field interaction (D) are studied using the genetic algorithm technique. Results are compared with lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM), which is identical to the mean field approximation. We found that the genetic algorithm to be very efficient for fast search at the average fraction of the spins, especially in the early stages as the system is far from the equilibrium state. A combination of the genetic algorithm followed by one of the well-tested simulation techniques seems to be an optimal approach. The curvature of the inverse magnetic susceptibility is also presented for the stable state of the BEG model

  4. Exploring factors influencing farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme to address climatic issues in agricultural sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adeel; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Yahaya, Siti Rohani Binti; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Akhtar, Rulia

    2015-06-01

    This study empirically estimates farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a planned adaptation programme for addressing climate issues in Pakistan's agricultural sectors. The contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed to determine a monetary valuation of farmers' preferences for a planned adaptation programme by ascertaining the value attached to address climatic issues. The survey was conducted by distributing structured questionnaires among Pakistani farmers. The study found that 67 % of respondents were willing to pay for a planned adaptation programme. However, several socioeconomic and motivational factors exert greater influence on their willingness to pay (WTP). This paper specifies the steps needed for all institutional bodies to better address issues in climate change. The outcomes of this paper will support attempts by policy makers to design an efficient adaptation framework for mitigating and adapting to the adverse impacts of climate change.

  5. One-Time Code Cardholder Verification Method in Electronic Funds Transfer Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitek Albert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Card payments are getting more and more popular across the world. The dominant standard used for Electronic Funds Transfer transaction is EMV. It is widely used across Europe and Canada, and currently it is being introduced in the USA. The most frequently used Cardholder Verification Method in EMV transaction is PIN, which requires from the payment terminal to be equipped with pinpad - which increases the cost of the whole payment device. In this article I present an alternative Cardholder Verification Method (CVM that can be used instead of traditional PIN. The key advantage of the presented mechanism is that it can be easily implemented in currently utilized authorization protocols, it does not affect rules of EMV specification and may decrease time of transaction processing.

  6. Willing to Pay in Urban Forests, Finance Support from Public Case Study, Shorab Urban Forest in Khoram Abad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Maleknia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to estimate the visitors’ willingness to pay at Shorab Urban Forest. The dichotomous choice Contingent Valuation Method (CVM was used to estimate the Willingness To Pay (WTP. A total of 210 respondents were interviewed via a questionnaire method in two periods to gather the data. Respondents also were asked the maximum amount they are willing to pay for entrance fee. Probit model was used to determine WTP. Results showed that different genders, ages and educational levels are using this park for recreational aim. Probit model showed that the average willingness to pay was 1325 Tomans. Since the family size average was 4.35, monthly entrance fee for every family was estimated at 5763 Tomans.

  7. Some observations concerning the judicial reform in Romania. Is there no matter more pressing than the fight against corruption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Gherasim‑Proca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Before being an element of constitutional order, the judicial system is a public service. Arbitrating disputes, conflict resolution and prosecuting crimes are, first of all, valuable functions for the community. This article presents the Romanian judiciary especially from this perspective. The relation between politics and the judiciary was particularly problematic in recent years. The judicial institutions’ struggle for autonomy was accompanied by unprecedented political crises. Yet, the Cooperation and Verification Mechanism (CVM continuously encouraged institutional reform, initiating very active anti-corruption policies, as well as the implementation of new civil and criminal procedure rules. At the same time, we can notice the rapid increase in the volume of new causes recorded by courts of law in civil matters, which entails the risk of severe deterioration of public legal services and requires an appropriate administrative response.

  8. Securitization, Credit Rating and Issuers’ Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palmada Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growth of securitization through Credit Receivables Investment Funds (Fundos de Investimento em Direitos Creditórios - FIDCs in Brazil in recent years, this work aims to investigate empirically the relationship between securitization and credit rating in the Brazilian market. All issues of FIDCs held by banks and registered in the CVM from 2005 to July 2010 were analyzed. The two hypotheses discussed by Gorton and Souleles (2005 were confirmed to Brazilian financial institutions. There is evidence of an implied contract between the transferor companies and investors in securitizations made via FIDCs. Companies with higher credit risk, worst ratings, tend to securitize more. However no relationship was found between securitization and asset value, amount of loans or capital ratio.

  9. Resposta da frequência cardíaca durante o exercício isométrico de pacientes submetidos à reabilitação cardíaca fase III Heart rate responses during isometric exercises in patients undergoing a phase III cardiac rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana H. Leite

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A magnitude das respostas cardiovasculares depende dos componentes estático e dinâmico bem como da duração e intensidade da contração realizada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as respostas da frequência cardíaca (FC frente a diferentes percentuais de contração isométrica em 12 pacientes (63±11,6 anos; média±dp com doença da artéria coronária e/ou fatores de risco para ela, participantes de um programa de reabilitação cardíaca fase III. MÉTODOS: A variação da frequência cardíaca (ΔFC foi avaliada durante as contrações voluntárias máximas (CVM; 5" e 10" de duração e submáximas (CVSM; 30 e 60% da CVM-5, até exaustão muscular de preensão palmar, utilizando-se um dinamômetro (hand grip. Adicionalmente, o RMSSD dos iR-R em ms (índice representante da modulação vagal cardíaca foi calculado em repouso (pré-contração nos últimos 30 segundos da CVSM e na recuperação (pós-contração. RESULTADOS: A ΔFC apresentou maiores valores em CVM-10 vs CVM-5 (17±5,5 vs 12±4,2 bpm, p0,05. RMSSD de repouso reduziu-se (pBACKGROUND: The magnitude of cardiovascular responses is dependent on the static and dynamic components as well as the duration and intensity of the contraction performed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the heart rate responses to different percentages of isometric contractions in 12 patients (63±11.6 years with coronary artery disease and/or risk factors for coronary artery disease that were participating in a phase III cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: Heart rate variation (ΔHR was evaluated during maximum (MVC, five and ten seconds in duration and submaximal (SMVC, 30 and 60% of MVC-5, until muscle exhaustion voluntary contraction, using a handgrip dynamometer. Additionally, the representative index of cardiac vagal modulation (RMSSD index was calculated at rest (pre-contraction, at the final 30 seconds of SMVC and during recovery (post-contraction. RESULTS: ΔHR showed higher values in MVC-10

  10. Valuation Method 0f Urban Open Space Economic Value: Contingent Valuation Method%城市开放空间经济价值评估方法研究——假设评估法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟; 付喜娥

    2010-01-01

    本文介绍了国外城市开放空间经济价值评估方法:常规市场评估技术、显示偏好法、表达偏好法.重点介绍了在国外广泛运用的表达偏好法中的假设评估法CVM (Contingent Valuation Method)在国外的研究进展,并详细阐述了CVM的发展历史、经济学原理、应用方法与步骤.最后讨论了CVM在我国城市规划、风景园林规划、政府决策中的实际意义与应用前景.

  11. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa Audit costs and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Maria Bortolon; Alfredo Sarlo Neto; Thaís Barreto Santos

    2013-01-01

    O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores ...

  12. Excited states in 146Sm and 147Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sup(144,146)Nd(α,xn) and sup(146,148)Nd(3He,xn) reactions with Esub(α) = 20 - 43 MeV and E3sub(He) = 19 - 27 MeV are used to investigate excited states in the isotopes 146Sm and 147Sm. The experiments involve measurements of singles γ-ray spectra and conversion electron spectra, γ-ray angular distributions and three parameter (E sub(γ)E sub(γ) time) coincidences. From these experiments information is obtained for states with spin up to I = 13+ and I = 27/2-, respectively, These states are interpeted within the framework of the cluster-vibration model (CVM) as well as the shell model. (author)

  13. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  14. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-02-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5-8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs.

  15. Detection of haplotypes associated with prenatal death in dairy cattle and identification of deleterious mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fritz

    Full Text Available The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1% showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals. Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10(-4 including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total. Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina, SLC35A3 (CVM, APAF1 (HH1 and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle.

  16. 混合PLS特征提取和CVM的异常入侵检测研究%Research on anomaly intrusion detection by hybrid Partial Least Square feature extrac-tion and Core Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文利; 方建文

    2014-01-01

    为提高异常入侵检测的效率,提出一种混合偏最小二乘特征提取和核心向量机算法的入侵检测模型。模型使用偏最小二乘算法在入侵数据集上进行主成分提取,在此基础上构建特征集,引入适用于解决大规模样本训练问题的核心向量机算法,在特征集上建立入侵检测模型,使用该模型对异常入侵行为进行检测和判断。通过基于KDD99数据集上的入侵检测实验,验证了混合模型的可行性和有效性。%To improve the efficiency of anomaly detecting intrusions, a hybrid model is proposed based on Partial Least Square(PLS)feature extraction and Core Vector Machine(CVM)algorithms. Principal elements are extracted from the intrusion data set by the feature extraction of PLS algorithm to establish the feature set, and then the anomaly intrusion detec-tion model for the feature set is constructed by virtue of speediness superiority of CVM algorithm in processing large-scale sample data. Anomaly intrusion actions are checked and judged using this model. Intrusion detection experiments based on KDD99 data set verify the feasibility and validity of the hybrid model.

  17. 基于最小包含球的领域迁移学习新方法%Novel Domain Transfer Learning Approach Using Minimum Enclosing Ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾鑫; 王士同

    2013-01-01

    Traditional machine learning methods assume that different learning tasks have nothing with each other,but in fact there are some links between them.Transfer learning attempts to use these links and even past learning experiences between different tasks to accelerate the learning for new tasks.This paper integrated the MEB (Minimum enclosing ball algorithm together with Parzen windows probability estimation to develop a new transfer learning method named MEBTL (Minimum enclosing ball Transfer learning).We also used CVM (Core Vector Machines) theory to develop its fast version of the proposed algorithm CCMEBTL for large domain adaptation.The experimental results about "WIFI indoor positioning" and "face detection" indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.%传统机器学习方法认为不同的学习任务彼此无关,但事实上不同的学习任务常常相互关联.迁移学习试图利用任务之间的联系以及过去的学习经验加速对于新任务的学习.将最小包含球(Minimum Enclosing Ball,MEB)算法与Parzen Windows概率估计公式相结合,提出了一种新的迁移学习算法MEBTL((Minimum Enclosing Ball Transfer Learning).该算法同时结合CVM(Core Vector Machines)理论提出了CCMEBTL(Center Constrained Minimum Enclosing Ball Transfer Learning)算法,其可以在不同领域之间完成大样本的迁移学习.作为验证,将其应用在WIFI数据的室内定位、人脸识别检测上,并取得了较好的效果.

  18. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Benjamin J.; Ware, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with NGS gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high-throughput functional testing of variants contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offsprings, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long-term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialog between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients. PMID:27504451

  19. Evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros derivativos nas demonstrações contábeis: uma análise das empresas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luís Darós

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da perspectiva de governança corporativa e de acordo com a Instrução Normativa 235 da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - CVM, este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa empírica sobre as formas de evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros derivativos nas Demonstrações Contábeis divulgadas no Brasil. Foram analisadas as Demonstrações Contábeis das vinte maiores empresas brasileiras não financeiras classificadas de acordo com a receita líquida. Como resultado constatou-se que a grande maioria das empresas não atende às determinações da CVM e não evidencia, de forma clara, concisa e objetiva, as informações referentes às suas operações envolvendo instrumentos financeiros derivativos. As principais divergências estão na falta de avaliação dos instrumentos a preços de mercado, ausência de divulgação das políticas de investimento em derivativos e falta de controle do risco de mercado, câmbio e crédito.In the context of financial statement disclosure and in accordance with determinations by the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, this study presents rules and ways to disclose derivatives in financial statements. In the empirical analysis, we examined the financial statements of the twenty biggest public companies arranged by revenue. We verified that many companies do not comply with the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission's determinations and do not present a clear, concise and objective disclosure of related financial information. The main problems were related to the lack of evaluation in terms of fair value, lack of dissemination of investment policies in derivatives and quantitative and qualitative control of market, credit and exchange risks.

  20. Residential Demand-Side Valuation of Interruptible Load Management for Air Conditioner%居民空调可中断管理的需求侧价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵媛; 俞炜华; 逄金栋; 沈淑琳; 李国平; 吴锴

    2012-01-01

    智能电网可以实现针对居民家庭不同电器终端的控制.评估不同电器终端的使用价值对于寻找目标人群和目标终端,从而细化需求侧管理(demand side management,DSM)具有重要意义.应用假设市场调研法(contingent valuation model,CVM)研究西安市居民在夏季用电高峰期使用空调的愿受价值(willingness to accept,WTA).在4种情景下分析管理的目标人群及影响因素,指出针对目标人群的调控可以以低成本提高用户响应,单纯的经济刺激可能难以实现既定的调峰目标.%Smart grid makes the control of residential end users possible. Measuring the value of different end users contributes to finding target population and further improve demand side management (DSM). This paper estimates the value of households' willingness-to-accept (WTA) for air conditioner in summer peak load period of Xi'an city by using of the contingent valuation method (CVM). Four scenarios are considered respectively to identify the target population and influencing factors. Calculation results show that cost-effective and better households' response could be implemented by DSM directing to target population, and pure economic incentive such as price signal may fail to fulfill the established object of peak load regulation.

  1. Changes in serum potassium levels during hospitalization in patients with worsening heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (from the EVEREST trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadiya S; Campia, Umberto; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick; Maggioni, Aldo P; Swedberg, Karl; Konstam, Marvin A; Senni, Michele; Nodari, Savina; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Subacius, Haris; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-03-15

    Both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia may be related to heart failure (HF) therapy and are associated with adverse outcomes. Abnormalities in serum potassium levels in hospitalized patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (EF) have not been previously investigated. A post hoc analysis was performed in 1,907 hospitalized patients with worsening HF and reduced EF in the placebo arm of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in HF Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. Serum potassium was measured at randomization and at discharge or day 7. The co-primary end points were all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular mortality or the first HF hospitalization (CVM + HFH). The association between inhospital change in potassium levels and time to outcomes was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression models. Study participants had a mean age of 65.6 ± 12.0 years and were on optimal guideline-directed medical therapies, including β blockers (77%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (85%), and aldosterone antagonists (55%). Baseline potassium concentration was 4.3 ± 0.6 mEq/l, and hyperkalemia or hypokalemia was seen in 6.5% of the participants. On average, serum potassium level increased by 0.21 ± 0.66 mEq/l, p reduced EF hospitalized for worsening HF, serum potassium abnormalities are common at baseline (within 48 hours of admission) and potassium levels increase during hospitalization, despite aggressive diuretic therapy. However, they are not associated with all-cause or CVM or HFH. Inhospital changes in potassium may limit the implementation of evidence-based therapies such as mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. PMID:25728846

  2. Detection of Haplotypes Associated with Prenatal Death in Dairy Cattle and Identification of Deleterious Mutations in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Sébastien; Capitan, Aurelien; Djari, Anis; Rodriguez, Sabrina C.; Barbat, Anne; Baur, Aurélia; Grohs, Cécile; Weiss, Bernard; Boussaha, Mekki; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Boichard, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The regular decrease of female fertility over time is a major concern in modern dairy cattle industry. Only half of this decrease is explained by indirect response to selection on milk production, suggesting the existence of other factors such as embryonic lethal genetic defects. Genomic regions harboring recessive deleterious mutations were detected in three dairy cattle breeds by identifying frequent haplotypes (>1%) showing a deficit in homozygotes among Illumina Bovine 50k Beadchip haplotyping data from the French genomic selection database (47,878 Holstein, 16,833 Montbéliarde, and 11,466 Normande animals). Thirty-four candidate haplotypes (p<10−4) including previously reported regions associated with Brachyspina, CVM, HH1, and HH3 in Holstein breed were identified. Haplotype length varied from 1 to 4.8 Mb and frequencies from 1.7 up to 9%. A significant negative effect on calving rate, consistent in heifers and in lactating cows, was observed for 9 of these haplotypes in matings between carrier bulls and daughters of carrier sires, confirming their association with embryonic lethal mutations. Eight regions were further investigated using whole genome sequencing data from heterozygous bull carriers and control animals (45 animals in total). Six strong candidate causative mutations including polymorphisms previously reported in FANCI (Brachyspina), SLC35A3 (CVM), APAF1 (HH1) and three novel mutations with very damaging effect on the protein structure, according to SIFT and Polyphen-2, were detected in GART, SHBG and SLC37A2 genes. In conclusion, this study reveals a yet hidden consequence of the important inbreeding rate observed in intensively selected and specialized cattle breeds. Counter-selection of these mutations and management of matings will have positive consequences on female fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23762392

  3. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA. CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages.

  4. Facilitating cartilage volume measurement using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maataoui, Adel, E-mail: adel.maataoui@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gurung, Jessen, E-mail: jessen.gurung@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ackermann, Hanns, E-mail: h.ackermann@add.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Abolmaali, Nasreddin [Biological and Molecular Imaging, ZIK OncoRay - Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Kafchitsas, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Khan, M. Fawad, E-mail: fawad@gmx.d [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To compare quantitative cartilage volume measurement (CVM) using different slice thicknesses. Materials and methods: Ten knees were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI (Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a 3D gradient echo sequence (FLASH, fast low-angle shot). Cartilage volume of the medial and lateral tibial plateau was measured by two independent readers in 1.5 mm, 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm slices using the Argus software application. Accuracy and time effectiveness served as control parameters. Results: Determining cartilage volume, time for calculation diminished for the lateral tibial plateau from 384.6 {+-} 127.7 s and 379.1 {+-} 117.6 s to 214.9 {+-} 109.9 s and 213.9 {+-} 102.2 s to 122.1 {+-} 60.1 s and 126.8 {+-} 56.2 s and for the medial tibial plateau from 465.0 {+-} 147.7 s and 461.8 {+-} 142.7 s to 214.0 {+-} 67.9 s and 208.9 {+-} 66.2 s to 132.6 {+-} 41.5 s and 130.6 {+-} 42.0 s measuring 1.5 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm slices, respectively. No statistically significant difference between cartilage volume measurements was observed (p > 0.05) while very good inter-reader correlation was evaluated. Conclusion: CVM using 1.5 mm slices provides no higher accuracy than cartilage volume measurement in 5 mm slices while an overall time saving up to 70% is possible.

  5. MEASURING THE RECREATIONAL VALUE OF JIUZHAIGOU NATURE RESERVE WITH CONTINGENT VALUATION METHOD%用条件估值法评估九寨沟的游憩价值——CVM方法的校正与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茵; 蔡运龙

    2010-01-01

    自然游憩资源作为环境资源的一种,是最活跃的环境价值研究领域之一.条件估值法(CVM)是国际上用于游憩价值评估的两种经典方法之一,其评估结果受不同引导评估技术的影响.以九寨沟自然保护区为例,选择了在统计有效性方面具有相对优势的支付卡梯级法和1.5边界二分法,来评估其游憩价值.结果表明,主要由于"胖尾"偏差的影响,1.5边界二分法获得的支付意愿(WTP)要高于支付卡梯级法;在进行了偏差校正后,二者所获得的估值结果相当接近,说明本研究的内部有效性检验较为理想.研究认为即使对我国这样的发展中国家,CVM仍为一种富有前景的环境资源价值评估方法,不过必须建立在对CVM调查各个环节的精心设计、严谨实施和审慎分析的基础上.

  6. Practical design of SMES controller for improving power system stability based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechanupaprittha, S.; Watanabe, M.; Mitani, Y. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan); Hongesombut, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Ngamroo, I. [King Mongkut' s Inst. of Technhology, Ladkrabang (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Various load demands with abrupt changes adversely affects power system operations and control, which can lead to significant problems such as system frequency oscillations due to insufficient system damping. In interconnected power systems, a local frequency control is needed in a given area. In addition, fluctuations of tie-line power flow should be stabilized. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) can be used as an effective device to exchange electrical energy with a power system. Wide area monitoring of power systems based on multiple synchronized phasor measurements such as the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using the global positioning system (GPS) offers the possibility of data synchronization at a common time reference. With the GPS, oscillation modes can be detected from measured data by modeling measured data as a coupled vibration model (CVM). This paper presented a practical design of a SMES controller based on wide area synchronized phasor measurement. The CVM can be used to represents an estimated power system model that is used for tuning SMES controller parameters. In addition, it can be used to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the designed controller in the power system. For the desired damping performance, the controller parameters were optimally tuned using a heuristic optimization method, called a TABU search algorithm. A simulation study was then conducted in order to show and confirm the effectiveness of the design method on a two-area four machine power system. The paper explained the controller design methodology and discussed the application to a two-area, four-machine power system. The simulation revealed that the proposed design method could be implemented in a practical manner. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Efecto de actividades turísticas sobre el comportamiento de fauna representativa de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador Short-term effects of tourism activities on the behavior of representative fauna on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda González-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron consideradas clave para actividades turísticas en 16 sitios de las Islas Galápagos: la raya sartén marmoleada (Taeniura meyeri, raya águila (Aetobatus narinari, tiburón de aleta blanca (Triaenodon obesus, tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas, cormorán no volador (Phalacrocorax harrisi y lobo marino de Galápagos (Zalophus califórnianus, con el objetivo de analizar reacciones a corto plazo ante actividades de buceo apnea o "snorkeling", buceo autónomo o "scuba", paseos en bote o "panga-ride" y caminatas. Para cada especie se documentó su comportamiento al momento del encuentro con los turistas y su reacción ante dicha situación. El uso del Análisis de Correspondencias reveló que el tipo de reacción de las especies depende significativamente de la actividad turística, a excepción de las rayas sartén marmoleada y águila. Asimismo, los análisis indican que, a nivel de especie, cada actividad turística estuvo asociada significativamente con reacciones animales particulares. Esto sugiere que las especies analizadas son sensibles ante determinadas actividades turísticas, por lo que se deberían implementar recomendaciones de manejo a fin de garantizar la sustentabilidad del ecoturismo.This study focused on the short-term reactions of six key species (Taeniura meyeri, Aetobatus narinari, Triaendon obesus, Chelonia mydas, Phalacrocorax harrisi, and Zalophus califórnianus during tourism activities (SCUBA diving, panga-ride, snorkeling, and hiking at 16 tourist sites on the islands. For each species we recorded its behavior when first encountering tourists and its reaction following this encounter. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that the type of reaction of the species depended significantly on the type of touristic activity, with the exception of the black spotted and eagle rays. Moreover, the analysis showed that, for each species, the different tourist activities were significantly associated with particular animal activities

  8. Considerations on a Brachauchenius skeleton (Pliosauroidea from the lower Paja Formation (late Barremian of Villa de Leyva area (Colombia

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    O. Hampe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A nearly complete pliosaurid skeleton has been discovered in the Barremian deposits (Formación Paja of Villa de Leyva in early 2004. The new find belongs to the genus Brachauchenius and consists of the cranium with a slightly damaged and partially concretionally covered occipital region and a neck with 13 cervical vertebrae. The trunk, both forelimbs and the left hindlimb are preserved. The posterior part of the pelvic girdle and the caudal vertebrae are lacking. The Colombian Brachauchenius represents the first re-occurrence of the non-rhomaleosaurid pliosaurs after a Berriasian-Hauterivian hiatus. Anfang 2004 wurde das nahezu vollständige Skelett eines Pliosauriers in den Ablagerungen des Barremium (Formación Paja von Villa de Leyva entdeckt und freigelegt. Der Neufund ist der Gattung Brachauchenius zuzuordnen. Überliefert sind das Cranium mit leicht beschädigter und teilweise konkretionär überdeckter Occipitalregion und eine Halswirbelsäule bestehend aus 13 Wirbeln. Das Rumpfskelett, beide Vorderextremitäten sowie die linke Hinterextremität sind erhalten. Der hintere Abschnitt des Beckengürtels und der Schwanzbereich fehlen. Der kolumbianische Brachauchenius stellt das erste Wiedererscheinen der nicht-rhomaleosauriden Pliosaurier nach dem Berriasium-Hauterivium Hiatus dar. Un esqueleto de pliosaurio, casi completo, fué descubierto en depósitos barremianos (Formación Paja de Villa de Leyva, a comienzos del año 2004. El nuevo hallazgo consiste de un cráneo que tiene la región occipital parcialmente dañada e incompletamente incluida en una concreción y el cuello representado por 13 vértebras cervicales. El tronco, ambos miembros anteriores y sólo un miembro posterior están preservados. La parte posterior de la aleta pélvica y las vértebras caudales no están preservadas. El nuevo especimen fósil se incluye en el género Brachauchenius. El Brachauchenius colombiano representa la primera reaparición de pliosaurios no

  9. Birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Mesay Hailu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication preparedness (BPACR is a key component of globally accepted safe motherhood programs, which helps ensure women to reach professional delivery care when labor begins and to reduce delays that occur when mothers in labor experience obstetric complications. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess practice and factors associated with BPACR among pregnant women in Aleta Wondo district in Sidama Zone, South Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in 2007, on a sample of 812 pregnant women. Data were collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS for windows version 12.0.1. The women were asked whether they followed the desired five steps while pregnant: identified a trained birth attendant, identified a health facility, arranged for transport, identified blood donor and saved money for emergency. Taking at least two steps was considered being well-prepared. RESULTS: Among 743 pregnant women only a quarter (20.5% of pregnant women identified skilled provider. Only 8.1% identified health facility for delivery and/or for obstetric emergencies. Preparedness for transportation was found to be very low (7.7%. Considerable (34.5% number of families saved money for incurred costs of delivery and emergency if needed. Only few (2.3% identified potential blood donor in case of emergency. Majority (87.9% of the respondents reported that they intended to deliver at home, and only 60(8% planned to deliver at health facilities. Overall only 17% of pregnant women were well prepared. The adjusted multivariate model showed that significant predictors for being well-prepared were maternal availing of antenatal services (OR = 1.91 95% CI; 1.21-3.01 and being pregnant for the first time (OR = 6.82, 95% CI; 1.27-36.55. CONCLUSION: BPACR practice in the study area was found to be low. Effort to increase BPACR should focus on

  10. Cálculo de los dientes de engranajes abierto al flujo plástico // Calculation of plastic flow resistance in teeth of open gear transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Cabello Eras

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La falla por fluencia friccional del material de los flancos de los dientes es frecuente en engranajes abiertos, mal lubricadosy de baja dureza, estando caracterizada por la formación de aletas en la cabeza y los lados de los dientes, y de lomos ycanaletas en la zona polar de los dientes.A pesar de lo antes planteado, en diferentes normas de cálculo de engranajes no se ofrece un método de cálculo paraprevenir esta falla, en la que tiene una notable influencia la fricción entre las superficies de los dientes.En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio del comportamiento del campo de tensiones en la superficie y en la profundidadde la zona de contacto de los dientes de engranajes que trabajan en un régimen de lubricación límite, con un coeficiente defricción mayor que 0.1, obteniéndose una ecuación que permite verificar la resistencia al flujo plástico del material cuandoel coeficiente de fricción es menor que 0,23.Palabras claves: Engranajes, flujo plástico, tensiones de contacto._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe failure by frictional creep on flanks of the teeth in open, gears transmissions is frecuent with poor lubrication and lowhardenes, being characterized by deformation on the top and near to polar area.In spite of the before outlined, different standards of gear calculation do not offer a calculation method to prevent thisfailure in wich friction between teeth surface has a remarkable influence.In the present work is carried out a study of the behavior of tensions field in the surface and undersurface of gear teethworking in a limit lubrication regimen with a friction coefficient bigger than 0,1 a formulation that allow the verification ofresistance to plastic flow of the material when the friction coefficient is smaller than 0,23, is obtainedKey words: Plastic flow, hertz stress, open gears.

  11. Uso de obturadores en cirugía oral y maxilofacial: Presentación de cinco casos clínicos Use of obturators in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Velázquez-Cayón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los defectos creados en el maxilar, principalmente tras cirugía resectiva de tumores malignos, traumatismo o defectos congénitos, deben ser corregidos con el fin de recuperar los consecuentes déficits en el habla, la deglución, la masticación y la estética. Para ello contamos con dos amplias posibilidades: reconstrucción quirúrgica o colocación de un obturador protésico maxilar. En este artículo llevamos a cabo una revisión de la literatura reciente y clásica sobre obturadores palatinos, ilustrándola mediante 5 casos clínicos con esta opción terapéutica. Hemos encontrado descritas una amplia variedad de modificaciones para los distintos tipos de obturadores, como la fabricación de aletas nasales, colocación de obturadores de forma inmediata tras la cirugía, el hecho de ahuecar el aditamento obturador, etc. En nuestra práctica hemos observado una serie de ventajas en la colocación de este tipo de prótesis de forma posquirúrgica diferida y en estrecha colaboración con su médico responsable.Defects created in the maxillary bone, principally after surgical resection of malignant tumors, trauma or congenital defects, must be corrected to eliminate the resulting speech, swallowing, and chewing defects and restore the cosmetic appearance. Two major options available are surgical reconstruction or the placement of a maxillary obturator prosthesis. The recent and classic literature on palatal obturators is reviewed and five clinical cases treated with a palatal obturator are reported. A large variety of modifications have been reported for different types of obturators, such as nasal wings, immediate postoperative obturator prosthesis placement, etc. In the authors' experience, deferred postoperative obturator placement in close collaboration with the responsible doctor has advantages.

  12. Eletromiográfia do reto femoral em diferentes equipamentos proprioceptivos no meio aquático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Noronha Martins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A propriocepção é uma variável imprescindível para prevenção e reabilitação das lesões do joelho, podendo ser estimulada por diferentes equipamentos, os quais ainda não foram testados em meio aquático. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade eletromiográfica (EMG do músculo reto femoral de atletas no meio aquático frente a três diferentes equipamentos proprioceptivos (cama elástica, disco proprioceptivo e balancim. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por dez jogadores de futsal profissional, sem histórico de lesões musculoesqueléticas (últimos três meses, com 23,1 (±1,5 anos e índice de massa corporal 25,2 (±0,5 kg/m². A aquisição do sinal EMG do reto femoral do membro dominante foi adquirido por eletrodos de superfície, aproximadamente 2,5 cm da posição distal do ponto motor. O nível da água foi ajustado individualmente (entre a região umbilical e o processo xifoide e a temperatura mantida a 32 °C. As avaliações compreenderam o repouso, a contração voluntária máxima (CVM antes e depois dos experimentos e os estímulos proprioceptivos (cama elástica, disco proprioceptivo e balancim em apoio unipodal. Os dados (média ± erro padrão foram comparados pelo teste-t pareado e pela ANOVA para medidas repetidas seguida de teste Bonferrroni (post hoc. RESULTADOS: A EMG da CVM antes (221,0 ± 134 RMS/µVolts e depois (243,0 ± 154,0 RMS/µVolts foi semelhante (p = 0,129. No meio aquático, a cama elástica, o balancim e o disco apresentaram respectivamente 24,5 (±4,3, 33,9 (±4,3 e 32,5 (±6,7 %CVM. A atividade EMG do reto femoral na cama elástica foi 8% menor que o balancim e 9,5% que o disco proprioceptivo (p < 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: No meio aquático os equipamentos proprioceptivos promovem a ativação do reto femoral. Entretanto, a cama elástica apresenta menor atividade que o disco e o balancim, sugerindo-se que este equipamento deva ser utilizado no início da estimulação proprioceptiva.

  13. Contingent Valuation of the Economic Benefits of Forest Environmental Resource with Validity Improvement ---A case study for Wuyishan national natural reserve%基于有效性改进的森林环境资源条件价值评估--以武夷山自然保护区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国常宁; 杨建州; 冯祥锦

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation accounting of forest environmental resource as the basis of Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation and Green GDP Accounting, whether we assess its value reasonably or not, will accelerate the progress of bringing forest resource assessment into accounting system of Environmental and economic integration. Contingent Value Method ( CVM) as a mostly used direct valuation method of environment and resources, is vital important to the valuation of non-market good or service, espe-cially the non-use value of environment and resources. However, because of the numerous component of non-use value, we should implement the systematically classification on actual accounting research and then reckon it respectively. This paper did some supply and demand analysis of Forest Environmen-tal Resource on the basis of these argument, adopted the Open-end Payment Card Method as the guid-ance of CVM, made an investigation on urban residents'willingness to pay for ecological forest in Wuy-ishan Natural Reserve, defined the specific composition of forest social value based on logistic model and factor analysis, according to the non-parametric estimation calculated the average willingness to pay for ecological forest resource, and greatly improved the validity of research findings.%森林环境资源价值评估是实施生态效益补偿和绿色GDP 核算的重要基础,对其进行科学合理的定价,将加快推动森林资源纳入环境经济一体化核算工作的进程。条件价值法( CVM)作为森林环境资源价值评估的一种直接方法,对于评估“非市场化产品或服务”的价值,特别是森林环境资源的社会价值具有重要意义。考虑到该类非使用价值的分量众多,实际核算时应先进行系统分类,然后逐一加以测算。本文正是在此基础上,通过森林环境资源的供求分析,采用开放式支付卡法作为CVM的引导技术,对武夷山自然保护区居民消费意愿进

  14. Influences of torque and joint angle on heart rate responses during isometric exercise in young men Influência do torque e do ângulo articular nas respostas da freqüência cardíaca durante exercício isométrico em homens jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Quitério

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of joint angle on heart rate (HR responses induced by isometric exercise. METHODS: Ten healthy men (23.8 ± 2.5 years old underwent isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC tests lasting 10 sec using an electronic dynamometer under the following experimental conditions: knee extension at angles of 60º and 90º and knee flexion at angles of 30º and 90º angles. Their HR was recorded at rest (65 sec, during MVC (10 sec and during the recovery period (120 sec. The data on mean maximum torque (MMT and HR variation (deltaHR were analyzed using the Friedman test with the Dunn post-hoc test, and their correlation was analyzed using the Spearman test (alpha= 0.05. RESULTS: 1 MMT was significantly higher at 60º and 90º knee extension than at 30º and 90º knee flexion (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do ângulo articular nas respostas da freqüência cardíaca (FC induzida pelo exercício isométrico. MÉTODOS: Dez homens saudáveis (23,8 ± 2,5 anos foram submetidos a testes de contração voluntária máxima (CVM isométrica, durante 10s, em um dinamômetro eletrônico, nas seguintes condições experimentais: extensão do joelho nos ângulos de 60º e 90º e flexão do joelho nos ângulos de 30º e 90º. A freqüência cardíaca foi registrada durante o repouso (65s, durante a CVM (10s e durante o período de recuperação (120s. Os dados de torque médio máximo (TMM e de variação da FC (deltaFC foram analisados usando teste de Friedman, com pós-teste de Dunn, e sua correlação foi analisada usando o teste de Spearman (alfa= 0,05. RESULTADOS: 1 TMM foi significativamente maior nos ângulos de 60º e 90º de extensão em relação aos ângulos de 30º e 90º de flexão (p< 0,05, enquanto entre os dois ângulos de flexão e entre os dois de extensão não foram encontradas diferenças significativas; 2 deltaFC foi similar em todas as condições experimentais; 3 Não foi encontrada correlação entre

  15. 基于支付能力与支付意愿的居民生活用水水价承受能力研究——以广州市番禺区为例%Affordability of domestic water price based on ability and willingness to pay -A case study of Panyu District of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国宁; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    The affordability of domestic water price was quantified based on residents' ability to pay (ATP) and willingness to pay (WTP), by using the extended linear expenditure system (ELES) model and the contingent valuation method (CVM). Taking the Panyu district of Guangzhou as an example, we carefully analyzed ATP and WTP of residents living in urban and rural areas respectively. The statistics was calculated on the basis of the surveys and historical dataset on the domestic water expenditure from 2005 to 2009. Furthermore, we analyzed the affordability of domestic water price in 2011. The residents whose income was on and over average can afford the domestic water and their basic water demands were satisfied during the period of 2005 to 2009. However, the residents whose income was below average are unable to pay for the domestic water, which was very common in the rural areas. It was therefore very necessary to place emphasis on these people living in the rural areas. The result based on CVM indicated that the residents are willing to pay 2.163 yuan/m3 for domestic water in 2011. When the domestic water price increases from 2.00 yuan/m3 to 2.15 yuan/m3, the residents whose income was on average should be able to pay for the domestic water.%从支付能力和支付意愿的角度,应用扩展线性支出系统(ELES)模型和条件价值评估法(CVM),定量研究居民生活用水水价承受能力.以广州市番禺区为例,通过2005~2009年截面数据资料和问卷调查数据,定量研究了城镇和农村居民生活用水水价支付能力和支付意愿,并分析了201 1年番禺区居民对新调整居民生活用水水价的承受能力.结果表明,2005~2009年,达到平均收入水平的番禺区居民对水价具有支付能力,其基本用水需求能得到满足,但低收入户,尤其是农村低收入户的水价支付能力有限,是水价改革应重点关注的对象;CVM调查结果显示,番禺区居民对2011年生活用

  16. Geodesy-based estimates of loading rates on faults beneath the Los Angeles basin with a new, computationally efficient method to model dislocations in 3D heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, C.; Argus, D. F.; Avouac, J. P.; Landry, W.; Barbot, S.

    2015-12-01

    North-south compression across the Los Angeles basin is accommodated by slip on thrust faults beneath the basin that may present significant seismic hazard to Los Angeles. Previous geodesy-based efforts to constrain the distributions and rates of elastic strain accumulation on these faults [Argus et al 2005, 2012] have found that the elastic model used has a first-order impact on the inferred distribution of locking and creep, underlining the need to accurately incorporate the laterally heterogeneous elastic structure and complex fault geometries of the Los Angeles basin into this analysis. We are using Gamra [Landry and Barbot, in prep.], a newly developed adaptive-meshing finite-difference solver, to compute elastostatic Green's functions that incorporate the full 3D regional elastic structure provided by the SCEC Community Velocity Model. Among preliminary results from benchmarks, forward models and inversions, we find that: 1) for a modeled creep source on the edge dislocation geometry from Argus et al [2005], the use of the SCEC CVM material model produces surface velocities in the hanging wall that are up to ~50% faster than those predicted in an elastic halfspace model; 2) in sensitivity-modulated inversions of the Argus et al [2005] GPS velocity field for slip on the same dislocation source, the use of the CVM deepens the inferred locking depth by ≥3 km compared to an elastic halfspace model; 3) when using finite-difference or finite-element models with Dirichlet boundary conditions (except for the free surface) for problems of this scale, it is necessary to set the boundaries at least ~100 km away from any slip source or data point to guarantee convergence within 5% of analytical solutions (a result which may be applicable to other static dislocation modeling problems and which may scale with the size of the area of interest). Here we will present finalized results from inversions of an updated GPS velocity field [Argus et al, AGU 2015] for the inferred

  17. Eletromiografia do bíceps braquial em contrações dinâmicas

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    Lucenildo Silva Cerqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A reprodutibilidade da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície (EMG é mais estudada em protocolos que envolvem contrações isométricas. Alguns fatores relacionados às contrações dinâmicas podem contribuir para a instabilidade do sinal mioelétrico e dificultar a reprodutibilidade da medida da EMG. OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade teste-reteste e quantificar o erro técnico da medida da frequência mediana (FM e da amplitude (root mean square, RMS da EMG, em contrações dinâmicas e estáticas. MÉTODOS: Dez sujeitos foram testados em dois dias, sendo a atividade EMG registrada na maior porção do bíceps braquial. No primeiro dia foi feito o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM e de contração voluntária máxima (CVM. No segundo dia foram realizadas duas séries de 10 contrações dos flexores do cotovelo com 75% de 1RM, entremeadas por 1 h em repouso. Antes de cada série foi realizada uma CVM. RESULTADOS: Para a FM e RMS foi observado alto coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para o sinal do bíceps braquial (CCI = 0,90-0,98 para a FM; CCI = 0,89-0,94 para o RMS e de baixo para moderado coeficiente de variação (CV = 2,5-6,2% para a FM; CV = 14,6-16,3% para o RMS em ambos os testes. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre teste e reteste (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A FM e o RMS apresentam alta confiabilidade e baixo a moderado erro em contrações estáticas e dinâmicas, possibilitando o uso da EMG para investigação da fadiga e de desordens neuromusculares.

  18. Uma avaliação do nível de evidenciação das companhias abertas, no Brasil, no tocante aos instrumentos financeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vieira da Costa Junior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho é o de levantar o quadro atual da política de evidenciação de instrumentos financeiros por parte das companhias abertas no Brasil, através de suas demonstrações contábeis (data base de 31.12.2000. Uma pesquisa junto a 215 companhias abertas foi levada a efeito visando a avaliar se a divulgação de fatores de risco de mercado e de sua gestão foi feita adequadamente (de forma qualitativa e quantitativa, se as estratégias dispensadas ao uso dos instrumentos financeiros foram adequadamente reveladas, se foram computados e revelados os valores justos dos instrumentos financeiros, enfim, se os ditames da Instrução CVM nº 235/95, de 23.03.95, foram observados rigorosamente pelas companhias abertas. O resultado da pesquisa indicou que as companhias abertas no Brasil, não prestam informações adequadas em suas demonstrações contábeis, no que concerne aos instrumentos financeiros.This paper aimed to investigate the current stage of the disclosure policy of publicly-held companies in Brazil with respect to financial instruments, by means of the analysis of their financial statements (fiscal year ending at December 31st 2000. A research of 215 publicly-held companies was realized in order to evaluate the adequate disclosure (qualitatively and quantitatively speaking of risk market factors and their management, the adequate revelation of the strategies for using financial instruments, the adequate calculation and revelation of the fair values of the financial instruments, and finally, if the paragraphs of CVM Instruction nº. 235/95, from March 23rd 1995, were strictly observed by the publicly-held companies. Moreover, the role of the independent auditors in this context was evaluated through the analysis of their audit opinions. The research result indicated that the publicly-held companies in Brazil do not render appropriate information about the financial instruments in their financial statements, with the

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs.

  20. Evolução da Qualidade das Práticas de Governança Corporativa: um Estudo das Empresas Brasileiras de Capital Aberto Não Listadas em Bolsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Flávio Vieira de Medeiros Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the evolution of the quality of corporate governance practices by Brazilian companies that are non listed on the stock exchange from 2003 through 2007. The data were collected through System DIVEXT of the CVM. As a proxy for determining the quality of corporate governance practices, the Corporate Governance Index of the Brazilian Companies Unlisted on Stock Exchange was used, calculated from a set of 14 binary and objective questions. The results of the research show that half of the companies under study had a good level of governance. Concerning the Transparency dimension, the findings showed that there had been an improvement in the drafting of financial reports and that legal deadlines were being met. Furthermore, approximately half of the companies had contracted some form of global auditing. In the Composition and Functioning of Advice there were no signs of improvement, due to less concern over demands concerning the number of members, independence and length of mandate. The results of the Structure of Control and Behavior show that the vast majority of the companies had no agreements between shareholders. This is a positive improvement in good governance practices.

  1. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Xinchang; Gong, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs), i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs) and compensation VMs (CVMs). MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD), and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast). The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  2. Audit Quality in Brazil: A Study of the Judgment of the Independent Auditors on Adoption of the Adjustment to Present Value in Construction and Engineering Companies Listed on BM&F-Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Audit quality is a complex issue and difficult to measure on the audit quality level in the Brazilian stock exchange. Most of the companies listed on the on the stock exchange are audited by companies called the Big Four and in this context, the market assigns to them pretext of higher quality in their performances when compared with the non-Big Four companies. In Brazil, recent financial scandals while international accounting and auditing standards were been adopted. This provides an opportunity to analyze the adequacy of audit services to the convergence process. Given the scenario, the problem arises: Have the audit firms uniform quality, based on the technical criteria of their judgment when the proper adoption of CPC 12 – adjustment to present value by Brazilian listed companies? The objective of this study is to investigate the uniformity in the quality of services performed by audit firms in Brazil about Brazilian listed companies based on adoption to CVM deliberation number 564/08. This paper consists on the analysis of the accounting reports, reference form and the Auditors of the companies of the construction and engineering sector in years 2010 and 2011, revealing among its main findings the absence of uniform quality in the independent auditor’s report based on the adoption to the adjustment to present value.

  3. Relevância de Prêmio por Risco País no Custo de Capital das Empresas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zoratto Sanvicente

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A common practice in business valuation and the determination of fair rates of return by regulatory agencies is to use the capital asset pricing model (CAPM with the ad hoc addition of a country risk premium. The present paper documents this practice in the valuation reports required in public acquisition offers available on the CVM (Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission website. Multiple linear regression is used with monthly returns for stock shares of 204 firms listed on the BM&FBovespa (Brazilian Stock Exchange. The period covered is from January 2009 to December 2013, and the results indicate that there is a premium for Brazilian risk that is not completely reflected in Ibovespa returns for only 17 securities. Hence, if one uses the local market index when estimating a firm’s cost of equity, it would be both redundant and incorrect to add a country risk premium. The paper concludes with a real company example in which the adoption of the conventional approach – with a country risk premium added – would lead to a 17% pricing error.

  4. Simulation of time-dependent pool shape during laser spot welding: Transient effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Georg; Ludwig, Andreas; Sahm, Peter R.

    2003-12-01

    The shape and depth of the area molten during a welding process is of immense technical importance. This study investigates how the melt pool shape during laser welding is influenced by Marangoni convection and tries to establish general qualitative rules of melt pool dynamics. A parameter study shows how different welding powers lead to extremely different pool shapes. Special attention is paid to transient effects that occur during the melting process as well as after switching off the laser source. It is shown that the final pool shape can depend strongly on the welding duration. The authors use an axisymmetric two-dimensional (2-D) control-volume-method (CVM) code based on the volume-averaged two-phase model of alloy solidification by Ni and Beckermann[1] and the SIMPLER algorithm by Patankar.[2] They calculate the transient distribution of temperatures, phase fractions, flow velocities, pressures, and concentrations of alloying elements in the melt and two solid phases (peritectic solidification) for a stationary laser welding process. Marangoni flow is described using a semiempirical model for the temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. The software was parallelized using the shared memory standard OpenMP.

  5. Protective CD8+ T-cell responses to cytomegalovirus driven by rAAV/GFP/IE1 loading of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalle-Donne Isabella

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies demonstrate that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-based antigen loading of dendritic cells (DCs generates in vitro, significant and rapid cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL responses against viral antigens. Methods We used the rAAV system to induce specific CTLs against CVM antigens for the development of cytomegalovirus HCMV gene therapy. As an extension of the versatility of the rAAV system, we incorporated immediate-early 1 (IE1, expressed in HCMV. Our rAAV vector induced a strong stimulation of CTLs directed against the HCMV antigen IE1. We then investigated the efficiency of the CTLs in killing IE1 targeted cells. Results A significant MHC Class I-restricted, anti-IE1-specific CTL killing was demonstrated against IE1 positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC after one, in vitro, stimulation. Conclusion In summary, single PBMC stimulation with rAAV/IE1 pulsed DCs induces strong antigen specific-CTL generation. CTLs were capable to lyse low doses of peptides pulsed into target cells. These data suggest that AAV-based antigen loading of DCs is highly effective for generating human CTL responses against HCMV antigens.

  6. Application and Progress of Contingent Valuation Method in Ecological Assets Estimation%条件价值法在生态资产估算中的应用与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志良; 刘旭拢; 彭晓春

    2009-01-01

    条件价值法(CVM)是在效用最大化理论下,利用假设市场的方式揭示公众对公共产品的支付意愿,从而评估公共物品价值的方法.该方法灵活、简单、数据获取容易、适用性较宽,自从1963年Davis R开始使用条件价值法以来,该方法在生态资产评估中的地位与重要性不断提高,在国外被广泛应用于公共物品与服务价值估价,特别是对生态资产存在价值与遗产价值的估算,文章系统地总结了条件价值法的特点、适用范围.存在的问题与争议,以及在生态资产估算中的应用与国内外进展,最后针对条件价值法的研究热点进行了前瞻性探讨与评价.

  7. Effect of two synthetic lubricants on life of AISI 9310 spur gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Shimski, John

    1991-01-01

    Spur-gear fatigue tests were conducted with two lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The gears were case carburized and hardened to Rockwell C60. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. The lot of gears was divided into two groups, each of which was tested with a different lubricant. The test lubricants can be classified as synthetic polyol-ester-based lubricants. One lubricant was 30 percent more viscous that the other. Both lubricants have similar pressure viscosity coefficients. Test conditions included a bulk gear temperature of 350 K, a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa at the pitch line, and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The surface fatigue life of gears tested with one lubricant was approximately 2.4 times that for gears tested with the other lubricant. The lubricant with the 30 percent higher viscosity gave a calculated elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness that was 20 percent higher than the other lubricant. This increased EHD film thickness is the most probable reason for the improvement in surface fatigue life of gears tested with this lubricant over gears tested with the less viscous lubricant.

  8. Localized muscle fatigue: review of three experiments Fadiga muscular localizada: revisão de três estudos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue considerably affects rehabilitation and ergonomics. Many approaches to this complex phenomenon, ranging from physiological to psychological, have been used to obtain meaningful fatigue measurements. However, none of the methods in the literature measure fatigue directly. It is therefore of considerable interest to determine which indirect methods best represent the state. Method: Fatiguing contraction was measured at maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and 40% MVC in the biceps brachii, quadriceps and erector spinae muscles (three separate experiments. The most-reported objective measurements (contraction force, median electromyographic frequency, heart rate, muscle bed oxygenation and muscle blood volume and subjective measurements (visual analog score, body part discomfort rating and perceived exertion rate were simultaneously recorded. The data from the three experiments underwent separate statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, linear mixed effects (to examine force fatigue predictability and trend analysis (with between and within-subject correlations were calculated. Results: Univariate ANOVA on all objective variables showed that gender was a significant factor (pContexto: A fadiga afeta consideravelmente a reabilitação e ergonomia. Muitas abordagens a este fenômeno complexo, incluindo fisiológicas e psicológicas, têm sido utilizadas para obter medidas significativas da fadiga. No entanto, nenhum dos métodos descritos na literatura mede diretamente a fadiga. É, portanto de interesse a determinação de quais dos métodos indiretos melhor representa a condição de fadiga. Método: A fadiga por contração foi medida na contração voluntária máxima (CVM e 40% da CVM em músculos bíceps braquial, quadríceps e músculos eretores da coluna (três avaliações independentes. As medidas objetivas mais relatadas (força de contração, freqüência mediana na eletromiografia, freqüência cardíaca, oxigena

  9. Characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Gastrointestinal Tract of Cemani Chicken and Their Potential Use as Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Jannah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to screen and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from gastrointestinal (GI tract of Cemani chicken, one of Indonesian local chicken and to investigate their potential use as probiotics. LAB were isolated from GI tract using MRSA and GYPA media and incubated anaerobically. Selected LAB were determined their probiotic properties with several assays. Identification of selected LAB was based on 16S rDNA sequences, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Ninety five bacteria were isolated and characterized as lactic acid bacteria (Gram positive, catalase negative, non sporeforming and acid producing. Twenty four isolates of LAB demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli JCM 1649 and Salmonella enteritidis B2586, and three selected isolates, i.e. CCM011, CSP004, and CVM002 showed the highest inhibition activity. The isolates had characters of high cell surface hydrophobicity and inter-isolate coaggregation ability of LAB, high survival at low pH, high phytase and protease activity (but no amylase and lipase activity, weak coaggregation with pathogen and no resistance to the examined antibiotics. The isolates were identified based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene as Lactobacillus salivarius, however, each isolate had different profiles of sugar fermentation. Therefore the three LAB isolates had potential application as probiotics for chicken.

  10. Willingness to Pay for Air Quality Improvements in Klang Valley Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Afroz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research employed contingent valuation method (CVM to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP of the respondents to improve the air quality in Klang Valley. The samples were divided according to different question formats i.e. open ended(OE, dichotomous choice(DC and payment card(PC. The objective of this study is to investigate the convergent validity of contingent valuation estimates by comparing the WTP values of different question formats. The comparison of responses to different question formats in terms of positive response rate, valid zero, rejection of contingent market was carried out using the z-tests. Paired t-tests of equivalent means were also conducted to test the equality of the mean value of the WTP of the respondents for different question formats. The results of the study suggested that the WTP values of the respondents do not differ significantly across different question formats and the WTP values of the respondents using the DC format were the highest. However due to the nature of the question format, the mean WTP values using the DC method would normally be higher than those of OE and PC. The aggregate WTP value of the respondents was RM0.91 billion for air quality improvement in Klang Valley.

  11. Chinese Public’s Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emissions Reductions:A Case Study from Four Provinces/Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Hong-Xia; LÜ Yan-Li; LI Yan

    2014-01-01

    Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was used to investigate the Chinese public’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a policy to reduce CO2 emissions. Face to face interviews were conducted to collect 1,653 valid questionnaires from Beijing, Shanghai, Shandong province, and Fujian province. A model was constructed to understand the factors that influence WTP. The results indicate that the Chinese public is willing to pay CNU201.86 annually to support the policy of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Participants from Beijing show the highest WTP, followed by participants from Fujian and Shandong, while those from Shanghai report the lowest WTP. The findings reveal that participants with higher income, higher satisfaction with their current life, and awareness of climate issues are willing to pay more for CO2 emissions reductions. In addition, those who are young, male and members of the Communist Party also indicate a higher WTP. The results imply that translating the public’s willingness to protect climate into actions should be taken into account in China’s low carbon policy. There is a need to consider the difference in degree of willingness, among different social groups, to pay for emissions reductions if the market-based mechanisms such as carbon tax were designed to facilitate emissions reductions.

  12. Limited Multiple-Writer: An Approach to Dealing with False Sharing in Software DSMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢向辉; 韩承德

    2000-01-01

    False sharing is one of the most important factors impacting the performance of DSM (distributed shared memory) systems. The single-writer ap proach is simple, but it cannot avoid the ping-pong effect of the data page thrashing, while the multiple-writer approach is effective for false sharing but with high cost. This paper proposes a new approach, called limited multiple-writer (LMW) to han dling multiple writers in software DSM. It distinguishes two kinds of multiple-writer as lock-based form and barrier-based form, and handles them with different policies. It discards the Twin and Diff in traditional multiple-writer approach, and simplifies the implementation of niultiple-writer in software DSM systems. The implementa tion of LMW in a CVM (Coherent Virtual Machine) software DSM system, which is based on a network of workstations, is introduced. Evaluation results show that for some applications such as SOR (Successive Over-Relaxation), LU (Lower triangular and Upper triangular), FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation), and IS (Integer Sorting), LMW provides a significant reduction inexecution time (11%, 16%, 33% and 46%) compared with the traditional multiple-writer approach on the platform.

  13. Identifying the needs of veterinary students and recent alumni in establishing a student service center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Linda K; Brandt, Jennifer C; Newhart, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Quality service for students has been identified as an important theme of higher education. In pursuing the aim of service quality, educational providers have long recognized that perceptions of service transcend the area of quality teaching and encompass the students' overall experience within the university. This article investigates the types of services that would be most beneficial to students, from the perspective of both current students and recent alumni. A cross-sectional survey of all students was conducted using an online survey. A separate survey was also conducted of alumni from the last five graduating classes. From these surveys, 94.0% of student respondents and 91.9% of alumni respondents strongly agreed with the statement "It is important for the OSU CVM (Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine) to provide on-site comprehensive student services." Both groups ranked job postings for post-graduation employment, fourth-year off-site rotation opportunities, and financial planning/budgeting among their top ranked preferred services. In addition, requests for continued or enhanced interviewing/communication skills training; individual mental, emotional, and spiritual counseling; and individual and group tutoring were predominant themes identified from the qualitative data as well as the Likert-scale questions. The findings from the study sheds light on the need for comprehensive services for veterinary students beyond those services traditionally provided in an academic setting, such as tutoring and course advising. PMID:23709113

  14. VMCast: A VM-Assisted Stability Enhancing Solution for Tree-Based Overlay Multicast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Gu

    Full Text Available Tree-based overlay multicast is an effective group communication method for media streaming applications. However, a group member's departure causes all of its descendants to be disconnected from the multicast tree for some time, which results in poor performance. The above problem is difficult to be addressed because overlay multicast tree is intrinsically instable. In this paper, we proposed a novel stability enhancing solution, VMCast, for tree-based overlay multicast. This solution uses two types of on-demand cloud virtual machines (VMs, i.e., multicast VMs (MVMs and compensation VMs (CVMs. MVMs are used to disseminate the multicast data, whereas CVMs are used to offer streaming compensation. The used VMs in the same cloud datacenter constitute a VM cluster. Each VM cluster is responsible for a service domain (VMSD, and each group member belongs to a specific VMSD. The data source delivers the multicast data to MVMs through a reliable path, and MVMs further disseminate the data to group members along domain overlay multicast trees. The above approach structurally improves the stability of the overlay multicast tree. We further utilized CVM-based streaming compensation to enhance the stability of the data distribution in the VMSDs. VMCast can be used as an extension to existing tree-based overlay multicast solutions, to provide better services for media streaming applications. We applied VMCast to two application instances (i.e., HMTP and HCcast. The results show that it can obviously enhance the stability of the data distribution.

  15. Measuring the social value of nuclear energy using contingent valuation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the promising energy sources for the next few decades, nuclear energy receives more attention than before as environmental issues become more important and the supply of fossil fuels becomes unstable. One of the reasons for this attention is based on the rapid innovation of nuclear technology which solves many of its technological constraints and safety issues. However, regardless of these rapid innovations, social acceptance for nuclear energy has been relatively low and unchanged. Consequently, the social perception has often been an obstacle to the development and execution of nuclear policy requiring enormous subsidies which are not based on the social value of nuclear energy. Therefore, in this study, we estimate the social value of nuclear energy-consumers' willingness-to-pay for nuclear energy-using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and suggest that the social value of nuclear energy increases approximately 68.5% with the provision of adequate information about nuclear energy to the public. Consequently, we suggest that the social acceptance management in nuclear policy development is important along with nuclear technology innovation.

  16. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment. PMID:27114113

  17. Evaluating the public perceptions of nuclear power in China: Evidence from a contingent valuation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident, more and more attention has been paid to the safety issues of nuclear power in China, even though it is a clean and necessary substitution to coal power. Due to the consideration about the uncertainty of nuclear safety, the local citizens may resist the nuclear power programs in their neighborhood, as indicated by the anti-nuclear movement in Jiangmen 2013. This phenomenon is often related to the public perceptions of “not-in-my-back-yard” (NIMABY). The explosion of anti-nuclear movements will impose adverse effects on the nuclear power decision-making in China. Based on the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), we evaluate the public Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for avoiding the construction of nuclear power plants in their neighborhood. Moreover, we analyze whether more information about nuclear energy could improve the public acceptance. Our results show that the comprehensive information will decrease the public risk perception of nuclear power and increase the public support for nuclear power policy. This paper further suggests that China's decision makers should improve policy transparency and encourage the public involvement of nuclear energy decision making. - Highlights: • We firstly evaluate the WTP for avoiding nuclear construction in China. • The study is based on the CV survey data after the Fukushima accident. • More understanding of nuclear energy could improve public acceptance. • Decision-makers should improve policy transparency and public involvement

  18. 岷江上游森林生态系统服务条件价值评估%Contingent Valuation of the Economic Benefits of Forest Ecosystem Services of the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 何勇; 张健; 陈秀兰; 曾维忠

    2009-01-01

    针对岷江上游森林生态系统服务现状,采用条件价值评估法(CVM),以支付卡形式设计了374份调查问卷,调查了岷江流域居民对上游森林生态系统服务的支付意愿(WTP).结果表明:岷江流域60.80%的居民家庭对岷江上游森林生态系统服务存在支付意愿,平均支付意愿为每户每年44.00元.按照岷江流域现有家庭数量计算,岷江上游森林生态系统服务价值每年是5 507.48 × 104元.利用二元Logistic模型,对支付意愿与个人社会经济变量进行了较为详尽的分析,并对影响居民支付意愿的主要因素作了环境经济学解释.

  19. 基于双边界二分式CVM的耕地社会价值评价——以重庆市为例%Appraisal of Cultivated Land Social Vaiue Based on Double-Bounded Contingent Valuation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建; 易乐庆; 彭珏

    2011-01-01

    以重庆市为例,采用双边界二分式CVM的logistic模型,从城镇居民支付意愿和农民受偿意愿2个角度考察耕地的社会价值.研究发现,WTP和WTA法下,耕地的社会价值巨大,且呈增长态势;城镇总体支付意愿和农民总体受偿意愿存在较大差距,目前仍需政府采取农业补贴等形式解决耕地外部性问题.%Taking the case of Chongqing, logistic model of double-bounded CVM is adopted, the social value of cultivated land are investigated from the angle of urban residents' willingness to pay and peasants' willingness to accept. The results show that there is great social value of cultivated land under WTP and WTA methods, and being a rising trend; there is a wide gap between urban WTP and rural WTA, and it still need the government to take agricultural subsidies to solve land externalities at present.

  20. Research on quality control of CVA investigation on residents' willingness to pay for eco-environmental protection project%生态环境工程居民支付意愿CVA质量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文金; 邹欣庆; 朱大奎

    2008-01-01

    条件估值法(Contingent valuation method, CVM)在评价环境服务产品中起着不可替代的作用.对CVM的信度、效度、置信度、质量控制方面进行了探讨,并对Logistic回归模型进行了改进.研究显示:①通过科学的问卷设计和规范操作,严格调研的质量控制可以有效地克服CVA 法的不足,减少主观随意性对访谈结果的干扰;②蚌埠居民年支付意愿为每户9.35元/月,全年支付意愿总额为7 831.56万元人民币;③不同的收入段相关性又呈现差异性,年收入15 000~30 000元的公务员、教师、律师、高薪企业工人、军人支付意愿较高.

  1. VALUASI EKONOMI LINGKUNGAN NILAI GUNAAN LANGSUNG DAN TIDAK LANGSUNG KOMODITAS EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Hasibuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural phenomenon which is the impact of humans on the environment management is already affecting economic system. The impact of climate change on the agricultural sector, especially in Indonesia is increasingly felt. These changes are indicated by the floods, droughts, shifting the rainy season. The economic value of agricultural commodities that were examined included the value of use of direct and indirect use of value. For agricultural natural resources that have used market price calculation Effect on Production (EOP. This study use CVM method. The views of Lombok on climate change phenomenon quite good, the majority (75% community to know the phenomenon of climate change. Public response to this phenomenon very well where the desire to improve the situation so big that 76% would like to improve or unable to pay for the improvement in the state even though their incomes are very low at 70% below the provincial minimum wage. Preferences people who want to improve this situation is a reflection of their needs and desires to escape from the problems of climate change impacts.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v3i2.2055  

  2. EAM Analysis of the Lattice Parameter Effect in Order-Disorder Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothée Nsongoa; Guoliang CHEN; Xiaodong NI

    2001-01-01

    The embedded atom method was used to theoretically analyze the effect of the lattice parameter variation on the order-disorder transformation in binary alloys. The simple model was considered in which the configuration energy E as function of the lattice parameter a and the long-range order parameter σ was given by Taylor expansion at σ=0. The following results were found for AB alloy, at T=0 K, the stable state exists in the completely ordered phase which was also found in the case of A3B or AB3 compounds .The order-disorder was found to be a secondorder transition. Only one kind of order-disorder was found for AB alloy. Three groups of order-disorder transformation can be observed for the A3B or AB3 compound. For the group Ⅰ when the temperature is below the critical temperature, the order-disorder is a first order transformation. For the group Ⅱ, the order-disorder transformation is a first order transition.For the group Ⅲ, the order-disorder transformation is found to be a second order transition.The lattice parameter variations have a significant effect on E2 coefficient, which is related to the ordering energy. These results are in a good agreement with those obtained by using EAM (embedded atom method) and CVM (cluster variation method) calculations.

  3. Anode purge strategy optimization of the polymer electrode membrane fuel cell system under the dead-end anode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhe; Yu, Yi; Wang, Guangjin; Chen, Xuesong; Chen, Pei; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Su

    2016-07-01

    Dead-ended anode (DEA) mode is commonly applied in fuel cell vehicles for the hydrogen purge at the anode side, to reduce fuel waste and enhance fuel cell efficiency. Anode purge is necessary and is definitely important with respect to removing liquid water and accumulated nitrogen in the gas diffusion layer and the flow field of the DEA-mode fuel cell. In this paper, the effect of different purge strategies on the stack performance and system efficiency is investigated experimentally using fast data acquisition and advanced tools, such as the fast cell voltage measurement (CVM) system and the mass spectrum. From the fast data acquisition, the voltage stability, liquid water and nitrogen concentration measurement in the anode exhaust are compared and analyzed under different purge strategy designs and using different purge valves. The results show that under the optimal purge strategy, the DEA fuel cell stack can achieve the desired stability and system efficiency based on the analysis of the cell voltage and purge volume. Moreover, the diameter of the purge valve has a great impact on the voltage stability because a diameter change will result in a different pressure drop and purge volume when the purge valve is open.

  4. Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Huang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM. Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM. The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value.

  5. One medicine, one university: the DVM/MPH program at the University of Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, John A; Hershow, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign College of Veterinary Medicine (UIUC-CVM) and the University of Illinois-Chicago School of Public Health (UIC-SPH) are in the fourth year of a collaborative Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Master of Public Health dual-degree program. The two campuses, one urban and one rural, are 150 miles apart but are sister schools within the University of Illinois system. This article describes the origin of the program, how the program functions across two campuses, its academic focus, required coursework, and research projects designed to fulfill the program's capstone requirements. The article shows how two campuses can be linked through a combination of online and on-site didactic coursework, briefly describes innovative proposals for projects within the United States and abroad, and highlights faculty committed to educating cross-trained public-health professionals while addressing the national need for veterinarians trained in public health. The authors also discuss how the dual-degree program has led to the formation of the Illinois Center for One Medicine, One Health (ICOMOH), an intra-university collaboration focusing on the interface of human, animal, and ecosystem health.

  6. Numerical study of the relation between the thermal effect and the stability of the levitation system excited by an external source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloui, L., E-mail: lotfi.alloui@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Paris – LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supélec, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Université Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de modélisation des systèmes énergétiques LMSE, Université de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Ben Alia, K. [Laboratoire de modélisation des systèmes énergétiques LMSE, Université de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Bouillault, F., E-mail: bouillault@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de Paris – LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supélec, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Université Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mimoune, S.M., E-mail: s.m.mimoune@univ-biskra.dz [Laboratoire de modélisation des systèmes énergétiques LMSE, Université de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); and others

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A numerical analysis of dynamic features of the levitation system is presented. ► In our model, the thermal effect inside the superconductor is taken into account. ► The obtained results show that the thermal effect is related to the stability of the levitation system. ► This effect appears significantly in the case of unstable levitation systems. -- Abstract: In this paper we present a numerical analysis of dynamic features of the levitation system generated by an interaction between a levitated permanent magnet (PM) and a high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) excited by an oscillatory external source where the thermal effect inside the superconductor is taken into account in a macro-model of superconductivity. The comportment is comprehensively displayed by comparing the dynamic responses of such systems in which the thermal effect in superconductor is and is not taken into account. The obtained results show that the thermal effect is related to the stability of the levitation system. This effect appears significantly in the case of unstable levitation systems. The results obtained show that the thermal effect and the stability of the levitation system depend mainly on some parameters related to the external source, such as the frequency and the amplitude of the applied external source. In this paper, the numerical problem is solved by using the control volume method (CVM) and the electromagnetic and thermal coupling is ensured by an alternate algorithm.

  7. The Economic Benefits to Conserve Melaka City’s Living Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chooi Chea Chiam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heritage is everyone's legacy and living heritage would be able to tell us who we are, where we have come from and what we have accomplished. It is a source of strength and confidence that puts the changes of society into perspective and helps us to build a better future for ourselves and the future generations. The Malaysia government has highlighted the importance of conservation of a living heritage and has since been promoting heavily the heritage conservation for many years, adjusting its role to meet changing needs and circumstances, following recognition of the importance of living heritage. Melaka implemented a RM2 heritage charge on per night accommodation since April 2012 after recognising the needs for the city to conserve the unique living heritage in Melaka City. This study was conducted in Melaka City, one of UNESCO Heritage Site listings. A total sample of 502 was collected from the visitors in Melaka City for this study.The aim of this study was to determine the value of willingness-to-pay by visitors to pay the heritage charge in the city using single-bounded contingent valuation dichotomous choice method (single-bounded CVM-DC.

  8. Dividendos e informação assimétrica: análise do novo mercado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Maurício Franco Moreiras

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Em dezembro de 2000, a Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (Bovespa criou uma listagem em que diferenciava as empresas que voluntariamente aceitassem práticas de governança corporativa adicionais àquelas exigidas pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. A finalidade da inovação era estreitar a relação entre as empresas e os seus investidores, diminuindo a assimetria informacional e dando maior segurança ao investidor. O objetivo neste artigo é testar os efeitos gerados por essa iniciativa sobre a informação assimétrica do mercado acionário. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de eventos tendo como variável central a política de dividendos. O resultado revela que as companhias que aderiram aos mercados com graus diferenciados de governança apresentam menores graus de informação assimétrica e, desse modo, inseriram-se em um ambiente institucional mais seguro. Em outras palavras, a iniciativa da Bovespa teve êxito ao mitigar o problema da informação assimétrica no mercado acionário brasileiro.

  9. Study on Willingness to Pay for Typhoid Vi Vaccine in Lingchuan County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region%广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗支付意愿调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董柏青; 吴兴华; 杨进; 龚健; 廖和壮; WU Xun; Christine Poulos; Dohyeong Kim; Andrew Nyamete; John Clemens

    2008-01-01

    目的 评估广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗的支付意愿,为开展疫苗推广活动提供依据.方法 应用条件价值法(Contingent Valuation Method,CVM)评估居民对伤寒Vi多糖疫苗的支付阈值,使用Prob-it模型进行"价格-接受率"曲线拟合.结果 广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区居民对Vi多糖疫苗的"价格-接受率"模型为:p=Probit-1(0.88952-0.46296X),平均支付意愿为10.41元,95%可信区间为6.67~16.24元.结论 在广西壮族自治区伤寒流行地区,Vi多糖疫苗定价应在10元左右,CVM可较好评估居民对疫苗的支付意愿.

  10. Dividendos e Juros Sobre o Capital Próprio no Setor Petrolífero Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Araújo Resende

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo investigar se as companhias abertas do setor petrolífero nacional remuneram adequada- mente seus acionistas, quando se utilizam dos juros sobre o capital próprio. Ou seja, o foco é verificar se estão imputando os JSCP adequadamente aos dividendos, isto é, se a imputa- ção está ocorrendo unicamente aos dividendos obrigatórios. Foram selecionadas três companhias abertas do setor petrolí- fero nacional, da base de dados da CVM, que, no período de 2001 a 2003, remuneraram seus acionistas por meio dos juros sobre o capital próprio. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram que todas as companhias pesquisadas apresenta- ram algum problema, seja quanto à imputação dos juros sobre o capital próprio aos dividendos obrigatórios, seja quanto à qualidade das informações. Isto demonstra que a questão da imputação dos juros sobre o capital próprio aos dividendos ainda gera confusão e dúvidas, quanto ao trata- mento adequado a ser dado pelas companhias.

  11. On the structure of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleemann, L.; Eberth, J.; Neumann, W.; Zobel, V.

    1982-09-01

    Mean lifetimes of negative-parity states in 66Zn and 70Ge have been measured using the recoil distance Doppler shift technique. The states in 66Zn have been studied through the reaction 55Mn( 14N, 2pnγ) 66Zn at E = 47 MeV, those in 70Ge through the reaction 56Fe( 16O, 2pγ) 70Ge at E = 46 MeV. The measurements were performed with a plunger apparatus with a piezo-electric distance regulation. The mean lifetimes in 66Zn were measured to be 66 ± 4ps (5 - state), 43 ± 2 ps (6 - state), 192 ± 15 ps (7 - state), and 2.7 ± 1.2 ps (9 - state), those of 70Ge 19.7 ± 2 ps (5 - state), 51 ± 4 ps (6 - state), and 25.2 ± 1.4 ps (7 - state). Deduced B ( Ml) and B( E2) values are compared with theoretical predictions of a two-proton cluster-vibration coupling model (CVM) which describes these states as couplings of g {9}/{2} ⊗ (fp shell) proton clusters to zero, one and higher phonon excitations of the corresponding Ni and Zn cores. Good overall agreement between the theoretical values and the experimental data was found.

  12. 生态旅游资源非使用价值评估——以达赉湖自然保护区为例%Evaluation of non-use value of ecotourism resources: a case study in Dalai Lake protected area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朋薇; 贾竞波

    2012-01-01

    The Dalai Lake Protected Area, located in the northeast of Inner Mongolia, was once rich in wildlife resources and was important to the protection of the northern ecological environment. In recent years, development of the resources of the Dalai Lake Protected Area ( DLPA) has destroyed the ecotourism potential of the DLPA, and conflict between protection and development persists. To resolve the conflict between protection and development, our first objective was to evaluate DLPA ecotourism resource non-use in monetary terms and to compare possible development and protection uses. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) , which has been commonly applied in environmental analyses, was used. The CVM elicits people's preferences, expressed in monetary terms, through survey questions; the elicited willingness to pay ( WTP) values were contingent on a hypothetical market.CVM has been criticized by many studies because its market is hypothetical. Thus, the second objective of the study was to explore the difference between the WTP in hypothetical and real settings by increasing the real setting in our survey design. In the hypothetical setting, respondents revealed only whether they would accept certain monetary bids, while in the real setting, respondents had to choose an environmental protection organization and were informed that the organization would contact them to ask for a donation. The respondents were considered to be willing to pay if they wrote down their name and address and chose an environmental protection organization; otherwise they were considered to have rejected donation.We sent out questionnaires to 700 respondents, and received 551 effective responses. To establish the relationship between variables and WTP in hypothetical and real settings, two logit models on the probability of a positive WTP were constructed. Eight variables, including the respondent's age, gender, education, income, familiarity with the protected area, opinion about the impact of

  13. Valuation of Ecological Resources and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott; Bilyard; Link; Ulibarri; Westerdahl; Ricci; Seely

    1998-01-01

    / Ecological resources are natural resources that provide certain necessary but overlooked system maintenance functions within ecosystems. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework to determine economic values of such resources. This paper presents a framework that estimates and compiles the components of value for a natural ecosystem. The framework begins with the ecological processes involved, which provide functions within the ecosystem and services valued by humans. We discuss the additive or competive nature of these values, and estimate these values through conventional and unconventional techniques. We apply the framework to ecological resources in a shrub-steppe dryland habitat being displaced by development. We first determine which functions and services are mutually exclusive (e.g., farming vs soil stabilization) and which are complementary or products of joint production (e.g., soil stabilization and maintenance of species). We then apply benefit transfer principles with contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage pricing (HDP). Finally, we derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions through the use of human analogs, which we argue are the most appropriate method of valuation under some circumstances. The highest values of natural shrub-steppe habitat appear to be derived from soil stabilization.KEY WORDS: Natural resource economics; Ecological economics; Ecological resources; Shrub-steppe; Environmental valuation; Cost; Benefit; Value PMID:9419284

  14. A Lock—Based Cache Coherence Protocol for Scope Consistency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟武; 施巍松; 等

    1998-01-01

    Directory protocols are widely adopted to maintain cache coherence of distributed shared memory multiprocessors.Although scalable to a certain extent,directory protocols are complex enough to prevent it from being used in very large scale multiprocessors with tens of thousands of nodes.his paper proposes a lock-based cache coherence protocol for scope consistency.In does not rely on directory information to maintain cache coherence.Instead,cache coherence is maintained through requiring the releasing processor of a lock to stroe all write-notices generated in the associated critical section to the lock and the acquiring processor invalidates or updates its locally cached data copies according to the write notices of the lock.To evaluate the performance of the lock-based cache coherence protocol,a software SDM system named JIAJIA is built on network of workstations.Besides the lock-based cache coherence protocol,JIAJIA also characterizes itself with its shared memory organization scheme which combines the physical memories of multiple workstations to form a large shared space.Performance measurements with SPLASH2 program suite and NAS benchmarks indicate that,compared to recent SVM systems such as CVM,higher speedup is achieved by JIAJIA.Besides,JIAJIA can solve large scale problems that cannot be solved by other SVM systems due to memory size limitation.

  15. Phishing Web Image Segmentation Based on Core Vector Machine%基于核心向量机的钓鱼网页图像分割方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尚方

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new core vector machine based image segmentation algorithm phishing sites. Support vector machine for image segmentation for phishing pages long training time-consuming drawback, this paper presents the core vector machine based on image segmentation thinking fishing website, the article gives specific steps of the algorithm and the method of experimental validation, results show that the CVM-based image segmentation performance of phishing pages have greatly improved.%本文提出了一种新的,基于核心向量机的钓鱼网站图像分割算法。针对支持向量机用于钓鱼网页图像分割训练时耗较长的缺点,本文提出了基于核心向量机的钓鱼网页图像分割思想,文章中给出了算法的具体步骤,并对该方法进行了实验验证,结果表明基于CVM的钓鱼网页图像分割性能获得很大的改善。

  16. Residents' Willingness to Pay for Improving Air Quality in Jinan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Yisheng; Wang Qian; Wang Wei

    2007-01-01

    Along with the progress of urbanization and environmental deterioration, residents' desire for improved air quality is increasing. In order to quantify an individual's willingness-to-pay (WTP) for improved air quality in Jinan of eastern China, a contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed. A sample of 1,500 residents was chosen on the basis of multistage sampling methods with face-to-face interviews by using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenario questions which were designed to elicit the respondents' WTP. Results showed that 59.7% of respondents were able to express their WTP and the mean WTP is 100 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per person per year. A probit model on the probability of a positive WTP and a regression model were developed to find the relationship between endogenous variables and WTP. Most parameters in the econometric analysis had the expected sign. Annual household income and expenditure on treating respiratory diseases significantly influence WTP. The rates of positive WTP and the monetary amount are larger for men than for women. Results also showed that people who lived in more polluted areas were willing to pay more for clean air. Unlike developed countries, clean air may only be considered as a public good in China in that more than 40% of respondents had no incentive to bear the costs of attempting to achieve better air quality, which indicates the relatively low environmental consciousness.

  17. Ecosystem Services Valuation of Lakeside Wetland Park beside Chaohu Lake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems are one of the three great ecosystems on Earth. With a deepening of research on wetland ecosystems, researchers have paid more and more attention to wetland ecosystem services such as flood mitigation, climate control, pollution prevention, soil-erosion prevention, biodiversity maintenance, and bio-productivity protection. This study focuses on a lakeside wetland ecosystem in Hefei, a city in central China, and estimates the value of ecosystem services such as material production, air purification, water conservation, biodiversity, recreation, species conservation, education and scientific research. We adopted the market value method, carbon tax method, afforestation cost method, shadow engineering method and contingent value method (CVM using questionnaire survey data during the study period. The results show that the total value of the ecosystem services of Lakeside Wetland Park was 144 million CNY in 2015. Among these services, the value of society service is the maximum at 91.73 million CNY, followed by ecological service and material production service (42.23 million CNY and 10.43 billion CNY in 2015 respectively. When considering wetland ecosystems for economic development, other services must be considered in addition to material production to obtain a longer-term economic value. This research reveals that there is scope for more comprehensive and integrated model development, including multiple wetland ecosystem services and appropriate handling of wetland ecosystem management impacts.

  18. EXTERNAL CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS: MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Augusto Parente Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to answer the following question: What is the effectiveness of mergers and acquisitions in the Brazilian market as external corporate governance mechanism? The main objective of the study is to verify if mergers and acquisitions operations in Brazilian market may act as an external mechanism of corporate governance, replacing managers and, as a consequence of changes in management, improving financial performance. The study is exploratory, qualitative in its approach, supported by documentary research on secondary data concerning an intentional sample of Brazilian companies aiming to identify the effect of M&A operations on the corporate governance structure of the acquired firm and on its financial results. Data obtained on the website of the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM, related to Brazilian M&A operations in the period 2005-2010, were analyzed. Although M&A operations in Brazil were found to have disciplinary nature in our sample of firms in the studied period, our results are inconclusive regarding the effectiveness of these transactions and external governance mechanisms.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of environmental and economic benefits of China's urban underground transportation construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Chen, Zhilong; Guo, Dongjun

    2015-07-01

    Urban underground transportation projects are introduced to address problems of scarce green land and traffic pollution. As construction of urban underground transportation is still in its infancy, there is no definite quantitative measurement on whether the construction is beneficial and what influences it will place on the region in China. This study intends to construct a comprehensive evaluation method for evaluating social, economic and environmental benefits of urban underground transportation projects and proposes the concept, role and principle for evaluation of environmental and economic benefits. It figures out relationship between the environment and factors of city development. It also summarizes three relevant factors, including transportation, biophysics and social economy, and works out indicators to evaluate the influence of urban underground transportation construction. Based on Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), Cost of Illness Approach (CIA), Human Capital Approach (HCA), this paper constructs 13 monetization calculation models for social, economic and environmental benefits in response to seven aspects, namely, reducing noise pollution and air pollution, using land efficiently, improving traffic safety, reducing traffic congestion, saving shipping time and minimizing transportation costs. PMID:26387347

  20. Correlations of flow harmonics in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xiangrong; Xu, Haojie; Song, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    Using the event-by-event viscous hydrodynamics VISH2+1 with MC-Glauber, MC-KLN, and AMPT initial conditions, we investigate the correlations of flow harmonics, including the symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(m, n)$, the normalized symmetric cumulants $NSC(m, n)$, and the Pearson correlation coefficients $C(v_{m}^{2}, v_{n}^{2})$ in 2.76A TeV Pb--Pb collisions. We find $SC^{v}(m, n)$ is sensitive to both initial conditions and the specific shear viscosity $\\eta/s$. A comparison with the recent ALICE data show that our hydrodynamic calculations can qualitatively describe the data of $SC^{v}(3, 2)$ and $SC^{v}(4, 2)$ for various initial conditions, which demonstrate that $v_2$, $v_4$ are correlated and $v_2$, $v_3$ are anti-correlated. Meanwhile, the predicted symmetric cumulants $SC^{v}(5, 2)$, $SC^{v}(5, 3)$, and $SC^{v}(4, 3)$ reveal that $v_2$ and $v_5$, $v_3$ and $v_5$ are correlated, $v_3$ and $v_4$ are anti-correlated in most centrality classes. We also find $NSC^{v}(3, 2)$ and $C(v_{3}^{2}, v_{2}^{2})$, which ...

  1. Willingness to pay for ecosystem services and influencing factors in Weigan River Basin%渭干河流域生态系统服务的支付意愿及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔旭宁; 杨永菊; 杨德刚

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service value (ESV) calculation is a focus of ecological economics and is key in ecological compensation. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to measure ecosystem service value in Weigan River Basin, one of nine branches of Tarim River Basin and the largest inland river in arid China, in terms of the willingness to pay (WTP). Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regressions were used to analy2e relations between socio-economic variables and WTP. The results indicated that: 1) mean value of WTP for ecosystem services in Weigan River Basin was 96.22 Yuan per household per annum. While this was lower than that in river basins in East China and other countries, it was close to that in river basins in Northwest China. Residents' chosen WTP was 110.87~157.58 Yuan and 55.8~102.37 Yuan per household per annum in the up and down stream regions of the basin, respectively. Total annual value of ecosystem services in the basin was 24.43 million Yuan. 2) Residents' chosen WTP was positively correlated with income level, education level, household registration and cognitive level of importance of ecological environment. It was, however, negatively correlated with payment. Gender and age did not obvious influence residents' chosen WTP. Residents' chosen WTP in towns was higher than that in rural area, but not in upstream. Relationship between WTP and the influencing factors was different for upstream and downstream regions. 3) The most critical WTP factor was income level (with a standardized coefficient of 0.604), followed by household cognitive level, payment and the education level. Effective options were advanced to improve watershed residents' WTP, including addressing poverty of local residents, strengthening publicity of the importance of ecological environment, enhancing residents' education level and selecting appropriate payments that took into account residents with different household registrations and regions. 4) CVM results were

  2. Assessing Local Communities’ Willingness to Pay for River Network Protection: A Contingent Valuation Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available River networks have experienced serious degradation because of rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries such as China, and the protection of these networks requires the integration of evaluation with ecology and economics. In this study, a structured questionnaire survey of local residents in Shanghai (China was conducted in urban and suburban areas. The study examined residents’ awareness of the value of the river network, sought their attitude toward the current status, and employed a logistic regression analysis based on the contingent valuation method (CVM to calculate the total benefit and explain the socioeconomic factors influencing the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP. The results suggested that residents in Shanghai had a high degree of recognition of river network value but a low degree of satisfaction with the government’s actions and the current situation. The study also illustrated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay for river network protection. The mean WTP was 226.44 RMB per household per year. The number of years lived in Shanghai, the distance from the home to the nearest river, and the amount of the bid were important factors that influenced the respondents’ WTP. Suggestions for comprehensive management were proposed for the use of policy makers in river network conservation.

  3. Standarde de integritate privind aleşii locali. Regimul juridic al incompatibilităţilor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Carmen CURT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the problem of incompatibilities of local officials in the Romanian society, in light of the EU Anticorruption Report (2014 and the findings of the last CVM Report on Romania (2015. These reports emphasize that corruption risk factors at local level are mostly related to public procurement and imply local officials. In this respect, recent attempts of changing the integrity legal framework by the Parliament put serious questions regarding political support of curbing corruption strategies and public policies. The study focuses upon analysing the consequences of these legal amendments of the integrity framework. As a consequence, the article’s findings answer the question related to alleged need of a legislation change. Also, the article analizes the most recent constitutional jurisprudence and the jurisprudence of the High Court of Cassation and Justice in order to highlight general patterns and the most important principles of interpretation and application of the integrity legal framework. Conclusions propose solutions in terms of raising the standards of public integrity and assuring stability of the integrity framework.

  4. Hierarchical structural health monitoring system combining a fiber optic spinal cord network and distributed nerve cell devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Tsukamoto, Haruka; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-03-01

    This study proposes novel hierarchical sensing concept for detecting damages in composite structures. In the hierarchical system, numerous three-dimensionally structured sensor devices are distributed throughout the whole structural area and connected with the optical fiber network through transducing mechanisms. The distributed "sensory nerve cell" devices detect the damage, and the fiber optic "spinal cord" network gathers damage signals and transmits the information to a measuring instrument. This study began by discussing the basic concept of the hierarchical sensing system thorough comparison with existing fiber optic based systems and nerve systems in the animal kingdom. Then, in order to validate the proposed sensing concept, impact damage detection system for the composite structure was proposed. The sensor devices were developed based on Comparative Vacuum Monitoring (CVM) system and the Brillouin based distributed strain sensing was utilized to gather the damage signals from the distributed devices. Finally a verification test was conducted using prototype devices. Occurrence of barely visible impact damage was successfully detected and it was clearly indicated that the hierarchical system has better repairability, higher robustness, and wider monitorable area compared to existing systems utilizing embedded optical fiber sensors.

  5. Heartworms, macrocyclic lactones, and the specter of resistance to prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide a background to current concerns relative to the possible resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones, this review summarizes various studies in which lack of efficacies (LOEs) have been observed in dogs on macrocyclic lactone preventives relative to the United States of America. Some of these studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature, others have appeared in various reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA as New Animal Drug Application (NADA) summaries, and one appeared as a letter to US veterinarians. This review also discusses reports relating to the potential problem of heartworm resistance in microfilariae and third-stage larvae, as well as molecular markers associated with resistance to macrocyclic lactones within Dirofilaria immitis. As more work is being done in this area of great concern relative to the protection of dogs from infection using this class of preventives, it seems timely to summarize what is known about heartworms, their potential resistance to treatment, and the means of selecting for resistance genes in populations of this helminth in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:22776618

  6. WILLINGNESS TO PAY DAN ABILITY TO PAY PELANGGAN RUMAH TANGGA SEBAGAI RESPON TERHADAP PELAYANAN AIR BERSIH DARI PDAM KOTA SURAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRM Bambang Irawan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the WTP and ATP value of household customers as theirrespond on additional benefit will be received from PDAM programs will be carried out on year 2004.Beside that, this study also analyzes all significance variables affecting WTP and ATP value.This research applying contingent valuation survey method (CVM using 500 of sample size from37,054 of targeted population covering all PDAM customers in the Solo city. The sampling techniqueapplied is proportionate stratified random sampling, and the analysis tool put on this study iseconometrics with a white heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors & covariance model (whiteheteroskedasticity-corrected standard errors & covariance model.This research shows that the WTP value is relatively small and the ATP value is about 20% onaverage below the water bill they paid. One of reasons causing the WTP value reasonably small is thatthe respondent being sampled perceives that their answers will only become a “permit” for the PDAM tomake a policy of increasing tariff. These yields are also being expected to help the PDAM in takingpolicies relate to water tariff determination particularly from the demand side.Keyword: Willingness to Pay (WTP, Ability to Pay (ATP, Contingen Valuation.

  7. Measure of Watershed Ecological Compensation Standard Based on WTP and WTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei; XU; Jinfang; RONG; Na; YANG; Wen; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,Liao River Basin was taken as the research object and field surveys were conducted in Fudedian,the source of Liao river mainstream and Panjin,the estuary of Liao River. Through the questionnaires,the willingness to pay ( WTP) and willingness to accept ( WTA) of the residents in Liao River Basin were analyzed. Then based on analysis of the existing ecological compensation standard measuring methods,the WTP and WTA using contingent valuation method ( CVM) were measured and analyzed. Without considering other factors,and based on using the nonparametric estimation method,it was concluded the ecological compensation standard of Liao River Basin was 160. 72 yuan/person·years. When considering other factors,using the parametric estimation we obtain that the ecological compensation standard of Liao River Basin was 255. 97 yuan/person·years. Measuring the respondents’ WTP and WTA at the same time and processing the average can actually reflect the respondents’ real WTP,thus to a certain extent solving the problems of high compensation caused by formulating ecological compensation standards according to measuring WTP of respondents separately. In addition,the policy suggestions have been proposed from three aspects including financial transfer payment,ecological compensation forms and public participation system. This will not only protect residents’ right to know and strengthen public participation and supervision,but also benefit the comprehensive implementation of ecological environment of Liao River Basin and establishment of a long-term mechanism of water resources protection.

  8. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  9. Codes de conduite et systèmes d’alerte éthique : La RSE au sein des chaînes globales de valeur Codes of conduct and Whistleblowing: corporate social responsibility in global value chains ¿Códigos de conducta y sistemas de alerta ética en el seno de las cadenas globales de valor ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Palpacuer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge la nature de la « Responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise » (RSE dont il s’agit de cerner la portée dans le contexte de globalisation et financiarisation des chaînes de valeur. La RSE est ici appréhendée par le biais de deux dispositifs managériaux distincts - les alertes éthiques et les codes de conduite - respectivement situés aux deux extrémités des chaînes globales de valeur où ils ont pour finalité d’enrayer des pratiques déviantes en matière de gestion des comptes dans un cas, et de conditions de travail dans l’autre. Malgré des contextes et des modalités d’application fortement spécifiques, l’analyse comparative des caractéristiques structurelles de ces dispositifs permet de mettre à jour trois traits communs sur lesquels nous nous appuyions pour évaluer les effets de la RSE en mobilisant des critères spécifiques issus des travaux de l’économie institutionnelle.This article investigates the nature and influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR within the context of Global Value Chains (GVCs. CSR is approached on the basis of a comparison between two distinct managerial tools – whistleblowing and codes of conduct – adopted by corporations in order to enhance ethical practices at opposite ends of GVCs, either in financial reporting to shareholders (whistleblowing, or in suppliers’labor practices (codes of conduct. Despite highly specific contexts and modes of operation, we observe that these CSR tools share three common characteristics on which we assess their effectiveness on the basis of criteria drawn from an institutional view of CSR.Este artículo interroga la naturaleza de la « responsabilidad social de la empresa » (RSE y se trata de identificar su sentido en el contexto de la globalización y financiarización de las cadenas de valor. La RSE es captada por medio de dos dispositivos gerenciales diferentes -los aletas éticos y los códigos de conducta

  10. Análisis de Factores en la Evaluación de una Sembradora al Voleo para el Cultivo de Arroz (Oriza Sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puyana M. J. Octavio

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available En los terrenos de la Universidad Nacional, Sede de Medellín, Facultad de Agronomía, se realizó una calibración estadística de un equipo de siembra fertilización, de enganche hidráulico y aplicación al voleo mediante transmisión de potencia del toma de fuerza (tdf por rueda de fricción (Equipo APOLO SAV 73. Las pruebas se efectuaron en los años 1976 y 1977. Se utilizó semilla de arroz de las variedades CICA 4 Y CICA 6. Se diseñó un experimento factorial para observar los perfiles transversales de la deposición de la semilla, habiéndose recogido en lienzos de 0.50 x 0.50 mts2, distanciados a 2.5 metros, á partir del centro de la vía del tractor y perpendiculares a ella, a ambos lados, para cubrir una distancia total, transversal, de 15 metros. Se recogieron cuatro repeticiones que se tomaron en bloques distanciados tres metros (sobre el eje de recorrido del tractor. Se tomó como variable dependiente, el número de semillas/lienzo, fácilmente convertible, en los cálculos, a kqrms/ Ha. Como variables independientes se observaron: apertura de la salida de la tolva al plato de distribución (Q1 = 16.08 cm.2, Q2 =42.30 cm2 , Q3 = 73.50 cm.2; altura de toma de fuerza (H1 = 0.78 m., H2 = 0.90 m., H3 = 0.70 m.; posición de la aleta del plato distribuidor (P1 = 0°, P2 -= 13.08°, P3 = 18.27° y la distancia transversal del perfil (D 1 =0 metros, D2 =2.5 metros, D3 =5.0 metros, D4 = 7.5 metros, D5= 10.0 metros; esta última se conformó así para facilitar el ajuste de curvas, mas, sin embargo, corresponde al perfil transversal con centro en D3 =5.0 metros = 0 (Centro del tractor; el semi-perfil izquierdo (D2 = -2.5 metros, D1= -5.0 metros y el semi-perfil derecho (D4 = +2.5 metros, D5 = +5.0 metros; velocidad de operación (V 1 = 4.54 KPH, V2 = 6.18 KPH, V3 = 9.68 KPH. Se tuvieron 405 tratamientos y un total de 1.620 muestras. Se efectuaron análisis de Varianza, pruebas de DUNCAN y análisis de regresión múltiple, en una

  11. The genus Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae revisited along its Chilean distribution range (21° to 40° S using variation in morphologyand mtDNA El género Basilichthys (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae analizado a lo largo de su distribución en Chile (21° a 40° S, utilizando rasgos morfológicos y variabilidad del ADN mitocondrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID VÉLIZ

    2012-03-01

    peligro de extinción es el de los pejerreyes del género Basilichthys. A lo largo Chile, este género posee tres especies morfológicas con distribución disjunta: Basilichthys semotilus, B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Las dos últimas sobreponen su distribución en el río Aconcagua y no son fácilmente diferenciables morfológicamente. Para evaluar la eficacia en la identificación de estas especies al utilizar marcadores moleculares, se analizó el 9 % del ADN mitocondrial (Región Control y COI de organismos obtenidos desde el río Loa (21°41' S al río Valdivia (39°50' S y adicionando un análisis merístico en organismos pertenecientes a las especies B. microlepidotus y B. australis. El análisis filogenético muestra que los individuos de B. semotilus forman un haplogrupo separado de las otras especies del género, sin embargo, B. australis y B. microlepidotus serían parte de un mismo grupo monofilético. Un segundo análisis, el cual incluye información merística, no muestra diferencias estadísticas significativas en la cantidad de escamas de la línea lateral, y número de rayos en las aletas entre B. microlepidotus y B. australis. Estos resultados no sustentan la clasificación actual, separando claramente un grupo presente en el extremo norte del país (B. semotilus y un segundo grupo en Chile central el cual debería ser llamado B. microlepidotus. Esta información será importante para revisar el estado de conservación de la ictiofauna chilena.

  12. Dos aproximaciones a la metodología de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como rectangulares y constituyen la sección recta de la viguetería de losas aligeradas Two approaches to design methodology at T sections bending moment in reinforced concrete which behave as rectangular sections and constitute the straight sections of beams of light slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Christian Chanchí Golondrino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza dos aproximaciones sobre la ecuación de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como secciones rectangulares y que trabajan como viguetería de losas aligeradas. La primera aproximación discute la viabilidad de usar el ancho del nervio de la vigueta en lugar de usar el ancho efectivo de la aleta, dentro del proceso de la obtención del acero, requerida para asumir un momento flexionante; la segunda aproximación discute la viabilidad de aproximar la ecuación cuadrática que rige la obtención del área del acero requerida para obtener un momento flexionante en una ecuación lineal, cuyas únicas variables son el área del acero y la altura efectiva de la sección T. Se ha dimensionado geométricamente un conjunto de secciones de losas aligeradas siguiendo los requisitos del título C13 de la norma sismo resistente colombiana NSR98, los cuales se obtuvieron para un modelo simplemente apoyado, cuya luz varía entre [2 - 7] m y el ancho del casetón ente [0.30 - 1] m. El dimensionamiento antes mencionado fue utilizado para sensibilizar la efectividad de cada una de las aproximaciones propuestas respecto a la solución general para la obtención del área del acero de la sección T que se comporta como rectangular.This article presents two approaches on the moment design equation of T shaped beams. Particularly the beam's T cross section analyzed behaves like a rectangular cross section when the beam works like a component of a slab system built from a set of T shaped beams. The first approach discusses the feasibility to use the web width instead of effective flange width to obtain the steel area associated to the moment solicitation of T shaped beam. The second approach discusses the feasibility to approach the quadratic equation used to obtain the steel required to take the bending moment into linear equation related to variables such as steel area and the effective depth

  13. Species catch composition, length structure and reproductive indices of swordfish (Xiphias gladius at Easter Island zone Composición de especies, estructura de tallas e índices reproductivos de pez espada (Xiphias gladius en la zona de isla de Pascua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vega

    2009-01-01

    y 7,1% otros teleósteos. Entre los tiburones, la especie más relevante fue el tiburón azulejo (Prionace glauca, 16,5%o, seguido por el tiburón jaquetón (Carcharhinus spp., 6,9%. Entre los atunes e istiofóridos, el marlín rayado (Tetrapturus audax, 8,0% y el atún aleta amarilla (Thunnus albacares, 4,9% fueron también importantes (≥ 4% en número. Se reporta el número de ejemplares por especie, su rendimiento nominal en número y peso, y el peso promedio eviscerado, además de los estadísticos descriptivos de talla. La estructura poblacional de pez espada estuvo dominada por machos y no se registraron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos. Se observaron ejemplares con altos valores de IG durante todos los cruceros, principalmente durante diciembre-febrero, lo que sugiere un area reproductiva para esta especie. El tiburón azulejo mostró una predominancia de machos, y se observaron diferencias en las tallas medias entre sexos, posiblemente debido a una segregación espacial y temporal.

  14. A comparison between the solar energy collection by fix and tracking collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, John D [San Diego State University, San Diego (United States)

    2000-07-01

    clearness index K{sub t}. [Spanish] Se ha elaborado una simulacion matematica realistica de la recoleccion de energia solar termica de un colector de aire de placa plana, seis disenos de colectores evacuados fijos y dos disenos de colectores evacuados Port Hardy de Columbia Britanica y Edmonton, Alberta y Daggett, California en los Estados Unidos. Las diferencias en la recoleccion de energia solar por los diferentes disenos de colector se originan solamente por diferencias en la geometria del colector puesto que se usan las mismas orientaciones del colector, absorbedor selectivo y los datos de radiacion solar en las simulaciones para todos los disenos de colector. Se ha encontrado que la recoleccion de energia solar en Canada por colectores de aire de placa plana es significativamente inferior que la de los tubos fijos evacuados y los que siguen la trayectoria del sol y las temperaturas de operacion mas bajas. Esto ocurre a causa de las altas perdidas termicas del colector de aire de placa plana y la baja insolacion solar y temperaturas bajas ambientales de invierno en Canada. Los colectores de alta concentracion que siguen la trayectoria que recolectan la radiacion no difusa no recolectan tanta energia solar a bajas temperaturas como todos los colectores fijos evacuados de Port Hardy en Canada en donde hay un numero limitado de dias claros. Los colectores fijos tubulares evacuados (tipos Dewar) recolectan la mayor parte de la energia solar a bajas temperaturas. A temperaturas mas altas recolectan la menor cantidad de energia que todos los colectores evacuados. Esto es debido a su baja concentracion y por tanto mayores perdidas de radiacion. Las aletas verticales al vacio y la mayor concentracion configuraron los colectores de vidrio evacuados a altas temperaturas. La recoleccion de energia solar en Daggett es mucho mayor que la de las dos estaciones Canadienses debido a la alta insolacion solar y temperaturas ambientes de moderadas a tibias. Mediante la rotacion de los

  15. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  16. Edad y crecimiento del pez espada (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 en el Pacífico suroriental (Diciembre 1994-Septiembre 1996 Age and growth of swordfish (Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758 in the southeastem Pacific (December 1994-September 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Chong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la edad y crecimiento del pez espada en el área de pesca del océano Pacífico suroriental frente a la costa de Chile, mediante el conteo y medidas de anillos en secciones transversales de la segunda espina de la aleta anal. El examen del borde de las secciones y el análisis del incremento marginal permitió establecer la formación de un anillo de crecimiento anual. Los parámetros de crecimiento del pez espada fueron estimados utilizando medidas de longitud retrocalculada proporcional a la edad, mediante regresiones no lineales para medidas de longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla y radio de la espina, a la edad actual y pretérita. En estas relaciones se emplearon dos modelos: (i el modelo I correspondiente a una relación lineal y (ii el modelo II a una relación potencial. Este último fue seleccionado ya que presentó un mejor ajuste y el valor t o de la ecuación de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy, fue más cercano al origen. El test multivariado (T² de Hote-lling mostró diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre sexos, lo que fue corroborado por la prueba de Chen. Los parámetros de crecimiento en longitud para machos fueron: longitud asintótica (L∞ = 275,1 cm; coeficiente de crecimiento (K = 0,1774 año-1 y edad longitud cero (t o = -2,1076 año. En hembras la L∞ = 304,7 cm; K = 0,1533 año-1 y t o = -2,0571 año. En el crecimiento en peso sólo se estimó el peso asintótico (W∞ mediante la relación longitud de la mandíbula inferior horquilla-peso total, siendo 278,7 kg en machos y 406,7 kg en hembras.Swordfish age and growth of were determined in the fishing área of the southeastem Pacific off the Chilean coast by counting and measuring the rings in cross sections of the second spine of the anal fin. The examination of the edge of the sections and the analysis of the marginal increment allowed us to establish the formation of one growth ring per year. The swordfish growth parameters were

  17. Prototype of a subsurface drip irrigation emitter: Manufacturing, hydraulic evaluation and experimental analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wanderley De Jesus; Rodrigues Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez, Raúl; Arriel Botrel, Tarlei; Duarte Coelho, Rubens

    2013-04-01

    Root and soil intrusion into the conventional emitters is one of the major disadvantages to obtain a good uniformity of water application in subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). In the last years, there have been different approaches to reduce these problems such as the impregnation of emitters with herbicide, and the search for an emitter geometry impairing the intrusion of small roots. Within the last this study, has developed and evaluated an emitter model which geometry shows specific physical features to prevent emitter clogging. This work was developed at the Biosystems Engineering Department at ESALQ-USP/Brazil, and it is a part of a research in which an innovated emitteŕs model for SDI has been developed to prevent root and soil particles intrusion. An emitter with a mechanical-hydraulic mechanism (opening and closing the water outlet) for SDI was developed and manufactured using a mechanical lathe process. It was composed by a silicon elastic membrane a polyethylene tube and a Vnyl Polychloride membrane protector system. In this study the performance of the developed prototype was assessed in the laboratory and in the field conditions. In the laboratory, uniformity of water application was calculated by the water emission uniformity coefficient (CUE), and the manufacturer's coefficient of variation (CVm). In addition, variation in the membrane diameter submitted to internal pressures; head losses along the membrane, using the energy equation; and, precision and accuracy of the equation model, analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and by Willmott's concordance index (d) were also calculated with samples of the developed emitters. In the field, the emitters were installed in pots with and without sugar cane culture from October 2010 to January 2012. During this time, flow rate in 20 emitters were measured periodically, and the aspects of them about clogging at the end of the experiment. Emitters flow rates were measured quarterly to calculate

  18. Economic evaluation of health risks caused by PM25 in Beijing based on contingent valuation method%基于CVM的城市大气细颗粒物健康风险的经济评估--以北京市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾贤刚; 许志华; 鲁颐琼

    2015-01-01

    运用权变评价法(CVM)调查北京居民对降低PM2.5健康风险的支付意愿,结果表明居民为PM2.5年平均浓度降低30%、45%和60%的平均支付意愿分别71.60元/月、85.66元/月和94.31元/月.基于结构方程模型,以风险特征、风险情绪、风险沟通3个维度衡量风险认知,构建风险认知与支付意愿相关模型,分析表明风险认知对支付意愿的影响系数为0.37;风险认知3个维度中风险情绪反映度最高,负荷量为0.95,且风险情绪中“现实满意度”影响最显著,负荷量为0.71;风险特征中PM2.5健康风险发生可能性、后果严重性影响程度最高,负荷量均为0.85;个人特征能直接或通过风险认知间接影响支付意愿,总影响系数为0.47,且个人特征中受教育程度与收入表现出强共变性,共变系数为0.67.%Resident’s willingness to pay (WTP) for reductions of health risks caused by PM2.5 were investigated in Beijing by using contingent valuation method (CVM). The WTP for reducing the annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 71.60 yuan/month, 85.66 yuan/month and 94.31 yuan/month for a reduction of 30%, 45%, and 60%, respectively. Based on structure equation model and by using risk characteristic, risk emotion and risk communication as three dimensions to reflect risk perception, a theoretical model of the relationship between WTP and risk perception was constructed. The results showed that the impact factor of risk perception on WTP was 0.37. Among the three variables used to reflect risk perception, the loading of risk emotion was the highest, which was 0.95. Reality satisfaction was the most significant factor in risk emotion, the influence coefficient was 0.71. The likelihood of health risks and the severity of the consequences had the greatest impact on risk characteristic, with a factor loading of 0.85. The individual features have a direct influence on WTP, it also affect WTP indirectly by way of risk perception. The total

  19. Rodízio de firmas de auditoria: a experiência brasileira e as conclusões do mercado Rotation of audit firms: the brazilian experience and the market's conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Queiroz de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O rodízio de firmas de auditoria foi introduzido no Brasil por ocasião dos escândalos corporativos de instituições financeiras na emissão das demonstrações contábeis e adotado pela CVM - Comissão de Valores Mobiliários às empresas registradas na Bolsa de Valores do Brasil. Tendo como objetivo a preservação da independência do auditor e a diminuição dos erros contábeis e fraudes relacionados ao processo de auditoria das demonstrações contábeis, o rodízio de firmas é um assunto polêmico, pois afeta a relação comercial e profissional dos auditores com seus clientes bem como toda a estrutura de mercado das firmas de auditoria. O artigo foi desenvolvido com base na evolução histórica do conceito de rodízio de firmas de auditoria, na avaliação das pesquisas realizadas sobre o assunto em outros países e nas estruturas filosóficas que determinam os princípios éticos que são atrelados à Contabilidade e à Auditoria. Além disso, foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo sobre os aspectos inerentes do rodízio de firmas de auditoria. Essa pesquisa coletou a opinião de 127 profissionais do mercado financeiro, sendo 84 executivos de empresas que trabalham ou influenciam na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis e 43 auditores independentes que atuam diretamente no processo de auditagem das contas contábeis. A principal conclusão obtida foi a confirmação de que o rodízio de firmas de auditoria não tem capacidade de assegurar a independência do auditor no seu trabalho e não diminui os riscos de erros contábeis e de fraudes na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis.The rotation of audit firms was introduced in Brazil as a result of the corporate scandals involving financial institutions in the issue of their financial statements, and adopted by the CVM - Brazilian Securities Commission for publicly traded companies in Brazil. Aiming to preserve the independence of the auditor and to reduce frauds and

  20. Accounting divergencies in interest on self-owned capital in steel companies from 2001 to 2003: case studies Análise dos aspectos legais e normativos do cálculo e distribuição dos juros sobre o capital próprio efetuados pelas companhias abertas do setor siderúrgico no período de 2001 a 2003: estudo de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Celerino da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Justifications for interest on self-owned capital were shown to follow two tendencies among accountants and analysts. In one it may be a substitute for monetary correction in accounting for fiscal purposes. The second seeks to provide isonomic treatment between interest on self-owned capital and that of third parties. Differences between Brazilian tax authorities and the security and exchange commission on the subject were also identified. Some authors state that Law 9.430/96 made distribution of remunerative interest on self-owned capital as dividends, more attractive depending upon the nature of the beneficiary's revenues. Finally, practical application of the pertinent Laws 6.404/76 and 9.249/95 in the publicly traded "Companhia Siderurgica Nacional", "Metalúrgica Gerdau" and "Belgo-Mineira" steel companies between 2001 and 2003 revealed discrepancies in relation to tax and corporate legislation.O presente estudo evidencia que a justificativa para a instituição dos juros sobre o capital próprio (JSCP não é unânime entre os contadores e analistas. Identificam-se duas correntes a esse respeito. Para a primeira, os JSCP podem funcionar como um substituto das técnicas de correção monetária das demonstrações contábeis para fins fiscais; para a segunda, têm como objetivo o estabelecimento de um tratamento isonômico entre os rendimentos do capital próprio e os do capital de terceiros. O estudo ainda destaca as divergências no tratamento contábil a ser dado aos JSCP entre a Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM e a Secretaria da Receita Federal (SRF. Detalha, segundo vários autores, que somente a partir da aprovação da Lei 9.430/96 a distribuição dos juros calculados sobre o capital próprio sob a forma de dividendos passou a representar uma situação mais vantajosa, dependendo da natureza do beneficiário dos rendimentos. A pesquisa se encerra verificando a aplicação prática das determinações constantes na legisla

  1. Craniofacial morphology of children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Handoko Utomo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A complete unilateral cleft lip and palate generally results in asymmetry of the midface. The lack of continuity in the perilabial musculature through the midline contributes to a malpositioning of the underlying osseus structures which are often underdeveloped. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in the craniofacial morphology among children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty as compared with children without cleft lip and palate at the same pubertal age. Methods: A series of 14 consecutively treated subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate following labioplasty and palatoplasty were compared with 14 pubertal stage-matched controls with normal craniofacial structure. Pubertal stage was determined with cervical vertebral maturation (CVM method improved by Baccetti et al, 2002. Lateral cephalograms were used for comparison. An unpaired t-test was run for 14 subjects with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and 14 normal subjects. Results: There were significant cephalometric differences in anterior cranial base length (p = .002, cranial base length (p = .001, maxillary length (p = .000, mandibular length (p = .000, mandibular ramus height (p = .000, mandibular body length (p = .002, and upper anterior face height (p = .004. There was no significant cephalometric difference in posterior cranial base length (p = .051, lower anterior face height (p = .206, posterior face height (p = .865, growth pattern/ facial type (p = .202. Conclusion: There were craniofacial morphology differences between children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty and children without cleft lip and palate at the age of pubertal. Children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate post labioplasty and palatoplasty had shorter length of the anterior cranial base, cranial base, maxilla, mandible, mandibular

  2. 新疆棉花生产的外部性价值评估——基于棉花补贴视角%Value Evaluation of Xinjiang Cotton Production Externality——Based on Cotton Subsidy Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琼; 刘文存; 刘勤勤; 王雅鹏

    2013-01-01

    外部性是农业部门普遍存在的经济现象,作为农业重要组成部分的棉花产业也不例外.新疆作为我国最主要产棉区,由于正外部性未得到矫正,其棉花生产的稳定发展受到极大的影响.因此,以新疆棉花生产为例,运用条件价值法(CVM),通过对新疆棉花生产正外部性补贴的支付意愿调查,估算了棉花生产的生态环境、自然景观及社会保障等正外部性价值;运用分解求和法,测算了新疆棉花生产过程中,棉田吸收CO2、棉田土壤固碳、棉花生产中物资燃料使用带来的碳排放等环境外部性价值.结果表明:新疆棉花生产的外部性综合表现为正,其外部性的总价值高达101.5268×108元.若将此作为计算棉花补贴的依据,则棉花可补贴6 951.03元/hm2;并提出将其作为棉花生产补贴标准,增加补贴项目,提高补贴额度,稳定棉花生产,保障棉花产业安全的政策建议.%Externality is a ubiquitous economic phenomenon in the department of agriculture, and being a significant part in agriculture, the cotton industry is no exception. Xinjiang province is the most main cotton producing area in China, but the positive externalities have greatly affected the stable development of its cotton production. Therefore, this paper taking Xinjiang cotton production as an example, using contingent valuation method (CVM), through investigating the willingness to pay for the positive externality subsidy of cotton production, estimated the market value of cotton production positive externalities such as the ecological environmental value, the natural landscape value, the social security value, etc. And using decomposed summation method, we calculated market value of environmental externality brought by cotton plants absorbing CO2, cotton soil carbon sequestration and CO2 emission from fossil energy use in cotton production process in Xinjiang. The result of our research showed that the integrated externality of

  3. Public NIMBY Attitude Survey and WTA Estimate of Waste Incineration Facility%垃圾焚烧设施公众“邻避”态度调查与受偿意愿测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽旋; 彭晓春; 关恩浩; 张越南; 黄思宇

    2012-01-01

    采用条件价值评估法(CVM),在广州番禺生活垃圾焚烧设施四个选址周围发放调查问卷1 517份,对垃圾焚烧设施周围居民接受设施选址的受偿意愿进行研究.结果表明:垃圾焚烧设施的选址受到公众的普遍关注,居民倾向于拒绝获得经济补偿接受设施选址,选址周围居民的个人年均受偿意愿为5 057.76元,并受居民收入水平、年龄等因素明显影响.可见,垃圾焚烧设施强烈的“邻避效应”非单纯经济补偿政策可以解决,应首先利用科学、规范选址、建设与运营,尽可能降低垃圾焚烧环境风险,构建开放型的公众参与城市固体废物处理处置决策机制与公众环保知识宣传机制等,保证公众对垃圾焚烧信息获取、决策参与和全过程监督,在此基础上,构建体现垃圾运输成本的阶梯式收费机制配合多形式的焚烧设施周围居民生态补偿机制,方能扭转垃圾焚烧设施“邻避效应”为“迎臂效应”.%In this paper, 1517 questionnaires were distributed in four locations of Panyu district waste incineration facility and residents' wiliness to accept (WTA) was study using CVM method. The results show that the location of waste incineration facility receives attention from the public. Residents tend to refuse win economic compensation to accept facility location, and average annual personal willingness to accept is 5 057.76 Yuan. Residents' income level and age and so on have a significant impact on the WTA. The findings show that ecological compensation alone can't relieve NIMBY emotion. Scientific, standardized location, construction and operation should be used to reduce waste incineration environmental risk, open public urban waste disposal decision making mechanism and public environmental protection knowledge publicity mechanism should be built to ensure public information acquisition, decision-making participation and whole-process supervision. Then, on this basis

  4. 上海河岸带公众偏好及生态系统服务价值评估%Public Preferences for Shanghai Riparian Zone and Evaluation of Its Ecosystem Service Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 简耘; 车越; 杨凯

    2012-01-01

    针对上海地区河岸带的环境质量提升情况,基于条件价值法(CVM)研究上海市居民对河岸带的偏好、支付意愿及生态系统服务价值,并通过SPSS软件考察影响受访者支付意愿率的主要因素.得到以下结论:①受访者对上海地区河岸带满意度与其使用河岸带频率呈显著相关性(p=0.001),表明受访者与河岸带的亲疏关系主要取决于其利用河岸带的实际频率.②使用五点评价法对河岸带状况进行分析,亲水性指标得分2.94,水质指标得分3.51,分别为受访者对河岸带最满意与最不满意要素.③针对河岸带10项评价要素进行因子分析,可将受访者对河岸带的满意度因子归纳为河岸带的自然属性和社会属性,且后者的影响权重更大.④受访者对树草结合、人行道位于绿化间且护岸保留湿地的河岸带布局的评价结果得分1 199,为最高得分,表明受访者偏好该类河岸带布局.⑤投标金额在一系列影响支付意愿率因子中,显著性p =0.000,影响最为剧烈.⑥受访者的支付意愿为537.6元/(年·户),整个生态系统的估算价值为2.74亿元/年.%In this paper, it takes the environmental quality improvement of riparian zone in Shanghai as a case study, and tries to find out public preferences, willingness to pay (WTP) and the ecosystem service value by the contingent valuation method (CVM), and then investigates the main factors affecting WTP by SPSS. The result can be concluded as follows:Because the correlation between public preferences for Shanghai riparian zone and using frequency is significant (p =0.001), so the relationship between interviewees and riparian zone depends mainly on the riparian using frequency. Using the method of five points to evaluate the riparian zone, closeness to water and water quality are respectively 2.94 and 3.51, which are the main factors respectively satisfying and dissatisfying interviewees. Using factor analysis to evaluate

  5. 基于Meta分析的自然资源效益转移方法的实证研究%An Empirical Study of Meta-Regression Benefit Transfer of Natural Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲; 王尔大

    2011-01-01

    国外对资源价值评估方法的研究正向系统化方向发展,但由于受到时间、成本等约束条件的影响,不可能对资源价值逐一进行现场调查和评价,因此效益转移方法(Benefit Transfer Method)应运而生.成为目前国外自然资源价值评价领域关注的热点.通过建立效益转移数据库,应用目前国外最流行的基于Meta分析的函数效益转移方法,对我国森林公园、风景名胜区、湿地、湖泊等在内的自然资源的价值进行评价.通过Meta函数效益转移的样本外有效性检验,平均效益转移误差为26.64%,转移值与"真实值"之间在统计上没有显著的差异.统计检验的结果表明,效益转移方法是一种有效的资源价值评价方法,在一定程度上可以作为我国自然资源开发与项目决策的有效参考,是对我国资源环境价值评价方法的有效补充和扩展.%It is generally difficult to reflect natural resources and environment economic value by market price systems. Accurate understanding and reasonably valuating resources value can provide a basis for effective protection and development of resources and the environment.Developed countries have built relevant theories and methods on natural resources valuation. The travel cost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) as well as a combination of the TCM and CVM are the primary approaches to estimate natural resources value, which have been widely used in European countries and the United States. But time and budget constraints often do not allow a new study, therefore calling for an alternative approach for non-market valuation known as the benefit transfer. There appear a few published studies on the transfer benefits of the environment value in China. This paper introduces the benefit transfer method. First, we reviewed definitions and applications of the benefit transfer and meta-analysis techniques, as well as procedures in performing a meta-analysis. An

  6. Effect of conventional TENS on pain and electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in TMD patients Efeito da TENS convencional sobre a dor e a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos mastigatórios em pacientes com DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaine Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    feminino, 19 portadores de DTM (média de 23,04 anos ± 3,5 e 16 normais (média de 23,3 anos ± 3,0. A TENS (modo convencional, 150 Hz foi aplicada uma vez em ambos os grupos, por 45 min. O exame EMG de superfície (ganho de 100 vezes e freqüência de amostragem de 1 kHz e a escala visual analógica (EVA foram realizados antes e imediatamente depois da aplicação da TENS. Os dados da EVA e os valores da "root mean square" (RMS foram analisados pelo teste t de Student. Observou-se que, na situação de repouso, os indivíduos com DTM apresentam um aumento da atividade EMG dos músculos elevadores da mandíbula em relação aos do grupo controle. Na contração voluntária máxima (CVM, não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos. Nos portadores de DTM, a TENS reduziu a dor, a atividade EMG da porção anterior do músculo temporal e aumentou a atividade dos músculos masseteres durante a CVM. É possível concluir que apenas uma aplicação da TENS é efetiva para reduzir a dor, porém não atua de forma homogênea sobre as características da atividade elétrica dos músculos avaliados.

  7. Evidenciação Contábil das Informações Ambientais: Uma Análise das Empresas da Serra Gaúcha Listadas na Bovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Eckert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma sociedade que se fundamenta na transparência, na responsabilidade social e na Governança Corporativa, entende-se ser necessário conhecer como as empresas estão evidenciando as informações ambientais. Neste sentido, o presente estudo tem o objetivo de verificar se as empresas da região turística da Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, listadas na BM&FBOVESPA, seguidoras das Práticas de Governança Corporativa, evidenciam em seus relatórios e nas demonstrações contábeis as informações de cunho ambiental. Desse modo, para a coleta dos dados, foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis, especialmente as Notas Explicativas, o Relatório da Administração, o Relatório de Sustentabilidade, o site das empresas e da BM&FBOVESPA e da CVM. Os dados apresentados foram extraídos do Relatório de Sustentabilidade, do Balanço Social, do Relatório da Administração e do site das empresas, pois nas demais demonstrações não foram encontradas informação relacionada ao meio ambiente. Após a análise dos dados, concluiu-se que as empresas enfatizam sua imagem divulgando essas informações demonstrando um retrato positivo perante à sociedade, seja com a intenção de amenizar os impactos ambientais ou por questão de marketing, ou para obter vantagem em relação à concorrência.  Accounting Disclosure of Environmental Information: An Analysis of the Companies from Serra Gaucha Listed on the Bovespa – In a society that is based on transparency, social responsibility and corporate governance, it is necessary to know how companies are highlighting the environmental information. In this sense, this study aims to verify that the companies of the tourist area of Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, listed on the BM&FBOVESPA, followers of Corporate Governance Practices, evidence in their reports and financial statements the environment-related information . Thus, for the data collection, the Financial Statements were analyzed

  8. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure in the Sichuan basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maomao; Hubbard, Judith; Plesch, Andreas; Shaw, John H.; Wang, Lining

    2016-02-01

    We present a new three-dimensional velocity model of the crust in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. The model describes the velocity structure of the Sichuan basin and surrounding thrust belts. The model consists of 3-D surfaces representing major geologic unit contacts and faults and is parameterized with Vp velocity-depth functions calibrated using sonic logs. The model incorporates data from 1166 oil wells, industry isopach maps, geological maps, and a digital elevation model. The geological surfaces were modeled based on structure contour maps for various units from oil wells and seismic reflection profiles. These surfaces include base Quaternary, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Proterozoic horizons. The horizons locally exhibit major offsets that are compatible with the locations and displacements of important faults systems. This layered, upper crustal 3-D model extends down to 10-15 km depth and illustrates lateral and vertical variations of velocity that reflect the complex evolution of tectonics and sedimentation in the basin. The model also incorporates 3-D descriptions of Vs and density for sediments that are obtained from empirical relationships with Vp using direct measurements of these properties in borehole logs. To illustrate the impact of our basin model on earthquake hazards assessment, we use it to calculate ground motions and compare these with observations for the 2013 Lushan earthquake. The result demonstrates the effects of basin amplification in the western Sichuan basin. The Sichuan CVM model is intended to facilitate fault systems analysis, strong ground motion prediction, and earthquake hazards assessment for the densely populated Sichuan region.

  9. Analysis of the Influencing Factors for Willingness to Pay of Payment for Ecosystem Services of River Basin: A Case of Changsha Reach of Xiang Jiang River Basin%流域生态补偿支付意愿的影响因素分析——以湘江流域长沙段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超显; 彭福清; 陈鹤

    2012-01-01

    以湘江流域长沙段为例,运用结构方程模型和CVM调查数据对流域生态补偿支付意愿的影响因素进行分析。研究发现,以"外部特征"、"现状评价"、"心理特征"取代传统研究的"个人社会经济特征"作为"支付意愿"的主要影响因素更具全面性和解释力;运用结构方程模型比传统回归模型分析更具整体建构性和优越性;居民的支付意愿不仅取决于外部条件和现实能力,也取决于居民的心理特征。%This paper was to analyze the influencing factors of willingness to pay (WTP) for payment for ecosystem services of river basin by structural equation model and CVM datas on the case of Changsha reach of Xiang Jiang River basin.Findings of this study could be drawn as follows:it is more comprehensive explanatory power to treat external characteristics, current situation evaluation, psychological trait as the main influencing factors of WTP than traditional research regarding personal soeio-economic characteristics as the influencing factor of WTP. The analytical method of structural equation model is more superior and constructive of overall than that of traditional regression equation.The WTP for payment for ecosystem services not only depends on external condition and existing ability, but also depends on psychological trait.

  10. Cement Production and Sustainable Rural Farming Livelihood in Nigeria: Striking a Sensible Balance Through Environmental Legislation and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke O. Okojie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper undertook the damage valuation of cement production induced air pollution on rural farming livelihood, assessed the impact on farmers’ profitability as well as investigating the corporate social responsibility investment of the cement companies in the producing host communities in Nigeria. It then examined how legislation and enforcement can be made to strike a sensible balance between the environmental damage enabled by cement pollution and ensuring a sustainable farming livelihood. A two stage simple random sampling procedure was adopted for the paper to select a total of 120 respondentsin the target and control areas. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Dichotomous–Choice Contingent Valuation Method (DC- CVM that terminated into the logit model and the budgetary analysis. The total Willingness-To-Pay (WTP/annum to avert the negative externalities on the host communities’ farming livelihood was N3.21 billion. The profitability in farming in the target cement producing area with respect to thenet farm income and the rate of return to capital investment were lower in the target as compared to the control area. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR investments ofthe cement producing companies were small compared to the profits realized by them. The proportions of the CSR investments with respect to the company’s profits were between 0.4% and 1.6% for the five years considered in the paper. Efforts have been made by the government to enact laws, regulations and standards to ensureenvironmentally sound and sustainable environment though the institution initially put in place to implement them was not given legal powers of enforcement. Things are however changing with the establishment of another with such powers. It is only by such proper implementation, a sensible balance can be struck between uncontrolled cement dust pollution associated with excess profits to the cement producers and sustainable

  11. Análise do Nível de Evidenciação de Informações Ambientais Apresentado pelas Empresas que Exploram Atividades Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisiane Alves Guimarães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A preservação do meio ambiente tornou-se um tema de discussão recorrente no âmbito empresarial, onde contabilidade tem papel fundamental como ferramenta para divulgação das informações relacionadas ao consumo, preservação e recuperação de recursos naturais. Algumas atividades econômicas têm uma relação mais próxima com o meio ambiente. Isso ocorre, principalmente, quando as empresas desenvolvem a exploração de recursos naturais, como é o caso da atividade agropecuária. Neste sentido, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo verificar o nível de divulgação das informações ambientais das empresas abertas que exploram a atividade agropecuária. Utilizando metodologia de pesquisa descritiva, foi selecionada uma amostra de 19 empresas listadas na Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM que possuem, em seus relatórios contábeis, elementos classificados como ativos biológicos. Os resultados indicam que as empresas que exploram atividades agropecuárias apresentaram, em média, baixo nível de evidenciação ambiental. Apenas quatro empresas da amostra foram classificadas com nível médio de evidenciação, enquanto as demais se enquadram como baixo nível de evidenciação. Os indícios sugerem que entidades da amostra se utilizam da divulgação das informações ambientais mais como ação de legitimação do que com o objetivo de bem informar os usuários das informações.

  12. Análise do Nível de Evidenciação de Informações Ambientais Apresentado pelas Empresas que Exploram Atividades Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisiane Alves Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preservação do meio ambiente tornou-se um tema de discussão recorrente no âmbito empresarial, onde contabilidade tem papel fundamental como ferramenta para divulgação das informações relacionadas ao consumo, preservação e recuperação de recursos naturais. Algumas atividades econômicas têm uma relação mais próxima com o meio ambiente. Isso ocorre, principalmente, quando as empresas desenvolvem a exploração de recursos naturais, como é o caso da atividade agropecuária. Neste sentido, esta pesquisa tem como objetivo verificar o nível de divulgação das informações ambientais das empresas abertas que exploram a atividade agropecuária. Utilizando metodologia de pesquisa descritiva, foi selecionada uma amostra de 19 empresas listadas na Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM que possuem, em seus relatórios contábeis, elementos classificados como ativos biológicos. Os resultados indicam que as empresas que exploram atividades agropecuárias apresentaram, em média, baixo nível de evidenciação ambiental. Apenas quatro empresas da amostra foram classificadas com nível médio de evidenciação, enquanto as demais se enquadram como baixo nível de evidenciação. Os indícios sugerem que entidades da amostra se utilizam da divulgação das informações ambientais mais como ação de legitimação do que com o objetivo de bem informar os usuários das informações.

  13. LA MATEMATICA BORROSA Y EL PRECIO DE EQUILIBRIO: UNA APLICACIÓN A LAS AGUAS DEPURADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Terceño

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante la necesidad de conocer el valor de los bienes carentes de mercado, nuestro objetivo a lo largo del presente artículo es la propuesta de un mecanismo para su determinación. Partiendo del método de valoración contingente (CVM utilizado en un entorno crisp, se aporta una metodología para agregar las opiniones inciertas con el objeto de obtener el precio de equilibrio. Un análisis posterior permitirá analizar la conveniencia de fijar subvenciones o impuestos sobre los mismos. La inexistencia de observaciones pasadas nos lleva a utilizar instrumentos de la teoría de los Fuzzy Sets. Para ello se seleccionarán dos grupos de expertos, unos que representarán a los demandantes y otro a los oferentes. Mediante sucesivas fases de petición de opinión y de suministro de información se determinarán ambos precios, y su intersección permitirá obtener el precio de equilibrio, de acuerdo con la teoría clásica. A lo largo del trabajo se han establecido criterios para determinar el número máximo de las mismas, teniendo presente la dispersión de las opiniones y su variación en dos fases consecutivas. En último lugar se realiza una aplicación del mismo para la determinación del precio de equilibrio del agua depurada en la provincia de Alicante (España. Para ello se ha realizado una encuesta a las empresas depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR como oferentes y a los agricultores y empresas distribuidoras de aguas como demandantes.

  14. USDA Stakeholder Workshop on Animal Bioinformatics: Summary and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamernik, Debora L; Adelson, David L

    2003-01-01

    An electronic workshop was conducted on 4 November-13 December 2002 to discuss current issues and needs in animal bioinformatics. The electronic (e-mail listserver) format was chosen to provide a relatively speedy process that is broad in scope, cost-efficient and easily accessible to all participants. Approximately 40 panelists with diverse species and discipline expertise communicated through the panel e-mail listserver. The panel included scientists from academia, industry and government, in the USA, Australia and the UK. A second 'stakeholder' e-mail listserver was used to obtain input from a broad audience with general interests in animal genomics. The objectives of the electronic workshop were: (a) to define priorities for animal genome database development; and (b) to recommend ways in which the USDA could provide leadership in the area of animal genome database development. E-mail messages from panelists and stakeholders are archived at http://genome.cvm.umn.edu/bioinfo/. Priorities defined for animal genome database development included: (a) data repository; (b) tools for genome analysis; (c) annotation; (d) practical application of genomic data; and (e) a biological framework for DNA sequence. A stable source of funding, such as the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), was recommended to support maintenance of data repositories and data curation. Continued support for competitive grants programs within the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES) was recommended for tool development and hypothesis-driven research projects in genome analysis. Additional stakeholder input will be required to continuously refine priorities and maximize the use of limited resources for animal bioinformatics within the USDA. PMID:18629125

  15. USDA Stakeholder Workshop on Animal Bioinformatics: Summary and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Adelson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An electronic workshop was conducted on 4 November–13 December 2002 to discuss current issues and needs in animal bioinformatics. The electronic (e-mail listserver format was chosen to provide a relatively speedy process that is broad in scope, cost-efficient and easily accessible to all participants. Approximately 40 panelists with diverse species and discipline expertise communicated through the panel e-mail listserver. The panel included scientists from academia, industry and government, in the USA, Australia and the UK. A second ‘stakeholder’ e-mail listserver was used to obtain input from a broad audience with general interests in animal genomics. The objectives of the electronic workshop were: (a to define priorities for animal genome database development; and (b to recommend ways in which the USDA could provide leadership in the area of animal genome database development. E-mail messages from panelists and stakeholders are archived at http://genome.cvm.umn.edu/bioinfo/. Priorities defined for animal genome database development included: (a data repository; (b tools for genome analysis; (c annotation; (d practical application of genomic data; and (e a biological framework for DNA sequence. A stable source of funding, such as the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS, was recommended to support maintenance of data repositories and data curation. Continued support for competitive grants programs within the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service (CSREES was recommended for tool development and hypothesis-driven research projects in genome analysis. Additional stakeholder input will be required to continuously refine priorities and maximize the use of limited resources for animal bioinformatics within the USDA.

  16. 基于CVM的荆州市稻田生态系统的景观休闲旅游价值评价%EVALUATION OF LANDSCAPE, LEISURE AND TOURISM VALUE OF PADDY FIELD IN JINGZHOU BY THE CONTINGENT VALUATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵天瑶; 曹鹏; 刘章勇; 蒋哲; 金涛

    2015-01-01

    采用条件价值评估法(Contingent Valuation Method,CVM)调查了荆州市居民对稻田生态系统景观休闲旅游功能的认知程度和支付意愿,对受访者的社会经济特征与支付意愿进行了相关性分析,并对荆州市稻田景观休闲旅游功能的价值进行了货币化评估.结果表明,居民对稻田景观休闲旅游功能的认知程度很低,对其十分了解的仅占3.5%,并且更侧重于旅游这一目的,达到61.1%.同时,78.7%的受访者认为稻田景观休闲旅游是赋有乡愁情感的.对影响受访者支付意愿的诸多因素进行相关性分析显示,稻田景观休闲旅游功能的支付意愿与受访者的文化程度(P =0.000)和月收入(P =0.004)呈极显著正相关.运用Logistic回归分析得出,文化程度对支付意愿的敏感性较大.按人均支付意愿计算,荆州市稻田生态系统景观休闲旅游的总价值约为4.43亿元.

  17. Quantitative Analysis on Farmers' Affordability of Safety Drinking Water Price%农民安全饮水水价承受能力的定量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何莲; 程吉林; 张汉松

    2011-01-01

    为科学全面地评价农民对于农村安全饮水水价的承受能力,首次综合考虑经济和心理二方面对农民饮水水价承受能力进行定量分析。采用扩展线性支出系统ELES需求模型,推求了不同地区农民的基本生活消费需求,对经济承受能力进行了合理划分;应用条件价值评估法CVM,研究不同地区农民对于安全饮水水价的心理承受能力,采用支付卡技术优化封闭式二分法引导技术获取最大支付意愿,建立了农民对水价支付意愿的二项Logistic回归模型,以期能为农村饮水安全工程水价的合理制定提供科学依据。%In order to scientifically and roundly evaluate farmers' affordability to rural safety drinking wa- ter price, quantitative analysis on farmers' affordability of drinking water price was firstly made from economic and psychological aspects. Farmers' basic needs of living in different regions are abtained by Extended Linear Expenditure System demand model to rationally divide economic affordability; Farmers' psychological affordability in different regions are analyzed by contingent valuation method to get maximum willingness on paying by using guidance techniques combined payment card and dichotomous. Logistic regression model of farmers' different economic affordabilities on water price willingness are established on the main factors of farmers' psychological affordability. Which is hoped to can provide reasonable price proposals for rural drinking water safety project.

  18. Monetizing the social benefits of landfill mining: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation survey in a rural area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, Dimitris; Menegaki, Maria; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Despite the emerging global attention towards promoting waste management policies that reduce environmental impacts and conserve natural resources, landfilling still remains the dominant waste management practice in many parts of the world. Owing to this situation, environmental burdens are bequeathed to and large amounts of potentially valuable materials are lost for future generations. As a means to undo these adverse effects a process known as landfill mining (LFM) could be implemented provided that economic feasibility is ensured. So far, only a few studies have focused on the economic feasibility of LFM from a private point of view and even less studies have attempted to economically justify the need for LMF projects from a social point of view. This paper, aiming to add to the limited literature in the field, presents the results of a survey conducted in a rural district in Greece, by means of the Contingent Valuation method (CVM) in order to estimate society's willingness to pay for LFM programs. According to the empirical survey, more than 95% of the respondents recognize the need for LFM programs. Nevertheless, only one-fourth of the respondents are willing to pay through increased taxes for LFM, owing mainly to economic depression and unemployment. Those who accept the increased tax are willing to pay about €50 per household per year, on average, which results in a mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the entire population under investigation of around €12 per household per year. The findings of this research work provide useful insights about the 'dollar-based' benefits of LFM in the context of social cost-benefit analysis of LFM projects. Yet, it is evident that further research is necessary. PMID:26739454

  19. AVALIAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS POR MEIO DE INDICADORES DE ATIVIDADE: UMA APLICAÇÃO DO MÉTODO AHP BUSINESS EVALUATION USING ACTIVITY INDICATORS: AN APPLICATION OF AHP METHOD ABSTRACT EVALUACIÓN DE EMPRESAS UTILIZANDO INDICADORES DE ACTIVIDAD: UNA APLICACIÓN DEL MÉTODO AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kroenke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em definir, por meio de indicadores de atividade e utilizando o método de Análise Hierárquica de Processos (AHP, uma classificação, em forma de ranking, dos resultados auferidos pelas empresas do setor metal mecânico listadas na  Bovespa. A pesquisa classifica-se como descritiva, documental e quantitativa. Foram coletadas as demonstrações contábeis consolidadas Balanço Patrimonial e Demonstração do Resultado do Exercício, e extraídos os indicadores de atividade prazo médio de estocagem, prazo médio de pagamento a fornecedores e prazo médio de cobrança. A coleta de dados para a análise foi realizada no sítio da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (www.cvm.gov.br. O método AHP, desenvolvido por Saaty, faz parte da Escola Americana de Análise Multicritério e permite o estabelecimento de graus de preferência entre suas alternativas, que no artigo são os indicadores contábeis de atividade. As matrizes de preferências foram obtidas por meio da análise das componentes principais dos dados utilizados, considerando-se o primeiro eixo fatorial. A escala de Lootsma foi usada na adequação dos pesos. O rankingapontou, como primeira colocada, a Aços Villares em 2004, a Eluma nos anos de 2005 e 2006 e a Mangels, em 2007 e 2008. Obtidos os rankings parciais, construiu-se o ranking geral do período analisado por meio do sistema de pontos corridos, que considerou o posicionamento anual de cada empresa. O critério de desempate foi o indicador do prazo de estocagem. Assim, estabeleceu-se a Mangels e a Aços Villares como as duas empresas mais bem posicionadas no período em termos de atividade.The objective of the article consists of defining, through activity indicators, a classification in order of ranking, of the income earned by companies of the  section mechanical metal listed in Bovespa using the method of Hierarchical Analysis of Processes  (AHP. The research is classified as

  20. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  1. 氟苯尼考耐药菌的构建及大肠杆菌中FloR蛋白定位%Construction of Florfenicol-resistant Recombinants and Protein Location of FloR in Florfenicoi-resistant E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蓓蓓; 杜向党

    2008-01-01

    通过对floR基因序列的分析,将扩增的包含floR基因上游调控序列及下游终止序列的约1550 bp DNA片段克隆到pGEM-T easy载体上,成功构建了pGEM-floR质粒,将质粒转入JM109中,药物敏感性试验显示构建的pGEM-floR/JM109基因工程菌对氯霉素和氟苯尼考高度耐药,对四环素和庆大霉素敏感.本试验成功构建了一个基因背景清楚且对氟苯尼考耐药的细菌模型,排除了细菌中其他氟苯尼考耐药基因或泵出蛋白对floR基因贡献细菌耐药表型及进一步试验的影响.分别提取CVM1841、pGEM-floR/JM109、pGEM/JM109和JM109膜蛋白,运用实验审制备的鼠抗GsT-FloR1抗体进行免疫印迹反应,蛋白定位显示FloR蛋白位于细菌的细胞膜上.本试验结果证实floR基因编码的蛋白位于细胞膜,并贡献细菌对氯霉素和氟苯尼考的交叉耐药性.

  2. Effects of Board of Directors' Characteristics on the Quality of Accounting Information in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Holtz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the board of directors' responsibilities is to monitor the quality of information disclosed in financial reports. The board's structural and compositional characteristics can affect the quality of reported accounting information. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the board's structural and compositional characteristics on the quality of accounting information of companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (Bolsa de Mercadorias e Futuros - BM&FBovespa. Specifically, the characteristics studied were the size and independence of the board of directors and separation of the roles of chairman and executive director. Accounting information relevance and earnings informativeness were used as proxies for the quality of accounting information. The sample included non-financial companies listed on the BM&FBovespa with annual stock market liquidity higher than 0.001, covering the period from 2008–2011. Data were collected from the Economática® database and directly from companies' annual reports and reference forms available on the Securities Commission (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários - CVM or BM&FBovespawebsites. Data analysis was undertaken using the multiple regression technique for calculating the models of accounting information relevance and earnings informativeness. The results reveal that, for companies that trade stocks on the BM&FBovespa in the Brazilian market, the characteristics of board independence and separation of the roles of chairman and executive director positively influence the quality of reported accounting information, specifically regarding the relevance of equity. Earnings informativeness is positively affected by board independence and negatively affected by larger board size (more than nine members. Overall, the results corroborate international studies such as those of Vafeas (2000, Firth, Fung, and Rui (2007, Ahmed, Hossain, and Adams (2006 and

  3. COMUNICACIÓN DE LOS RESULTADOS DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN OBSERVACIONAL: ANÁLISIS MEDIANTE LA GUÍA STROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galera Llorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: En la publicación de la investigación biomédica se detectan deficiencias que han llevado a la aparición de guías cuyo seguimiento mejora la calidad de la comunicación. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el cumplimiento de los criterios de la Iniciativa Strobe para la publicación de estudios observacionales. Métodos: Análisis descriptivo transversal de los estudios observacionales de las áreas Cardiovascular y Metabolismo (CVM publicados en 6 revistas españolas a lo largo de 2009 mediante la aplicación de los 34 puntos de la Iniciativa STROBE. Se describieron las frecuencias de las variables cualitativas y los estimadores muestrales y de dispersión de las variables cuantitativas. El análisis comparativo entre revistas se realizó mediante el test ANOVA (p<0,05. Resultados: En 2009 se publicaron 74 estudios observacionales en las revistas evaluadas. Los más frecuentes fueron estudios de cohortes 45 (60,8% y transversales 28 (37,8%. En cuanto al objetivo principal, la mayoría fueron sobre patología 55 (74,3%, seguidos de fármacos e intervenciones no farmacológicas 15 (20,3% y diagnóstico 4 (5,4%. La media de criterios cumplidos fue de 20 sobre 34 (DE±3,7, con un máximo de 24 (DE±2 en Gaceta Sanitaria y un mínimo de 19 (DE±2,8 en Hipertensión. Conclusiones: Solo algo más de la mitad de los artículos cumplían las recomendaciones de la Iniciativa STROBE. Los apartados de Resultados y Métodos fueron los que mostraron más carencias.

  4. Earthquake source tensor inversion with the gCAP method and 3D Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Zhu, L.; Ross, Z.

    2013-12-01

    We develop and apply a method to invert earthquake seismograms for source properties using a general tensor representation and 3D Green's functions. The method employs (i) a general representation of earthquake potency/moment tensors with double couple (DC), compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD), and isotropic (ISO) components, and (ii) a corresponding generalized CAP (gCap) scheme where the continuous wave trains are broken into Pnl and surface waves (Zhu & Ben-Zion, 2013). For comparison, we also use the waveform inversion method of Zheng & Chen (2012) and Ammon et al. (1998). Sets of 3D Green's functions are calculated on a grid of 1 km3 using the 3-D community velocity model CVM-4 (Kohler et al. 2003). A bootstrap technique is adopted to establish robustness of the inversion results using the gCap method (Ross & Ben-Zion, 2013). Synthetic tests with 1-D and 3-D waveform calculations show that the source tensor inversion procedure is reasonably reliable and robust. As initial application, the method is used to investigate source properties of the March 11, 2013, Mw=4.7 earthquake on the San Jacinto fault using recordings of ~45 stations up to ~0.2Hz. Both the best fitting and most probable solutions include ISO component of ~1% and CLVD component of ~0%. The obtained ISO component, while small, is found to be a non-negligible positive value that can have significant implications for the physics of the failure process. Work on using higher frequency data for this and other earthquakes is in progress.

  5. Validation study of the BetaStar plus lateral flow assay for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzied, Mohamed; Driksna, Dana; Walsh, Coilin; Sarzynski, Michael; Walsh, Aaron; Ankrapp, David; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A validation study designed to meet the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA/CVM) was conducted for a receptor and antibody-based, immunochromatographic method (BetaStar Plus) for detection of beta-lactam antibiotic residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay was found to detect amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, cephapirin, cloxacillin, and penicillin G at levels below the FDA tolerance/safe levels, but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS). Results of the part I (internal) and part II (independent laboratory) dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in close agreement. The test was able to detect all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels when presented as incurred residues in milk collected from cows that had been treated with the specific drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing of 1031 control milk samples. Results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the BetaStar Plus assay. Results of cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects certain other beta-lactam drugs (dicloxacillin and ticarcillin), but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to other classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no interference with the ability of the test to detect beta-lactams at tolerance/safe levels. PMID:22970593

  6. Estimation of the inconvenience cost of a rolling blackout in the residential sector: The case of South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea is experiencing a serious imbalance in electricity supply and demand, which caused a blackout in 2011. The Korean government has planned to perform a rolling blackout to prevent large-scale blackouts when the electricity supply reserve margin reaches less than 1 million kW. This study attempts to estimate the inconvenience cost of household customers from a rolling blackout by using survey data. To this end, we apply a contingent valuation method (CVM) to measure their willingness-to-pay (WTP) in order to avoid a rolling blackout, i.e. the suspension of electricity supply. In this study, we estimate the inconvenience costs stemming from both an unannounced and an announced rolling blackout. As a result, we find that the inconvenience cost of a sudden rolling blackout is estimated at 3900.67 KRW (3.56 USD) per month per household, while that of an announced rolling blackout stands at 3102.95 KRW (2.83 USD). This difference in costs shows that people place value in receiving prior notice of a blackout, and that inconvenience costs of between 166.0 billion KRW (151.6 million USD) and 174.3 billion KRW (159.2 million USD) per year can be reduced nationwide by giving households advance notice of a planned rolling blackout. - Highlights: • We estimate the inconvenience cost of a rolling blackout in households in South Korea. • We use a contingent valuation method to measure the WTP to avoid a rolling blackout. • People have more WTP to avoid an unannounced rolling blackout than an announced one. • We estimate the value of preannouncement of the blackout by the difference in WTPs

  7. Determining Factors for Delisting of Companies Listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the capital market has attracted the interest of scholars and researchers, motivated to understand the process of going public and trading securities of companies on a stock exchange. In this research context, an aspect had been neglected, something which indi cates a gap in the body of knowledge about the capital market and corporate governance: delisting of companies. We aim to identify the determining factors for delisting companies from the Commodity & Futures Exchange BOVESPA (BM&FBOVESPA. Methodologically, this research has related a set of variables collected from secondary data available on the database of the Securities Commission of Brazil (CVM, BM&FBOVESPA, and Economatica. By analyzing 227 listing cancellations, between 2001 and 2012, the results indicate that de listing of companies from BM&FBOVESPA is determined by the following factors: (i greater concentration of ownership and control; (ii lower free float; (iii lower liquidity of shares; (iv greater availability of cash; and (v larger size. The fact that the controlling shareholder is a public or private company determines significant differences in the decision to delist. While in the first case cash availability is the most important factor, in the second liquidity is the main determining factor for delisting. From the academic viewpoint, this research extends the studies on delisting, still incipient in the Brazilian capital market context. For the capital market, identifying the characteristics of companies prone to cancel listing may prevent investors concerned about inherent risks at the time of acquiring shares by the controlling group interested in delisting.

  8. Willingness to pay for renewable electricity: A contingent valuation study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, renewable/green electricity, which can provide significant environmental benefits in addition to meeting energy demand, has more non-use value than use-value for electricity consumers, because its users have no way to actually own this use-value. To assess the value of renewable electricity and obtain information on consumer preferences, this study estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) of Beijing residents for renewable electricity by employing the contingent valuation method (CVM) and identified the factors which affect their WTP. The survey randomly selected 700 participants, of which 571 questionnaires were valid. Half of respondents were found to have positive WTP for renewable electricity. The average WTP of Beijing residents for renewable electricity is estimated to be 2.7–3.3 US$ (18.5–22.5CNY) per month. The main factors affecting the WTP of the respondents included income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. Knowledge of and a positive attitude towards renewable energy also resulted in the relatively higher willingness of a respondent to pay for renewable electricity. The proportion of respondents replying “yes” to WTP questions using a mandatory payment vehicle was slightly higher than that for questions using a voluntary vehicle. Lastly, several policy implications of this study are presented. - Highlights: • Most (54%) of respondents in Beijing have positive WTP to renewable electricity. • The average WTP for renewable electricity ranges from 2.7 to 3.3 US$ monthly. • The main factors affecting the WTP include income, electricity consumption, bid and payment vehicle. • Deployment of renewable electricity can cause considerable benefit

  9. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Cai

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses and reference antisera (antibodies. Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS. In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses, we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  10. A computational framework for influenza antigenic cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-10-07

    Influenza viruses have been responsible for large losses of lives around the world and continue to present a great public health challenge. Antigenic characterization based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay is one of the routine procedures for influenza vaccine strain selection. However, HI assay is only a crude experiment reflecting the antigenic correlations among testing antigens (viruses) and reference antisera (antibodies). Moreover, antigenic characterization is usually based on more than one HI dataset. The combination of multiple datasets results in an incomplete HI matrix with many unobserved entries. This paper proposes a new computational framework for constructing an influenza antigenic cartography from this incomplete matrix, which we refer to as Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS). In this approach, we first reconstruct the HI matrices with viruses and antibodies using low-rank matrix completion, and then generate the two-dimensional antigenic cartography using multidimensional scaling. Moreover, for influenza HI tables with herd immunity effect (such as those from Human influenza viruses), we propose a temporal model to reduce the inherent temporal bias of HI tables caused by herd immunity. By applying our method in HI datasets containing H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from 1968 to 2003, we identified eleven clusters of antigenic variants, representing all major antigenic drift events in these 36 years. Our results showed that both the completed HI matrix and the antigenic cartography obtained via MC-MDS are useful in identifying influenza antigenic variants and thus can be used to facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection. The webserver is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap.

  11. Study of Patients’ Willingness to Pay for a Cure of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the fastest growing causes of death worldwide. However, few studies, if any, have been conducted that have investigated patient profiles in Asia. This paper analyzes patient willingness to pay (WTP as a function of patient disease severity, health-related quality of life (HRQL, and smoking behavior in Taiwan. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using in-person interviews with COPD patients. A hypothetical scenario was designed and presented to ascertain each subject’s willingness to pay (WTP for a cure for COPD. Methods: A survey of subjects with COPD was performed in Taiwan. The contingent valuation method (CVM was employed to measure patient financial burden, which was analyzed along with covariates that included various types of health-related quality of life (HRQL, severity level, and demographic background. Multivariate regression and simulation methods were employed for analysis. Results: A total of 142 subjects were interviewed, with an average annual WTP of approximately $1422 USD (or 42,662.37 NTD, New Taiwan Dollars. The annual WTP for patients 55 years of age or younger, $5709.06, was the highest and equivalent to approximately one-third of Taiwan average annual personal income or quadruple the spending amount of the Taiwan National Bureau of Health Insurance (NBHI for each COPD patient. Current cigarette smokers were willing to pay a substantially higher amount than former smokers and nonsmokers, which reflects a psychological desire for redemption in COPD patients. Conclusions: The results of this study provide directions for the relevant authorities regarding the alleviation of suffering as a result of COPD. Appropriate health promotion measures, such as measures to reduce tobacco usage, early diagnosis, and active treatment, may be necessary to contain the escalating costs related to COPD and to prevent this epidemic from worsening.

  12. Monetizing the social benefits of landfill mining: Evidence from a Contingent Valuation survey in a rural area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, Dimitris; Menegaki, Maria; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-05-01

    Despite the emerging global attention towards promoting waste management policies that reduce environmental impacts and conserve natural resources, landfilling still remains the dominant waste management practice in many parts of the world. Owing to this situation, environmental burdens are bequeathed to and large amounts of potentially valuable materials are lost for future generations. As a means to undo these adverse effects a process known as landfill mining (LFM) could be implemented provided that economic feasibility is ensured. So far, only a few studies have focused on the economic feasibility of LFM from a private point of view and even less studies have attempted to economically justify the need for LMF projects from a social point of view. This paper, aiming to add to the limited literature in the field, presents the results of a survey conducted in a rural district in Greece, by means of the Contingent Valuation method (CVM) in order to estimate society's willingness to pay for LFM programs. According to the empirical survey, more than 95% of the respondents recognize the need for LFM programs. Nevertheless, only one-fourth of the respondents are willing to pay through increased taxes for LFM, owing mainly to economic depression and unemployment. Those who accept the increased tax are willing to pay about €50 per household per year, on average, which results in a mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the entire population under investigation of around €12 per household per year. The findings of this research work provide useful insights about the 'dollar-based' benefits of LFM in the context of social cost-benefit analysis of LFM projects. Yet, it is evident that further research is necessary.

  13. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  14. 农业生态系统文化服务的支付意愿与受偿意愿的差异性分析——以上海池塘养殖为例%Difference between the WTP and WTA in cultural service value evaluation of agriculture ecosystems: Shanghai pond aquaculture case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓赟; 杨正勇; 唐克勇; 杨怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Pond aquaculture has existed in China for thousands of years and has been not only a major source of food, but also provided cultural service. The development of service industry in agriculture has further highlighted the value of pond aquaculture. The Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), one of several methods for evaluating non-market values, has been widely used data analysis. However, there has remained much controversy on the effectiveness and stability of CVM. One such hot spot of discussion has been strategic bias, a significant disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA), in evaluation of environment products and services values. Current literature has shown that few researches exist on the evaluation of cultural service values of aquaculture ecosystems. This paper used pond aquaculture in Qingpu, Jiading and Fengxian Districts of Shanghai to evaluate the cultural services values and discuss the difference between WTP and WTA as given by Tobit and Mulit-Logit models. The results showed that WTP was affected by the income, education, interest and satisfaction with pond environments of the interviewees. A significant positive relationship existed between WTP and the above factors. WTA was also influenced by incomeand satisfaction with pond environments. WTA was significantly positively related to income. But satisfaction with pond environment was negatively related to both WTP and WTA. Household income, register, age and interest in pond activities of interviewee were the main influence factors on WTA/WTP asymmetry. The average WTA/WTP ratio was 5 : 1. Income, substitution, endowment and prospect effects as well as property right affected the differences between WTP and WTA. Due to deviations in interviewees' understandings of WTA, responses were higher than the real pond value. Based on this fact, WTP was used as the preferred assessment method. The average value of WTP of the investigated area was 163.75 Yuan per person. Then

  15. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a

  16. Percepção do Rodízio de Auditoria sob o olhar dos Auditores Independentes = The perception of audit rotation within the independent auditors’ view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Conti Quevedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O rodízio de auditoria no Brasil foi criado por iniciativa do Banco Central do Brasil (BACEN em resposta a escândalos que ocorreram e que colocaram em risco a imagem das firmas de Auditoria. Posteriormente, o rodízio foi adotado pela Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM, englobando as sociedades anônimas de capital aberto, registradas na bolsa de valores. A rotatividade se tornou um assunto polêmico, à medida que influencia, de alguma forma, no relacionamento dos auditores com seus clientes, bem como em todo o mercado das empresas de auditoria, questionando-se, dessa forma, sua efetividade. Considerando tais fatos, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar junto aos auditores independentes sua percepção sob o rodízio de auditoria, buscando compreender se são favoráveis ou não a esse procedimento. Dessa maneira, a pesquisa avaliou a percepção de 64 auditores independentes de 6 empresas de auditoria diferentes, por meio da abordagem survey, com perguntas abertas e fechadas. Constatou-se, principalmente, que: 58% dos auditores acreditam que o rodízio conseguiu inibir os escândalos contábeis; 56% acreditam que os custos envolvidos na rotatividade do rodízio superam os ganhos; 76% acreditam que o conhecimento acumulado gera vício de trabalho; 48% acreditam que os auditores se aproximam do cliente caso não haja o rodízio. Por outro lado, 64% afirmam que há perda de eficácia nos trabalhos de auditoria com a implementação do rodízio e que 74% das empresas auditadas não aderiram ao CAE, com o intuito de prolongar o prazo de 5 para 10 anos de uma mesma empresa de auditoria. Os achados desta pesquisa, quando comparados à opinião dos órgãos públicos de contabilidade em relação ao rodízio, revelam contradição. Enquanto 91% dos auditores pesquisados defendem o rodízio, seja por rotatividade da empresa ou por rotatividade do auditor independente, o CFC e o IBRACON não são favoráveis ao sistema. Por outro lado, a CVM

  17. 南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性非使用价值评估%Evaluating the non-use value of biodiversity of the radial sand ridge field of southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相景昌; 陈爽; 余成; 李广宇

    2014-01-01

    生物多样性非使用价值主要指生物多样性在环境和生态系统方面的服务功能,非使用价值评估对生物多样性保护与可持续利用具有重要意义.本文运用条件价值评估法(CVM),设计支付卡式调查问卷,对南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性的非使用价值进行评估.在允许零支付意愿(WTP=0)的问卷引导方式、以个人为支付单位,以及规避零支付意愿、以家庭为支付单位两种情况下,分别计算居民对生物多样性保护的支付意愿,进而推算出生物多样性的非使用价值;并采用相关分析和回归分析方法,进一步探讨公众支付意愿的影响因素及影响程度.结果表明,允许 WTP=0情况下,受访者的平均支付意愿为96.2元·(a·人)-1;规避 WTP=0中,平均支付意愿为232.96元·(a·户)-1,两者差异在可接受范围内;南黄海辐射沙脊群生物多样性的非使用价值为每年5.32~5.92×108元.同时,受访者收入、对生物多样性及其受用海工程影响等相关知识的认知程度,是居民支付意愿的主要影响因素,其中收入水平的影响最为显著.研究结果可为海岸带综合开发空间协调与生态补偿政策制定提供科学依据.%The total economic value of natural resources includes use value and non-use value.The non-use value of biodiversity mainly consists of the services in aspects of environment and ecological systems.Evaluating the non-use value of biodiversity has significances to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.In this case study,the contingent valuation method(CVM)was used to evaluate the non-use value of the biodiversity in the Radial Sand Ridge Field of Southern Yellow Sea.A questionnaire of payment card CVM was developed for the survey study, which was designed with two guidance modes:one was to allow“WTP=0”and to pay by individual person;the other was to avoid“WTP=0”and to pay by household unit.Then the study calculated the residents

  18. Reflejos de la Ley n.º 11.638/07 en los Indicadores Contables de las Empresas Textiles Listadas en la BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto da Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En diciembre de 2007, fue promulgada en el Brasil la Ley n.º11.638 (2007, que alteró la Ley de las Sociedades Anónimas. Alteraciones significativas fueron impuestas por la ley, entre ellas la adopción de las normas brasileñas de contabilidad en conformidad con las normas internacionales, que implica en diversas mudanzas en las demostraciones contables. En esa percepción de mudanzas en las demostraciones contables, pueden ocurrir también alteraciones en los indicadores contables utilizados en el análisis de balances. En ese contexto, el artículo objetiva verificar si hubo reflejos estadísticamente significativos en los indicadores contables después de la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007. Fue realizado un estudio descriptivo con un abordaje cuantitativo. La colecta de los datos ocurrió por medio de las Demostraciones Financieras Estandarizadas (DFPs de 2000 a 2008 a disposición en el sitio de la Comisión de Valores Mobiliarios (CVM. La muestra por accesibilidad comprendió 16 empresas listadas en la BM&FBovespa clasificadas en el sector de consumo cíclico, en el subsector tejidos, vestuario y calzados, segmento hilos y tejidos que poseían todas las DFPs del período de 2000 a 2008. Se aplicaron las técnicas estadísticas de regresión lineal con base en el Modelo de Koyck y de correlaciones canónicas. Los resultados mostraron que hay correlación canónica estadísticamente significativa entre los indicadores contables antes de entrar en vigor la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007 con los indicadores contables después de entrar en vigor la ley 11.638/07. Se concluye de manera general, de acuerdo con las empresas pesquisadas, que los indicadores contables no sufrieron alteración estadísticamente significativa por el hecho de las demostraciones contables ser elaboradas atendiendo a los preceptos de la Ley n.º 11.638 (2007.

  19. Integrating Green Fiscal Reforms into the Agricultural Transformation Agenda: Panacea for Boosting Soil Enrichment and Water Conservation for Sustainable Food Production in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Okojie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria had a booming agricultural industry and prominent world market shares in many of its commodities at independence. With the continuous decline in these, the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA has been floated to promote twelve commodities in production along their value chains. Various innovations and expected benefits feature in the programme. The cultivation methods and other activities within the nodes of the value chains do not however specify green growth strategy promoted by green fiscal reform policies. This implies the shortchanging of green growth strategy in the national development process and so the compromising of sustainability. This paper valued the environmental services loss resulting from deforestation associated with “slash and burn” arable crop expansion and the benefits of “green grabbing” - the deliberate appropriation of nature in the ATA. The profitability of food crop production with and without green fiscal reform policies integration was also assessed. Sampling procedures that included the stratified, simple random and purposive sampling were used at various stages depending on the objective. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. The analytical tools adopted were the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM of the referendum type, on-day site travel cost method and the budgetary analysis. Results showed that 66.37% forest land use changes occurred in a seven year periods for arable food crops expansion. The environmental services loss as depicted by the Willingness To Pay (WTP was averagely N0.60billion/year. The stock recreation value derived from “green grabbing” for the same period with 5% of the Nigerian population of 150 million visiting the Obudu Mountain Resort (OMR for recreational purposes considered was N4.41 x 1012 million. The recreation use benefits of the OMR based on the Marshalian consumer surplus computation was slightly higher for the same period. Profitability

  20. Clinical, manometric and profilometric evaluation after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: comparison between the modified Duhamel and the transanal rectosigmoidectomy techniques Avaliação clínica, manométrica e profilométrica após correção cirúrgica para doença de Hirschsprung: comparação entre as técnicas de Duhamel modificado e a retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Soares Martins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate fecal continence, anorectal manometry (AM and profilometry (P, in patients operated for congenital megacolon, using either the modified Duhamel technique (MDT or the modified transanal rectosigmoidectomy (MTR technique. METHODS: 42 patients were evaluated clinically and via AM and P, for postoperative control. The resting, coughing, voluntary contraction, maintained voluntary contraction and perianal stimulation pressures were investigated. The rectosphincteric reflex was tested and the simple and enhanced pressure curves were evaluated. The three-dimensional profilometric outline was produced. Student's t, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a continência fecal, a manometria anorretal (MAR e a profilometria (PFM, em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico do megacolo congênito pelas técnicas de Duhamel modificado (DM ou de retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada (RTM. MÉTODOS: 42 pacientes foram clinicamente avaliados e submetidos à MAR e PFM para controle pós-operatório. Foram pesquisadas as pressões no repouso (PR, à tosse (T, à contração voluntária (CV, à contração voluntária mantida (CVM e à estimulação perianal (EPA. O reflexo reto-esficteriano (RRE foi testado e as curvas pressóricas simples e potencializada foram avaliadas. Foi elaborado traçado tridimensional de PFM. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, Qui-Quadrado e exato de Fisher para análise estatística (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A MAR mostrou médias de PR=53,44 mmHg para DM e 60,67 mmHg para RTM; CV média = 94,50 mmHg para o grupo DM e 95,47 mmHg para o grupo RTM. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A forma das CPS e CPP não apresentou diferença estatística, independentemente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas operatórias foram manometricamente equivalentes. DM determinou maior incidência de constipação pós-operatória que RTM. A

  1. 洽川湿地生态系统服务的使用价值和非使用价值评估%The Use and Non-use Values of Ecosystem Services for Hechuan Wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方兰; 王浩; 袁渊; 王超亚; 王思博; 胡阗洋

    2015-01-01

    洽川湿地地处黄河中游秦、晋、豫交汇处,是黄河流域最大的温泉湖泊型湿地,也是《诗经》名篇《关雎》的诞生地。本研究在实地考察和问卷调查基础上,从使用价值和非使用价值两个方面来评估湿地的整体价值。结果显示,洽川湿地生态系统服务功能的年度使用价值为792.36×108元。采用条件价值评估法(CVM)对洽川湿地的非使用价值进行了评估,其年度非使用价值约为62.7×108元。本研究还就洽川湿地的《诗经》文化价值是否影响受访者支付意愿进行了对照组分析,结果显示其文化价值将在很大程度上影响受访者的支付意愿。%Hechuan wetland is located in the mid-Yellow River and at the intersection of Shaanxi, Shanxi and Henan provinces in China. It is the largest hot spring lake wetland in the Yellow River basin and the birthplace of Guanju, a famous poem in theBook of Songs. Based on field investigations and questionnaires, we valued Hechuan Wetland ecosystem services, considering use values and non-use values. The annual use value of Hechuan Wetland ecosystem services is 79.236 bilion CNY. The contingent valuation method was applied to value the annual non-use value, which is 6.27 bilion CNY. We examined how the historical and cultural value of theBook of Songs affected respondents’ willingness to pay by establishing a control group. Results suggest that historical and cultural value does have a strong inlfuence on wilingness to pay.

  2. 基于客户价值管理的质量控制与服务模式创新研究与实践%Innovation Research and Practice of Quality Control and Service Model Based on Customer Value Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁国光

    2013-01-01

    在体制改革与市场化背景下,市场竞争日益激烈。对于企业而言,服务与内部管理日益成为了差异化竞争的重要手段,客户价值管理是一种对企业与客户间价值交换过程进行管理的创新思路。企业与客户的本质关系是一种价值在企业与客户间的循环流动并实现总量不断增值的过程。公司通过对该管理思想的应用,在几年时间中取得了较为突出的成效:在激烈的市场竞争环境中实现了较低的客户流失率,尤其是客户间“口碑相传”成为了公司获得项目的重要途径;在项目数量激增且内部人力资源相对不足的情况下保持了良好的质量控制水平,几年中成功实现了质量、安全事故为“0”的目标。%In the context of structural reform and market-oriented, the market competition gets furious. For the company, service and internal management progressively become an important method of differential competition. CVM is an innovative idea to carry out management during the process of the value exchange between company and customers. The nature relationship between company and customers is the process that value circulates between company and customers, and continuously increases in total. Through the application of this management idea, in a few years time, the company made prominent effect:lower customer churn rate under the furious market competition, and 'the word of mouth' from regular customer has become an important way to get project. Quality control was maintained in a good level in the circumstances of increasing number of projects with accordingly lack of internal human resources, then the 'zero' quality and safety incident goal has been achieved in few years.

  3. Information security management: a proposal to improve the effectiveness of information security in the scientific research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of the connectivity in the business environment, combined with the growing dependency of information systems, has become the information security management an important governance tool. Information security has as main goal to protect the business transactions in order to work normally. In this way, It will be safeguarding the business continuity. The threats of information come from hackers' attacks, electronic frauds and spying, as well as fire, electrical energy interruption and humans fault. Information security is made by implementation of a set of controls, including of the others politics, processes, procedures, organizational structures, software and hardware, which require a continuous management and a well established structure to be able to face such challenges. This work tried to search the reasons why the organizations have difficulties to make a practice of information security management. Many of them just limit to adopt points measures, sometimes they are not consistent with their realities. The market counts on enough quantity of standards and regulations related to information security issues, for example, ISO/IEC 27002, American Sarbanes-Oxley act, Basel capital accord, regulations from regulatory agency (such as the Brazilians ones ANATEL, ANVISA and CVM). The market researches have showed that the information security implementation is concentrated on a well-defined group of organization mainly formed by large companies and from specifics sectors of economy, for example, financial and telecommunication. However, information security must be done by all organizations that use information systems to carry out their activities, independently of its size or economic area that it belongs. The situation of information security in the governmental sector of Brazil, and inside its research institutions, is considered worrying by the Brazilian Court of Accounts (TCU). This research work presents an assessment and diagnostic proposal of

  4. Valuing Non-market Benefits of Rehabilitation of Hydrologic Cycle Improvements in the Anyangcheon Watershed: Using Mixed Logit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Kong, K.

    2010-12-01

    This research the findings from a discrete-choice experiment designed to estimate the economic benefits associated with the Anyangcheon watershed improvements in Rep. of Korea. The Anyangcheon watershed has suffered from streamflow depletion and poor stream quality, which often negatively affect instream and near-stream ecologic integrity, as well as water supply. Such distortions in the hydrologic cycle mainly result from rapid increase of impermeable area due to urbanization, decreases of baseflow runoff due to groundwater pumping, and reduced precipitation inputs driven by climate forcing. As well, combined sewer overflows and increase of non-point source pollution from urban regions decrease water quality. The appeal of choice experiments (CE) in economic analysis is that it is based on random utility theory (McFadden, 1974; Ben-Akiva and Lerman, 1985). In contrast to contingent valuation method (CVM), which asks people to choose between a base case and a specific alternative, CE asks people to choice between cases that are described by attributes. The attributes of this study were selected from hydrologic vulnerability components that represent flood damage possibility, instreamflow depletion, water quality deterioration, form of the watershed and tax. Their levels were divided into three grades include status quo. Two grades represented the ideal conditions. These scenarios were constructed from a 35 orthogonal main effect design. This design resulted in twenty-seven choice sets. The design had nine different choice scenarios presented to each respondent. The most popular choice models in use are the conditional logit (CNL). This model provides closed-form choice probability calculation. The shortcoming of CNL comes from irrelevant alternatives (IIA). In this paper, the mixed logit (ML) is applied to allow the coefficient’s variation for random taste heterogeneity in the population. The mixed logit model(with normal distributions for the attributes) fit the

  5. Thermodynamic integration based on classical atomistic simulations to determine the Gibbs energy of condensed phases: Calculation of the aluminum-zirconium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.-P.; Gheribi, A. E.; Chartrand, P.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, an in silico procedure to generate a fully coherent set of thermodynamic properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is proposed. The procedure is applied to the Al-Zr system because of its importance in the development of high strength Al-Li alloys and of bulk metallic glasses. Cohesive energies of the studied condensed phases of the Al-Zr system (the liquid phase, the fcc solid solution, and various orthorhombic stoichiometric compounds) are calculated using the modified embedded atom model (MEAM) in the second-nearest-neighbor formalism (2NN). The Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is parameterized in this work using ab initio and experimental data found in the literature for the AlZr3-L12 structure, while its predictive ability is confirmed for several other solid structures and for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic integration (TI) method is implemented in a general MC algorithm in order to evaluate the absolute Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solutions. The entropy of mixing calculated from the TI method, combined to the enthalpy of mixing and the heat capacity data generated from MD/MC simulations performed in the isobaric-isothermal/canonical (NPT/NVT) ensembles are used to parameterize the Gibbs energy function of all the condensed phases in the Al-rich side of the Al-Zr system in a CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron approximation are used to define the Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solid solution respectively for their entire range of composition. Thermodynamic and structural data generated from our MD/MC simulations are used as input data to parameterize these thermodynamic models. A detailed analysis of the validity and transferability of the Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is presented throughout our work by comparing the predicted properties obtained

  6. CyberShake: A Physics-Based Seismic Hazard Model for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.; Jordan, T.H.; Callaghan, S.; Deelman, E.; Field, E.; Juve, G.; Kesselman, C.; Maechling, P.; Mehta, G.; Milner, K.; Okaya, D.; Small, P.; Vahi, K.

    2011-01-01

    CyberShake, as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Community Modeling Environment, is developing a methodology that explicitly incorporates deterministic source and wave propagation effects within seismic hazard calculations through the use of physics-based 3D ground motion simulations. To calculate a waveform-based seismic hazard estimate for a site of interest, we begin with Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 2.0 (UCERF2.0) and identify all ruptures within 200 km of the site of interest. We convert the UCERF2.0 rupture definition into multiple rupture variations with differing hypocenter locations and slip distributions, resulting in about 415,000 rupture variations per site. Strain Green Tensors are calculated for the site of interest using the SCEC Community Velocity Model, Version 4 (CVM4), and then, using reciprocity, we calculate synthetic seismograms for each rupture variation. Peak intensity measures are then extracted from these synthetics and combined with the original rupture probabilities to produce probabilistic seismic hazard curves for the site. Being explicitly site-based, CyberShake directly samples the ground motion variability at that site over many earthquake cycles (i. e., rupture scenarios) and alleviates the need for the ergodic assumption that is implicitly included in traditional empirically based calculations. Thus far, we have simulated ruptures at over 200 sites in the Los Angeles region for ground shaking periods of 2 s and longer, providing the basis for the first generation CyberShake hazard maps. Our results indicate that the combination of rupture directivity and basin response effects can lead to an increase in the hazard level for some sites, relative to that given by a conventional Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we find that the physics-based hazard results are much more sensitive to the assumed magnitude-area relations and

  7. CVA quality control on residents' willingness to pay for ecological environment treatment project%生态环境治理工程居民支付意愿CVA质量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文金; 邹欣庆; 朱大奎

    2009-01-01

    条件估值法(Contingent valuation method,CVM)在评价环境服务产品中起着不可替代的作用.通过对CVM的信度、效度、置信度、质量控制方面进行探讨,并对Logistic回归模型进行的改进,研究结果显示:(1)通过科学的问卷设计和规范操作,严格调研的质量控制可以有效地克服CVA法的不足,减少主观随意性对访谈结果的干扰.(2)质量控制方法主要通过控制信度、效度、置信度、问卷有效性、数据质量和调研员质量来实现,数据质量保障主要通过第一,抽样环节注意随机性和调查样本的代表性.第二,调研员和质量监督员的培训.第三,检验和回访.第四,调查后的质量控制,主要注重调查问卷的登记与编码和数据录入的质量控制.第五,资料整理质量控制,资料获取和整理后由质量控制人员、专家检验调查质量,发现问题,采取适当的补救措施.通过控制质量,保证了问卷调研的可信度.(3)蚌埠居民年支付意愿为每户9.35元/月,全年支付意愿总额为7 831.56万元人民币.(4)不同的收入段相关性又呈现差异性,年收入15 000~30 000元的公务员、教师、律师、高薪企业工人、军人支付意愿较高.

  8. 基于意愿价值评估法的禁牧政策生态补偿定量分析——以宁夏盐池县为例%Quantitative Analysis of Ecological Compensation for Prohibiting Grazing Policy Based on Contingent Valuation Method——A Case Study in Yanchi, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兵; 周立华; 路慧玲; 陈勇; 贾远信; 魏轩

    2015-01-01

    禁牧政策作为生态补偿实践的重要内容,是解决中国广大牧区生态问题的战略性举措.合理的补偿标准是促进禁牧政策有效实施和持续推进的关键因素,因而受到学者广泛关注.本文以宁夏盐池县为例,应用Logistic回归模型分析城乡居民支付意愿及农户受偿意愿的影响因素,并采用意愿价值评估法(CVM)定量评估盐池县禁牧政策的补偿标准.结果表明:(1)农户的支付意愿与年总收入、羊只饲养规模正相关,与年龄、禁牧前后非农收入变化率、对禁牧政策的接受态度负相关;(2)县城居民的支付意愿与年龄负相关,与对环境的关注度正相关,与职业存在相关性;(3)农户的受偿意愿与人均粮食产量、羊只饲养规模正相关,与禁牧前后非农收入变化率负相关;(4)应用多重对应分析法得出影响农户支付水平和受偿水平的因素均为羊只饲养规模.结合CVM公式和Spike模型,对农户的支付、受偿标准及县城居民的支付标准进行定量评估.

  9. 基于条件价值评估方法分析中国公众气象服务效益%Benefit analysis of the public meteorological service in China based on contingent valuation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琳玲; 孙敏; 潘益农

    2012-01-01

    通过对中国气象局气象效益评估研究组抽样调查得到的175958份问卷数据进行无效问卷剔除后,分析了中国公众对气象服务的满意程度等情况,结果显示约74.3%的公众对气象服务表示满意或较满意.分析表明:全国公众对灾害性天气预报警报的关注度较高,特别是对6~72 h(3 d)的短期天气预报关注度随时间呈上升趋势.调查发现,绝大多数公众(约85.5%)是通过电视媒体来获取气象信息,收视率的最高峰时间为晚上.同时研究了公众对于天气预报的准确度评价与对气象服务的总体满意度评价,结合条件价值评估方法分析得到,当满意度和准确度提高后,公众的支付意愿提高,气象服务的条件价值随着满意度的增加呈近似线性增长趋势.%By getting rid of the invalid data of 175958 questionnaires which came from China Mete orological Administration, the public opinion of weather forecast's accuracy and people's satisfaction about meteorological service are analyzed. The results indicated that about 74. 3% of surveyed people are satisfied with the public meteorological service in China. What's more,public people pay more attention to the warning forecast of meteorological disaster and the 6-72 h (3 d) forecast. The vast majority of public people (about 85. 5% )' get meteorological information by TV at night. The value of willingness to pay is increased with the ratios of weather forecast accuracy and people's satisfaction about meteorological service. Furthermore, according to contingent valuation method ( CVM ) , the social benefit values of public weather service through willingness to pay are also estimated.

  10. A Study on the Application of Contingent Valuation Method in Public Weather Service%条件价值评估法在公众气象效益评估中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芝; 李廉水; 黄小蓉; 夏平嵩; 李洁

    2011-01-01

    条件价值评价法(CVM)是目前生态(环境)经济学中最重要的和应用最为广泛的公共所有物价值的一种评估方法,对自然资源价值进行量化评估方面具有独特的优势,通过问卷调查反映环境影响下的价值问题,是一种理论化极强的评价方法。现将该方法应用到公共气象服务效益评估建模中,在考虑CVM不确定性因素的前提下,对公众气象服务效益进行评估,构建公众气象服务效益评估二分Logistic模型,并与传统的自愿付费法进行比较。采用全国抽样问卷调查数据量化结果比较表明,用二分Logistic模型对全国公众气象服务效益进行定量评估会更客观。%Contingent valuation method(CVM) is an important value assessment method that is widely used in ecological(environmental) economics;and it has unique advantages in the quantitative assessment of the value of natural resources.By questionnaire,the CVM reflects the value under the influence of environment, and it is a theory of strong evaluation.This method is used to analyze public weather service. Considering the uncertainty,the effectiveness assessment of public weather service is conducted by establishing dichotomy Logistic model(DLM).Using national sample survey data,we compare it with the method of traditional willingness to pay.The DLM is more objective when using in a quantitative assessment of national public weather service.

  11. Study on Shanghai Residents’ Willingness to Pay for CO2 Emission Reduction in Electric Power Industry%上海居民对电力行业CO2减排支付意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘骏

    2016-01-01

    The article uses CVM contingent valuation method to build up Logit regression model based on 5436 units survey data in order to estimate Shanghai residents’ willingness to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy instead of coal-fired power generation. The result shows that most of Shanghai residents hold supportive attitude to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy. Rate of support to use natural gas-fired power generation instead of coal-fired power generation is 7 times as much as to use nuclear power generation instead of coal-fired power generation. It figures out that increased natural gas power generation contributes to realization of emission reduction targets. Otherwise, the model shows that age, income level, education level and residence period of Shanghai residents as four social economic characteristics significantly affect results of their willingness to pay for CO2 emission reduction strategy.%利用条件价值评估法,对5436组有效调查问卷数据,建立Logit回归模型,估算上海地区民众对代替煤电进行CO2减排策略的支付意愿。结果表明,大多数上海民众对CO2减排策略持支持的态度,对天然气发电代替煤电的支付意愿大约是核电代替煤电的7倍,并发现增加天然气发电更加有利于减排目标的实现。另外模型显示,居民的年龄、收入水平、受教育程度、居住年限等四项社会经济特征显著影响着支付意愿结果。

  12. Willingness and ability to pay for artemisinin-based combination therapy in rural Tanzania

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    Montgomery Scott M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyse willingness to pay (WTP and ability to pay (ATP for ACT for children below five years of age in a rural setting in Tanzania before the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Socio-economic factors associated with WTP and expectations on anti-malaria drugs, including ACT, were also explored. Methods Structured interviews and focus group discussions were held with mothers, household heads, health-care workers and village leaders in Ishozi, Gera and Ishunju wards in north-west Tanzania in 2004. Contingent valuation method (CVM was used with "take-it-or-leave-it" as the eliciting method, expressed as WTP for a full course of ACT for a child and households' opportunity cost of ACT was used to assess ATP. The study included descriptive analyses with multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors. Results Among 265 mothers and household heads, 244 (92%, CI = 88%–95% were willing to pay Tanzanian Shillings (TSh 500 (US$ 0.46 for a child's dose of ACT, but only 55% (49%–61% were willing to pay more than TSh 500. Mothers were more often willing to pay than male household heads (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, CI = 1.2–3.6. Socio-economic status had no significant effect on WTP. The median annual non-subsidized ACT cost for clinical malaria episodes in an average household was calculated as US$ 6.0, which would represent 0.9% of the average total consumption expenditures as estimated from official data in 2001. The cost of non-subsidized ACT represented 7.0% of reported total annual expenditure on food and 33.0% of total annual expenditure on health care. "Rapid effect," "no adverse effect" and "inexpensive" were the most desired features of an anti-malarial drug. Conclusion WTP for ACT in this study was less than its real cost and a subsidy is, therefore, needed to enable its equitable affordability. The decision

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF IPO PROCESSES THAT OCCURRED IN BRAZIL DURING THE LAST DECADE

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    Murilo Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is a challenge sought by all economically developed societies. National systems articulate public and private resources so as to shape a more innovative society, capable of ideating and promoting processes, products and services with increasing levels of differentiation before those existing. The search for innovation and the creation of competitive advantages is even greater in the corporate environment, a microeconomic locus where innovation can be measured by efforts and results obtained. Likewise, the number of companies that seek to open themselves to the capital market with views to accumulating resources so as to sustain their strategic growth plans, increases. During the last decade, 245 companies opened their capital in Brazil but only 40% of these went to São Paulo´s Stock Exchange Market (Bovespa negotiate their shares. Upon making its Initial Public Offering (IPO the company has to expose to the stock exchange market its true situation in several areas which are ruled by the Securities and Exchange Commission (CVM. They produce extensive documentation in the form of a robust prospect that is made available to any potential investor. The prospect is known at the capital market as the source that portrays the largest amount of information concerning the company that announced their IPO. It is a legal document but, at the same time, one that in highlight contains, all the attributes and differentials that the company expects the market to evaluate. Thus, by means of secondary sources, all ground on the prospects of IPOs that took place, research was conducted to acknowledge the level of innovation each company presented at the time of their IPO and, at the same time, to measure the performance of the value of stocks that the respective IPO obtained. Subsequently a set of structured qualitative interviews posing to evaluate the results of the quantitative research, was conducted. The quantitative analysis of data collected

  14. Estudio de los estados larvales de la ictiofauna en la zona de Puerto Nariño, Amazonia Colombiana, durante el período de aguas ascendentes (2003

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    Gutiérrez Espinosa Mónica Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó taxonómicamente las larvas de peces de la zona de Puerto Nariño (Amazonia colombiana durante el período de aguas ascendentes 2003 (enero a marzo, además se hizo un acercamiento a la dinámica ecológica de la reproducción de los peces a partir de las larvas capturadas. Los muestreos se realizaron con una jama de mano de 80 x 40 cm con marco de hierro y con una malla de anjeo con orificio de 1,5 mm instalada en la proa de una lancha, en siete diferentes localidades con tipo de aguas diferentes (río Amazonas, río Loreto Yacu, caño Zancudillo, lago El Sapo, lago El Correo, lago Tarapoto, caño Igarapé Uassú. Se colectaron 6.492 larvas y juveniles de peces, correspondientes a cinco órdenes (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes y 15 familias. Se identificaron taxonómicamente y se describieron 56 morfoespecies de larvas de peces, de las cuales solo el 23,2% fueron a nivel específico, cifra alta si se tiene en cuenta la falta de información bibliográfica al respecto. La identificación taxonómica fue complicada; sin embargo, la presencia y ausencia de ciertos caracteres como: aletas, barbicelos, escamas y caracteres merísticos como: número de miómeros, número de radios permitió llegar en algunos casos a nivel taxonómico de familia y género. A nivel de orden la identificación fue relativamente fácil especialmente en estados avanzados de desarrollo. A nivel de familia fue un poco más complicado, especialmente en la familia Characidae, pues la similitud en estados tempranos de desarrollo es muy grande. El orden más abundante fue Characiformes (84,9%, seguido por Siluriformes (12,1%, los órdenes Perciformes, Clupeiformes y Gymnotiformes presentaron el 3% de la abundancia. Las familias más abundantes fueron Characidae, Serrasalmidae y Curimatidae, que se caracterizan por realizar migraciones reproductivas especialmente durante el período de aguas
    ascendentes, asegurando que

  15. Comprometimento respiratório secundário a acidente ofídico crotálico (Crotalus durissus Respiratory abnormalities following Crotalus durissus snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Faria Santos Amaral

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available São analisados três pacientes que apresentaram comprometimento da função respiratória após acidente por Crotalus durissus. As manifestações respiratórias surgiram nas primeiras 48 horas após a picada do ofídio e consistiram de dispnéia, taquipnéia, uso da musculatura acessória da respiração (casos 1 e 2 e batimento das aletas nasais (caso 2. Dois pacientes (casos 1 e 2 apresentaram insuficiência respiratória aguda. O diagnóstico desta complicação no caso 1 foi clínico pois o paciente apresentou apnéia. O paciente do caso 2, 24 horas após o acidente ofídico apresentou dificuldade respiratória intensa e períodos de apnéia sendo intubado, permanecendo em respiração espontânea. Houve agravamento dos sinais clínicos de insuficiência respiratória e a determinação de pH e gases do sangue arterial mostrou em relação ao exame inicial elevação da pressão parcial de gás carbônico (40 mmHg para 50,3 mm Hg caracterizando insuficiência ventilatória aguda. Ambos foram tratados com emprego de ventilação artificial mecânica, tendo o paciente do caso 1 permanecido no ventilador durante 33 dias e o do caso 2 durante 15 dias. Ambos desenvolveram insuficiência renal aguda, necessitaram de diálise peritoneal e recuperaram a função renal. A paciente do caso 3, apesar dos sintomas e sinais de comprometimento respiratório não apresentou alterações do pH e gases arteriais. Espirometria realizada 58 horas após o acidente mostrou capacidade vital forçada (CVF e volume espirado no primeiro segundo (VEF1 abaixo do previsto (60 e 67% respectivamente. As espirometrias realizadas nos dias subseqüentes evidenciaram melhora progressiva destes parâmetros. No 10º dia após o acidente constatou-se aumento de 20% da CVF e de 17% do VEF1 comparativamente ao exame inicial. A relação entre VEF1 e a CVF manteve-se praticamente inalterada e em valores próximos ao previsto, caracterizando distúrbio ventilatório do tipo

  16. Síntese e caracterização do compósito Al2O3 -YAG e do Al2O3-YAG e Al2O3 aditivados com Nb2O5 Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 -YAG composite and Al2O3-YAG and Al2O3 with Nb2O5 additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Cabral

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O compósito Al2O3-YAG possui alta resistência à corrosão e à fluência em ambientes agressivos, o que permite vislumbrar aplicações bastante atrativas, tais como aletas de motores a jato e de turbinas a gás. Este compósito também apresenta elevada dureza e alta resistência à abrasão possibilitando o seu emprego em blindagens balísticas. Nesse estudo os pós precursores de Al2O3, Y2O3 e Nb2O5 foram homogeneizados em moinho de bolas planetário por 4 h, secados em estufa a 120 ºC por 48 h, desaglomerados e peneirados. O compósito Al2O3-YAG foi produzido a partir das misturas de Al2O3-Y2O3 a 1300 ºC por 2 h. Foram produzidas amostras de Al2O3-YAG, Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 e Al2O3 com Nb2O5. Posteriormente os pós foram prensados uniaxialmente a 70 MPa. A sinterização foi feita a 1400 e 1450 ºC. Os pós como recebidos e os processados foram caracterizados quanto à área de superfície específica e ao tamanho médio de partícula. Os materiais sinterizados foram caracterizados por densidade e porosidade aparente pelo método de Arquimedes e avaliados quanto à retração e à perda de massa. Os resultados mostraram que são necessários ainda ajustes nas condições de sinterização da composição Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 para melhorar a densificação e a retração, que foram baixas, da ordem de 60 e 3%, respectivamente. O Al2O3 aditivado com Nb2O5, por sua vez, apresentou uma densificação satisfatória, de 96% e uma retração em torno de 15%.The Al2O3-YAG composite exhibits high corrosion and creep resistance in aggressive environments, which provides quite glimpse attractive applications such as jet engine vanes and as gas turbines. This composite also shows high hardness and wear resistance allowing its use in ballistic armor. In this study, precursor powders of Al2O3, Y2O3 and Nb2O5 were homogeneously mixed in a planetary ball mill for 4 h, dried in an oven at 120 ºC for 48 h, sieved and deagglomerated. The Al2O3-YAG composite

  17. Extração de eletrodo de marcapasso endocárdico permanente pela aplicação de radiofreqüência

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    Roberto COSTA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Uma nova opção terapêutica para a remoção de cabos-eletrodo endocárdicos permanentes desativados é apresentada, utilizando a radiofreqüência para facilitar a liberação do eletrodo a partir do endocárdio, permitindo a extração transvenosa do sistema. Os resultados obtidos nos 4 primeiros pacientes tratados são apresentados. Casuística: Quatro pacientes portadores de processos infecciosos em eletrodos transvenosos abandonados foram submetidos a procedimento para remoção do cateter. Todos os pacientes eram portadores de eletrodos de fixação passiva por aletas implantados no ventrículo direito de 8,5 a 18,8 anos (M = 12,9 ± 5,6 antes. Em todos os casos a técnica da tração contínua havia sido utilizada exaustivamente, não se conseguindo a remoção. Métodos: Utilizou-se gerador de radiofreqüência Radionics RFG3D com anodo de 85 cm2 justaposto ao dorso do paciente e usou-se como catodo o próprio eletrodo a ser removido. Concomitante à tração contínua do cabo-eletrodo a aplicação de radiofreqüência era iniciada. Para cada paciente foram realizadas até três aplicações de 50 W com um tempo máximo de aplicação de 60 segundos em cada aplicação. O tempo e a potência foram determinados empiricamente pela equipe médica, considerando-se insucesso a não liberação do eletrodo a partir do miocárdio após a aplicação do montante de energia acima descrito. Resultados: O cabo-eletrodo foi removido completamente em 2 pacientes. Em 1, a radiofreqüência dissolveu a solda do condutor à ponta do eletrodo, que ficou presa ao miocárdio e no último paciente não houve liberação do cabo após o uso da máxima energia preestabelecida. Não houve complicações ou óbitos. Conclusões: A radiofreqüência pode ser usada como opção terapêutica para a liberação transvenosa de eletrodos abandonados. Maior experiência deve ser obtida para determinar a energia que deve ser utilizada para maximizar os

  18. Alteraciones del desarrollo embrionario, poliaminas y estrés oxidativo inducidos por plaguicidas organofosforados en Rhinella Arenarum Alterations in embryonic development, polyamines and oxidative stress induced by organophosphates in Rhinella arenarum

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    Cecilia Inés Lascano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los plaguicidas organofosforados (OP son masivamente aplicados en el Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, afectando al ecosistema. Utilizamos un modelo embrionario de anfibios (Rhinella arenarum para estudiar mecanismos por los cuales OP como metilazinfos (MA y clorpirifos (CP podrían provocar teratogénesis. Los embriones fueron desarrollados en diferentes concentraciones de MA o CP hasta opérculo completo (OC, analizando: malformaciones, histología, glutatión reducido (GSH y enzimas antioxidantes, poliaminas, actividad de ornitina-decarboxilasa (ODC y proteínaquinasa- C (PKC. Ambos OP provocaron un incremento tiempo/concentración-dependiente de malformaciones, llegando a 100% de teratogénesis en estadios avanzados y a las mayores concentraciones, incluyendo: exogastrulación, curvaturas de aleta caudal, acortamiento axial, edema, y atrofia branquial. Se evidenció una condición de estrés oxidativo creciente: las enzimas GSH-dependientes (S-transferasa (GST, peroxidasa y reductasa fueron inducidas tempranamente a bajas concentraciones, pero inhibidas en el estadio de OC a altas concentraciones, junto con una caída significativa de GSH (62% para MA. MA incrementó significativamente (18X la actividad de ODC en OC, aumentando los niveles de putrescina (60% pero disminuyendo espermidina (56% y espermina (100%; CP disminuyó en estadios tempranos la actividad de ODC y niveles de poliaminas. La disminución de poliaminas podría deberse al incremento de degradación por poliamino-oxidasa, contribuyendo al estrés oxidativo inducido por OP. Esto causaría la disminución de GSH, y la activación de PKC en OC (55%, que participaría en el control positivo de GST y ODC. Finalmente, el estrés oxidativo y la disminución en los niveles de poliaminas podrían ser causantes de alteraciones del desarrollo embrionario.Organophosphate (OP pesticides are widely applied in the region of Alto Valle de Río Negro y Neuquén, affecting the ecosystem. We

  19. Evaluación de la reproducción inducida del blanquillo ( Sorubim cuspicaudus Littmann, Burr Nass, 2000 con ovaprim®.

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    Víctor Atencio G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El blanquillo ( Sorubim suspicaudus Littmann, Burr &Nass, 2000 presenta características de importanciapara la acuicultura, destacándose la calidad de sucarne y el alto valor comercial. No se reproduce enconfinamiento, por lo que es necesario sureproducción inducida con sustancias hormonales.Responde bien a la inducción con extracto de pituitariade capa (EPC; sin embargo, no se ha evaluado suinducción con extracto de análogos deGonodotropine Releasing Hormone de salmón(sGnRH-a y domperidone en un vehículo inerte. Porlo tanto, entre mayo y noviembre/02, se evaluó eldesempeño reproductivo del blanquillo inducido condiferentes dosificaciones de Ovaprim®: 0.25 (T2,0.050 (T3 y 0.75 ml/kg de peso vivo (T4, aplicadoen una sola dosificación, por inyección en la basede la aleta pectoral. Además, un grupo fue inducidocon 8 mg EPC/kg de peso vivo (TI, en dos inyeccionesde 10 y7 90% de la dosis total, con intervalo de 6horas, por vía intramuscular. Se indujeron entre seisy nueve hembras por tratamiento con igual númerode machos. El desempeño reproductivo fue evaluadomediante el índice de ovulación (hembras ovuladas/hembras tratadas, tasa de fertilización medida a las4 horas pos-eclosión (HPF, tasa de eclosión medidaa las 10 HPF y la fecundidad tanto absoluta comorelativa. El Ovaprim® mostró ser efectivo para inducirla ovulación del blanquillo en las dosificacionesevaluadas (0.25 a 0.75 mL/kg, con respuestassimilares en el desempeño reproductivo a lasobtenidas en EPC. La ovulación con Ovaprim® seobtuvo entre las 12.8 y 14.0 horas con temperaturapromedio del agua de 27.3ºC. El índice de ovulaciónosciló entre 66.7% (T2 y 83.3% (T3; la tasa defertilización osciló entre 88.0% (T3 y 42.0% (T1; latasa de eclosión osciló entre 83.7% (T3 y 40.3%(T1;la fecundidad absoluta osciló entre 40370.6 (T1 y82992.5 ovocitos/hembra (T2; la fecundad relativa,expresada en gramos de ovocitos/kg de hembra,osciló entre 32.1 (T3 y 63.1(T2; el di

  20. Déficit bilateral em exercício multiarticular para membros superiores Bilateral deficit in multiarticular exercise for upper extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nazário-de-Rezende

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A força muscular é um componente importante para a atividade física e para o desempenho das tarefas da vida diária. Um fenômeno observado geralmente é que a capacidade de geração de força máxima está comprometida quando os membros homólogos se contraem bilateralmente. Esse fenômeno é chamado de déficit bilateral. Assim, objetivou-se comparar a atividade elétrica do músculo deltoide, porção medial durante contrações unilaterais e bilaterais em um aparelho multiarticular de desenvolvimento articulado convergente, com 90% da carga voluntária máxima (CVM, em nove homens com idades entre 20 e 30 anos, estatura 174 ± 5cm e massa corporal 78 ± 15kg. Os sinais mioelétricos foram captados através da colocação de eletrodos ativos de superfície diferenciais da EMG System do Brasil, um eletrodo de referência (terra e um módulo condicionador de sinais (eletromiógrafo, que forneceu dados numéricos em RMS (raiz quadrada da média para análise dos resultados. Cada sinal coletado captou apenas a fase concêntrica do movimento e o mesmo teve duração de três segundos. Os resultados evidenciaram que durante exercício bilateral e unilateral com 90% da CVM, a atividade elétrica do membro não dominante predominou significativamente sobre o dominante (p = 0,018. Quando somados os valores obtidos no trabalho do membro dominante com aqueles obtidos com o membro não dominante no exercício bilateral (2.231 ± 504µv e comparados com os valores obtidos no trabalho unilateral (2.663 ± 701µv, o déficit bilateral foi encontrado (p = 0,018. De acordo com nosso estudo, verificamos que o fenômeno do déficit bilateral se faz presente para o músculo deltoide médio no exercício multiarticular de desenvolvimento articulado convergente em indivíduos familiarizados em exercícios resistidos.Muscular strength is an important component for physical activity and performance of activities of daily living. A phenomenon usually observed is

  1. Comparative studies on the farmers' willingness to accept eco-compensation in wetlands nature reserve%湿地保护区周边农户生态补偿意愿比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昌海; 崔丽娟; 毛旭锋; 温亚利

    2012-01-01

    enthusiasm, formulation and implementation of ecological compensation policies. Taking Crested ibis Nature Reserve in Shanxi Province as an example, this study applied Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to measure ecological compensation amounts of rice loss of local farmers in 2008 and 2011. Firsthand information was collected through structured interview and questionnaire survey. Results indicate that the compensation amounts are, respectively,3560. 56 yuan/hm2 and 3679. 83 yuan/hm2. Logistic regression model analysis results show that the most important factor that affects farmers willings of the ecological compensation is the ratio between paddy field and the total area of arable land. Besides, family annual average income, the presence of non-agricultural income, the distance from Crested ibis reserve and decrease amount of rice production because of Crested ibis protection. The results also indicate that the government should dominate the ecological compensation and develop long-term mechanism for ecological management. It is necessary to note that the current eco-compensation mechanism needs further improve. Additional actions are needed to maintain basic living standards of local farmers, such as investments into the processing industry and job training programs. This study provides principle guidelines for implementing eco-compensation across Crested ibis Nature Reserve as well as others. This study can be served as a start case for promoting wetland ecological compensation mechanism, especially for Shaanxi Crested ibis Nature Reserve.%湿地生态补偿研究一直是国内外学者们研究的热点和难点.运用问卷调查方法和统计学的多元回归模型,分析湿地保护区周边生态补偿机制中微观经济主体-农户的行为与选择的问题,确定农户的生态补偿意愿值,及影响农户生态补偿意愿的主要影响因素并做比较分析.以陕西朱鹮国家级自然保护区为例,应用条件价值法(CVM),计量了2008

  2. Massage therapy in the management of myogenic TMD: a pilot study Massoterapia para o tratamento da DTM miogênica: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Kise Capellini

    2006-01-01

    reduz a qualidade de vida e a produtividade das pessoas que têm tal distúrbio. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar se a massagem produz alívio da dor e/ou alterações eletromiográficas (EMG. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Para tanto, utilizou-se um questionário para selecionar portadores de DTM, os quais foram divididos em 2 grupos diferentes. A idade dos voluntários variou de 19 a 22 anos. O grupo experimental foi formado por 6 portadores de DTM submetidos ao tratamento pela massagem e a 4 sessões EMG (a 1ª sessão ocorreu antes do tratamento e as outras nos 1º, 15º e 30º dias depois do tratamento. O grupo controle foi composto por 6 portadores de DTM submetidos às mesmas 4 sessões EMG. Durante o registro eletromiográfico, foi pedido aos voluntários para manter a posição de repouso mandibular (PRM e realizar contração voluntária máxima (CVM. O tratamento consistiu em 15 sessões de massagem na face e pescoço e na aplicação da Escala Visual Analógica (EVA para avaliar o nível de dor. As sessões de massagem tiveram 30 minutos de duração e foram realizadas diariamente. Os sinais EMG foram processados para obter Root Mean Square (RMS que foi normalizado pela CVM. RESULTADO: Foi demonstrado que: (1 RMS-PRM do masseter direito do grupo experimental foi maior na 1ª sessão EMG em comparação com a 2ª sessão EMG e (2 houve redução estatisticamente significante para os valores de EVA pós-massagem. CONCLUSÃO: A AMOstra é pequena para delinear qualquer conclusão, sendo necessários mais estudos a respeito da massagem no tratamento das DTMs miogênicas.

  3. Agrupación de Cuencas hidrográficas de acuerdo con el tipo de suelo Agrupamento de microbacias em função do tipo de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho visou analisar os atributos do relevo através das variáveis: altitude máxima (HM; altitude média (Hmd; altitude mínima (Hm; a amplitude altimétrica (H; comprimento médio de vertente (CVm; comprimento mínimo de deflúvio (Cd; declividade média da amostra circular (I e integral hipsométrica (IH, integral volumétrica (IV, altura média da integral volumétrica (hIV, altura média da integral hipsométrica (hIH e desenvolvimento da erosão (DE obtidos em 4 microbacias de terceira ordem de ramificação e três unidades de solo da bacia do Rio Capivara – Botucatu (SP, tendo como base cartográfica: fotografias aéreas coloridas, Carta Topográfica de Botucatu e Carta de solos do Município de Botucatu – SP. A distinção dos solos foi realizada através da análise de agrupamentos e de componentes principais. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que os métodos se mostraram interessantes para indicação dos grupos semelhantes de microbacias. O primeiro componente principal possibilitou a discriminar as microbacias em função dos maiores valores das variáveis hIV, hIH, H, DE e I, indicando que quanto maior o valor da variável observada para a microbacia, maior será o poder discriminatório, enquanto que o maior valor do segundo componente principal, para variáveis do relevo, resultou em função dos maiores valores de HM, HMD e Hm. As variáveis hIV e hIH foram as que apresentaram maior poder discriminatório na formação dos grupos de microbacias mais similares.

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los atributos de relieve a través de las variables: altura máxima (HM; altitud media (Hmd; altura mínima (Hm; amplitud altimétrica (H, longitud media de la pendiente (CVm; longitud mínima de la escorrentía (Cd, pendiente media de la muestra circular (I y integral hipsométrica (IH; el volumen total (IV, la altura media de la integral volumétrica (hVI; la altura

  4. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa Audit costs and corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores dos serviços de auditoria e serviços extras contratados junto às empresas de auditoria independente. Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre governança corporativa, custos de auditoria e de serviços extra-auditoria, foram analisadas as informações disponibilizadas por 131 empresas no primeiro semestre de 2010. As proxies de governança utilizadas foram: desvio de direitos dos cinco maiores acionistas, participação em segmentos diferenciados de governança da Bolsa de Mercadoria e Futuros & Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BM&FBovespa, existência de comitê de auditoria e de departamento de auditoria interna. Os resultados apontam para uma relação negativa entre governança e custos de auditoria, sugerindo que, no mercado brasileiro, predomina o efeito risco. Ou seja, melhores práticas de governança reduzem os riscos (judiciais e de perda da reputação da auditoria externa permitindo a cobrança de valores menores. A literatura internacional não é unânime quanto ao sinal, embora a maioria dos estudos apresente uma relação positiva, a favor do efeito demanda. De acordo com este efeito, melhor governança implica em maiores exigências junto ao serviço da auditoria acarretando elevação dos valores cobrados. A relação encontrada também é negativa entre os valores dos serviços extras e as boas práticas de governança. Apesar de as pesquisas não comprovarem a influência destes custos sobre a perda da independ

  5. 城市公园游憩资源非使用价值评估——以南京市玄武湖公园为例%Evaluation of the Non-Use Value of Recreational Resources in Urban Parks: A Case Study of Xuanwu Lake Park, Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔峰; 丁风芹; 何杨; 杜林华; 颜廷凯

    2012-01-01

    Urban parks are often the main natural landscape, a key place for residents and visitors, and have important ecological, economic and social benefits. However, as cities grow, landscape planning and design commercializes, and recreational activity increases, urban parks are encroached upon and sometimes destroyed. This is mainly allowed to happen because public consciousness of resources and environmental protection is low. The economic development value of recreational resources is often emphasized, but the non-use value of recreational resources is neglected so that the total value of recreational resources is underestimated. The park of Xuanwu Lake in Nanjing is an example we profile in this paper. The non-use value of the recreational resources was researched quantitatively by adopting the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and an investigation of the willingness of tourists to pay (WTP). Four hundred payment card CVM questionnaires were surveyed and 369 were returned. Distribution shape and rule of willingness to pay were probed. We found that most visitors (62.1%) have a willingness to pay the non-use value of the recreational resources at Xuanwu Lake Park. The total non-use value of this recreational resource was 473 × 10 6 Yuan in 2011, the existence value is 307 × 10 6 Yuan per year, the bequest value is 88 × 10 6 Yuan per year and the option value is 79 × 10 6 Yuan per year. The relationship between population features and WTP shows that educational level and age are significantly correlated with WTP; however, gender, guest source area, monthly income, tourist understanding about Xuanwu Lake park, and other factors were not correlated with WTP. Monthly income is obviously correlated with the value of WTP, though other factors are not. This study promotes visitor cognition of the recreational resource value of urban parks, strengthens their awareness of environmental protection, and provides a scientific basis for related organizations to plan, manage

  6. Cronologia da normatização das demonstrações contábeis no Brasil: do Código Comercial Brasileiro de 1850 ao pronunciamento 26 do CPC de 2009 = Chronology of standardization of financial statements in Brazil: Brazilian Commercial Code of 1850 to the statement of CPC 26, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Schmidt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento do Brasil, como nação autônoma, teve seu marco inicial após sua independência de Portugal, em 1822. Diante do cenário de nascimento e evolução da sociedade brasileira, este trabalho apresenta uma pesquisa cronológica sobre a normatização das demonstrações contábeis, especialmente focada no Balanço Patrimonial (BP. Esse estudo caracteriza-se essencialmente por ser uma pesquisa bibliográfica histórica. A primeira normatização contábil brasileira ocorreu com a publicação do 1º Código Comercial Brasileiro (CCB em 26/06/1850, através da Lei nº 556. Dez anos após o CCB, entrou em vigência a Lei nº 1.083 de 22/08/1860, conhecida como “a primeira Lei das S. A. no Brasil”. O Brasil passou a ter uma Lei das S.A. atualizada, com a publicação da Lei 2.627. Em 1976, o Brasil incorpora as tendências contábeis Norte-Americanas com a nova Lei das S.A.: Lei nº 6.404 de 15/12/1976. A primeira grande alteração dessa Lei ocorreu em 2007, com a Lei no 11.638, de 28/12/2007 a Deliberação CVM 488 de 03/10/2005, contudo, já estabelecia o início do processo de convergência para a adoção dos princípios internacionais. A partir da publicação do CPC1, seguiram-se outros que reestruturaram a Contabilidade Brasileira. Dentre esses Pronunciamentos, o CPC 26 apresenta a estrutura das demonstrações contábeis em correlação às Normas Internacionais de Contabilidade – IAS 1. Constata-se que durante esse período de mais de um século e meio, especialmente analisando-se o BP, a Contabilidade Brasileira sempre buscou um caminho de atualização e vinculação mundial.The development of Brazil, as autonomous nation, had its starting point after its independence from Portugal in 1822. Against the backdrop of birth and evolution of Brazilian society, this paper presents a chronological survey on the regulation of the financial statements, especially focused on the Balance Sheet (BP. This study is characterized

  7. Selected Abstracts of the 1st Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2015; Budapest (Hungary; September 16-20, 2015; Session “Circulation, O2 Transport and Haematology”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2015-09-01

    . Erickson-Owens, J. Mercer, D. Thulier, W. Oh, M. VanVleetABS 18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INDUCED LABOR AND FETAL STRESS HORMONE RELEASE • S. Wellmann, A. Koslowski, K. Spanaus, R. Zimmermann, T. BurkhardtABS 19. ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC FUNCTION IN PRETERM INFANTS: MATURATIONAL PATTERNS OF PULMONARY ARTERY ACCELERATION TIME • M.D. Patel, A.T. James, P.J. McNamara, A. Jain, O. Franklin, A. Mathur, C. Lee, A. Hamvas, G.K. Singh, L. Mertens, P.T. LevyABS 20. LONGITUDINAL CARDIAC CHANGES IN PRETERM INFANTS WITH PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO A PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS • K. de Waal, N. PhadABS 21. NOVEL NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENTS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF NORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR ADAPTATION IN TERM & NEAR TERM INFANTS • L. Mahoney, D. Wertheim, J.R. Fernandez Alvarez, N. Aiton, H. Rojas-Anaya, P. Seddon, H. RabeABS 22. PERFUSION INDEX USED AS A SIXTH VITAL SIGN IN PRETERM INFANTS LEADS TO EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SHOCK AND BETTER OUTCOMES • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L. Balasubramanian, V. Kannappan, R.M. SahadevanABS 23. EARLY CIRCULATORY AND RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS • K.W. Olsson, R. Sindelar, A. JonzonABS 24. UK SURVEILLANCE OF SURGICAL LIGATION OF THE PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS (PDA IN PREMATURE BABIES PRIOR TO FIRST DISCHARGE HOME • A. Lakshmanan, L. Lee, T. Crosby, W. KelsallABS 25. CURRENT PRACTICES ON HEMODYNAMIC MONITORING IN NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE: AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY • S. Vrancken, L. Frijns, K. Liem, J. Hopman, J. Lemson, A. van Heijst, W. de BoodeABS 26. NON-INVASIVE ASSESSMENT OF DIASTOLIC MYOCARDIAL PROPERTIES IN ELBW NEONATES • T. Kovacs, G. Mogyorosy, A. Kertesz, A. Borbely, Z. Papp, Gy. BallaABS 27. PRIOR CLINICAL DESCRIPTION BIASES ASSESSMENT OF CAPILLARY REFILL TIME • E. Murphy, S. Coleman, S. Hill, C. Henry, D. Morris, D. SharkeyABS 28. AFTERLOAD REDUCTION IN CATECHOLAMINE-RESISTANT SHOCK IN EXTREME PREMATURITY: NOVEL THERAPY WITH OLD DRUG FOR AN UNRECOGNIZED FACTOR IN SHOCK • D. Hariharan, G. Veluswami, L

  8. Análise das práticas de evidenciação de informações obrigatórias, não-obrigatórias e avançadas nas demonstrações contábeis das sociedades anônimas no Brasil: um estudo comparativo dos exercícios de 2002 e 2005 Analysis of mandatory, non-mandatory and advanced information disclosure practices in financial statements of companies in Brazil: a comparative study between 2002 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Rodrigues Ponte

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Em todo o mundo se discute sobre a transparência e a qualidade na divulgação das informações contábeis. No sentido de contribuir para esse debate, o presente estudo procura responder à seguinte questão de pesquisa: Quais as mudanças percebidas na evidenciação de informações obrigatórias, não-obrigatórias e avançadas praticada pelas sociedades anônimas no Brasil? Trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória-descritiva, cujas amostras são de natureza não-probabilística acidental. Foram analisadas as demonstrações contábeis de 95 empresas, referentes ao exercício de 2002, e 119 alusivas ao exercício de 2005. No tocante aos itens recomendados pelos pareceres nos 15/87, 17/89 e 19/90 da CVM, a pesquisa revela a não-ocorrência de melhoria das práticas de disclosure das companhias estudadas. Com relação às informações contábeis de natureza avançada e não-obrigatória propugnadas pelas práticas de governança corporativa, verifica-se um avanço na sua evidenciação pelas empresas analisadas, que dispensam atenção especial à divulgação de suas práticas de responsabilidade social e do Balanço Social, das Demonstrações do Fluxo de Caixa (DFC e do Valor Adicionado (DVA.All over the world, there have been discussions on transparency and quality in the disclosure of accounting information. Aiming at contributing towards this debate, this study seeks to answer the following research question: What are the perceived changes in the disclosure of mandatory, non-mandatory and advanced accounting reporting experienced by companies in Brazil? Financial statements from 95 companies were assessed, referring to corporate annual reports of 2002 and from 119 companies referring to corporate annual reports of 2005. Concerning items recommended in rules numbers 15/87, 17/89 and 19/90 by the Brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, this research reveals that there was no improvement in the disclosure practices of the companies

  9. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  10. 基于条件价值法的武夷山风景名胜区遗产资源非使用价值评估%The Non-Use Value of Heritage Resources in Wuyishan Scenery District Using the Contingent Valuation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游巍斌; 何东进; 洪伟; 刘翠; 俞建安; 陈炳容; 朱建琴; 纪志荣; 陈晓芳

    2014-01-01

    Located in northwestern Fujian,China,Wuyi Mountain is the most outstanding area for biodiversity conservation in southeast China and a refuge for a large number of ancient,relic and endemic species.Wuyishan Scenery District (WSD),one of four sub-regions in Wuyi Mountain,has been disturbed more severely compared to the other three sub-regions,although in general all of the four regions have been well protected under strict management.The value of heritage resources in WSD plays an important role in attracting tourism and is an inseparable composition of the world mixed heritage site of Mount Wuyi.Here,the willingness-to-pay (WTP) of tourists and the non-use value of WSD were evaluated using the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and payment card approaches.The results indicate that the annual average WTP was 29.67 CNY in 2009,with uncertainty factors.The socio-economic characteristics of respondents including income,education,love of tour,and protection awareness were significant between-groups factors; gender and age were not significant.Respondents with a higher education level or income,stronger love of tour or protection awareness to WSD were more willing to pay for the sustainable existence of the heritage site;gender and age had no relationship to WTP.%武夷山是我国4个世界文化与自然双遗产地之一,武夷山风景名胜区作为遗产地内文化和自然遗产资源最为集中、开发最早的对外旅游窗口,其遗产资源价值高,在武夷山双遗产地中具有重要地位.运用条件价值法对武夷山风景名胜区受访者支付意愿与非使用价值进行评估.结果表明:在考虑不确定性因素影响下,2009年武夷山风景名胜区受访游客人均支付价值为29.67元/年.收入、学历、对旅游的热爱程度、遗产保护意识4个受访者特征变量在各分组水平下的支付意愿存在显著差异(p<0.05);性别、年龄无显著差异(p<0.05).收入越高、学历越高、对旅游的热爱

  11. Biofeedback and the electromyographic activity of pelvic floor muscles in pregnant women Biofeedback na atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do assoalho pélvico em gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta L. A. Batista

    2011-10-01

    álise exploratória dos resultados de três sessões de biofeedback na atividade eletromiográfica em mulheres gestantes. MÉTODOS: Este estudo incluiu 19 gestantes nulíparas com gravidez de baixo risco. Foram realizadas três sessões de biofeedback eletromiográfico compostas por contrações lentas e rápidas, utilizando-se como método de avaliação dos resultados as médias das amplitudes normalizadas da eletromiografia (EMG de superfície. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o modelo de regressão linear com efeitos mistos, sendo que os dados da EMG foram normalizados pela contração voluntária máxima (CVM. RESULTADOS: Após as sessões de biofeedback, constatou-se um aumento crescente na amplitude eletromiográfica a cada contração realizada e a cada sessão, entretanto essa diferença só foi estatisticamente significante para a comparação entre a primeira contração tônica de cada sessão (p=0.03. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos indicam que três sessões de treinamento com biofeedback melhoraram a atividade eletromiográfica dos MAPs em gestantes de baixo risco no segundo trimestre. A efetividade do protocolo necessita ser futuramente investigada em estudo randomizado controlado.

  12. 干旱区绿洲农田土壤污染生态补偿标准测算——以白银、金昌市郊农业区为例%Calculation of the compensation criteria for ecological restoration of the contaminated arid oasis soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪霞; 南忠仁; 郭奇; 贾艳艳; 沈子露

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the contingent valuation method(CVM) was used to analyze the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) the compensation for recovering the heavy metal contaminated soil in arid oasis areas,using Baiyin and Jinchang suburb farmland as a case study.Based on the result of statistical analysis of 382 questionnaires,it was showed that 91.79% of farmers in this area have recognized the impact of soil contamination.41.62% of respondents were against to abandon the contaminated cropland because of less life safeguard,so reasonable compensation standard in ecological restoration project is an important issue.Econometrics model analysis indicated the farmers' willingness to accept(WTA) were between 746.45-862.73 Yuan(RMB) /hm2.The acute WTA data had a positive relationship with the family population,education and the areas of the cropland.The farmers' gender,age and their income had little affection on WTA.The results showed that the farmers' WTA was based on the income of crops planting which was 840 Yuan(RMB) /hm2 pre year in this areas.%文中基于环境价值评估法(CVM)为干旱区绿洲农田土壤重金属污染防治生态补偿政策进行了计量经济学的模型分析,测算了农户对当地实施生态补偿的受偿意愿。在382个调查样本中,91.79%的受访村民认为所在地目前土壤污染问题十分严重并已造成了食用人群健康风险,制定合理的生态补偿标准是保障生态修复工程的核心因素。受偿意愿调查结果显示,干旱区绿洲农田受重金属污染的农户的年平均受偿意愿(MWPA)在746.45-862.73元/hm2之间,影响该数额的主要因素为农户家庭人口、户均耕地面积以及农户受教育程度。该结果说明受访农户提出的受偿意愿是以当地种植基本粮食作物的年收入840元/亩为基础的,但未包括当地农业生产的生态效益损失和对人群健康影响的损失,且受经济欠发达地区农户年均收入较低和信息获取渠

  13. Valoração econômica dos benefícios ambientais percebidos pela população da bacia do Educandos provenientes do PROSAMIM Economic valuation of environmental benefits perceived by the Educandos basin population proceeding from PROSAMIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellem Andrezza Araújo Freitas

    2010-09-01

    on the stream banks. The main target of this research consists in the economical evaluation of environmental benefits perceived by the population in the Educandos basin proceeding from PROSAMIM, using the Contingent Valuation Method - CVM to estimate individual willingness to pay for the environmental improvement. We estimated a sample size corresponding to 1,070 questionnaires, taking into account an error of 3% and significance level of 5%. In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the people were willing to pay R$ 13.73 per month toward implementing the PROSAMIM, for an annual total of R$46,325,074.92 per year. Analyzing the influence of socioeconomic variables on the acceptance probability of paying for environmental benefits, we concluded that the probability was greater among those with a higher income. We also concluded that, the actions of PROSAMIM have generated significant improvements for the population of Manaus from the environmental as well as the social point of view.

  14. 安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)患者上下颌骨生长发育特点的研究%Growth charactristics of mandible and maxilla in patients with ClassⅡ malocclusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋镜明; 赵祝; 宋扬; 黄闯; 郝文君; 金作林

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)上下颌骨生长的特点,为安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)的临床治疗时机和治疗方法的选择提供参考.方法:收集安氏Ⅱ类错(牙合)患者837 例(男332 例,女505 例).按CVM骨龄分期分组,测量头影侧位片,应用Win Ceph 6.0软件进行分析,SPSS 13.0进行方差分析后进行组间多重对比(CS1- CS6).结果:男性组:下颌骨水平部、下颌升支、下颌骨总长度,在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4期有明显增长;上腭长度、上颌总长度,在CS2- CS3期有明显增长.女性组:上颌骨总长度、下颌骨水平部、下颌骨总长度,在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4期有明显增长.结论:男女下颌骨生长高峰出现在CS1- CS2和CS3- CS4时期;上颌生长高峰男性出现在CS1- CS2之间和CS2- CS3之间,女性出现在CS1- CS2之间和CS3- CS4之间.%Objective: To study the growth charactristics of mandible and maxilla in patients with Class II malocclusion. Methods: The records of 837 untreated subjects with Class II malocclusion ( 332 males and 505 females ) were selected in the orthodontic clinic. The patients were divided into 6 groups according to their CVM. Win Ceph 6. 0 was used for cephalometric analysis. The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results: In male group significant increase of Go-Gn, Cd-Go and Cd-Gn was observed in CS1-CS2 and CS2-CS3, significant increase of ANS-PNS and Cd-A was found in CS2-CS3. In Female group significant increase of Cd-A, Go-Gn and Cd-Gn was found in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4. Conclusion: The length of mandibular ramus and mandibular body may significantly growth in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4 in the male and female. The significant growth of maxilla is in CS1-CS2 and CS2-CS3 in the male and in CS1-CS2 and CS3-CS4 in the female.

  15. Custos de auditoria e governança corporativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria Bortolon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O serviço prestado pela auditoria independente é fundamental para uma maior transparência e confiabilidade dos relatórios financeiros das empresas de capital aberto. As possíveis ameaças à independência e qualidade das suas análises, os custos dos serviços e a relação com os mecanismos de governança corporativa são temas explorados internacionalmente. Esta pesquisa investiga o tema no ambiente brasileiro, possível a partir da Instrução CVM 480, que tornou obrigatória a divulgação dos valores dos serviços de auditoria e serviços extras contratados junto às empresas de auditoria independente. Com o objetivo de analisar a relação entre governança corporativa, custos de auditoria e de serviços extra-auditoria, foram analisadas as informações disponibilizadas por 131 empresas no primeiro semestre de 2010. As proxies de governança utilizadas foram: desvio de direitos dos cinco maiores acionistas, participação em segmentos diferenciados de governança da Bolsa de Mercadoria e Futuros & Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BM&FBovespa, existência de comitê de auditoria e de departamento de auditoria interna. Os resultados apontam para uma relação negativa entre governança e custos de auditoria, sugerindo que, no mercado brasileiro, predomina o efeito risco. Ou seja, melhores práticas de governança reduzem os riscos (judiciais e de perda da reputação da auditoria externa permitindo a cobrança de valores menores. A literatura internacional não é unânime quanto ao sinal, embora a maioria dos estudos apresente uma relação positiva, a favor do efeito demanda. De acordo com este efeito, melhor governança implica em maiores exigências junto ao serviço da auditoria acarretando elevação dos valores cobrados. A relação encontrada também é negativa entre os valores dos serviços extras e as boas práticas de governança. Apesar de as pesquisas não comprovarem a influência destes custos sobre a perda da independ

  16. 旅行费用法在旅游资源价值评估中的若干问题述评%Review on Several Issues of Travel Cost Method in Tourist Resources Valuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董雪旺; 张捷; 章锦河

    2011-01-01

    Travel Cost Method(TCM) is a revealed preference approach for valuing tourist resources based on observed economic behavior.In TCM research,several problems,including selecting model,measuring travel cost and estimating the demand function,are controversial.Based on the literature review and analysis,this paper discusses the biases in TCM research and puts forward some solutions respectively.After that,the validity,applicability and legality of TCM are discussed and the emphasis and direction of the future research are proposed.The result of literature review shows that: 1) there are six categories of TCM,including ZTCM,TCIA,GTCM,ITCM,HTCM and RUM;2) the following problems,which include endogenous stratification,sampling errors,opportunity cost of time and multi-destination trip during the measurement of travel cost,and multi-colinearity,endogeneity and the choice of function form during the estimation of recreational demand function,may lead to biases in TCM valuation;3) although there are various defects in validity in developing countries,and its applicability and legality are controversial,TCM is still an effective method to measure the recreational value of tourist resources;and 4) the development of TCM should shift gradually from case study to bias analysis and validity test,and then,modification and improvement of the TCM model,especially the combination of the TCM and CVM,should be emphasized to establish and perfect the TCM implementation rules that are suitable to developing countries.%旅行费用法(TCM)是一种基于观测资料评估旅游资源价值的显示偏好法。论文在文献梳理的基础上,对TCM研究过程中的偏差进行了述评,并指出了可能的解决方案;然后,讨论了TCM的有效性、适用性以及合法性,并提出进一步研究的重点和方向。文献综述表明:常见的TCM模型可以分为ZTCM、TCIA、GTCM、ITCM、HTCM和RUM六种类型,在研究中应根据实际情况选择合适

  17. 二分选择模型在滨海旅游经济价值评价中的应用%The Application of Dichotomous Choice Model in Valuing Coastal Tourism Economic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李作志; 王尔大; 苏敬勤

    2012-01-01

    本文以大连滨海旅游资源为例,采用二分选择模型条件评价法(CVM)评价海水和沙滩质量改善的经济价值,探索滨海旅游资源生态补偿的价值。研究发现采用Logit二分选择模型估算旅游者意愿支付(WTP)比采用Probit模型更适合滨海旅游资源经济价值评价;在计算WTP的均值解时,采用线性效用差函数更为简单实用。将该方法用于大连旅游景区海水和沙滩质量价值评价的研究,结果表明:采用Logit和Probit模型能够得到一致的WTP;文中采用单解释变量模型可以反应多个解释变量模型的计算结果;测算得到海水沙滩质量改善的非使用价值为215元/人,进而对旅游或环境资源的保护和可持续利用可以有更明确的定量认识。这种经济价值研究方法与过程对探索滨海旅游资源生态补偿的定性研究具有重要意义。%In this paper, we valued seawater and sand quality in Dalian beach area using the contingent valuation method (CVM) of dichotomous choice models, and explored the values of coastal tourism resources Eco-compensation. The researches indicate that it is more appropriate to use Logit dichotomous choice model for estimating tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) than using Probit model under discrete CVM. In calculating the mean value of WTP, it is more simplistic to apply a linear utility difference model. This model directly utilized to measure the economic value of Dalian coastal park seawater and sand quality. The results revealed that: (a) a consistent result was achieved in WTP measurement using both Logit and Probit dichotomous choice models; (b) using a single explanatory variable could generate the same results as using multiple explanatory variable model; (c) the estimated non-use value of the beach quality in Dalian coastal park is 215 RMB per person, and based on the result, sustainable protection and development of tourism or environmental

  18. Atividade elétrica dos músculos oblíquos externos e multífidos durante o exercício de flexoextensão do quadril realizado no Cadillac com diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo Electrical activity of external oblique and multifidus muscles during the hip flexion-extension exercise performed in the Cadillac with different adjustments of springs and individual positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson F. Loss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Apesar do amplo uso do Pilates na Fisioterapia, há poucos estudos que avaliaram a ativação elétrica dos músculos nos exercícios. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de diferentes regulagens de mola e posições do indivíduo sobre a ativação elétrica dos multífidos (MU e oblíquos externos (OE durante a flexoextensão do quadril (FEQ no Cadillac. MÉTODOS: Oito mulheres praticantes de Pilates por seis meses realizaram 10 repetições de FEQ nas situações: mola baixa (MB, mola fixada a 30 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; mola alta (MA, mola fixada a 90 cm do nível em que estava o indivíduo; posição próxima (PP, distância de 10 cm da fixação da mola; posição distante (PD, distância de 30 cm da fixação da mola. Dados cinemáticos e de eletromiografia (EMG foram coletados sincronizadamente, e os músculos monitorados bilateralmente foram os OE e os MU. Cada movimento de FEQ foi recortado em duas fases (extensão e flexão. O sinal de EMG foi calculado e normalizado usando a contração voluntária máxima (CVM. O Wilcoxon test foi usado para investigar diferenças entre as situações (pBACKGROUND: Despite of the widepread use of Pilates in Physical Therapy, there are few studies that have assessed the muscle electrical activation during Pilates exercises. OBJECTIVE: Verify the influence of different spring adjustments and individual positions on the electrical activation of multifidus (MU and oblique external (OE muscles during hip flexion-extension (HFE exercise on the Cadillac. METHODS: Eight women practicing Pilates exercises for at least six months performed 10 repetitions of HFE in the following situations: Lower Spring, spring fixed at 30 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Higher Spring, spring fixed at 90 cm in relation to level which the individuals were positioned. Near Position, distance of 10 cm from the fixed spring. Distant Position, distance of 30 cm from

  19. A study on value assessment of nuclear energy and quantification model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies quantifying the contributions of nuclear energy to the countries that operate them are scant. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively these benefits, which have proven to be significant. We present estimates of the value of nuclear energy in terms of economics, the environment, security, and social issues, specifically for nuclear energy used in Korea. This study also suggests an approach to quantitatively measure and compare the value of energy ultimately for the generation of electricity from different energy sources Input-Output analysis was used to find out the economic contribution of energy sources. Nuclear energy contributes a similar amount of electricity that coal power plants do but, surprisingly, its value added GDP contribution is almost twice that of coal. Coal, oil, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and nuclear contribute 0.47%, 0.05%, 0.23%, and 0.92% to the value added GDP, respectively. While this may seem small, the four major industries in Korea - primary iron and steel products, semiconductors and related devices, motor vehicles, and petroleum refinery products - contributed 1.3%, 2.1%, 2.2%, and 2.9% to GDP in that same year, respectively. To measure the environmental effect, a carbon-tax scenario was used. Considering both health effects and the carbon-tax scenario, nuclear had the lowest environmental cost at 0.29 won/kWh. Coal had the highest at 24.47 won/kWh, followed by oil at 19.52 won/kWh, and LNG at 12.98 won/kWh. Therefore, if the carbon-tax (or some constraint) is imposed for future and current environmental concerns, nuclear energy's competitiveness will only increase. In spite of the importance of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Korea, the public's attitude towards nuclear energy is not favorable. This negative social perception was defined as the social cost of nuclear energy. To estimate it, a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was utilized. This method estimates the

  20. Compensation for Quitting Rural Residential Land and Its Influential Factors Based on Farmers' Willingness to Accept: A Case Study of Linqing City in Shandong Province%基于农户受偿意愿的宅基地退出补偿及影响因素分析——以山东省临清市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许恒周

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the farmers' willingness to accept regarding the compensation for quitting their residential land and analyze the influential factors based on a case study in Linqing City of Shandong province. The methods include Contingent Valuation Method (CVM)and Tobit model. The result shows that sampled rural residents' average willingness to accept is 704.22 Yuan per square meter in Linqing city. On this basis, the result shows that the variables of age, period of off-farm jobs, the percent of agricultural income in family, the coefficient of family sustenance, understanding the policy of rural residential land or not and the role of rural residential land in familiy pension have positive significant effect on the WTA of compensation for quitting the residential land, while the variables of joining New Cooperative Medical System or not, home location and the stability of non-agricultural employment have significantly negative effect on the WTA of compensation. According to the results, some suggestionsare put forward in the conclusion part, such as offering the farmers more chances for off-farm employment, making more reasonable standard for the compensation, and ensuring the sustainable living strategies for the farmers after their quit.%研究目的:研究农民对宅基地退出补偿意愿的受偿水平,并检验影响农民受偿意愿的相关因素。研究方法:CVM法和Tobit计量模型。研究结果:山东省临清市农户退出宅基地的平均受偿意愿为704.22元/m2;年龄、外出务工年限、家庭农业收入占比、家庭供养系数、对宅基地政策是否了解及其在住房养老中的作用等变量对农户宅基地退出补偿受偿意愿具有正向显著影响,而是否参加新农合或其他保险、区位变量、非农就业稳定性变量则对宅基地退出补偿受偿意愿具有负面影响。研究结论:应增强农户退出宅基地转向城镇非农就业的能力与

  1. 上海地区池塘养殖生态服务价值的时空差异分析%Spatial-temporal variations in eco-service values of pond aquaculture in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正勇; 唐克勇; 杨怀宇; 范晓赟

    2013-01-01

    池塘养殖在中国渔业生产体系中占有重要的位置,它具有食物供给、空气(气温)调节、文化休憩服务等多重生态服务价值,同时也会对环境造成一定的负面影响,即存在环境成本.为进一步厘清池塘养殖生态服务价值的变化规律,本文基于前期研究成果,在构建池塘养殖生态服务价值评估体系的基础上,采用市场价值法(MVM)、旅行成本法(TCM)、条件价值评估法(CVM)、影子工程法(SEM)等方法对上海嘉定、青浦、奉贤地区的池塘养殖生态服务价值进行了系统评估,并分析了池塘养殖生态服务价值的时空分布差异,对因地制宜促进池塘养殖产业的发展提出了建议.结果表明:1)2011年,嘉定、青浦、奉贤3区的池塘养殖生态服务价值分别为0.822 8亿元、8.462 8亿元和15.588 4亿元,相当于各区池塘养殖产业经济价值的2.69倍、1.94倍和2.17倍,约合94.08万元·hm-2、20.00万元·hm-2和32.73万元.hm-2,池塘养殖生态服务价值巨大且时空分布差异明显;2)嘉定、青浦、奉贤未实现的池塘养殖生态服务价值是各区池塘养殖食物供给净价值的5.46倍、1.23倍、0.46倍,具有巨大的潜在生态经济效益;3)受养殖经济效率时间变化的影响,2010-2011年研究区常规鱼类养殖规模大幅减少,青虾、南美白对虾逐渐成为主要的养殖品种;4)池塘养殖生态服务价值时间分布集中且波动明显,大部分服务价值集中于第3季度,其中文化休憩服务价值主要集中于4-9月,空气调节价值主要集中于7-12月,而气温调控价值集中于5-9月;5)养殖规模对生态服务价值的时空分布具有重要影响,池塘养殖生态服务价值整体服从规模效应,但不同类型的生态服务价值的时间分布规律并不统一.养殖经营者应积极调整池塘养殖经营战略,大力发展休闲渔业,提高池塘生态服务价值的实现化程度,政府需要制定并执行

  2. Rural Residents' Awareness of Environmental Protection and Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection:A Case Study of the Nabanhe Nature Reserve%农村居民对环境保护的认知程度及支付意愿研究——以纳板河自然保护区居民为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳乐山; 郭建卿

    2011-01-01

    There is no consensus on whether rural residents are willing to pay for environmental protection.Some people suggest that the rural residents are too poor to pay, or too illiterate to concern environmental protection, whereas others indicate that rural residents tend to be more reliant on the environment and natural resources and consequently they would pay attention to the status of the environment.With Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) the authors analyzed cognition and willingness of rural residents in the Nanbanhe Nature Reserve to pay for environmental protection in their community.Questions designed for surveys on 300 rural households in the Reserve were intended to investigate rural residents' willingness to pay for conserving the environment.Some conclusions can be drawn.More than half of the residents consider that economic development is as important as environmental conservation, and about a quarter of the residents think that environmental conservation is more important than economic development.However, people are generally reluctant to act in environmental conservation for various reasons.One reason they raised is that they believe that the government should do the job.Other reasons include that those who damage the environment should do the job.This shows that rural residents have more cognition than action regarding environmental protection.Many rural residents believe that environmental protection is the responsibility of the government.The willingness to pay for environmental conservation varies greatly with different payment vehicles.Rural residents prefer to pay in the form of labor rather than cash.The willingness to pay in the form of cash is 46.88 Yuan/year/household accounting for 0.36% of the household income of the rural residents.In the form of labor the willingness to pay becomes 249.24 Yuan/year/household with a labor wage rate of 30 Yuan/day, accounting for 1.94% of the household income.In fact, rural residents' willingness to pay

  3. Assessing Non-market Value of Cultivated Land in Ecologically Fragile Areas of Three Gorges Reservoir%三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广东; 邱道持; 王平

    2011-01-01

    经济补偿是破解耕地保护外部效应外溢的有效途径.耕地非市场价值是耕地保护外部效应的核心,合理评估这部分价值对耕地保护经济补偿标准的确定具有重要的参考价值.本文运用条件价值法对三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值进行了评估,对712份有效问卷统计分析表明:①生态脆弱与贫困耦合地区居民对耕地保护及耕地非市场价值的认知存在一定差异,经济、文化、社会、政府、心理等因素影响到民众的认知水平.②农户对耕地非市场价值支付意愿率达到76.77%,城镇居民支付意愿率仅占到64.87%.受访者往往将耕地价值与自身的切身利益结合,更多地表现为理性经济人而非理性社会人.③Probit回归与Logit回归分析表明,经济社会特征对受访者的决策产生一定影响.收入限制成为影响农户决策的主导因素,而捐赠历史与耕地保护认知成为影响城镇居民决策的主导因素.④农户与城镇居民的最大支付意愿分别为157.92元/(户·a)和206.28元/(户·a).受访者单位耕地支付意愿为607.65元/(hm2·a),最终评估出三峡生态脆弱区耕地非市场价值约为104.26×108元.%Economic compensation is an effective way to break the external benefits spillover of cultivated land protection which is mainly composed of non-market value of cultivated land, so it is of great reference value for reasonably fixing the economic compensation criterion in cultivated land protection. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is used to evaluate the non-market value of cultivated land in ecologically fragile areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir according to 712 valid questionnaires. Several conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The cognition of different residents about the significance of protection cultivated land and the non-market value of cultivated land is in varying degrees, which is decided by how the economic, cultural, social

  4. 碳排放权市场结构相依特征研究:规则藤方法%Dependence Structure of Carbon Emission Markets:Regular Vine Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡根华; 吴恒煜; 邱甲贤

    2015-01-01

    applying the sequential maximum likelihood method to describe the characteristics of the dependence structure of the carbon emission trading market. It is shown that the t-copula function can capture the dependence of the markets in the unconditional context, indicating that the carbon emission trading market has significant symmetric tails. Besides, the Gaussian copula function and Frank copula function describe the dependence of Dec11EUA and Dec14EUA conditional on Dec10EUA, Dec12EUA and Dec13EUA, and the dependence of Dec12EUA and Dec14EUA conditional on Dec10EUA and Dec13EUA indicating that there are no tails in the market. Furthermore, the paper tested the performance of the modeled regular vine copula framework by using the Goodness-of-fit tests of the White’ s information matrix equation and the combination of probability integral transform ( PIT) approach and empirical copula process ( ECP ) , which is based on the bootstrap method and Cramer von Mises ( CvM) test statistics. The results show that the modeled regular vine copula framework performs well to describe the nonlinear dependence structure of the carbon emission market. This result provides some references to the discussion of the hedging strategy within the carbon emission trading market and with other capital markets. It is also beneficial to improve the accuracy of the risk management and pricing strategies in the carbon emission market.