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Sample records for alerting sounds reduce

  1. System for actively reducing sound

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  2. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  3. Vehicle surge detection and pathway discrimination by pedestrians who are blind: Effect of adding an alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on performance.

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-05-01

    This study examined the effect of adding an artificially generated alert sound to a quiet vehicle on its detectability and localizability with 15 visually impaired adults. When starting from a stationary position, the hybrid electric vehicle with an alert sound was significantly more quickly and reliably detected than either the identical vehicle without such added sound or the comparable internal combustion engine vehicle. However, no significant difference was found between the vehicles in respect to how accurately the participants could discriminate the path of a given vehicle (straight vs. right turn). These results suggest that adding an artificial sound to a hybrid electric vehicle may help reduce delay in street crossing initiation by a blind pedestrian, but the benefit of such alert sound may not be obvious in determining whether the vehicle in his near parallel lane proceeds straight through the intersection or turns right in front of him.

  4. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  5. Non-Wovens as Sound Reducers

    Belakova, D.; Seile, A.; Kukle, S.; Plamus, T.

    2018-04-01

    Within the present study, the effect of hemp (40 wt%) and polyactide (60 wt%), non-woven surface density, thickness and number of fibre web layers on the sound absorption coefficient and the sound transmission loss in the frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz is analysed. The sound insulation properties of the experimental samples have been determined, compared to the ones in practical use, and the possible use of material has been defined. Non-woven materials are ideally suited for use in acoustic insulation products because the arrangement of fibres produces a porous material structure, which leads to a greater interaction between sound waves and fibre structure. Of all the tested samples (A, B and D), the non-woven variant B exceeded the surface density of sample A by 1.22 times and 1.15 times that of sample D. By placing non-wovens one above the other in 2 layers, it is possible to increase the absorption coefficient of the material, which depending on the frequency corresponds to C, D, and E sound absorption classes. Sample A demonstrates the best sound absorption of all the three samples in the frequency range from 250 to 2000 Hz. In the test frequency range from 50 to 5000 Hz, the sound transmission loss varies from 0.76 (Sample D at 63 Hz) to 3.90 (Sample B at 5000 Hz).

  6. Framing sound: Using expectations to reduce environmental noise annoyance.

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-10-01

    Annoyance reactions to environmental noise, such as wind turbine sound, have public health implications given associations between annoyance and symptoms related to psychological distress. In the case of wind farms, factors contributing to noise annoyance have been theorised to include wind turbine sound characteristics, the noise sensitivity of residents, and contextual aspects, such as receiving information creating negative expectations about sound exposure. The experimental aim was to assess whether receiving positive or negative expectations about wind farm sound would differentially influence annoyance reactions during exposure to wind farm sound, and also influence associations between perceived noise sensitivity and noise annoyance. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either negative or positive expectations about wind farm sound. Participants in the negative expectation group viewed a presentation which incorporated internet material indicating that exposure to wind turbine sound, particularly infrasound, might present a health risk. Positive expectation participants viewed a DVD which framed wind farm sound positively and included internet information about the health benefits of infrasound exposure. Participants were then simultaneously exposed to sub-audible infrasound and audible wind farm sound during two 7 min exposure sessions, during which they assessed their experience of annoyance. Positive expectation participants were significantly less annoyed than negative expectation participants, while noise sensitivity only predicted annoyance in the negative group. Findings suggest accessing negative information about sound is likely to trigger annoyance, particularly in noise sensitive people and, importantly, portraying sound positively may reduce annoyance reactions, even in noise sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A home automation based environmental sound alert for people experiencing hearing loss.

    Mielke, Matthias; Bruck, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Different assistive technologies are available for deaf people (i.e. deaf, deafened, and hard of hearing). Besides the well-known hearing aid, devices for detection of sound events that occur at home or at work (e.g. doorbell, telephone) are available. Despite the technological progress in the last years and resulting new possibilities, the basic functions and concepts of such devices have not changed. The user still needs special assistive technology that is bound to the home or work environment. In this contribution a new concept for awareness of events in buildings is presented. In contrast to state-of-the-art assistive devices, it makes use of modern Information and Communication and home automation technology, and thus offers the prospect of cheap implementation and higher comfort for the user. In this concept events are indicated by notifications that are send over a Bluetooth Low Energy mesh network from a source to the user. The notifications are received by the user's smartwatch and the event is indicated by vibration and an icon representing its source.

  8. Sepsis Alert - a triage model that reduces time to antibiotics and length of hospital stay.

    Rosenqvist, Mari; Fagerstrand, Emma; Lanbeck, Peter; Melander, Olle; Åkesson, Per

    2017-07-01

    To study if a modified triage system at an Emergency Department (ED) combined with educational efforts resulted in reduced time to antibiotics and decreased length of hospital stay (LOS) for patients with severe infection. A retrospective, observational study comparing patients before and after the start of a new triage model at the ED of a University Hospital. After the implementation of the model, patients with fever and abnormal vital signs were triaged into a designated sepsis line (Sepsis Alert) for rapid evaluation by the attending physician supported by a infectious diseases (IDs) specialist. Also, all ED staff participated in a designated sepsis education before Sepsis Alert was introduced. Medical records were evaluated for patients during a 3-month period after the triage system was started in 2012, and also during the corresponding months in 2010 and 2014. A total of 1837 patients presented with abnormal vital signs. Of these, 221 patients presented with fever and thus at risk of having severe sepsis. Among patients triaged according to the new model, median time to antibiotics was 58.5 at startup and 24.5 minutes at follow-up two years later. This was significantly less than for patients treated before the new model, 190 minutes. Also, median LOS was significantly decreased after introduction of the new triage model, from nine to seven days. A triage model at the ED with special attention to severe sepsis patients, led to sustained improvements of time to antibiotic treatment and LOS.

  9. Unintended consequences of reducing QT-alert overload in a computerized physician order entry system

    I.H. van der Sijs (Heleen); R. Kowlesar (Ravi); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); M. Berg (Marc); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); T. van Gelder (Teun)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: After complaints of too many low-specificity drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts on QT prolongation, the rules for QT alerting in the Dutch national drug database were restricted in 2007 to obviously QT-prolonging drugs. The aim of this virtual study was to investigate whether

  10. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    Matthews, R.B.; Noordwijk, van M.; Lambin, E.; Meyfroidt, P.; Gupta, J.; Verschot, L.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Veldkamp, E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that

  11. Implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation): evidence on governance, evaluation and impacts from the REDD-ALERT project

    Mathews, R.B.; van Noordwijk, M.; Lambin, E.; Meyfroidt, P.; Gupta, J.; Verchot, L.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Veldkamp, E.

    2014-01-01

    The REDD-ALERT (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation from Alternative Land Uses in the Rainforests of the Tropics) project started in 2009 and finished in 2012, and had the aim of evaluating mechanisms that translate international-level agreements into instruments that would help

  12. Applying the Toyota Production System: using a patient safety alert system to reduce error.

    Furman, Cathie; Caplan, Robert

    2007-07-01

    In 2002, Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) adapted the Toyota Production System, also known as lean manufacturing. To translate the techniques of zero defects and stopping the line into health care, the Patient Safety Alert (PSA) system requires any employee who encounters a situation that is likely to harm a patient to make an immediate report and to cease any activity that could cause further harm (stopping the line). IMPLEMENTING THE PSA SYSTEM--STOPPING THE LINE: If any VMMC employee's practice or conduct is deemed capable of causing harm to a patient, a PSA can cause that person to be stopped from working until the problem is resolved. A policy statement, senior executive commitment, dedicated resources, a 24-hour hotline, and communication were all key features of implementation. As of December 2006, 6,112 PSA reports were received: 20% from managers, 8% from physicians, 44% from nurses, and 23% from nonclinical support personnel, for example. The number of reports received per month increased from an average of 3 in 2002 to 285 in 2006. Most reports were processed within 24 hours and were resolved within 2 to 3 weeks. Implementing the PSA system has drastically increased the number of safety concerns that are resolved at VMMC, while drastically reducing the time it takes to resolve them. Transparent discussion and feedback have helped promote staff acceptance and participation.

  13. Reduced Effectiveness of Interruptive Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts after Conversion to a Commercial Electronic Health Record.

    Wright, Adam; Aaron, Skye; Seger, Diane L; Samal, Lipika; Schiff, Gordon D; Bates, David W

    2018-05-15

    Drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts in electronic health records (EHRs) can help prevent adverse drug events, but such alerts are frequently overridden, raising concerns about their clinical usefulness and contribution to alert fatigue. To study the effect of conversion to a commercial EHR on DDI alert and acceptance rates. Two before-and-after studies. 3277 clinicians who received a DDI alert in the outpatient setting. Introduction of a new, commercial EHR and subsequent adjustment of DDI alerting criteria. Alert burden and proportion of alerts accepted. Overall interruptive DDI alert burden increased by a factor of 6 from the legacy EHR to the commercial EHR. The acceptance rate for the most severe alerts fell from 100 to 8.4%, and from 29.3 to 7.5% for medium severity alerts (P fell by 50.5%, and acceptance of Tier 1 alerts rose from 9.1 to 12.7% (P < 0.01). Changing from a highly tailored DDI alerting system to a more general one as part of an EHR conversion decreased acceptance of DDI alerts and increased alert burden on users. The decrease in acceptance rates cannot be fully explained by differences in the clinical knowledge base, nor can it be fully explained by alert fatigue associated with increased alert burden. Instead, workflow factors probably predominate, including timing of alerts in the prescribing process, lack of differentiation of more and less severe alerts, and features of how users interact with alerts.

  14. Impact of adding artificially generated alert sound to hybrid electric vehicles on their detectability by pedestrians who are blind.

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Pliskow, Jay; Myers, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 14 adults with visual impairments attempted to detect three different vehicles: a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with an artificially generated sound (Vehicle Sound for Pedestrians [VSP]), an HEV without the VSP, and a comparable internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle. The VSP vehicle (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 38.3 +/- 14.8 m) was detected at a significantly farther distance than the HEV (mean +/- SD = 27.5 +/- 11.5 m), t = 4.823, p vehicles (mean +/- SD = 34.5 +/- 14.3 m), t = 1.787, p = 0.10. Despite the overall sound level difference between the two test sites (parking lot = 48.7 dBA, roadway = 55.1 dBA), no significant difference in detection distance between the test sites was observed, F(1, 13) = 0.025, p = 0.88. No significant interaction was found between the vehicle type and test site, F(1.31, 16.98) = 0.272, p = 0.67. The findings of the study may help us understand how adding an artificially generated sound to an HEV could affect some of the orientation and mobility tasks performed by blind pedestrians.

  15. Assessment of Reduced Tolerance to Sound (Hyperacusis in University Students

    Sule Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperacusis is defined as a reduction in tolerance to ordinary environmental sounds. Hyperacusis can occur in individuals of all age groups, making daily life difficult for the sufferers. Although there is no objective test to accurately diagnose hyperacusis, questionnaires are useful for the assessment of hyperacusis. The aim of this study was to explore the reduced sound tolerance in university students using a hyperacusis questionnaire (HQ. Materials and Methods: A total of 536 university students (300 females and 236 males aged between 18 and 25 years, with a mean age of 21.34 ± 1.87 years, were assessed using an HQ developed by Khalfa. The mean total score of all the participants was 16.34 ± 7.91, and 5.78% of the participants had total scores indicating hyperacusis, where a majority of them were females. Results: Females had significantly higher scores than men in terms of both the total and the attentional and emotional dimensions. The scores of the participants who reported noise exposure or a decrease in their tolerance to noise were significantly higher than those of the other participants. Even among young adults, there was a group of participants suffering from some problems related to decreased tolerance to everyday sounds. Discussion: Although the Turkish translation of the HQ seems to be a reliable tool for evaluating hyperacusis in young adults, further work with various populations of different age groups is required to establish validity and to assess the psychometric qualities of the Turkish form.

  16. Sound

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  17. Synchronous Sounds Enhance Visual Sensitivity without Reducing Target Uncertainty

    Yi-Chuan Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined the crossmodal effect of the presentation of a simultaneous sound on visual detection and discrimination sensitivity using the equivalent noise paradigm (Dosher & Lu, 1998. In each trial, a tilted Gabor patch was presented in either the first or second of two intervals consisting of dynamic 2D white noise with one of seven possible contrast levels. The results revealed that the sensitivity of participants' visual detection and discrimination performance were both enhanced by the presentation of a simultaneous sound, though only close to the noise level at which participants' target contrast thresholds started to increase with the increasing noise contrast. A further analysis of the psychometric function at this noise level revealed that the increase in sensitivity could not be explained by the reduction of participants' uncertainty regarding the onset time of the visual target. We suggest that this crossmodal facilitatory effect may be accounted for by perceptual enhancement elicited by a simultaneously-presented sound, and that the crossmodal facilitation was easier to observe when the visual system encountered a level of noise that happened to be close to the level of internal noise embedded within the system.

  18. Sound stabilizes locomotor-respiratory coupling and reduces energy cost.

    Charles P Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences.

  19. Application of porous material to reduce aerodynamic sound from bluff bodies

    Sueki, Takeshi; Takaishi, Takehisa; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Arai, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic sound derived from bluff bodies can be considerably reduced by flow control. In this paper, the authors propose a new method in which porous material covers a body surface as one of the flow control methods. From wind tunnel tests on flows around a bare cylinder and a cylinder with porous material, it has been clarified that the application of porous materials is effective in reducing aerodynamic sound. Correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation, and a surface pressure distribution of cylinders are measured to investigate a mechanism of aerodynamic sound reduction. As a result, the correlation between aerodynamic sound and aerodynamic force fluctuation exists in the flow around the bare cylinder and disappears in the flow around the cylinder with porous material. Moreover, the aerodynamic force fluctuation of the cylinder with porous material is less than that of the bare cylinder. The surface pressure distribution of the cylinder with porous material is quite different from that of the bare cylinder. These facts indicate that aerodynamic sound is reduced by suppressing the motion of vortices because aerodynamic sound is induced by the unstable motion of vortices. In addition, an instantaneous flow field in the wake of the cylinder is measured by application of the PIV technique. Vortices that are shed alternately from the bare cylinder disappear by application of porous material, and the region of zero velocity spreads widely behind the cylinder with porous material. Shear layers between the stationary region and the uniform flow become thin and stable. These results suggest that porous material mainly affects the flow field adjacent to bluff bodies and reduces aerodynamic sound by depriving momentum of the wake and suppressing the unsteady motion of vortices. (invited paper)

  20. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  1. Does applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduce cervical spine radiography rates in alert patients with blunt trauma to the neck? A retrospective analysis

    Yesupalan Rajam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A cautious outlook towards neck injuries has been the norm to avoid missing cervical spine injuries. Consequently there has been an increased use of cervical spine radiography. The Canadian Cervical Spine rule was proposed to reduce unnecessary use of cervical spine radiography in alert and stable patients. Our aim was to see whether applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule reduced the need for cervical spine radiography without missing significant cervical spine injuries. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in 2 hospitals. 114 alert and stable patients who had cervical spine radiographs for suspected neck injuries were included in the study. Data on patient demographics, high risk & low risk factors as per the Canadian Cervical Spine rule and cervical spine radiography results were collected and analysed. Results 28 patients were included in the high risk category according to the Canadian Cervical Spine rule. 86 patients fell into the low risk category. If the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied, there would have been a significant reduction in cervical spine radiographs as 86/114 patients (75.4% would not have needed cervical spine radiograph. 2/114 patients who had significant cervical spine injuries would have been identified when the Canadian Cervical Spine rule was applied. Conclusion Applying the Canadian Cervical Spine rule for neck injuries in alert and stable patients would have reduced the use of cervical spine radiographs without missing out significant cervical spine injuries. This relates to reduction in radiation exposure to patients and health care costs.

  2. Is 1/f sound more effective than simple resting in reducing stress response?

    Oh, Eun-Joo; Cho, Il-Young; Park, Soon-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that listening to 1/f sound effectively reduces stress. However, these findings have been inconsistent and further study on the relationship between 1/f sound and the stress response is consequently necessary. The present study examined whether sound with 1/f properties (1/f sound) affects stress-induced electroencephalogram (EEG) changes. Twenty-six subjects who voluntarily participated in the study were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. Data from four participants were excluded because of EEG artifacts. A mental arithmetic task was used as a stressor. Participants in the experiment group listened to 1/f sound for 5 minutes and 33 seconds, while participants in the control group sat quietly for the same duration. EEG recordings were obtained at various points throughout the experiment. After the experiment, participants completed a questionnaire on the affective impact of the 1/f sound. The results indicated that the mental arithmetic task effectively induced a stress response measurable by EEG. Relative theta power at all electrode sites was significantly lower than baseline in both the control and experimental group. Relative alpha power was significantly lower, and relative beta power was significantly higher in the T3 and T4 areas. Secondly, 1/f sound and simple resting affected task-associated EEG changes in a similar manner. Finally, participants reported in the questionnaire that they experienced a positive feeling in response to the 1/f sound. Our results suggest that a commercialized 1/f sound product is not more effective than simple resting in alleviating the physiological stress response.

  3. Evaluation of Visual Alerts in the Maritime Domain

    Roberts, Shelley; Foster-Hunt, Tara

    2008-01-01

    .... As the auditory modality is overloaded in the current alerting system, one method of potentially reducing perceptual overload is to replace auditory alerts with alerts presented in the visual domain...

  4. 3-minute smartphone-based and tablet-based psychomotor vigilance tests for the assessment of reduced alertness due to sleep deprivation.

    Grant, Devon A; Honn, Kimberly A; Layton, Matthew E; Riedy, Samantha M; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-06-01

    The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) is widely used to measure reduced alertness due to sleep loss. Here, two newly developed, 3-min versions of the psychomotor vigilance test, one smartphone-based and the other tablet-based, were validated against a conventional 10-min laptop-based PVT. Sixteen healthy participants (ages 22-40; seven males, nine females) completed a laboratory study, which included a practice and a baseline day, a 38-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) period, and a recovery day, during which they performed the three different versions of the PVT every 3 h. For each version of the PVT, the number of lapses, mean response time (RT), and number of false starts showed statistically significant changes across the sleep deprivation and recovery days. The number of lapses on the laptop was significantly correlated with the numbers of lapses on the smartphone and tablet. The mean RTs were generally faster on the smartphone and tablet than on the laptop. All three versions of the PVT exhibited a time-on-task effect in RTs, modulated by time awake and time of day. False starts were relatively rare on all three PVTs. For the number of lapses, the effect sizes across 38 h of TSD were large for the laptop PVT and medium for the smartphone and tablet PVTs. These results indicate that the 3-min smartphone and tablet PVTs are valid instruments for measuring reduced alertness due to sleep deprivation and restored alertness following recovery sleep. The results also indicate that the loss of sensitivity on the 3-min PVTs may be mitigated by modifying the threshold defining lapses.

  5. Using a Sound Field to Reduce the Risks of Bird-Strike: An Experimental Approach.

    Swaddle, John P; Ingrassia, Nicole M

    2017-07-01

    Each year, billions of birds collide with large human-made structures, such as building, towers, and turbines, causing substantial mortality. Such bird-strike, which is projected to increase, poses risks to populations of birds and causes significant economic costs to many industries. Mitigation technologies have been deployed in an attempt to reduce bird-strike, but have been met with limited success. One reason for bird-strike may be that birds fail to pay adequate attention to the space directly in front of them when in level, cruising flight. A warning signal projected in front of a potential strike surface might attract visual attention and reduce the risks of collision. We tested this idea in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) that were trained to fly down a long corridor and through an open wooden frame. Once birds were trained, they each experienced three treatments at unpredictable times and in a randomized order: a loud sound field projected immediately in front of the open wooden frame; a mist net (i.e., a benign strike surface) placed inside the wooden frame; and both the loud sound and the mist net. We found that birds slowed their flight approximately 20% more when the sound field was projected in front of the mist net compared with when the mist net was presented alone. This reduction in velocity would equate to a substantial reduction in the force of any collision. In addition to slowing down, birds increased the angle of attack of their body and tail, potentially allowing for more maneuverable flight. Concomitantly, the only cases where birds avoided the mist net occurred in the sound-augmented treatment. Interestingly, the sound field by itself did not demonstrably alter flight. Although our study was conducted in a limited setting, the alterations of flight associated with our sound field has implications for reducing bird-strike in nature and we encourage researchers to test our ideas in field trials. © The Author 2017. Published by

  6. Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation

    Mandrake, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.

  7. Original sound compositions reduce anxiety in emergency department patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Weiland, Tracey J; Jelinek, George A; Macarow, Keely E; Samartzis, Philip; Brown, David M; Grierson, Elizabeth M; Winter, Craig

    2011-12-19

    To determine whether emergency department (ED) patients' self-rated levels of anxiety are affected by exposure to purpose-designed music or sound compositions with and without the audio frequencies of embedded binaural beat. Randomised controlled trial in an ED between 1 February 2010 and 14 April 2010 among a convenience sample of adult patients who were rated as category 3 on the Australasian Triage Scale. All interventions involved listening to soundtracks of 20 minutes' duration that were purpose-designed by composers and sound-recording artists. Participants were allocated at random to one of five groups: headphones and iPod only, no soundtrack (control group); reconstructed ambient noise simulating an ED but free of clear verbalisations; electroacoustic musical composition; composed non-musical soundtracks derived from audio field recordings obtained from natural and constructed settings; sound composition of audio field recordings with embedded binaural beat. All soundtracks were presented on an iPod through headphones. Patients and researchers were blinded to allocation until interventions were administered. State-trait anxiety was self-assessed before the intervention and state anxiety was self-assessed again 20 minutes after the provision of the soundtrack. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Of 291 patients assessed for eligibility, 170 patients completed the pre-intervention anxiety self-assessment and 169 completed the post-intervention assessment. Significant decreases (all P beats (43; 37) when compared with those allocated to receive simulated ED ambient noise (40; 41) or headphones only (44; 44). In moderately anxious ED patients, state anxiety was reduced by 10%-15% following exposure to purpose-designed sound interventions. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12608000444381.

  8. Sound-Intensity Feedback During Running Reduces Loading Rates and Impact Peak.

    Tate, Jeremiah J; Milner, Clare E

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, within-session design. Background Gait retraining has been proposed as an effective intervention to reduce impact loading in runners at risk of stress fractures. Interventions that can be easily implemented in the clinic are needed. Objective To assess the immediate effects of sound-intensity feedback related to impact during running on vertical impact peak, peak vertical instantaneous loading rate, and vertical average loading rate. Methods Fourteen healthy, college-aged runners who ran at least 9.7 km/wk participated (4 male, 10 female; mean ± SD age, 23.7 ± 2.0 years; height, 1.67 ± 0.08 m; mass, 60.9 ± 8.7 kg). A decibel meter provided real-time sound-intensity feedback of treadmill running via an iPad application. Participants were asked to reduce the sound intensity of running while receiving continuous feedback for 15 minutes, while running at their self-selected preferred speed. Baseline and follow-up ground reaction force data were collected during overground running at participants' self-selected preferred running speed. Results Dependent t tests indicated a statistically significant reduction in vertical impact peak (1.56 BW to 1.13 BW, P≤.001), vertical instantaneous loading rate (95.48 BW/s to 62.79 BW/s, P = .001), and vertical average loading rate (69.09 BW/s to 43.91 BW/s, P≤.001) after gait retraining, compared to baseline. Conclusion The results of the current study support the use of sound-intensity feedback during treadmill running to immediately reduce loading rate and impact force. The transfer of within-session reductions in impact peak and loading rates to overground running was demonstrated. Decreases in loading were of comparable magnitude to those observed in other gait retraining methods. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):565-569. Epub 6 Jul 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7275.

  9. A Logic Architecture for 360 ADAS-Alerts for Hazards Detection Based in Driver Actions

    Izquierdo-Reyes Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work is presented a novel approach for passive safety in vehicles by Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS alert emission in 360° around driver to notify about hazards nearby the vehicle depending on the actions taken by driver per the context. This proposal would create a more robust system compared to current passive ADAS systems since the feedback to driver is in the same direction that hazard is detected (Punctual Sound Source Alert, compared with most assistance systems that emits sounds from the monitor or from the dashboard provoking distractions when emits alerts unnecessarily. The increase of security by this method will allow the driver to be aware of their surroundings even in a very quiet cabin or in a noisy environment. Also, it would detect the steering wheel angle, speed of movement and the activation of turning lights among other alerts, which would allow us to define a critical action during driving; apart from using sensors and cameras aimed at the driver to detect patterns of movement during these critical actions and have a prediction of a possible turn or manoeuvre when driving, refer to Figure 1. It will be necessary a reconfiguration of the alert in frequency, time of action depending upon the level of risk to prevent an accident or to reduce the consequences in an imminent accident.

  10. Reducing Unnecessary and Duplicate Ordering for Ovum and Parasite Examinations and Clostridium difficile PCR in Immunocompromised Patients by Using an Alert at the Time of Request in the Order Management System.

    Otto, Caitlin C; Shuptar, Susan L; Milord, Philippe; Essick, Connor J; Nevrekar, Reshma; Granovsky, Svetlana L; Seo, Susan K; Babady, N Esther; Martin, Steven C; Tang, Yi-Wei; Pessin, Melissa S

    2015-08-01

    We implemented hospital information system (HIS) alerts to deter unnecessary test orders for ovum and parasite (O&P) exams and Clostridium difficile PCR. The HIS alerts decreased noncompliant O&P orders (orders after >72 h of hospitalization) from 49.8% to 30.9%, an overall decrease of 19%, and reduced noncompliant C. difficile PCR orders (orders <7 days after a previous positive result) from 30.6% to 19.2%, an overall decrease of 31.9%. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...

  12. A randomized trial of nature scenery and sounds versus urban scenery and sounds to reduce pain in adults undergoing bone marrow aspirate and biopsy.

    Lechtzin, Noah; Busse, Anne M; Smith, Michael T; Grossman, Stuart; Nesbit, Suzanne; Diette, Gregory B

    2010-09-01

    Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (BMAB) is painful when performed with only local anesthetic. Our objective was to determine whether viewing nature scenes and listening to nature sounds can reduce pain during BMAB. This was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Adult patients undergoing outpatient BMAB with only local anesthetic were assigned to use either a nature scene with accompanying nature sounds, city scene with city sounds, or standard care. The primary outcome was a visual analog scale (0-10) of pain. Prespecified secondary analyses included categorizing pain as mild and moderate to severe and using multiple logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding variables. One hundred and twenty (120) subjects were enrolled: 44 in the Nature arm, 39 in the City arm, and 37 in the Standard Care arm. The mean pain scores, which were the primary outcome, were not significantly different between the three arms. A higher proportion in the Standard Care arm had moderate-to-severe pain (pain rating ≥4) than in the Nature arm (78.4% versus 60.5%), though this was not statistically significant (p = 0.097). This difference was statistically significant after adjusting for differences in the operators who performed the procedures (odds ratio = 3.71, p = 0.02). We confirmed earlier findings showing that BMAB is poorly tolerated. While mean pain scores were not significantly different between the study arms, secondary analyses suggest that viewing a nature scene while listening to nature sounds is a safe, inexpensive method that may reduce pain during BMAB. This approach should be considered to alleviate pain during invasive procedures.

  13. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  14. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  15. Reducing the sound emission of TR 07 and effects on the German regulation ``Schall-Transrapid``

    Schmitz, K P [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany); Wolters, C [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To introduce a new maglev train systems in modern Germany it is important to know its sound emission. Conventional sound measurements were done on the maglev train TRANSRAPID 07 (TR07) to get all the values that are important for planning a new line. Furthermore a microphone array equipment was used to detect the dominant sound sources and their positions on the surface of the train. In a second step the shape was optimazed based on the acoustical investigations. The changes were made especially in the lower part of the bow. This configuration was measured again; the reduction of the noise emission was 3 dB(A) for the changed vehicle. As an example for the low sound emissions the planned schedule for the in service trains of the link between Hamburg and Berlin is reflected on the german regulations for the sound immissions. The result is that there is nearly no need of sound barriers. To use a speed of 200 km/h within the cities a distance of 16 m from the centreline to an immission point is needed. Outside the cities speeds of 400 km/h are possible for a distance of more than 53 m during the nighttime and of more than 23 m during the daytime. (orig.)

  16. Underwater sound from vessel traffic reduces the effective communication range in Atlantic cod and haddock.

    Stanley, Jenni A; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Hatch, Leila T

    2017-11-07

    Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary is located in Massachusetts Bay off the densely populated northeast coast of the United States; subsequently, the marine inhabitants of the area are exposed to elevated levels of anthropogenic underwater sound, particularly due to commercial shipping. The current study investigated the alteration of estimated effective communication spaces at three spawning locations for populations of the commercially and ecologically important fishes, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Both the ambient sound pressure levels and the estimated effective vocalization radii, estimated through spherical spreading models, fluctuated dramatically during the three-month recording periods. Increases in sound pressure level appeared to be largely driven by large vessel activity, and accordingly exhibited a significant positive correlation with the number of Automatic Identification System tracked vessels at the two of the three sites. The near constant high levels of low frequency sound and consequential reduction in the communication space observed at these recording sites during times of high vocalization activity raises significant concerns that communication between conspecifics may be compromised during critical biological periods. This study takes the first steps in evaluating these animals' communication spaces and alteration of these spaces due to anthropogenic underwater sound.

  17. An evaluation of three processing methods and the effect of reduced culture times for faster direct identification of pathogens from BacT/ALERT blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Loonen, A J M; Jansz, A R; Stalpers, J; Wolffs, P F G; van den Brule, A J C

    2012-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast and reliable method for the identification of bacteria from agar media. Direct identification from positive blood cultures should decrease the time to obtaining the result. In this study, three different processing methods for the rapid direct identification of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles were compared. In total, 101 positive aerobe BacT/ALERT bottles were included in this study. Aliquots from all bottles were used for three bacterial processing methods, i.e. the commercially available Bruker's MALDI Sepsityper kit, the commercially available Molzym's MolYsis Basic5 kit and a centrifugation/washing method. In addition, the best method was used to evaluate the possibility of MALDI application after a reduced incubation time of 7 h of Staphylococcus aureus- and Escherichia coli-spiked (1,000, 100 and 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) aerobe BacT/ALERT blood cultures. Sixty-six (65%), 51 (50.5%) and 79 (78%) bottles were identified correctly at the species level when the centrifugation/washing method, MolYsis Basic 5 and Sepsityper were used, respectively. Incorrect identification was obtained in 35 (35%), 50 (49.5%) and 22 (22%) bottles, respectively. Gram-positive cocci were correctly identified in 33/52 (64%) of the cases. However, Gram-negative rods showed a correct identification in 45/47 (96%) of all bottles when the Sepsityper kit was used. Seven hours of pre-incubation of S. aureus- and E. coli-spiked aerobe BacT/ALERT blood cultures never resulted in reliable identification with MALDI-TOF MS. Sepsityper is superior for the direct identification of microorganisms from aerobe BacT/ALERT bottles. Gram-negative pathogens show better results compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Reduced incubation followed by MALDI-TOF MS did not result in faster reliable identification.

  18. Alerts and Advisories

    ... in Select Bottles of Muscle Strength and Nighttime Recovery Product Because of Undeclared Milk Allergen on The Label ( FDA 04/06/18 ) Independent Nutrition, Inc Issues Allergy Alert On Undeclared Milk in ...

  19. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  20. DDBS DB Alert

    Social Security Administration — Data store used by the database area for monitoring of database objects. It is used to generate alerts that the DBAs investigate to determine if any action needs to...

  1. Lower alert rates by clustering of related drug interaction alerts

    Heringa, M.; Siderius, Hidde; Schreudering, A.; De Smet, Peter Agm; Bouvy, M.L.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate to what extent clustering of related drug interaction alerts (drug-drug and drug-disease interaction alerts) would decrease the alert rate in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of drug interaction alerts

  2. Sound Absorbers

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  3. Binaural Sound Reduces Reaction Time in a Virtual Reality Search Task

    Høeg, Emil Rosenlund; Gerry, Lynda; Thomsen, Lui Albæk

    2017-01-01

    Salient features in a visual search task can direct attention and increase competency on these tasks. Simple cues, such as color change in a salient feature, called the "pop-out effect" can increase task solving efficiency [6]. Previous work has shown that nonspatial auditory signals temporally...... synched with a pop-out effect can improve reaction time in a visual search task, called the "pip and pop effect" [14]. This paper describes a within-group study on the effect of audiospatial attention in virtual reality given a 360-degree visual search. Three cue conditions were compared (no sound, stereo...

  4. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wall...... Bass System) is a time based room correction system for reproduced sound using loudspeakers. The system can remove room modes at low frequencies, by active cancelling the reflection from at the rear wall to a normal stereo setup. Measurements in a source room using CABS and in two neighbour rooms have...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....

  5. An IDS Alerts Aggregation Algorithm Based on Rough Set Theory

    Zhang, Ru; Guo, Tao; Liu, Jianyi

    2018-03-01

    Within a system in which has been deployed several IDS, a great number of alerts can be triggered by a single security event, making real alerts harder to be found. To deal with redundant alerts, we propose a scheme based on rough set theory. In combination with basic concepts in rough set theory, the importance of attributes in alerts was calculated firstly. With the result of attributes importance, we could compute the similarity of two alerts, which will be compared with a pre-defined threshold to determine whether these two alerts can be aggregated or not. Also, time interval should be taken into consideration. Allowed time interval for different types of alerts is computed individually, since different types of alerts may have different time gap between two alerts. In the end of this paper, we apply proposed scheme on DAPRA98 dataset and the results of experiment show that our scheme can efficiently reduce the redundancy of alerts so that administrators of security system could avoid wasting time on useless alerts.

  6. Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children scales with individual differences in reading fluency.

    Gojko Žarić

    Full Text Available The acquisition of letter-speech sound associations is one of the basic requirements for fluent reading acquisition and its failure may contribute to reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia. Here we investigated event-related potential (ERP measures of letter-speech sound integration in 9-year-old typical and dyslexic readers and specifically test their relation to individual differences in reading fluency. We employed an audiovisual oddball paradigm in typical readers (n = 20, dysfluent (n = 18 and severely dysfluent (n = 18 dyslexic children. In one auditory and two audiovisual conditions the Dutch spoken vowels/a/and/o/were presented as standard and deviant stimuli. In audiovisual blocks, the letter 'a' was presented either simultaneously (AV0, or 200 ms before (AV200 vowel sound onset. Across the three children groups, vowel deviancy in auditory blocks elicited comparable mismatch negativity (MMN and late negativity (LN responses. In typical readers, both audiovisual conditions (AV0 and AV200 led to enhanced MMN and LN amplitudes. In both dyslexic groups, the audiovisual LN effects were mildly reduced. Most interestingly, individual differences in reading fluency were correlated with MMN latency in the AV0 condition. A further analysis revealed that this effect was driven by a short-lived MMN effect encompassing only the N1 window in severely dysfluent dyslexics versus a longer MMN effect encompassing both the N1 and P2 windows in the other two groups. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in dyslexic children by demonstrating a deficient pattern of letter-speech sound integration depending on the level of reading dysfluency. These findings underscore the importance of considering individual differences across the entire spectrum of reading skills in addition to group differences between typical and dyslexic readers.

  7. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the “clean” speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids. PMID:29708061

  8. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality.

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids.

  9. Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1-2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds.

    Isojunno, Saana; Cure, Charlotte; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Lam, Frans-Peter Alexander; Tyack, Peter Lloyd; Wensveen, Paul Jacobus; Miller, Patrick James O'Malley

    2016-01-01

    The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1-2 kHz, source level 214 dB re 1 µPa m, four tag records) and playbacks of potential predator (killer whale, Orcinus orca) sounds broadcast at naturally occurring sound levels as a positive control from a drifting boat (five tag records). Time spent in foraging states and the probability of prey capture attempts were reduced during these two types of exposures with little change in overall locomotion activity, suggesting an effect on energy intake with no immediate compensation. Whales switched to the active non-foraging state over received sound pressure levels of 131-165 dB re 1 µPa during LFAS exposure. In contrast, no changes in foraging behavior were detected in response to experimental negative controls (no-sonar ship approach or noise control playback) or to experimental medium-frequency active sonar exposures (MFAS; 6-7 kHz, source level 199 re 1 µPa m, received sound pressure level [SPL] = 73-158 dB re 1 µPa). Similarly, there was no reduction in foraging effort for three whales exposed to incidental, unidentified 4.7-5.1 kHz sonar signals received at lower levels (SPL = 89-133 dB re 1 µPa). These results demonstrate that similar to predation risk, exposure to sonar can affect functional behaviors, and indicate that increased perception of risk with higher source level or lower frequency may modulate how sperm whales respond to anthropogenic sound.

  10. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  11. Sensor Alerting Capability

    Henriksson, Jakob; Bermudez, Luis; Satapathy, Goutam

    2013-04-01

    There is a large amount of sensor data generated today by various sensors, from in-situ buoys to mobile underwater gliders. Providing sensor data to the users through standardized services, language and data model is the promise of OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. As the amount of data grows it is becoming difficult for data providers, planners and managers to ensure reliability of data and services and to monitor critical data changes. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) is developing a net-centric alerting capability to address these issues. The capability is built on Sensor Observation Services (SOSs), which is used to collect and monitor sensor data. The alerts can be configured at the service level and at the sensor data level. For example it can alert for irregular data delivery events or a geo-temporal statistic of sensor data crossing a preset threshold. The capability provides multiple delivery mechanisms and protocols, including traditional techniques such as email and RSS. With this capability decision makers can monitor their assets and data streams, correct failures or be alerted about a coming phenomena.

  12. Sound and sound sources

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  13. 75 FR 67201 - Flightcrew Alerting

    2010-11-02

    ... two different senses for warning and caution alerts. Identifying an alert and determining corrective... pilots to the urgency that should be associated with the meaning of these colors, which could increase... consistent and standardized color usage is desirable to ensure the pilot understands the urgency of an alert...

  14. Disease spreading with epidemic alert on small-world networks

    Han, Xiao-Pu

    2007-01-01

    Base on two-dimension small-world networks, a susceptible-infected model with epidemic alert is proposed in this Letter. In this model, if some parts of the network are alarmed as dangerous, a fraction of edges between the alarmed parts and others will be removed, and two cases of alerting rules that the degree and frequency of contacts kept unchanged are considered respectively. The numerical simulations show that the spreading velocity is reduced by the accurate and timely epidemic alert, and the more accurate and timely, the stronger the deceleration effect. This model indicates that to broadcast epidemic alert timely is helpful and necessary in the control of epidemic spreading, and in agreement with the general view of epidemic alert. This work is helpful to understand the effects of epidemic alert on disease spreading

  15. Comparison of methods of alert acknowledgement by critical care clinicians in the ICU setting

    Andrew M. Harrison

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Electronic Health Record (EHR-based sepsis alert systems have failed to demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful endpoints. However, the effect of implementation barriers on the success of new sepsis alert systems is rarely explored. Objective To test the hypothesis time to severe sepsis alert acknowledgement by critical care clinicians in the ICU setting would be reduced using an EHR-based alert acknowledgement system compared to a text paging-based system. Study Design In one arm of this simulation study, real alerts for patients in the medical ICU were delivered to critical care clinicians through the EHR. In the other arm, simulated alerts were delivered through text paging. The primary outcome was time to alert acknowledgement. The secondary outcomes were a structured, mixed quantitative/qualitative survey and informal group interview. Results The alert acknowledgement rate from the severe sepsis alert system was 3% (N = 148 and 51% (N = 156 from simulated severe sepsis alerts through traditional text paging. Time to alert acknowledgement from the severe sepsis alert system was median 274 min (N = 5 and median 2 min (N = 80 from text paging. The response rate from the EHR-based alert system was insufficient to compare primary measures. However, secondary measures revealed important barriers. Conclusion Alert fatigue, interruption, human error, and information overload are barriers to alert and simulation studies in the ICU setting.

  16. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  17. Sound the alarm : monitoring system's real-time data reduces well downtime

    Harrison, L.

    2008-10-15

    This article presented a new electrical heating element tool used to boost performance at low-producing wells. The down hole tool (DHT) was designed to generate steam underground in order to avoid the energy losses associated with above-ground equipment. The tool operates like an oven element but is connected to a computerized well-monitoring system in order to ensure that heat is evenly distributed. The DHT is equipped with an Optiview monitoring system designed to provide continuous readouts of near real time data. The system can also be customized to deliver messages to telephones, computers, or alarm systems. Changes in hydraulic torque, flow rates, tank levels, speeds, temperatures and hydraulic pressures can be set within ranges in order to optimize oil and gas well production by reducing operating costs and increasing equipment efficiencies. Use of the tool has during tests has minimized the need for well servicing. The patent pending technology is also being investigated for its use in water disposal and other pump-to-surface units. It was concluded that use of the technology will allow oil and gas managers to determine the status of wells in remote locations. 1 fig.

  18. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Toxic substances alert program

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  20. From Demonstration System to Prototype: ShakeAlert Beta Users Provide Feedback to Improve Alert Delivery

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds to minutes of warning prior to ground shaking at a given location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A prototype earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is in development by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, and the USGS. Events are published to the UserDisplay--ShakeAlert's Java based graphical interface, which is being tested by a small group of beta users throughout California. The beta users receive earthquake alerts in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences. For early warning alerts to be useful, people, companies, and institutions must know beforehand what actions they will perform when they receive the information. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. We also collect feedback detailing costs of implementing actions and challenges within the beta user organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, creating a blueprint for a fully operational system that will meet the needs of the public. New California users as well as the first group of Pacific Northwest users are slated to join the ShakeAlert beta test group in the fall of 2013.

  1. Task-irrelevant novel sounds improve attentional performance in children with and without ADHD

    Jana eTegelbeckers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years executed a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%, an unrepeated novel sound (33% or no auditory stimulation (33%. Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control.

  2. Reduction in alert fatigue in an assisted electronic prescribing system, through the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Cuéllar Monreal, Mª Jesús; Reig Aguado, Jorge; Font Noguera, Isabel; Poveda Andrés, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the alert fatigue in our Assisted Electronic Prescribing System (AEPS), through the Lean Six Sigma (LSS) methodology. An observational (transversal) and retrospective study, in a general hospital with 850 beds and AEPS. The LSS methodology was followed in order to evaluate the alert fatigue situation in the AEPS system, to implement improvements, and to assess outcomes. The alerts generated during two trimesters studied (before and after the intervention) were analyzed. In order to measure the qualitative indicators, the most frequent alert types were analyzed, as well as the molecules responsible for over 50% of each type of alert. The action by the prescriber was analyzed in a sample of 496 prescriptions that generated such alerts. For each type of alert and molecule, there was a prioritization of the improvements to be implemented according to the alert generated and its quality. A second survey evaluated the pharmacist action for the alerts most highly valued by physicians. The problem, the objective, the work team and the project schedule were defined. A survey was designed in order to understand the opinion of the client about the alert system in the program. Based on the surveys collected (n = 136), the critical characteristics and the quanti/qualitative indicators were defined. Sixty (60) fields in the alert system were modified, corresponding to 32 molecules, and this led to a 28% reduction in the total number of alerts. Regarding quality indicators, false po sitive results were reduced by 25% (p < 0.05), 100% of those alerts ignored with justification were sustained, and there were no significant differences in user adherence to the system. The project improvements and outcomes were reviewed by the work team. LSS methodology has demonstrated being a valid tool for the quantitative and qualitative improvement of the alert system in an Assisted Electronic Prescription Program, thus reducing alert fatigue. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014

  3. A new CERN Alerter mechanism

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the CERN Alerter used for sending urgent messages was installed in July on all centrally managed NICE computers. This latest version is based on RSS (Really Simple Syndication) and all alerts are now displayed in an Internet Explorer window (see the picture). You can print the window by right-clicking on the alert background and selecting the Print option from the menu. If the message is not urgent, then the alert will only appear as a "balloon" window the following morning or at next logon. Non-Windows computers can also subscribe to this service by using their browser as an RSS reader (Really Simple Syndication). All recent web browsers can act as RSS readers, including Firefox and Safari. Simply subscribe to the following RSS feed: http://cern.ch/cernalerts/alerts.aspx to see all messages sent by the central services. More information on the CERN Alerter is available at: https://cern.ch/winservices/Help/?kbid=060810. Documentation on reading RSS feeds fr...

  4. A new CERN Alerter mechanism

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the CERN Alerter used for sending urgent messages was installed in July on all centrally managed NICE computers. This latest version is based on RSS (Really Simple Syndication) and all alerts are now displayed in an Internet Explorer window (see picture). You can print the window by right-clicking on the alert background and selecting the Print option from the menu. If the message is not urgent, the alert will only appear as a "balloon" window the following morning or at next log-on. Non-Windows computers can also subscribe to this service by using their browser as an RSS reader. All recent web browsers can act as RSS readers, including Firefox and Safari. Simply subscribe to the following RSS feed: http://cern.ch/cernalerts/alerts.aspx to see all messages sent by the central services. More information on the CERN Alerter is available at: https://cern.ch/winservices/Help/?kbid=060810. Documentation on reading RSS fee...

  5. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

    Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Telehealth data overload through high alert generation is a significant barrier to sustained adoption of telehealth for managing HF patients. Objective To explore the factors contributing to frequent telehealth alerts including false alerts for Medicare heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a home health agency. Materials and Methods A mixed methods design that combined quantitative correlation analysis of patient characteristic data with number of telehealth alerts and qualitative analysis of telehealth and visiting nurses’ notes on follow-up actions to patients’ telehealth alerts was employed. All the quantitative and qualitative data was collected through retrospective review of electronic records of the home heath agency. Results Subjects in the study had a mean age of 83 (SD = 7.6); 56% were female. Patient co-morbidities (ppatient characteristics along with establishing patient-centered telehealth outcome goals may allow meaningful generation of telehealth alerts. Reducing avoidable telehealth alerts could vastly improve the efficiency and sustainability of telehealth programs for HF management. PMID:24454576

  6. Sound algorithms

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  7. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    reduction of bluff-body noise. Xiaoyu Wang and Xiaofeng Sun discuss the interaction of fan stator and acoustic treatments using the transfer element method. S Saito and his colleagues in JAXA report the development of active devices for reducing helicopter noise. The paper by A Tamura and M Tsutahara proposes a brand new methodology for aerodynamic sound by applying the lattice Boltzmann finite difference method. As the method solves the fluctuation of air density directly, it has the advantage of not requiring modeling of the sound generation. M A Langthjem and M Nakano solve the hole-tone feedback cycle in jet flow by a numerical method. Y Ogami and S Akishita propose the application of a line-vortex method to the three-dimensional separated flow from a bluff body. I hope that a second issue on aerodynamic sound will be published in FDR in the not too distant future.

  8. Sounds scary? Lack of habituation following the presentation of novel sounds.

    Tine A Biedenweg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animals typically show less habituation to biologically meaningful sounds than to novel signals. We might therefore expect that acoustic deterrents should be based on natural sounds. METHODOLOGY: We investigated responses by western grey kangaroos (Macropus fulignosus towards playback of natural sounds (alarm foot stomps and Australian raven (Corvus coronoides calls and artificial sounds (faux snake hiss and bull whip crack. We then increased rate of presentation to examine whether animals would habituate. Finally, we varied frequency of playback to investigate optimal rates of delivery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine behaviors clustered into five Principal Components. PC factors 1 and 2 (animals alert or looking, or hopping and moving out of area accounted for 36% of variance. PC factor 3 (eating cessation, taking flight, movement out of area accounted for 13% of variance. Factors 4 and 5 (relaxing, grooming and walking; 12 and 11% of variation, respectively discontinued upon playback. The whip crack was most evocative; eating was reduced from 75% of time spent prior to playback to 6% following playback (post alarm stomp: 32%, raven call: 49%, hiss: 75%. Additionally, 24% of individuals took flight and moved out of area (50 m radius in response to the whip crack (foot stomp: 0%, raven call: 8% and 4%, hiss: 6%. Increasing rate of presentation (12x/min ×2 min caused 71% of animals to move out of the area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bull whip crack, an artificial sound, was as effective as the alarm stomp at eliciting aversive behaviors. Kangaroos did not fully habituate despite hearing the signal up to 20x/min. Highest rates of playback did not elicit the greatest responses, suggesting that 'more is not always better'. Ultimately, by utilizing both artificial and biological sounds, predictability may be masked or offset, so that habituation is delayed and more effective deterrents may be produced.

  9. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  10. Automated attendance management and alert system | Rahim ...

    Automated attendance management and alert system. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... AAMAS provides various functions, from managing and recording students' attendance record, to sending automatic alerts to students ...

  11. A Novel Design for Drug-Drug Interaction Alerts Improves Prescribing Efficiency.

    Russ, Alissa L; Chen, Siying; Melton, Brittany L; Johnson, Elizabette G; Spina, Jeffrey R; Weiner, Michael; Zillich, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are common in clinical care and pose serious risks for patients. Electronic health records display DDI alerts that can influence prescribers, but the interface design of DDI alerts has largely been unstudied. In this study, the objective was to apply human factors engineering principles to alert design. It was hypothesized that redesigned DDI alerts would significantly improve prescribers' efficiency and reduce prescribing errors. In a counterbalanced, crossover study with prescribers, two DDI alert designs were evaluated. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) prescribers were video recorded as they completed fictitious patient scenarios, which included DDI alerts of varying severity. Efficiency was measured from time-stamped recordings. Prescribing errors were evaluated against predefined criteria. Efficiency and prescribing errors were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Other usability data were collected on the adequacy of alert content, prescribers' use of the DDI monograph, and alert navigation. Twenty prescribers completed patient scenarios for both designs. Prescribers resolved redesigned alerts in about half the time (redesign: 52 seconds versus original design: 97 seconds; p<.001). Prescribing errors were not significantly different between the two designs. Usability results indicate that DDI alerts might be enhanced by facilitating easier access to laboratory data and dosing information and by allowing prescribers to cancel either interacting medication directly from the alert. Results also suggest that neither design provided adequate information for decision making via the primary interface. Applying human factors principles to DDI alerts improved overall efficiency. Aspects of DDI alert design that could be further enhanced prior to implementation were also identified.

  12. Les lanceurs d’alerte

    Foegle, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Le lanceur ou « donneur » d'alerte, ou, en langue anglaise, whistleblower est défini par l'assemblée parlementaire du conseil de l'Europe (Résolution 1729 (2010), §1) comme « toute personne soucieuse qui tire la sonnette d’alarme afin de faire cesser des agissements pouvant représenter un risque pour autrui ». Le présent mémoire vise, en menant une étude comparée France-Etats-Unis du droit encadrant le phénomène du « lancement d'alerte », à cerner les éléments principaux de la notion. Le prem...

  13. Imagining Sound

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  14. A mobile care system with alert mechanism.

    Lee, Ren-Guey; Chen, Kuei-Chien; Hsiao, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Chwan-Lu

    2007-09-01

    Hypertension and arrhythmia are chronic diseases, which can be effectively prevented and controlled only if the physiological parameters of the patient are constantly monitored, along with the full support of the health education and professional medical care. In this paper, a role-based intelligent mobile care system with alert mechanism in chronic care environment is proposed and implemented. The roles in our system include patients, physicians, nurses, and healthcare providers. Each of the roles represents a person that uses a mobile device such as a mobile phone to communicate with the server setup in the care center such that he or she can go around without restrictions. For commercial mobile phones with Bluetooth communication capability attached to chronic patients, we have developed physiological signal recognition algorithms that were implemented and built-in in the mobile phone without affecting its original communication functions. It is thus possible to integrate several front-end mobile care devices with Bluetooth communication capability to extract patients' various physiological parameters [such as blood pressure, pulse, saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2), and electrocardiogram (ECG)], to monitor multiple physiological signals without space limit, and to upload important or abnormal physiological information to healthcare center for storage and analysis or transmit the information to physicians and healthcare providers for further processing. Thus, the physiological signal extraction devices only have to deal with signal extraction and wireless transmission. Since they do not have to do signal processing, their form factor can be further reduced to reach the goal of microminiaturization and power saving. An alert management mechanism has been included in back-end healthcare center to initiate various strategies for automatic emergency alerts after receiving emergency messages or after automatically recognizing emergency messages. Within the time

  15. Comparing alertness and injury severity following motor vehicular ...

    Background: From casual observation of injury patterns in Motor Vehicular Accidents (MVAs), it was sometimes observed that if the victim had been more alert and reacts protectively, injury severity might be reduced. Protective response is often expected to minimize the severity of injuries. Objective: To determine the ...

  16. Alert Workplace From Healthcare Workers' Perspective: Behavioral and Environmental Strategies to Improve Vigilance and Alertness in Healthcare Settings.

    Sagah Zadeh, Rana; Shepley, Mardelle; Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Owora, Arthur Hamie; Krieger, Ana C

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic. Nonstructured, semistructured, and structured questionnaires were used to elicit relevant information which was analyzed using qualitative content analysis and logistic regression models, respectively. In order by frequency of endorsement: dietary intervention; physical mobility; cognitive, sensory, or social stimulation; personal lifestyle strategies; and rest/nap opportunities were reported as behavioral strategies used to address workplace alertness. Compared to other environmental features, daylight and thermal comfort were perceived to be more important to addressing workplace alertness ( p based guidelines is needed to address sleepiness and alertness to improve workplace safety in healthcare facilities.

  17. False alerts in air traffic control conflict alerting system: is there a "cry wolf" effect?

    Wickens, Christopher D; Rice, Stephen; Keller, David; Hutchins, Shaun; Hughes, Jamie; Clayton, Krisstal

    2009-08-01

    The aim is to establish the extent to which the high false-alarm rate of air traffic control midair conflict alerts is responsible for a "cry wolf' effect-where true alerts are not responded to and all alerts are delayed in their response. Some aircraft collisions have been partly attributed to the cry wolf effect, and in other domains (health care and systems monitoring), there is a causal connection between false-alarm rate and cry wolf behavior. We hypothesized that a corresponding relationship exists in air traffic control (ATC). Aircraft track and alert system behavior data surrounding 495 conflict alerts were analyzed to identify true and false alerts, trajectory type, and controller behavior. Forty-five percent of the alerts were false, ranging from 0.28 to 0.58. Although centers with more false alerts contributed to more nonresponses, there was no evidence that these were nonresponses to true alerts or that response times were delayed in those centers. Instead, controllers showed desirable anticipatory behavior by issuing trajectory changes prior to the alert. Those trajectory pairs whose conflicts were more difficult to visualize induced more reliance on, and less compliance with, the alerting system. The high false-alarm rate does not appear to induce cry wolf behavior in the context of en route ATC conflict alerts. There is no need to substantially modify conflict alert algorithms, but the conflict alert system may be modified to address difficult-to-visualize conflicts.

  18. Unsound Sound

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  19. NAPS as an Alertness Management Strategy

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Smith, Roy M.; Miller, Donna L.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    2001-01-01

    Today, 24-hour operations are necessary to meet the demands of our society and the requirements of our industrialized global economy. These around-the-clock demands pose unique physiological challenges for the humans who remain central to safe and productive operations. Optimal alertness and performance are critical factors that are increasingly challenged by unusual, extended, or changing work/rest schedules. Technological advancements and automated systems can exacerbate the challenges faced by the human factor in these environments. Shift work, transportation demands, and continuous operations engender sleep loss and circadian disruption. Both of these physiological factors can lead to increased sleepiness, decreased performance, and a reduced margin of safety. These factors can increase vulnerability to incidents and accidents in operational settings. The consequences can have both societal effects (e.g., major destructive accidents such as Three Mile Island, Exxon Valdez, Bhopal) and personal effects (e.g., an accident driving home after a night shift).

  20. Stability of alert survivable forces during reductions

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The stability of current and projected strategic forces are discussed within a framework that contains elements of current US and Russian analyses. For current force levels and high alert, stability levels are high, as are the levels of potential strikes, due to the large forces deployed. As force levels drop towards those of current value target sets, the analysis becomes linear, concern shifts from stability to reconstitution, and survivable forces drop out. Adverse marginal costs generally provide disincentives for the reduction of vulnerable weapons, but the exchange of vulnerable for survivable weapons could reduce cost while increasing stability even for aggressive participants. Exchanges between effective vulnerable and survivable missile forces are studied with an aggregated, probabilistic model, which optimizes each sides` first and determines each sides` second strikes and costs by minimizing first strike costs.

  1. Sound generator

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  2. Sound generator

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  3. Sound generator

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  4. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  5. Auditory alert systems with enhanced detectability

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and systems for distinguishing an auditory alert signal from a background of one or more non-alert signals. In a first embodiment, a prefix signal, associated with an existing alert signal, is provided that has a signal component in each of three or more selected frequency ranges, with each signal component in each of three or more selected level at least 3-10 dB above an estimated background (non-alert) level in that frequency range. The alert signal may be chirped within one or more frequency bands. In another embodiment, an alert signal moves, continuously or discontinuously, from one location to another over a short time interval, introducing a perceived spatial modulation or jitter. In another embodiment, a weighted sum of background signals adjacent to each ear is formed, and the weighted sum is delivered to each ear as a uniform background; a distinguishable alert signal is presented on top of this weighted sum signal at one ear, or distinguishable first and second alert signals are presented at two ears of a subject.

  6. 47 CFR 80.1111 - Distress alerting.

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1111 Distress alerting. (a) The transmission of a distress alert indicates...

  7. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an alert... concerning quality, which could necessitate additional controls or suspension of the distribution of the...

  8. Sound Zones

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-07-29

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper.

  10. Photoadaptations of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism by phytoplankton from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. I. Species-specific and community responses to reduced irradiances

    Rivkin, R.B.; Voytek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiance-dependent rates of photosynthesis and photosynthate labeling patterns were measured for phytoplankton in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Species-specific and traditional whole-water techniques were used to compare the physiological responses of algae collected in a high light environment at the ice edge and from a low light environment under the annual sea ice. There were differences among species within the same sample, for the same species isolated from high and low light environments, and when species-specific responses were compared with that of the natural assemblage. For algae collected beneath the sea ice, photosynthesis generally saturated at a lower irradiance, and the light-limited region of the P vs. I relationship had a steeper slope than for the same species collected at the ice edge. Low-light-adapted algae incorporated significantly less 14 C into proteins and more into low molecular weight compounds and lipids than the same species isolated from a high light environment. Under conditions where reduced rates of protein synthesis were coupled with high rates of carbon uptake, the measurement of photosynthesis may not accurately reflect the physiological condition of the phytoplankton

  11. Sound intensity

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. Sound Intensity

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  13. Effectiveness of National Weather Service heat alerts in preventing mortality in 20 US cities.

    Weinberger, Kate R; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2018-04-09

    Extreme heat is a well-documented public health threat. The US National Weather Service (NWS) issues heat advisories and warnings (collectively, "heat alerts") in advance of forecast extreme heat events. The effectiveness of these alerts in preventing deaths remains largely unknown. To quantify the change in mortality rates associated with heat alerts in 20 US cities between 2001 and 2006. Because NWS heat alerts are issued based on forecast weather and these forecasts are imperfect, in any given location there exists a set of days of similar observed heat index in which heat alerts have been issued for some days but not others. We used a case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression to compare mortality rates on days with versus without heat alerts among such eligible days, adjusting for maximum daily heat index and temporal factors. We combined city-specific estimates into a summary measure using standard random-effects meta-analytic techniques. Overall, NWS heat alerts were not associated with lower mortality rates (percent change in rate: -0.5% [95% CI: -2.8, 1.9]). In Philadelphia, heat alerts were associated with a 4.4% (95% CI: -8.3, -0.3) lower mortality rate or an estimated 45.1 (95% empirical CI: 3.1, 84.1) deaths averted per year if this association is assumed to be causal. No statistically significant beneficial association was observed in other individual cities. Our results suggest that between 2001 and 2006, NWS heat alerts were not associated with lower mortality in most cities studied, potentially missing a valuable opportunity to avert a substantial number of heat-related deaths. These results highlight the need to better link alerts to effective communication and intervention strategies to reduce heat-related mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A CCTV system with SMS alert (CMDSA): An implementation of pixel processing algorithm for motion detection

    Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Abdullah, Nurul Azma; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.; Wen, Chuah Chai; Jelani, Mohamad Shafiqur Rahman Mohd

    2017-10-01

    Closed-Circuit TV (CCTV) system is one of the technologies in surveillance field to solve the problem of detection and monitoring by providing extra features such as email alert or motion detection. However, detecting and alerting the admin on CCTV system may complicate due to the complexity to integrate the main program with an external Application Programming Interface (API). In this study, pixel processing algorithm is applied due to its efficiency and SMS alert is added as an alternative solution for users who opted out email alert system or have no Internet connection. A CCTV system with SMS alert (CMDSA) was developed using evolutionary prototyping methodology. The system interface was implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio while the backend components, which are database and coding, were implemented on SQLite database and C# programming language, respectively. The main modules of CMDSA are motion detection, capturing and saving video, image processing and Short Message Service (SMS) alert functions. Subsequently, the system is able to reduce the processing time making the detection process become faster, reduce the space and memory used to run the program and alerting the system admin instantly.

  15. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated acute kidney injury alerts.

    Kashani, Kianoush B

    2018-05-02

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common and probably one of the more consequential complications of critical illnesses. Recent information indicates that it is at least partially preventable; however, progress in its prevention, management, and treatment has been hindered by the scarcity of knowledge for effective interventions, inconsistencies in clinical practices, late identification of patients at risk for or with AKI, and limitations of access to best practices for prevention and management of AKI. Growing use of electronic health records has provided a platform for computer science to engage in data mining and processing, not only for early detection of AKI but also for the development of risk-stratification strategies and computer clinical decision-support (CDS) systems. Despite promising perspectives, the literature regarding the impact of AKI electronic alerts and CDS systems has been conflicting. Some studies have reported improvement in care processes and patient outcomes, whereas others have shown no effect on clinical outcomes and yet demonstrated an increase in the use of resources. These discrepancies are thought to be due to multiple factors that may be related to technology, human factors, modes of delivery of information to clinical providers, and level of expectations regarding the impact on patient outcomes. This review appraises the current body of knowledge and provides some outlines regarding research into and clinical aspects of CDS systems for AKI. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluid Sounds

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  18. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  19. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  20. Alertness management : strategic naps in operational settings

    1995-01-01

    Managing fatigue in complex operational settings requires attention to multiple factors, including hours of service, scheduling, education and training, countermeasures, technology, and research. Alertness-management strategies can be used to promote...

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta@ucar.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ☉} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ☉}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  2. Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

    Yoshio Kurosawa; Takao Yamaguchi

    2015-01-01

    High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy ...

  3. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  4. Gérer et alerter

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sur la base de deux événements d’inondation ayant touché récemment, dans des contextes politiques, organisationnels et hydrologiques bien différents, de nouveaux quartiers d’habitation, cet article rend compte des pratiques des acteurs impliqués dans des situations d’alerte et de crise en Suisse. Le recensement des acteurs – à travers leur rôle et leur place dans les mécanismes de préparation, d’alerte et de gestion –, ainsi que l’inventaire des documents mobilisés par ceux-ci, ont été réalisés dans les deux cas. Cette analyse a permis d’évaluer la gestion des événements, de déceler les changements organisationnels qui ont suivi les crises et de connaître la conception et le degré de formalisation du risque dont étaient dotés les différents acteurs avant et après les inondations. Plus encore, l’analyse a documenté les nouveaux processus d’alerte et de prévision qui ont été mis en place suite aux événements. Il s’avère ainsi que les épisodes d’inondation agissent de façon décisive sur la production de connaissances, à un degré variable selon les acteurs. Ces épisodes révèlent aussi parfois l’existence de connaissances « en attente » qui ne sont pas encore intégrées dans les procédures institutionnelles. Tant du point de vue de la prévision que de la gestion de la crise, ils permettent aussi de tester les canaux de l’information et de combler les déficits d’organisation, de collaboration et de sécurisation des dispositifs de communication. En outre, les risques et les crises liés aux inondations modifient les dynamiques et les politiques territoriales, conséquences du réajustement des réseaux d’acteurs. La mise en place de dispositifs d’intervention et de gestion de crise se montre cependant plus efficace que la refonte des dispositifs d’aménagement, généralement longue. Toutefois, la mémoire des événements se dégradant avec le temps, une inscription

  5. Sound Settlements

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Nuclear sound

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  7. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    Adam C Welch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured that reflect interventions made as a result of the early alert sheet. Approximately 52% of students were identified on the early alert sheet by having at least one non-passing score on an exam. There were 35-50% of faculty advisors who documented their interventions in the sheet. The template and coding used to develop this academic early alert sheet may be applied to other central documentation needs, such as professionalism early alert. Conflict of Interest Dr. Welch reports owning stock in Alphabet, Inc, however, was not involved in the selection of Google as the preferred platform at this institution.   Type: Note

  8. Sound Settlements

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  9. Second Sound

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  10. Collaborative knowledge acquisition for the design of context-aware alert systems.

    Joffe, Erel; Havakuk, Ofer; Herskovic, Jorge R; Patel, Vimla L; Bernstam, Elmer Victor

    2012-01-01

    To present a framework for combining implicit knowledge acquisition from multiple experts with machine learning and to evaluate this framework in the context of anemia alerts. Five internal medicine residents reviewed 18 anemia alerts, while 'talking aloud'. They identified features that were reviewed by two or more physicians to determine appropriate alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation. Based on these features, data were extracted from 100 randomly-selected anemia cases for a training set and an additional 82 cases for a test set. Two staff internists assigned an alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation before and after reviewing the entire electronic medical record. The training set of 118 cases (100 plus 18) and the test set of 82 cases were explored using RIDOR and JRip algorithms. The feature set was sufficient to assess 93% of anemia cases (intraclass correlation for alert level before and after review of the records by internists 1 and 2 were 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). High-precision classifiers were constructed to identify low-level alerts (precision p=0.87, recall R=0.4), iron deficiency (p=1.0, R=0.73), and anemia associated with kidney disease (p=0.87, R=0.77). It was possible to identify low-level alerts and several conditions commonly associated with chronic anemia. This approach may reduce the number of clinically unimportant alerts. The study was limited to anemia alerts. Furthermore, clinicians were aware of the study hypotheses potentially biasing their evaluation. Implicit knowledge acquisition, collaborative filtering and machine learning were combined automatically to induce clinically meaningful and precise decision rules.

  11. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS). 80.277... Security Alert System (SSAS). (a) Vessels equipped with a Ship Security Alert System pursuant to the Safety..., “RTCM Standard 11020.0—Ship Security Alert Systems (SSAS) using the Cospas-Sarsat System,” Version 1.0...

  12. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interruptive medication prescribing alerts in hospital CPOE systems to change prescriber behavior and improve patient safety.

    Page, N; Baysari, M T; Westbrook, J I

    2017-09-01

    about the amount and type of decision support that should be integrated into CPOE systems to increase safety while reducing the risk of alert fatigue. Virtually no studies have sought to investigate the impact on changes to prescriber behavior and outcomes overall when alerts from multiple categories are incorporated within the same system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SC-228 Inclusion of DAA Warning Alert for TCAS Interoperability

    Fern, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This white paper summarizes NASA research results that have informed Special Committee 228 (SC-228) discussions and decisions regarding the inclusion of a warning-level alert within the detect and avoid (DAA) alerting structure for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). For UAS, the removal of the pilot from onboard the aircraft has eliminated the ability of the ground-based pilot in command (PIC) to use out-the-window visual information to make judgments about a potential threat of a loss of well clear with another aircraft. As a result, the DAA traffic display will be the primary source of information that the PIC can use to execute the three primary well clear functions: 1) detect a potential loss of well clear, 2) determine a resolution maneuver, and 3) upload that maneuver to the aircraft via the ground control station (GCS). In addition, pilots are required to coordinate with air traffic control (ATC) prior to maneuvering off of their approved flight plan. In determining an appropriate resolution maneuver to avoid a loss of well clear, the PIC must decide both when and how to maneuver, and both the timeliness and the accuracy (i.e., correctness) of the maneuver are critical to reducing the likelihood and/or severity of a loss of well clear. Alerting information is one of three critical components of the DAA display, along with traffic information elements (e.g., relative heading, speed and altitude) and maneuver guidance. Alerting information and maneuver guidance, in particular, have been found to have a significant impact, both statistically and practically, on pilots' ability to avoid and minimize the severity of losses of well clear While all three display components are key to pilots performing the traffic avoidance task of remaining well clear, in general, alerting information provides crucial information about when a resolution maneuver is required while maneuver guidance assists the pilot in determining how best to maneuver. A fundamental task of the DAA

  14. Sound Visualisation

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  15. Optimization of drug-drug interaction alert rules in a pediatric hospital's electronic health record system using a visual analytics dashboard.

    Simpao, Allan F; Ahumada, Luis M; Desai, Bimal R; Bonafide, Christopher P; Gálvez, Jorge A; Rehman, Mohamed A; Jawad, Abbas F; Palma, Krisha L; Shelov, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    To develop and evaluate an electronic dashboard of hospital-wide electronic health record medication alerts for an alert fatigue reduction quality improvement project. We used visual analytics software to develop the dashboard. We collaborated with the hospital-wide Clinical Decision Support committee to perform three interventions successively deactivating clinically irrelevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) alert rules. We analyzed the impact of the interventions on care providers' and pharmacists' alert and override rates using an interrupted time series framework with piecewise regression. We evaluated 2 391 880 medication alerts between January 31, 2011 and January 26, 2014. For pharmacists, the median alert rate prior to the first DDI deactivation was 58.74 alerts/100 orders (IQR 54.98-60.48) and 25.11 alerts/100 orders (IQR 23.45-26.57) following the three interventions (pdashboard facilitated safe rapid-cycle reductions in alert burden that were temporally associated with lower pharmacist override rates in a subgroup of DDIs not directly affected by the interventions; meanwhile, the pharmacists' frequency of selecting the 'cancel' option increased. We hypothesize that reducing the alert burden enabled pharmacists to devote more attention to clinically relevant alerts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Designing a Free Academic Early Alert System

    Adam C Welch; Adam Greever; Carmen Linne

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and implementation of a cloud-based, academic early alert system using Google Sheets. It was written for a non-computer savvy person to be able to develop the early alert system. By creating a Master Sheet and using the syntax from the share function of Google Sheets, a unique sheet can be created for each advisor that limits information sharing of their specific advisees. By adding a Google Form to the sheet, advisor interventions can be captured tha...

  17. Control-room operator alertness and performance in nuclear power plants

    Baker, T.l.; Campbell, S.C.; Linder, K.D.; Moore-Ede, M.C

    1990-02-01

    All industries requiring round-the-clock operation must deal with the potential problem of impaired alertness, especially among those who work night shifts. In the nuclear power industry, maintaining optimal alertness and performance of control room operators at all times of day is critical. Many of the toot causes of reduced alertness are straightforward and can be easily remedied with tangible solutions; this manual both discusses the reasons for the problem and suggests solutions. The manual surveys factors that influence operator alertness and performance, including shift schedules, caffeine and alcohol use, diet and family lifestyle factors, the control room enviornment, staffing and overtime practices, and work task design. Specific recommendations are made in each of these areas. The project team, consisting of experts on managing round-the-clock operations and scientists who study human alertness and performance, prepared this manual using the latest scientific research and direct input from shift supervisors and operators via interviews, on-site observation, and questionnaires distributed to every nuclear power station. The material contained within is relevant to shiftwork managers, shift supervisors, and operators, each of whom plays a vital role in maintaining optimal alertness and performance on the job. 90 refs., 35 figs

  18. Development of case-based medication alerting and recommender system: a new approach to prevention for medication error.

    Miyo, Kengo; Nittami, Yuki S; Kitagawa, Yoichiro; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new alerting and recommender system for preventing medication errors. In recent years, alerting systems have been widely implemented, but because these systems apply a same static threshold for all patients in all cases, they produce excessive alerts and subject physicians to "alert fatigue". We believe that the most commonly-written prescription for a patient's status is the safest one. From this standpoint, we developed a real-time case-based medication alerting and recommender system linked to a database of past prescriptions. When a physician issues his or her prescription, our system dynamically compares it with past ones for similar patients in the database. An analysis of the 10 most frequently-used drugs in the University of Tokyo Hospital revealed that our system reduced the number of false alerts compared to the traditional static alert method. Our system contributes to the creation of alerts that are appropriate for patients' clinical conditions and based on physicians' empirical discretion.

  19. Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  20. [Health alert management and emerging risk].

    Pillonel, J

    2010-12-01

    Following health crisis that have occurred in the nineties (contaminated blood, mad cow, asbestos, etc.) and more recently those generated by the heat wave in 2003 or by emerging infectious pathogens (SARS, West Nile, Chikungunya, H5N1, H1N1…), a real health vigilance system has been progressively developed in France. After a brief historical overview of the health alert system, this article will give the guiding principles of its current organization in France and will present two examples of recent health alerts (Chikungunya in the Reunion Island in 2005-2006 and hepatitis A outbreak in the Côtes-d'Armor in August 2007), that have needed the implementation of preventive measures regarding the blood donor selection. These two examples have shown that the position of the alert in the French health vigilance system needs to be very close to the event. In that case, health alert is a very useful tool for decision making especially when measures have to be taken to prevent transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the context of network traffic alerts

    Cappers, B.C.M.; van Wijk, J.J.; Best, D.M.; Staheli, D.; Prigent, N.; Engle, S.; Harrison, L.

    2016-01-01

    For the protection of critical infrastructures against complex virus attacks, automated network traffic analysis and deep packet inspection are unavoidable. However, even with the use of network intrusion detection systems, the number of alerts is still too large to analyze manually. In addition,

  2. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts—a key challenge for today’s society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  3. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  4. IR panoramic alerting sensor concepts and applications

    de Jong, Arie N.; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2003-09-01

    During the last decade, protection of military and civilian operational platforms against weapons like guns, grenades, missiles, Unmanned Combat Aerial (and surface) Vehicles (UCAV's) and mines, has been an issue of increased importance due to the improved kill-probability of these threats. The standard countermeasure package of armour, guns, decoys, jammers, camouflage nets and smokes is inadequate when not accompanied by a suitable sensor package, primarily consisting of an alerting device, triggering consecutive steps in the countermeasure-chain. In this process of alert four different detection techniques are considered: pre-alert, giving the directions of possible attack, detection of an action of attack, identification of the threat and finally the precise localization (3-D). The design of the alerting device is greatly depending on the platform, on which it will be used, the associated and affordable cost and the nature of the threat. A number of sensor packages, considered, developed and evaluated at TNO-FEL is presented for simple, medium size and large and expensive platforms. In recent years the requirements for these sensors have become more and more strigent due to the growing number of scenarios. The attack can practically be from any direction, implying the need for a large Field of Regard (FOR), the attack range can vary considerably and the type of threat can be very diverse, implying great flexibility and dynamic range and rapid response of the sensor. Especially the localization at short ranges is a challenging issue. Various configurations including advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

  5. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color.

    Patrice Bourgin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts-a key challenge for today's society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology.

  6. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    2012-07-13

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 [PS Docket No. 07-287; FCC 08-164] Commercial... with the Commission's Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMS), Second Report and Order (``CMAS Second..., for a period of three years, the information collection requirements relating to the Commercial Mobile...

  7. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  8. Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search.

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2017-09-04

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  9. MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedWatch alerts provide timely new safety information on human drugs, medical devices, vaccines and other biologics, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The alerts...

  10. Sound knowledge

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  11. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  14. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    /no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects...

  15. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception.

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus; Vangkilde, Signe; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Phasic alertness refers to a short-lived change in the preparatory state of the cognitive system following an alerting signal. In the present study, we examined the effect of phasic auditory alerting on distinct perceptual processes, unconfounded by motor components. We combined an alerting/no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects visual perception by increasing the visual processing speed and lowering the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 1). By manipulating the intensity of the alerting cue, we further observed a positive relationship between alerting intensity and processing speed, which was not seen for the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 2). This was replicated in a third experiment, in which pupil size was measured as a physiological marker of alertness. Results revealed that the increase in processing speed was accompanied by an increase in pupil size, substantiating the link between alertness and processing speed (Experiment 3). The implications of these results are discussed in relation to a newly developed mathematical model of the relationship between levels of alertness and the speed with which humans process visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Education and Training Module in Alertness Management

    Mallis, M. M.; Brandt, S. L.; Oyung, R. L.; Reduta, D. D.; Rosekind, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training module (ETM) in alertness management has now been integrated as part of the training regimen of the Pilot Proficiency Awards Program ("WINGS") of the Federal Aviation Administration. Originated and now maintained current by the Fatigue Countermeasures Group at NASA Ames Research Center, the ETM in Alertness Management is designed to give pilots the benefit of the best and most recent research on the basics of sleep physiology, the causes of fatigue, and strategies for managing alertness during flight operations. The WINGS program is an incentive program that encourages pilots at all licensing levels to participate in recurrent training, upon completion of which distinctive lapel or tie pins (wings) and certificates of completion are awarded. In addition to flight training, all WINGS applicants must attend at least one FAA-sponsored safety seminar, FAA-sanctioned safety seminar, or industry recurrent training program. The Fatigue Countermeasures Group provides an FAA-approved industry recurrent training program through an on-line General Aviation (GA) WINGS ETM in alertness management to satisfy this requirement. Since 1993, the Fatigue Countermeasures Group has translated fatigue and alertness information to operational environments by conducting two-day ETM workshops oriented primarily toward air-carrier operations subject to Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations pertaining to such operations. On the basis of the information presented in the two-day ETM workshops, an ETM was created for GA pilots and was transferred to a Web-based version. To comply with the requirements of the WINGS Program, the original Web-based version has been modified to include hypertext markup language (HTML) content that makes information easily accessible, in-depth testing of alertness-management knowledge, new interactive features, and increased informational resources for GA pilots. Upon successful completion of this training module, a participant

  17. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  18. NASA Space Sounds API

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  19. AMDIS Case Conference: Intrusive Medication Safety Alerts.

    Graham, J; Levick, D; Schreiber, R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical decision support that provides enhanced patient safety at the point of care frequently encounters significant pushback from clinicians who find the process intrusive or time-consuming. We present a hypothetical medical center's dilemma about its allergy alerting system and discuss similar problems faced by real hospitals. We then share some lessons learned and best practices for institutions who wish to implement these tools themselves.

  20. AMDIS Case Conference: Intrusive Medication Safety Alerts

    Graham, J.; Levick, D.; Schreiber, R.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical decision support that provides enhanced patient safety at the point of care frequently encounters significant pushback from clinicians who find the process intrusive or time-consuming. We present a hypothetical medical center’s dilemma about its allergy alerting system and discuss similar problems faced by real hospitals. We then share some lessons learned and best practices for institutions who wish to implement these tools themselves.

  1. Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios

    2012-05-01

    Commercial Mobile Alert Service (CMAS) Scenarios The WEA Project Team May 2012 SPECIAL REPORT CMU/SEI-2012-SR-020 CERT® Division, Software ...Homeland Security under Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0003 with Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally...DISTRIBUTES IT “AS IS.” References herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trade mark, manufacturer, or otherwise

  2. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  3. Feasibility of seismic alert systems in India

    Chauhan, P.K.S.; Pandey, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters like flood, earthquakes and cyclones are very frequent in India since historical times. As far as the casualties are concerned, globally earthquakes are second in the list after the flood. The loss of property due to these earthquakes is huge and enormous. In the light of the present knowledge base, earthquake prediction is far from being a reality. An early earthquake warning has potential to save the precious human lives. In the present day scenario seismic instrumentation and telecommunication permits the implementation of seismic alert system (SAS) based on the real-time measurement of ground motions near the source. SAS is capable of providing a warning of several seconds before the arrival of destructive seismic waves caused by a large earthquake. SAS is successfully operational in many countries of the world. In a country, like India where earthquakes are taking heavy toll on the human lives and property, seismic alert system may prove to be very important step in natural hazard mitigation strategy. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compute the available alarm time before the destructive earthquake waves reaches to the cities like Delhi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata taking Himalaya as the source and feasibility of seismic alert system in Indian scenario. (author)

  4. Alerts Visualization and Clustering in Network-based Intrusion Detection

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee; Gasior, Wade C [ORNL; Dasireddy, Swetha [University of Tennessee

    2010-04-01

    Today's Intrusion detection systems when deployed on a busy network overload the network with huge number of alerts. This behavior of producing too much raw information makes it less effective. We propose a system which takes both raw data and Snort alerts to visualize and analyze possible intrusions in a network. Then we present with two models for the visualization of clustered alerts. Our first model gives the network administrator with the logical topology of the network and detailed information of each node that involves its associated alerts and connections. In the second model, flocking model, presents the network administrator with the visual representation of IDS data in which each alert is represented in different color and the alerts with maximum similarity move together. This gives network administrator with the idea of detecting various of intrusions through visualizing the alert patterns.

  5. MyEEW: A Smartphone App for the ShakeAlert System

    Strauss, J. A.; Allen, S.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds warning prior to ground shaking at a user's location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce, or minimize, the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A demonstration earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is undergoing testing in the United States by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, the USGS, and beta users in California and the Pacific Northwest. The UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory has created a smartphone app called MyEEW, which interfaces with the ShakeAlert system to deliver early warnings to individual users. Many critical facilities (transportation, police, and fire) have control rooms, which could run a centralized interface, but our ShakeAlert Beta Testers have also expressed their need for mobile options. This app augments the basic ShakeAlert Java desktop applet by allowing workers off-site (or merely out of hearing range) to be informed of coming hazards. MyEEW receives information from the ShakeAlert system to provide users with real-time information about shaking that is about to happen at their individual location. It includes a map, timer, and earthquake information similar to the Java desktop User Display. The app will also feature educational material to help users craft their own response and resiliency strategies. The app will be open to UC Berkeley Earthquake Research Affiliates members for testing in the near future.

  6. Electronic alerts and clinician turnover: the influence of user acceptance.

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Spitzmuller, Christiane; Espadas, Donna; Sittig, Dean F; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-11-01

    Use of certain components of electronic health records (EHRs), such as EHR-based alerting systems (EASs), might reduce provider satisfaction, a strong precursor to turnover. We examined the impact of factors likely to influence providers' acceptance of an alerting system, designed to facilitate electronic communication in outpatient settings, on provider satisfaction, intentions to quit, and turnover. We conducted a cross-sectional Web-based survey of EAS-related practices from a nationwide sample of primary care providers (PCPs) practicing at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical facilities. Of 5001 invited VA PCPs, 2590 completed the survey. We relied on Venkatesh's Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology to create survey measures of 4 factors likely to impact user acceptance of EAS: supportive norms, monitoring/ feedback, training, and providers' perceptions of the value (PPOV) of EASs to provider effectiveness. Facility-level PCP turnover was measured via the VA's Service Support Center Human Resources Cube. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. After accounting for intercorrelations among predictors, monitoring/feedback regarding EASs significantly predicted intention to quit (b = 0.30, P < .01), and PPOV of EASs predicted both overall provider satisfaction (b = 0.58, P < .01) and facility-level provider turnover levels (b = -0.19, P < .05), all without relying on any intervening mechanisms. Design, implementation, and use of EASs might impact provider satisfaction and retention. Institutions should consider strategies to help providers perceive greater value in these clinical tools.

  7. ATLANTIDES: An Architecture for Alert Verification in Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    Bolzoni, D.; Crispo, Bruno; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We present an architecture designed for alert verification (i.e., to reduce false positives) in network intrusion-detection systems. Our technique is based on a systematic (and automatic) anomaly-based analysis of the system output, which provides useful context information regarding the network

  8. PleurAlert: an augmented chest drainage system with electronic sensing, automated alerts and internet connectivity.

    Leeson, Cory E; Weaver, Robert A; Bissell, Taylor; Hoyer, Rachel; McClain, Corinne; Nelson, Douglas A; Samosky, Joseph T

    2012-01-01

    We have enhanced a common medical device, the chest tube drainage container, with electronic sensing of fluid volume, automated detection of critical alarm conditions and the ability to automatically send alert text messages to a nurse's cell phone. The PleurAlert system provides a simple touch-screen interface and can graphically display chest tube output over time. Our design augments a device whose basic function dates back 50 years by adding technology to automate and optimize a monitoring process that can be time consuming and inconvenient for nurses. The system may also enhance detection of emergency conditions and speed response time.

  9. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  10. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound......-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound...... from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect...

  11. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact on the a......A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...

  12. The Sound of Science

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  13. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  14. Making Sound Connections

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  15. Little Sounds

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  16. The effect of mental alerting on peripheral vestibular nystagmus during spontaneous, gaze (30 degrees left, 30 degrees right) and body positional (left & right lateral lying) testing using electronystagmography (ENG).

    McGovern, Tracey N; Fitzgerald, John E

    2008-10-01

    The performance of mental alerting during caloric testing has always been considered important, however its use/benefit during electronystagmography (ENG)/videonystagmography (VNG) testing has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental alerting tasks on peripheral type vestibular nystagmus recorded during ENG. Thirty patients with significant spontaneous/gaze or positional nystagmus (slow phase velocity >or= 6 degrees /s) were recruited from consecutive referrals for vestibular assessment. Nystagmus was recorded by ENG both in the presence and absence of mental alerting for each patient. Investigation of nystagmus by analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly larger nystagmus (higher value SPV) with mental alerting than with no alerting (p<0.001), and for some patients nystagmus traces were reduced to a flat line (no nystagmus) with no alerting. The study demonstrates the importance of mental alerting in helping overcome central suppression of nystagmus and highlights its importance to help identify peripheral type nystagmus during ENG.

  17. ToxAlerts: a Web server of structural alerts for toxic chemicals and compounds with potential adverse reactions.

    Sushko, Iurii; Salmina, Elena; Potemkin, Vladimir A; Poda, Gennadiy; Tetko, Igor V

    2012-08-27

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  18. The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) adaption in National Early Warning Alerting Systems of China

    Li, Chao

    2017-04-01

    The Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) [1] is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. In China, from local communities to entire nations, there was a patchwork of specialized hazard public alerting systems. And each system was often designed just for certain emergency situations and for certain communications media. Application took place in the NEWAS (National Early Warning Alerting Systems) [2]project where CAP serves as central message to integrate all kind of hazard situations, including the natural calamity, accident disaster, public health emergency , social safety etc. Officially operated on May 2015, NEWAS now has completed docking work with 14 departments including civil administration, safety supervision, forestry, land, water conservancy, earthquake, traffic, meteorology, agriculture, tourism, food and drug supervision, public security and oceanic administration. Thus, several items in CAP has been modified, redefined and extended according to the various grading standards and publishing strategies, as well as the characteristics of Chinese Geocoding. NEWAS successfully delivers information to end users through 4 levels (i.e. State, province, prefecture and county) structure and by various means. [1] CAP, http://www.oasis-emergency.org/cap [2] http://www.12379.cn/

  19. Electronic Immunization Alerts and Spillover Effects on Other Preventive Care.

    Kim, Julia M; Rivera, Maria; Persing, Nichole; Bundy, David G; Psoter, Kevin J; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Miller, Marlene R; Solomon, Barry S

    2017-08-01

    The impact of electronic health record (EHR) immunization clinical alert systems on the delivery of other preventive services remains unknown. We assessed for spillover effects of an EHR immunization alert on delivery of 6 other preventive services, in children 18 to 30 months of age needing immunizations. We conducted a secondary data analysis, with additional primary data collection, of a randomized, historically controlled trial to improve immunization rates with EHR alerts, in an urban, primary care clinic. No significant differences were found in screening for anemia, lead, development, nutrition, and injury prevention counseling in children prompting EHR immunization alerts (n = 129), compared with controls (n = 135). Significant increases in oral health screening in patients prompting EHR alerts (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.8-13.0) were likely due to practice changes over time. An EHR clinical alert system targeting immunizations did not have a spillover effect on the delivery of other preventive services.

  20. Applying mathematical models to predict resident physician performance and alertness on traditional and novel work schedules.

    Klerman, Elizabeth B; Beckett, Scott A; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2016-09-13

    In 2011 the U.S. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education began limiting first year resident physicians (interns) to shifts of ≤16 consecutive hours. Controversy persists regarding the effectiveness of this policy for reducing errors and accidents while promoting education and patient care. Using a mathematical model of the effects of circadian rhythms and length of time awake on objective performance and subjective alertness, we quantitatively compared predictions for traditional intern schedules to those that limit work to ≤ 16 consecutive hours. We simulated two traditional schedules and three novel schedules using the mathematical model. The traditional schedules had extended duration work shifts (≥24 h) with overnight work shifts every second shift (including every third night, Q3) or every third shift (including every fourth night, Q4) night; the novel schedules had two different cross-cover (XC) night team schedules (XC-V1 and XC-V2) and a Rapid Cycle Rotation (RCR) schedule. Predicted objective performance and subjective alertness for each work shift were computed for each individual's schedule within a team and then combined for the team as a whole. Our primary outcome was the amount of time within a work shift during which a team's model-predicted objective performance and subjective alertness were lower than that expected after 16 or 24 h of continuous wake in an otherwise rested individual. The model predicted fewer hours with poor performance and alertness, especially during night-time work hours, for all three novel schedules than for either the traditional Q3 or Q4 schedules. Three proposed schedules that eliminate extended shifts may improve performance and alertness compared with traditional Q3 or Q4 schedules. Predicted times of worse performance and alertness were at night, which is also a time when supervision of trainees is lower. Mathematical modeling provides a quantitative comparison approach with potential to aid

  1. Feature-based alert correlation in security systems using self organizing maps

    Kumar, Munesh; Siddique, Shoaib; Noor, Humera

    2009-04-01

    The security of the networks has been an important concern for any organization. This is especially important for the defense sector as to get unauthorized access to the sensitive information of an organization has been the prime desire for cyber criminals. Many network security techniques like Firewall, VPN Concentrator etc. are deployed at the perimeter of network to deal with attack(s) that occur(s) from exterior of network. But any vulnerability that causes to penetrate the network's perimeter of defense, can exploit the entire network. To deal with such vulnerabilities a system has been evolved with the purpose of generating an alert for any malicious activity triggered against the network and its resources, termed as Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The traditional IDS have still some deficiencies like generating large number of alerts, containing both true and false one etc. By automatically classifying (correlating) various alerts, the high-level analysis of the security status of network can be identified and the job of network security administrator becomes much easier. In this paper we propose to utilize Self Organizing Maps (SOM); an Artificial Neural Network for correlating large amount of logged intrusion alerts based on generic features such as Source/Destination IP Addresses, Port No, Signature ID etc. The different ways in which alerts can be correlated by Artificial Intelligence techniques are also discussed. . We've shown that the strategy described in the paper improves the efficiency of IDS by better correlating the alerts, leading to reduced false positives and increased competence of network administrator.

  2. Green Roofs: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert

    Scholz-Barth, K.; Tanner, S.

    2004-09-01

    In a ''green roof,'' a layer of vegetation (e.g., a roof garden) covers the surface of a roof to provide shade, cooler indoor and outdoor temperatures, and effective storm-water management to reduce runoff. The main components are waterproofing, soil, and plants. There are two basic kinds: intensive and extensive. An intensive green roof often features large shrubs and trees, and it can be expensive to install and maintain. An extensive green roof features shallow soil and low-growing, horizontally spreading plants that can thrive in the alpine conditions of many rooftops. These plants do not require a lot of water or soil, and they can tolerate a significant amount of exposure to the sun and wind. This Federal Technology Alert focuses on the benefits, design, and implementation of extensive green roofs and includes criteria for their use on federal facilities.

  3. Sleepiness and alertness in American industries

    Coleman, R.M.; Dillingham, J.; Dement, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence that industrial accidents may be caused in part by shiftworkers' lack of alertness has caused growing concern at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and within the scientific community. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was threefold: (1) Is sleepiness on the job specific to utility plants? (2) Are performance and safety problems caused by sleepiness specific to utility plants? (3) Are specific shift schedules associated with a higher prevalence of sleepiness? Findings indicate sleepiness on the job among shiftworkers is a widespread problem, not limited to the nuclear power industry. The most common solution in American industry is to overstaff each shift and discipline sleeping employees. Results show this is not effective. A more proactive solution is recommended including some of the following: (1) Provide employees education to assist adjustment to shiftwork. (2) Design and implement shift schedules that are more compatible with human physiological capabilities. (3) Allow officially sanctioned napping on shift as is done in Japan. (4) Divide 6-, 8-, or 12-h shifts into smaller blocks of 2 to 3 h of primary duty. (5) make the environment where employees work more conductive to alertness. (6) Develop a firehouse type of schedule where some employees sleep throughout the night, but are awakened if operational problems arise. (7) Provide incentives to employees to adjust their life style to the night shift and reward them with time off

  4. Sleepiness and alertness in American industries

    Coleman, R.M.; Dillingham, J.; Dement, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence that industrial accidents may be caused in part by shiftworkers' lack of alertness has caused growing concern at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and within the scientific community. The purpose of the study reported in this paper was threefold: (1) Is sleepiness on the job specific to utility plants (2) Are performance and safety problems caused by sleepiness specific to utility plants (3) Are specific shift schedules associated with a higher prevalence of sleepiness Findings indicate sleepiness on the job among shiftworkers is a widespread problem, not limited to the nuclear power industry. The most common solution in American industry is to overstaff each shift and discipline sleeping employees. Results show this is not effective. A more proactive solution is recommended including some of the following: (1) Provide employees education to assist adjustment to shiftwork. (2) Design and implement shift schedules that are more compatible with human physiological capabilities. (3) Allow officially sanctioned napping on shift as is done in Japan. (4) Divide 6-, 8-, or 12-h shifts into smaller blocks of 2 to 3 h of primary duty. (5) make the environment where employees work more conductive to alertness. (6) Develop a firehouse type of schedule where some employees sleep throughout the night, but are awakened if operational problems arise. (7) Provide incentives to employees to adjust their life style to the night shift and reward them with time off.

  5. Alerts in mobile healthcare applications: requirements and pilot study.

    Kafeza, Eleanna; Chiu, Dickson K W; Cheung, S C; Kafeza, Marina

    2004-06-01

    Recent advances in mobile technologies have greatly extended traditional communication technologies to mobile devices. At the same time, healthcare environments are by nature "mobile" where doctors and nurses do not have fixed workspaces. Irregular and exceptional events are generated in daily hospital routines, such as operations rescheduling, laboratory/examination results, and adverse drug events. These events may create requests that should be delivered to the appropriate person at the appropriate time. Those requests that are classified as urgent are referred to as alerts. Efficient routing and monitoring of alerts are keys to quality and cost-effective healthcare services. Presently, these are generally handled in an ad hoc manner. In this paper, we propose the use of a healthcare alert management system to handle these alert messages systematically. We develop a model for specifying alerts that are associated with medical tasks and a set of parameters for their routing. We design an alert monitor that matches medical staff and their mobile devices to receive alerts, based on the requirements of these alerts. We also propose a mechanism to handle and reroute, if necessary, an alert message when it has not been acknowledged within a specific deadline.

  6. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  7. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies

  8. Sound wave transmission (image)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  9. Making fictions sound real

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  10. Principles of underwater sound

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  11. An Antropologist of Sound

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  12. Broadcast sound technology

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  13. Propagation of sound

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  14. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    2012-06-07

    ... Commission's Review of the Emergency Alert System, Fifth Report and Order (Order). This document is... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 [EB Docket No. 04-296; FCC 12-7] Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of...

  15. Development of an integrated campus security alerting system ...

    This work presents an integrated alerting system which uses both the Internet Protocol (IP) cameras and micro-switches for monitoring security situations thereby providing an immediate alerting signal to the security personnel. The system has the input unit, processing unit, control unit and the power supply unit as its ...

  16. A new method for determining a sector alert

    2008-09-29

    The Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS) currently declares an alert for any 15-minute interval in which the predicted demand exceeds the Monitor/Alert Parameter (MAP) for any airport, sector, or fix. For a sector, TFMS predicts the demand for each ...

  17. Earthquake early Warning ShakeAlert system: West coast wide production prototype

    Kohler, Monica D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Given, Douglas; Guiwits, Stephen; Neuhauser, Doug; Hensen, Ivan; Hartog, Renate; Bodin, Paul; Kress, Victor; Thompson, Stephen; Felizardo, Claude; Brody, Jeff; Bhadha, Rayo; Schwarz, Stan

    2017-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is an application of seismological science that can give people, as well as mechanical and electrical systems, up to tens of seconds to take protective actions before peak earthquake shaking arrives at a location. Since 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey has been working in collaboration with several partners to develop EEW for the United States. The goal is to create and operate an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the highest risk areas of the United States, starting with the West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington. In early 2016, the Production Prototype v.1.0 was established for California; then, in early 2017, v.1.2 was established for the West Coast, with earthquake notifications being distributed to a group of beta users in California, Oregon, and Washington. The new ShakeAlert Production Prototype was an outgrowth from an earlier demonstration EEW system that began sending test notifications to selected users in California in January 2012. ShakeAlert leverages the considerable physical, technical, and organizational earthquake monitoring infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System, a nationwide federation of cooperating seismic networks. When fully implemented, the ShakeAlert system may reduce damage and injury caused by large earthquakes, improve the nation’s resilience, and speed recovery.

  18. Behavioral and Brain Measures of Phasic Alerting Effects on Visual Attention.

    Wiegand, Iris; Petersen, Anders; Finke, Kathrin; Bundesen, Claus; Lansner, Jon; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in a partial report task, in which half of the displays were preceded by an auditory warning cue. Based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we estimated parameters of spatial and non-spatial aspects of visual attention and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) over visual processing areas. We found that the TVA parameter sensory effectiveness a , which is thought to reflect visual processing capacity, significantly increased with phasic alerting. By contrast, the distribution of visual processing resources according to task relevance and spatial position, as quantified in parameters top-down control α and spatial bias w index , was not modulated by phasic alerting. On the electrophysiological level, the latencies of ERLs in response to the task displays were reduced following the warning cue. These results suggest that phasic alerting facilitates visual processing in a general, unselective manner and that this effect originates in early stages of visual information processing.

  19. Abnormal sound detection device

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  20. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  1. Validation of the CME Geomagnetic forecast alerts under COMESEP alert system

    Dumbovic, Mateja; Srivastava, Nandita; Khodia, Yamini; Vršnak, Bojan; Devos, Andy; Rodriguez, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    An automated space weather alert system has been developed under the EU FP7 project COMESEP (COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles: http://comesep.aeronomy.be) to forecast solar energetic particles (SEP) and coronal mass ejection (CME) risk levels at Earth. COMESEP alert system uses automated detection tool CACTus to detect potentially threatening CMEs, drag-based model (DBM) to predict their arrival and CME geo-effectiveness tool (CGFT) to predict their geomagnetic impact. Whenever CACTus detects a halo or partial halo CME and issues an alert, DBM calculates its arrival time at Earth and CGFT calculates its geomagnetic risk level. Geomagnetic risk level is calculated based on an estimation of the CME arrival probability and its likely geo-effectiveness, as well as an estimate of the geomagnetic-storm duration. We present the evaluation of the CME risk level forecast with COMESEP alert system based on a study of geo-effective CMEs observed during 2014. The validation of the forecast tool is done by comparing the forecasts with observations. In addition, we test the success rate of the automatic forecasts (without human intervention) against the forecasts with human intervention using advanced versions of DBM and CGFT (self standing tools available at Hvar Observatory website: http://oh.geof.unizg.hr). The results implicate that the success rate of the forecast is higher with human intervention and using more advanced tools. This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252). We acknowledge the support of Croatian Science Foundation under the project 6212 „Solar and Stellar Variability".

  2. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  3. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    Maxa, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  4. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  5. Gaia Science Alerts: Early Validation Phase Data from Gaia

    Walton, Nicholas; Hodgkin, Simon; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite launched Dec 2013, and after successful completion of its in orbit commissioning in July 2014, begun routine operations, with the aim to accurately measure the astrometric and astrophysical properties of more than a billion stars in our Milky Way.As a significant by product of its observational scanning law, where each point on the sky is observed multiple times (~80 revisits on average) over the nominal 5 year mission, Gaia has significant utility in detecting new transients, both flux (e.g. Supernovae, Flare stars) and positional (e.g. Asteroids).We will present the current status of the Gaia Photometric Science Alerts (PSA) system that has been developed within the Gaia DPAC. The PSA pipeline provides a quick look analysis of the daily data stream from Gaia, and identifies new photometric alerts, from analysis of the object photometric and the low resolution spectro-photometric data. Via a set of filters, those identified as astrophysical in nature, are published to the community. The information provided currently includes positional and flux information.The Gaia Alerts working group has organised a significant early stage followup campaign, providing access to a wide variety of followup facilities. These have been used to provide classification spectra of the Gaia alert candidates, with the early phase data confirming that the alerts issued are indeed largely astrophysical transients, with only a small contamination rate.The presentation will address the early phase issues that have been addressed in localising and classifying alerts in the early phase of Gaia observations (for instance, how lack of early knowledge of the sky as seen by Gaia was mitigated by reference to external image data), and how the alert rate published by the PSA will ramp up towards the end of 2015, with the availability of more Gaia sky data.Information concerning the Gaia alerts system can be found at http://gaia.ac.uk/selected-gaia-science-alerts

  6. Perceptual evaluation of visual alerts in surveillance videos

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Topkara, Mercan; Pfeiffer, William; Hampapur, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Visual alerts are commonly used in video monitoring and surveillance systems to mark events, presumably making them more salient to human observers. Surprisingly, the effectiveness of computer-generated alerts in improving human performance has not been widely studied. To address this gap, we have developed a tool for simulating different alert parameters in a realistic visual monitoring situation, and have measured human detection performance under conditions that emulated different set-points in a surveillance algorithm. In the High-Sensitivity condition, the simulated alerts identified 100% of the events with many false alarms. In the Lower-Sensitivity condition, the simulated alerts correctly identified 70% of the targets, with fewer false alarms. In the control condition, no simulated alerts were provided. To explore the effects of learning, subjects performed these tasks in three sessions, on separate days, in a counterbalanced, within subject design. We explore these results within the context of cognitive models of human attention and learning. We found that human observers were more likely to respond to events when marked by a visual alert. Learning played a major role in the two alert conditions. In the first session, observers generated almost twice as many False Alarms as in the No-Alert condition, as the observers responded pre-attentively to the computer-generated false alarms. However, this rate dropped equally dramatically in later sessions, as observers learned to discount the false cues. Highest observer Precision, Hits/(Hits + False Alarms), was achieved in the High Sensitivity condition, but only after training. The successful evaluation of surveillance systems depends on understanding human attention and performance.

  7. Self-indicating radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD)

    Riel, G. K.; Winters, P.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.

    2006-01-01

    In an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion and a radiological accident, there is a need for self-indicating instant radiation dosemeter for monitoring radiation exposure. The self-indicating instant radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD) is a credit card size radiation dosemeter for monitoring ionising radiation from a few hundredths of a Gray to a few Gray. It is always active and is ready to use. It needs no battery. The dosemeter develops colour instantly upon exposure, and the colour intensifies with dose. It has a colour chart so that the dose on the active element may be read by matching its colour with the chart that is printed next to it on the card. However, in this work, the dose is measured by the optical density of the element. The dosemeter cannot be reset. The response changes by 3 y at room temperature. It contains no hazardous materials. The dosemeter would meet the requirements of instantly monitoring high dose in an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion or a radiation accident. (authors)

  8. Self-indicating radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD).

    Riel, Gordon K; Winters, Patrick; Patel, Gordhan; Patel, Paresh

    2006-01-01

    In an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion and a radiological accident, there is a need for self-indicating instant radiation dosemeter for monitoring radiation exposure. The self-indicating instant radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD) is a credit card size radiation dosemeter for monitoring ionising radiation from a few hundredths of a Gray to a few Gray. It is always active and is ready to use. It needs no battery. The dosemeter develops colour instantly upon exposure, and the colour intensifies with dose. It has a colour chart so that the dose on the active element may be read by matching its colour with the chart that is printed next to it on the card. However, in this work, the dose is measured by the optical density of the element. The dosemeter cannot be reset. The response changes by 3 y at room temperature. It contains no hazardous materials. The dosemeter would meet the requirements of instantly monitoring high dose in an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion or a radiation accident.

  9. The effect of automated alerts on provider ordering behavior in an outpatient setting.

    2005-09-01

    (5.6% vs. 10.9%, p = 0.03, Generalized Estimating Equations test. The provider also increased ordering of the rule-associated laboratory test when an alert was displayed (39% at baseline vs. 51% during post intervention, p < 0.001. There was a non-statistically significant difference towards less "definite" or "probable" adverse drug events defined by Naranjo scoring (10.3% at baseline vs. 4.3% during postintervention, p = 0.23. CONCLUSION: Providers will adhere to alerts and will use this information to improve patient care. Specifically, in response to drug-laboratory interaction alerts, providers will significantly increase the ordering of appropriate laboratory tests. There may be a concomitant change in adverse drug events that would require a larger study to confirm. Implementation of rules technology to prevent medication errors could be an effective tool for reducing medication errors in an outpatient setting.

  10. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (pinertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  11. Real-time alerts and reminders using information systems.

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2011-09-01

    Adoption of information systems throughout the hospital environment has enabled the development of real-time physiologic alerts and clinician reminder systems. These clinical tools can be made available through the deployment of anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). Creating usable alert systems requires understanding of technical considerations. Various successful implementations are reviewed, encompassing cost reduction, improved revenue capture, timely antibiotic administration, and postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Challenges to the widespread use of real-time alerts and reminders include AIMS adoption rates and the difficulty in choosing appropriate areas and approaches for information systems support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  13. Sound a very short introduction

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  14. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  15. Provider and pharmacist responses to warfarin drug–drug interaction alerts: a study of healthcare downstream of CPOE alerts

    Boro, Maureen S; Korman, Nancy E; Davoren, J Ben

    2011-01-01

    Objective To categorize the appropriateness of provider and pharmacist responses to warfarin critical drug–drug interaction (cDDI) alerts, assess responses and actions to the cDDI, and determine the occurrence of warfarin adverse drug events (ADE) after alerts. Design An 18-month, retrospective study of acute care admissions at a single Veterans Affairs medical center using computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Measurements Patients included had at least one warfarin cDDI alert. Chart reviews included baseline laboratory values and demographics, provider actions, patient outcomes, and associated factors, including other interacting medications and number of simultaneously processed alerts. Results 137 admissions were included (133 unique patients). Amiodarone, vitamin E in a multivitamin, sulfamethoxazole, and levothyroxine accounted for 75% of warfarin cDDI. Provider responses were clinically appropriate in 19.7% of admissions and pharmacist responses were appropriate in 9.5% of admissions. There were 50 ADE (36.6% of admissions) with warfarin; 80% were rated as having no or mild clinical effect. An increased number of non-critical alerts at the time of the reference cDDI alert was the only variable associated with an inappropriate provider response (p=0.01). Limitations This study was limited by being a retrospective review and the possibility of confounding variables, such as other interacting medications. Conclusion The large number of CPOE alerts may lead to inappropriate responses by providers and pharmacists. The high rate of ADE suggests a need for improved medication management systems for patients on warfarin. This study highlights the possibility of alert fatigue contributing to the high prevalence of inappropriate alert over-ride text responses. PMID:22037888

  16. Morning sleep inertia in alertness and performance: effect of cognitive domain and white light conditions.

    Nayantara Santhi

    Full Text Available The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT, n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01. However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01, where response times (RT at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it's spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations.

  17. The velocity of sound

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  18. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  19. What is Sound?

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  20. Light and Sound

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  1. Report: Management Alert - Salary Increases for Certain Administratively Determined Positions

    Report #18-N-0154, April 16, 2018. The purpose of this alert is to notify the EPA of certain factual info while our audit of the Office of the Administrator's (present and prior administrations) use of administratively determined positions continues.

  2. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  3. Usability of Smartphones for dose alerts

    Kaireit, T.; Stamm, G.; Wacker, F.K.; Hoeschen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Smartphone apps for measuring ionizing radiation use the capability of (CMOS) camera chips to detect not only perceivable light but also electromagnetic wave radiation. The present study evaluates the accuracy of hardware and software and defines possible applications for the detection of X-ray radiation fields. Materials and Methods: 2 apps and 2 different devices were tested in comparison with a calibrated ionization chamber and a personal electronic dosimeter. A calibration curve was determined for dose rates between 12 700 μSv/h and 5.7 μSv/h generated by a C-arm system. Results: The measured scattered radiation produced by an Alderson-Rando phantom ranged from 117 μSv/h (at a distance of 2 m) to 5910 μSv/h (at a distance of 0.3 m) and was 1.4 times less than the values of the ionization chamber. The exposure rate for the operator's thyroid was within 4200 - 4400 μSv/h. We found a strong dependence of the measurements on the angulation of the Smartphone, especially for short distances from the phantom (at a distance of 0.3 m, a 45 rotation downwards in a vertical direction caused a decrease from 3000 μSv/h to 972 μSv/h, while an upwards rotation resulted in an increase to 5000 μSv/h). For a distance of 1 m, this effect was remarkably smaller. Conclusion: Smartphones can be used to detect ionizing radiation but showed limited accuracy and are heavily dependent on the angulation of the device. Qualitative measurements and utilization for dose alerts are possible. (orig.)

  4. [Usability of smartphones for dose alerts].

    Kaireit, T; Stamm, G; Hoeschen, C; Wacker, F K

    2013-06-01

    Smartphone apps for measuring ionizing radiation use the capability of (CMOS) camera chips to detect not only perceivable light but also electromagnetic wave radiation. The present study evaluates the accuracy of hardware and software and defines possible applications for the detection of X-ray radiation fields. 2 apps and 2 different devices were tested in comparison with a calibrated ionization chamber and a personal electronic dosimeter. A calibration curve was determined for dose rates between 12 700 µSv/h and 5.7 µSv/h generated by a C-arm system. The measured scattered radiation produced by an Alderson-Rando phantom ranged from 117 µSv/h (at a distance of 2 m) to 5910 µSv/h (at a distance of 0.3 m) and was 1.4 times less than the values of the ionization chamber. The exposure rate for the operator's thyroid was within 4200 - 4400 µSv/h. We found a strong dependence of the measurements on the angulation of the Smartphone, especially for short distances from the phantom (at a distance of 0.3 m, a 45° rotation downwards in a vertical direction caused a decrease from 3000 µSv/h to 972 µSv/h, while an upwards rotation resulted in an increase to 5000 µSv/h). For a distance of 1 m, this effect was remarkably smaller. Smartphones can be used to detect ionizing radiation but showed limited accuracy and are heavily dependent on the angulation of the device. Qualitative measurements and utilization for dose alerts are possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  6. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods: Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  7. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  8. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    Heideman, Wieke H.; de Wit, Maartje; Middelkoop, Barend J. C.; Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.; Snoek, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert intervention (N=45) or

  9. Acute alerting effects of light: A systematic literature review.

    Souman, Jan L; Tinga, Angelica M; Te Pas, Susan F; van Ee, Raymond; Vlaskamp, Björn N S

    2018-01-30

    Periodic, well timed exposure to light is important for our health and wellbeing. Light, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum, is thought to affect alertness both indirectly, by modifying circadian rhythms, and directly, giving rise to acute effects. We performed a systematic review of empirical studies on direct, acute effects of light on alertness to evaluate the reliability of these effects. In total, we identified 68 studies in which either light intensity, spectral distribution, or both were manipulated, and evaluated the effects on behavioral measures of alertness, either subjectively or measured in reaction time performance tasks. The results show that increasing the intensity of polychromatic white light has been found to increase subjective ratings of alertness in a majority of studies, though a substantial proportion of studies failed to find significant effects, possibly due to small sample sizes or high baseline light intensities. The effect of the color temperature of white light on subjective alertness is less clear. Some studies found increased alertness with higher color temperatures, but other studies reported no detrimental effects of filtering out the short wavelengths from the spectrum. Similarly, studies that used monochromatic light exposure showed no systematic pattern for the effects of blue light compared to longer wavelengths. Far fewer studies investigated the effects of light intensity or spectrum on alertness as measured with reaction time tasks and of those, very few reported significant effects. In general, the small sample sizes used in studies on acute alerting effects of light make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions and better powered studies are needed, especially studies that allow for the construction of dose-response curves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring alert and drowsy states by modeling EEG source nonstationarity

    Hsu, Sheng-Hsiou; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Objective. As a human brain performs various cognitive functions within ever-changing environments, states of the brain characterized by recorded brain activities such as electroencephalogram (EEG) are inevitably nonstationary. The challenges of analyzing the nonstationary EEG signals include finding neurocognitive sources that underlie different brain states and using EEG data to quantitatively assess the state changes. Approach. This study hypothesizes that brain activities under different states, e.g. levels of alertness, can be modeled as distinct compositions of statistically independent sources using independent component analysis (ICA). This study presents a framework to quantitatively assess the EEG source nonstationarity and estimate levels of alertness. The framework was tested against EEG data collected from 10 subjects performing a sustained-attention task in a driving simulator. Main results. Empirical results illustrate that EEG signals under alert versus drowsy states, indexed by reaction speeds to driving challenges, can be characterized by distinct ICA models. By quantifying the goodness-of-fit of each ICA model to the EEG data using the model deviation index (MDI), we found that MDIs were significantly correlated with the reaction speeds (r  =  -0.390 with alertness models and r  =  0.449 with drowsiness models) and the opposite correlations indicated that the two models accounted for sources in the alert and drowsy states, respectively. Based on the observed source nonstationarity, this study also proposes an online framework using a subject-specific ICA model trained with an initial (alert) state to track the level of alertness. For classification of alert against drowsy states, the proposed online framework achieved an averaged area-under-curve of 0.745 and compared favorably with a classic power-based approach. Significance. This ICA-based framework provides a new way to study changes of brain states and can be applied to

  11. Alert management for home healthcare based on home automation analysis.

    Truong, T T; de Lamotte, F; Diguet, J-Ph; Said-Hocine, F

    2010-01-01

    Rising healthcare for elder and disabled people can be controlled by offering people autonomy at home by means of information technology. In this paper, we present an original and sensorless alert management solution which performs multimedia and home automation service discrimination and extracts highly regular home activities as sensors for alert management. The results of simulation data, based on real context, allow us to evaluate our approach before application to real data.

  12. Investigation into the value of trained glycaemia alert dogs to clients with type I diabetes.

    Rooney, Nicola J; Morant, Steve; Guest, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that some pet dogs respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state. Here, we show that trained glycaemia alert dogs placed with clients living with diabetes afford significant improvements to owner well-being. We investigated whether trained dogs reliably respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state, and whether owners experience facilitated tightened glycaemic control, and wider psychosocial benefits. Since obtaining their dog, all seventeen clients studied reported positive effects including reduced paramedic call outs, decreased unconscious episodes and improved independence. Owner-recorded data showed that dogs alerted their owners, with significant, though variable, accuracy at times of low and high blood sugar. Eight out of the ten dogs (for which owners provided adequate records) responded consistently more often when their owner's blood sugars were reported to be outside, than within, target range. Comparison of nine clients' routine records showed significant overall change after obtaining their dogs, with seven clients recording a significantly higher proportion of routine tests within target range after obtaining a dog. HbA1C showed a small, non significant reduction after dog allocation. Based on owner-reported data we have shown, for the first time, that trained detection dogs perform above chance level. This study points to the potential value of alert dogs, for increasing glycaemic control, client independence and consequent quality of life and even reducing the costs of long-term health care.

  13. Investigation into the value of trained glycaemia alert dogs to clients with type I diabetes.

    Nicola J Rooney

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that some pet dogs respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state. Here, we show that trained glycaemia alert dogs placed with clients living with diabetes afford significant improvements to owner well-being. We investigated whether trained dogs reliably respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state, and whether owners experience facilitated tightened glycaemic control, and wider psychosocial benefits. Since obtaining their dog, all seventeen clients studied reported positive effects including reduced paramedic call outs, decreased unconscious episodes and improved independence. Owner-recorded data showed that dogs alerted their owners, with significant, though variable, accuracy at times of low and high blood sugar. Eight out of the ten dogs (for which owners provided adequate records responded consistently more often when their owner's blood sugars were reported to be outside, than within, target range. Comparison of nine clients' routine records showed significant overall change after obtaining their dogs, with seven clients recording a significantly higher proportion of routine tests within target range after obtaining a dog. HbA1C showed a small, non significant reduction after dog allocation. Based on owner-reported data we have shown, for the first time, that trained detection dogs perform above chance level. This study points to the potential value of alert dogs, for increasing glycaemic control, client independence and consequent quality of life and even reducing the costs of long-term health care.

  14. The DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) gene is associated with alerting attention.

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Chen, Chunhui; He, Qinghua; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Lei, Xuemei; Lin, Chongde

    2013-06-03

    DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. It has been suggested that genes involved in the dopamine, norepinephrine, and cholinergic systems play an essential role in the efficiency of human attention networks. Attention refers to the cognitive process of obtaining and maintaining the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and regulating the conflicts of thoughts and behavior. The present study tested seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DDC gene for association with attention, which was assessed by the Attention Network Test to detect three networks of attention, including alerting, orienting, and executive attention, in a healthy Han Chinese sample (N=451). Association analysis for individual SNPs indicated that four of the seven SNPs (rs3887825, rs7786398, rs10499695, and rs6969081) were significantly associated with alerting attention. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that alerting was associated with the haplotype G-A-T for SNPs rs7786398-rs10499695-rs6969081. These associations remained significant after correcting for multiple testing by max(T) permutation. No association was found for orienting and executive attention. This study provides the first evidence for the involvement of the DDC gene in alerting attention. A better understanding of the genetic basis of distinct attention networks would allow us to develop more effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of deficient or underdeveloped alerting attention as well as its related prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. InfoSound

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  16. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  17. Sound propagation in cities

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  18. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  19. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  20. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  1. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  2. Effect of air quality alerts on human health: a regression discontinuity analysis in Toronto, Canada.

    Chen, Hong; Li, Qiongsi; Kaufman, Jay S; Wang, Jun; Copes, Ray; Su, Yushan; Benmarhnia, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is a major health risk globally. To reduce adverse health effects on days when air pollution is high, government agencies worldwide have implemented air quality alert programmes. Despite their widespread use, little is known about whether these programmes produce any observable public-health benefits. We assessed the effectiveness of such programmes using a quasi-experimental approach. We assembled a population-based cohort comprising all individuals who resided in the city of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) from 2003 to 2012 (about 2·6 million people). We ascertained seven health outcomes known to be affected by short-term elevation of air pollution, using provincial health administrative databases. These health outcomes were cardiovascular-related mortality, respiratory-related mortality, and hospital admissions or emergency-department visits for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We applied a regression discontinuity design to assess the effectiveness of an intervention (ie, the air quality alert programme). To quantify the effect of the air quality alert programme, we estimated for each outcome both the absolute rate difference and the rate ratio attributable to programme eligibility (by intention-to-treat analysis) and the alerts themselves (by two-stage regression approach), respectively. Between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2012, on average between three and 27 daily cardiovascular or respiratory events were reported in Toronto (depending on the outcome). Alert announcements reduced asthma-related emergency-department visits by 4·73 cases per 1 000 000 people per day (95% CI 0·55-9·38), or in relative terms by 25% (95% CI 1-47). Programme eligibility also led to 2·05 (95% CI 0·07-4·00) fewer daily emergency-department visits for asthma. We did not detect a significant reduction in any other health outcome as a result of alert announcements or programme

  3. Waveform analysis of sound

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  4. Sound classification of dwellings

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  5. Speech Auditory Alerts Promote Memory for Alerted Events in a Video-Simulated Self-Driving Car Ride.

    Nees, Michael A; Helbein, Benji; Porter, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Auditory displays could be essential to helping drivers maintain situation awareness in autonomous vehicles, but to date, few or no studies have examined the effectiveness of different types of auditory displays for this application scenario. Recent advances in the development of autonomous vehicles (i.e., self-driving cars) have suggested that widespread automation of driving may be tenable in the near future. Drivers may be required to monitor the status of automation programs and vehicle conditions as they engage in secondary leisure or work tasks (entertainment, communication, etc.) in autonomous vehicles. An experiment compared memory for alerted events-a component of Level 1 situation awareness-using speech alerts, auditory icons, and a visual control condition during a video-simulated self-driving car ride with a visual secondary task. The alerts gave information about the vehicle's operating status and the driving scenario. Speech alerts resulted in better memory for alerted events. Both auditory display types resulted in less perceived effort devoted toward the study tasks but also greater perceived annoyance with the alerts. Speech auditory displays promoted Level 1 situation awareness during a simulation of a ride in a self-driving vehicle under routine conditions, but annoyance remains a concern with auditory displays. Speech auditory displays showed promise as a means of increasing Level 1 situation awareness of routine scenarios during an autonomous vehicle ride with an unrelated secondary task. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Sound specificity effects in spoken word recognition: The effect of integrality between words and sounds.

    Strori, Dorina; Zaar, Johannes; Cooke, Martin; Mattys, Sven L

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that nonlinguistic sounds co-occurring with spoken words may be retained in memory and affect later retrieval of the words. This sound-specificity effect shares many characteristics with the classic voice-specificity effect. In this study, we argue that the sound-specificity effect is conditional upon the context in which the word and sound coexist. Specifically, we argue that, besides co-occurrence, integrality between words and sounds is a crucial factor in the emergence of the effect. In two recognition-memory experiments, we compared the emergence of voice and sound specificity effects. In Experiment 1 , we examined two conditions where integrality is high. Namely, the classic voice-specificity effect (Exp. 1a) was compared with a condition in which the intensity envelope of a background sound was modulated along the intensity envelope of the accompanying spoken word (Exp. 1b). Results revealed a robust voice-specificity effect and, critically, a comparable sound-specificity effect: A change in the paired sound from exposure to test led to a decrease in word-recognition performance. In the second experiment, we sought to disentangle the contribution of integrality from a mere co-occurrence context effect by removing the intensity modulation. The absence of integrality led to the disappearance of the sound-specificity effect. Taken together, the results suggest that the assimilation of background sounds into memory cannot be reduced to a simple context effect. Rather, it is conditioned by the extent to which words and sounds are perceived as integral as opposed to distinct auditory objects.

  7. The sound manifesto

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; Bisnovatyi, Ilia

    2000-11-01

    Computing practice today depends on visual output to drive almost all user interaction. Other senses, such as audition, may be totally neglected, or used tangentially, or used in highly restricted specialized ways. We have excellent audio rendering through D-A conversion, but we lack rich general facilities for modeling and manipulating sound comparable in quality and flexibility to graphics. We need coordinated research in several disciplines to improve the use of sound as an interactive information channel. Incremental and separate improvements in synthesis, analysis, speech processing, audiology, acoustics, music, etc. will not alone produce the radical progress that we seek in sonic practice. We also need to create a new central topic of study in digital audio research. The new topic will assimilate the contributions of different disciplines on a common foundation. The key central concept that we lack is sound as a general-purpose information channel. We must investigate the structure of this information channel, which is driven by the cooperative development of auditory perception and physical sound production. Particular audible encodings, such as speech and music, illuminate sonic information by example, but they are no more sufficient for a characterization than typography is sufficient for characterization of visual information. To develop this new conceptual topic of sonic information structure, we need to integrate insights from a number of different disciplines that deal with sound. In particular, we need to coordinate central and foundational studies of the representational models of sound with specific applications that illuminate the good and bad qualities of these models. Each natural or artificial process that generates informative sound, and each perceptual mechanism that derives information from sound, will teach us something about the right structure to attribute to the sound itself. The new Sound topic will combine the work of computer

  8. Fatigue in Younger and Older Drivers: Effectiveness of an Alertness-Maintaining Task.

    Song, Woojin; Woon, Fu L; Doong, Alice; Persad, Carol; Tijerina, Louis; Pandit, Pooja; Cline, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an alertness-maintaining task (AMT) in older, fatigued drivers. Fatigue during driving increases crash risk, and previous research suggests that alertness and driving in younger adults may be improved using a secondary AMT during boring, fatigue-eliciting drives. However, the potential impact of an AMT on driving has not been investigated in older drivers whose ability to complete dual tasks has been shown to decline and therefore may be negatively affected with an AMT in driving. Younger ( n = 29) and older drivers ( n = 39) participated in a 50-minute simulated drive designed to induce fatigue, followed by four 10-minute sessions alternating between driving with and without an AMT. Younger drivers were significantly more affected by fatigue on driving performance than were older drivers but benefitted significantly from the AMT. Older drivers did not demonstrate increased driver errors with fatigue, and driving did not deteriorate significantly during participation in the AMT condition, although their speed was significantly more variable with the AMT. Consistent with earlier research, an AMT applied during fatiguing driving is effective in improving alertness and reducing driving errors in younger drivers. Importantly, older drivers were relatively unaffected by fatigue, and use of an AMT did not detrimentally affect their driving performance. These results support the potential use of an AMT as a new automotive technology to improve fatigue and promote driver safety, though the benefits of such technology may differ between different age groups.

  9. Quality of prescription of high-alert medication and patient safety in pediatric emergency

    V. Vieira de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the importance of compliance by prescribed doses of high-alert medications in unit of pediatric emergency in patient safety. Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in a unit of pediatric emergency, for March to April of 2012. This study included all prescriptions that contained at least one high-alert medication, excluding all of others. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel® version 2007, and the study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital. Results: This study included prescriptions for 100 patients with a mean age of 5.2 ± 4.2 years. Were identified 983 (40.1% high-alert medications (21 different, with predominance of injectable solutions (834, 84,8%, and of these 727 (73.95% were electrolytes. The analysis of the dose was possible for 641 electrolytes and 104 non-electrolytes, being the dose inadequacies observed for some medications. Was observed concentration absent to 189 (18.9% prescribed medications, these with liquid pharmaceutical form or aerosol. Was observed also the absence of maximum dose for 8 (36.3% prescribed drugs “if necessary”. Conclusión: The inadequacies of doses of high-alert medications identified in this study may compromise patient safety, demonstrating the importance of knowledge of multidisciplinary health care team by this subject, in this context, it is noteworthy that the acting of a clinical pharmacist together with the health multidisciplined team can contributes with the review of drug prescriptions, reducing potential errors and collaborating with patient safety.

  10. The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep.

    Rahman, Shadab A; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Lockley, Steven W

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Each light exposure day was preceded by a dim light (LED conditions compared to FL 30min prior to bedtime. EEG-based correlates of alertness corroborated the reduced alertness under C-LED conditions as shown by significantly increased EEG spectral power in the delta-theta (0.5-8.0Hz) bands under C-LED as compared to FL exposure. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), and slow-wave activity (SWA) between the two conditions. Unlike melatonin suppression and alertness, a significant order effect was observed on all three sleep variables, however. Individuals who received C-LED first and then FL had increased TST, SE% and SWA averaged across both nights compared to individuals who received FL first and then C-LED. These data show that the spectral characteristics of light can be fine-tuned to attenuate non-visual responses to light in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Digitizing a sound archive

    Cone, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Danish and international artists. His methodology left us with a large collection of unique and inspirational time-based media sound artworks that have, until very recently, been inaccessible. Existing on an array of different media formats, such as open reel tapes, 8-track and 4 track cassettes, VHS......In 1990 an artist by the name of William Louis Sørensen was hired by the National Gallery of Denmark to collect important works of art – made from sound. His job was to acquire sound art, but also recordings that captured rare artistic occurrences, music, performances and happenings from both...

  12. Space Debris Alert System for Aviation

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Despite increasing efforts to accurately predict space debris re-entry, the exact time and location of re-entry is still very uncertain. Partially, this is due to a skipping effect uncontrolled spacecraft may experience as they enter the atmosphere at a shallow angle. Such effect difficult to model depends on atmospheric variations of density. When the bouncing off ends and atmospheric re-entry starts, the trajectory and the overall location of surviving fragments can be precisely predicted but the time to impact with ground, or to reach the airspace, becomes very short.Different is the case of a functional space system performing controlled re-entry. Suitable forecasts methods are available to clear air and maritime traffic from hazard areas (so-called traffic segregation).In US, following the Space Shuttle Columbia accident in 2003, a re-entry hazard areas location forecast system was putted in place for the specific case of major malfunction of a Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) at re-entry. The Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Calculator (SHAAC) is a system based on ground equipment and software analyses and prediction tools, which require trained personnel and close coordination between the organization responsible for RLV operation (NASA for Shuttle) and the Federal Aviation Administration. The system very much relies on the operator's capability to determine that a major malfunction has occurred.This paper presents a US pending patent by the European Space Agency, which consists of a "smart fragment" using a GPS localizer together with pre- computed debris footprint area and direct broadcasting of such hazard areas.The risk for aviation from falling debris is very remote but catastrophic. Suspending flight over vast swath of airspace for every re-entering spacecraft or rocket upper stage, which is a weekly occurrence, would be extremely costly and disruptive.The Re-entry Direct Broadcasting Alert System (R- DBAS) is an original merging and evolution of the Re

  13. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Infant Responsiveness, Alertness, Hemoglobin and Growth in Rural Sidama, Ethiopia

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Thomas, David G.; Kennedy, Tay S.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have supported relations between infant behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and nutrition (e.g. Dempsey 2008, Wachs et al 2005) in addition to investigating infant behavior within the context of changes in iron status over time (e.g. Black et al. 2004, Murray-Kolb & Beard 2009). Existing research is typically limited to investigation of the effects of a single vitamin or mineral and no studies have been found that examined the influence that early alertness and responsiveness have on growth in early infancy, despite the fact that relations between behavior and nutritional status may be bidirectional (Hulthén 2003). The current study used a sample of Ethiopian infants and investigated anthropometrics, hemoglobin, the frequency of alertness, and the frequency of responsiveness at 6 and 9 months of age. Six-month weight-for-age predicted 9-month frequency of alertness, while 6-month hemoglobin predicted 9-month frequency of responsiveness. Compared to responsive infants, non-responsive infants at 6 months remained more non-responsive at 9 months, though weight-for-age for both groups converged at 9 months. Results support relations between nutrition and behavior (alertness and responsiveness) and provide evidence of a potentially useful tool (the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery [Lab-TAB]) that was adapted to evaluate these relations in Ethiopia. PMID:22233352

  15. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  16. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  17. Sounds of Web Advertising

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  18. Sound Art Situations

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  19. Sound as Popular Culture

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  20. It sounds good!

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  1. Sound Visualization and Holography

    Kock, Winston E.

    1975-01-01

    Describes liquid surface holograms including their application to medicine. Discusses interference and diffraction phenomena using sound wave scanning techniques. Compares focussing by zone plate to holographic image development. (GH)

  2. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  3. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  4. Wireless alerting system using vibration for vehicles dashboard

    Raj, Sweta; Rai, Shweta; Magaramagara, Wilbert; Sivacoumar, R.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims at improving the engine life of any vehicle through a continuous measurement and monitoring of vital engine operational parameters and providing an effective alerting to drivers for any abnormality. Vehicles currently are using audio and visible alerting signals through alarms and light as a warning to the driver but these are not effective in noisy environments and during daylight. Through the use of the sense of feeling a driver can be alerted effectively. The need to no other vehicle parameter needs to be aided through the mobile display (phone).Thus a system is designed and implements to measure engine temperature, RPM, Oil level and Coolant level using appropriate sensors and a wireless communication (Bluetooth) is established to actuate a portable vibration control device and to read the different vehicle sensor readings through an android application for display and diagnosis.

  5. Dynamic malware containment under an epidemic model with alert

    Zhang, Tianrui; Yang, Lu-Xing; Yang, Xiaofan; Wu, Yingbo; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2017-03-01

    Alerting at the early stage of malware invasion turns out to be an important complement to malware detection and elimination. This paper addresses the issue of how to dynamically contain the prevalence of malware at a lower cost, provided alerting is feasible. A controlled epidemic model with alert is established, and an optimal control problem based on the epidemic model is formulated. The optimality system for the optimal control problem is derived. The structure of an optimal control for the proposed optimal control problem is characterized under some conditions. Numerical examples show that the cost-efficiency of an optimal control strategy can be enhanced by adjusting the upper and lower bounds on admissible controls.

  6. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E.; Parmiggiani, N.; Beneventano, D.; Chen, A. W.; Vercellone, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Longo, F.; Pellizzoni, A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  7. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  8. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E. [INAF/IASF-Roma, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Parmiggiani, N.; Beneventano, D. [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Science e Metodi dell' Ingegneria (Italy); Chen, A. W. [INAF/IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Vercellone, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P. [INAF/IASF-Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Longo, F. [ASI-ASDC, Via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Pellizzoni, A. [INFN Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2014-01-20

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  9. The AGILE Alert System for Gamma-Ray Transients

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Vercellone, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Beneventano, D.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E.; Longo, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pucella, G.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conforti, V.; Tempesta, P.; Cerone, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Valentini, G.; Salotti, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  10. Should people be physically active outdoors on smog alert days?

    Campbell, Monica E; Li, Qian; Gingrich, Sarah E; Macfarlane, Ronald G; Cheng, Shouquan

    2005-01-01

    Given the importance of physical activity to well-being, there is a need to encourage people to be physically active year-round. At the same time, many people are vulnerable to adverse health effects from air pollution, especially on smog alert days. This study was undertaken to determine when air pollution levels tend to be lowest so that the public can modify strenuous outdoor activity accordingly. Existing hourly air pollution data for Toronto were analyzed to determine how pollutant levels varied from hour to hour throughout each 24-hour day, to identify the times when pollution levels are at their lowest on average. Pollutant levels vary throughout the day, with concentrations of some pollutants (such as ozone, particles and sulphur dioxide) being highest during mid-day, and others (such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide) being highest with morning rush hour. Overall, pollutant concentrations tend to be lowest before seven a.m. and after eight p.m. The public should be encouraged to maintain regular physical activity outdoors while monitoring any air pollution-related symptoms. The intensity of outdoor activity should be reduced, or activities replaced with indoor exercise, at those Air Quality Index (AQI) levels that trigger individual symptoms and when AQI values exceed 50. Where possible, strenuous activity should be taken when and where air pollution levels tend to be lowest, namely early in the morning and in low-traffic areas. More research is required to guide development of health protective advice on exercising when air quality is poor.

  11. Mutagenic and carcinogenic structural alerts and their mechanisms of action.

    Plošnik, Alja; Vračko, Marjan; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-09-01

    Knowing the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals is very important for their hazard (and risk) assessment. One of the crucial events that trigger genotoxic and sometimes carcinogenic effects is the forming of adducts between chemical compounds and nucleic acids and histones. This review takes a look at the mechanisms related to specific functional groups (structural alerts or toxicophores) that may trigger genotoxic or epigenetic effects in the cells. We present up-to-date information about defined structural alerts with their mechanisms and the software based on this knowledge (QSAR models and classification schemes).

  12. Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System siren testing report

    Weidner, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effective coverage of the proposed upgrades to the existing Hanford Site Emergency Alerting System (HSEAS). The upgrades are to enhance the existing HSEAS along the Columbia River from the Vernita Bridge to the White Bluffs Boat Launch as well as install a new alerting system in the 400 Area on the Hanford Site. Five siren sites along the Columbia River and two sites in the 400 Area were tested to determine the site locations that will provide the desired coverage

  13. Interactive physically-based sound simulation

    Raghuvanshi, Nikunj

    The realization of interactive, immersive virtual worlds requires the ability to present a realistic audio experience that convincingly compliments their visual rendering. Physical simulation is a natural way to achieve such realism, enabling deeply immersive virtual worlds. However, physically-based sound simulation is very computationally expensive owing to the high-frequency, transient oscillations underlying audible sounds. The increasing computational power of desktop computers has served to reduce the gap between required and available computation, and it has become possible to bridge this gap further by using a combination of algorithmic improvements that exploit the physical, as well as perceptual properties of audible sounds. My thesis is a step in this direction. My dissertation concentrates on developing real-time techniques for both sub-problems of sound simulation: synthesis and propagation. Sound synthesis is concerned with generating the sounds produced by objects due to elastic surface vibrations upon interaction with the environment, such as collisions. I present novel techniques that exploit human auditory perception to simulate scenes with hundreds of sounding objects undergoing impact and rolling in real time. Sound propagation is the complementary problem of modeling the high-order scattering and diffraction of sound in an environment as it travels from source to listener. I discuss my work on a novel numerical acoustic simulator (ARD) that is hundred times faster and consumes ten times less memory than a high-accuracy finite-difference technique, allowing acoustic simulations on previously-intractable spaces, such as a cathedral, on a desktop computer. Lastly, I present my work on interactive sound propagation that leverages my ARD simulator to render the acoustics of arbitrary static scenes for multiple moving sources and listener in real time, while accounting for scene-dependent effects such as low-pass filtering and smooth attenuation

  14. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  15. The Textile Form of Sound

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... goemetry by analysing the sound pattern at a specific spot. This analysis is done theoretically with algorithmic systems and practical with waves in water. The paper describes the experiments and the findings, and explains how an analysis of sound can be catched in a textile form....

  16. Sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash concrete for railway application

    Ramzi Hannan, N. I. R.; Shahidan, S.; Maarof, Z.; Ali, N.; Abdullah, S. R.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    A porous concrete able to reduce the sound wave that pass through it. When a sound waves strike a material, a portion of the sound energy was reflected back and another portion of the sound energy was absorbed by the material while the rest was transmitted. The larger portion of the sound wave being absorbed, the lower the noise level able to be lowered. This study is to investigate the sound absorption coefficient of coal bottom ash (CBA) concrete compared to the sound absorption coefficient of normal concrete by carried out the impedance tube test. Hence, this paper presents the result of the impedance tube test of the CBA concrete and normal concrete.

  17. Geo-targeted Weather Alerts Coming to Millions of Mobile Devices

    Gerber, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Personal Localized Alert Network (PLAN), aka Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), is readying for roll out and will be broadcasting emergency public alerts to millions of cell phones by the middle of 2012. Learn how the National Weather Serivce (NWS) is supplying PLAN with geo-referenced weather alert information in the industry standard Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) format and how you can access this same information for integration with mobile devices, other consumer electronics, and decision support systems. Information will also be provided on the NWS' new collaborative venue that encourages wide participation in the evolution and use of NWS CAP alerts in a variety of applications.

  18. Comparison of 'time to detection' values between BacT/ALERT VIRTUO and BacT/ALERT 3D instruments for clinical blood culture samples.

    Congestrì, Francesco; Pedna, Maria Federica; Fantini, Michela; Samuelli, Michela; Schiavone, Pasqua; Torri, Arianna; Bertini, Stefania; Sambri, Vittorio

    2017-09-01

    The early detection of bacteraemia and fungemia is of paramount importance to guide antimicrobial therapy in septic patients. In this study the 'time to detection' (TTD) value for the new blood culture system BacT/ALERT VIRTUO (VIRTUO) was evaluated in 1462 positive clinical bottles and compared with the TTD for 1601 positive clinical bottles incubated in the BacT/ALERT 3D system (BTA-3D). The most representative microorganisms isolated from bottles incubated in both blood culture systems were divided into eight categories (in order of frequency): coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae (other than E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp, viridans group streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp. The comparison of TTD values for the two blood culture systems strongly indicated that growth of the first five groups listed above was detected earlier with VIRTUO than with BTA-3D (p culture system can reduce the TTD for more than 75% of isolated microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  20. Best Practices in Wireless Emergency Alerts

    2014-02-01

    S. & Sorenson, John H. Communication of Emergency Public Warnings: A Social Science Perspective and State-of-the Art Assessment. Oak Ridge National...that reduces the likelihood of loss of life can be valued through actuarial processes but also has value for which there is no accounting. While...in its use and adoption. A computer science professor at the University of California–Berkeley describes one of the lessons learned from this

  1. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  2. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  3. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    2010-10-01

    ... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the amount... where such food and beverages were provided, multiplied by the number of personnel who received them. (b...

  4. Global Trade Alert | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    Global Trade Alert (GTA) will provide information in real time on national measures taken during the current global economic downturn that are likely to discriminate against foreign commerce. GTA will complement and go beyond World Trade Organization (WTO) and World Bank monitoring initiatives by identifying affected ...

  5. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... an Alert System Using the Omron 790it Blood Pressure. Monitor ... detailed medical information on the vital signs of patients and will save many lives that may be lost. Keywords: Omron .... at rest, in beats per minute (BPM):.

  6. Testing and Performance of UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope

    Rípa, Jakub; Bin Kim, Min; Lee, Jik

    2014-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder (UFFO-p) is a new space mission dedicated to detect Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and rapidly follow their afterglows in order to provide early optical/ultraviolet measurements. A GRB location is determined in a few seconds by the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger t...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.1113 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a) The...

  9. Abonnez-vous aux alertes de financement | CRDI - Centre de ...

    Afrique subsaharienne. Si vous ne voulez plus recevoir les alertes de financement, vous pouvez toujours vous désabonner. Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources · À propos du CRDI. Savoir. Innovation. Solutions. Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les ...

  10. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  11. RSS based CERN Alerter. Information broadcast to all CERN offices.

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    Nearly every large organization uses a tool to broadcast messages and information across the internal campus (messages like alerts announcing interruption in services or just information about upcoming events). These tools typically allow administrators (operators) to send "targeted" messages which are sent only to specific groups of users or computers, e/g only those located in a specified building or connected to a particular computing service. CERN has a long history of such tools: CERNVMS€™s SPM_quotMESSAGE command, Zephyr and the most recent the NICE Alerter based on the NNTP protocol. The NICE Alerter used on all Windows-based computers had to be phased out as a consequence of phasing out NNTP at CERN. The new solution to broadcast information messages on the CERN campus continues to provide the service based on cross-platform technologies, hence minimizing custom developments and relying on commercial software as much as possible. The new system, called CERN Alerter, is based on RSS (Really Simpl...

  12. Fermi and Swift as supernova alarms: Alert, localization, and diagnosis of future Galactic Type Ia explosions

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.; Lien, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    A Galactic SNIa event could go entirely unnoticed due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the Milky Way plane, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit nuclear γ- ray lines, from the 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay. The energy released in these decays powers the SNIa UVOIR light curve at times after ~1 week, leading to an exponential decline. Importantly for Swift and Fermi, these decays are accompanied by γ-ray line emission, with distinct series of lines for both the 56Ni and 56Co decays, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. These lines are squarely within the Fermi/GBM energy range, and the 56Ni 158 keV line is detectable by Swift/BAT. The Galaxy is optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. Both GBM and BAT have continuous and nearly all-sky coverage. Thus GBM and BAT are ideal Galactic SNIa monitors and early warning systems. We will illustrate expected GBM and BAT light curves and spectra, based on our model for SNIa γ-ray emission and transfer. We show that the supernova signal emerges as distinct from the GBM background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. Therefore, if a Galactic SNIa were to explode, there are two possibilities of confirming and sounding the alert: 1) Swift/BAT discovers the SNIa first and localizes it within arcminutes; 2) Fermi/GBM finds the SNIa first and localizes it to within ~1 degree, using the Earth occultation technique, followed up by BAT to localize it within arcminutes. After the alert of either BAT or GBM, Swift localizes it to take spectra in optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays simultaneously with both XRT and UVOT instruments.

  13. Evaluation of health alerts from an early illness warning system in independent living.

    Rantz, Marilyn J; Scott, Susan D; Miller, Steven J; Skubic, Marjorie; Phillips, Lorraine; Alexander, Greg; Koopman, Richelle J; Musterman, Katy; Back, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Passive sensor networks were deployed in independent living apartments to monitor older adults in their home environments to detect signs of impending illness and alert clinicians so they can intervene and prevent or delay significant changes in health or functional status. A retrospective qualitative deductive content analysis was undertaken to refine health alerts to improve clinical relevance to clinicians as they use alerts in their normal workflow of routine care delivery to older adults. Clinicians completed written free-text boxes to describe actions taken (or not) as a result of each alert; they also rated the clinical significance (relevance) of each health alert on a scale of 1 to 5. Two samples of the clinician's written responses to the health alerts were analyzed after alert algorithms had been adjusted based on results of a pilot study using health alerts to enhance clinical decision-making. In the first sample, a total of 663 comments were generated by seven clinicians in response to 385 unique alerts; there are more comments than alerts because more than one clinician rated the same alert. The second sample had a total of 142 comments produced by three clinicians in response to 88 distinct alerts. The overall clinical relevance of the alerts, as judged by the content of the qualitative comments by clinicians for each alert, improved from 33.3% of the alerts in the first sample classified as clinically relevant to 43.2% in the second. The goal is to produce clinically relevant alerts that clinicians find useful in daily practice. The evaluation methods used are described to assist others as they consider building and iteratively refining health alerts to enhance clinical decision making.

  14. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  15. Sound & The Society

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  16. Urban Sound Interfaces

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live. In this pa......This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live....... In this paper, three sound works are discussed in relation to the iPod, which is considered as a more private way to explore urban environments, and as a way to control the individual perception of urban spaces....

  17. Predicting outdoor sound

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  18. Best practices: an electronic drug alert program to improve safety in an accountable care environment.

    Griesbach, Sara; Lustig, Adam; Malsin, Luanne; Carley, Blake; Westrich, Kimberly D; Dubois, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The accountable care organization (ACO), one of the most promising and talked about new models of care, focuses on improving communication and care transitions by tying potential shared savings to specific clinical and financial benchmarks. An important factor in meeting these benchmarks is an ACO's ability to manage medications in an environment where medical and pharmacy care has been integrated. The program described in this article highlights the critical components of Marshfield Clinic's Drug Safety Alert Program (DSAP), which focuses on prioritizing and communicating safety issues related to medications with the goal of reducing potential adverse drug events. Once the medication safety concern is identified, it is reviewed to evaluate whether an alert warrants sending prescribers a communication that identifies individual patients or a general communication to all physicians describing the safety concern. Instead of basing its decisions regarding clinician notification about drug alerts on subjective criteria, the Marshfield Clinic's DSAP uses an internally developed scoring system. The scoring system includes criteria developed from previous drug alerts, such as level of evidence, size of population affected, severity of adverse event identified or targeted, litigation risk, available alternatives, and potential for duration of medication use. Each of the 6 criteria is assigned a weight and is scored based upon the content and severity of the alert received.  In its first 12 months, the program targeted 6 medication safety concerns involving the following medications: topiramate, glyburide, simvastatin, citalopram, pioglitazone, and lovastatin. Baseline and follow-up prescribing data were gathered on the targeted medications. Follow-up review of prescribing data demonstrated that the DSAP provided quality up-to-date safety information that led to changes in drug therapy and to decreases in potential adverse drug events. In aggregate, nearly 10,000 total

  19. Augmented real-time navigation with critical structure proximity alerts for endoscopic skull base surgery.

    Dixon, Benjamin J; Daly, Michael J; Chan, Harley; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Irish, Jonathan C

    2014-04-01

    Image-guided surgery (IGS) systems are frequently utilized during cranial base surgery to aid in orientation and facilitate targeted surgery. We wished to assess the performance of our recently developed localized intraoperative virtual endoscopy (LIVE)-IGS prototype in a preclinical setting prior to deployment in the operating room. This system combines real-time ablative instrument tracking, critical structure proximity alerts, three-dimensional virtual endoscopic views, and intraoperative cone-beam computed tomographic image updates. Randomized-controlled trial plus qualitative analysis. Skull base procedures were performed on 14 cadaver specimens by seven fellowship-trained skull base surgeons. Each subject performed two endoscopic transclival approaches; one with LIVE-IGS and one using a conventional IGS system in random order. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores were documented for each dissection, and a semistructured interview was recorded for qualitative assessment. The NASA-TLX scores for mental demand, effort, and frustration were significantly reduced with the LIVE-IGS system in comparison to conventional navigation (P < .05). The system interface was judged to be intuitive and most useful when there was a combination of high spatial demand, reduced or absent surface landmarks, and proximity to critical structures. The development of auditory icons for proximity alerts during the trial better informed the surgeon while limiting distraction. The LIVE-IGS system provided accurate, intuitive, and dynamic feedback to the operating surgeon. Further refinements to proximity alerts and visualization settings will enhance orientation while limiting distraction. The system is currently being deployed in a prospective clinical trial in skull base surgery. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Optimized molecular resolution of cross-contamination alerts in clinical mycobacteriology laboratories

    de Viedma Darío

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phenomenon of misdiagnosing tuberculosis (TB by laboratory cross-contamination when culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB has been widely reported and it has an obvious clinical, therapeutic and social impact. The final confirmation of a cross-contamination event requires the molecular identification of the same MTB strain cultured from both the potential source of the contamination and from the false-positive candidate. The molecular tool usually applied in this context is IS6110-RFLP which takes a long time to provide an answer, usually longer than is acceptable for microbiologists and clinicians to make decisions. Our purpose in this study is to evaluate a novel PCR-based method, MIRU-VNTR as an alternative to assure a rapid and optimized analysis of cross-contamination alerts. Results MIRU-VNTR was prospectively compared with IS6110-RFLP for clarifying 19 alerts of false positivity from other laboratories. MIRU-VNTR highly correlated with IS6110-RFLP, reduced the response time by 27 days and clarified six alerts unresolved by RFLP. Additionally, MIRU-VNTR revealed complex situations such as contamination events involving polyclonal isolates and a false-positive case due to the simultaneous cross-contamination from two independent sources. Conclusion Unlike standard RFLP-based genotyping, MIRU-VNTR i could help reduce the impact of a false positive diagnosis of TB, ii increased the number of events that could be solved and iii revealed the complexity of some cross-contamination events that could not be dissected by IS6110-RFLP.

  1. Sound & The Senses

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  2. Handbook for sound engineers

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  3. Sound for digital video

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  4. Beacons of Sound

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The chapter discusses expectations and imaginations vis-à-vis the concert hall of the twenty-first century. It outlines some of the central historical implications of western culture’s haven for sounding music. Based on the author’s study of the Icelandic concert-house Harpa, the chapter considers...... how these implications, together with the prime mover’s visions, have been transformed as private investors and politicians took over. The chapter furthermore investigates the objectives regarding musical sound and the far-reaching demands concerning acoustics that modern concert halls are required...

  5. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... and motor actions, style mastering and conceptualization, emotion and proprioception, evaluation and preference. In this perspective, the role of the listener/composer/performer is seen as that of an active "agent" coping in highly individual ways with the sounds. The findings concerning the neural...

  6. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  7. SoleSound

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...... embedded in the footwear to integrate enhanced feedback modalities into the authors' previously developed instrumented footwear. The synthesis models currently implemented in the SoleSound simulate different ground surface interactions. Unlike similar devices, the system presented here is fully portable...

  8. Impact of an electronic alert notification system embedded in radiologists' workflow on closed-loop communication of critical results: a time series analysis.

    Lacson, Ronilda; O'Connor, Stacy D; Sahni, V Anik; Roy, Christopher; Dalal, Anuj; Desai, Sonali; Khorasani, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Optimal critical test result communication is a Joint Commission national patient safety goal and requires documentation of closed-loop communication among care providers in the medical record. Electronic alert notification systems can facilitate an auditable process for creating alerts for transmission and acknowledgement of critical test results. We evaluated the impact of a patient safety initiative with an alert notification system on reducing critical results lacking documented communication, and assessed potential overuse of the alerting system for communicating results. We implemented an alert notification system-Alert Notification of Critical Results (ANCR)-in January 2010. We reviewed radiology reports finalised in 2009-2014 which lacked documented communication between the radiologist and another care provider, and assessed the impact of ANCR on the proportion of such reports with critical findings, using trend analysis over 10 semiannual time periods. To evaluate potential overuse of ANCR, we assessed the proportion of reports with non-critical results among provider-communicated reports. The proportion of reports with critical results among reports without documented communication decreased significantly over 4 years (2009-2014) from 0.19 to 0.05 (pcommunicated reports with non-critical results remained unchanged over time before and after ANCR implementation (0.20 to 0.15, p=0.45, Cochran-Armitage trend test). A patient safety initiative with an alert notification system reduced the proportion of critical results among reports lacking documented communication between care providers. We observed no change in documented communication of non-critical results, suggesting the system did not promote overuse. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether such systems prevent subsequent patient harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings

    Moore, Linda K; Reese, Shawn

    2005-01-01

    ... tested. Much has been accomplished in recent years but the current hodgepodge of warning and alert systems is inadequate for fully alerting the public about terrorist attacks or natural disasters...

  10. Remembering that big things sound big: Sound symbolism and associative memory.

    Preziosi, Melissa A; Coane, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    According to sound symbolism theory, individual sounds or clusters of sounds can convey meaning. To examine the role of sound symbolic effects on processing and memory for nonwords, we developed a novel set of 100 nonwords to convey largeness (nonwords containing plosive consonants and back vowels) and smallness (nonwords containing fricative consonants and front vowels). In Experiments 1A and 1B, participants rated the size of the 100 nonwords and provided definitions to them as if they were products. Nonwords composed of fricative/front vowels were rated as smaller than those composed of plosive/back vowels. In Experiment 2, participants studied sound symbolic congruent and incongruent nonword and participant-generated definition pairings. Definitions paired with nonwords that matched the size and participant-generated meanings were recalled better than those that did not match. When the participant-generated definitions were re-paired with other nonwords, this mnemonic advantage was reduced, although still reliable. In a final free association study, the possibility that plosive/back vowel and fricative/front vowel nonwords elicit sound symbolic size effects due to mediation from word neighbors was ruled out. Together, these results suggest that definitions that are sound symbolically congruent with a nonword are more memorable than incongruent definition-nonword pairings. This work has implications for the creation of brand names and how to create brand names that not only convey desired product characteristics, but also are memorable for consumers.

  11. A recognition method research based on the heart sound texture map

    Huizhong Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Heart Sound recognition rate and reduce the recognition time, in this paper, we introduces a new method for Heart Sound pattern recognition by using Heart Sound Texture Map. Based on the Heart Sound model, we give the Heart Sound time-frequency diagram and the Heart Sound Texture Map definition, we study the structure of the Heart Sound Window Function principle and realization method, and then discusses how to use the Heart Sound Window Function and the Short-time Fourier Transform to obtain two-dimensional Heart Sound time-frequency diagram, propose corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map according to the characteristics of Heart Sound. The simulation results show that the Heart Sound Window Function compared with the traditional window function makes the first (S1 and the second (S2 Heart Sound texture clearer. And the corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map can significantly improve the recognition rate and reduce the expense, which is an effective Heart Sound recognition method.

  12. The relations between de-alerting nuclear force and nuclear strategy

    Li Zhimin

    2001-01-01

    De-alerting nuclear force is a hot-point issue in recent years. The relations between de-alerting and strategy (including nuclear force, target doctrine and use principle et al.), stability, advanced conventional force and NMD of the United States are analyzed, the impact of de-alerting on Chinese nuclear force were discussed and the proposal of de-alerting by stages is presented

  13. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  14. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  15. Effect of Alpinia galanga on Mental Alertness and Sustained Attention With or Without Caffeine: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Srivastava, Shalini; Mennemeier, Mark; Pimple, Surekha

    2017-01-01

    Although Alpinia galanga has been reported to improve cognitive performance in animals, it has not been thoroughly studied for its potential psychostimulant effect in humans. A randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study was conducted to determine the effect of A galanga on mental alertness and sustained attention in comparison with caffeine and placebo in participants with a habitual caffeine intake. Fifty-nine participants (18-40 years and body mass index of ≥18.5 and caffeine consumption were enrolled. The participants had a Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≤7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score ≤14 and a Jin Fan's Attention Network Test alertness score of 50 ± 20 ms. The interventional product (placebo, A galanga proprietary extract [E-AG-01], caffeine, and a combination of E-AG-01 with caffeine) was administered to the participants, followed by sequential administration of the remaining interventions on the consecutive study visits; the effects on mental alertness, sustained attention, and sleep architecture, along with safety and tolerability, were analyzed by validated methods. In the E-AG-01 group, the alertness score was increased by 11.65 ± 23.94, 12.50 ± 19.73, and 12.62 ± 0.68 ms from baseline at 1, 3 (p = 0.042), and 5 hours, respectively, indicating its efficacy to enhance mental alertness and the increase in alertness score as compared to placebo. In the composite group (E-AG-01 with caffeine), mean response time was significantly reduced, by 15.55 ms (p = 0.026) at 3 hours. A galanga (E-AG-01) induces a beneficial effect in mental alertness and the combination of A galanga with caffeine impedes the caffeine crash and improves sustained attention at 3 hours. Thus, these stimulant effects might yield a new usage for A galanga as a key ingredient in energy drinks or similar products.

  16. The ACT Alert: preliminary results of a novel protocol to assess geriatric head trauma patients on anticoagulation.

    Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Rogers, Amelia; Clark, Elizabeth; Horst, Michael; Adams, William; Bupp, Katherine; Shertzer, Weston; Miller, Jo Ann; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-04-01

    In busy emergency departments (EDs), elderly patients on anticoagulation (AC) sustaining minor injuries who are triaged to a lower priority for evaluation are at risk for potentially serious consequences. We sought to determine if a novel ED protocol prioritizes workup and improves outcome. In a Pennsylvania-verified Level II trauma center, the ACT (AntiCoagulation and Trauma) Alert was implemented in March 2012. Triage parameters include: age 65 years or older, AC agents, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 13 or greater, and head trauma 24 hours or less. ACT Alerts are announced overhead in the ED and require assessment by an ED physician, nurse, and phlebotomist in 15 minutes or less. Furthermore, they necessitate Point of Care international normalized ratio (INR) 20 minutes or less and head computed tomography (CT) scan 30 minutes or less. Positive CT findings mandate trauma service consultation. ACT Alert patients from March to December 2012 were compared with ED patients 65 years or older, GCS 13 or greater, on AC with the same chief complaints as ACT Alerts from June 2011 to February 2012 (control). A P value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Of 752 study patients, 415 were ACT and 337 were controls. There were no significant differences between groups in age, elevated INR, or head bleeds. ACT patients had significantly shorter median times from ED arrival to INR (ACT 13 minutes vs control 80 minutes; P ACT 35 minutes vs control 65 minutes; P ACT had a significantly shorter median length of stay (LOS) (ACT 3.7 days vs control 5.0 days; P ACT Alert improves ED throughput and reduces hospital LOS while effectively identifying at-risk, mildly head injured geriatric patients on AC.

  17. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  18. Second sound tracking system

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  19. See This Sound

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  20. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors.

    Spalding, Richard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tencer, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweatt, William C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hogan, Roy E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spurny, Pavel [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (ASCR), Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-01

    High-speed photometric observations of meteor fireballs have shown that they often produce high-amplitude light oscillations with frequency components in the kHz range, and in some cases exhibit strong millisecond flares. We built a light source with similar characteristics and illuminated various materials in the laboratory, generating audible sounds. Models suggest that light oscillations and pulses can radiatively heat dielectric materials, which in turn conductively heats the surrounding air on millisecond timescales. The sound waves can be heard if the illuminated material is sufficiently close to the observer’s ears. The mechanism described herein may explain many reports of meteors that appear to be audible while they are concurrently visible in the sky and too far away for sound to have propagated to the observer. This photoacoustic (PA) explanation provides an alternative to electrophonic (EP) sounds hypothesized to arise from electromagnetic coupling of plasma oscillation in the meteor wake to natural antennas in the vicinity of an observer.

  1. Sound of Stockholm

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  2. Making Sense of Sound

    Menon, Deepika; Lankford, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    From the earliest days of their lives, children are exposed to all kinds of sound, from soft, comforting voices to the frightening rumble of thunder. Consequently, children develop their own naïve explanations largely based upon their experiences with phenomena encountered every day. When new information does not support existing conceptions,…

  3. The Sounds of Metal

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  4. The Universe of Sound

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  5. Urban Sound Ecologies

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    . The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point...

  6. Light aircraft sound transmission studies - Noise reduction model

    Atwal, Mahabir S.; Heitman, Karen E.; Crocker, Malcolm J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental tests conducted on the fuselage of a single-engine Piper Cherokee light aircraft suggest that the cabin interior noise can be reduced by increasing the transmission loss of the dominant sound transmission paths and/or by increasing the cabin interior sound absorption. The validity of using a simple room equation model to predict the cabin interior sound-pressure level for different fuselage and exterior sound field conditions is also presented. The room equation model is based on the sound power flow balance for the cabin space and utilizes the measured transmitted sound intensity data. The room equation model predictions were considered good enough to be used for preliminary acoustical design studies.

  7. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der L.C.; Ouweltjes, W.; Mollenhorst, H.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to

  8. Self-Alert Training: Volitional Modulation of Autonomic Arousal Improves Sustained Attention

    O'Connell, Redmond G.; Bellgrove, Mark A.; Dockree, Paul M.; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I.…

  9. 75 FR 81556 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    2010-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... the public on recommendations for developing new or revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts...

  10. 77 FR 76434 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    2012-12-28

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-121-N...

  11. 78 FR 78807 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    2013-12-27

    ... statute (section 1128B(b) of the Social Security Act), as well as developing new OIG Special Fraud Alerts... of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... revised safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts. Please assist us by referencing the file code OIG-122-N...

  12. 75 FR 26269 - Draft Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Public Alert and Warning Program's...

    2010-05-11

    ... system to alert and warn the American people in situations of war, terrorist attack, natural disaster, or... Order 13407, Public Alert and Warning System, by providing robust and survivable power generation, fuel... of interoperable public alert and warning systems, to identify technologies and standards that...

  13. Sounds of Space

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    Starting in the early 1960s, spacecraft-borne plasma wave instruments revealed that space is filled with an astonishing variety of radio and plasma wave sounds, which have come to be called "sounds of space." For over forty years these sounds have been collected and played to a wide variety of audiences, often as the result of press conferences or press releases involving various NASA projects for which the University of Iowa has provided plasma wave instruments. This activity has led to many interviews on local and national radio programs, and occasionally on programs haviang world-wide coverage, such as the BBC. As a result of this media coverage, we have been approached many times by composers requesting copies of our space sounds for use in their various projects, many of which involve electronic synthesis of music. One of these collaborations led to "Sun Rings," which is a musical event produced by the Kronos Quartet that has played to large audiences all over the world. With the availability of modern computer graphic techniques we have recently been attempting to integrate some of these sound of space into an educational audio/video web site that illustrates the scientific principles involved in the origin of space plasma waves. Typically I try to emphasize that a substantial gas pressure exists everywhere in space in the form of an ionized gas called a plasma, and that this plasma can lead to a wide variety of wave phenomenon. Examples of some of this audio/video material will be presented.

  14. Sound source measurement by using a passive sound insulation and a statistical approach

    Dragonetti, Raffaele; Di Filippo, Sabato; Mercogliano, Francesco; Romano, Rosario A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a measurement technique developed by the authors that allows carrying out acoustic measurements inside noisy environments reducing background noise effects. The proposed method is based on the integration of a traditional passive noise insulation system with a statistical approach. The latter is applied to signals picked up by usual sensors (microphones and accelerometers) equipping the passive sound insulation system. The statistical approach allows improving of the sound insulation given only by the passive sound insulation system at low frequency. The developed measurement technique has been validated by means of numerical simulations and measurements carried out inside a real noisy environment. For the case-studies here reported, an average improvement of about 10 dB has been obtained in a frequency range up to about 250 Hz. Considerations on the lower sound pressure level that can be measured by applying the proposed method and the measurement error related to its application are reported as well.

  15. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  16. Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks

    Veturia CHIROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.

  17. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  18. Neural correlates of alerting and orienting impairment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Manuel Vázquez-Marrufo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A considerable percentage of multiple sclerosis patients have attentional impairment, but understanding its neurophysiological basis remains a challenge. The Attention Network Test allows 3 attentional networks to be studied. Previous behavioural studies using this test have shown that the alerting network is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological indexes of the attention impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using this test. RESULTS: After general slowing had been removed in patients group to isolate the effects of each condition, some behavioral differences between them were obtained. About Contingent Negative Variation, a statistically significant decrement were found in the amplitude for Central and Spatial Cue Conditions for patient group (p<0.05. ANOVAs showed for the patient group a significant latency delay for P1 and N1 components (p<0.05 and a decrease of P3 amplitude for congruent and incongruent stimuli (p<0.01. With regard to correlation analysis, PASAT-3s and SDMT showed significant correlations with behavioral measures of the Attention Network Test (p<0.01 and an ERP parameter (CNV amplitude. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral data are highly correlated with the neuropsychological scores and show that the alerting and orienting mechanisms in the patient group were impaired. Reduced amplitude for the Contingent Negative Variation in the patient group suggests that this component could be a physiological marker related to the alerting and orienting impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. P1 and N1 delayed latencies are evidence of the demyelination process that causes impairment in the first steps of the visual sensory processing. Lastly, P3 amplitude shows a general decrease for the pathological group probably indexing a more central impairment. These results suggest that the Attention Network Test give evidence of multiple levels of attention

  19. A deep-learning-based emergency alert system

    Byungseok Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency alert systems serve as a critical link in the chain of crisis communication, and they are essential to minimize loss during emergencies. Acts of terrorism and violence, chemical spills, amber alerts, nuclear facility problems, weather-related emergencies, flu pandemics, and other emergencies all require those responsible such as government officials, building managers, and university administrators to be able to quickly and reliably distribute emergency information to the public. This paper presents our design of a deep-learning-based emergency warning system. The proposed system is considered suitable for application in existing infrastructure such as closed-circuit television and other monitoring devices. The experimental results show that in most cases, our system immediately detects emergencies such as car accidents and natural disasters.

  20. Brain-computer interface for alertness estimation and improving

    Hramov, Alexander; Maksimenko, Vladimir; Hramova, Marina

    2018-02-01

    Using wavelet analysis of the signals of electrical brain activity (EEG), we study the processes of neural activity, associated with perception of visual stimuli. We demonstrate that the brain can process visual stimuli in two scenarios: (i) perception is characterized by destruction of the alpha-waves and increase in the high-frequency (beta) activity, (ii) the beta-rhythm is not well pronounced, while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The special experiments show that the motivation factor initiates the first scenario, explained by the increasing alertness. Based on the obtained results we build the brain-computer interface and demonstrate how the degree of the alertness can be estimated and controlled in real experiment.

  1. ECG Holter monitor with alert system and mobile application

    Teron, Abigail C.; Rivera, Pedro A.; Goenaga, Miguel A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a new approach on the Holter monitor by creating a portable Electrocardiogram (ECG) Holter monitor that will alert the user by detecting abnormal heart beats using a digital signal processing software. The alarm will be triggered when the patient experiences arrhythmias such as bradycardia and tachycardia. The equipment is simple, comfortable and small in size that fit in the hand. It can be used at any time and any moment by placing three leads to the person's chest which is connected to an electronic circuit. The ECG data will be transmitted via Bluetooth to the memory of a selected mobile phone using an application that will store the collected data for up to 24 hrs. The arrhythmia is identified by comparing the reference signals with the user's signal. The diagnostic results demonstrate that the ECG Holter monitor alerts the user when an arrhythmia is detected thru the Holter monitor and mobile application.

  2. Microcontroller based driver alertness detection systems to detect drowsiness

    Adenin, Hasibah; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo

    2018-04-01

    The advancement of embedded system for detecting and preventing drowsiness in a vehicle is a major challenge for road traffic accident systems. To prevent drowsiness while driving, it is necessary to have an alert system that can detect a decline in driver concentration and send a signal to the driver. Studies have shown that traffc accidents usually occur when the driver is distracted while driving. In this paper, we have reviewed a number of detection systems to monitor the concentration of a car driver and propose a portable Driver Alertness Detection System (DADS) to determine the level of concentration of the driver based on pixelated coloration detection technique using facial recognition. A portable camera will be placed at the front visor to capture facial expression and the eye activities. We evaluate DADS using 26 participants and have achieved 100% detection rate with good lighting condition and a low detection rate at night.

  3. The effect of age on involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds: a test of the frontal hypothesis of aging.

    Andrés, Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Escera, Carles

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds (distraction) and the use of these sounds as warning cues (alertness) in an oddball paradigm. We compared the performance of older and younger participants on a well-characterized auditory-visual distraction task. Based on the dissociations observed in aging between attentional processes sustained by the anterior and posterior attentional networks, our prediction was that distraction by irrelevant novel sounds would be stronger in older adults than in young adults while both groups would be equally able to use sound as an alert to prepare for upcoming stimuli. The results confirmed both predictions: there was a larger distraction effect in the older participants, but the alert effect was equivalent in both groups. These results give support to the frontal hypothesis of aging [Raz, N. (2000). Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: integration of structural and functional finding. In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.) Handbook of aging and cognition (pp. 1-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; West, R. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272-292].

  4. Red alert. The worldwide dangers of nuclear power

    Cook, J

    1986-01-01

    The book 'Red Alert' considers the problems and hazards of nuclear power. The politics behind the nuclear power programmes in the United Kingdom and other countries are examined, along with the sequence of events in Britain which led to the building of the Magnox and Advanced Gas-Cooled nuclear reactors. Health hazards of radiation, radioactive waste management, nuclear weapons programmes, and radiation accidents including the Chernobyl accident, are also discussed. (U.K.).

  5. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  6. Alert-derivative bimodal space power and propulsion systems

    Houts, M.G.; Ranken, W.A.; Buksa, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass bimodal space power and propulsion systems could have numerous civilian and military applications. This paper discusses potential bimodal systems that could be derived from the ALERT space fission power supply concept. These bimodal concepts have the potential for providing 5 to 10 kW of electrical power and a total impulse of 100 MN-s at an average specific impulse of 770 s. System mass is on the order of 1000 kg

  7. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  9. Sonic mediations: body, sound, technology

    Birdsall, C.; Enns, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sonic Mediations: Body, Sound, Technology is a collection of original essays that represents an invaluable contribution to the burgeoning field of sound studies. While sound is often posited as having a bridging function, as a passive in-between, this volume invites readers to rethink the concept of

  10. The effects of Project ALERT one year past curriculum completion.

    Ringwalt, Chris L; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R; Flewelling, Robert L

    2010-06-01

    School-based drug prevention curricula constitute the nation's most prevalent strategy to prevent adolescent drug use. We evaluated the effects of one such curriculum, Project ALERT, on adolescent substance use. In particular, we sought to determine if a single effect on 30-day alcohol use, noted shortly following the completion of the 2-year program, could be detected 1 year later. We also looked for delayed effects on other outcomes of interest, namely lifetime alcohol use, and 30-day and lifetime use of cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants. We employed a randomized controlled trial that used school as the unit of assignment. Thirty-four schools with grades 6-8 from 11 states completed the study. Seventy-one Project ALERT instructors taught 11 core lessons to sixth graders and 3 booster lessons to seventh graders. Students were assessed prior to the onset of the intervention, as sixth graders, after the completion of the 2-year curriculum, as seventh graders, and again 1 year later as eighth graders. This paper examines data from the pretest and final posttest. Using hierarchical nonlinear modeling, we found that our earlier effect on 30-day alcohol use did not persist. Further, we continued to find no effects for lifetime alcohol use and both the lifetime and 30-day use of cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants. Our findings do not support the long-term effectiveness of Project ALERT, when delivered to sixth graders.

  11. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  12. AN AUTOMATED NETWORK SECURITYCHECKING AND ALERT SYSTEM: A NEW FRAMEWORK

    Vivek Kumar Yadav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Network security checking is a vital process to assess and to identify weaknesses in network for management of security. Insecure entry points of a network provide attackers an easy target to access and compromise. Open ports of network components such as firewalls, gateways and end systems are analogues to open gates of a building through which any one can get into. Network scanning is performed to identify insecure entry points in the network components. To find out vulnerabilities on these points vulnerability assessment is performed. So security checking consists of both activities- network scanning as well as vulnerability assessment. A single tool used for the security checking may not give reliable results. This paper presents a framework for assessing the security of a network using multiple Network Scanning and Vulnerability Assessment tools. The proposed framework is an extension of the framework given by Jun Yoon and Wontae Sim [1] which performs vulnerability scanning only. The framework presented here adds network scanning, alerting and reporting system to their framework. Network scanning and vulnerability tools together complement each other and make it amenable for centralized control and management. The reporting system of framework sends an email to the network administrator which contains detailed report (as attachment of security checking process. Alerting system sends a SMS message as an alert to the network administrator in case of severe threats found in the network. Initial results of the framework are encouraging and further work is in progress.

  13. Wood for sound.

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  14. Sounds in context

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  15. Sound for Health

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  16. Sound in Ergonomics

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  17. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  18. Airspace: Antarctic Sound Transmission

    Polli, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates how sound transmission can contribute to the public understanding of climate change within the context of the Poles. How have such transmission-based projects developed specifically in the Arctic and Antarctic, and how do these works create alternative pathways in order to help audiences better understand climate change? The author has created the media project Sonic Antarctica from a personal experience of the Antarctic. The work combines soundscape recordings and son...

  19. Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface

    Eldad J. Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.

  20. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Atlantic Coast § 7.20 Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island...

  1. Revealing the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness using fMRI: methodological peculiarities.

    Clemens, Benjamin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Sack, Alexander T; Sack, Alexander; Heinecke, Armin; Willmes, Klaus; Sturm, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel assessment paradigm already employed in clinical settings. Both the paradigm and the experimental design were optimized to specifically assess intrinsic alertness, while at the same time controlling for sensory-motor processing. The present results suggest that the processing of intrinsic alertness is accompanied by increased activity within the brainstem, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and right parietal cortex. Additionally, we found increased activation in the left hemisphere around the middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), the insula, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. Our results further suggest that rather minute aspects of the experimental design may induce aspects of phasic alertness, which in turn might lead to additional brain activation in left-frontal areas not normally involved in intrinsic alertness. Accordingly, left BA 9 activation may be related to co-activation of the phasic alertness network due to the switch between rest and task conditions functioning as an external warning cue triggering the phasic alertness network. Furthermore, activation of the intrinsic alertness network during fixation blocks due to enhanced expectancy shortly before the switch to the task block might, when subtracted from the task block, lead to diminished activation in the typical right hemisphere intrinsic alertness network. Thus, we cautiously suggest that--as a methodological artifact--left frontal activations might show up due to phasic alertness involvement and intrinsic alertness activations might be weakened due to contrasting with fixation blocks, when assessing the

  2. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M. [ShiftWork Systems, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives.

  3. Use of Circadian Lighting System to improve night shift alertness and performance of NRC Headquarters Operations Officers

    Baker, T.L.; Morisseau, D.; Murphy, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Officers (HOOs) receive and respond to events reported in the nuclear industry on a 24-hour basis. The HOOs have reported reduced alertness on the night shift, leading to a potential deterioration in their on-shift cognitive performance during the early morning hours. For some HOOs, maladaptation to the night shift was also reported to be the principal cause of: (a) reduced alertness during the commute to and from work, (b) poor sleep quality, and (c) personal lifestyle problems. ShiftWork Systems, Inc. (SWS) designed and installed a Circadian Lighting System (CLS) at both the Bethesda and Rockville HOO stations with the goal of facilitating the HOOs physiological adjustment to their night shift schedules. The data indicate the following findings: less subjective fatigue on night shifts; improved night shift alertness and mental performance; higher HOO confidence in their ability to assess event reports; longer, deeper and more restorative day sleep after night duty shifts; swifter adaptation to night work; and a safer commute, particularly for those with extensive drives

  4. Time to Detection with BacT/Alert FA Plus Compared to BacT/Alert FA Blood Culture Media.

    Nutman, A; Fisher Even-Tsur, S; Shapiro, G; Braun, T; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-09-01

    Rapid identification of the causative pathogen in patients with bacteremia allows adjustment of antibiotic therapy and improves patient outcomes. We compared in vitro and real-life time to detection (TTD) of two blood culture media, BacT/Alert FA (FA) and BacT/Alert FA Plus (FA Plus), for the nine most common species of bacterial pathogens recovered from blood samples. Experimental data from simulated cultures was compared with microbiology records of TTD for both culture media with growth of the species of interest in clinical blood cultures. In the experimental conditions, median TTD was 3.8 hours (23.9 %) shorter using FA Plus media. The magnitude of reduction differed between species. Similarly, in real life data, FA Plus had shorter TTD than FA media; however, the difference between culture media was smaller, and median TTD was only 1 hour (8.5 %) less. We found shorter TTD with BacT/Alert FA Plus culture media, both experimentally and in real-life conditions and unrelated to antibiotic neutralization, highlighting the importance of appropriate blood culture media selection.

  5. Non-visual effects of light on melatonin, alertness and cognitive performance: can blue-enriched light keep us alert?

    Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Light exposure can cascade numerous effects on the human circadian process via the non-imaging forming system, whose spectral relevance is highest in the short-wavelength range. Here we investigated if commercially available compact fluorescent lamps with different colour temperatures can impact on alertness and cognitive performance. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young men were studied in a balanced cross-over design with light exposure of 3 different light settings (compact fluorescent lamps with light of 40 lux at 6500K and at 2500K and incandescent lamps of 40 lux at 3000K during 2 h in the evening. RESULTS: Exposure to light at 6500K induced greater melatonin suppression, together with enhanced subjective alertness, well-being and visual comfort. With respect to cognitive performance, light at 6500K led to significantly faster reaction times in tasks associated with sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance and GO/NOGO Task, but not in tasks associated with executive function (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task. This cognitive improvement was strongly related with attenuated salivary melatonin levels, particularly for the light condition at 6500K. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the human alerting and cognitive response to polychromatic light at levels as low as 40 lux, is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system. Thus, the selection of commercially available compact fluorescent lights with different colour temperatures significantly impacts on circadian physiology and cognitive performance at home and in the workplace.

  6. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  7. The impact of morning light intensity and environmental temperature on body temperatures and alertness.

    Te Kulve, Marije; Schlangen, Luc J M; Schellen, Lisje; Frijns, Arjan J H; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2017-06-01

    Indoor temperature and light exposure are known to affect body temperature, productivity and alertness of building occupants. However, not much is known about the interaction between light and temperature exposure and the relationship between morning light induced alertness and its effect on body temperature. Light intensity and room temperature during morning office hours were investigated under strictly controlled conditions. In a randomized crossover study, two white light conditions (4000K, either bright 1200lx or dim 5lx) under three different room temperatures (26, 29 and 32°C) were investigated. A lower room temperature increased the core body temperature (CBT) and lowered skin temperature and the distal-proximal temperature gradient (DPG). Moreover, a lower room temperature reduced the subjective sleepiness and reaction time on an auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), irrespective of the light condition. Interestingly, the morning bright light exposure did affect thermophysiological parameters, i.e. it decreased plasma cortisol, CBT and proximal skin temperature and increased the DPG, irrespective of the room temperature. During the bright light session, subjective sleepiness decreased irrespective of the room temperature. However, the change in sleepiness due to the light exposure was not related to these physiological changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristic sounds facilitate visual search.

    Iordanescu, Lucica; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2008-06-01

    In a natural environment, objects that we look for often make characteristic sounds. A hiding cat may meow, or the keys in the cluttered drawer may jingle when moved. Using a visual search paradigm, we demonstrated that characteristic sounds facilitated visual localization of objects, even when the sounds carried no location information. For example, finding a cat was faster when participants heard a meow sound. In contrast, sounds had no effect when participants searched for names rather than pictures of objects. For example, hearing "meow" did not facilitate localization of the word cat. These results suggest that characteristic sounds cross-modally enhance visual (rather than conceptual) processing of the corresponding objects. Our behavioral demonstration of object-based cross-modal enhancement complements the extensive literature on space-based cross-modal interactions. When looking for your keys next time, you might want to play jingling sounds.

  9. Three-dimensional modelling of sound absorption in porous asphalt pavement for oblique incident waves

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Glorieux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sound absorption of porous asphalt pavements is an important property when reducing tyre-road noise. A hybrid model has been developed to predict the sound absorption of porous roads. This model is a combination of an analytical analysis of the sound eld and a numerical approach, including both the

  10. Association of the Anxiogenic and Alerting Effects of Caffeine with ADORA2A and ADORA1 Polymorphisms and Habitual Level of Caffeine Consumption

    Rogers, Peter J; Hohoff, Christa; Heatherley, Susan V; Mullings, Emma L; Maxfield, Peter J; Evershed, Richard P; Deckert, Jürgen; Nutt, David J

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine, a widely consumed adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is valued as a psychostimulant, but it is also anxiogenic. An association between a variant within the ADORA2A gene (rs5751876) and caffeine-induced anxiety has been reported for individuals who habitually consume little caffeine. This study investigated whether this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) might also affect habitual caffeine intake, and whether habitual intake might moderate the anxiogenic effect of caffeine. Participants were 162 non-/low (NL) and 217 medium/high (MH) caffeine consumers. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel groups design they rated anxiety, alertness, and headache before and after 100 mg caffeine and again after another 150 mg caffeine given 90 min later, or after placebo on both occasions. Caffeine intake was prohibited for 16 h before the first dose of caffeine/placebo. Results showed greater susceptibility to caffeine-induced anxiety, but not lower habitual caffeine intake (indeed coffee intake was higher), in the rs5751876 TT genotype group, and a reduced anxiety response in MH vs NL participants irrespective of genotype. Apart from the almost completely linked ADORA2A SNP rs3761422, no other of eight ADORA2A and seven ADORA1 SNPs studied were found to be clearly associated with effects of caffeine on anxiety, alertness, or headache. Placebo administration in MH participants decreased alertness and increased headache. Caffeine did not increase alertness in NL participants. With frequent consumption, substantial tolerance develops to the anxiogenic effect of caffeine, even in genetically susceptible individuals, but no net benefit for alertness is gained, as caffeine abstinence reduces alertness and consumption merely returns it to baseline. PMID:20520601

  11. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  12. Active sound reduction system and method

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  13. Workplace lighting for improving alertness and mood in daytime workers.

    Pachito, Daniela V; Eckeli, Alan L; Desouky, Ahmed S; Corbett, Mark A; Partonen, Timo; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Riera, Rachel

    2018-03-02

    Exposure to light plays a crucial role in biological processes, influencing mood and alertness. Daytime workers may be exposed to insufficient or inappropriate light during daytime, leading to mood disturbances and decreases in levels of alertness. To assess the effectiveness and safety of lighting interventions to improve alertness and mood in daytime workers. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, seven other databases; ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization trials portal up to January 2018. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and non-randomised controlled before-after trials (CBAs) that employed a cross-over or parallel-group design, focusing on any type of lighting interventions applied for daytime workers. Two review authors independently screened references in two stages, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We used standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to pool data from different questionnaires and scales assessing the same outcome across different studies. We combined clinically homogeneous studies in a meta-analysis. We used the GRADE system to rate quality of evidence. The search yielded 2844 references. After screening titles and abstracts, we considered 34 full text articles for inclusion. We scrutinised reports against the eligibility criteria, resulting in the inclusion of five studies (three RCTs and two CBAs) with 282 participants altogether. These studies evaluated four types of comparisons: cool-white light, technically known as high correlated colour temperature (CCT) light versus standard illumination; different proportions of indirect and direct light; individually applied blue-enriched light versus no treatment; and individually applied morning bright light versus afternoon bright light for subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder.We found no studies comparing one level of illuminance versus another.We found two CBA

  14. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  15. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  16. Handbook for sound engineers

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  17. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  18. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  19. Development of engine sound quality for passenger car with 6 cylinder engine; 6 kito engine joyosha no onshoku kazari

    Iwasaki, Y; Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, K [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In recent years, the interior noise has been required not only to reduce the sound pressure level, but also to improve the sound quality, especially during acceleration. This paper describes the development of engine sound quality for the new model `ARISTO (GS300)` with in-line 6 gasoline engine. We used the sound simulator in order to evaluate the engine sound quality during acceleration, and decided the target sound. To attain that sound, the light-weighed Piston and connecting rod, and the improvement of intake system are adopted. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  20. [A focused sound field measurement system by LabVIEW].

    Jiang, Zhan; Bai, Jingfeng; Yu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, according to the requirement of the focused sound field measurement, a focused sound field measurement system was established based on the LabVIEW virtual instrument platform. The system can automatically search the focus position of the sound field, and adjust the scanning path according to the size of the focal region. Three-dimensional sound field scanning time reduced from 888 hours in uniform step to 9.25 hours in variable step. The efficiency of the focused sound field measurement was improved. There is a certain deviation between measurement results and theoretical calculation results. Focal plane--6 dB width difference rate was 3.691%, the beam axis--6 dB length differences rate was 12.937%.

  1. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Shanshan Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  2. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Sound reduction by metamaterial-based acoustic enclosure

    Yao, Shanshan; Li, Pei; Zhou, Xiaoming; Hu, Gengkai, E-mail: hugeng@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Dynamics and Control of Flight Vehicle, Ministry of Education and School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-12-15

    In many practical systems, acoustic radiation control on noise sources contained within a finite volume by an acoustic enclosure is of great importance, but difficult to be accomplished at low frequencies due to the enhanced acoustic-structure interaction. In this work, we propose to use acoustic metamaterials as the enclosure to efficiently reduce sound radiation at their negative-mass frequencies. Based on a circularly-shaped metamaterial model, sound radiation properties by either central or eccentric sources are analyzed by numerical simulations for structured metamaterials. The parametric analyses demonstrate that the barrier thickness, the cavity size, the source type, and the eccentricity of the source have a profound effect on the sound reduction. It is found that increasing the thickness of the metamaterial barrier is an efficient approach to achieve large sound reduction over the negative-mass frequencies. These results are helpful in designing highly efficient acoustic enclosures for blockage of sound in low frequencies.

  4. Sporotrichosis with Bone Involvement: An Alert to an Occupational Disease

    Felipe de Carvalho Aguinaga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by a fungus of the genus Sporothrix, which is found in soil. It can be acquired by trauma to the skin. Bone and joint lesions are very rare. The city of Rio de Janeiro is undergoing an epidemic transmitted by cats, and this should be an alert for the risk to professionals in contact with these animals. The patient was a veterinarian who developed occupational sporotrichosis with osteoarticular involvement transmitted by a cat during a consultation.

  5. The Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWSAS)

    1980-05-01

    ALERT SYSTEM (LLWSAS). (May R.. a.-ol - 8..’P" Imng Organization Report No, 9, Perfo~ring Or~ni-otlon Ro-r. -andAddress 10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Federal...rather than electronic approach. The 2-minute average adheres to recommended International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards (referernce 14...speed of 140 knots. **Cold front. 80 ’ # 90 0 STRONG CASES: COFF , 1975 80 9STRONG CASES: UNPU1BLISHED 70 60 A STRONG CASES: COFF , et al., 1978 50 \\ 50 -0

  6. Simulation and Proposed Handover Alert Algorithm for Mobile Communication System

    Muzhir Shaban Al-Ani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available this paper deals with the simulation and presentation of a novel approach to design and implementation of algorithm to realize hand over process for a mobile communication system during mobile network. This algorithm performs the ability of the system to extract important information features about the received signal. When the strength of the received signal is dropped below a certain threshold value then an alert process is activated to achieve the continuity of the transmission due to a ready scan which is existed on time.

  7. Study on the possibility of assessment of alertness using subsidiary behaviors

    Hirose, Ayako; Nagasaka, Akihiko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of assessment of alertness using subsidiary behaviors. Using the previous experimental data, 8 subjects' subsidiary behaviors, which appeared during 3 monotonous VDU tasks, were picked up by 3 experimenters. These behaviors were classified into 13 categories according to their similarity. As a physiological index, electroencephalogram (EEG), which was known as the most sensitive index for measuring alertness, was measured. To investigate whether the number of these behaviors could be utilized for assessment of alertness, the following studies were carried out: 1) the relationships among the task performance, categorized behaviors and EEG were analyzed to make sure whether alertness had an impact on the task performance and the behaviors, 2) using the task performance, the level of alertness was classified tentatively, then the behaviors that were changed by the classified level of alertness were specified, 3) to testify the possibility of assessment of alertness, discriminant analysis was conducted using the behaviors which were specified above, and 4) quantification analysis III and cross correlation analysis were carried out to explore if the behaviors could estimate a decline in alertness before the performance deteriorated. As the results of the above 4 points, the followings were suggested: 1) some subsidiary behaviors were influenced by alertness, to say nothing of performance, 2) regardless of individual differences, there were some behaviors that were changed by the level of alertness which was tentatively classified in this study, 3) the level of alertness at the point could assess using some behaviors, such as 'rub, pinch, and scratch', 'ease the stiffness', 'postural adjustments', 'movement of eye's and mouth', 'action of low alertness', and 4) some behaviors indicated the premonitory sign of a decline in alertness, the other increased when a decline in alertness had been observed. Also, depends on

  8. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  9. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  10. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  11. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  12. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  13. Second sound scattering in superfluid helium

    Rosgen, T.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing cavities are used to study the scattering of second sound in liquid helium II. The special geometries reduce wall interference effects and allow measurements in very small test volumes. In a first experiment, a double elliptical cavity is used to focus a second sound wave onto a small wire target. A thin film bolometer measures the side scattered wave component. The agreement with a theoretical estimate is reasonable, although some problems arise from the small measurement volume and associated alignment requirements. A second cavity is based on confocal parabolas, thus enabling the use of large planar sensors. A cylindrical heater produces again a focused second sound wave. Three sensors monitor the transmitted wave component as well as the side scatter in two different directions. The side looking sensors have very high sensitivities due to their large size and resistance. Specially developed cryogenic amplifers are used to match them to the signal cables. In one case, a second auxiliary heater is used to set up a strong counterflow in the focal region. The second sound wave then scatters from the induced fluid disturbances

  14. Sound [signal] noise

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...... has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’....

  15. Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment

    Photinos, Panos

    2017-12-01

    'Musical Sound, Instruments, and Equipment' offers a basic understanding of sound, musical instruments and music equipment, geared towards a general audience and non-science majors. The book begins with an introduction of the fundamental properties of sound waves, and the perception of the characteristics of sound. The relation between intensity and loudness, and the relation between frequency and pitch are discussed. The basics of propagation of sound waves, and the interaction of sound waves with objects and structures of various sizes are introduced. Standing waves, harmonics and resonance are explained in simple terms, using graphics that provide a visual understanding. The development is focused on musical instruments and acoustics. The construction of musical scales and the frequency relations are reviewed and applied in the description of musical instruments. The frequency spectrum of selected instruments is explored using freely available sound analysis software. Sound amplification and sound recording, including analog and digital approaches, are discussed in two separate chapters. The book concludes with a chapter on acoustics, the physical factors that affect the quality of the music experience, and practical ways to improve the acoustics at home or small recording studios. A brief technical section is provided at the end of each chapter, where the interested reader can find the relevant physics and sample calculations. These quantitative sections can be skipped without affecting the comprehension of the basic material. Questions are provided to test the reader's understanding of the material. Answers are given in the appendix.

  16. Sounding out the logo shot

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how sound in combination with visuals (i.e. ‘branding by’) may possibly affect the signifying potentials (i.e. ‘branding effect’) of products and corporate brands (i.e. ‘branding of’) during logo shots in television commercials (i.e. ‘branding through’). This particular focus adds both to the understanding of sound in television commercials and to the understanding of sound brands. The article firstly presents a typology of sounds. Secondly, this typology is applied...

  17. Dysfunctional personality traits in adolescence: effects on alerting, orienting and executive control of attention.

    Casagrande, Maria; Marotta, Andrea; Canepone, Valeria; Spagna, Alfredo; Rosa, Caterina; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Pasini, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    The present study examined attentional networks performance in 39 adolescents with dysfunctional personality traits, split into two group, Group Personality Disorders. The attentional performance has been tested by means of a modified version of the Attentional Network Test (ANTI-V) which allows testing both phasic and tonic components of the alerting system, the exogenous aspect of the orienting system, the executive network and their interactions. Results showed that the orienting costs of having an invalid spatial cue were reduced in the Group ≥ 10 criteria compared to the Group splitting the sample into two categorical groups were also observed in a complementary correlation analysis keeping intact the continuous nature of such variables. These findings are consistent with the notion that dysfunctional features of personality disorders may represent the psychological manifestations of a neuropsychological abnormality in attention and executive functioning. Finally, we discuss the implications of this attentional anomaly for dysfunctional personality traits and behaviour.

  18. Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network

    Wanzeng Kong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Driving fatigue has been identified as one of the main factors affecting drivers’ safety. The aim of this study was to analyze drivers’ different mental states, such as alertness and drowsiness, and find out a neurometric indicator able to detect drivers’ fatigue level in terms of brain networks. Twelve young, healthy subjects were recruited to take part in a driver fatigue experiment under different simulated driving conditions. The Electroencephalogram (EEG signals of the subjects were recorded during the whole experiment and analyzed by using Granger-Causality-based brain effective networks. It was that the topology of the brain networks and the brain’s ability to integrate information changed when subjects shifted from the alert to the drowsy stage. In particular, there was a significant difference in terms of strength of Granger causality (GC in the frequency domain and the properties of the brain effective network i.e., causal flow, global efficiency and characteristic path length between such conditions. Also, some changes were more significant over the frontal brain lobes for the alpha frequency band. These findings might be used to detect drivers’ fatigue levels, and as reference work for future studies.

  19. Proposing alerts for pre and pro-haptens (QSAR2016) ...

    Predictive testing to identify and characterise substances for their skin sensitisation potential has historically been based on animal tests such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA). In recent years, regulations in the cosmetics and chemicals sectors has provided a strong impetus to develop and evaluate non-animal alternative methods. The 3 test methods that have undergone extensive development and validation are the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the KeratinoSensTM and the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). Whilst these methods have been shown to perform relatively well in predicting LLNA results (accuracy ~ 80%), a particular concern that has been raised is their ability to predict chemicals that need to be activated to act as sensitisers (either abiotically on the skin (pre-hapten) or metabolically in the skin (pro-hapten)). This study reviewed an EURL ECVAM dataset containing 271 substances for which information was available in the LLNA and for one or more of the three non-animal test methods. The chemical structures of the substances were inspected and each assigned to a reaction mechanistic domain. Fifty-three substances were expected to require activation. Plausible reaction pathways were considered for each of the substances from which three structural alerts were hypothesised: autoxidation to hydroperoxides, aromatic ortho and para-diamino or di phenol derivatives, and aromatic meta-diamino/hydroxy derivatives. For each alert, the av

  20. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events.

    Collier, Nigel

    2011-10-06

    Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  1. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    Collier Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  2. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  3. Alert system for students with visual disabilities at the UTM

    Marely del Rosario Cruz Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the transfer of students with visual disabilities at the Technical University of Manabí (UTM accidents have been reported when going through some ramps and other obstacles, especially on rainy days. This article belongs to an investigation into the realization of an alert system for students with visual disabilities. The objective of the implementation of this system is to guide students with visual disabilities on different obstacles that exist in their transfer through the university. To carry out the implementation of this system, the alert systems and the technologies that are currently used as a result of a recording studio in the national and international scope were analyzed, the tools and technologies used in the developed solution are described. (Definition, technologies for the change of people, software, programming languages, etc. that allowed an efficient implementation in a short time of the proposed system by means of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. The above is reflected in the positive orientation for the transfer of 32 students with visual disabilities through the university and by those who have contributed to improving their quality of life.

  4. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  5. Bar Code Medication Administration Technology: Characterization of High-Alert Medication Triggers and Clinician Workarounds.

    Miller, Daniel F; Fortier, Christopher R; Garrison, Kelli L

    2011-02-01

    Bar code medication administration (BCMA) technology is gaining acceptance for its ability to prevent medication administration errors. However, studies suggest that improper use of BCMA technology can yield unsatisfactory error prevention and introduction of new potential medication errors. To evaluate the incidence of high-alert medication BCMA triggers and alert types and discuss the type of nursing and pharmacy workarounds occurring with the use of BCMA technology and the electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Medication scanning and override reports from January 1, 2008, through November 30, 2008, for all adult medical/surgical units were retrospectively evaluated for high-alert medication system triggers, alert types, and override reason documentation. An observational study of nursing workarounds on an adult medicine step-down unit was performed and an analysis of potential pharmacy workarounds affecting BCMA and the eMAR was also conducted. Seventeen percent of scanned medications triggered an error alert of which 55% were for high-alert medications. Insulin aspart, NPH insulin, hydromorphone, potassium chloride, and morphine were the top 5 high-alert medications that generated alert messages. Clinician override reasons for alerts were documented in only 23% of administrations. Observational studies assessing for nursing workarounds revealed a median of 3 clinician workarounds per administration. Specific nursing workarounds included a failure to scan medications/patient armband and scanning the bar code once the dosage has been removed from the unit-dose packaging. Analysis of pharmacy order entry process workarounds revealed the potential for missed doses, duplicate doses, and doses being scheduled at the wrong time. BCMA has the potential to prevent high-alert medication errors by alerting clinicians through alert messages. Nursing and pharmacy workarounds can limit the recognition of optimal safety outcomes and therefore workflow processes

  6. Regulatory alerts for dietary supplements in Canada and the United States, 2005-13.

    Abe, Andrew M; Hein, Darren J; Gregory, Philip J

    2015-06-01

    Dietary supplement regulatory alerts published by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada were evaluated and characterized. FDA MedWatch and Health Canada websites were reviewed to identify regulatory alerts regarding dietary supplements from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2013. Alerts were analyzed to identify product characteristics that may be predictive of product quality issues and potential patient harm. A total of 1560 dietary supplement-related regulatory alerts were identified. Of those, 1287 (83%) were identified through Health Canada, and 273 (18%) were identified through FDA MedWatch. The country of origin of dietary supplements associated with regulatory alerts was not provided in most regulatory alerts; however, when their origin was provided, the United States was the most common. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement were the subject of 33% of all regulatory alerts identified. Products purchased online were the most likely to be associated with a regulatory alert. Dietary supplements intended for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance appeared to pose the greatest risk for patient harm due to product contamination with a pharmaceutical such as a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor or sibutramine. Analysis of Canadian and U.S. regulatory alerts concerning dietary supplements revealed that more than 80% of the composite alerts were issued by Health Canada. The most common intended uses of supplements for which alerts were issued were sexual enhancement, weight loss, and bodybuilding or athletic performance. The most common reason for alerts was the presence of a pharmaceutical contaminant. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sounding the Alarm: An Introduction to Ecological Sound Art

    Jonathan Gilmurray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of sound artists have begun engaging with ecological issues through their work, forming a growing movement of ˝ecological sound art˝. This paper traces its development, examines its influences, and provides examples of the artists whose work is currently defining this important and timely new field.

  8. Changes in decibel scale wavelength properties of EEG with alertness levels while performing sustained attention tasks.

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Loss of alertness can have dire consequences for people controlling motorized equipment or for people in professions such as defense. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is known to be related to alertness of the person, but due to high level of noise and low signal strength, the use of EEG for such applications has been considered to be unreliable. This study reports the fractal analysis of EEG and identifies the use of maximum fractal length (MFL) as a feature that is inversely correlated with the alertness of the subject. The results show that MFL (of only single channel of EEG) indicates the loss of alertness of the individual with mean (inverse) correlation coefficient = 0.82.

  9. Sound, memory and interruption

    Pinder, David

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers how art can interrupt the times and spaces of urban development so they might be imagined, experienced and understood differently. It focuses on the construction of the M11 Link Road through north-east London during the 1990s that demolished hundreds of homes and displaced...... around a thousand people. The highway was strongly resisted and it became the site of one of the country’s longest and largest anti-road struggles. The chapter addresses specifically Graeme Miller’s sound walk LINKED (2003), which for more than a decade has been broadcasting memories and stories...... of people who were violently displaced by the road as well as those who actively sought to halt it. Attention is given to the walk’s interruption of senses of the given and inevitable in two main ways. The first is in relation to the pace of the work and its deployment of slowness and arrest in a context...

  10. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  11. The sounds of science

    Carlowicz, Michael

    As scientists carefully study some aspects of the ocean environment, are they unintentionally distressing others? That is a question to be answered by Robert Benson and his colleagues in the Center for Bioacoustics at Texas A&M University.With help from a 3-year, $316,000 grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research, Benson will study how underwater noise produced by naval operations and other sources may affect marine mammals. In Benson's study, researchers will generate random sequences of low-frequency, high-intensity (180-decibel) sounds in the Gulf of Mexico, working at an approximate distance of 1 km from sperm whale herds. Using an array of hydrophones, the scientists will listen to the characteristic clicks and whistles of the sperm whales to detect changes in the animals' direction, speed, and depth, as derived from fluctuations in their calls.

  12. Sound of proteins

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...... example of soundfile was obtained from using Steered Molecular Dynamics for stretching the neck region of the scallop myosin molecule (in rigor, PDB-id: 1SR6), in such a way as to cause a rotation of the myosin head. Myosin is the molecule responsible for producing the force during muscle contraction...

  13. Thinking The City Through Sound

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  14. The Textile Form of Sound

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  15. Basic semantics of product sounds

    Özcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2012-01-01

    Product experience is a result of sensory and semantic experiences with product properties. In this paper, we focus on the semantic attributes of product sounds and explore the basic components for product sound related semantics using a semantic differential paradigmand factor analysis. With two

  16. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  17. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his......The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  18. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  19. The results of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico SASMEX, during the earthquakes of 7 and 19 of September 2017

    Espinosa Aranda, J. M., Sr.; Cuellar Martinez, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico, SASMEX began in 1991, is integrated by the seismic alert system of Mexico City and the seismic alert system of Oaxaca. SASMEX has 97 seismic sensors which are distributed in the seismic regions of the Pacific coast and the South of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of states of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca and Puebla. The alert dissemination covers the cities of: Acapulco, Chilpancingo, Morelia, Puebla, Oaxaca, Toluca and Mexico City, reaching the earthquake warnings to more than 25 millions of people. SASMEX has detected correctly more than 5600 earthquakes and warned 156. Mexico City has different alert dissemination systems like several Radio and Tv commercial broadcasters, dedicated radio receivers, EAS-SAME-SARMEX radio receivers and more tha 6700 public loud speakers. The other cities have only some of those systems. The Mw 8.2 Chiapas earthquake on September 7, despite the epicentral distance far of the first seismic detections (more than 180 km) and the low amplitudes of the P waves, the earthquake warning time gave more than 90 seconds to Mexico City before the arrivals of S waves with minor damages to the city in contrast with high damages in towns in the coast. This earthquake offered an opportunity to show the developments and lacks to reduce the risk, such as the need to increase the seismic detection coverage and the earthquake warning dissemination in towns with high seismic vulnerability. The Mw 7.1 Morelos earthquake on September 19 caused thousands of damages and hundreds of deaths and injuries in Mexico City, this earthquake is the second with the most damages after the Mw 8.1 Michoacán earthquake of September 19 on 1985. The earthquake early warning gave 11 seconds after the arrivals of S waves, however the activation occurred few seconds after the P waves arrives to Mexico City, and due to the seismic focus was near to the city, the P waves were felt for the people. The Accelerographic Network

  20. Professional responsibility and patient retention: alerts for the new dentist.

    Maitland, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Getting to know your patients, well beyond recognition of their specific chief dental complaint, is most important in operating a successful and satisfying practice. In addition to the clinical findings and pertinent history alerts, a good understanding of the person being treated can go a long way toward cementing lasting and rewarding doctor-patient relationships. Almost all new patients to the practice are welcome. However, an occasional "difficult" patient can be identified. This is the patient who you will not be able to satisfy, who cultivates misunderstandings, is unfairly over demanding, wastes office time in innumerable ways and eventually causes great frustration for the dentist. These patients may leave the practice in an unpleasant termination. Concerns of litigation arise, and one must also consider the waste of economic and emotional currency, as well as any other negative repercussions that may result. The dentist should become skilled at early identification of potentially risky, disruptive and problematic persons seeking treatment.

  1. Automated detection of structural alerts (chemical fragments in (ecotoxicology

    Ronan Bureau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review describes the evolution of different algorithms dedicated to the automated discovery of chemical fragments associated to (ecotoxicological endpoints. These structural alerts correspond to one of the most interesting approach of in silico toxicology due to their direct link with specific toxicological mechanisms. A number of expert systems are already available but, since the first work in this field which considered a binomial distribution of chemical fragments between two datasets, new data miners were developed and applied with success in chemoinformatics. The frequency of a chemical fragment in a dataset is often at the core of the process for the definition of its toxicological relevance. However, recent progresses in data mining provide new insights into the automated discovery of new rules. Particularly, this review highlights the notion of Emerging Patterns that can capture contrasts between classes of data.

  2. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF STRUCTURAL ALERTS (CHEMICAL FRAGMENTS IN (ECOTOXICOLOGY

    Alban Lepailleur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review describes the evolution of different algorithms dedicated to the automated discovery of chemical fragments associated to (ecotoxicological endpoints. These structural alerts correspond to one of the most interesting approach of in silico toxicology due to their direct link with specific toxicological mechanisms. A number of expert systems are already available but, since the first work in this field which considered a binomial distribution of chemical fragments between two datasets, new data miners were developed and applied with success in chemoinformatics. The frequency of a chemical fragment in a dataset is often at the core of the process for the definition of its toxicological relevance. However, recent progresses in data mining provide new insights into the automated discovery of new rules. Particularly, this review highlights the notion of Emerging Patterns that can capture contrasts between classes of data.

  3. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  4. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  5. Improving Sound Systems by Electrical Means

    Schneider, Henrik

    to intelligent control and protection functionality and so on. In this work different strategies towards improvements of sound systems by electrical means was investigated considering the interfaces between each component and the performance of the full system. The strategies can be categorized by improvements...... reduction in the best case. This technology is very promising since it compensates for most distortion mechanisms of the transducer such as non-linearities, production variation, wear-n-tear, temperature changes and so on. Furthermore the accelerometer output can be used for protection purposes. The only...... of the bended copper foils to optimize the DC resistance. The DC resistance was reduced by 30 % compared to the starting point for a 10 turn toroidal inductor using this method. The combined work indicate that large sound system improvements are in reach by use of electrical means. Innovative solutions have...

  6. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  7. Fourth sound in relativistic superfluidity theory

    Vil'chinskij, S.I.; Fomin, P.I.

    1995-01-01

    The Lorentz-covariant equations describing propagation of the fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived. The expressions for the velocity of the fourth sound are obtained. The character of oscillation in sound is determined

  8. Turning Off Frequently Overridden Drug Alerts: Limited Opportunities for Doing It Safely

    I.H. van der Sijs (Heleen); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); T. van Gelder (Teun); M. Berg (Marc); A.G. Vulto (Arnold)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: This study sought to identify opportunities to safely turn off frequently overridden drug-drug interaction alerts (DDIs) in computerized physician order entry (CPOE). Design: Quantitative retrospective analysis of drug safety alerts overridden during 1 month and qualitative

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  10. The Influence of Alertness on Spatial and Nonspatial Components of Visual Attention

    Matthias, Ellen; Bublak, Peter; Muller, Hermann J.; Schneider, Werner X.; Krummenacher, Joseph; Finke, Kathrin

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether spatial and nonspatial components of visual attention would be influenced by changes in (healthy, young) subjects' level of alertness and whether such effects on separable components would occur independently of each other. The experiments used a no-cue/alerting-cue design with varying cue-target stimulus…

  11. 75 FR 26196 - Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment...

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of Inspector General Publication of OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on Telemarketing by Durable Medical Equipment Suppliers AGENCY: Office of Inspector...) 205-0007. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In our publication of the OIG Updated Special Fraud Alert on...

  12. Winter Weather Tips: Understanding Alerts and Staying Safe this Season | Poster

    By Jenna Seiss and Kylie Tomlin, Guest Writers, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Maryland residents face the possibility of dangerous winter weather each year—from icy conditions to frigid temperatures. You may be familiar with the different types of winter weather alerts issued by the National Weather Service (NWS), but do you know what each alert means?  

  13. Investigating Visual Alerting in the Maritime Domain; Report on 3 Experiments, With Supporting Documentation

    2010-04-01

    opérateurs les états ou événements critiques qui requièrent leur attention. La recherche dont il est question ici vise principalement à alerter...Visual alerting in complex command and control environments. Poster presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting, San

  14. 14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.

    2010-01-01

    ... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...

  15. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office...

    2011-05-18

    ... NIOSH-238] Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the availability of a draft Alert entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease from...

  16. Impaired Conflict Resolution and Alerting in Children with ADHD: Evidence from the Attention Network Task (ANT)

    Johnson, Katherine A.; Robertson, Ian H.; Barry, Edwina; Mulligan, Aisling; Daibhis, Aoife; Daly, Michael; Watchorn, Amy; Gill, Michael; Bellgrove, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An important theory of attention suggests that there are three separate networks that execute discrete cognitive functions. The "alerting" network acquires and maintains an alert state, the "orienting" network selects information from sensory input and the "conflict" network resolves conflict that arises between potential responses.…

  17. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  18. Simplify the interpretation of alert lists for clinical mastitis in automatic

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der M.A.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Based on sensor measurements, an automatic milking system (AMS) generates mastitis alert lists indicating cows which are likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Because of the general assumption of equal probabilities of developing CM for all cows, all alerts on the list have the same success rate.

  19. EUVS Sounding Rocket Payload

    Stern, Alan S.

    1996-01-01

    During the first half of this year (CY 1996), the EUVS project began preparations of the EUVS payload for the upcoming NASA sounding rocket flight 36.148CL, slated for launch on July 26, 1996 to observe and record a high-resolution (approx. 2 A FWHM) EUV spectrum of the planet Venus. These preparations were designed to improve the spectral resolution and sensitivity performance of the EUVS payload as well as prepare the payload for this upcoming mission. The following is a list of the EUVS project activities that have taken place since the beginning of this CY: (1) Applied a fresh, new SiC optical coating to our existing 2400 groove/mm grating to boost its reflectivity; (2) modified the Ranicon science detector to boost its detective quantum efficiency with the addition of a repeller grid; (3) constructed a new entrance slit plane to achieve 2 A FWHM spectral resolution; (4) prepared and held the Payload Initiation Conference (PIC) with the assigned NASA support team from Wallops Island for the upcoming 36.148CL flight (PIC held on March 8, 1996; see Attachment A); (5) began wavelength calibration activities of EUVS in the laboratory; (6) made arrangements for travel to WSMR to begin integration activities in preparation for the July 1996 launch; (7) paper detailing our previous EUVS Venus mission (NASA flight 36.117CL) published in Icarus (see Attachment B); and (8) continued data analysis of the previous EUVS mission 36.137CL (Spica occultation flight).

  20. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  1. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  2. Fourth sound of holographic superfluids

    Yarom, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We compute fourth sound for superfluids dual to a charged scalar and a gauge field in an AdS 4 background. For holographic superfluids with condensates that have a large scaling dimension (greater than approximately two), we find that fourth sound approaches first sound at low temperatures. For condensates that a have a small scaling dimension it exhibits non-conformal behavior at low temperatures which may be tied to the non-conformal behavior of the order parameter of the superfluid. We show that by introducing an appropriate scalar potential, conformal invariance can be enforced at low temperatures.

  3. Sound intensity as a function of sound insulation partition

    Cvetkovic , S.; Prascevic , R.

    1994-01-01

    In the modern engineering practice, the sound insulation of the partitions is the synthesis of the theory and of the experience acquired in the procedure of the field and of the laboratory measurement. The science and research public treat the sound insulation in the context of the emission and propagation of the acoustic energy in the media with the different acoustics impedance. In this paper, starting from the essence of physical concept of the intensity as the energy vector, the authors g...

  4. An Integrated Approach to Motion and Sound

    Hahn, James K; Geigel, Joe; Lee, Jong W; Gritz, Larry; Takala, Tapio; Mishra, Suneil

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, sound has been given little attention in computer graphics and related domains of computer animation and virtual environments, although sounds which are properly synchronized to motion...

  5. Alertness Modulates Conflict Adaptation and Feature Integration in an Opposite Way

    Chen, Jia; Huang, Xiting; Chen, Antao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies show that the congruency sequence effect can result from both the conflict adaptation effect (CAE) and feature integration effect which can be observed as the repetition priming effect (RPE) and feature overlap effect (FOE) depending on different experimental conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that a close correlation exists between the neural mechanisms of alertness-related modulations and the congruency sequence effect. However, little is known about whether and how alertness mediates the congruency sequence effect. In Experiment 1, the Attentional Networks Test (ANT) and a modified flanker task were used to evaluate whether the alertness of the attentional functions had a correlation with the CAE and RPE. In Experimental 2, the ANT and another modified flanker task were used to investigate whether alertness of the attentional functions correlate with the CAE and FOE. In Experiment 1, through the correlative analysis, we found a significant positive correlation between alertness and the CAE, and a negative correlation between the alertness and the RPE. Moreover, a significant negative correlation existed between CAE and RPE. In Experiment 2, we found a marginally significant negative correlation between the CAE and the RPE, but the correlation between alertness and FOE, CAE and FOE was not significant. These results suggest that alertness can modulate conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way. Participants at the high alerting level group may tend to use the top-down cognitive processing strategy, whereas participants at the low alerting level group tend to use the bottom-up processing strategy. PMID:24250824

  6. Alertness modulates conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way.

    Peiduo Liu

    Full Text Available Previous studies show that the congruency sequence effect can result from both the conflict adaptation effect (CAE and feature integration effect which can be observed as the repetition priming effect (RPE and feature overlap effect (FOE depending on different experimental conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests that a close correlation exists between the neural mechanisms of alertness-related modulations and the congruency sequence effect. However, little is known about whether and how alertness mediates the congruency sequence effect. In Experiment 1, the Attentional Networks Test (ANT and a modified flanker task were used to evaluate whether the alertness of the attentional functions had a correlation with the CAE and RPE. In Experimental 2, the ANT and another modified flanker task were used to investigate whether alertness of the attentional functions correlate with the CAE and FOE. In Experiment 1, through the correlative analysis, we found a significant positive correlation between alertness and the CAE, and a negative correlation between the alertness and the RPE. Moreover, a significant negative correlation existed between CAE and RPE. In Experiment 2, we found a marginally significant negative correlation between the CAE and the RPE, but the correlation between alertness and FOE, CAE and FOE was not significant. These results suggest that alertness can modulate conflict adaptation and feature integration in an opposite way. Participants at the high alerting level group may tend to use the top-down cognitive processing strategy, whereas participants at the low alerting level group tend to use the bottom-up processing strategy.

  7. Adoption of medication alert systems in hospital outpatient departments in Taiwan.

    Kuo, Yu-Chun; Cheng, Shou-Hsia

    2017-06-01

    The adoption of medication alert systems in the health care sector varies among regions. In Taiwan, the health authority introduced policies in 2005 to encourage the adoption of medication alert systems in hospitals. This study aimed to understand the adoption of medication alert systems in the outpatient departments of hospitals in Taiwan using a nationwide survey. A questionnaire was developed and mailed to 380 accredited general hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. The information collected from the questionnaire concerning the outpatient department included (1) the time of adoption of a medication alert system; (2) the operation of individual alert functions: availability, management, and stability; and (3) hospital characteristics: accreditation level, teaching status, ownership, and number of beds. A total of 216 hospitals completed and returned the questionnaire, corresponding to a response rate of 56.8%. The adoption rate of medication alert systems in hospital outpatient departments increased from less than 10% in 1997-95.83% in 2012. Approximately two-thirds of the hospitals developed and maintained the alert systems independently or collaboratively with vendors. Teaching and large hospitals tended to develop more advanced alert functions such as drug-drug interaction functions. Improving the safety and quality of pharmaceutical services and meeting the policy requirements are reasons for hospitals to establish medication alert systems. The adoption rate of medication alert systems reached 95% in accredited general hospitals in Taiwan. Government policy and available health information professionals and vendors may somewhat contribute to the high adoption rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The isolation of low frequency impact sounds in hotel construction

    LoVerde, John J.; Dong, David W.

    2002-11-01

    One of the design challenges in the acoustical design of hotels is reducing low frequency sounds from footfalls occurring on both carpeted and hard-surfaced floors. Research on low frequency impact noise [W. Blazier and R. DuPree, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 1521-1532 (1994)] resulted in a conclusion that in wood construction low frequency impact sounds were clearly audible and that feasible control methods were not available. The results of numerous FIIC (Field Impact Insulation Class) measurements performed in accordance with ASTM E1007 indicate the lack of correlation between FIIC ratings and the reaction of occupants in the room below. The measurements presented include FIIC ratings and sound pressure level measurements below the ASTM E1007 low frequency limit of 100 Hertz, and reveal that excessive sound levels in the frequency range of 63 to 100 Hertz correlate with occupant complaints. Based upon this history, a tentative criterion for maximum impact sound level in the low frequency range is presented. The results presented of modifying existing constructions to reduce the transmission of impact sounds at low frequencies indicate that there may be practical solutions to this longstanding problem.

  9. Sound waves in (2+1) dimensional holographic magnetic fluids

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex; Vazquez, Samuel E.

    2008-01-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study propagation of sound waves in strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. Our computation provides a nontrivial consistency check of the viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of Hartnoll-Kovtun-Mueller-Sachdev to leading order in the external field. Depending on the behavior of the magnetic field in the hydrodynamic limit, we show that it can lead to further attenuation of sound waves in the (2+1) dimensional conformal plasma, or reduce the speed of sound. We present both field theory and dual supergravity descriptions of these phenomena. While to the leading order in momenta the dispersion of the sound waves obtained from the dual supergravity description agrees with the one predicted from field theory, we find a discrepancy at higher order. This suggests that further corrections to HKMS magneto-hydrodynamics are necessary.

  10. The science of sound recording

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  11. Marine biodiesel use in the Puget Sound

    Davidson, N. [Northwest Biofuels Association, Portland, OR (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation explored the use of marine biodiesel in the Puget Sound region. Marine vessels are now adopting biodiesel fuels as a means of expressing corporate commitments to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the environmental impacts of hydrocarbons released into marine environments. Various biodiesel blends have been designed for use in small commercial, recreational, and research vessels. Biodiesel has also been adopted by charter and whale watching vessels in the Puget Sound. The Guemes Island Ferry has recently been re-configured to use biodiesel fuels, with 2 fuel tanks capable of receiving 2200 gallons at a time. The ferry adopted biodiesel after receiving soot complaints from marinas, and hopes to serve as a model for other vessels in the region. Four fueling docks supply the biodiesel blend to marine vessels. The sale of biodiesel has doubled in some marinas over the last 5 years. Deterrents to biodiesel use include parts incompatibilities and warranty problems. Some marinas have stopped selling biodiesel as a result of low sales and high prices. It was concluded that educational programs are needed to ensure the widespread adoption of biodiesel in the Puget Sound. refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Marine biodiesel use in the Puget Sound

    Davidson, N.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation explored the use of marine biodiesel in the Puget Sound region. Marine vessels are now adopting biodiesel fuels as a means of expressing corporate commitments to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the environmental impacts of hydrocarbons released into marine environments. Various biodiesel blends have been designed for use in small commercial, recreational, and research vessels. Biodiesel has also been adopted by charter and whale watching vessels in the Puget Sound. The Guemes Island Ferry has recently been re-configured to use biodiesel fuels, with 2 fuel tanks capable of receiving 2200 gallons at a time. The ferry adopted biodiesel after receiving soot complaints from marinas, and hopes to serve as a model for other vessels in the region. Four fueling docks supply the biodiesel blend to marine vessels. The sale of biodiesel has doubled in some marinas over the last 5 years. Deterrents to biodiesel use include parts incompatibilities and warranty problems. Some marinas have stopped selling biodiesel as a result of low sales and high prices. It was concluded that educational programs are needed to ensure the widespread adoption of biodiesel in the Puget Sound. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  14. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  15. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  16. A novel strategy for evaluating the effects of an electronic test ordering alert message: Optimizing cardiac marker use.

    Baron, Jason M; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Kamis, Irina K; Singh, Balaji; Belkziz, Sidi M; Dighe, Anand S

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory ordering functions within computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems typically support the display of electronic alert messages to improve test utilization or implement new ordering policies. However, alert strategies have been shown to vary considerably in their success and the characteristics contributing to an alert's success are poorly understood. Improved methodologies are needed to evaluate alerts and their mechanisms of action. Clinicians order inpatient and emergency department laboratory tests using our institutional CPOE system. We analyzed user interaction data captured by our CPOE system to evaluate how clinicians responded to an alert. We evaluated an alert designed to implement an institutional policy restricting the indications for ordering creatine kinase-MB (CKMB). Within 2 months of alert implementation, CKMB-associated searches declined by 79% with a corresponding decline in CKMB orders. Furthermore, while prior to alert implementation, clinicians searching for CKMB ultimately ordered this test 99% of the time, following implementation, only 60% of CKMB searches ultimately led to CKMB test orders. This difference presumably represents clinicians who reconsidered the need for CKMB in response to the alert, demonstrating the alert's just-in-time advisory capability. In addition, as clinicians repeatedly viewed the alert, there was a "dose-dependant" decrease in the fraction of searches without orders. This presumably reflects the alerting strategy's long-term educational component, as clinicians aware of the new policy will not search for CKMB when not indicated. Our analytic approach provides insight into the mechanism of a CPOE alert and demonstrates that alerts may act through a combination of just-in-time advice and longer term education. Use of this approach when implementing alerts may prove useful to improve the success of a given alerting strategy.

  17. Physicians' Perceptions on the usefulness of contextual information for prioritizing and presenting alerts in computerized physician order entry systems

    Jung, Martin; Riedmann, Daniel; Hackl, Werner O.; Hoerbst, Alexander; Jaspers, Monique W.; Ferret, Laurie; Lawton, Kitta; Ammenwerth, Elske

    2012-01-01

    Background: One possible approach towards avoiding alert overload and alert fatigue in Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) systems is to tailor their drug safety alerts to the context of the clinical situation. Our objective was to identify the perceptions of physicians on the usefulness of

  18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Educational Email Alerts for Family Physicians: Viewpoint

    Badran, Hani; Grad, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. Objective The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants’ suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the “Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior” model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. Results All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. Conclusions The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts. PMID:25803184

  19. A clinical data warehouse-based process for refining medication orders alerts.

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Caruba, Thibaut; Zapletal, Eric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre; Degoulet, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the use of a clinical data warehouse coupled with a clinical information system to test and refine alerts for medication orders control before they were fully implemented. A clinical decision rule refinement process was used to assess alerts. The criteria assessed were the frequencies of alerts for initial prescriptions of 10 medications whose dosage levels depend on renal function thresholds. In the first iteration of the process, the frequency of the 'exceeds maximum daily dose' alerts was 7.10% (617/8692), while that of the 'under dose' alerts was 3.14% (273/8692). Indicators were presented to the experts. During the different iterations of the process, 45 (16.07%) decision rules were removed, 105 (37.5%) were changed and 136 new rules were introduced. Extensive retrospective analysis of physicians' medication orders stored in a clinical data warehouse facilitates alert optimization toward the goal of maximizing the safety of the patient and minimizing overridden alerts.

  20. Automaticity of phasic alertness: Evidence for a three-component model of visual cueing.

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The automaticity of phasic alertness is investigated using the attention network test. Results show that the cueing effect from the alerting cue-double cue-is strongly enhanced by the task relevance of visual cues, as determined by the informativeness of the orienting cue-single cue-that is being mixed (80 % vs. 50 % valid in predicting where the target will appear). Counterintuitively, the cueing effect from the alerting cue can be negatively affected by its visibility, such that masking the cue from awareness can reveal a cueing effect that is otherwise absent when the cue is visible. Evidently, then, top-down influences-in the form of contextual relevance and cue awareness-can have opposite influences on the cueing effect from the alerting cue. These findings lead us to the view that a visual cue can engage three components of attention-orienting, alerting, and inhibition-to determine the behavioral cueing effect. We propose that phasic alertness, particularly in the form of specific response readiness, is regulated by both internal, top-down expectation and external, bottom-up stimulus properties. In contrast to some existing views, we advance the perspective that phasic alertness is strongly tied to temporal orienting, attentional capture, and spatial orienting. Finally, we discuss how translating attention research to clinical applications would benefit from an improved ability to measure attention. To this end, controlling the degree of intraindividual variability in the attentional components and improving the precision of the measurement tools may prove vital.

  1. Advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts for family physicians: viewpoint.

    Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2015-02-27

    Electronic knowledge resources constitute an important channel for accredited Continuing Medical Education (CME) activities. However, email usage for educational purposes is controversial. On the one hand, family physicians become aware of new information, confirm what they already know, and obtain reassurance by reading educational email alerts. Email alerts can also encourage physicians to search Web-based resources. On the other hand, technical difficulties and privacy issues are common obstacles. The purpose of this discussion paper, informed by a literature review and a small qualitative study, was to understand family physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in regard to email in general and educational emails in particular, and to explore the advantages and disadvantages of educational email alerts. In addition, we documented participants' suggestions to improve email alert services for CME. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using the "Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior" model. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 15 family physicians. We analyzed the collected data using inductive-deductive thematic qualitative data analysis. All 15 participants scanned and prioritized their email, and 13 of them checked their email daily. Participants mentioned (1) advantages of educational email alerts such as saving time, convenience and valid information, and (2) disadvantages such as an overwhelming number of emails and irrelevance. They offered suggestions to improve educational email. The advantages of email alerts seem to compensate for their disadvantages. Suggestions proposed by family physicians can help to improve educational email alerts.

  2. [Detection of Brucella with an automatic hemoculture system: Bact/Alert].

    Casas, J; Partal, Y; Llosá, J; Leiva, J; Navarro, J M; de la Rosa, M

    1994-12-01

    The ability of in vitro and in vivo detection of Brucella spp. with the Bact/Alert system was studied. Three strains of Brucella melitensis and two of Brucella abortus were used. Different dilutions of the five strains were performed in trypticase soy broth (TSB), achieving concentrations of 1 cfu/ml, 5 cfu/ml, 10 cfu/ml and 100 cfu/ml. Ten ml of each dilution and strain were inoculated into 5 aerobic bottles Bact/Alert and 5 biphasic Hemóline bottles. Furthermore, over a 9 month period, 8,216 bottles of Bact/Alert bottles from hospitalized patients and from the emergency department were processed in the authors' laboratory. The mean detection time for Brucella growth was from 2 to 3 days with the Bact/Alert system, and 14 days in the biphasic bottles. Former bottles processed in the authors' laboratory, 11 aerobic bottles belonged to 5 patients in whom brucelosis was confirmed by bloodculture. The Bact/Alert system detected Brucella melitensis in only on bottle at 2.9 days of incubation. In 7 bottles Bact/Alert detected B. melitensis by a blind pass of these bottles at 10 to 20 days of incubation. These results suggest that the Bact/Alert system does not totally solve the diagnosis of brucellosis. Blind passes of the bloodcultures are required.

  3. Effects of chewing gum and time-on-task on alertness and attention.

    Allen, A P; Smith, A P

    2012-07-01

    Chewing gum has been shown to reliably increase subjective alertness whereas the effects on attention are more variable. It has been suggested that chewing gum only enhances attention when the person has been performing a task for some time. The current research aimed to investigate if time-on-task trends enhancing effects of chewing gum could be observed in alertness and attention during and following chewing. Study 1 used tests of reported mood, including reported mood, and tests of attention (categoric search, focussed attention, simple reaction time, and vigilance). These tasks were performed shortly after the start of chewing. Study 2 examined effects of previous and current chewing on reported alertness and the attention tests. Study 1 showed that chewing gum increased reported alertness and hedonic tone and improved performance on the categoric search task. Chewing gum maintained reported alertness across sessions in study 2. In the first experimental session of study 2 gum improved categoric search performance, and during the second session gum broadened focus of attention and quickened vigilance reaction time. This effect on vigilance reaction time was moderated by time-on-task, with an initial negative effect being replaced by a positive effect. The results confirm the robust effect of chewing gum on reported alertness and show that changes in the effects of chewing gum on attention require further investigation. Future research may also determine underlying mechanisms for an alerting effect.

  4. Implementation Of CAN Based Intelligent Driver Alert System

    Yin Mar Win Kyaw Myo Maung Maung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This system is an attempt to analyze Intelligent Driver Alert System Using CAN Protocol. CAN Controller Area Network offer an efficient communication protocol among sensors actuators controllers and other nodes in real-time applications and is known for its simplicity reliability and high performance. It has given an effective way by which can increase the car and driver safety. This system presents the development and implementation of a digital driving system for a semi-autonomous vehicle to improve the driver-vehicle interface using microcontroller based data acquisition system that uses ADC to bring all control data from analog to digital format. In this system the signal information like temperature LM35 sensor if the temperature increase above the 60 o C and ultrasonic sensor is adapted to measure the distance between the object and vehicle if obstacle is detected within 75cm from the vehicle the controller gives buzzer to the driver speed measure using RPM sensor if revolution increase up to 1200 per minute controller act and to avoid the maximum revolution and to check the fuel level continuously and display in the percentage if fuel level below 20 percent the controller also gives buzzer to the driver and distance fuel level and temperature continuously display on the LCD.

  5. Alternative Opportunistic Alert Diffusion to Support Infrastructure Failure during Disasters

    Farouk Mezghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic communications present a promising solution for disaster network recovery in emergency situations such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods, where infrastructure might be destroyed. Some recent works in the literature have proposed opportunistic-based disaster recovery solutions, but they have omitted the consideration of mobile devices that come with different network technologies and various initial energy levels. This work presents COPE, an energy-aware Cooperative OPportunistic alErt diffusion scheme for trapped survivors to use during disaster scenarios to report their position and ease their rescue operation. It aims to maintain mobile devices functional for as long as possible for maximum network coverage until reaching proximate rescuers. COPE deals with mobile devices that come with an assortment of networks and aims to perform systematic network interface selection. Furthermore, it considers mobile devices with various energy levels and allows low-energy nodes to hold their charge for longer time with the support of high-energy nodes. A proof-of-concept implementation has been performed to study the doability and efficiency of COPE, and to highlight the lessons learned.

  6. IP Telephony Based Danger Alert Communication System and Its Implementation

    Filip Rezac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of a web application allowing to deliver pre-recorded voice messages by using SIP generator. The developed application is a part of complex system, which has been evolved in Dpt. of Telecommunications, Technical University of Ostrava for last three years. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transormation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations. The advantage of this aproach lies in controlled delivery and finally the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users are informed via SMS. In the paper, the core of the danger alert system is described including algorithms of the voice message delivery.

  7. The effect of petroleum spills on permafrost at CFS Alert

    Haidar, S.; Jarrett, P.

    1997-01-01

    Site investigations have been carried out at two decommissioned tank farm sites at Canadian Forces Station Alert on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. The purpose was to study the mechanism of spilt fuel movement in frozen ground and its effects on frozen soils. The investigations consisted of sampling to depths below the permafrost table to assess vertical fuel migration, hydrocarbon pollutant concentration and water content. Results showed vertical migration of spilled fuel into permafrost. The migration was attributed to gravity drainage through interconnected air voids in fill material or movement through fissures in the soil induced by thermal contraction. Unweathered contaminants were found below the liners on top of the permafrost, believed to have been caused by holes in the liner. The entrapment of the spilled fuel may have been responsible for the enhanced vertical migration of contaminants observed at these sites. It was concluded that permafrost should not be considered as an impermeable barrier to contaminants with freezing points below 0 degree C. 4 figs

  8. Swift Burst Alert Telescope Data Products and Analysis Software

    Krimm, Hans A.; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cummings, Jay R.; Gehrels, Neil; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Fenimore, Edward E.; Palmer, David M.; Hullinger, Derek D.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma-ray burst mission serves as the GRB trigger for Swift as well as a sensitive imaging telescope for the energy range of 15-150 keV. All BAT data products will be available to the astronomical community along with a complete set of analysis tools. Gamma-ray burst data products include rapid discovery messages delivered immediately via the GRB Coordinates Network, and event-by-event data from which light curves and spectra of the burst are generated. During nominal operations, the instrument provides accumulated survey histograms with 5-minute time sampling and appropriate energy resolution. These survey accumulations are analyzed in a pipeline to detect new sources and derive light curves of known sources. The 5-minute surveys will also be combined to produce the BAT all sky hard X-ray survey. In addition, the instrument accumulates high time resolution light curves of the brightest BAT sources in multiple energy bands, which are merged into a source light curve database on the ground. The BAT science data products and analysis tools will be described in this paper

  9. Technical features of a low-cost earthquake alert system

    Harben, P.

    1991-01-01

    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyzes the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5,000 annually to maintain

  10. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  11. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  12. An Unobtrusive Fall Detection and Alerting System Based on Kalman Filter and Bayes Network Classifier.

    He, Jian; Bai, Shuang; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2017-06-16

    Falls are one of the main health risks among the elderly. A fall detection system based on inertial sensors can automatically detect fall event and alert a caregiver for immediate assistance, so as to reduce injuries causing by falls. Nevertheless, most inertial sensor-based fall detection technologies have focused on the accuracy of detection while neglecting quantization noise caused by inertial sensor. In this paper, an activity model based on tri-axial acceleration and gyroscope is proposed, and the difference between activities of daily living (ADLs) and falls is analyzed. Meanwhile, a Kalman filter is proposed to preprocess the raw data so as to reduce noise. A sliding window and Bayes network classifier are introduced to develop a wearable fall detection system, which is composed of a wearable motion sensor and a smart phone. The experiment shows that the proposed system distinguishes simulated falls from ADLs with a high accuracy of 95.67%, while sensitivity and specificity are 99.0% and 95.0%, respectively. Furthermore, the smart phone can issue an alarm to caregivers so as to provide timely and accurate help for the elderly, as soon as the system detects a fall.

  13. Sounds of a Star

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  14. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  15. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  16. Sounds of silence: How to animate virtual worlds with sound

    Astheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Sounds are an integral and sometimes annoying part of our daily life. Virtual worlds which imitate natural environments gain a lot of authenticity from fast, high quality visualization combined with sound effects. Sounds help to increase the degree of immersion for human dwellers in imaginary worlds significantly. The virtual reality toolkit of IGD (Institute for Computer Graphics) features a broad range of standard visual and advanced real-time audio components which interpret an object-oriented definition of the scene. The virtual reality system 'Virtual Design' realized with the toolkit enables the designer of virtual worlds to create a true audiovisual environment. Several examples on video demonstrate the usage of the audio features in Virtual Design.

  17. Mobile sound: media art in hybrid spaces

    Behrendt, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The thesis explores the relationships between sound and mobility through an examination\\ud of sound art. The research engages with the intersection of sound, mobility and\\ud art through original empirical work and theoretically through a critical engagement with\\ud sound studies. In dialogue with the work of De Certeau, Lefebvre, Huhtamo and Habermas\\ud in terms of the poetics of walking, rhythms, media archeology and questions of\\ud publicness, I understand sound art as an experimental mobil...

  18. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds.

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching ("looming") or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  19. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Phillip David Fletcher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (‘looming’ or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioural rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n=10; behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, n=16, progressive non-fluent aphasia, n=12; amnestic Alzheimer’s disease, n=10 and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioural response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer’s disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases.

  20. Dementias show differential physiological responses to salient sounds

    Fletcher, Phillip D.; Nicholas, Jennifer M.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Downey, Laura E.; Golden, Hannah L.; Agustus, Jennifer L.; Clark, Camilla N.; Mummery, Catherine J.; Schott, Jonathan M.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Warren, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal responsiveness to salient sensory signals is often a prominent feature of dementia diseases, particularly the frontotemporal lobar degenerations, but has been little studied. Here we assessed processing of one important class of salient signals, looming sounds, in canonical dementia syndromes. We manipulated tones using intensity cues to create percepts of salient approaching (“looming”) or less salient withdrawing sounds. Pupil dilatation responses and behavioral rating responses to these stimuli were compared in patients fulfilling consensus criteria for dementia syndromes (semantic dementia, n = 10; behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 16, progressive nonfluent aphasia, n = 12; amnestic Alzheimer's disease, n = 10) and a cohort of 26 healthy age-matched individuals. Approaching sounds were rated as more salient than withdrawing sounds by healthy older individuals but this behavioral response to salience did not differentiate healthy individuals from patients with dementia syndromes. Pupil responses to approaching sounds were greater than responses to withdrawing sounds in healthy older individuals and in patients with semantic dementia: this differential pupil response was reduced in patients with progressive nonfluent aphasia and Alzheimer's disease relative both to the healthy control and semantic dementia groups, and did not correlate with nonverbal auditory semantic function. Autonomic responses to auditory salience are differentially affected by dementias and may constitute a novel biomarker of these diseases. PMID:25859194

  1. 33 CFR 167.1702 - In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. 167.1702 Section 167.1702 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1702 In Prince William Sound: Prince William Sound Traffic Separation Scheme. The Prince William Sound...

  2. Sounding the field: recent works in sound studies.

    Boon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    For sound studies, the publication of a 593-page handbook, not to mention the establishment of at least one society - the European Sound Studies Association - might seem to signify the emergence of a new academic discipline. Certainly, the books under consideration here, alongside many others, testify to an intensification of concern with the aural dimensions of culture. Some of this work comes from HPS and STS, some from musicology and cultural studies. But all of it should concern members of our disciplines, as it represents a long-overdue foregrounding of the aural in how we think about the intersections of science, technology and culture.

  3. Conditioned sounds enhance visual processing.

    Fabrizio Leo

    Full Text Available This psychophysics study investigated whether prior auditory conditioning influences how a sound interacts with visual perception. In the conditioning phase, subjects were presented with three pure tones ( =  conditioned stimuli, CS that were paired with positive, negative or neutral unconditioned stimuli. As unconditioned reinforcers we employed pictures (highly pleasant, unpleasant and neutral or monetary outcomes (+50 euro cents, -50 cents, 0 cents. In the subsequent visual selective attention paradigm, subjects were presented with near-threshold Gabors displayed in their left or right hemifield. Critically, the Gabors were presented in synchrony with one of the conditioned sounds. Subjects discriminated whether the Gabors were presented in their left or right hemifields. Participants determined the location more accurately when the Gabors were presented in synchrony with positive relative to neutral sounds irrespective of reinforcer type. Thus, previously rewarded relative to neutral sounds increased the bottom-up salience of the visual Gabors. Our results are the first demonstration that prior auditory conditioning is a potent mechanism to modulate the effect of sounds on visual perception.

  4. Moth hearing and sound communication

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  5. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  7. Efficient Geometric Sound Propagation Using Visibility Culling

    Chandak, Anish

    2011-07-01

    Simulating propagation of sound can improve the sense of realism in interactive applications such as video games and can lead to better designs in engineering applications such as architectural acoustics. In this thesis, we present geometric sound propagation techniques which are faster than prior methods and map well to upcoming parallel multi-core CPUs. We model specular reflections by using the image-source method and model finite-edge diffraction by using the well-known Biot-Tolstoy-Medwin (BTM) model. We accelerate the computation of specular reflections by applying novel visibility algorithms, FastV and AD-Frustum, which compute visibility from a point. We accelerate finite-edge diffraction modeling by applying a novel visibility algorithm which computes visibility from a region. Our visibility algorithms are based on frustum tracing and exploit recent advances in fast ray-hierarchy intersections, data-parallel computations, and scalable, multi-core algorithms. The AD-Frustum algorithm adapts its computation to the scene complexity and allows small errors in computing specular reflection paths for higher computational efficiency. FastV and our visibility algorithm from a region are general, object-space, conservative visibility algorithms that together significantly reduce the number of image sources compared to other techniques while preserving the same accuracy. Our geometric propagation algorithms are an order of magnitude faster than prior approaches for modeling specular reflections and two to ten times faster for modeling finite-edge diffraction. Our algorithms are interactive, scale almost linearly on multi-core CPUs, and can handle large, complex, and dynamic scenes. We also compare the accuracy of our sound propagation algorithms with other methods. Once sound propagation is performed, it is desirable to listen to the propagated sound in interactive and engineering applications. We can generate smooth, artifact-free output audio signals by applying

  8. CISN ShakeAlert: Faster Warning Information Through Multiple Threshold Event Detection in the Virtual Seismologist (VS) Early Warning Algorithm

    Cua, G. B.; Fischer, M.; Caprio, M.; Heaton, T. H.; Cisn Earthquake Early Warning Project Team

    2010-12-01

    The Virtual Seismologist (VS) earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithm is one of 3 EEW approaches being incorporated into the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) ShakeAlert system, a prototype EEW system that could potentially be implemented in California. The VS algorithm, implemented by the Swiss Seismological Service at ETH Zurich, is a Bayesian approach to EEW, wherein the most probable source estimate at any given time is a combination of contributions from a likehihood function that evolves in response to incoming data from the on-going earthquake, and selected prior information, which can include factors such as network topology, the Gutenberg-Richter relationship or previously observed seismicity. The VS codes have been running in real-time at the Southern California Seismic Network since July 2008, and at the Northern California Seismic Network since February 2009. We discuss recent enhancements to the VS EEW algorithm that are being integrated into CISN ShakeAlert. We developed and continue to test a multiple-threshold event detection scheme, which uses different association / location approaches depending on the peak amplitudes associated with an incoming P pick. With this scheme, an event with sufficiently high initial amplitudes can be declared on the basis of a single station, maximizing warning times for damaging events for which EEW is most relevant. Smaller, non-damaging events, which will have lower initial amplitudes, will require more picks to initiate an event declaration, with the goal of reducing false alarms. This transforms the VS codes from a regional EEW approach reliant on traditional location estimation (and the requirement of at least 4 picks as implemented by the Binder Earthworm phase associator) into an on-site/regional approach capable of providing a continuously evolving stream of EEW information starting from the first P-detection. Real-time and offline analysis on Swiss and California waveform datasets indicate that the

  9. Review of sound card photogates

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  10. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  11. Real-time Seismic Alert System of NIED

    Horiuchi, S.; Fujinawa, Y.; Negishi, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Kunugi, T.; Hayashi, Y.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive seismic network has been constructed nationwide composed of hi-sensitivity seismographic network, broadband seismographic network and strong motion seismographic network. All these data from some 3,000 sites belonging to NIED, JMA and universities are to be accumulated and distributed through NIED to any scientists and engineering through INTERNET under the coordination of the National Seismic Research Committee of MEXT. As a practical application of those data we are now developing a real-time seismic alert information system for the purpose of providing short-term warning of imminent strong grounds motions from major earthquakes from several seconds to a few days. The contents of information are seismic focal parameters (several seconds), seismic fault plane solutions (some 10 seconds), after-shock activities (several minutes-a few days ). The fundamental fault parameters are used to build specific information at sites for particular users for use of triggering automated and /or half-automated responses. The most important application is an immediate estimate of expected shaking distribution and damages in a district using synthetic database and site effects for local governments to initial proper measures of hazard mitigation. Another application is estimation of arrival time and shaking strength at any individual site for human lives to be safeguarded. The system could also start an automatic electrical isolation and protection of computer systems, protection of hazardous chronic systems, transportation systems and so on. The information are corrected successively as seismic ground motion are received at a larger number of sites in time with the result that more accurate and more sophisticated earthquake information is transmitted to any user. Besides the rapid determination of seismic parameters, one of essential items in this alert system is the data transmission means. The data transmission is chosen to assure negligibly small delay of data

  12. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    ... Were Treated with hGH Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH ... Adrenal crisis is a serious condition that can cause death in people who lack the pituitary hormone ACTH. ...

  13. Space Environment Automated Alerts and Anomaly Analysis Assistant (SEA^5) for NASA

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a comprehensive analysis and dissemination system (Space Environment Automated Alerts  & Anomaly Analysis Assistant: SEA5) that will...

  14. Enforcement Alert: EPA Enforcement Efforts Focus on Prevention of Chemical Accidents

    This Alert is intended to inform the industry that companies must take responsibility to prevent accidental releases of dangerous chemicals like anhydrous ammonia through compliance with CAA’s Chemical Accident Prevention Program.

  15. Wireless Sensor Node for Autonomous Monitoring and Alerts in Remote Environments

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Panangadan, Anand V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, and computer program products provides personal alert and tracking capabilities using one or more nodes. Each node includes radio transceiver chips operating at different frequency ranges, a power amplifier, sensors, a display, and embedded software. The chips enable the node to operate as either a mobile sensor node or a relay base station node while providing a long distance relay link between nodes. The power amplifier enables a line-of-sight communication between the one or more nodes. The sensors provide a GPS signal, temperature, and accelerometer information (used to trigger an alert condition). The embedded software captures and processes the sensor information, provides a multi-hop packet routing protocol to relay the sensor information to and receive alert information from a command center, and to display the alert information on the display.

  16. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    Schutte, PC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  17. Alerting and vitalizing effects of color temperature during daytime: findings on subjective and objective indicators

    Smolders, K.C.H.J.; Kort, de Y.A.W.; Haans, A.; Gennip, van D. A. P.; Ham, J.; Kort, de Y. A. W.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of correlated colour temperature on alertness, vitality and performance during daytime. Results of a within-groups experiment demonstrate time dependent effects on subjective indicators; objective measures are still being analysed.

  18. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems.

    Phansalkar, Shobha; Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design.

  19. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  20. [Importance of health CRM in pandemics and health alerts].

    Cubillas, Juan José; Ramos, María Isabel; Feito, Francisco R; González, José María; Gersol, Rafael; Ramos, María Belén

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of the role a health CRM can play in a pandemic or health alert. During the influenza-A pandemic, Salud Responde played a very important role. Its main objective was to establish protocols and citizens advice lines that would avoid patients with mild influenza-A symptoms going to health centre. A triage system was developed around the Siebel CRM (software tool) to achieve this objective. This allowed the Salud Responde staff to establish the severity of the patient depending on the symptoms and the risk factors of the patient, as well as being able to inform, give health advice or refer the patient to medical centres if necessary. All patients (a total of 56,497) who were attended by Salud Responde within its influenza-A service portfolio have been included. Patients who were attended by Salud Responde. The data have been extracted from the Salud Responde data base. Salud Responde attended to 56,497 patients during the influenza-A pandemic, of whom 48,287 patients did not require health care. Salud Responde attended to 56,497 patients, of whom 48,287 patients did not require health care. Apart from any financial savings that this could entail, it contributed to minimising the pandemic, avoiding the patient having to go to a health centre to receive medical care or information, and prevented, to a great extent, the flooding of casualty departments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional organization of area V2 in the alert macaque.

    Peterhans, E; von der Heydt, R

    1993-05-01

    We studied the relation between anatomical structure and functional properties of cells in area V2 of the macaque. Visual function was assessed in the alert animal during fixation of gaze. Recording sites were reconstructed with respect to cortical lamination and the cytochrome oxidase pattern. We measured orientation and direction selectivity, end-stopping, sensitivity to binocular disparity and ocular dominance, and determined more complex functions like sensitivity to anomalous contours and lines defined by coherent motion. Orientation selectivity was found in all parts of area V2, with high frequencies in the pale and thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, and with lower frequency in the thin stripes. Representations of anomalous contours were found in the pale and thick stripes with similar frequencies, but generally not in the thin stripes, which have been thought to process colour. Lines defined by coherent motion were most frequently represented in the thick stripes; they were less frequent in the pale stripes, and (as with anomalous contours) were not found in the thin stripes. Sensitivity to binocular disparity was found in all types of stripes, but more frequently in the thick stripes, where the exclusively binocular neurons were also concentrated. By contrast, no segregation was found for direction selectivity and end-stopping. All neuronal properties were distributed evenly across cortical laminae. We conclude that mechanisms for figure-ground segregation involve the pale and the thick stripes of the cytochrome oxidase pattern, perhaps with greater emphasis on 'shape from motion' and 'stereoscopic depth' in the thick stripes, while more elementary neuronal properties are distributed almost evenly across the stripe pattern.

  2. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  3. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  4. Strengthening Laboratory Capacity for Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS) in Indonesia

    Kandel, Nirmal; Hapsari, Ratna Budi; Riana, Dyah Armi; Setiawaty, Vivi; Larasati, Wita; Wulandari, Endang; Purwanto, Edy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Establishment of Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS) in Indonesia was initiated since 2009 in few selected provinces and government was planning to roll out in other provinces. Before initiating this roll out the assessment of performance of EWARS in 2012 was conducted. The aim of the assessment is to strengthen laboratory for supporting to EWARS for alerts testing. Methods: Laboratory capacity mapping tool and laboratory algorithm for twenty two priority diseases of ...

  5. Assigning a volcano alert level: negotiating uncertainty, risk, and complexity in decision-making processes

    Carina J Fearnley

    2013-01-01

    A volcano alert level system (VALS) is used to communicate warning information from scientists to civil authorities managing volcanic hazards. This paper provides the first evaluation of how the decision-making process behind the assignation of an alert level, using forecasts of volcanic behaviour, operates in practice . Using interviews conducted from 2007 to 2009 at five USGS-managed (US Geological Survey) volcano observatories (Alaska, Cascades, Hawaii, Long Valley, and Yellowstone), two k...

  6. The Multisensory Sound Lab: Sounds You Can See and Feel.

    Lederman, Norman; Hendricks, Paula

    1994-01-01

    A multisensory sound lab has been developed at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (District of Columbia). A special floor allows vibrations to be felt, and a spectrum analyzer displays frequencies and harmonics visually. The lab is used for science education, auditory training, speech therapy, music and dance instruction, and relaxation…

  7. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-09-01

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1441. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1441 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Offshore dredger sounds: Source levels, sound maps, and risk assessment

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels

  9. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  10. A novel strategy for evaluating the effects of an electronic test ordering alert message: Optimizing cardiac marker use

    Jason M Baron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory ordering functions within computerized provider order entry (CPOE systems typically support the display of electronic alert messages to improve test utilization or implement new ordering policies. However, alert strategies have been shown to vary considerably in their success and the characteristics contributing to an alert′s success are poorly understood. Improved methodologies are needed to evaluate alerts and their mechanisms of action. Materials and Methods: Clinicians order inpatient and emergency department laboratory tests using our institutional CPOE system. We analyzed user interaction data captured by our CPOE system to evaluate how clinicians responded to an alert. We evaluated an alert designed to implement an institutional policy restricting the indications for ordering creatine kinase-MB (CKMB. Results: Within 2 months of alert implementation, CKMB-associated searches declined by 79% with a corresponding decline in CKMB orders. Furthermore, while prior to alert implementation, clinicians searching for CKMB ultimately ordered this test 99% of the time, following implementation, only 60% of CKMB searches ultimately led to CKMB test orders. This difference presumably represents clinicians who reconsidered the need for CKMB in response to the alert, demonstrating the alert′s just-in-time advisory capability. In addition, as clinicians repeatedly viewed the alert, there was a "dose-dependant" decrease in the fraction of searches without orders. This presumably reflects the alerting strategy′s long-term educational component, as clinicians aware of the new policy will not search for CKMB when not indicated. Conclusions: Our analytic approach provides insight into the mechanism of a CPOE alert and demonstrates that alerts may act through a combination of just-in-time advice and longer term education. Use of this approach when implementing alerts may prove useful to improve the success of a given alerting

  11. Using the diffusion of innovations theory to assess socio-technical factors in planning the implementation of an electronic health record alert across multiple primary care clinics.

    Lin, Ching-Pin; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Keppel, Gina A; Dobie, Sharon; Osborn, Justin; Cole, Allison M; Baldwin, Laura-Mae

    2016-04-15

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are a leading cause of death in the United States. Patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at particular risk because many medications are cleared by the kidneys. Alerts in the electronic health record (EHR) about drug appropriateness and dosing at the time of prescription have been shown to reduce ADEs for patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD in inpatient settings, but more research is needed about the implementation and effectiveness of such alerts in outpatient settings.  To explore factors that might inform the implementation of an electronic drug-disease alert for patients with CKD in primary care clinics, using Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory as an analytic framework. Interviews were conducted with key informants in four diverse clinics using various EHR systems. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. results Although all clinics had a current method for calculating glomerular filtration rate (GFR), clinics were heterogeneous with regard to current electronic decision support practices, quality improvement resources, and organizational culture and structure. Understanding variation in organizational culture and infrastructure across primary care clinics is important in planning implementation of an intervention to reduce ADEs among patients with CKD.

  12. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  13. Entrepreneurial alertness: Study of the Influence of Individual Characteristics and Entrepreneurship

    Hilka Pelizza Vier Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research tried to understand which statistical variables associated to the individual and the company influence the entrepreneurial alertness. The sample was constituted by 180 entrepreneurs. The entrepreneurial alertness was measured in agreement with the model of Tang, Kacmar and Busenitz (2012. Descriptive statistical tests and normality exam were developed; as well as checked the validity and reliability of the scale through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. In order to identify the factors that influenced the alertness we developed multiple linear regression and the ANOVA test to determine possible differences among groups (gender, education. The results showed the negative influence of the educational level and the size of enterprises on alertness level; as well as the negative relationship between age and entrepreneurial experience, furthermore, shows that alert level is not determined by gender difference. One of the main implications of this research is to present factors that can potentiate the effects of the entrepreneurial alertness, enlarging the possibilities of identification of opportunities for individuals.

  14. Impact of e-alert systems on the care of patients with acute kidney injury.

    Breighner, Crystal M; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2017-09-01

    With the recent advancement in electronic health record systems and meaningful use of information technology incentive programs (i.e., the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services), interest in clinical decision support systems has risen. These systems have been used to examine a variety of different syndromes with variable reported effects. In recent years, electronic alerts (e-alerts) have been implemented at various institutions to decrease the morbidity associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is common, accounting for 1 in 7 hospital admissions, and is associated with increased length of hospital stay and mortality. AKI is often underrecognized, causing delayed intervention. The use of e-alerts may result in earlier recognition and intervention, as well as decreased morbidity and mortality. This must be balanced with the possibility of increased resource utilization that e-alerts may cause. Before widespread implementation, the ethical and legal consequences of not following e-alert recommendations must be established, and the optimal algorithm for AKI e-alert detection must be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decision Support from Genetic Algorithms for Ship Collision Avoidance Route Planning and Alerts

    Tsou, Ming-Cheng; Kao, Sheng-Long; Su, Chien-Min

    When an officer of the watch (OOW) faces complicated marine traffic, a suitable decision support tool could be employed in support of collision avoidance decisions, to reduce the burden and greatly improve the safety of marine traffic. Decisions on routes to avoid collisions could also consider economy as well as safety. Through simulating the biological evolution model, this research adopts the genetic algorithm used in artificial intelligence to find a theoretically safety-critical recommendation for the shortest route of collision avoidance from an economic viewpoint, combining the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGS) and the safety domain of a ship. Based on this recommendation, an optimal safe avoidance turning angle, navigation restoration time and navigational restoration angle will also be provided. A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be used as the platform for display and operation. In order to achieve advance notice of alerts and due preparation for collision avoidance, a Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) operator and the OOW can use this system as a reference to assess collision avoidance at present location.

  16. Job strain, sleep and alertness in shift working health care professionals -- a field study.

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2013-01-01

    We explored the associations of job strain with sleep and alertness of shift working female nurses and nursing assistants. Participants (n=95) were recruited from the Finnish Public Sector Study, from hospital wards that belonged to the top or bottom quartiles on job strain. Participants' own job strain was at least as high in high-strain group or low in low-strain group as the ward's average. The study included three-week measurements with sleep diary and actigraphy. Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) was performed during one pre-selected morning and night shift and a day off. Sleep efficiency before morning shifts was lower in the high-strain than low-strain group (p=0.03). Low-strain group took more often (72 vs. 45%; psleep were more common in high-strain group, especially after evening shifts (psleep duration (06:49 h) and efficiency (89%) did not differ between these groups. In conclusion, high job strain is associated with difficulties initiating sleep and reduced psychomotor vigilance in night shifts. Shift working contributed to impaired sleep in both high and low job strain group. Individual and organization-based actions are needed to promote sufficient sleep in shift working nurses, especially with high job strain.

  17. Multichannel micromanipulator and chamber system for recording multineuronal activity in alert, non-human primates.

    Gray, Charles M; Goodell, Baldwin; Lear, Alex

    2007-07-01

    We describe the design and performance of an electromechanical system for conducting multineuron recording experiments in alert non-human primates. The system is based on a simple design, consisting of a microdrive, control electronics, software, and a unique type of recording chamber. The microdrive consists of an aluminum frame, a set of eight linear actuators driven by computer-controlled miniature stepping motors, and two printed circuit boards (PCBs) that provide connectivity to the electrodes and the control electronics. The control circuitry is structured around an Atmel RISC-based microcontroller, which sends commands to as many as eight motor control cards, each capable of controlling eight motors. The microcontroller is programmed in C and uses serial communication to interface with a host computer. The graphical user interface for sending commands is written in C and runs on a conventional personal computer. The recording chamber is low in profile, mounts within a circular craniotomy, and incorporates a removable internal sleeve. A replaceable Sylastic membrane can be stretched across the bottom opening of the sleeve to provide a watertight seal between the cranial cavity and the external environment. This greatly reduces the susceptibility to infection, nearly eliminates the need for routine cleaning, and permits repeated introduction of electrodes into the brain at the same sites while maintaining the watertight seal. The system is reliable, easy to use, and has several advantages over other commercially available systems with similar capabilities.

  18. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  19. Lay persons alerted by mobile application system initiate earlier cardio-pulmonary resuscitation: A comparison with SMS-based system notification.

    Caputo, Maria Luce; Muschietti, Sandro; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Conte, Giulio; Regoli, François; Mauri, Romano; Klersy, Catherine; Moccetti, Tiziano; Auricchio, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    We compared the time to initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay responders and/or first responders alerted either via Short Message Service (SMS) or by using a mobile application-based alert system (APP). The Ticino Registry of Cardiac Arrest collects all data about out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occurring in the Canton of Ticino. At the time of a bystander's call, the EMS dispatcher sends one ambulance and alerts the first-responders network made up of police officers or fire brigade equipped with an automatic external defibrillator, the so called "traditional" first responders, and - if the scene was considered safe - lay responders as well. We evaluated the time from call to arrival of traditional first responders and/or lay responders when alerted either via SMS or the new developed mobile APP. Over the study period 593 OHCAs have occurred. Notification to the first responders network was sent via SMS in 198 cases and via mobile APP in 134 cases. Median time to first responder/lay responder arrival on scene was significantly reduced by the APP-based system (3.5 [2.8-5.2]) compared to the SMS-based system (5.6 [4.2-8.5] min, p 0.0001). The proportion of lay responders arriving first on the scene significantly increased (70% vs. 15%, play responder determined a higher survival rate. The mobile APP system is highly efficient in the recruitment of first responders, significantly reducing the time to the initiation of CPR thus increasing survival rates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology for the Sound of Music

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1960s during an industry recession, Kaman Aircraft lost several defense contracts. Forced to diversify, the helicopter manufacturer began to manufacture acoustic guitars. Kaman's engineers used special vibration analysis equipment based on aerospace technology. While a helicopter's rotor system is highly susceptible to vibration, which must be reduced or "dampened," vibration enhances a guitar's sound. After two years of vibration analysis Kaman produced an instrument, which is very successful. The Ovation guitar is made of fiberglass. It is stronger than the traditional rosewood and manufactured with adapted aircraft techniques such as jigs and fixtures, reducing labor and assuring quality and cost control. Kaman Music Corporation now has annual sales of $100 million.