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Sample records for alert telescope active

  1. The ANTARES Telescope Neutrino Alert System

    CERN Document Server

    Ageron, M; Samarai, I Al; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigi, A; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fermani, P; Ferri, M; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gòmez-González, J; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Hartman, J; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamar, P; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Payet, K; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Ruiz-Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Schüssler, F; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spuriol, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sànchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zùñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on coincident observations of neutrinos and optical signals has been developed. A fast online muon track reconstruction is used to trigger a network of small automatic optical telescopes. Such alerts are generated for special events, such as two or more neutrinos, coincident in time and direction, or single neutrinos of very high energy.

  2. The 60 Month All-Sky Burst Alert Telescope Survey of Active Galactic Nucleus and the Anisotropy of Nearby AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Greiner, J.; Madejeski, G. M.; Gehrels, N.; Burlon, D.

    2014-01-01

    Surveys above 10 keV represent one of the best resources to provide an unbiased census of the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We present the results of 60 months of observation of the hard X-ray sky with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). In this time frame, BAT-detected (in the 15-55 keV band) 720 sources in an all-sky survey of which 428 are associated with AGNs, most of which are nearby. Our sample has negligible incompleteness and statistics a factor of approx. 2 larger over similarly complete sets of AGNs. Our sample contains (at least) 15 bona fide Compton-thick AGNs and 3 likely candidates. Compton-thick AGNs represent approx. 5% of AGN samples detected above 15 keV. We use the BAT data set to refine the determination of the log N-log S of AGNs which is extremely important, now that NuSTAR prepares for launch, toward assessing the AGN contribution to the cosmic X-ray background. We show that the log N-log S of AGNs selected above 10 keV is now established to approx. 10% precision. We derive the luminosity function of Compton-thick AGNs and measure a space density of 7.9(+4.1/-2.9)× 10(exp -5)/cubic Mpc for objects with a de-absorbed luminosity larger than 2 × 10(exp 42) erg / s. As the BAT AGNs are all mostly local, they allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of AGNs in the nearby universe regardless of absorption. We find concentrations of AGNs that coincide spatially with the largest congregations of matter in the local (much < 85 Mpc) universe. There is some evidence that the fraction of Seyfert 2 objects is larger than average in the direction of these dense regions..

  3. The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Ernenwein, J-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J-L.; Galata, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefevre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Riviere, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J-P.; Schuessler, F.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the capability to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. Potential sources include gamma-ray bursts, core collapse supernovae, and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a new detection method based on c

  4. Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. I. PACS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Meléndez, M; Shimizu, T T; Barger, A J; Cowie, L L

    2014-01-01

    Far-Infrared (FIR) photometry from the the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 313 nearby, hard X-ray selected galaxies from the 58-month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Active Galactic catalog. The present data do not distinguish between the FIR luminosity distributions at 70 and 160um for Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies. This result suggests that if the FIR emission is from the nuclear obscuring material surrounding the accretion disk, then it emits isotropically, independent of orientation. Alternatively, a significant fraction of the 70 and 160um could be from star formation, independent of AGN type. Using a non-parametric test for partial correlation with censored data, we find a statistically significant correlation between the AGN intrinsic power (in the 14-195 keV band ) and the FIR emission at 70 and 160um for Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find no correlation between the 14-195 keV and FIR luminosities in Seyfert 2 galaxies. The observed c...

  5. Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. II. SPIRE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, T Taro; Mushotzky, Richard F; Koss, Michael J; Barger, Amy J; Cowie, Lennox L

    2015-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory's Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) for 313 nearby z<0.05 active galactic nuclei (AGN). We selected AGN from the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog, the result of an all-sky survey in the 14-195 keV energy band, allowing for a reduction in AGN selection effects due to obscuration and host galaxy contamination. We find 46% (143/313) of our sample is detected at all three wavebands and combined with our PACS observations represents the most complete FIR spectral energy distributions of local, moderate luminosity AGN. We find no correlation between the 250, 350, and 500 micron luminosities with 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating the bulk of the FIR emission is not related to the AGN. However, Seyfert 1s do show a very weak correlation with X-ray luminosity compared to Seyfert 2s and we discuss possible explanations. We compare the SPIRE colors (F250/F350 and F350/F500) to a sample of n...

  6. TALON - The Telescope Alert Operation Network System: Intelligent Linking of Distributed Autonomous Robotic Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    White, R R; Davis, H; Galassi, M; Starr, D; Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P

    2004-01-01

    The internet has brought about great change in the astronomical community, but this interconnectivity is just starting to be exploited for use in instrumentation. Utilizing the internet for communicating between distributed astronomical systems is still in its infancy, but it already shows great potential. Here we present an example of a distributed network of telescopes that performs more efficiently in synchronous operation than as individual instruments. RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) is a system of telescopes at LANL that has intelligent intercommunication, combined with wide-field optics, temporal monitoring software, and deep-field follow-up capability all working in closed-loop real-time operation. The Telescope ALert Operations Network (TALON) is a network server that allows intercommunication of alert triggers from external and internal resources and controls the distribution of these to each of the telescopes on the network. TALON is designed to grow, allowing any number of telescope...

  7. Mid-Infrared Properties of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope Active Galactic Nuclei Sample of the Local Universe. I. Emission-Line Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, K A; Mushotzky, R F; Kraemer, S; Engle, K; Malumuth, E; Tueller, J; Markwardt, C; Berghea, C T; Dudik, R P; Winter, L M; Armus, L

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-infrared emission-line properties, from high-resolution Spitzer spectra of a hard X-ray (14 -- 195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 micron, [Ne II] 12.81 micron, [Ne III] 15.56 micron and [Ne V] 14.32/24.32 micron, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, however six newly discovered BAT AGNs are under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT fluxes and luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compare the mid-infrared emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of ULIRGs, PG QSOs, star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We find that the BAT AGN sample fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the ...

  8. Testing and Performance of UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ripa, J; Lee, J; Park, I H; Kim, J E; Lim, H; Jeong, S; Castro-Tirado, A J; Connell, P H; Eyles, C; Reglero, V; Rodrigo, J M; Bogomolov, V; Panasyuk, M I; Petrov, V; Svertilov, S; Yashin, I; Brandt, S; Budtz-Jorgensen, C; Chang, Y -Y; Chen, P; Huang, M A; Liu, T -C; Nam, J W; Wang, M -Z; Chen, C R; Choi, H S; Kim, S -W; Min, K W

    2015-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder (UFFO-p) is a new space mission dedicated to detect Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and rapidly follow their afterglows in order to provide early optical/ultraviolet measurements. A GRB location is determined in a few seconds by the UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger telescope (UBAT) employing the coded mask imaging technique and the detector combination of Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (YSO) scintillating crystals and multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The results of the laboratory tests of UBAT's functionality and performance are described in this article. The detector setting, the pixel-to-pixel response to X-rays of different energies, the imaging capability for <50 keV X-rays, the localization accuracy measurements, and the combined test with the Block for X-ray and Gamma-Radiation Detection (BDRG) scintillator detector to check the efficiency of UBAT are all described. The UBAT instrument has been assembled and integrated with other equipment on UFFO-p and should be launche...

  9. Gaia science alerts and the observing facilities of the Serbian-Bulgarian mini-network telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damljanović G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The astrometric European Space Agency (ESA Gaia mission was launched in December 19, 2013. One of the tasks of the Gaia mission is production of an astrometric catalog of over one billion stars and more than 500000 extragalactic sources. The quasars (QSOs, as extragalactic sources and radio emitters, are active galactic nuclei objects (AGNs whose coordinates are well determined via Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI technique and may reach sub-milliarcsecond accuracy. The QSOs are the defining sources of the quasi-inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF because of their core radio morphology, negligible proper motions (until sub-milliarcsecond per year, and apparent point-like nature. Compact AGNs, visible in optical domain, are useful for a direct link of the future Gaia optical reference frame with the most accurate radio one. Apart from the above mentioned activities, Gaia has other goals such as follow-up of transient objects. One of the most important Gaia's requirements for photometric alerts is a fast observation and reduction response, that is, submition of observations within 24 hours. For this reason we have developed a pipeline. In line with possibilities of our new telescope (D(cm/F(cm=60/600 at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV, of the Astronomical Observatory in Belgrade, we joined the Gaia-Follow-Up Network for Transients Objects (Gaia-FUN-TO for the photometric alerts. Moreover, in view of the cooperation with Bulgarian colleagues (in the frst place, SV, one of us (GD initiated a local mini-network of Serbian { Bulgarian telescopes useful for the Gaia-FUN-TO and other astronomical purposes. During the next year we expect a new 1.4 m telescope at ASV site. The speed of data processing (from observation to calibration server could be one day. Here, we present an overview of our activities in the Gaia-FUN-TO which includes establishing Serbian { Bulgarian mini-network (of five telescopes at three sites

  10. Testing and Performance of UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rípa, Jakub; Bin Kim, Min; Lee, Jik;

    2014-01-01

    telescope (UBAT) employing the coded mask imaging technique and the detector combination of Yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (YSO) scintillating crystals and multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. The results of the laboratory tests of UBAT’s functionality and performance are described in this article. The detector...

  11. Design and implementation of the UFFO burst alert and trigger telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, J.E.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.;

    2012-01-01

    The Ultra Fast Flash Observatory pathfinder (UFFO-p) is a telescope system designed for the detection of the prompt optical/UV photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), and it will be launched onboard the Lomonosov spacecraft in 2012. The UFFO-p consists of two instruments: the UFFO Burst Alert and T...

  12. Analysis of volcanic activity patterns using MODIS thermal alerts

    OpenAIRE

    Rothery, Dave A.; Coppola, Diego; Saunders, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We investigate eruptive activity by analysis of thermal-alert data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) thermal infrared satellite instrument, detected by the MODVOLC (MODIS Volcano alert) algorithm. These data are openly available on a website, and easy to use. We show how such data can plug major gaps in the conventional monitoring record of volcanoes in an otherwise generally poorly-documented region (Melanesia), including: characterising the mechanism of lava effusion...

  13. The Third Swift Burst Alert Telescope Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Amy; Barthelmy, Scott D; Baumgartner, Wayne H; Cannizzo, John K; Chen, Kevin; Collins, Nicholas R; Cummings, Jay R; Gehrels, Neil; Krimm, Hans A; Markwardt, Craig B; Palmer, David M; Stamatikos, Michael; Troja, Eleonora; Ukwatta, T N

    2016-01-01

    To date, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected ~ 1000 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), of which ~ 360 GRBs have redshift measurements, ranging from z = 0.03 to z = 9.38. We present the analyses of the BAT-detected GRBs for the past ~ 11 years up through GRB151027B. We report summaries of both the temporal and spectral analyses of the GRB characteristics using event data (i.e., data for each photon within approximately 250 s before and 950 s after the BAT trigger time), and discuss the instrumental sensitivity and selection effects of GRB detections. We also explore the GRB properties with redshift when possible. The result summaries and data products are available at http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/batgrbcat/index.html. In addition, we perform searches for GRB emissions before or after the event data using the BAT survey data. We estimate the false detection rate to be only one false detection in this sample. There are 15 ultra-long GRBs (~ 2% of the BAT GRBs) in this search with confirmed emi...

  14. The Second SWIFT Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts. (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples.. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs.

  15. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  16. Optogenetic Activation of Normalization in Alert Macaque Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Avery, Michael C; Cetin, Ali H; Roe, Anna W; Reynolds, John H

    2015-06-17

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation that accounts for a variety of nonlinear neuronal response properties associated with sensory processing and higher cognitive functions. A key premise of normalization is that the excitability of a neuron is inversely proportional to the overall activity level of the network. We tested this by optogenetically activating excitatory neurons in alert macaque primary visual cortex and measuring changes in neuronal activity as a function of stimulation intensity, with or without variable-contrast visual stimulation. Optogenetic depolarization of excitatory neurons either facilitated or suppressed baseline activity, consistent with indirect recruitment of inhibitory networks. As predicted by the normalization model, neurons exhibited sub-additive responses to optogenetic and visual stimulation, which depended lawfully on stimulation intensity and luminance contrast. We conclude that the normalization computation persists even under the artificial conditions of optogenetic stimulation, underscoring the canonical nature of this form of neural computation.

  17. USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System Description

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides plain-English description of the alert notification system that the USGS has adopted nationwide for characterizing the level of unrest and eruptive...

  18. Superorbital Periodic Modulation in Wind-Accretion High-Mass X-Ray Binaries from Swift Burst Alert Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Robin H. D.; Krimm, Hans A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery using data from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) of superorbital modulation in the wind-accretion supergiant high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1909+07 (= X 1908+075), IGR J16418-4532, and IGR J16479-4514. Together with already known superorbital periodicities in 2S 0114+650 and IGR J16493-4348, the systems exhibit a monotonic relationship between superorbital and orbital periods. These systems include both supergiant fast X-ray transients and classical supergiant systems, and have a range of inclination angles. This suggests an underlying physical mechanism which is connected to the orbital period. In addition to these sources with clear detections of superorbital periods, IGR J16393-4643 (= AX J16390.4-4642) is identified as a system that may have superorbital modulation due to the coincidence of low-amplitude peaks in power spectra derived from BAT, Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array, and International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory light curves. 1E 1145.1-6141 may also be worthy of further attention due to the amount of low-frequency modulation of its light curve. However, we find that the presence of superorbital modulation is not a universal feature of wind-accretion supergiant X-ray binaries.

  19. Seismic Activity: Public Alert and Warning: Legal Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, D.

    2007-12-01

    As science and technology evolve in ways that increase our ability to inform the public of potentially destructive seismic activity, there are significant legal issues for consideration. Even though countries and even states within the United States have differing legal tenets that could either change or at least re-shape the outcome of specific legal questions that this session will be pondering, there are fundamental legal principals that will permeate. It is often said that the law lags behind society and in particular its technological developments. No doubt in the area of warning the public of impending destructive forces of nature or society, the law will need to do some catching up. The law is probably adequately developed for at least some preliminary discussion of the key issues. No matter the legal scheme, if there is a failure or perceived failure in the system to warn people of a pending emergencies, albeit an earthquake, tsunami, or other predictable event, those who are harmed or believe they are harmed will seek relief under the law. Every day there are situations wherein the failure to warn or to adequately warn is key, such as with faulty or defective consumer products, escaped prisoners, and police high-speed vehicle chases. With alert and warning systems for disaster, however, we have a unique set of facts. Generally, the systems and their failures occur during emergencies or at least during situations under apparently exigent circumstances when the disaster's predictability is widely recognized as less than 100 percent. The law, in particular United States tort law, has been particularly lenient when people and organizations are operating during compressed timeframes and their actions are generally considered necessary to address circumstances relative to public safety. The legal system has been forgiving when the actor that failed or appeared to fail was government. The courts have liberally applied the principal of sovereign immunity to

  20. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  1. Active Optics in Modern, Large Optical Telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Noethe, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    Active optics is defined as the control of the shape and the alignment of the components of an optical system at low temporal frequencies. For modern large telescopes with flexible monolithic or segmented primary mirrors and also flexible structures this technique is indispensable to reach a performance which is either diffraction limited for an operation in space or limited by the atmosphere for an operation on the ground. This article first describes the theory of active optics, both of the...

  2. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution ( 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  3. Educational activities with the Faulkes Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Roche, P.; Ross, R.

    2008-06-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGTN) will eventually provide access to a global network of robotic telescopes for research-based science education. Here we present the educational projects that have been undertaken using the 2-m Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia in both the UK and Europe. These include themed observing days in which schools collaborate in their telescope sessions, the development of science portals where schools can upload and share their telescope data, and other innovative projects. Public access to these facilities will increase as IYA2009 approaches.

  4. Solar Magnetism and the Activity Telescope at HSOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Zhang; Ya-Nan Wang; Qi-Qian Hu; Jun-Sun Xue; Hai-Tian Lu; Hou-Kun Ni; Han-Liang Chen; Xiao-Jun Zhou; Qing-Sheng Zhu; Lü-Jun Yuan; Yong Zhu; Dong-Guang Wang; Yuan-Yong Deng; Ke-Liang Hu; Jiang-Tao Su; Jia-Ben Lin; Gang-Hua Lin; Shi-Mo Yang; Wei-Jun Mao

    2007-01-01

    A new solar telescope system is described, which has been operating at Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS), National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), since the end of 2005. This instrument, the Solar Magnetism and Activity Telescope (SMAT), comprises two telescopes which respectively make measurements of full solar disk vector magnetic field and Hα observation. The core of the full solar disk video vector magnetograph is a birefringent filter with 0.1(A) bandpass, installed in the tele-centric optical system of the telescope. We present some preliminary observational results of the full solar disk vector magnetograms and Hα filtergrams obtained with this telescope system.

  5. Do the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Swift Burst Alert Telescope see the Same Short Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Eric; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Lien, Amy; Briggs, Michael S; Goldstein, Adam; Pelassa, Veronique; Troja, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Compact binary system mergers are expected to generate gravitational radiation detectable by ground-based interferometers. A subset of these, the merger of a neutron star with another neutron star or a black hole, are also the most popular model for the production of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) trigger on short GRBs (SGRBs) at rates that reflect their relative sky exposures, with the BAT detecting 10 per year compared to about 45 for GBM. We examine the SGRB populations detected by Swift BAT and Fermi GBM. We find that the Swift BAT triggers on weaker SGRBs than Fermi GBM, providing they occur close to the center of the BAT field-of-view, and that the Fermi GBM SGRB detection threshold remains flatter across its field-of-view. Overall, these effects combine to give the instruments the same average sensitivity, and account for the SGRBs that trigger one instrument but not the other. We do not find any evidence that the BAT and...

  6. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Mark; Pavy, Alan; van den Heuvel, Cameron

    2006-12-01

    Chewing has been shown to alleviate feelings of sleepiness and improve cognitive performance during the day. This study investigated the effect of chewing on alertness and cognitive performance across one night without sleep as well as the possible mediating role of cardiac autonomic activity. Fourteen adults participated in a randomized, counterbalanced protocol employing a chewing, placebo and caffeine condition. Participants completed tasks assessing psychomotor vigilance, tracking, grammatical reasoning, alertness and sleepiness each hour across the night. All participants received either placebo or caffeine (200 mg), while the chewing condition also chewed on a tasteless and odorless substance for 15 min each hour. Heart rate (HR), root mean square of the successive differences in R-R intervals on the ECG (RMSSD), and preejection period (PEP) were simultaneously recorded. Alertness and cognitive performance amongst the chewing condition did not differ or were in fact worse when compared with placebo. Similarly, measures of HR and RMSSD remained the same between these two conditions; however, PEP was reduced in the later part of the night in the chewing condition compared with a relative increase for placebo. Caffeine led to improved speed and accuracy on cognitive tasks and increased alertness when compared with chewing. Relative increases in RMSSD and reductions in HR were demonstrated following caffeine; however, no change in PEP was seen. Strong associations between cardiac parasympathetic activity and complex cognitive tasks, as well as between subjective alertness and simpler cognitive tasks, suggest a differential process mediating complex versus simple cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

  7. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  8. The Internet Alert Project: spreading the word about high-risk sexual activities advertised on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachur, R E

    2004-11-01

    The Internet is an emerging venue for facilitating high-risk sexual behavior; in particular, use of the Internet to seek out sex partners has been shown to be associated with high-risk sexual behaviors, such as an increase in number of sexual partners and an increase in anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. In an effort to assist health departments around the country, the Internet Alert Project was developed to provide Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) project officers and field staff with information about Internet-advertised, high-risk sexual activities in areas that do not have access to sexually explicit material on the Internet. An evaluation was conducted to determine the utility of the Internet Alert Project, its effect on knowledge and awareness of recipients and on public health efforts. Results of the evaluation show the alerts are a useful and valuable tool. The alerts have helped to increase knowledge about sexually-related uses of the Internet and have also driven public health efforts in the field. The results also indicate the need for project areas to access information found on the Internet in order to keep up with the ever-changing behaviors of at-risk populations. PMID:15511729

  9. The LATT way towards large active primaries for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto; Patauner, Christian; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; d'Amato, Francesco; Pucci, Mauro; Duò, Fabrizio; Vettore, Christian; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Aperture Telescope Technology (LATT) goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay. Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. We developed a forty centimeter spherical mirror prototype, with an areal density lower than 17 kg/m2, controlled through contactless voice coil actuators with co-located capacitive position sensors. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract (TRP programme), exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes. Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight.

  10. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  11. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  12. Using Learning Vector Quantization in IDS Alert Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Azimi Alasti Ahrabi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection system (IDS is used to produce security alerts to discover attacks against protected network and/or computer systems. IDSs generate high amount of security alerts and analyzing these alert by a security expert are time consuming and error pron. IDS alert management system are used to manage generated alerts and classify true positive and false positives alert. This paper represents an IDS alert management system that uses learning vector quantization technique to classify generated alerts. Because of low classification time per each alert, the system also could be used in active alert management systems.

  13. Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...

  14. Alert Triage v 0.1 beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-06

    In the cyber security operations of a typical organization, data from multiple sources are monitored, and when certain conditions in the data are met, an alert is generated in an alert management system. Analysts inspect these alerts to decide if any deserve promotion to an event requiring further scrutiny. This triage process is manual, time-consuming, and detracts from the in-depth investigation of events. We have created a software system that uses supervised machine learning to automatically prioritize these alerts. In particular we utilize active learning to make efficient use of the pool of unlabeled alerts, thereby improving the performance of our ranking models over passive learning. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our system on a large, real-world dataset of cyber security alerts.

  15. Design issues for the active control system of the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan, Gary A.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Sirko, Edwin

    2000-08-01

    We explore the issues in the control and alignment of the primary mirror of the proposed 30 meter California Extremely Large Telescope and other very large telescopes with segmented primaries (consisting of 1000 or more segments). We show that as the number of segments increases, the noise in the telescope active control system (ACS) increases, roughly as (root)n. This likely means that, for a thousand segment telescope like CELT, Keck-style capacitive sensors will not be able to adequately monitor the lowest spatial frequency degrees of freedom of the primary mirror, and will therefore have to be supplemented by a Shack-Hartmann-type wavefront sensor. However, in the case of segment phasing, which is governed by a `control matrix' similar to that of the ACS, the corresponding noise is virtually independent of n. It follows that reasonably straightforward extensions of current techniques should be adequate to phase the extremely large telescopes of the future.

  16. HYPATIA and STOIC: an active optics system for a large space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Nicholas; Reinlein, Claudia; Lange, Nicolas; Goy, Matthias; Goncharov, Alexander; Hallibert, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of UVOIR space telescopes will be required to provide excellent wavefront control despite perturbations due to thermal changes, gravity release and vibrations. The STOIC project is a response to an ESA Invitation to Tender to develop an active optics correction chain for future space telescopes. The baseline space telescope being considered is a two-mirror, 4m telescope with a monolithic primary mirror - we refer to this concept as Hypatia. The primary mirror diameter could be extended, but is limited in the near future by launch vehicle dimensions. A deformable mirror (pupil diameter 110mm) will be an integral part of the telescope design; it is being designed for high precision and the ability to maintain a stable form over long periods of time. The secondary mirror of the telescope will be activated to control tip-tilt, defocus and alignment with the primary. Wavefront sensing will be based on phase diversity and a dedicated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The project will develop a laboratory prototype to demonstrate key aspects of the active correction chain. We present the current state of the preliminary design for both the Hypatia space telescope and the laboratory breadboard.

  17. Alert Exchange Process Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States of America (NASA), and the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), acknowledging that NASA, ESA and JAXA have a mutual interest in exchanging Alerts and Alert Status Lists to enhance the information base for each system participant while fortifying the general level of cooperation between the policy agreement subscribers, and each Party will exchange Alert listings on regular basis and detailed Alert information on a need to know basis to the extent permitted by law.

  18. The x-ray/EUV telescope for the Solar-C mission: science and development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Taro; Narukage, Noriyuki; Imada, Shinsuke; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimojo, Masumi; Tsuneta, Saku; DeLuca, Edward E.; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke

    2012-09-01

    We report science and development activities of the X-ray/EUV telescope for the Japanese Solar-C mission whose projected launch around 2019. The telescope consists of a package of (a) a normal-incidence (NI) EUV telescope and (b) a grazing-incidence (GI) soft X-ray telescope. The NI telescope chiefly provides images of low corona (whose temperature 1 MK or even lower) with ultra-high angular resolution (0.2-0.3"/pixel) in 3 wavelength bands (304, 171, and 94 angstroms). On the other hand, the GI telescope provides images of the corona with a wide temperature coverage (1 MK to beyond 10 MK) with the highest-ever angular resolution (~0.5"/pixel) as a soft X-ray coronal imager. The set of NI and GI telescopes should provide crucial information for establishing magnetic and gas-dynamic connection between the corona and the lower atmosphere of the Sun which is essential for understanding heating of, and plasma activities in, the corona. Moreover, we attempt to implement photon-counting capability for the GI telescope with which imaging-spectroscopy of the X-ray corona will be performed for the first time, in the energy range from ~0.5 keV up to 10 keV. The imaging-spectroscopic observations will provide totally-new information on mechanism(s) for the generation of hot coronal plasmas (heated beyond a few MK), those for magnetic reconnection, and even generation of supra-thermal electrons associated with flares. An overview of instrument outline and science for the X-ray photoncounting telescope are presented, together with ongoing development activities in Japan towards soft X-ray photoncounting observations, focusing on high-speed X-ray CMOS detector and sub-arcsecond-resolution GI mirror.

  19. Monitoring of bright, nearby Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wagner; Backes, M.; Satalecka, K.; Bonnoli, G.; M. Doert(); B. Steinke(Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany); Strah, N.; Terzic, T.; Tescaro, D.; Uellenbeck, M.; The MAGIC Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Observations and detections of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) by Cherenkov telescopes are often triggered by information about high flux states in other wavelength bands. To overcome this bias, the VHE gamma-ray telescope MAGIC has conducted dedicated monitoring observations of nearby AGN since 2006. Three well established, TeV-bright blazars were selected to be observed regularly: Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES1959+650. The goals of these observations are to obtain an unbiased distribution of flux ...

  20. Active optics system of the ASTRI SST-2M prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiol, Daniele; Capobianco, Gerardo; Fantinel, Daniela; Giro, Enrico; Lessio, Luigi; Loreggia, Davide; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Russo, Federico; Volpicelli, Antonio C.

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) SST-2M is an end-to-end prototype of Small Size class of Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. It will apply a dual mirror configuration to Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The 18 segments composing the primary mirror (diameter 4.3 m) are equipped with an active optics system enabling optical re-alignment during telescope slew. The secondary mirror (diameter 1.8 m) can be moved along three degrees of freedom to perform focus and tilt corrections. We describe the kinematic model used to predict the system performance as well as the hardware and software design solution that will be implemented for optics control.

  1. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  2. DDBS DB Alert

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Data store used by the database area for monitoring of database objects. It is used to generate alerts that the DBAs investigate to determine if any action needs to...

  3. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will be able to find. Medical identification products can help ensure proper treatment in an ...

  4. Delta Alerts: Changing Outcomes in Geriatric Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Lynn L; Day, Mark D; Harris, LeAnna

    2016-01-01

    Geriatric trauma patients (GTPs) suffering minor injuries have suboptimal outcomes compared with younger populations. Patients 65 years or older account for 10% of all traumas but 28% of all trauma deaths. This trauma center established a third tier trauma alert specifically targeting GTPs at risk for poor outcomes. A Delta Alert is activated when GTPs suffer injuries that fall outside traditional trauma alert guidelines. Early identification and treatment of injuries and expedited referral to specialty groups have improved our GTPs' outcomes including decreased mortality and length of stay and increased percentage of GTPs who are discharged home. PMID:27414140

  5. Curvature wavefront sensing performance simulations for active correction of the Javalambre wide-field telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Sergio; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cenarro, Andrés. Javier; Varela, Jesús; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Gruel, Nicolás.; Moles, Mariano; Yanes, Axel; Rueda, Fernando; Rueda, Sergio; Luis-Simoes, Roberto; Hernández-Fuertes, Javier; López-Sainz, Angel; Maícas-Sacristán, Natalio; Lamadrid, José Luis; Díaz-Martín, Miguel Chioare; Taylor, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain image quality during Javalambre wide field telescope operations, deformations and rigid body motions must be actively controlled to minimize optical disturbances. For JST/T250 the aberrations of the telescope will be measured with four curvature sensors at the focal plane. To correct the measured distortions, the secondary mirror position (with a hexapod support) and the camera position can be modified in a control closed loop. Multiple software tools have been developed to accomplish this goal, constituting the "Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre" (OAJ) Active Optics Pipeline. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wave-front sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, pupil registration, wavefront estimators and the iteration matrix evaluation techniques. Some preliminary simulations have been made using a telescope model with a Optical Ray Tracing Software.

  6. "Fraud alert": joint venture arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipperman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services recently issued a special "Fraud Alert" identifying those characteristics of joint venture arrangements that it views as indicators of potentially unlawful activity. As discussed in this article, participants in joint ventures should examine their arrangements to see if one or more of the questionable features are present, and, if so, should take steps to eliminate them, to the extent possible.

  7. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Akiba; M. Artuso; V. van Beveren; M. van Beuzekom; H. Boterenbrood; J. Buytaert; P. Collins; R. Dumps; B. van der Heijden; C. Hombach; D. Hynds; D. Hsu; M. John; E. Koffeman; A. Leflat; Y. Li; I. Longstaff; A. Morton; E. PérezTrigo; R. Plackett; M.M. Reid; P. Rodríguez Perez; H. Schindler; P. Tsopelas; C. Vázquez Sierra; M. Wysokiński

    2015-01-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assemble

  8. Individual alerting efficiency modulates time perception

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peiduo; Yang, Wenjing; Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Chen, Antao; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time ...

  9. The perihelion activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by robotic telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Snodgrass, Colin; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Lister, Tim; Marchant, Jon; Jones, Geraint H; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Jermak, Helen; Granzer, Thomas; Meech, Karen J; Rousselot, Philippe; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Around the time of its perihelion passage the observability of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Earth was limited to very short windows each morning from any given site, due to the low solar elongation of the comet. The peak in the comet's activity was therefore difficult to observe with conventionally scheduled telescopes, but was possible where service/queue scheduled mode was possible, and with robotic telescopes. We describe the robotic observations that allowed us to measure the total activity of the comet around perihelion, via photometry (dust) and spectroscopy (gas), and compare these results with the measurements at this time by Rosetta's instruments. The peak of activity occurred approximately two weeks after perihelion. The total brightness (dust) largely followed the predictions from Snodgrass et al. 2013, with no significant change in total activity levels from previous apparitions. The CN gas production rate matched previous orbits near perihelion, but appeared to be relatively low later in the ye...

  10. The perihelion activity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as seen by robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Opitom, Cyrielle; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Lister, Tim; Marchant, Jon; Jones, Geraint H.; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Steele, Iain A.; Smith, Robert J.; Jermak, Helen; Granzer, Thomas; Meech, Karen J.; Rousselot, Philippe; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2016-09-01

    Around the time of its perihelion passage the observability of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from Earth was limited to very short windows each morning from any given site, due to the low solar elongation of the comet. The peak in the comet's activity was therefore difficult to observe with conventionally scheduled telescopes, but was possible where service/queue scheduled mode was possible, and with robotic telescopes. We describe the robotic observations that allowed us to measure the total activity of the comet around perihelion, via photometry (dust) and spectroscopy (gas), and compare these results with the measurements at this time by Rosetta's instruments. The peak of activity occurred approximately two weeks after perihelion. The total brightness (dust) largely followed the predictions from Snodgrass et al. (2013), with no significant change in total activity levels from previous apparitions. The CN gas production rate matched previous orbits near perihelion, but appeared to be relatively low later in the year.

  11. Multi-wavelength follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2015-10-01

    Transient sources are often associated with the most violent phenomena in the Universe, where the acceleration of hadrons may occur. Such sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN) or core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and are promising candidates for the production of high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. The ANTARES telescope, located in the Mediterranean sea, aims at detecting these high energy neutrinos, which could reveal the presence of a cosmic ray accelerator. However, to enhance the sensitivity to transient sources, a method based on multi-wavelength follow-up of neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection. The telescopes start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect a possible electromagnetic counterpart to the neutrino event. The work presented in this thesis covers the development and implementation of an optical image analysis pipeline, as well as the analysis of optical and X-ray data to search for fast transient sources, such as GRB afterglows, and slowly varying transient sources, such as CCSNe.

  12. Directory to ALERT Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA. Information/Utilization Div.

    This directory, a companion to ALERT Sourcebook of Elementary Curricula, Programs, and Projects, provides a list of schools that are currently using the various Sourcebook programs and that are willing to receive visitors or answer inquiries. This list is not comprehensive but is geographically representative. Organized by subject matter, the…

  13. A volcanic activity alert-level system for aviation: review of its development and application in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    An alert-level system for communicating volcano hazard information to the aviation industry was devised by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) during the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. The system uses a simple, color-coded ranking that focuses on volcanic ash emissions: Green—normal background; Yellow—signs of unrest; Orange—precursory unrest or minor ash eruption; Red—major ash eruption imminent or underway. The color code has been successfully applied on a regional scale in Alaska for a sustained period. During 2002–2011, elevated color codes were assigned by AVO to 13 volcanoes, eight of which erupted; for that decade, one or more Alaskan volcanoes were at Yellow on 67 % of days and at Orange or Red on 12 % of days. As evidence of its utility, the color code system is integrated into procedures of agencies responsible for air-traffic management and aviation meteorology in Alaska. Furthermore, it is endorsed as a key part of globally coordinated protocols established by the International Civil Aviation Organization to provide warnings of ash hazards to aviation worldwide. The color code and accompanying structured message (called a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) comprise an effective early-warning message system according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. The aviation color code system currently is used in the United States, Russia, New Zealand, Iceland, and partially in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. Although there are some barriers to implementation, with continued education and outreach to Volcano Observatories worldwide, greater use of the aviation color code system is achievable.

  14. Error analysis and distribution of the driving mechanism for large spherical radio telescope active reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Peng; Tang Xiaoqiang; Wang Liping; Yao Rui

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the cost, 3-PRS mechanism is introduced into the application of supporting the active reflector unit of large radio telescope. The kinematic model of 3-PRS mechanism with rotational joint errors is derived to solve the error problem in actual engineering application. Then based on the error model, inverse and forward kinematics are analyzed. Because the solutions can not be analytically expressed, a numerical method is applied. Afterwards, the parasitic motion errors are analyzed using search method and empirical formulas of the maximum parasitic motion error are put forward. Finally, the tolerance is distributed using empirical formulas to avoid interference between adjacent reflector units. The analyses provide a theoretical basis for the design and installation of large radio telescope active reflector.

  15. Efficient Security Alert Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Deljavan Anvary

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are several security tools that used to protect computer systems, computer networks, smart devices and etc. against attackers. Intrusion detection system is one of tools used to detect attacks. Intrusion Detection Systems produces large amount of alerts, security experts could not investigate important alerts, also many of that alerts are incorrect or false positives. Alert management systems are set of approaches that used to solve this problem. In this paper a new alert management system is presented. It uses K-nearest neighbor as a core component of the system that classify generated alerts. The suggested system serves precise results against huge amount of generated alerts. Because of low classification time per each alert, the system also could be used in online systems.

  16. Study on a novel panel support concept for radio telescopes with active surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dehua; Zhou, Guohua; Okoh, Daniel; Li, Guoping; Cheng, Jingquan

    2010-07-01

    Generally, panels of radio telescopes are mainly shaped in trapezoid and each is supported/positioned by four adjustors beneath its vertexes. Such configuration of panel supporting system is essentially hyper-static, and the panel is overconstrained from a kinematic point of view. When the panel is to be adjusted and/or actuated, it will suffer stress from its adjusters and hence its shape is to be distorted. This situation is not desirable for high precision panels, such as glass based panels especially used for sub-millimeter and shorter wavelength telescopes with active optics/active panel technology. This paper began with a general overview of panel patterns and panel supports of existing radio telescopes. Thereby, we proposed a preferable master-slave active surface concept for triangular and/or hexagonal panel pattern. In addition, we carry out panel error sensitivity analysis for all the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a panel to identify what DOFs are most sensitive for an active surface. And afterwards, based on the error sensitivity analysis, we suggested an innovative parallel-series concept hexapod well fitted for an active panel to correct for all of its 6 rigid errors. A demonstration active surface using the master-slave concept and the hexapod manifested a great save in cost, where only 486 precision actuators are needed for 438 panels, which is 37% of those actuators needed by classic segmented mirror active optics. Further, we put forward a swaying-arm based design concept for the related connecting joints between panels, which ensures that all the panels attached on to it free from over-constraints when they are positioned and/or actuated. Principle and performance of the swaying-arm connecting mechanism are elaborated before a practical cablemesh based prototype active surface is presented with comprehensive finite element analysis and simulation.

  17. The novel design for giant spherical radio telescope with active main reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuhai

    1998-04-01

    A novel design for a giant spherical radio telescope is suggested. Instead of using a complex feed system for the correction of the aberration (such as the Arecibo Gregorian subreflector), an active main reflector is proposed. The part of main reflector which is illuminated by the feed is continually adjusted to fit the paraboloid of revolution in real-time when tracking the radio source. Thus a simple feed for a parabolic antenna can be used for this system. This concept is applied in the design of a large spherical radio telescope having a total reflecting spherical surface 500 m in diameter (radius of curvature 300 m), while an usable aperture 300 m. The main advantages in this design are large zenith-angle coverage, a simple feeding system (so that it is easy to achieve broad bandwidth and full polarization) and low cost.

  18. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Giomi, Matteo; Maier, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the...

  19. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; Evans, P.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Coward, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  20. ToxAlerts: a Web server of structural alerts for toxic chemicals and compounds with potential adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushko, Iurii; Salmina, Elena; Potemkin, Vladimir A; Poda, Gennadiy; Tetko, Igor V

    2012-08-27

    The article presents a Web-based platform for collecting and storing toxicological structural alerts from literature and for virtual screening of chemical libraries to flag potentially toxic chemicals and compounds that can cause adverse side effects. An alert is uniquely identified by a SMARTS template, a toxicological endpoint, and a publication where the alert was described. Additionally, the system allows storing complementary information such as name, comments, and mechanism of action, as well as other data. Most importantly, the platform can be easily used for fast virtual screening of large chemical datasets, focused libraries, or newly designed compounds against the toxicological alerts, providing a detailed profile of the chemicals grouped by structural alerts and endpoints. Such a facility can be used for decision making regarding whether a compound should be tested experimentally, validated with available QSAR models, or eliminated from consideration altogether. The alert-based screening can also be helpful for an easier interpretation of more complex QSAR models. The system is publicly accessible and tightly integrated with the Online Chemical Modeling Environment (OCHEM, http://ochem.eu). The system is open and expandable: any registered OCHEM user can introduce new alerts, browse, edit alerts introduced by other users, and virtually screen his/her data sets against all or selected alerts. The user sets being passed through the structural alerts can be used at OCHEM for other typical tasks: exporting in a wide variety of formats, development of QSAR models, additional filtering by other criteria, etc. The database already contains almost 600 structural alerts for such endpoints as mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization, compounds that undergo metabolic activation, and compounds that form reactive metabolites and, thus, can cause adverse reactions. The ToxAlerts platform is accessible on the Web at http://ochem.eu/alerts, and it is constantly

  1. Scientific Highlights from Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, the MAGIC gamma-ray telescope has newly discovered 6 TeV blazars. The total set of 13 MAGIC-detected active galactic nuclei includes well-studied objects at other wavelengths like Markarian 501 and the giant radio galaxy M 87, but also the distant the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, and the newly discovered TeV gamma-ray emitter S5 0716+71. In addition, also long-term and multi-wavelength studies on well-known TeV blazars and systematic searches for new TeV blazars have been...

  2. Scientific Highlights from Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Robert; Collaboration, for the MAGIC

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, the MAGIC gamma-ray telescope has newly discovered 6 TeV blazars. The total set of 13 MAGIC-detected active galactic nuclei includes well-studied objects at other wavelengths like Markarian 501 and the giant radio galaxy M87, but also the distant the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 279, and the newly discovered TeV gamma-ray emitter S5 0716+71. In addition, also long-term and multi-wavelength studies on well-known TeV blazars and systematic searches for new TeV blazars have been car...

  3. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.

  4. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    CERN Document Server

    Adrian-Martinez, S; Albert, A; Samarai, I Al; Andre, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios-Marti, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Elsasser, D; Enzenhofer, A; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galata, S; Gay, P; Geißelsoder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gracia-Ruiz, R; Graf, K; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Herrero, A; Hoßl, J; Hofestadt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, G; Lattuada, D; Lefevre, D; Leonora, E; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martinez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Moussa, A; Mueller, C; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Pavalas, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldana, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sanchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Tonnis, C; Turpin, D; Vallage, B; Vallee, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vecchi, M; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; Wilms, J; Zornoza, J D; Zuniga, J; Klotz, A; Boer, M; Van Suu, A Le; Akerlof, C; Zheng, W; Evans, P; Gehrels, N; Kennea, J; Osborne, J P; Coward, D M

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT w...

  5. ENTREPRENEURIAL ALERTNESS AND PAYING ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    DAVE VALLIERE

    2013-01-01

    This article uses theoretical approaches from cognitive psychology to examine the basis for entrepreneurial alertness and to connect it to existing theories of attention in strategic management and decision-making. It thereby provides a theoretical basis for understanding how entrepreneurial alertness leads the individual to pay attention to new opportunities. A model is developed to show how attention and entrepreneurial alertness work together to support the recognition or creation of oppor...

  6. MAXI Nova Alert System and the Latest Scientific Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is the first astronomical telescope onboard the ISS. One of the main goals of our mission is to discover new transient objects by scanning more than 95% of the sky every ∼92 min with two types of X-ray cameras, Gas Slit Camera (GSC) and Solid-state Slit Camera (SSC). We have developed a completely new data analysis system, a nova alert system, to find transient objects and send alerts to the world as soon as possible. Here we describe the current status of the system, and transient objects discovered with the system.

  7. REAL TIME CLASSIFICATION AND CLUSTERING OF IDS ALERTS USING MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbulakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS monitor a secured network for the evidence of malicious activities originating either inside or outside. Upon identifying a suspicious traffic, IDS generates and logs an alert. Unfortunately, most of the alerts generated are either false positive, i.e. benign traffic that has been classified as intrusions, or irrelevant, i.e. attacks that are not successful. The abundance of false positive alerts makes it difficult for the security analyst to find successful attacks and take remedial action. This paper describes a two phase automatic alert classification system to assist the human analyst in identifying the false positives. In the first phase, the alerts collected from one or more sensors are normalized and similar alerts are grouped to form a meta-alert. These meta-alerts are passively verified with an asset database to find out irrelevant alerts. In addition, an optional alert generalization is also performed for root cause analysis and thereby reduces false positives with human interaction. In the second phase, the reduced alerts are labeled and passed to an alert classifier which uses machine learning techniques for building the classification rules. This helps the analyst in automatic classification of the alerts. The system is tested in real environments and found to be effective in reducing the number of alerts as well as false positives dramatically, and thereby reducing the workload of human analyst.

  8. Hubble and Keck Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Jessica; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope and Keck 10 meter telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude $H_V$ = 17.0$\\pm$0.1 and estimated diameter $\\sim$2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo $p_V$ = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10% to 15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is $\\sim$40 km$^2$, corresponding to a dust mass $\\sim$9$\\times$10$^6$ kg (88 $\\mu$m mean particle radius assumed). The full width at half maximum of the debris sheet varies from $\\sim$100 km near the nucleus to $\\sim$1000 km 30arcsec (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s$^{-1}$, particle sizes between 10 and 300 $\\mu$m and an inverse square-root relation between particle...

  9. Alert radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of the radiotherapy installations of the hospital Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is presently system based on pneumatic-electrical-mechanical elements to indicate the exposition of the radioactive cobalt source when it is in operation. In spite of the sufficient safety it is possible to occur failures, because of its mechanical-pneumatic-electrical nature, using pistons, straps, and other electrical parts in the system to expose, to recover and to monitor source. The new project developed aims to improve the present one, using a GM 18504 radiation detector as the sensor, associated to an electronic control to alert possibilities the mechanical failures and to provide improved safety for the users of the installations. (author). 2 figs

  10. Optimal strategies for observation of active galactic nuclei variability with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomi, Matteo; Gerard, Lucie; Maier, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Variable emission is one of the defining characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGN). While providing precious information on the nature and physics of the sources, variability is often challenging to observe with time- and field-of-view-limited astronomical observatories such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). In this work, we address two questions relevant for the observation of sources characterized by AGN-like variability: what is the most time-efficient way to detect such sources, and what is the observational bias that can be introduced by the choice of the observing strategy when conducting blind surveys of the sky. Different observing strategies are evaluated using simulated light curves and realistic instrument response functions of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), a future gamma-ray observatory. We show that strategies that makes use of very small observing windows, spread over large periods of time, allows for a faster detection of the source, and are less influenced by the variability properties of the sources, as compared to strategies that concentrate the observing time in a small number of large observing windows. Although derived using CTA as an example, our conclusions are conceptually valid for any IACTs facility, and in general, to all observatories with small field of view and limited duty cycle.

  11. The effects of alerting signals in masked priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico eFischer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alerting signals often serve to reduce temporal uncertainty by predicting the time of stimulus onset. The resulting response time benefits have often been explained by facilitated translation of stimulus codes into response codes on the basis of established stimulus-response (S-R links. In paradigms of masked S-R priming alerting signals also modulate response activation processes triggered by subliminally presented prime stimuli. In the present study we tested whether facilitation of visuo-motor translation processes due to alerting signals critically depends on established S-R links. Alerting signals resulted in significantly enhanced masked priming effects for masked prime stimuli that included and that did not include established S-R links (i.e., target vs. novel primes. Yet, the alerting-priming interaction was more pronounced for target than for novel primes. These results suggest that effects of alerting signals on masked priming are especially evident when S-R links between prime and target exist. At the same time, an alerting-priming interaction also for novel primes suggests that alerting signals also facilitate stimulus-response translation processes when masked prime stimuli provide action-trigger conditions in terms of programmed S-R links.

  12. Gaia16bak transient classified at Cassini 1.5m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Giuseppe; Bruni, Ivan; Cusano, Felice; Sabatini, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the Gaia Science Alerts transient Gaia16bak (http://gsaweb.ast.cam.ac.uk/alerts/alert/Gaia16bak/) on 2016 September 4.02 UT at the 1.5m G.D. Cassini Telescope (Loiano) with BFOSC.

  13. Alerting or Somnogenic Light: Pick Your Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgin, Patrice; Hubbard, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, light exerts pervasive effects on physiology and behavior in two ways: indirectly through clock synchronization and the phase adjustment of circadian rhythms, and directly through the promotion of alertness and sleep, respectively, in diurnal and nocturnal species. A recent report by Pilorz and colleagues describes an even more complex role for the acute effects of light. In mice, blue light acutely causes behavioral arousal, whereas green wavelengths promote sleep. These opposing effects are mediated by melanopsin-based phototransduction through different neural pathways. These findings reconcile nocturnal and diurnal species through a common alerting response to blue light. One can hypothesize that the opposite responses to natural polychromatic light in night- or day-active animals may reflect higher sensitivity of nocturnal species to green, and diurnals to blue wavelengths, resulting in hypnogenic and alerting effects, respectively. Additional questions remain to be clarified. How do different light wavelengths affect other behaviors such as mood and cognition? How do those results apply to humans? How does light pose either a risk or benefit, depending on whether one needs to be asleep or alert? Indeed, in addition to timing, luminance levels, and light exposure duration, these findings stress the need to understand how best to adapt the color spectrum of light to our needs and to take this into account for the design of daily lighting concepts-a key challenge for today's society, especially with the emergence of LED light technology. PMID:27525420

  14. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, K. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Artuso, M. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); Beveren, V. van; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R. [CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Heijden, B. van der [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hombach, C. [University of Manchester, Manchester, Lancashire (United Kingdom); Hynds, D. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Hsu, D. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States); John, M. [University of Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Koffeman, E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leflat, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Longstaff, I.; Morton, A. [Glasgow University, Glasgow, Lanarkshire (United Kingdom); Pérez Trigo, E. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plackett, R. [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-03-21

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100–200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  15. Probing active-edge silicon sensors using a high precision telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, K.; Artuso, M.; van Beveren, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dumps, R.; van der Heijden, B.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; Hsu, D.; John, M.; Koffeman, E.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Longstaff, I.; Morton, A.; Pérez Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M. M.; Rodríguez Perez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Wysokiński, M.

    2015-03-01

    The performance of prototype active-edge VTT sensors bump-bonded to the Timepix ASIC is presented. Non-irradiated sensors of thicknesses 100-200 μm and pixel-to-edge distances of 50 μm and 100 μm were probed with a beam of charged hadrons with sub-pixel precision using the Timepix telescope assembled at the SPS at CERN. The sensors are shown to be highly efficient up to a few micrometers from the physical edge of the sensor. The distortion of the electric field lines at the edge of the sensors is studied by reconstructing the streamlines of the electric field using two-pixel clusters. These results are supported by TCAD simulations. The reconstructed streamlines are used to study the field distortion as a function of the bias voltage and to apply corrections to the cluster positions at the edge.

  16. HUBBLE AND KECK TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE ASTEROID 288P/300163 (2006 VW139)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Jewitt, David [Department Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: agarwal@mps.mpg.de [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd. Tucson AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Keck 10 m telescope observations of active asteroid 288P/300163 (2006 VW139) taken to examine ejected dust. The nucleus is a C-type object with absolute magnitude H{sub V} = 17.0 ± 0.1 and estimated diameter ∼2.6 km (for assumed visual geometric albedo p{sub V} = 0.04). Variations in the brightness of the nucleus at the 10%–15% level are significant in both 2011 December and 2012 October but we possess too few data to distinguish variations caused by activity from those caused by rotation. The dust scattering cross-section in 2011 December is ∼40 km{sup 2}, corresponding to a dust mass ∼9 × 10{sup 6} kg (88 μm mean particle radius assumed). The FWHM of the debris sheet varies from ∼100 km near the nucleus to ∼1000 km 30″ (40,000 km) east of it. Dust dynamical models indicate ejection speeds between 0.06 and 0.3 m s{sup −1}, particle sizes between 10 and 300 μm and an inverse square-root relation between particle size and velocity. Overall, the data are most simply explained by prolonged, low velocity ejection of dust, starting in or before 2011 July and continuing until at least 2011 October. These properties are consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice aided by centrifugal forces. The high spatial resolution of our HST images (52 km pixel{sup −1}) reveals details that remained hidden in previous ground-based observations, such as the extraordinarily small vertical extent of the dust sheet, ejection speeds well below the nucleus escape speed, and the possibility of a binary nucleus.

  17. Revealing the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness using fMRI: methodological peculiarities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Clemens

    Full Text Available Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel assessment paradigm already employed in clinical settings. Both the paradigm and the experimental design were optimized to specifically assess intrinsic alertness, while at the same time controlling for sensory-motor processing. The present results suggest that the processing of intrinsic alertness is accompanied by increased activity within the brainstem, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and right parietal cortex. Additionally, we found increased activation in the left hemisphere around the middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, the insula, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. Our results further suggest that rather minute aspects of the experimental design may induce aspects of phasic alertness, which in turn might lead to additional brain activation in left-frontal areas not normally involved in intrinsic alertness. Accordingly, left BA 9 activation may be related to co-activation of the phasic alertness network due to the switch between rest and task conditions functioning as an external warning cue triggering the phasic alertness network. Furthermore, activation of the intrinsic alertness network during fixation blocks due to enhanced expectancy shortly before the switch to the task block might, when subtracted from the task block, lead to diminished activation in the typical right hemisphere intrinsic alertness network. Thus, we cautiously suggest that--as a methodological artifact--left frontal activations might show up due to phasic alertness involvement and intrinsic alertness activations might be weakened due to contrasting with fixation blocks

  18. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10–2 around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10–4 (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  19. Development of active/adaptive lightweight optics for the next generation of telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, M.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Mazzoleni, F.; Vernani, D.

    2006-02-01

    The future large optical telescopes will have such large dimensions to require innovative technical solutions either in the engineering and optical fields. Their optics will have dimensions ranging from 30 to 100 m. and will be segmented. It is necessary to develop a cost effective industrial process, fast and efficient, to create the thousands of segments neeededs to assemble the mirrors of these instruments. INAF-OAB (Astronomical Observatory of Brera) is developing with INAF-Arcetri (Florence Astronomical Observatory) a method of production of lightweight glass optics that is suitable for the manufacturing of these segments. These optics will be also probably active and therefore the segments have to be thin, light and relatively flexible. The same requirements are valid also for the secondary adaptive mirrors foreseen for these telescopes and that therefore will benefit from the same technology. The technique under investigation foresees the thermal slumping of thin glass segments using a high quality ceramic mold (master). The sheet of glass is placed onto the mold and then, by means of a suitable thermal cycle, the glass is softened and its shape is changed copying the master shape. At the end of the slumping the correction of the remaining errors will be performed using the Ion Beam Figuring technique, a non-contact deterministic technique. To reduce the time spent for the correction it will be necessary to have shape errors on the segments as small as possible. A very preliminary series of experiments already performed on reduced size segments have shown that it is possible to copy a master shape with high accuracy (few microns PV) and it is very likely that copy accuracies of 1 micron or less are possible. The paper presents in detail the concepts of the proposed process and describes our current efforts that are aimed at the production of a scaled demonstrative adaptive segment of 50 cm of diameter.

  20. A new CERN Alerter mechanism

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the CERN Alerter used for sending urgent messages was installed in July on all centrally managed NICE computers. This latest version is based on RSS (Really Simple Syndication) and all alerts are now displayed in an Internet Explorer window (see the picture). You can print the window by right-clicking on the alert background and selecting the Print option from the menu. If the message is not urgent, then the alert will only appear as a "balloon" window the following morning or at next logon. Non-Windows computers can also subscribe to this service by using their browser as an RSS reader (Really Simple Syndication). All recent web browsers can act as RSS readers, including Firefox and Safari. Simply subscribe to the following RSS feed: http://cern.ch/cernalerts/alerts.aspx to see all messages sent by the central services. More information on the CERN Alerter is available at: https://cern.ch/winservices/Help/?kbid=060810. Documentation on reading RSS feeds fr...

  1. A new CERN Alerter mechanism

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A new version of the CERN Alerter used for sending urgent messages was installed in July on all centrally managed NICE computers. This latest version is based on RSS (Really Simple Syndication) and all alerts are now displayed in an Internet Explorer window (see picture). You can print the window by right-clicking on the alert background and selecting the Print option from the menu. If the message is not urgent, the alert will only appear as a "balloon" window the following morning or at next log-on. Non-Windows computers can also subscribe to this service by using their browser as an RSS reader. All recent web browsers can act as RSS readers, including Firefox and Safari. Simply subscribe to the following RSS feed: http://cern.ch/cernalerts/alerts.aspx to see all messages sent by the central services. More information on the CERN Alerter is available at: https://cern.ch/winservices/Help/?kbid=060810. Documentation on reading RSS fee...

  2. Alert management for home healthcare based on home automation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T T; de Lamotte, F; Diguet, J-Ph; Said-Hocine, F

    2010-01-01

    Rising healthcare for elder and disabled people can be controlled by offering people autonomy at home by means of information technology. In this paper, we present an original and sensorless alert management solution which performs multimedia and home automation service discrimination and extracts highly regular home activities as sensors for alert management. The results of simulation data, based on real context, allow us to evaluate our approach before application to real data.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Active Asteroid 324P/La Sagra

    CERN Document Server

    Jewitt, David; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Li, Jing; Larson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size $a \\sim$ 100 $\\mu$m. The inferred rate of mass loss, $dM_d/dt \\sim$0.2 kg s$^{-1}$, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m$^2$, corresponding to about 0.2\\% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.6\\degr~from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, $V_{\\perp} <$ 1 m s$^{-1}$. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule out periods $\\le$ 3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimat...

  4. THE FIRST CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), corresponding to 11 months of data collected in scientific operation mode. The First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) includes 671 γ-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>100) that are detected with a test statistic greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. Some LAT sources are associated with multiple AGNs, and consequently, the catalog includes 709 AGNs, comprising 300 BL Lacertae objects, 296 flat-spectrum radio quasars, 41 AGNs of other types, and 72 AGNs of unknown type. We also classify the blazars based on their spectral energy distributions as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. In addition to the formal 1LAC sample, we provide AGN associations for 51 low-latitude LAT sources and AGN 'affiliations' (unquantified counterpart candidates) for 104 high-latitude LAT sources without AGN associations. The overlap of the 1LAC with existing γ-ray AGN catalogs (LBAS, EGRET, AGILE, Swift, INTEGRAL, TeVCat) is briefly discussed. Various properties-such as γ-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, γ-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities-and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. We compare the 1LAC results with predictions regarding the γ-ray AGN populations, and we comment on the power of the sample to address the question of the blazar sequence.

  5. Simulation of Telescope Detectivity for Geo Survey and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, P.

    2014-09-01

    As the number of space debris on Earths Orbit increases steadily, the need to survey, track and catalogue them becomes of key importance. In this context, CNES has been using the TAROT Telescopes (Rapid Telescopes for Transient Objects owned and operated by CNRS) for several years to conduct studies about space surveillance and tracking. Today, two testbeds of services using the TAROT telescopes are running every night: one for GEO situational awareness and the second for debris tracking. Additionally to the CNES research activity on space surveillance and tracking domain, an operational collision avoidance service for LEO and GEO satellites is in place at CNES for several years. This service named CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation: Alerts and Recommendations) is used by CNES as well as by external customers. As the optical debris tracking testbed based on TAROT telescopes is the first step toward an operational provider of GEO measures that could be used by CAESAR, simulations have been done to help choosing the sites and types of telescopes that could be added in the GEO survey and debris tracking telescope network. One of the distinctive characteristics of the optical observation of space debris compared to traditional astronomic observation is the need to observe objects at low elevations. The two mains reasons for this are the need to observe the GEO belt from non-equatorial sites and the need to observe debris at longitudes far from the telescope longitude. This paper presents the results of simulations of the detectivity for GEO debris of various telescopes and sites, based on models of the GEO belt, the atmosphere and the instruments. One of the conclusions is that clever detection of faint streaks and spread sources by image processing is one of the major keys to improve the detection of debris on the GEO belt.

  6. Reducing the Correlation Processing Time by Using a Novel Intrusion Alert Correlation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwaida Tagelsir Ibrahim Elshoush

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alert correlation analyzes the alerts from one or more Collaborative Intrusion Detection Systems (CIDSs to produce a concise overview of security-related activity on the network. The correlation process consists of multiple components, each responsible for a different aspect of the overall correlation goal. The sequential order of the correlation components affects the correlation process performance. Furthermore, the total time needed for the whole process depends on the number of processed alerts in each component. This paper presents an innovative alert correlation framework that minimizes the number of processed alerts on each component and thus reducing the correlation processing time. By reordering the components, the introduced correlation model reduces the number of processed alerts as early as possible by discarding the irrelevant, unreal and false alerts in the early phases of the correlation process. A new component, shushing the alerts, is added to deal with the unrelated and false positive alerts. A modified algorithm for fusing the alerts is outlined. The intruders’ intention is grouped into attack scenarios and thus used to detect future attacks. DARPA 2000 intrusion detection scenario specific datasets and a testbed network were used to evaluate the innovative alert correlation model. Comparisons with a previous correlation system were performed. The results of processing these datasets and recognizing the attack patterns demonstrated the potential of the improved correlation model and gave favorable results.

  7. Neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, J

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the scientific objectives and status of Neutrino Telescope Projects. The science program of these projects covers: neutrino astronomy, dark matter searches and measurements of neutrino oscillations. The two neutrino telescopes in operation: AMANDA and BAIKAL will be described together with the ANTARES neutrino telescope being built in the Mediterranean. (18 refs).

  8. The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX): Performance and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.

    2013-05-01

    Originally the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) was proposed to integrate the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), operating since 1991, with the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), in services since 2003. And today, after the intense big earthquake activity observed in our world during 2010 and 2011, local governments of Mexico City, Oaxaca Estate, and the Mexican Ministry of the Interior have been promoting the expansion of this technological EEW development. Until 2012 SASMEX better coverage includes 48 new field seismic sensors (FS) deployed over the seismic region of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan and Puebla, with someone enhancements over Guerrero and Oaxaca, to reach 97 FS. During 2013, 35 new FS has been proposed to SASMEX enhancements covering the Chiapas and Veracruz seismic regions. The SASMEX, with the support of the Mexico Valley Broadcasters Association (ARVM) since 1993, automatically issue Public and Preventive earthquake early warning signals in the Cities of Mexico, Toluca, Acapulco, Chilpancingo, and Oaxaca. The seismic warning range in each case is seated in accordance with local Civil Protection Authorities: Public Alert, if they expect strong earthquake effects, and Preventive Alert one, the effect could be moderated. Now the SASMEX warning time opportunity could be different to the 60 sec. average typically generated when SAS warned earthquake effects coming from Guerrero to Mexico City valley. Mexican EEW issued today reach: 16 Public and 62 Preventive Alert in Mexico City; 25 Public and 19 Preventive Alerts in Oaxaca City; also 14 Public and 4 Preventive Alerts in Acapulco; 14 Public and 5 Preventive Alerts in Chilpancingo. The earthquakes events registered by SASMEX FS until now reach 3448. With the support of private and Federal telecommunications infrastructure like, TELMEX, Federal Electric Commission, and the Mexican Security Ministry, it was developed a redundant communication system with pads to link the different

  9. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueff, G.; Alvito, G.; Ambrosini, R.; Bolli, P.; D'Amico, N.; Maccaferri, A.; Maccaferri, G.; Morsiani, M.; Mureddu, L.; Natale, V.; Olmi, L.; Orfei, A.; Pernechele, C.; Poma, A.; Porceddu, I.; Rossi, L.; Zacchiroli, G.

    We describe the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia). With its large aperture (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT is capable of operations up to ˜100GHz, it will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and standing wave. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  10. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a deformable mirror in a woofer-tweeter configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2016-04-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's segmented mirror telescope (SMT) was developed using prototype silicon carbide active hybrid mirror technology to demonstrate lower cost and rapid manufacture of primary mirror segments for a space telescope. The developmental mirror segments used too few actuators limiting the ability to adequately correct the surface figure error. To address the unintended shortfall of the developmental mirrors, a deformable mirror is added to the SMT and control techniques are developed. The control techniques are similar to woofer-tweeter adaptive optics, where the SMT segment represents the woofer and the deformable mirror represents the tweeter. The optical design of an SMT woofer-tweeter system is presented, and the impacts of field angle magnification on the placement and size of the deformable mirror are analyzed. A space telescope woofer-tweeter wavefront control technique is proposed using a global influence matrix and closed-loop constrained minimization controller. The control technique simultaneously manipulates the woofer and tweeter mirrors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant improvement in wavefront error of the primary mirror and the control technique shows significant wavefront error improvement compared to sequentially controlling the woofer and tweeter mirrors.

  11. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Danica; Marriage, Tobias A; Switzer, Eric R; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J Richard; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Dunner, Rolando; Hajian, Amir; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent; Kosowsky, Arthur; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Niemack, Michael; Page, Lyman; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jonathan; Staggs, Suzanne; Swetz, Daniel; Thornton, Robert; Wollack, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present a catalog of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14-1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two sub-populations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97% of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogs. When combined with flux densities from the Australian Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index of 3.7+0.62-0.86, and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshifts as great as 5.6. Dusty ...

  12. [Computer alert and quality of care: application to the surveillance of hospital infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E; Pittet, D; Borst, F; Thurler, G; Schulthess, P; Rebouillat, L; Lagana, M; Berney, J P; Berthoud, M; Copin, P

    1994-11-01

    The Centre Informatique of Geneva University Hospital is developing, in the environment of its hospital information system, DIOGENE, a computerized alert system for surveillance of hospital infections. This hospital information system is based on an open distributed architecture and a relational database system, and covers many medical applications. This environment allows the development of alerts useful for detecting patients at risk. The alerts offer to clinicians a mean to control their efficacy in patient care. They are a new application of telematics for surveillance in clinical epidemiology, and are a tool for quality assurance. Two examples of alerts established for hospital infection control activities are presented. The first alert systematically detects all cases of patients colonized by or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The second alert helps to organize prospective surveillance of bloodstream infections in order to identify some risk factors for infection and propose preventive measures.

  13. Les activités de gestion d’alerte épidémiologique : les transformations induites par l’utilisation d’un système de surveillance en temps réel Alert Management Activity: Cognitive and team activity modifications due to the use of an early warning system Las actividades de gestión de alerta epidemiológica : las transformaciones inducidas por la utilización de un sistema de vigilancia en tiempo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Gaudin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une recherche en psychologie cognitive et ergonomique visant à analyser l’activité de gestion d’une alerte épidémiologique. Gérer une alerte épidémiologique est une activité médicale distribuée et complexe consistant en la gestion d’un environnement dynamique puisque l’épidémie évolue et se propage rapidement si aucune action n’est entreprise pour la contrôler. Plus précisément, deux types de situation sont analysées : (1 l’activité traditionnelle de gestion d’alerte et (2 cette même activité lorsqu’elle est assistée par un système informatique, en l’occurrence le système ASTER (ou Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel. Les résultats obtenus sont ensuite discutés au niveau cognitif et au niveau des activités collectives consécutivement à l’introduction et à l’utilisation d’un système technique.This paper presents a study that investigated the management of epidemiological alerts. Alert management is a complex, distributed medical activity. It can be compared to the largest category of dynamic environment management. Two activities were examined. First, we analyzed traditional alert management activity with the MAD method (observations and interviews. Second, we analyzed and characterized alert management activities when supported by the computerized ASTER system (Alerte et Surveillance en TEmps Réel, alert and monitoring in real time. The second analysis was conducted with EORCA method, which is used to describe collective and complex activities. The results highlight various modifications to both the cognitive activity and team activities which were due to the use of the ASTER system.Este artículo presenta una investigación en psicología cognitiva y ergonómica cuyo objetivo es analizar la actividad de gestión de una alerta epidemiológica. Manejar una alerta epidemiológica es una actividad médica distribuida y compleja que consiste en la gestión de un ambiente

  14. Observing---and Imaging---Active Galactic Nuclei with the Event Horizon Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent L; Bouman, Katherine L; Chael, Andrew A; Johnson, Michael D; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Blackburn, Lindy; Wardle, John F C; Freeman, William T

    2016-01-01

    Originally developed to image the shadow region of the central black hole in Sagittarius A* and in the nearby galaxy M87, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) provides deep, very high angular resolution data on other AGN sources too. The challenges of working with EHT data have spurred the development of new image reconstruction algorithms. This work briefly reviews the status of the EHT and its utility for observing AGN sources, with emphasis on novel imaging techniques that offer the promise of better reconstructions at 1.3 mm and other wavelengths.

  15. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  16. Humid tropical forest disturbance alerts using Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew C.; Krylov, Alexander; Tyukavina, Alexandra; Potapov, Peter V.; Turubanova, Svetlana; Zutta, Bryan; Ifo, Suspense; Margono, Belinda; Stolle, Fred; Moore, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    A Landsat-based humid tropical forest disturbance alert was implemented for Peru, the Republic of Congo and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Alerts were mapped on a weekly basis as new terrain-corrected Landsat 7 and 8 images were made available; results are presented for all of 2014 and through September 2015. The three study areas represent different stages of the forest land use transition, with all featuring a variety of disturbance dynamics including logging, smallholder agriculture, and agroindustrial development. Results for Peru were formally validated and alerts found to have very high user’s accuracies and moderately high producer’s accuracies, indicating an appropriately conservative product suitable for supporting land management and enforcement activities. Complete pan-tropical coverage will be implemented during 2016 in support of the Global Forest Watch initiative. To date, Global Forest Watch produces annual global forest loss area estimates using a comparatively richer set of Landsat inputs. The alert product is presented as an interim update of forest disturbance events between comprehensive annual updates. Results from this study are available for viewing and download at http://glad.geog.umd.edu/forest-alerts and www.globalforestwatch.org.

  17. Alert!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Now more than ever, campus safety is of paramount importance. A reliable emergency mass notification system is one way to ensure the safety of constituents, and Brandeis University (MA) recently invested in a system that does the job. In this article, the author interviews John Turner, the school's director of networks and systems. Turner…

  18. SNAP telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  19. Quantum telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae

    2014-01-01

    In the 20th century, quantum mechanics connected the particle and wave concepts of light and thereby made mechanisms accessible that had never been imagined before. Processes such as stimulated emission and quantum entanglement have revolutionized modern technology. But even though astronomical observations rely on novel technologies, the optical layout of telescopes has fundamentally remained unchanged. While there is no doubt that Huyghens and Newton would be astounded by the size of our modern telescopes, they would nevertheless understand their optical design. The time may now have come to consider quantum telescopes, that make use of the fundamental scientific changes brought along by quantum mechanics. While one aim is to entertain our reader, our main purpose is to explore the possible future evolution of telescopes.

  20. Flows in and around active region NOAA12118 observed with the GREGOR solar telescope and SDO/HMI

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, M; Balthasar, H; Kuckein, C; Manrique, S J González; Sobotka, M; González, N Bello; Hoch, S; Diercke, A; Kummerow, P; Berkefeld, T; Collados, M; Feller, A; Hofmann, A; Kneer, F; Lagg, A; Löhner-Böttcher, J; Nicklas, H; Yabar, A Pastor; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, W; Schubert, M; Sigwarth, M; Solanki, S K; Soltau, D; Staude, J; Strassmeier, K G; Volkmer, R; von der Lühe, O; Waldmann, T

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurements of magnetic and velocity fields in and around solar active regions are key to unlocking the mysteries of the formation and the decay of sunspots. High spatial resolution image and spectral sequences with a high cadence obtained with the GREGOR solar telescope give us an opportunity to scrutinize 3-D flow fields with local correlation tracking and imaging spectroscopy. We present GREGOR early science data acquired in 2014 July - August with the GREGOR Fabry-P\\'erot Interferometer and the Blue Imaging Channel. Time-series of blue continuum (? 450.6 nm) images of the small active region NOAA 12118 were restored with the speckle masking technique to derive horizontal proper motions and to track the evolution of morphological changes. In addition, high-resolution observations are discussed in the context of synoptic data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  1. CISN ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System Monitoring Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, I. H.; Allen, R. M.; Neuhauser, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    CISN ShakeAlert is a prototype earthquake early warning system being developed and tested by the California Integrated Seismic Network. The system has recently been expanded to support redundant data processing and communications. It now runs on six machines at three locations with ten Apache ActiveMQ message brokers linking together 18 waveform processors, 12 event association processes and 4 Decision Module alert processes. The system ingests waveform data from about 500 stations and generates many thousands of triggers per day, from which a small portion produce earthquake alerts. We have developed interactive web browser system-monitoring tools that display near real time state-of-health and performance information. This includes station availability, trigger statistics, communication and alert latencies. Connections to regional earthquake catalogs provide a rapid assessment of the Decision Module hypocenter accuracy. Historical performance can be evaluated, including statistics for hypocenter and origin time accuracy and alert time latencies for different time periods, magnitude ranges and geographic regions. For the ElarmS event associator, individual earthquake processing histories can be examined, including details of the transmission and processing latencies associated with individual P-wave triggers. Individual station trigger and latency statistics are available. Detailed information about the ElarmS trigger association process for both alerted events and rejected events is also available. The Google Web Toolkit and Map API have been used to develop interactive web pages that link tabular and geographic information. Statistical analysis is provided by the R-Statistics System linked to a PostgreSQL database.

  2. Real-Time Analysis sensitivity evaluation of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the new generation very high-energy gamma-ray observatory, will improve the flux sensitivity of the current Cherenkov telescopes by an order of magnitude over a continuous range from about 10 GeV to above 100 TeV. With tens of telescopes distributed in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, the large effective area and field of view coupled with the fast pointing capability make CTA a crucial instrument for the detection and understanding of the physics of transient, short-timescale variability phenomena (e.g. Gamma-Ray Bursts, Active Galactic Nuclei, gamma-ray binaries, serendipitous sources). The key CTA system for the fast identification of flaring events is the Real-Time Analysis (RTA) pipeline, a science alert system that will automatically detect and generate science alerts with a maximum latency of 30 seconds with respect to the triggering event collection and ensure fast communication to/from the astrophysics community. According to the CTA design requirements, the...

  3. The Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute in the context of VO activities

    CERN Document Server

    Kamp, I; Conti, A; Fraquelli, D; Kimball, T; Levay, K; Shiao, B; Smith, M; Somerville, R S; White, R L; Kamp, Inga; Thompson, Randall; Conti, Alberto; Fraquelli, Dorothy; Kimball, Tim; Levay, Karen; Shiao, Bernie; Smith, Myron; Somerville, Rachel; White, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    In the past year, the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST) has taken major steps in making MAST's holdings available using VO-defined protocols and standards, and in implementing VO-based tools. For example, MAST has implemented the Simple Cone Search protocol, and all MAST mission searches may be returned in the VOTable format, allowing other archives to use MAST data for their VO applications. We have made many of our popular High Level Science Products available through Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP), and are implementing the VO Simple Spectral Access Protocol (SSAP). The cross correlation of VizieR catalogs with MAST missions is now possible, and illustrates the integration of VO services into MAST. The user can easily display the results from searches within MAST using the plotting tool VOPlot. MAST also participates in the NVO registry service. Thus, the user can harvest MAST holdings simultaneously with data from many other surveys and missions through the VO DataSc...

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CFA Seyfert 2 Galaxies: The Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Paul; Pogge, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    We present an investigation of possible fueling mechanisms operating in the inner kiloparsec of Seyfert galaxies. We analyze visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images of 24 Seyfert 2 galaxies from the CfA Redshift Survey sample. In particular, we are searching for the morphological signatures of dynamical processes responsible for transporting gas from kiloparsec scales into the nucleus. The circumnuclear regions are very rich in gas and dust, often taking the form of nuclear spiral dust lanes on scales of a few hundred parsecs. While these nuclear spirals are found in 20 of our 24 Seyfert galaxies, we find only five nuclear bars among the entire sample, strongly reinforcing the conclusions of other investigators that nuclear bars are not the primary means of transporting this material into the nucleus. An estimate of the gas density in the nuclear spirals, based on extinction measurements, suggests that the nuclear spiral dust lanes are probably shocks in nuclear gas disks that are not strongly self-gravitating. Since shocks can dissipate energy and angular momentum, these spiral dust lanes may be the channels by which gas from the host galaxy disks is being fed into the central engines.

  5. Linearized Model of an Actively Controlled Cable for a Carlina Diluted Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T.; Le Coroller, H.; Owner-Petersen, M.; Dejonghe, J.

    2014-04-01

    The Carlina thinned pupil telescope has a focal unit (``gondola'') suspended by cables over the primary mirror. To predict the structural behavior of the gondola system, a simulation building block of a single cable is needed. A preloaded cable is a strongly non-linear system and can be modeled either with partial differential equations or non-linear finite elements. Using the latter, we set up an iteration procedure for determination of the static cable form and we formulate the necessary second-order differential equations for such a model. We convert them to a set of first-order differential equations (an ``ABCD''-model). Symmetrical in-plane eigenmodes and ``axial'' eigenmodes are the only eigenmodes that play a role in practice for a taut cable. Using the model and a generic suspension, a parameter study is made to find the influence of various design parameters. We conclude that the cable should be as stiff and thick as practically possible with a fairly high preload. Steel or Aramid are suitable materials. Further, placing the cable winches on the gondola and not on the ground does not provide significant advantages. Finally, it seems that use of reaction-wheels and/or reaction-masses will make the way for more accurate control of the gondola position under wind load. An adaptive stage with tip/tilt/piston correction for subapertures together with a focus and guiding system for freezing the fringes must also be studied.

  6. Brother of sleep. Alertness management as a means of preventing fatigue while driving; Schlafes Bruder. Mit Alertness Management gegen Muedigkeit im Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, A.; Thoren, C. ten [DLR-Institut fuer Luft- Raumfahrtmedizin, Koeln-Porz (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    Fatigue is a neglected aspect of traffic safety. The contribution shows how a so-called alertness management strategy, i.e. active and preventive influencing of all factors that may cause fatigue, may help to reduce the number of accidents resulting from fatigue. (orig.) [German] Muedigkeit im Verkehr ist ein bisher in Deutschland vernachlaessigter Aspekt der Verkehrssicherheit. Mit dem Projekt Uebermuedung und Verkehrssicherheit' werden neue Wege aufgezeigt, wie durch ein so genanntes Alertness-Management versucht werden kann, die Zahl muedigkeitsbedingter Unfaelle zu verringern. Unter Alertness-Management verstehen wir das aktive und praeventive Einwirken auf alle Umstaende und Ursachen, die im Verkehr zu Muedigkeit fuehren. (orig.)

  7. Sky alert! when satellites fail

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Les

    2013-01-01

    How much do we depend on space satellites? Defense, travel, agriculture, weather forecasting, mobile phones and broadband, commerce...the list seems endless. But what would our live be like if the unimaginable happened and, by accident or design, those space assets disappeared? Sky Alert! explores what our world would be like, looking in turn at areas where the loss could have catastrophic effects. The book - demonstrates our dependence on space technology and satellites; - outlines the effect on our economy, defense, and daily lives if satellites and orbiting spacecraft were destroyed; - illustrates the danger of dead satellites, spent rocket stages, and space debris colliding with a functioning satellites; - demonstrates the threat of dramatically increased radiation levels associated with geomagnetic storms; - introduces space as a potential area of conflict between nations.

  8. Correlating intrusion detection alerts on bot malware infections using neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Egon; Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2016-01-01

    Millions of computers are infected with bot malware, form botnets and enable botmaster to perform malicious and criminal activities. Intrusion Detection Systems are deployed to detect infections, but they raise many correlated alerts for each infection, requiring a large manual investigation effort....... This paper presents a novel method with a goal of determining which alerts are correlated, by applying Neural Networks and clustering, thus reducing the number of alerts to manually process. The main advantage of the method is that no domain knowledge is required for designing feature extraction or any other...... part, as such knowledge is inferred by Neural Networks. Evaluation has been performed with traffic traces of real bot binaries executed in a lab setup. The method is trained on labelled Intrusion Detection System alerts and is capable of correctly predicting which of seven incidents an alert pertains...

  9. Characterization of computer network events through simultaneous feature selection and clustering of intrusion alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyue; Leung, Henry; Dondo, Maxwell

    2014-05-01

    As computer network security threats increase, many organizations implement multiple Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS) to maximize the likelihood of intrusion detection and provide a comprehensive understanding of intrusion activities. However, NIDS trigger a massive number of alerts on a daily basis. This can be overwhelming for computer network security analysts since it is a slow and tedious process to manually analyse each alert produced. Thus, automated and intelligent clustering of alerts is important to reveal the structural correlation of events by grouping alerts with common features. As the nature of computer network attacks, and therefore alerts, is not known in advance, unsupervised alert clustering is a promising approach to achieve this goal. We propose a joint optimization technique for feature selection and clustering to aggregate similar alerts and to reduce the number of alerts that analysts have to handle individually. More precisely, each identified feature is assigned a binary value, which reflects the feature's saliency. This value is treated as a hidden variable and incorporated into a likelihood function for clustering. Since computing the optimal solution of the likelihood function directly is analytically intractable, we use the Expectation-Maximisation (EM) algorithm to iteratively update the hidden variable and use it to maximize the expected likelihood. Our empirical results, using a labelled Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 2000 reference dataset, show that the proposed method gives better results than the EM clustering without feature selection in terms of the clustering accuracy.

  10. Leading Indicators and the Evaluation of the Performance of Alerts for Influenza Epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena L Schanzer

    Full Text Available Most evaluations of epidemic thresholds for influenza have been limited to internal criteria of the indicator variable. We aimed to initiate discussion on appropriate methods for evaluation and the value of cross-validation in assessing the performance of a candidate indicator for influenza activity.Hospital records of in-patients with a diagnosis of confirmed influenza were extracted from the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database from 2003 to 2011 and aggregated to weekly and regional levels, yielding 7 seasons and 4 regions for evaluation (excluding the 2009 pandemic period. An alert created from the weekly time-series of influenza positive laboratory tests (FluWatch, Public Health Agency of Canada was evaluated against influenza-confirmed hospitalizations on 5 criteria: lead/lag timing; proportion of influenza hospitalizations covered by the alert period; average length of the influenza alert period; continuity of the alert period and length of the pre-peak alert period.Influenza hospitalizations led laboratory positive tests an average of only 1.6 (95% CI: -1.5, 4.7 days. However, the difference in timing exceeded 1 week and was statistically significant at the significance level of 0.01 in 5 out of 28 regional seasons. An alert based primarily on 5% positivity and 15 positive tests produced an average alert period of 16.6 weeks. After allowing for a reporting delay of 2 weeks, the alert period included 80% of all influenza-confirmed hospitalizations. For 20 out of the 28 (71% seasons, the first alert would have been signalled at least 3 weeks (in real time prior to the week with maximum number of influenza hospitalizations.Virological data collected from laboratories was a good indicator of influenza activity with the resulting alert covering most influenza hospitalizations and providing a reasonable pre-peak warning at the regional level. Though differences in timing were statistically significant, neither time-series consistently led the

  11. 47 CFR 10.300 - Alert aggregator. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alert aggregator. 10.300 Section 10.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.300 Alert aggregator....

  12. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed ...

  13. Detection Algorithms of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ramos Perez, S.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Zavala Guerrero, M.; Sasmex

    2013-05-01

    The importance of a rapid and reliable detection of an earthquake, allows taking advantage with more opportunity time of any possible opportunity warnings to the population. Thus detection algorithms in the sensing field station (FS) of an earthquake early earning system, must have a high rate of correct detection; this condition lets perform numerical processes to obtain appropriate parameters for the alert activation. During the evolution and continuous service of the Mexican Seismic Alert System (SASMEX) in more than 23 operation years, it has used various methodologies in the detection process to get the largest opportunity time when an earthquake occurs and it is alerted. In addition to the characteristics of the acceleration signal observed in sensing field stations, it is necessary the site conditions reducing urban noise, but sometimes it is not present through of the first operation years, however, urban growth near to FS cause urban noise, which should be tolerated while carrying out the relocation process of the station, and in the algorithm design should be contemplating the robustness to reduce possible errors and false detections. This work presents some results on detection algorithms used in Mexico for early warning systems for earthquakes considering recent events and different opportunity times obtained depending of the detections on P and S phases of the earthquake detected in the station. Some methodologies are reviewed and described in detail in this work and the main features implemented in The Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO), today both comprise the SASMEX.

  14. Catch the wave! Time-window sequential analysis of alertness stimulation in individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, V. S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWhile optimally activities are provided at those moments when the individual with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) is focused on the environment' or alert', detailed information about the impact that the design and timing of the activity has on alertness is lacking. T

  15. Disentangling AGN and Star Formation Activity at High Redshift Using Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Joanna S; Trump, Jonathan R; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek B; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity and star formation in z ~ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line ratio diagnostics, change with redshift while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/H$\\beta$ line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ~ sim 40% more low-mass and obscured AGN than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O III]/H$\\beta$ gradient to AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ~2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. Using this gradient method will also be able to inform other galaxy ev...

  16. 21 CFR 26.20 - Alert system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN... Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.20 Alert system. (a) The details of an...

  17. The 4 Pi Sky Transient Alerts Hub

    CERN Document Server

    Staley, Tim D

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the 4 Pi Sky 'hub', a collection of open data-services and underlying software packages built for rapid, fully automated reporting and response to astronomical transient alerts. These packages build on the mature 'VOEvent' standardized message-format, and aim to provide a decentralized and open infrastructure for handling transient alerts. In particular we draw attention to the initial release of voeventdb, an archive and remote-query service that allows astronomers to make historical queries about transient alerts. By employing spatial filters and web-of-citation lookups, voeventdb enables cross-matching of transient alerts to bring together data from multiple sources, as well as providing a point of reference when planning new follow-up campaigns. We also highlight the recent addition of optical-transient feeds from the ASASSN and GAIA projects to our VOEvent distribution stream. Both the source-code and deployment-scripts which implement these services are freely available and permissively lic...

  18. The Third Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paggi, A.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Bloom, E. D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.

    2015-01-01

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected between 100 MeV and 300 GeV with a Test Statistic (TS) greater than 25, between 2008 August 4 and 2012 July 31. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>10{\\\\deg}), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations, thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude...

  19. Self-indicating radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion and a radiological accident, there is a need for self-indicating instant radiation dosemeter for monitoring radiation exposure. The self-indicating instant radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD) is a credit card size radiation dosemeter for monitoring ionising radiation from a few hundredths of a Gray to a few Gray. It is always active and is ready to use. It needs no battery. The dosemeter develops colour instantly upon exposure, and the colour intensifies with dose. It has a colour chart so that the dose on the active element may be read by matching its colour with the chart that is printed next to it on the card. However, in this work, the dose is measured by the optical density of the element. The dosemeter cannot be reset. The response changes by 3 y at room temperature. It contains no hazardous materials. The dosemeter would meet the requirements of instantly monitoring high dose in an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion or a radiation accident. (authors)

  20. Optical observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Nordic Optical Telescope. Comet activity before the solar conjunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Pursimo, T.; Somero, A.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2015-11-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is a short-period Jupiter-family comet that was chosen as a target for the Rosetta mission by the European Space Agency (ESA). Monitoring of 67P with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT; La Palma, Spain) intends to aid this mission by providing ground-based reference information about the overall activity of the target and its astrometric position before the rendezvous. One motivation for our observations was to monitor sudden major increases in activity because they might have affected the Rosetta mission planning. None were observed. Ground-based photometric observations register the global activity of the comet, while the Rosetta spacecraft mostly measures local events. These data combined can lead to new insights into the comet behavior. Aims: The aim of this work is to perform the photometric and the astrometric monitoring of comet 67P with the NOT and to compare the results with the latest predictions for its position and activity. A new method of fitting extended-source components to the target surface brightness distribution was developed and applied to the data to estimate the size and contribution of the coma to the total brightness of the target. Methods: Comet 67P was monitored by the NOT in service mode during the period between 12.5.2013 and 11.11.2014. The very first observations were performed in the V band alone, but in the latest observations, the R band was used as well to estimate the color and nature of activity of the target. We applied a new method for estimating the coma size by deconvolving the point spread function profile from the image, which used Markov chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian statistics. This method will also be used for coma size estimations in further observations after the solar conjunction of 67P. Results: Photometric magnitudes in two colors were monitored during the period of observations. At the end of April 2014, the beginning of activity was observed. In late September 2014, a

  1. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    With increasingly complex and costly opto-mechanical systems, there is a growing need for reliable computer modeling and simulation. The field of integrated modeling, combining optics, mechanics, control engineering, and other disciplines, is the subject of this book. Although the book primarily focuses on ground-based optical telescopes, the techniques introduced are applicable also to other wavelengths and to other opto-mechanical applications on the ground or in space. Basic tools of integrated modeling are introduced together with concepts of ground-based telescopes. Modeling of optical systems, structures, wavefront control systems with emphasis on segmented mirror control, and active and adaptive optics are described together with a variety of noise sources; many examples are included in this book. Integrated Modeling of Telescopes is a text for physicists and engineers working in the field of opto-mechanical design and wavefront control, but it will also be valuable as a textbook for PhD students.

  2. The Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Nichi

    2011-08-01

    We present the status of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) project, a new general purpose, fully steerable 64 m diameter parabolic radio telescope under construction in Sardinia. The instrument is funded by Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR), by the Sardinia Regional Government (RAS), and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and it is charge to three research structures of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF): the Institute of Radio Astronomy of Bologna, the Cagliari Astronomical Observatory (in Sardinia), and the Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory in Florence. The radio telescope has a shaped Gregorian optical configuration with a 8 m diameter secondary mirror and additional Beam-Wave Guide (BWG) mirrors. One of the most challenging feature of SRT is the active surface of the primary reflector which provides good efficiency up to about 100 GHz. This paper reports on the most recent advances of the construction.

  3. 78 FR 16806 - The Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... distribution of geographically targeted alerts by commercial mobile service providers that have elected to... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 The Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS) to Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA). This is intended to conform...

  4. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. The Third Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei Detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Atwood, W; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Gonzalez, J; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R; Bloom, E; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T; Bregeon, J; Britto, R; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G; Cameron, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P; Casandjian, J; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Abrusco, R; D'Ammando, F; Angelis, A; Desiante, R; Digel, S; Venere, L; Drell, P; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S; Ferrara, E; Finke, J; Focke, W; Franckowiak, A; Fuhrmann, L; Furniss, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I; Grove, J; Guiriec, S; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A; Horan, D; J'ohannesson, G; Johnson, A; Johnson, W; Kataoka, J; Kuss, M; Mura, G; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Leto, C; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M; McEnery, J; Michelson, P; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A; Monzani, M; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Ojha, R; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Paggi, A; Paneque, D; Perkins, J; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T; Rain`o, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Romani, R; Salvetti, D; Schaal, M; Schinzel, F; Schulz, A; Sgr`o, C; Siskind, E; Sokolovsky, K; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stawarz, L; Suson, D; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, Y; Thayer, J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D; Torresi, E; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Winer, B; Wood, K; Zimmer, S

    2015-01-01

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected with a test statistic (TS) greater than 25, using the first 4 years of data. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>10{\\deg}), which is a 71% increase over the second catalog that was based on 2 years of data. There are 28 duplicate associations (two counterparts to the same gamma-ray source), thus 1563 of the 2192 high-latitude gamma-ray sources of the 3FGL catalog are AGNs. A very large majority of these AGNs (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. Based on their spectral properties, these sources are evenly split between FSRQs and BL~Lacs. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs, but some new subclasses (e.g., ...

  6. Active figure maintenance control using an optical truss laser metrology system for a space-based far-IR segmented telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kenneth; Breckenridge, Bill; Nerheim, Noble; Redding, David

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage active control approach was developed addressing the figure control problem for a spaceborne FIR telescope, the Precision Segmented Reflectors Focus Moderate Mission Telescope (FMMT). The first active control stage aligns the optical segments based on images; attention is here given to the second stage, active figure maintenance control system, which maintains the alignment of the optical elements between initializations to hold the mirror figure steady while obtaining data and fixes translational and rotational changes of the optical segments induced by long-term thermal drifts of the support structure. Errors are expected to be 10-100 microns at the nodes of the primary backup structure over the course of an orbit. An rms performance of 0.8 microns of wavefront error can be expected during the maintenance function based on specified nominal sensor noises, actuator accuracies, and system environments. A performance of less than 0.3 microns rms can be expected, based on advanced components.

  7. Differential Simple Spike Activity in Alert Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zhou (Haibo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The cerebellum is the part of the brain that is located posterior in the skull on top of the brain stem, and is known to contain more than half the proportion of neurons in the entire brain. The cerebellum is generally not considered to be the location where motor comma

  8. Chandra X-Ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Liu, Xin; Ho, Luis C.; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U ‑ Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers. Based, in part, on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program number GO 12363.

  9. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  10. VEHICLE THEFT ALERT SYSTEM USING GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAXMI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this technical world where technology is growing up day by day and scientific researches are presenting a new era of discoveries, we need security in all the areas. As theft activities are increasing around, we have need of more security in Automobiles/Vehicles. Today automobile industry is a major industry of the world and the vehicles need to be secured otherwise they will be packed gifts for the criminals given by our own hands. The main aim of this paper is to use wireless technology to intimate the owner of the vehicle about each and every unauthorized attempt of entry to his/her vehicle. The auto-generated Short Message Service by system is used to give information to the owner’s cell phone. And one more advantage of this project is that a back Short Message Service can be send by vehicle’s owner which will disable the ignition of the vehicle system and vehicle will be stopped. If system is active and if any unauthorized person tries to start the vehicle, the microcontroller used insystem gets an interrupt through a switch which is connected to the security system. Instantly microcontroller commands the Global System for Mobile modem to send an auto-generated message. The owner receives the Short Message Service alert in the form of some written text which is predefined in the system. If he is not sure about the jumper, owner can send a back message to the Global System for Mobile modem to ‘stop’. The Global System for Mobile modem which is interfaced to the microcontroller receives the message, according to the output of Global System for Mobile modem, micro controller disables the ignition, and it will result in stopping of the vehicle. Advancement to this system is that we can transmit auto-generated Multimedia Message Service instead of Short Message Service by using smart phone.

  11. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  12. Neuronal correlates of visual and auditory alertness in the DMT and ketamine model of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumann, J; Wagner, D; Heekeren, K; Neukirch, A; Thiel, C M; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, E

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in attentional functions belong to the core cognitive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Alertness is a nonselective attention component that refers to a state of general readiness that improves stimulus processing and response initiation. The main goal of the present study was to investigate cerebral correlates of alertness in the human 5HT(2A) agonist and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist model of psychosis. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized double-blind, cross-over event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study with dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and S-ketamine. A target detection task with cued and uncued trials in both the visual and the auditory modality was used. Administration of DMT led to decreased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during performance of an alertness task, particularly in extrastriate regions during visual alerting and in temporal regions during auditory alerting. In general, the effects for the visual modality were more pronounced. In contrast, administration of S-ketamine led to increased cortical activation in the left insula and precentral gyrus in the auditory modality. The results of the present study might deliver more insight into potential differences and overlapping pathomechanisms in schizophrenia. These conclusions must remain preliminary and should be explored by further fMRI studies with schizophrenic patients performing modality-specific alertness tasks.

  13. Innovative Software Tools Measure Behavioral Alertness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To monitor astronaut behavioral alertness in space, Johnson Space Center awarded Philadelphia-based Pulsar Informatics Inc. SBIR funding to develop software to be used onboard the International Space Station. Now used by the government and private companies, the technology has increased revenues for the firm by an average of 75 percent every year.

  14. Alerts of forest disturbance from MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the methodology and computational strategy for a forest cover disturbance alerting system. Analytical techniques from time series econometrics are applied to imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to detect temporal instability in vegetation indices. The characteristics from each MODIS pixel's spectral history are extracted and compared against historical data on forest cover loss to develop a geographically localized classification rule that can be applied across the humid tropical biome. The final output is a probability of forest disturbance for each 500 m pixel that is updated every 16 days. The primary objective is to provide high-confidence alerts of forest disturbance, while minimizing false positives. We find that the alerts serve this purpose exceedingly well in Pará, Brazil, with high probability alerts garnering a user accuracy of 98 percent over the training period and 93 percent after the training period (2000-2005) when compared against the PRODES deforestation data set, which is used to assess spatial accuracy. Implemented in Clojure and Java on the Hadoop distributed data processing platform, the algorithm is a fast, automated, and open source system for detecting forest disturbance. It is intended to be used in conjunction with higher-resolution imagery and data products that cannot be updated as quickly as MODIS-based data products. By highlighting hotspots of change, the algorithm and associated output can focus high-resolution data acquisition and aid in efforts to enforce local forest conservation efforts.

  15. 77 FR 41331 - Commercial Mobile Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... at 73 FR 47550, August 14, 2008, are effective July 13, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Leslie..., FCC 08- 164, published at 73 FR 47550, August 14, 2008. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1126. The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 10 Commercial Mobile Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission....

  16. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts Motivate High School…

  17. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4) Are…

  18. MedWatch Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MedWatch alerts provide timely new safety information on human drugs, medical devices, vaccines and other biologics, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. The alerts...

  19. Wi-Alert : A Wireless Sensor Network Based Intrusion Alert Prototype for HEC

    OpenAIRE

    Ruwini Edirisinghe; Dileeka Dias; Rakhitha Chandrasekara; Lanka Wijesinghe; Prasanga Siriwardena; Prasad Kumara Sampath

    2013-01-01

    A wired fence based intrusion detection and alerting mechanism for boundaries separating wildlife habitats and human settlements was implemented, particularly as a solution to the Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC). The objective of the research reported in this paper is to propose and verify an alternative technique for this wired fence based alerting mechanism to overcome its limitations and toimprove its effectiveness. This article presents a comprehensive study of alternative solutions with de...

  20. The 1973 Yom Kippur War: Nuclear Alerts and Strategic Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict

    2012-01-01

    FY 2012-2013. Project Leads: Colby, Elbridge A. and Gerson, Michael S. CNA will research the role of nuclear weapons and nuclear signaling in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Particular attention will be paid to why Israel and the U.S. relied on nuclear alerts and who the alerts intended audiences were. Given the importance of nuclear alerts in crisis bargaining, this analysis will highlight the opportunities and dangers inherent in the use of such alerts. NA

  1. Wireless clinical alerts for physiologic, laboratory and medication data.

    OpenAIRE

    Shabot, M M; LoBue, M.; J. Chen

    2000-01-01

    A fully interfaced clinical information system (CIS) contains physiologic, laboratory, blood gas, medication and other data that can be used as the information base for a comprehensive alerting system. Coupled with an event driven rules engine, a CIS can generate clinical alerts which may both prevent medical errors and assist caregivers in responding to critical events in a timely way. The authors have developed a clinical alerting system which delivers alerts and reminders to clinicians in ...

  2. POlarization Emission of Millimeter Activity at the Sun (POEMAS): New Circular Polarization Solar Telescopes at Two Millimeter Wavelength Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valio, Adriana; Kaufmann, P.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Raulin, J.-P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Marun, A.

    2013-04-01

    We present a new system of two circular polarization solar radio telescopes, POEMAS, for observations of the Sun at 45 and 90 GHz. The novel characteristic of these instruments is the capability to measure circular right- and left-hand polarizations at these high frequencies. The two frequencies were chosen so as to bridge the gap at radio frequencies between 20 and 200 GHz of solar flare spectra. The telescopes, installed at CASLEO Observatory (Argentina), observe the full disk of the Sun with a half power beam width of 1.4∘, a time resolution of 10 ms at both frequencies, a sensitivity of 2 - 4 K that corresponds to 4 and 20 solar flux unit (=104 Jy), considering aperture efficiencies of 50±5 % and 75±8 % at 45 and 90 GHz, respectively. The telescope system saw first light in November 2011 and is satisfactorily operating daily since then. A few flares were observed and are presented here. The millimeter spectra of some flares are seen to rise toward higher frequencies, indicating the presence of a new spectral component distinct from the microwave one.

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: mdwood@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.

  4. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from ≈20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of γ rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of γ-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347–121.

  5. Chandra X-ray and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Optically Selected Kiloparsec-Scale Binary Active Galactic Nuclei II: Host Galaxy Morphology and AGN Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kpc-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1~0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W (U-band) and F105W (Y-band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow up observations. We find that kpc-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from ...

  6. 76 FR 35810 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... EB Docket No. 04-296, 72 FR 62123, November 2, 2007, which incorporated certain Common Alerting... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... (Commission) seeks comment on proposed changes to its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS)...

  7. 76 FR 12600 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... its rules governing the Emergency Alert System (EAS) to provide for national EAS testing and... a national Presidential alert. DATES: Effective March 8, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  8. Education and Training Module in Alertness Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallis, M. M.; Brandt, S. L.; Oyung, R. L.; Reduta, D. D.; Rosekind, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training module (ETM) in alertness management has now been integrated as part of the training regimen of the Pilot Proficiency Awards Program ("WINGS") of the Federal Aviation Administration. Originated and now maintained current by the Fatigue Countermeasures Group at NASA Ames Research Center, the ETM in Alertness Management is designed to give pilots the benefit of the best and most recent research on the basics of sleep physiology, the causes of fatigue, and strategies for managing alertness during flight operations. The WINGS program is an incentive program that encourages pilots at all licensing levels to participate in recurrent training, upon completion of which distinctive lapel or tie pins (wings) and certificates of completion are awarded. In addition to flight training, all WINGS applicants must attend at least one FAA-sponsored safety seminar, FAA-sanctioned safety seminar, or industry recurrent training program. The Fatigue Countermeasures Group provides an FAA-approved industry recurrent training program through an on-line General Aviation (GA) WINGS ETM in alertness management to satisfy this requirement. Since 1993, the Fatigue Countermeasures Group has translated fatigue and alertness information to operational environments by conducting two-day ETM workshops oriented primarily toward air-carrier operations subject to Part 121 of the Federal Aviation Regulations pertaining to such operations. On the basis of the information presented in the two-day ETM workshops, an ETM was created for GA pilots and was transferred to a Web-based version. To comply with the requirements of the WINGS Program, the original Web-based version has been modified to include hypertext markup language (HTML) content that makes information easily accessible, in-depth testing of alertness-management knowledge, new interactive features, and increased informational resources for GA pilots. Upon successful completion of this training module, a participant

  9. The Zadko Telescope: Exploring the transient Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, D M; Tanga, P; Turpin, D; Zadko, J; Dodson, R; Devogéle, M; Howell, E J; Kennewell, J A; Boër, M; Klotz, A; Dornic, D; Moore, J A; Heary, A

    2016-01-01

    The Zadko Telescope is a 1 m f/4 Cassegrain telescope, situated in the state of Western Australia about 80 km north of Perth. The facility plays a niche role in Australian astronomy, as it is the only meter class facility in Australia dedicated to automated follow-up imaging of alerts or triggers received from different external instruments/detectors spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore the location of the facility at a longitude not covered by other meter class facilities provides an important resource for time critical projects. This paper reviews the status of the Zadko facility and science projects since it began robotic operations in March 2010. We report on major upgrades to the infrastructure and equipment (2012-2014) that has resulted in significantly improved robotic operations. Secondly, we review the core science projects, which include automated rapid follow-up of gamma ray burst (GRB) optical afterglows, imaging of neutrino counterpart candidates from the ANTARES neutrino obs...

  10. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  11. From Demonstration System to Prototype: ShakeAlert Beta Users Provide Feedback to Improve Alert Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J. A.; Vinci, M.; Steele, W. P.; Allen, R. M.; Hellweg, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) is a system that can provide a few to tens of seconds to minutes of warning prior to ground shaking at a given location. The goal and purpose of such a system is to reduce the damage, costs, and casualties resulting from an earthquake. A prototype earthquake early warning system (ShakeAlert) is in development by the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, Caltech, ETH Zurich, University of Washington, and the USGS. Events are published to the UserDisplay--ShakeAlert's Java based graphical interface, which is being tested by a small group of beta users throughout California. The beta users receive earthquake alerts in real-time and are providing feedback on their experiences. For early warning alerts to be useful, people, companies, and institutions must know beforehand what actions they will perform when they receive the information. Beta user interactions allow the ShakeAlert team to discern: which alert delivery options are most effective, what changes would make the UserDisplay more useful in a pre-disaster situation, and most importantly, what actions users plan to take for various scenarios. We also collect feedback detailing costs of implementing actions and challenges within the beta user organizations, as well as anticipated benefits and savings. Thus, creating a blueprint for a fully operational system that will meet the needs of the public. New California users as well as the first group of Pacific Northwest users are slated to join the ShakeAlert beta test group in the fall of 2013.

  12. Solar energetic particle prediction and alert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that the cosmic radiation can cause serious radiation hazard to astronauts and artificial satellites. The most hazardous event is the sudden increase in solar energetic particle intensity, which is called solar energetic particle event. In the article, we introduce the statistical and numerical research for solar energetic particle prediction and alert, and also the development of the space environment event reporting system. (author)

  13. First year of the Gaia Science Alerts

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrzykowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Since mid 2014 Gaia mission delivers daily millions of observations of the whole sky. Among them we search for transient events, e.g., supernovae, microlensing events, cataclysmic variables, etc. In my talk I describe the near-real-time Gaia data processing pipeline for anomaly detection, show first scientific results from years 2014/2015 and describe the organization of the ground-based network for the photometric and spectroscopic follow-up of Gaia alerts.

  14. A new software on TUG-T60 autonomous telescope for astronomical transient events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Murat; Helhel, Selçuk; Esenoğlu, Hasan; Parmaksızoğlu, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Robotic telescopes usually run under the control of a scheduler, which provides high-level control by selecting astronomical targets for observation. TÜBİTAK (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) National Observatory (TUG)-T60 Robotic Telescope is controlled by open-source OCAAS software, formally named Talon. This study introduces new software which was designed for Talon to catch GRB, GAIA and transient alerts. The new GRB software module (daemon process) alertd is running with all other modules of Talon such as telescoped; focus, dome; camerad and telrun. Maximum slew velocity and acceleration limits of the T60 telescope are enough fast for the GRB and transient observations.

  15. Two-Stage Algorithm for Correlating the Intrusion Alerts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-min; MA Jian-feng

    2005-01-01

    To solve the problem of the alert flooding and information semantics in the existing Intrusion Detection System(IDS), we present a two-stage algorithm for correlating the alerts. In the first stage, the high-level alerts is integrated by using the Chronicle patterns based on time intervals,which describe and match the alerts with the temporal time constrains of an input sequence. In the second stage, the preparing relationship between the high-level alerts is defined,which is applied to correlate the high-level alerts, and the attack scenario is constructed by drawing the attack graph. In the end a given example shows the performances of this twostage correlation algorithm in decreasing the number and improving the information semantic of the intrusion alerts produced by the IDS.

  16. The Angstrom Project Alert System: real-time detection of extragalactic microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Darnley, M J; Newsam, A; Duke, J P; Gould, A; Han, C; Ibrahimov, M A; Im, M; Jeon, Y B; Karimov, R G; Lee, C U; Park, B G

    2006-01-01

    The Angstrom Project is undertaking an optical survey of stellar microlensing events across the bulge region of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using a distributed network of two-meter class telescopes. The Angstrom Project Alert System (APAS) has been developed to identify in real time candidate microlensing and transient events using data from the Liverpool and Faulkes North robotic telescopes. This is the first time that real-time microlensing discovery has been attempted outside of the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies. The APAS is designed to enable follow-up studies of M31 microlensing systems, including searches for gas giant planets in M31. Here we describe the APAS and we present a few example light curves obtained during its commissioning phase which clearly demonstrate its real-time capability to identify microlensing candidates as well as other transient sources.

  17. Concept Design for SOAR Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebring, T.; Cecil, G.; Krabbendam, V.; Moretto, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope is a \\$28M collaboration between Brazil, NOAO, Michigan State University, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. NOAO will operate the telescope for 20 years in exchange for 30 astronomers.) The project is now fully funded. This f/16 telescope is optimized for high-quality images across the isokinetic field (0."17 FWHM degradation from the telescope+facility over a field of 7.5' diameter.) It is being designed to take up to 2 Gemini-class (2100 kg) instruments, or a combination of lighter instruments at 7 Nasmyth and bent Cassegrain foci. The facility is now under construction atop Cerro Pachon, 400m from Gemini-S. First light is currently scheduled for early 2002. Corning Inc. is preparing to fabricate the 4.2m-diameter, 7.5-10 cm thick primary mirror from ULE glass. In early 1999 contacts will be awarded for 2 major subsystems: active optics (which includes optics polishing), and the alt.-az. telescope mount. We will outline the novel strategies that are being used to control project costs while optimizing telescope performance. Instrumentation plans will also be summarized.

  18. The Robotic Super-LOTIS Telescope: Results & Future Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, G G; Park, H S; Barthelmy, S D; Hartmann, D H; Updike, A; Hurley, K

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the robotic Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) telescope and present results from gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations using Super-LOTIS and other Steward Observatory telescopes. The 0.6-m Super-LOTIS telescope is a fully robotic system dedicated to the measurement of prompt and early time optical emission from GRBs. The system began routine operations from its Steward Observatory site atop Kitt Peak in April 2000 and currently operates every clear night. The telescope is instrumented with an optical CCD camera and a four position filter wheel. It is capable of observing Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) error boxes as early or earlier than the Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Super-LOTIS complements the UVOT observations by providing early R- and I-band imaging. We also use the suite of Steward Observatory telescopes including the 1.6-m Kuiper, the 2.3-m Bok, the 6.5-m MMT, and the 8.4-m Large Binocular Telescope to perform follow-up optical and near ...

  19. BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SOURCE LIST FROM THE FIRST THREE MONTHS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three months of sky-survey operation with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope reveal 132 bright sources at |b|>10 deg. with test statistic greater than 100 (corresponding to about 10σ). Two methods, based on the CGRaBS, CRATES, and BZCat catalogs, indicate high-confidence associations of 106 of these sources with known active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This sample is referred to as the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). It contains two radio galaxies, namely, Centaurus A and NGC 1275, and 104 blazars consisting of 58 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 42 BL Lac objects, and 4 blazars with unknown classification. Four new blazars were discovered on the basis of the LAT detections. Remarkably, the LBAS includes 10 high-energy-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), sources which were previously difficult to detect in the GeV range. Another 10 lower-confidence associations are found. Only 33 of the sources, plus two at |b| < 10 deg., were previously detected with Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope(EGRET), probably due to variability. The analysis of the γ-ray properties of the LBAS sources reveals that the average GeV spectra of BL Lac objects are significantly harder than the spectra of FSRQs. No significant correlation between radio and peak γ-ray fluxes is observed. Blazar log N-log S distributions and luminosity functions are constructed to investigate the evolution of the different blazar classes, with positive evolution indicated for FSRQs but none for BL Lacs. The contribution of LAT blazars to the total extragalactic γ-ray intensity is estimated.

  20. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, M A; Jones, N A; Field, T; Hernandez-Reif, M; Schanberg, S; Kuhn, C; McAdam, V; Galamaga, R; Galamaga, M

    1998-12-01

    EEG activity, alertness, and mood were assessed in 40 adults given 3 minutes of aromatherapy using two aromas, lavender (considered a relaxing odor) or rosemary (considered a stimulating odor). Participants were also given simple math computations before and after the therapy. The lavender group showed increased beta power, suggesting increased drowsiness, they had less depressed mood (POMS) and reported feeling more relaxed and performed the math computations faster and more accurately following aromatherapy. The rosemary group, on the other hand, showed decreased frontal alpha and beta power, suggesting increased alertness. They also had lower state anxiety scores, reported feeling more relaxed and alert and they were only faster, not more accurate, at completing the math computations after the aromatherapy session. PMID:10069621

  1. An Approach for Representing Sensor Data to Validate Alerts in Ambient Assisted Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Muñoz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream of research in Ambient Assisted Living (AAL is devoted to developing intelligent systems for processing the data collected through artificial sensing. Besides, there are other elements that must be considered to foster the adoption of AAL solutions in real environments. In this paper we focus on the problem of designing interfaces among caregivers and AAL systems. We present an alert management tool that supports carers in their task of validating alarms raised by the system. It generates text-based explanations—obtained through an argumentation process—of the causes leading to alarm activation along with graphical sensor information and 3D models, thus offering complementary types of information. Moreover, a guideline to use the tool when validating alerts is also provided. Finally, the functionality of the proposed tool is demonstrated through two real cases of alert.

  2. Active metasomatism in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico: A telescoped low-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic facies series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, P.; Elders, W. A.; Williams, A. E.; McDowell, S. D.; Bird, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, carbonate-cemented, quartzofeldspathic sediments of the Colorado River delta are being actively metasomatized into calc-silicate metamorphic rocks by reaction with alkali chloride brines between 200 and 370 °C, at low fluid and lithostatic pressures and low oxygen fugacities. Our petrologic investigations of drill cores and cuttings from more than 50 wells in this field identified a prograde series of zones that include as index minerals wairakite, epidote, prehnite, and clinopyroxene. Associated divariant mineral assemblages are indicative of a very low pressure, low-temperature metamorphic facies series spanning the clay-carbonate, zeolite, greenschist, and amphibolite facies. This hydro-thermal facies series, which is now recognized in other active geothermal systems, is characterized by temperature-telescoped dehydration and decarbonation. Its equivalent can now be sought in fossil hydrothermal systems.

  3. CNS effects of indomethacin: should patients be cautioned about decreased mental alertness and motor coordination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, J.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Limbeek, J. van; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: In many European countries as well as in the USA, the leaflet, or even the packaging of indomethacin, contains a specific warning to refrain from activities requiring mental alertness and motor coordination, such as driving a car. In this placebo-controlled randomized study with a crossover de

  4. WI-Alert : A Wireless Sensor Network Based Intrusion Alert Prototype for HEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwini Edirisinghe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A wired fence based intrusion detection and alerting mechanism for boundaries separating wildlife habitats and human settlements was implemented, particularly as a solution to the Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to propose and verify an alternative technique for this wired fence based alerting mechanism to overcome its limitations and toimprove its effectiveness. This article presents a comprehensive study of alternative solutions with deliberate consideration of the practical constraints. Wi-Alert is a wireless sensor network based intrusion detection system proposed as the best alternative solution. This article reports the outcomes of the first two phases of ongoing developments of Wi-Alert. The first phase of experiments was conducted to investigate the multi-path effect reduction techniques at one site. In the next phase, experiments were conducted to verify the ability to detect elephants. Theresults obtained via the candidate techniques are compared. Both experiments confirm the feasibility of the prototype as a non-invasive method to detect elephants.

  5. Wi-Alert : A Wireless Sensor Network Based Intrusion Alert Prototype for HEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwini Edirisinghe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A wired fence based intrusion detection and alerting mechanism for boundaries separating wildlife habitatsand human settlements was implemented, particularly as a solution to the Human-Elephant Conflict(HEC. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to propose and verify an alternativetechnique for this wired fence based alerting mechanism to overcome its limitations and to improve itseffectiveness.This article presents a comprehensive study of alternative solutions with deliberate consideration of thepractical constraints. Wi-Alert is a wireless sensor network based intrusion detection system proposed asthe best alternative solution. This article reports the outcomes of the first two phases of ongoingdevelopments of Wi-Alert.The first phase of experiments was conducted to investigate the multi-path effect reduction techniques atone site. In the next phase, experiments were conducted to verify the ability to detect elephants. The resultsobtained via the candidate techniques are compared. Both experiments confirm the feasibility of theprototype as a non-invasive method to detect elephants.

  6. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  7. The Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  8. DATA MINING BASED TECHNIQUE FOR IDS ALERT CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Nashat Gabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have become a widely used measure for security systems. The main problem for such systems is the irrelevant alerts. We propose a data mining based method for classification to distinguish serious and irrelevant alerts with a performance of 99.9%, which is better in comparison with the other recent data mining methods that achieved 97%. A ranked alerts list is also created according to the alert’s importance to minimize human interventions.

  9. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the CfA Seyfert 2s The Fueling of Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, P; Pogge, Richard W; Martini, Paul

    1999-01-01

    We present an investigation of possible fueling mechanisms operating in the inner kiloparsec of Seyfert galaxies. We analyze visible and near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope images of 24 Seyfert 2s from the CfA Redshift Survey sample. In particular, we are searching for the morphological signatures of dynamical processes reponsible for transporting gas from kiloparsec scales into the nucleus. The circumnuclear regions are very rich in gas and dust, often taking the form of nuclear spiral dust lanes on scales of a few hundred parsecs. While these nuclear spirals are found in 20 of our 24 Seyferts, we find only 5 nuclear bars among the entire sample, strongly reinforcing the conclusions of other investigators that nuclear bars are not the primary means of transporting this material into the nucleus. An estimate of the gas density in the nuclear spirals based on extinction measurements suggests that the nuclear spiral dust lanes are probably shocks in nuclear gas disks that are not strongly self-gravitating. Sin...

  11. A real-time hybrid aurora alert system: Combining citizen science reports with an auroral oval model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, N. A.; Kingman, D.; MacDonald, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Accurately predicting when, and from where, an aurora will be visible is particularly difficult, yet it is a service much desired by the general public. Several aurora alert services exist that attempt to provide such predictions but are, generally, based upon fairly coarse estimates of auroral activity (e.g., Kp or Dst). Additionally, these services are not able to account for a potential observer's local conditions (such as cloud cover or level of darkness). Aurorasaurus, however, combines data from the well-used, solar wind-driven, OVATION Prime auroral oval model with real-time observational data provided by a global network of citizen scientists. This system is designed to provide more accurate and localized alerts for auroral visibility than currently available. Early results are promising and show that over 100,000 auroral visibility alerts have been issued, including nearly 200 highly localized alerts, to over 2000 users located right across the globe.

  12. The Cherenkov Telescope Array Large Size Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Baba, H; Bamba, A; Barceló, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bigas, O Blanch; Boix, J; Brunetti, L; Carmona, E; Chabanne, E; Chikawa, M; Colin, P; Conteras, J L; Cortina, J; Dazzi, F; Deangelis, A; Deleglise, G; Delgado, C; Díaz, C; Dubois, F; Fiasson, A; Fink, D; Fouque, N; Freixas, L; Fruck, C; Gadola, A; García, R; Gascon, D; Geffroy, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grañena, F; Gunji, S; Hagiwara, R; Hamer, N; Hanabata, Y; Hassan, T; Hatanaka, K; Haubold, T; Hayashida, M; Hermel, R; Herranz, D; Hirotani, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Ioka, K; Jablonski, C; Kagaya, M; Katagiri, H; Kishimoto, T; Kodani, K; Kohri, K; Konno, Y; Koyama, S; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; López-Moya, M; López, R; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Manalaysay, A; Mariotti, M; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Monteiro, I; Moralejo, A; Murase, K; Nagataki, S; Nakajima, D; Nakamori, T; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nozato, A; Ohira, Y; Ohishi, M; Ohoka, H; Okumura, A; Orito, R; Panazol, J L; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pauletta, G; Podkladkin, S; Prast, J; Rando, R; Reimann, O; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Saito, K; Saito, T; Saito, Y; Sakaki, N; Sakonaka, R; Sanuy, A; Sasaki, H; Sawada, M; Scalzotto, V; Schultz, S; Schweizer, T; Shibata, T; Shu, S; Sieiro, J; Stamatescu, V; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Sugawara, R; Tajima, H; Takami, H; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, M; Tejedor, L A; Terada, Y; Teshima, M; Totani, T; Ueno, H; Umehara, K; Vollhardt, A; Wagner, R; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yamazaki, R; Yoshida, A; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2013-01-01

    The two arrays of the Very High Energy gamma-ray observatory Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will include four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs) each with a 23 m diameter dish and 28 m focal distance. These telescopes will enable CTA to achieve a low-energy threshold of 20 GeV, which is critical for important studies in astrophysics, astroparticle physics and cosmology. This work presents the key specifications and performance of the current LST design in the light of the CTA scientific objectives.

  13. Feature-based alert correlation in security systems using self organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Munesh; Siddique, Shoaib; Noor, Humera

    2009-04-01

    The security of the networks has been an important concern for any organization. This is especially important for the defense sector as to get unauthorized access to the sensitive information of an organization has been the prime desire for cyber criminals. Many network security techniques like Firewall, VPN Concentrator etc. are deployed at the perimeter of network to deal with attack(s) that occur(s) from exterior of network. But any vulnerability that causes to penetrate the network's perimeter of defense, can exploit the entire network. To deal with such vulnerabilities a system has been evolved with the purpose of generating an alert for any malicious activity triggered against the network and its resources, termed as Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The traditional IDS have still some deficiencies like generating large number of alerts, containing both true and false one etc. By automatically classifying (correlating) various alerts, the high-level analysis of the security status of network can be identified and the job of network security administrator becomes much easier. In this paper we propose to utilize Self Organizing Maps (SOM); an Artificial Neural Network for correlating large amount of logged intrusion alerts based on generic features such as Source/Destination IP Addresses, Port No, Signature ID etc. The different ways in which alerts can be correlated by Artificial Intelligence techniques are also discussed. . We've shown that the strategy described in the paper improves the efficiency of IDS by better correlating the alerts, leading to reduced false positives and increased competence of network administrator.

  14. Metallicity and star formation activities of the interacting system Arp 86 from observations with MOS on the Xinglong 2.16 m telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the metallicity and star formation activities of H II regions in the interacting system Arp 86, based on the first scientific observations using multi-object spectroscopy with the 2.16 m telescope at the Xinglong Observing Station. We find that the oxygen abundance gradient in Arp 86 is flatter than that in normal disk galaxies, which confirms that gas inflows caused by tidal forces during encounters can flatten the metallicity distributions in galaxies. The companion galaxy NGC 7752 is currently experiencing a galaxy-wide starburst with a higher star formation rate surface density than the main galaxy NGC 7753, which can be explained in that the companion galaxy is more susceptible to the effects of interaction than the primary. We also find that the galaxy 2MASX J23470758+2926531 has similar abundance and star formation properties to NGC 7753, and may be a part of the Arp 86 system. (research papers)

  15. OBS FOMAR POOL: Gibraltar and ALERTES-RIM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, Jose; Buforn, Elisa; Cabieces, Roberto; Santos, Jose; Sandoval, Nicolas; Roca, Antoni; Dahm, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from the San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the south Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals, even with associated tsunamis, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Due to the fact that part of the seismic activity is located at marine areas, and also because of the poor geographic azimuthal coverage at some zones provided by the land stations (specially in the SW of the San Vicente Cape area), Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) acquired three "LOSTERN" broad band (CMG-40T sensors) OBS, manufactured by KUM (Kiel, Germany), and, more recently (2014), the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) acquired another three with Trillium 120 sensors. All of them conform the OBS FOMAR pool. Since January to November 2014, the FOMAR pool has been deployed along the Gibraltar strait (Gibraltar experiment), in collaboration with SECEGSA (Spanish society to study the fix communication through the Gibraltar Strait), to study the local microseismicity in the Gibraltar strait area. Also, since September 2015, the FOMAR pool has been deployed for 8 months in SW of the San Vicente Cape with an hexagonal array configuration as a part of ALERTES-RIM project. In this work the some preliminary results of the Gibraltar strait and ALERTES-RIM OBS experiment are shown.

  16. Fire Alerts for the Geospatial Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Graeme; Roos, Stacey; Terhorst, Andrew

    The Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is a joint initiative between CSIR and Eskom, the South African electricity utility. AFIS infers fire occurrences from processed, remotely sensed data and triggers alarms to Eskom operators based on the proximity of fire events to Eskom's infrastructure. We intend on migrating AFIS from a narrowly focussed “black-box” application to one servicing users in multiple fire-related scenarios, enabling rapid development and deployment of new applications through concept-based queries of data and knowledge repositories. Future AFIS versions would supply highly tuned, meaningful and customized fire alerts to users based on an open framework of Geo-spatial Web services, ontologies and software agents. Other Geospatial Web applications may have to follow a similar path via Web services and standards-based architectures, thereby providing the foundation for the Geospatial Web.

  17. An Evaluation of Alert Services: Quantity versus Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandian, Fatemeh; Riahinia, Nosrat; Azimi, Ali; Poursalehi, Nastaran

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Online information vendors currently offer a variety of additional services; among these are alert services which present requested information on recent publications to registered users. This paper aims to investigate a variety of alert services provided by four online information vendors. Design/methodology/approach: A comparison of the…

  18. 47 CFR 80.1113 - Transmission of a distress alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmission of a distress alert. 80.1113... Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1113 Transmission of a distress alert. (a)...

  19. 76 FR 80780 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Third FNPRM), 76 FR 35810-01, June 20, 2011, in this docket sufficiently... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Alert System (EAS) rules to extend the deadline for EAS Participants to be able to receive...

  20. Targeting alertness to improve cognition in older adults: A preliminary report of benefits in executive function and skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vleet, Thomas M; DeGutis, Joseph M; Merzenich, Michael M; Simpson, Gregory V; Zomet, Ativ; Dabit, Sawsan

    2016-09-01

    Efficient self-regulation of alertness declines with age exacerbating normal declines in performance across multiple cognitive domains, including learning and skill acquisition. Previous cognitive intervention studies have shown that it is possible to enhance alertness in patients with acquired brain injury and marked attention impairments, and that this benefit generalizes to improvements in more global cognitive functions. In the current preliminary studies, we sought to test whether this approach, that targets both tonic (over a period of minutes) and phasic (moment-to-moment) alertness, can improve key executive functioning declines in older adults, and enhance the rate of skill acquisition. The results of both Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that, compared to active control (AC) training, alertness training significantly enhanced performance in several validated executive function measures. In Experiment 2, alertness training significantly improved skill acquisition compared to AC training in a well-characterized speed of processing (SOP) task, with the largest benefits shown in the most challenging SOP blocks. The results of the current study suggest that targeting intrinsic alertness through cognitive training provides a novel approach to improve executive functions in older adults and may be a useful adjunct treatment to enhance benefits gained in other clinically validated treatments. PMID:27372902

  1. Alert Messaging in the CMS Distributed Workflow System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WMAgent is the core component of the CMS workload management system. One of the features of this job managing platform is a configurable messaging system aimed at generating, distributing and processing alerts: short messages describing a given alert-worthy information or pathological condition. Apart from the framework's sub-components running within the WMAgent instances, there is a stand-alone application collecting alerts from all WMAgent instances running across the CMS distributed computing environment. The alert framework has a versatile design that allows for receiving alert messages also from other CMS production applications, such as PhEDEx data transfer manager. We present implementation details of the system, including its Python implementation using ZeroMQ, CouchDB message storage and future visions as well as operational experiences. Inter-operation with monitoring platforms such as Dashboard or Lemon is described.

  2. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Detector Module for UFFO Burst Alert & Trigger Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, A.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. -B.;

    2011-01-01

    The Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO) pathfinder is a space mission devoted to the measurement of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), especially their early light curves which will give crucial information on the progenitor stars and central engines of the GRBs. It consists of two instruments: the UFFO Bu...

  4. Probing the Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Amy; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M; Barthelmy, Scott D; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-01-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously flown GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and additional image threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we developed a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image trigger threshold. We use this program to search for the intrinsic GRB rate. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection ra...

  5. Probing the Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K.

    2013-01-01

    The long gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However...

  6. South Pole Telescope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber.

  7. South Pole Telescope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  8. [Is the white coat effect an alert reaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpio, I; Ducher, M; Cerutti, C; Fauvel, J P

    2004-01-01

    Is the white coat effect an alert reaction? In this cross-sectional study we compared the white coat effect on systolic blood pressure with the systolic blood pressure reactivity obtained during a stress test. The influence of the sympathetic system (LF band of systolic BP) and the parasympathetic system (HF band of pulse rate) on white coat systolic blood pressure and stress test systolic blood pressure were analysed. We stratified 174 subjects into two groups, according to their blood pressure: hypertensives (HT, n=44, BP>140/90 mmHg) and normotensives (NT, n=130). The BP was recorded during an occupational health consultation, over 24 hours, and beat to beat during a stress test (Finapress). White coat systolic BP was calculated as the difference between the consultation BP and the average systolic BP over 24 hours. The white coat systolic BP was not related with an increase in pulse rate. In contrast, during the stress test the increases in systolic BP and pulse rate were correlated (r=0.44; p<0.001). The white coat systolic BP was lower than the stress test systolic BP in the NT (6.6 +/- 7.2 vs 23 +/- 12 mmHg; p<0.001) and in the HT (16 +/- 11 vs 29 +/- 17 mmHg; p<0.001). The HT had a lower parasympathetic index than the NT (0.45 +/- 0.43 vs 0.92 +/- 0.83 bpm2; p<0.001). In the HT the white coat systolic BP was positively correlated with the stress test systolic BP (r=0.47: p<0.01) and negatively with the parasympathetic activity index. In conclusion, for recently diagnosed and untreated HT an early alteration of the parasympathetic system reveals that the white coat effect is a low amplitude alert reaction.

  9. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system...) traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) units with part numbers identified in ACSS...

  10. LUTE telescope structural design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  11. Calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, Markus; Berge, David; Reyes, Raquel de los; Doro, Michele; Foerster, Andreas; Maccarone, Maria Concetta; Parsons, Dan; van Eldik, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The construction of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is expected to start soon. We will present the baseline methods and their extensions currently foreseen to calibrate the observatory. These are bound to achieve the strong requirements on allowed systematic uncertainties for the reconstructed gamma-ray energy and flux scales, as well as on the pointing resolution, and on the overall duty cycle of the observatory. Onsite calibration activities are designed to include a robust and efficient calibration of the telescope cameras, and various methods and instruments to achieve calibration of the overall optical throughput of each telescope, leading to both inter-telescope calibration and an absolute calibration of the entire observatory. One important aspect of the onsite calibration is a correct understanding of the atmosphere above the telescopes, which constitutes the calorimeter of this detection technique. It is planned to be constantly monitored with state-of-the-art instruments to obtain a full molecular and...

  12. Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in Alert Management of Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Atashbar Orang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By ever increase in using computer network and internet, using Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS has been more important. Main problems of IDS are the number of generated alerts, alert failure as well as identifying the attack type of alerts. In this paper a system is proposed that uses Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to classify IDS alerts reducing false positive alerts and also identifying attack types of true positive ones. By the experimental results on DARPA KDD cup 98, the system can classify alerts, leading a reduction of false positive alerts considerably and identifying attack types of alerts in low slice of time.

  13. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several o

  14. Predicting the operations alert levels for dengue surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Kameshwaran; Dayama, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Operations alert level is a discrete measure that quantifies the severity of epidemic outbreak with respect to operational measures. The alert levels are ordered based on the amount of response operations required. In this paper, we develop multi-class classification models based on ordinal multinomial logistic regression for predicting the alert levels for dengue at twenty weeks in advance. The regression uses the dynamic lag non-linear models to account for the non-linearity of the dengue incidence, along with its lagged values. The performance of the models is tested for the dengue case count data of Singapore.

  15. Chromospheric activity on the late-type star V1355 Ori using Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Qing-Feng; Zhang, Li-Yun; Chang, Liang; Han, Xian-Ming; Lu, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Xi-Liang; Wang, Dai-Mei

    2016-10-01

    We obtained new high-resolution spectra using the Lijiang 1.8-m and 2.4-m telescopes to investigate the chromospheric activities of V1355 Ori as indicated in the behaviors of Ca ii H&K, Hδ, Hγ, Hβ, Na i D1, D2, Hα and Ca ii infrared triplet (IRT) lines. The observed spectra show obvious emissions above the continuum in Ca ii H&K lines, absorptions in the Hδ, Hγ, Hβ and Na i D1, D2 lines, variable behavior (filled-in absorption, partial emission with a core absorption component or emission above the continuum) in the Hα line, and weak self-reversal emissions in the strong filled-in absorptions of the Ca ii IRT lines. We used a spectral subtraction technique to analyze our data. The results show no excess emission in the Hδ and Hγ lines, very weak excess emissions in the Na i D1, D2 lines, excess emission in the Hβ line, clear excess emission in the Hα line, and excess emissions in the Ca ii IRT lines. The value of the ratio of EW8542/EW8498 is in the range 0.9 to 1.7, which implies that chromospheric activity might have been caused by plage events. The value of the ratio E Hα/E Hβ is above 3, indicating that the Balmer lines would arise from prominence-like material. We also found time variations in light curves associated with equivalent widths of chromospheric activity lines in the Na i D1, D2, Ca ii IRT and Hα lines in particular. These phenomena can be explained by plage events, which are consistent with the behavior of chromospheric activity indicators.

  16. Observations of BrO and its vertical distribution during surface ozone depletion at Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeinninger, G.; Platt, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umweltphysik

    2002-06-01

    During the ALERT2000 polar sunrise experiment at Alert, Nunavut, Canada, we performed measurements of boundary layer bromine oxide radicals (BrO) by differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) using scattered sunlight in the spectral range from 320 to 400 nm. For the first time the Multi-Axis-(MAX)-DOAS method was applied to derive vertical profile information of BrO. BrO was observed at slant column densities (SCD) of up to 10{sup 15} molecules/cm{sup 2} during a 10-day period of complete surface ozone depletion. The largest BrO column densities were found by observing scattered sunlight from 5{sup o} above the horizon, and SCDs were decreasing with increasing elevation angles of the light-receiving telescope. For zenith scattered light the lowest absorption was recorded. Radiative transfer modelling and the calculation of air mass factors show that in most cases the bulk of the observed BrO was present in a layer of 1{+-}0.5 km thickness above the surface (in the boundary layer). The inferred extent of the BrO layer agrees very well with the observed height of the ozone depletion layer (Bottenheim et al., Atmos. Environ., 2002) from ozone sonde data. Assuming that BrO layer is well-mixed, volume mixing ratios reached levels of 20-30 ppt BrO. These values are consistent with previous measurements of BrO during low ozone events in the Arctic boundary layer. (Author)

  17. Adherence to drug–drug interaction alerts in high-risk patients: a trial of context-enhanced alerting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jon D; Li, Xiaochun; Dexter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objective Drug–drug interaction (DDI) alerting is an important form of clinical decision support, yet physicians often fail to attend to critical DDI warnings due to alert fatigue. We previously described a model for highlighting patients at high risk of a DDI by enhancing alerts with relevant laboratory data. We sought to evaluate the effect of this model on alert adherence in high-risk patients. Methods A 6-month randomized controlled trial involving 1029 outpatient physicians was performed. The target interactions were all DDIs known to cause hyperkalemia. Alerts in the intervention group were enhanced with the patient's most recent potassium and creatinine levels. The control group received unmodified alerts. High -risk patients were those with baseline potassium >5.0 mEq/l and/or creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dl (132 μmol/l). Results We found no significant difference in alert adherence in high-risk patients between the intervention group (15.3%) and the control group (16.8%) (p=0.71). Adherence in normal risk patients was significantly lower in the intervention group (14.6%) than in the control group (18.6%) (p<0.01). In neither group did physicians increase adherence in patients at high risk. Conclusions Physicians adhere poorly to hyperkalemia-associated DDI alerts even in patients with risk factors for a clinically significant interaction, and the display of relevant laboratory data in these alerts did not improve adherence levels in the outpatient setting. Further research is necessary to determine optimal strategies for conveying patient-specific DDI risk. PMID:23161895

  18. The radio/gamma-ray connection in Active Galactic Nuclei in the era of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Allafort, A; Angelakis, E; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cutini, S; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Escande, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grandi, P; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; J, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kn, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Lee, S -H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nishino, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Pavlidou, V; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rain, S; Razzano, M; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Scargle, J D; Sgr, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Taylor, G B; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Vandenbroucke, J; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest datasets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the VLA and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate-data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the cm radio and the broad band (E>100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability <1e-7 for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the...

  19. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular gas, H2, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L IR to LCO′ is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio LIR/LCO′ in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to LIRtot results in a mean LIRSF/LCO′ for our entire sample consistent with the mean LIR/LCO′ derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L6.2/LIRSF and LIRSF/LCO′, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing LIRSF/LCO′ for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  20. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 4; Overview and Introduction of Matlab Based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part four of a series on the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The third investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The work here introduces some of the math software tools used to perform the work of the previous three papers of this series. NASA has recently approved these in-house tools for public release as open source, so this presentation also serves as a quick tutorial on their use. The tools are collections of functions written in Matlab, which interface with optical design software (CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax) using either COM or DDE communication protocol. The functions are discussed, and examples are given.

  1. Spectropolarimetric monitoring of active galaxy 3C390.3 with 6m telescope SAO RAS in the period 2009-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, V L; Popovic, L C; Borisov, N V

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the spectropolarimetric observations of the radio loud active galaxy 3C 390.3 in the period 2009-2014 (24 epochs). The galaxy has been observed with the 6-meter telescope of SAO RAS using the SCORPIO spectropolarimeter. We explore the variability and lags in the polarized light of the continuum and broad H$\\alpha$ line. We give the Stokes parameters $Q, U$, degree of linear polarization $P$ and the position angle of the polarization plane, $\\varphi$, for 24 epochs. We find a small lag~(10-40 days) between the unpolarized and polarized continuum that is significantly smaller than the estimated lags for the unpolarized broad emission lines (lag(H$\\alpha$)$\\sim$138-186 and lag(H$\\beta$)$\\sim$60-79 days). This shows that the region of the variable polarized continuum is significantly smaller than the broad line region, indicating that a part of the polarized continuum is coming from the jet. The lag of the polarized light in the H$\\alpha$ line (89-156 days) indicates an additional component to the...

  2. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010.

  3. The large binocular telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  4. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  5. Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159631.html Stay Alert for Child Drowning Dangers This Summer More than half of victims are under ... at risk To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will ...

  6. Algorthms and Regolith Erosion Models for the Alert Code Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC and Duke University have teamed on this STTR to develop the ALERT (Advanced Lunar Exhaust-Regolith Transport) code which will include new developments in...

  7. Using Language Experience to ALERT Pupils' Critical Thinking Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth Godwin; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the "ALERT" procedure, whereby teachers may combine the language experience approach with the use of radio, television, newspaper, and magazine advertisements in a strategy that is useful for developing critical thinking skills, even in very young students. (ARH)

  8. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  9. AMON: a wearable multiparameter medical monitoring and alert system

    OpenAIRE

    Anliker, U.; Ward, Jamie A; Lukowicz, Paul; Troster, Gerhard; Dolveck, F.; Baer, M.; Keita, F.; Schenker, E.B.; Catarsi, F.; Coluccini, L.; Belardinelli, A.; Shklarski, D.; Alon, M.; Hirt, E.; Schmid, R

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an advanced care and alert portable telemedical monitor (AMON), a wearable medical monitoring and alert system targeting high-risk cardiac/respiratory patients. The system includes continuous collection and evaluation of multiple vital signs, intelligent multiparameter medical emergency detection, and a cellular connection to a medical center. By integrating the whole system in an unobtrusive, wrist-worn enclosure and applying aggressive low-power design techniques, conti...

  10. Effects of an alert system on implantable cardioverter defibrillator-related anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duru, Firat; Dorian, Paul; Favale, Stefano;

    2010-01-01

    failing to receive needed therapy for the same reason. New devices include programmable vibrating patient notifiers (PN), which, by warning patients of a possible device dysfunction, might lower device-related anxiety. PAtient NOtifier feature for Reduction of Anxiety: a Multicentre ICD study (PANORAMIC......) is a multicentre, randomized, clinical trial designed to examine the effects of the awareness of an active vibrating alert system on device-related anxiety....

  11. SAFETY ALERT: Electrical insulation defect on safety helmets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation.   This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.210.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 50.43.30.300.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...

  12. The Dark Matter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Angel, J R P; Wittman, David

    2001-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing enables direct reconstruction of dark matter maps over cosmologically significant volumes. This research is currently telescope-limited. The Dark Matter Telescope (DMT) is a proposed 8.4 m telescope with a 3 degree field of view, with an etendue of 260 $(m. degree)^2$, ten times greater than any other current or planned telescope. With its large etendue and dedicated observational mode, the DMT fills a nearly unexplored region of parameter space and enables projects that would take decades on current facilities. The DMT will be able to reach 10-sigma limiting magnitudes of 27-28 magnitude in the wavelength range .3 - 1 um over a 7 square degree field in 3 nights of dark time. Here we review its unique weak lensing cosmology capabilities and the design that enables those capabilities.

  13. Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since it is not possible to predict when a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) occurs, the follow-up ground telescopes must be distributed as uniform as possible all over the...

  14. Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are described. The telescope can provide an angular resolution of about 0.1 arcsec, a faint stellar limiting magnitude of about 28 mag, and UV observations greater than or equal to 1150 A. The scientific instruments on the HST include: a wide-field and planetary camera, a faint object spectrograph, a faint object camera, a high speed photometer, a high resolution spectrograph, and three fine guidance sensors. The role of the Space Telescope Science Institute in managing and distributing the HST data is examined. The application of the telescope to the study of cosmology, evolution, QSOs and AGNs, galaxies and cluster, stars and the interstellar medium, and planetary astronomy is proposed

  15. Commissioning Results on the JWST Testbed Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Acton, D. Scott

    2006-01-01

    The one-meter 18 segment JWST Testbed Telescope (TBT) has been developed at Ball Aerospace to facilitate commissioning operations for the JWST Observatory. Eight different commissioning activities were tested on the TBT: telescope focus sweep, segment ID and Search, image array, global alignment, image stacking, coarse phasing, fine phasing, and multi-field phasing. This paper describes recent commissioning results from experiments performed on the TBT.

  16. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indication...

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  18. Volcanic Alert System (VAS) developed during the (2011-2013) El Hierro (Canary Islands) volcanic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ramon; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Garcia, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    In volcanic areas with long repose periods (as El Hierro), recently installed monitoring networks offer no instrumental record of past eruptions nor experience in handling a volcanic crisis. Both conditions, uncertainty and inexperience, contribute to make the communication of hazard more difficult. In fact, in the initial phases of the unrest at El Hierro, the perception of volcanic risk was somewhat distorted, as even relatively low volcanic hazards caused a high political impact. The need of a Volcanic Alert System became then evident. In general, the Volcanic Alert System is comprised of the monitoring network, the software tools for the analysis of the observables, the management of the Volcanic Activity Level, and the assessment of the threat. The Volcanic Alert System presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself. As part of the Volcanic Alert System, we introduce here the Volcanic Activity Level which continuously applies a routine analysis of monitoring data (particularly seismic and deformation data) to detect data trend changes or monitoring network failures. The data trend changes are quantified according to the Failure Forecast Method (FFM). When data changes and/or malfunctions are detected, by an automated watchdog, warnings are automatically issued to the Monitoring Scientific Team. Changes in the data patterns are then translated by the Monitoring Scientific Team into a simple Volcanic Activity Level, that is easy to use and understand by the scientists and technicians in charge for the technical management of the unrest. The main feature of the Volcanic Activity Level is its objectivity, as it does not depend on expert opinions, which are left to the Scientific Committee, and its capabilities for early detection of precursors. As a consequence of the El Hierro

  19. Blazar Alerts with the HAWC Online Flare Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Weisgarber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory monitors the gamma-ray sky in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range with > 95% uptime and unprecedented sensitivity for a survey instrument. The HAWC Collaboration has implemented an online flare monitor that detects episodes of rapid flaring activity from extragalactic very high energy (VHE) sources in the declination band from -26 to 64 degrees. This allows timely alerts to be sent to multiwavelength instruments without human intervention. The preliminary configuration of the online flare monitor achieves sensitivity to flares of at least 1 hour duration that attain an average flux of 10 times that of the Crab Nebula. While flares of this magnitude are not common, several flares reaching the level of 10 Crab have been observed in the VHE band within the past decade. With its survey capabilities and high duty cycle, HAWC will expand the observational data set on these particularly extreme flares. We characterize the sensitivity of the online flare monitor an...

  20. ALERTES-SC3 Early Warning System prototype for South Iberian Peninsula: on-site approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Martín Davila, José; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Vera, Angel; Ciberia, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Strollo, Angelo; Hanka, Winfried; Carranza, Marta

    2016-04-01

    In recent years several Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world. The area between SW Cape St. Vicente and the Strait of Gibraltar is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. In the frame of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects, the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for south Iberia. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc) and the displacement peak (Pd), but also the velocity peak (Pv), the maximum period (τPmáx), among others. In order to warm the areas closest to the hypocentre, places located inside the "blind zone", a on-site EEWS has also been developed by ROA and integrated in the ALERTES-SC3 prototype. From the on-site approach, a warm level is declared from one station as a function of the estimated characteristic period (τc) and the displacement Peak (Pd), although the earthquake location and therefore the lead time available remains unknown. This on-site EEWS is being tested in several Western Mediterranean net (WM) stations as ARNO (Arenosillo, Huelva,Spain) or CHAS (Chafarinas island, North Africa, Spain). Also an on-site low cost station is being developed based in low cost accelerometers. In this work the current state of the on-site EEWS developed, its integration in the ALERTES-SC3 EEWS system and the low cost seismic stations are shown.

  1. Early science with the large millimeter telescope: exploring the effect of AGN activity on the relationships between molecular gas, dust, and star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra; Calzetti, Daniela; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Aretxaga, Itziar; Montaña, Alfredo; Vega, Olga [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electrónica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The molecular gas, H{sub 2}, that fuels star formation in galaxies is difficult to observe directly. As such, the ratio of L {sub IR} to L{sub CO}{sup ′} is an observational estimate of the star formation rate compared with the amount of molecular gas available to form stars, which is related to the star formation efficiency and the inverse of the gas consumption timescale. We test what effect an IR luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) has on the ratio L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} in a sample of 24 intermediate redshift galaxies from the 5 mJy Unbiased Spitzer Extragalactic Survey (5MUSES). We obtain new CO(1-0) observations with the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. We diagnose the presence and strength of an AGN using Spitzer IRS spectroscopy. We find that removing the AGN contribution to L{sub IR}{sup tot} results in a mean L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for our entire sample consistent with the mean L{sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} derived for a large sample of star forming galaxies from z ∼ 0-3. We also include in our comparison the relative amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission for our sample and a literature sample of local and high-redshift ultra luminous infrared galaxies and find a consistent trend between L{sub 6.2}/L{sub IR}{sup SF} and L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′}, such that small dust grain emission decreases with increasing L{sub IR}{sup SF}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} for both local and high-redshift dusty galaxies.

  2. Atmospheric Monitoring for the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaug, M; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Font, Ll; Fruck, C; Garczarczyk, M; Garrido, D; Hrupec, D; Hose, J; López-Oramas, A; Maneva, G; Martinez, M; Mirzoyan, R; Temnikov, P; Zanin, R

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of the atmosphere is very relevant for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Adverse weather conditions (strong wind, high humidity, etc.) may damage the telescopes and must therefore be monitored continuously to guarantee a safe operation, and the presence of clouds and aerosols affects the transmission of the Cherenkov light and consequently the performance of the telescopes. The ATmospheric CAlibration (ATCA) technical working group of the MAGIC collaboration aims to cover all aspects related to atmosphere monitoring and calibration. In this paper we give an overview of the ATCA goals and activities, which include the set-up and maintenance of appropriate instrumentation, proper analysis of its data, the realization of MC studies, and the correction of real data taken under non-optimal atmospheric conditions. The final goal is to reduce the systematic uncertainties in the determination of the $\\gamma$-ray flux and energy, and to increase the duty cycle of the telescopes by establishing o...

  3. Relationship Between Structural Alerts in NSAIDs and Idiosyncratic Hepatotoxicity : An Analysis of Spontaneous Report Data from the WHO Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jessurun, Naomi; van Puijenbroek, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiosyncratic drug reactions such as hepatotoxicity and blood dyscrasias represent one of the major causes of drug withdrawal from the market. According to the reactive metabolite (RM) concept, this may be due to the metabolic activation of structural alerts (SAs), functionalities in the

  4. Monolithic afocal telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  5. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  6. The South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Carlstrom, J E; Cho, H M; Crawford, T; Dobbs, M; Greer, C H; Halverson, W; Holzapfel, W L; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leong, J; Leitch, E M; Lu, W; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C L; Schwan, D; Sharp, M K; Runyan, M C; Spieler, H; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A

    2004-01-01

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency...

  7. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  8. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  9. Analyzing Information Seeking and Drug-Safety Alert Response by Health Care Professionals as New Methods for Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernek, Igor; Stiglic, Gregor; Leskovec, Jure; Strasberg, Howard R; Shah, Nigam Haresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns in general consumer online search logs have been used to monitor health conditions and to predict health-related activities, but the multiple contexts within which consumers perform online searches make significant associations difficult to interpret. Physician information-seeking behavior has typically been analyzed through survey-based approaches and literature reviews. Activity logs from health care professionals using online medical information resources are thus a valuable yet relatively untapped resource for large-scale medical surveillance. Objective To analyze health care professionals’ information-seeking behavior and assess the feasibility of measuring drug-safety alert response from the usage logs of an online medical information resource. Methods Using two years (2011-2012) of usage logs from UpToDate, we measured the volume of searches related to medical conditions with significant burden in the United States, as well as the seasonal distribution of those searches. We quantified the relationship between searches and resulting page views. Using a large collection of online mainstream media articles and Web log posts we also characterized the uptake of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alert via changes in UpToDate search activity compared with general online media activity related to the subject of the alert. Results Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert. Conclusions Understanding the information-seeking behavior associated with online

  10. The Allen Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Allen Telescope Array Team

    2010-01-01

    The ATA is a 42-element centimeter wavelength array located in Hat Creek, California and jointly operated by UC Berkeley Radio Astronomy Laboratory and the SETI Institute. Since the ATA dedication in Fall 2007, activities have been focused on commissioning the array, retrofitting a handful of components including the feed, developing an operations model, creation of pipeline processing for correlator imaging data, early science observations, and launching of the major surveys for which the telescope was built. The retrofit of the feed improves feed mechanical robustness as well as high frequency performance. Science programs launched include imaging radio transient and static sky surveys (ATATS and PiGSS), commensal SETI and transient surveys of the Galactic Center, targeted SETI observations of nearby stars, the Fly's Eye transient survey, broadband spectra of nearby star-forming galaxies, polarimetric observations of bright radio sources, observations of hydrogen in nearby galaxies and galaxy groups, molecular line observations in the Galaxy, and observations of Jupiter and the Moon. The baseline Square Kilometer Array (SKA) design, a large-N-small-diameter (LNSD) array with wide-band single-pixel feeds and an offset Gregorian antenna, bears a strong resemblance to the ATA. Additional ATA contributions to the SKA include configuration studies for LNSD arrays, the use of fiber optics for broadband data transmission, the use of flexible FPGA-based digital electronics, passive cooling of antennas, and implementation of commensal observing modes. The ATA is currently used for exploration of calibration and imaging algorithms necessary for the SKA. I will summarize current technical status and performance, the results from early science and surveys, and ATA contributions to SKA development.

  11. Telescopes and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, C R

    2013-01-01

    Telescopes and Techniques has proved itself in its first two editions, having become probably one of the most widely used astronomy texts, both for amateur astronomers and astronomy and astrophysics undergraduates. Both earlier editions of the book were widely used for introductory practical astronomy courses in many universities. In this Third Edition the author guides the reader through the mathematics, physics and practical techniques needed to use today's telescopes (from the smaller models to the larger instruments installed in many colleges) and how to find objects in the sky. Most of the physics and engineering involved is described fully and requires little prior knowledge or experience. Both visual and electronic imaging techniques are covered, together with an introduction to how data (measurements) should be processed and analyzed. A simple introduction to radio telescopes is also included. Brief coverage of the more advanced topics of photometry and spectroscopy are included, but mainly to enable ...

  12. Configurable Aperture Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In December 2014, we were awarded Center Innovation Fund to evaluate an optical and mechanical concept for a novel implementation of a segmented telescope based on modular, interconnected small sats (satlets). The concept is called CAST, a Configurable Aperture Space Telescope. With a current TRL is 2 we will aim to reach TLR 3 in Sept 2015 by demonstrating a 2x2 mirror system to validate our optical model and error budget, provide straw man mechanical architecture and structural damping analyses, and derive future satlet-based observatory performance requirements. CAST provides an alternative access to visible and/or UV wavelength space telescope with 1-meter or larger aperture for NASA SMD Astrophysics and Planetary Science community after the retirement of HST

  13. The MAXI/GSC Nova-Alert System and results of its first 68 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, Hitoshi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Serino, Motoko; Saito, Hiroki; Takahashi, Tomonori; Miyoshi, Sho; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Suwa, Fumitoshi; Asada, Masato; Fukushima, Kosuke; Eguchi, Satoshi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kennea, Jamie; Mihara, Tatehiro; Morii, Mikio; Nakahira, Satoshi; Ogawa, Yuji; Sugawara, Aya; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Ishikawa, Masaki; Isobe, Naoki; Kawamuro, Taiki; Kimura, Masashi; Masumitsu, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakajima, Motoki; Sakamoto, Takanori; Shidatsu, Megumi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Takagi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Kazuki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Matsuoka, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    Various transient phenomena on a timescale ranging from seconds to days appear at unexpected sky positions in X-rays. MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, on the International Space Station has been monitoring about 95% of the sky a day and has detected transient objects since 2009 August. Here, we describe quasi-real-time data processing systems of MAXI and a subsequent nova-alert system to find transient objects, and present the capabilities for the nova-alert system to detect transient events with excess fluxes from ≳80 mCrab in a single scan transit to ≳8 mCrab for 4 d, and to send prompt alert information to the world in less than 30 s after the onboard detection of a burst, making the best use of the International Space Station (ISS) real-time network. We also report on highlights of scientific results obtained with the system until the end of the first extended mission phase, 2015 March. Including 15 X-ray novae solely or independently discovered, we have reported on 177 transient phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, outbursts, and state transitions of X-ray binaries and X-ray flares from active stars and blazars, via the Astronomer's Telegram, and on 63 burst phenomena of other types via the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network. We summarize the results of these transient sources and phenomena focusing on the detections with the nova-alert system, and some new transients yet unpublished or requiring attention.

  14. The On-Site Analysis of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, Andrea; Zoli, Andrea; Aboudan, Alessio; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Juan José; De Cesare, Giovanni; De Rosa, Adriano; Maier, Gernot; Lyard, Etienne; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio; Tosti, Gino; Bergamaschi, Sonia; Beneventano, Domenico; Lamanna, Giovanni; Jacquemier, Jean; Kosack, Karl; Antonelli, Lucio Angelo; Boisson, Catherine; Borkowski, Jerzy; Buson, Sara; Carosi, Alessandro; Conforti, Vito; Colomé, Pep; Reyes, Raquel de los; Dumm, Jon; Evans, Phil; Fortson, Lucy; Fuessling, Matthias; Gotz, Diego; Graciani, Ricardo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Grandi, Paola; Hinton, Jim; Humensky, Brian; Inoue, Susumu; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Flour, Thierry Le; Lindemann, Rico; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Markoff, Sera; Marisaldi, Martino; Neyroud, Nadine; Nicastro, Luciano; Ohm, Stefan; Osborne, Julian; Oya, Igor; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rosen, Simon; Ribo, Marc; Tacchini, Alessandro; Schüssler, Fabian; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Torresi, Eleonora; Testa, Vincenzo; Wegner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be one of the largest ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatories. The On-Site Analysis will be the first CTA scientific analysis of data acquired from the array of telescopes, in both northern and southern sites. The On-Site Analysis will have two pipelines: the Level-A pipeline (also known as Real-Time Analysis, RTA) and the level-B one. The RTA performs data quality monitoring and must be able to issue automated alerts on variable and transient astrophysical sources within 30 seconds from the last acquired Cherenkov event that contributes to the alert, with a sensitivity not worse than the one achieved by the final pipeline by more than a factor of 3. The Level-B Analysis has a better sensitivity (not be worse than the final one by a factor of 2) and the results should be available within 10 hours from the acquisition of the data: for this reason this analysis could be performed at the end of an observation or next morning. The latency (in part...

  15. New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With its pure aperture up to 985mm, the New Vacuum Solar Telescope of China (NVST) has become the world's biggest vacuum solar telescope. The main science task of NVST is the high-resolution observation of photosphere and chromosphere including their fine structure of magnetic field on the sun. The NVST was equipped with many new technologies and powerful instruments, such as an adaptive optical system, a polarization analyzer, two vertical spectrographs, a high-resolution image system and a very narrow Ha filter (0.125A).

  16. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several of the stability problems experienced with a number of first generation laser guide star systems around the world. Four of these compact laser guide stars will be used for the new VLT 4LGSF Adaptive...

  17. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N

    2004-01-01

    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  18. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E. [INAF/IASF-Roma, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Parmiggiani, N.; Beneventano, D. [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Science e Metodi dell' Ingegneria (Italy); Chen, A. W. [INAF/IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Vercellone, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P. [INAF/IASF-Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Longo, F. [ASI-ASDC, Via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Pellizzoni, A. [INFN Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2014-01-20

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  19. Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperwheat, C. M.; Steele, I. A.; Piascik, A. S.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Levan, A. J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Mundell, C. G.; Pian, E.; Pollacco, D.; Steeghs, D.; Tanvir, N. R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wiersema, K.

    2016-11-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in 2015 September with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overview of the Liverpool Telescope contribution to the follow-up campaign over this period. Given the hundreds of square degree uncertainty in the sky position of any gravitational wave event, efficient searching for candidate counterparts required survey telescopes with large (˜degrees) fields of view. The role of the Liverpool Telescope was to provide follow-up classification spectroscopy of any candidates. We followed candidates associated with all three alerts, observing 1, 9 and 17 candidates respectively. We classify the majority of the transients we observed as supernovae. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole-black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely.

  20. 重大活动期间医疗广告违规率分析与警示%Anaiysis and Alerts on Rate of Non-Complicating of Law of Medical Advertisement during Major Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔淑英

    2012-01-01

    Based on analysis on the supervision result of medical advertisement during health inspection safeguarding of expo shanghai, the paper summarized some characteristics of those medical advertisement non - complicating of law, and put forward several suggestions for management of medical advertisement market, referencing for health inspection safeguarding on medical advertisement during Major activities.%通过世博会期间医疗广告的违规率分析,发现医疗广告违规的特点:活动期间违规增多,网络违规较报刊违规多等.提出管理建议:保持监管高压,加强网络监管,加强预警等,为今后医疗广告监管提供参考.

  1. Sardinia Radio Telescope: the new Italian project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueff, Gavril; Alvito, Giovanni; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bolli, Pietro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Morsiani, Marco; Mureddu, Leonardo; Natale, Vincenzo; Olmi, Luca; Orfei, Alessandro; Pernechele, Claudio; Poma, Angelo; Porceddu, Ignazio; Rossi, Lucio; Zacchiroli, Gianpaolo

    2004-10-01

    This contribution gives a description of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT), a new general purpose, fully steerable antenna proposed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA) of the National Institute for Astrophysics. The radio telescope is under construction near Cagliari (Sardinia) and it will join the two existing antennas of Medicina (Bologna) and Noto (Siracusa) both operated by the IRA. With its large antenna size (64m diameter) and its active surface, SRT, capable of operations up to about 100GHz, will contribute significantly to VLBI networks and will represent a powerful single-dish radio telescope for many science fields. The radio telescope has a Gregorian optical configuration with a supplementary beam-waveguide (BWG), which provides additional focal points. The Gregorian surfaces are shaped to minimize the spill-over and the standing wave between secondary mirror and feed. After the start of the contract for the radio telescope structural and mechanical fabrication in 2003, in the present year the foundation construction will be completed. The schedule foresees the radio telescope inauguration in late 2006.

  2. Practical considerations for pointing a binocular telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Peña, Michele D.; Terrett, David L.; Thompson, David; Biddick, Christopher J.

    2010-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) consists of two 8.4-meter primary mirrors on a common mount. When the telescope is complete, to complement the two primaries there will be two 0.9-meter adaptive secondaries and two tertiary mirror flats that all work to support a variety of Gregorian focal stations, as well as prime focus. A fundamental goal of the telescope is to perform interferometric observations, and therefore, there is a critical need for the ability to co-point the individual telescopes to high precision. Further, a unique aspect of the LBT is the comparatively large range over which the optics can be adjusted which provides flexibility for the acquisition of targets. In the most general case, an observer could be performing an observation using different targets, within constraints, with different instruments on each of the two telescope sides, with different observing duty cycles. As a consequence of the binocular nature of the telescope and the number of possible observing combinations, there are unique requirements imposed on the Telescope Control System (TCS), and in particular, on the Pointing Control Subsystem (PCS). It is the responsibility of the PCS to arbitrate the pointing requests made on the two sides of the telescope by the observers, incorporate guide updates, and generate tracking trajectories for the mount and the rotators, in conjunction with providing tip/tilt demands on the subsystem controlling the optical elements, and ensure each target remains on the specified location (i.e., pointing origin) in the focal plane during an active observation. This paper describes the current design and implementation of the LBT PCS.

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope and Multi-wavelength Observations of the Flaring Activity of PKS 1510-089 between 2008 September and 2009 June

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Antolini, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Blinov, D. A.; Bloom, E. D.; Boettcher, M.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buemi, C. S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carosati, D.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, W. P.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbel, S.; Costamante, L.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Donato, D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Forné, E.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Gusbar, C.; Gómez, J. L.; Hadasch, D.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kimeridze, G.; Knödlseder, J.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kuss, M.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lande, J.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Leto, P.; Lister, M. L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Massaro, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McHardy, I. M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morozova, D. A.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pasanen, M.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Rainò, S.; Raiteri, C. M.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reinthal, R.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Sigua, L. A.; Smith, P. D.; Sokolovsky, K.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tanaka, T.; Taylor, B.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tornikoski, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-10-01

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) at z = 0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 month period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV, and γ-ray bands, on timescales down to 6-12 hr. The brightest γ-ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was sime2 × 1048 erg s-1. The spectrum in the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range shows a mild curvature described well by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The γ-ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The γ-ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry, we estimated a black hole mass of sime5.4 × 108 M sun and an accretion rate of sime0.5 M sun yr-1. Although the power in the thermal and non-thermal outputs is smaller compared to the very luminous and distant FSRQs, PKS 1510-089 exhibits a quite large Compton dominance and a prominent big blue bump (BBB) as observed in the most powerful γ-ray quasars. The BBB was still prominent during the historical maximum optical state in 2009 May, but the optical/UV spectral index was softer than in the quiescent state. This seems to indicate that the BBB was not completely dominated by the synchrotron emission during the highest optical state. We model the broadband spectrum assuming a leptonic scenario in which the inverse Compton emission is dominated by the scattering of soft photons produced externally to the jet. The resulting model-dependent jet energetic content is compatible with a scenario in which the jet is powered by the accretion disk, with a total efficiency within the Kerr black hole limit.

  4. Real Time View of the Functions and Services of the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aranda, J.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Cuellar Martinez, A.; Inostroza Puk, M.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) is integrated since March 2012 by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico City (SAS), in continuous operation since 1991, and the Seismic Alert System of Oaxaca City (SASO) that started its services in 2003. SASMEX consists of 97 field seismic sensor station (FS) type triaxial accelerometer, mostly sponsored by the government of Mexico City and secondly by Oaxaca. The SASMEX covers the Pacific seismic hazard among the coast of Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca; and the seismic region of Puebla and northern Oaxaca and Guerrero states. This integration lets to warn with better opportunity to the population of Mexico City, Oaxaca Oax., Acapulco Gro., Chilpancingo Gro. and recently Morelia Mich.; cities with a system called EASAS where receives seismic data from FS and emits earthquake early warning signals to the population. The recent sponsorship of Federal Government through the General Coordination of Civil Protection and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, reinforced integration SAS and SASO, and auspiced the development of a Real-Time Monitoring System of functions and services of SASMEX. This work show how is displayed the functions of services of SASMEX through this monitoring system and its possible application by Civil Protection authorities. This monitoring system can indicate the status of FS, the communications system and cities with EASAS. Additionally, when an earthquake occurs and is detected by the SASMEX, the monitoring system shows the messages of FS, whose consist in the characteristics of detection and seismic danger forecasted; in the case of a strong earthquake estimated by more than one FS, the EASAS of each city could automatically issue an Alert Public to its population. The monitoring system allows observing cities with EASAS that activate their alerts, displays a basic earthquake propagation model and how it reaches to other FS. Additionally, the monitoring system shows the

  5. Exploring Galileo's Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, Samuele; Terzuoli, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    In the first months of 2009, the International Year of Astronomy, the authors developed an educational project for middle-level students connected with the first astronomical discoveries that Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) made 400 years ago. The project included the construction of a basic telescope and the observation of the Moon. The project, if…

  6. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    can be operated either interactively or fully automatically. In the interactive mode, it can be controlled through the Internet. In the fully automatic mode, the telescope operates with preset parameters without any human care, including taking dark frames and flat frames. The network can also be used for studies that require continuous observations for selected objects.

  7. Actuated Hybrid Mirrors for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory; Ealey, Mark; Redding, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new, large, ultra-lightweight, replicated, actively controlled mirrors, for use in space telescopes. These mirrors utilize SiC substrates, with embedded solid-state actuators, bonded to Nanolaminate metal foil reflective surfaces. Called Actuated Hybrid Mirrors (AHMs), they use replication techniques for high optical quality as well as rapid, low cost manufacturing. They enable an Active Optics space telescope architecture that uses periodic image-based wavefront sensing and control to assure diffraction-limited performance, while relaxing optical system fabrication, integration and test requirements. The proposed International Space Station Observatory seeks to demonstrate this architecture in space.

  8. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  9. The Greenland Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Paul; Blundell, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, acquired the ALMA North America prototype antenna - a state-of-the-art 12-m diameter dish designed for submillimeter astronomy. Together with the MIT-Haystack Observatory and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the plan is to retrofit this antenna for cold-weather operation and equip it with a suite of instruments designed for a variety of scientific experiments and observations. The primary scientific goal is to image the shadow of the Super-Massive Black Hole in M87 in order to test Einstein’s theory of relativity under extreme gravity. This requires the highest angular resolution, which can only be achieved by linking this antenna with others already in place to form a telescope almost the size of the Earth. We are therefore developing plans to install this antenna at the peak of the Greenland ice-sheet. This location will produce an equivalent North-South separation of almost 9,000 km when linked to the ALMA telescope in Northern Chile, and an East-West separation of about 6,000 km when linked to SAO and ASIAA’s Submillimeter Array on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and will provide an angular resolution almost 1000 times higher than that of the most powerful optical telescopes. Given the quality of the atmosphere at the proposed telescope location, we also plan to make observations in the atmospheric windows at 1.3 and 1.5 THz. We will present plans to retrofit the telescope for cold-weather operation, and discuss potential instrumentation and projected time-line.

  10. Southern Fireworks above ESO Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) high in orbit around the Earth, suddenly registered an intense burst of gamma-ray radiation from a direction less than 10° from the celestial south pole. Independently, the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GRBM) on board the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite also detected the event (see GCN GRB Observation Report 304 [2]). Following the BATSE alert, the BeppoSAX Wide-Field Cameras (WFC) quickly localized the sky position of the burst within a circle of 3 arcmin radius in the southern constellation Chamaeleon. It was also detected by other satellites, including the ESA/NASA Ulysses spacecraft , since some years in a wide orbit around the Sun. The event was designated GRB 990510 and the measured position was immediately distributed by BeppoSAX Mission Scientist Luigi Piro to a network of astronomers. It was also published on Circular No. 7160 of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). From Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Paul Vreeswijk, Titus Galama , and Evert Rol of the Amsterdam/Huntsville GRB follow-up team (led by Jan van Paradijs ) immediately contacted astronomers at the 1-meter telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) (Sutherland, South Africa) of the PLANET network microlensing team, an international network led by Penny Sackett in Groningen (The Netherlands). There, John Menzies of SAAO and Karen Pollard (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) were about to begin the last of their 14 nights of observations, part of a continuous world-wide monitoring program looking for evidence of planets around other stars. Other PLANET sites in Australia and Tasmania where it was still nighttime were unfortunately clouded out (some observations were in fact made that night at the Mount Stromlo observatory in Australia, but they were only announced one day later). As soon as possible - immediately after sundown and less than 9 hours after the initial burst was recorded

  11. Real Time Classification and Clustering Of IDS Alerts Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbulakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS monitor a secured network for the evidence of maliciousactivities originating either inside or outside. Upon identifying a suspicious traffic, IDSgenerates and logs an alert. Unfortunately, most of the alerts generated are either false positive,i.e. benign traffic that has been classified as intrusions, or irrelevant, i.e. attacks that are notsuccessful. The abundance of false positive alerts makes it difficult for the security analyst tofind successful attacks and take remedial action. This paper describes a two phase automaticalert classification system to assist the human analyst in identifying the false positives. In thefirst phase, the alerts collected from one or more sensors are normalized and similar alerts aregrouped to form a meta-alert. These meta-alerts are passively verified with an asset database tofind out irrelevant alerts. In addition, an optional alert generalization is also performed for rootcause analysis and thereby reduces false positives with human interaction. In the second phase,the reduced alerts are labeled and passed to an alert classifier which uses machine learningtechniques for building the classification rules. This helps the analyst in automatic classificationof the alerts. The system is tested in real environments and found to be effective in reducing thenumber of alerts as well as false positives dramatically, and thereby reducing the workload ofhuman analyst.

  12. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  13. The Performance Optimization for the Telescopic Active Leveling Mechauism for Fork Truck%伸缩臂叉装车主动调平机构性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许怡赦; 郭雄华; 康辉梅

    2012-01-01

    The fork's angle relating to the ground changes with the telescopic boom luffing during the telescopic handler working, and influences the safety of operation directly. In order to improve the leveling performance of the mechanism, a mathematical model of optimization is established in this paper. Then, the genetic algorithm is used and the hinge point position of the active leveling mechauism is optimized. The simulation shows that the optimized result can enhance the performance of the telescopic.%在变幅运动时,伸缩臂叉装车货叉底面与水平面的夹角随伸缩臂仰角的变化而变化,这种变化影响叉装车的平移性,且对安全作业不利.鉴于此,在分析工作装置的调平性能基础上建立了数学模型,利用遗传算法进行优化,仿真结果表明适当调整主动调平油缸的铰点位置能提高叉装车的平移性.

  14. RSS based CERN Alerter. Information broadcast to all CERN offices.

    CERN Multimedia

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    Nearly every large organization uses a tool to broadcast messages and information across the internal campus (messages like alerts announcing interruption in services or just information about upcoming events). These tools typically allow administrators (operators) to send "targeted" messages which are sent only to specific groups of users or computers, e/g only those located in a specified building or connected to a particular computing service. CERN has a long history of such tools: CERNVMS€™s SPM_quotMESSAGE command, Zephyr and the most recent the NICE Alerter based on the NNTP protocol. The NICE Alerter used on all Windows-based computers had to be phased out as a consequence of phasing out NNTP at CERN. The new solution to broadcast information messages on the CERN campus continues to provide the service based on cross-platform technologies, hence minimizing custom developments and relying on commercial software as much as possible. The new system, called CERN Alerter, is based on RSS (Really Simpl...

  15. 44 CFR 208.36 - Reimbursement for Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 208.41 of this part. (4) Food and beverages for Task Force Members and Support Specialists when DHS does not provide meals during the Alert. DHS will limit food and beverage reimbursement to the amount... where such food and beverages were provided, multiplied by the number of personnel who received them....

  16. 47 CFR 80.277 - Ship Security Alert System (SSAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention or 33 CFR 101.310 may utilize: (1) Equipment that complies with RTCM Paper 110-2004/SC110-STD...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these standards can be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship Security Alert System (SSAS)....

  17. Developing, Implementing, and Assessing an Early Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampke, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Early alert systems offer institutions systematic approaches to identifying and intervening with students exhibiting at-risk behaviors. Many of these systems rely on a common format for student referral to central receiving point. Systems at larger institutions often use web-based technology to allow for a scalable (available campus wide) approach…

  18. 77 FR 33661 - Review of the Emergency Alert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ....42, 11.54(b)(13), and 11.55 published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012, are effective June 7, 2012. FOR... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 77 FR 16688, March 22, 2012. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 11 Review of the Emergency Alert System AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  19. Public Health Measures: Alerts and Early Warning Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews various reactive and proactive alert and early warning systems that can be used for the identification of emerging risks to food safety, both within the European Union and at the global level. Recent developments include the establishment of a unit dedicated to emerging risks at

  20. 47 CFR 10.320 - Provider alert gateway requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be identified by a unique IP address or domain name. (b) Authentication and validation. The CMS... CMSP Name Unique identification of CMSP. CMSP gateway Address IP address or Domain Name Alternate IP... alert gateway if a validation fails. (c) Security. The CMS provider gateway must support standardized...

  1. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  2. Covariation of phasic cortical and cardiovascular responses: Effects of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen; L.J.M. Mulder; G. Mulder

    1999-01-01

    Effects of maintaining an alert state on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and evoked cardiovascular responses were examined in an auditory detection task. Subjects were instructed to detect a possible difference in frequency between two successively presented tones in 5 s periods. Two types of

  3. NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...

  4. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  5. Mexican Seismic Alert System's SAS-I algorithm review considering strong earthquakes felt in Mexico City since 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Martinez, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Suarez, G.; Ibarrola Alvarez, G.; Ramos Perez, S.; Camarillo Barranco, L.

    2013-05-01

    The Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX) uses three algorithms for alert activation that involve the distance between the seismic sensing field station (FS) and the city to be alerted; and the forecast for earthquake early warning activation in the cities integrated to the system, for example in Mexico City, the earthquakes occurred with the highest accelerations, were originated in the Pacific Ocean coast, whose distance this seismic region and the city, favors the use of algorithm called Algorithm SAS-I. This algorithm, without significant changes since its beginning in 1991, employs the data that generate one or more FS during P wave detection until S wave detection plus a period equal to the time employed to detect these phases; that is the double S-P time, called 2*(S-P). In this interval, the algorithm performs an integration process of quadratic samples from FS which uses a triaxial accelerometer to get two parameters: amplitude and growth rate measured until 2*(S-P) time. The parameters in SAS-I are used in a Magnitude classifier model, which was made from Guerrero Coast earthquakes time series, with reference to Mb magnitude mainly. This algorithm activates a Public or Preventive Alert if the model predicts whether Strong or Moderate earthquake. The SAS-I algorithm has been operating for over 23 years in the subduction zone of the Pacific Coast of Mexico, initially in Guerrero and followed by Oaxaca; and since March 2012 in the seismic region of Pacific covering the coasts among Jalisco, Colima, Michoacan, Guerrero and Oaxaca, where this algorithm has issued 16 Public Alert and 62 Preventive Alerts to the Mexico City where its soil conditions increase damages by earthquake such as the occurred in September 1985. This work shows the review of the SAS-I algorithm and possible alerts that it could generate from major earthquakes recordings detected by FS or seismometers near the earthquakes, coming from Pacific Ocean Coast whose have been felt in Mexico

  6. E-government Alerts Correlation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mahrouqi, Aadil; Abdalla, Sameh; Kechadi, Tahar

    2014-01-01

    Qatars IT infrastructure is rapidly growing to encompass the evolution of businesses and economical growth the country is increasingly witnessing throughout its industries. It is now evident that the countrys e-government requirements and associated data management systems are becoming large in number, highly dynamic in nature, and exceptionally attractive for cybercrime activities. Protecting the sensitive data e-government portals are relying on for daily activities is not a trivial task. T...

  7. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  8. Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with hGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who ... a medical ID card and wear a Medic-Alert bracelet to tell emergency workers that you lack ...

  9. Using Molecular Initiating Events to Develop a Structural Alert Based Screening Workflow for Nuclear Receptor Ligands Associated with Hepatic Steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Claire L; Steinmetz, Fabian P; Cronin, Mark T D

    2016-02-15

    In silico models are essential for the development of integrated alternative methods to identify organ level toxicity and lead toward the replacement of animal testing. These models include (quantitative) structure-activity relationships ((Q)SARs) and, importantly, the identification of structural alerts associated with defined toxicological end points. Structural alerts are able both to predict toxicity directly and assist in the formation of categories to facilitate read-across. They are particularly important to decipher the myriad mechanisms of action that result in organ level toxicity. The aim of this study was to develop novel structural alerts for nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that are associated with inducing hepatic steatosis and to show the vast number of existing data that are available. Current knowledge on NR agonists was extended with data from the ChEMBL database (12,713 chemicals in total) of bioactive molecules and from studying NR ligand-binding interactions within the protein database (PDB, 624 human NR structure files). A computational structural alert based workflow was developed using KNIME from these data using molecular fragments and other relevant chemical features. In total, 214 structural features were recorded computationally as SMARTS strings, and therefore, they can be used for grouping and screening during drug development and hazard assessment and provide knowledge to anchor adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) via their molecular initiating events (MIEs).

  10. The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Perrina, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    At about 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France), anchored at 2475 m deep in the Mediterranean Sea, there is ANTARES: the first undersea neutrino telescope and the only one currently operating. The detector consists of 885 photomultiplier tubes arranged into 12 strings of 450-metres high, with the aim to detect the Cherenkov light induced by the charged superluminal interaction products of neutrinos. Its main scientific target is the search for high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the cosmic neutrino diffuse flux, focusing in particular on events coming from below the horizon (up-going events) in order to significantly reduce the atmospheric muons background. Thanks to the development of a strategy for the identification of neutrinos coming from above the horizon (down-going events) the field of view of the telescope will be extended.

  11. Galileo's wondrous telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2008-06-01

    If you need reminding of just how wrong the great and the good can be, take a trip to the Museum of the History of Science in Florence, Italy. The museum is staging an exhibition entitled "Galileo's telescope - the instrument that changed the world" to mark the 400th anniversary this year of Galileo Galilei's revolutionary astronomical discoveries, which were made possible by the invention of the telescope. At the start of the 17th century, astronomers assumed that all the planets and the stars in the heavens had been identified and that there was nothing new for them to discover, as the exhibition's curator, Giorgio Strano, points out. "No-one could have imagined what wondrous new things were about to be revealed by an instrument created by inserting two eyeglass lenses into the ends of a tube," he adds.

  12. Telescopes of galileo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, V; Molesini, G; Quercioli, F

    1993-11-01

    The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia delta Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He-Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

  13. The VATLY radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small radio telescope (SRT) has been installed on the roof of the Hanoi astrophysics laboratory VATLY. It is equipped with a 2.6 m diameter mobile parabolic dish remotely controlled in elevation and azimuth and with super-heterodyne detection around the 21 cm hydrogen line. First results of observations of the Sun and of the centre of the Milky Way are presented. They demonstrate the high quality of the telescope performance and are used to evaluate lobe size, signal to noise ratios, anthropogenic interferences and measurement accuracies. Particular attention is given to the measurement of the pointing accuracy. The rich measurement programme that is now at hand is briefly sketched. (author)

  14. Everyday Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Pranshu; Kumar, Pratik; Yelikar, Anjali; Soni, Kanchan; T, Vineeth Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an affordable, portable college level radio telescope for amateur radio astronomy which can be used to provide hands-on experience with the fundamentals of a radio telescope and an insight into the realm of radio astronomy. With our set-up one can measure brightness temperature and flux of the Sun at 11.2 GHz and calculate the beam width of the antenna. The set-up uses commercially available satellite television receiving system and parabolic dish antenna. We report the detection of point sources like Saturn and extended sources like the galactic arm of the Milky way. We have also developed python pipeline, which are available for free download, for data acquisition and visualization.

  15. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206

  16. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers’ and cyclists’ Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  17. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; De-la-Iglesia, Idoia; Perez, Jagoba

    2015-01-01

    V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists) is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers' and cyclists' Human Machine Interface (HMI). First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper. PMID:26230695

  18. V-Alert: Description and Validation of a Vulnerable Road User Alert System in the Framework of a Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Hernandez-Jayo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available V-Alert is a cooperative application to be deployed in the frame of Smart Cities with the aim of reducing the probability of accidents involving Vulnerable Road Users (VRU and vehicles. The architecture of V-Alert combines short- and long-range communication technologies in order to provide more time to the drivers and VRU to take the appropriate maneuver and avoid a possible collision. The information generated by mobile sensors (vehicles and cyclists is sent over this heterogeneous communication architecture and processed in a central server, the Drivers Cloud, which is in charge of generating the messages that are shown on the drivers’ and cyclists’ Human Machine Interface (HMI. First of all, V-Alert has been tested in a simulated scenario to check the communications architecture in a complex scenario and, once it was validated, all the elements of V-Alert have been moved to a real scenario to check the application reliability. All the results are shown along the length of this paper.

  19. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book. PMID:16929794

  20. [Galileo and his telescope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Galileo's publication of observations made with his newly reinvented telescope provoked a fierce debate. In April 1610 Martinus Horky, a young Bohemian astronomer, had an opportunity to make his own observations with Galileo's telescope in the presence of Antonio Magini and other astronomers. Horky and the other witnesses denied the adequacy of Galileo's telescope and therefore the bona fides of his discoveries. Kepler conjectured Horky as well as all his witnesses to be myopic. But Kepler's objection could not stop the publication of Horky's Peregrinatio contra nuncium sidereum (Modena, 1610), the first printed refutation of Galileo's Sidereus nuncius. In his treatise, Horky adresses four questions: 1) Do the four newly observed heavenly bodies actually exist? Horky denies their existence on various grounds: a) God, as every astronomer teaches, has created only seven moveable heavenly bodies and astronomical knowledge originates in God, too. b) Heavenly bodies are either stars or planets. Galileo's moveable heavenly bodies fit into neither category. c) If they do exist, why have they not already been observed by other scholars? Horky concludes that there are no such heavenly bodies. 2) What are these phenomena? They are purely artefactual, and produced by Galileo's telescope. 3) How are they like? Galileo's "stars" are so small as to be almost invisible. Galileo claims that he has measured their distances from each other. This however is impossible due to their diminutive size and other observational problems. Hence, Galileo's claim is a further proof that he is a fraud. 4) Why are they? For Galileo they are a chance to earn money but for astronomers like Horky they are a reason to offer thanks and honour to God. Horky's treatise was favourably received by the enemies of Galileo. But Kepler's critique was devastating. After calling on Kepler in Prague, Horky had to revoke the contents of his book.

  1. ALERTES-SC3: an EEWS prototype for south Iberia peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Lopez de Mesa, Mireya; Martín Davila, José; Gallego Carrasco, Javier; Rioja del Rio, Carlos; Morgado, Arturo; Hanka, Winfried; Strollo, Angelo; Cibeira, Angel; Cabieces, Roberto; Carranza, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Since several decades Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS) have been developed for different parts of the world based on the hypothesis of the earthquake characteristics can be derived from the analysis of the low energy P-wave prior to the arrival of more energetic S-waves and later phases. Thereby a time ("lead time") is available to evaluate a warning and perform automatic or semi -automatic actions on certain systems and deliver and alert to the authorities involved in emergency. The South Iberia peninsula area, between SW San Vicente Cape to the East of the Alboran sea, is one of the most seismically active zones in the Ibero-Maghrebian region, with predominantly moderate and superficial seismicity, but also big events with associated tsunamis are well documented in the area, like the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The main goal of the ALERT-ES (2011-2013) and ALERTES-RIM (2014-2016) Spanish projects has been to develop an EEWS for South Iberia region (ALERTES-SC3 EEWS) from a regional and also an on-site approach, and the study of the scaling laws for this area to estimate the moment magnitude (Mw) and predict the expected PGV (peak ground velocity) and Pd (peak displacement) among other parameters. The ALERTES-SC3 EEWS, regional approach, prototype has been developed at the Royal Spanish Navy Observatory (ROA) and is being tested in near real time for South Iberia area. This prototype, based on the SeisComP3 software package, is largely based on algorithms derived from the analysis of the first seconds of the P wave records. Calculation of several parameters are carried out, mainly the characteristic period (τc), Peak displacement and velocity (Pd, Pv) and maximum period (τPmáx), among others, from which correlations with corresponding earthquake magnitude, peak ground velocities , etc. are derived. Decision tables have been developed in order to deliver warnings (Buforn et al, 2012). The algorithms have been implemented by ROA in the seismic data system Seis

  2. Substandard and falsified medicines in the UK: a retrospective review of drug alerts (2001–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Almuzaini, Tariq; Sammons, Helen; Choonara, Imti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent of substandard and falsified medicines in the UK. Design: A retrospective review of drug alerts and company-led recalls. Setting: The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) website search for drug alerts issued between 2001 and 2011. Eligibility criteria: Drug alerts related to quality defect in medicinal products. Main outcome measure: Relevant data about defective medicines reported in drug alerts and co...

  3. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  4. Method and apparatus for extraction of low-frequency artifacts from brain waves for alertness detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Ned E.; Hively, Lee M.

    1997-01-01

    Methods and apparatus automatically detect alertness in humans by monitoring and analyzing brain wave signals. Steps include: acquiring the brain wave (EEG or MEG) data from the subject, digitizing the data, separating artifact data from raw data, and comparing trends in f-data to alertness indicators, providing notification of inadequate alertness.

  5. 78 FR 49292 - American Medical Alert Corporation, DBA Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration American Medical Alert Corporation, DBA Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico..., applicable to workers of American Medical Alert Corporation, doing business as Tunstall, Long Island City... of American Medical Alert Corporation, doing business as Tunstall, Clovis, New Mexico, who...

  6. 21 CFR 26.50 - Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.50 Alert system and exchange of postmarket vigilance reports. (a) An alert system will be set up during the transition period and...

  7. 47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the distress alert orally over the telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel... DSC channel on which the distress alert was transmitted; and (3) Tune for radiotelephony transmission... telephony distress traffic channel associated with each DSC channel on which the distress alert...

  8. 14 CFR 135.180 - Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance... Aircraft and Equipment § 135.180 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. (a) Unless otherwise... equipped with an approved traffic alert and collision avoidance system. If a TCAS II system is...

  9. ANTARES: An Undersea Neutrino telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ANTARES (Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and ${Abyss}$ environmental RESearch) deep-sea neutrino telescope is designed to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origin. Neutrinos are unique probes of the high energy universe; being neutral they are not deflected by magnetic fields and interacting weakly they can readily escape from the densest regions of the universe. Potential sources of neutrino are galactic (e.g supernova remnants, micro-quasars) and extra-galactic (e.g active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursters). Annihilation of dark matter particles in the Sun or Galactic Centre is another well motivated potential source of extra terrestrial neutrinos. The ANTARES detector is located 40 km off the coast of Toulon (France) at a depth of 2475m in the Mediterranean Sea. Being located in the Northern hemisphere it studies the Southern sky and in particular has the Galactic Centre in its field of view. Since 2006, the detector has operated continuously in a partial configuration. The detector was compl...

  10. Scientific impact of large telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, S F

    2000-01-01

    The scientific impacts of telescopes worldwide have been compared on the basis of their contributions to (a) the 1000 most-cited astronomy papers published 1991-8 (125 from each year), and (b) the 452 astronomy papers published in Nature 1989-98. 1-m and 2-m ground-based telescopes account for \\~5% of the citations to the top-cited papers, 4-m telescopes 10%, Keck I/II 4%, sub-mm and radio telescopes 4%, HST 8%, other space telescopes 23%. The remaining citations are mainly to theoretical and review papers. The strong showing by 1-m and 2-m telescopes in the 1990s augurs well for the continued scientific impact of 4-m telescopes in the era of 8-m telescopes. The impact of individual ground-based optical telescopes is proportional to collecting area (and approximately proportional to capital cost). The impacts of the various 4-m telescopes are similar, with CFHT leading in citation counts, and WHT in Nature papers. HST has about 15 times the citation impact of a 4-m ground-based telescope, but cost >100 times ...

  11. Control challenges for extremely large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.

    2003-08-01

    The next generation of large ground-based optical telescopes are likely to involve a highly segmented primary mirror that must be controlled in the presence of wind and other disturbances, resulting in a new set of challenges for control. The current design concept for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) includes 1080 segments in the primary mirror, with the out-of-plane degrees of freedom actively controlled. In addition to the 3240 primary mirror actuators, the secondary mirror of the telescope will also require at least 5 degree of freedom control. The bandwidth of both control systems will be limited by coupling to structural modes. I discuss three control issues for extremely large telescopes in the context of the CELT design, describing both the status and remaining challenges. First, with many actuators and sensors, the cost and reliability of the control hardware is critical; the hardware requirements and current actuator design are discussed. Second, wind buffeting due to turbulence inside the telescope enclosure is likely to drive the control bandwidth higher, and hence limitations resulting from control-structure-interaction must be understood. Finally, the impact on the control architecture is briefly discussed.

  12. Introduction to the Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Ji, H.

    2012-12-01

    In order to detect the fine structures of solar magnetic field and dynamic field, an 8 meter solar telescope has been proposed by Chinese solar community. Due to the advantages of ring structure in polarization detection and thermal control, the current design of CGST (Chinese Giant Solar Telescope) is an 8 meter ring solar telescope. The spatial resolution of CGST is equivalent to an 8 meter diameter telescope, and the light-gathering power equivalent to a 5 meter full aperture telescope. The integrated simulation of optical system and imaging ability such as optical design, MCAO, active maintenance of primary mirror were carried out in this paper. Mechanical system was analyzed by finite element method too. The results of simulation and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demand of most science cases not only in infrared band but also in near infrared band and even in visible band. CGST was proposed by all solar observatories in Chinese Academy of Sciences and several overseas scientists. It is supported by CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  13. New Radio Telescope Makes First Scientific Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    first since Magellan to cover large areas of the planet's surface, will provide images showing surface features as small as about 1 km (3,000 ft), only three times the size of the Arecibo telescope itself. Venus may be a geologically active planet similar to the Earth, and the new images will be used to look for changes on Venus due to volcanic activity, landslides and other processes that may have modified the surface since the Magellan mission. The radar echoes received by both telescopes also can be combined to form a radar interferometer capable of measuring altitudes over some of the planet's mountainous regions with considerably better detail than was achieved by Magellan. These were the first scheduled observations with the new Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, demonstrating its capabilities for solar-system studies. In addition to the observations of Venus, a tiny 150m (500 ft) asteroid, 2001 EC16, was imaged with the two telescopes working as a combined radar system on March 26 when the asteroid was only 8 times the distance of the Moon from the Earth. The image could show details on the asteroid's surface only 15 meters (50 ft) in size and shows EC16 to be an irregularly shaped object rotating about once every 200 hrs, one of the slowest rotation rates so far measured for these objects. It took about 20 seconds for the radar signal to go to EC16 and back, compared with the almost 5 minutes needed to go to Venus and back. EC16 was discovered by the NEAT asteroid survey on March 15, 11 days prior to the radar observations. Very large numbers of these near-Earth asteroids are being discovered and the combined Arecibo-GBT radar system will be needed to properly study a significant number of them. The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope The observing team led by Campbell also included Jean-Luc Margot of Caltech, Lynn Carter of Cornell, and Bruce Campbell of the Smithsonian Institution. The 100-meter (330 feet) Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope was dedicated in

  14. DAIDALUS: Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar; Narkawicz, Anthony; Consiglio, Maria; Chamberlain, James; Hagen, George; Upchurch, Jason; Dutle, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DAIDALUS (Detect and Avoid Alerting Logic for Unmanned Systems), a reference implementation of a detect and avoid concept intended to support the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into civil airspace. DAIDALUS consists of self-separation and alerting algorithms that provide situational awareness to UAS remote pilots. These algorithms have been formally specified in a mathematical notation and verified for correctness in an interactive theorem prover. The software implementation has been verified against the formal models and validated against multiple stressing cases jointly developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and NASA. The DAIDALUS reference implementation is currently under consideration for inclusion in the appendices to the Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Unmanned Aircraft Systems presently being developed by RTCA Special Committee 228.

  15. Android Based Rush And Drunk Driver Alerting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy D. Goswami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Rush driving and driving after consumption of alcohol is a major cause of road accident worldwide. In this paper we proposed an idea to alert rush and drunk driver at early stage before actual accident take place. Complete system works on a cell phone having software installed in it with some sensor. The program calculates the sensor reading and matches with the pattern already present in system, if match found then an alert will give to driver and also a text message will send to the relative asking for help with location details. This system will design on an android based cell phone. Our proposed system will prevent many accidents to occur and save lives.

  16. PROMPT: Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Reichart, D; Moran, J; Bartelme, J; Bayliss, M; Foster, A; Clemens, J C; Price, P; Evans, C; Salmonson, J; Trammell, S; Carney, B W; Keohane, J; Gotwals, R

    2005-01-01

    Funded by $1.2M in grants and donations, we are now building PROMPT at CTIO. When completed in late 2005, PROMPT will consist of six 0.41-meter diameter Ritchey-Chretien telescopes on rapidly slewing mounts that respond to GRB alerts within seconds, when the afterglow is potentially extremely bright. Each mirror and camera coating is being optimized for a different wavelength range and function, including a NIR imager, two red-optimized imagers, a blue-optimized imager, an UV-optimized imager, and an optical polarimeter. PROMPT will be able to identify high-redshift events by dropout and distinguish these events from the similar signatures of extinction. In this way, PROMPT will act as a distance-finder scope for spectroscopic follow up on the larger 4.1-meter diameter SOAR telescope, which is also located at CTIO. When not chasing GRBs, PROMPT serves broader educational objectives across the state of North Carolina. Enclosure construction and the first two telescopes are now complete and functioning: PROMPT ...

  17. The Planck Telescope reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    The mechanical division of EADS-Astrium GmbH, Friedrichshafen is currently engaged with the development, manufacturing and testing of the advanced dimensionally stable composite reflectors for the ESA satellite borne telescope Planck. The objective of the ESA mission Planck is to analyse the first light that filled the universe, the cosmic microwave background radiation. Under contract of the Danish Space Research Institute and ESA EADS-Astrium GmbH is developing the all CFRP primary and secondary reflectors for the 1.5-metre telescope which is the main instrument of the Planck satellite. The operational frequency ranges from to 25 GHz to 1000 GHz. The demanding high contour accuracy and surface roughness requirements are met. The design provides the extreme dimensional stability required by the cryogenic operational environment at around 40 K. The elliptical off-axis reflectors display a classical lightweight sandwich design with CFRP core and facesheets. Isostatic mounts provide the interfaces to the telescope structure. Protected VDA provides the reflecting surface. The manufacturing is performed at the Friedrichshafen premises of EADS-Space Transportation GmbH, the former Dornier composite workshops. Advanced manufacturing technologies like true angle lay-up by CNC fibre placement and filament winding are utilized. The protected coating is applied at the CAHA facilities at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. The exhaustive environmental testing is performed at the facilities of IABG, Munich (mechanical testing) and for the cryo-optical tests at CSL Liege. The project is in advanced state with both Qualification Models being under environmental testing. The flight models will be delivered in 2004. The paper gives an overview over the requirements and the main structural features how these requirements are met. Special production aspects and available test results are reported.

  18. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (psleep efficiency in the nap condition (pSleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (peffects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT

  19. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (psleep efficiency in the nap condition (preduction of nocturnal Total Sleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (pSleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening

  20. Selective impairment of attentional networks of alerting in Wilson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Han

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease (WD is typically affected by attention, which is one of the cognitive domains. The Attention Network Test (ANT was developed to measure the functioning of the following three individual attentional networks: orienting, alerting, and executive control. The ANT has been used in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions; however, it has not been used in WD. The aim of this study was to investigate the attentional function of WD patients, and 35 patients with early and moderate neurological WD, as well as 35 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls performed the ANT. Remarkable differences between the patients and healthy controls were observed in the alerting network (p = 0.007 in contrast the differences in the orienting (p = 0.729 and executive control (p = 0.888 networks of visual attention. The mean reaction time in the ANT was significantly longer in the WD patients than in the controls (p<0.001, 0.001. In the WD patients, there was an effect specifically on the alerting domain of the attention network, whereas the orienting and executive control domains were not affected.

  1. Addressing Inpatient Glycaemic Control with an Inpatient Glucometry Alert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Seheult

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor inpatient glycaemic control has a prevalence exceeding 30% and results in increased length of stay and higher rates of hospital complications and inpatient mortality. The aim of this study was to improve inpatient glycaemic control by developing an alert system to process point-of-care blood glucose (POC-BG results. Methods. Microsoft Excel Macros were developed for the processing of daily glucometry data downloaded from the Cobas IT database. Alerts were generated according to ward location for any value less than 4 mmol/L (hypoglycaemia or greater than 15 mmol/L (moderate-severe hyperglycaemia. The Diabetes Team provided a weekday consult service for patients flagged on the daily reports. This system was implemented for a 60-day period. Results. There was a statistically significant 20% reduction in the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted values >15 mmol/L compared to the preimplementation period without a significant change in the percentage of hypoglycaemic values. The time-to-next-reading after a dysglycaemic POC-BG result was reduced by 14% and the time-to-normalization of a dysglycaemic result was reduced from 10.2 hours to 8.4 hours. Conclusion. The alert system reduced the percentage of hyperglycaemic patient-day weighted glucose values and the time-to-normalization of blood glucose.

  2. Real-Time Mapping alert system; user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has an extensive hydrologic network that records and transmits precipitation, stage, discharge, and other water- related data on a real-time basis to an automated data processing system. Data values are recorded on electronic data collection platforms at field monitoring sites. These values are transmitted by means of orbiting satellites to receiving ground stations, and by way of telecommunication lines to a U.S. Geological Survey office where they are processed on a computer system. Data that exceed predefined thresholds are identified as alert values. These alert values can help keep water- resource specialists informed of current hydrologic conditions. The current alert status at monitoring sites is of critical importance during floods, hurricanes, and other extreme hydrologic events where quick analysis of the situation is needed. This manual provides instructions for using the Real-Time Mapping software, a series of computer programs developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for quick analysis of hydrologic conditions, and guides users through a basic interactive session. The software provides interactive graphics display and query of real-time information in a map-based, menu-driven environment.

  3. Generic Model to Send Secure Alerts for Utility Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez–Díaz J.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In some industries such as logistics services, bank services, and others, the use of automated systems that deliver critical business information anytime and anywhere play an important role in the decision making process. This paper introduces a "Generic model to send secure alerts and notifications", which operates as a middleware between enterprise data sources and its mobile users. This model uses Short Message Service (SMS as its main mobile messaging technology, however is open to use new types of messaging technologies. Our model is interoperable with existing information systems, it can store any kind of information about alerts or notifications at different levels of granularity, it offers different types of notifications (as analert when critical business problems occur,asanotificationina periodical basis or as 2 way query. Notification rules can be customized by final users according to their preferences. The model provides a security framework in the cases where information requires confidentiality, it is extensible to existing and new messaging technologies (like e–mail, MMS, etc. It is a platform, mobile operator and hardware independent. Currently, our solution is being used at the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (Mexico's utility company to deliver secure alerts related to critical events registered in the main power generation plants of our country.

  4. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  5. The LOFT Burst Alert System and its Burst On-board Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Schanne, S; Provost, H Le; Château, F; Bozzo, E; Brandt, S

    2014-01-01

    The ESA M3 candidate mission LOFT (Large Observatory For x-ray Timing) has been designed to study strong gravitational fields by observing compact objects, such as black-hole binaries or neutron-star systems and supermassive black-holes, based on the temporal analysis of photons collected by the primary instrument LAD (Large Area Detector), sensitive to X-rays from 2 to 50 keV, offering a very large effective area (>10 m 2 ), but a small field of view ({\\o}{\\pi} sr), the WFM actually detects all types of transient sources, including Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), which are of primary interest for a world-wide observers community. However, observing the quickly decaying GRB afterglows with ground-based telescopes needs the rapid knowledge of their precise localization. The task of the Loft Burst Alert System (LBAS) is therefore to detect in near- real-time GRBs (about 120 detections expected per year) and other transient sources, and to deliver their localization in less than 30 seconds to the observers, via a VHF a...

  6. Parallel waveform extraction algorithms for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Real-Time Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zoli, Andrea; De Rosa, Adriano; Aboudan, Alessio; Fioretti, Valentina; De Cesare, Giovanni; Marx, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation observatory for the study of very high-energy gamma rays from about 20 GeV up to 300 TeV. Thanks to the large effective area and field of view, the CTA observatory will be characterized by an unprecedented sensitivity to transient flaring gamma-ray phenomena compared to both current ground (e.g. MAGIC, VERITAS, H.E.S.S.) and space (e.g. Fermi) gamma-ray telescopes. In order to trigger the astrophysics community for follow-up observations, or being able to quickly respond to external science alerts, a fast analysis pipeline is crucial. This will be accomplished by means of a Real-Time Analysis (RTA) pipeline, a fast and automated science alert trigger system, becoming a key system of the CTA observatory. Among the CTA design key requirements to the RTA system, the most challenging is the generation of alerts within 30 seconds from the last acquired event, while obtaining a flux sensitivity not worse than the one of the final analysis by more than a fac...

  7. An open source multistep model to predict mutagenicity from statistical analysis and relevant structural alerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gini Giuseppina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenicity is the capability of a substance to cause genetic mutations. This property is of high public concern because it has a close relationship with carcinogenicity and potentially with reproductive toxicity. Experimentally, mutagenicity can be assessed by the Ames test on Salmonella with an estimated experimental reproducibility of 85%; this intrinsic limitation of the in vitro test, along with the need for faster and cheaper alternatives, opens the road to other types of assessment methods, such as in silico structure-activity prediction models. A widely used method checks for the presence of known structural alerts for mutagenicity. However the presence of such alerts alone is not a definitive method to prove the mutagenicity of a compound towards Salmonella, since other parts of the molecule can influence and potentially change the classification. Hence statistically based methods will be proposed, with the final objective to obtain a cascade of modeling steps with custom-made properties, such as the reduction of false negatives. Results A cascade model has been developed and validated on a large public set of molecular structures and their associated Salmonella mutagenicity outcome. The first step consists in the derivation of a statistical model and mutagenicity prediction, followed by further checks for specific structural alerts in the "safe" subset of the prediction outcome space. In terms of accuracy (i.e., overall correct predictions of both negative and positives, the obtained model approached the 85% reproducibility of the experimental mutagenicity Ames test. Conclusions The model and the documentation for regulatory purposes are freely available on the CAESAR website. The input is simply a file of molecular structures and the output is the classification result.

  8. RESEARCH PROPOSAL: AN INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM ALERT REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK BASED ON DATA MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Al-Saedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Intrusion Detection System (IDS generates huge amounts of alerts that are mostly false positives. The abundance of false positive alerts makes it difficult for the security analyst to identify successful attacks and to take remedial actions. Such alerts to have not been classified in accordance with their degree of threats. They further need to be processed to ascertain the most serious alerts and the time of the reaction response. They may take a long time and considerable space to discuss thoroughly. Each IDS generates a huge amount of alerts where most of them are real while the others are not (i.e., false alert or are redundant alerts. The false alerts create a serious problem for intrusion detection systems. Alerts are defined based on source/destination IP and source/destination ports. However, one cannot know which of those IP/ports bring a threat to the network. The IDSs’ alerts are not classified depending on their degree of the threat. It is difficult for the security analyst to identify attacks and take remedial action for this threat. So it is necessary to assist in categorizing the degree of the threat, by using data mining techniques. The proposed framework for proposal is IDS Alert Reduction and Assessment Based on Data Mining (ARADMF. The proposed framework contains three systems: Traffic data retrieval and collection mechanism system, reduction IDS alert processes system and threat score process of IDS alert system. The traffic data retrieval and collection mechanism systems develops a mechanism to save IDS alerts, extract the standard features as intrusion detection message exchange format and save them in DB file (CSV-type. It contains the Intrusion Detection Message Exchange Format (IDMEF which works as procurement alerts and field reduction is used as data standardization to make the format of alert as standard as possible. As for Feature Extraction (FE system, it is designed to extract the features of alert by

  9. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next generation ground based observatory for very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy. Gamma-rays provide a powerful insight into the non-thermal universe and hopefully a unique probe for new physics. Imaging Cherenkov telescopes have already discovered more than 170 VHE gamma-ray emitters providing plentiful of valuable data and clearly demonstrating the power of this technique. In spite of the impressive results there are indications that the known sources represent only the tip of the iceberg. A major step in sensitivity is needed to increase the number of detected sources, observe short time-scale variability and improve morphological studies of extended sources. An extended energy coverage is advisable to observe far-away extragalactic objects and improve spectral analysis. CTA aims to increase the sensitivity by an order of magnitude compared to current facilities, to extend the accessible gamma-ray energies from a few tens of GeV to a hundred o...

  10. Large Size Telescope Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, D; Teshima, M

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 photomultiplier tubes and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is ongoing. The installation of the first LST at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain) started in July 2016. In this paper we will outline the technical solutions adopted to f...

  11. Antares Reference Telescope System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  12. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10-6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  13. 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village': the evolution of an iconic brand in Indonesian public health strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Goeman, Lieve; Sofiarini, Rahmi; Djara, Maddi M

    2014-07-01

    In 1999, the Ministry of Women's Empowerment in Indonesia worked with advertisers in Jakarta and international technical advisors to develop the concept of 'Suami SIAGA', the 'Alert Husband', confronting Indonesian males with their responsibilities to be aware of their wives' needs and ensure early access if needed to trained obstetrics care. The model was rapidly expanded to apply to the 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village', with communities assuming the responsibility for awareness of the risks of pregnancy and childbirth, and supporting registered pregnant mothers with funding and transportation for emergency obstetric assistance, and identified blood donors. Based on the participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis, this article uses a systems perspective to trace the evolution of that iconic 'brand' as new national and international actors further developed the concept and its application in provincial and national programmes. In 2010, it underwent a further transformation to become 'Desa Siaga Aktif', a national programme with responsibilities expanded to include the provision of basic health services at village level, and the surveillance of communicable disease, monitoring of lifestyle activities and disaster preparedness, in addition to the management of obstetric emergencies. By tracking the use of this single 'brand', the study provides insights into the complex adaptive system of policy and programme development with its rich interactions between multiple international, national, provincial and sectoral stakeholders, the unpredictable responses to feedback from these actors and their activities and the resultant emergence of new policy elements, new programmes and new levels of operation within the system.

  14. 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village': the evolution of an iconic brand in Indonesian public health strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Peter S; Goeman, Lieve; Sofiarini, Rahmi; Djara, Maddi M

    2014-07-01

    In 1999, the Ministry of Women's Empowerment in Indonesia worked with advertisers in Jakarta and international technical advisors to develop the concept of 'Suami SIAGA', the 'Alert Husband', confronting Indonesian males with their responsibilities to be aware of their wives' needs and ensure early access if needed to trained obstetrics care. The model was rapidly expanded to apply to the 'Desa SIAGA', the 'Alert Village', with communities assuming the responsibility for awareness of the risks of pregnancy and childbirth, and supporting registered pregnant mothers with funding and transportation for emergency obstetric assistance, and identified blood donors. Based on the participant observation, interviews and documentary analysis, this article uses a systems perspective to trace the evolution of that iconic 'brand' as new national and international actors further developed the concept and its application in provincial and national programmes. In 2010, it underwent a further transformation to become 'Desa Siaga Aktif', a national programme with responsibilities expanded to include the provision of basic health services at village level, and the surveillance of communicable disease, monitoring of lifestyle activities and disaster preparedness, in addition to the management of obstetric emergencies. By tracking the use of this single 'brand', the study provides insights into the complex adaptive system of policy and programme development with its rich interactions between multiple international, national, provincial and sectoral stakeholders, the unpredictable responses to feedback from these actors and their activities and the resultant emergence of new policy elements, new programmes and new levels of operation within the system. PMID:23650333

  15. Finite-Fault and Other New Capabilities of CISN ShakeAlert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Heaton, T. H.; Hudnut, K. W.; Hauksson, E.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 6 years, scientists at Caltech, UC Berkeley, the Univ. of Southern California, the Univ. of Washington, the US Geological Survey, and ETH Zurich (Switzerland) have developed the 'ShakeAlert' earthquake early warning demonstration system for California and the Pacific Northwest. We have now started to transform this system into a stable end-to-end production system that will be integrated into the daily routine operations of the CISN and PNSN networks. To quickly determine the earthquake magnitude and location, ShakeAlert currently processes and interprets real-time data-streams from several hundred seismic stations within the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) and the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN). Based on these parameters, the 'UserDisplay' software predicts and displays the arrival and intensity of shaking at a given user site. Real-time ShakeAlert feeds are currently being shared with around 160 individuals, companies, and emergency response organizations to gather feedback about the system performance, to educate potential users about EEW, and to identify needs and applications of EEW in a future operational warning system. To improve the performance during large earthquakes (M>6.5), we have started to develop, implement, and test a number of new algorithms for the ShakeAlert system: the 'FinDer' (Finite Fault Rupture Detector) algorithm provides real-time estimates of locations and extents of finite-fault ruptures from high-frequency seismic data. The 'GPSlip' algorithm estimates the fault slip along these ruptures using high-rate real-time GPS data. And, third, a new type of ground-motion prediction models derived from over 415,000 rupture simulations along active faults in southern California improves MMI intensity predictions for large earthquakes with consideration of finite-fault, rupture directivity, and basin response effects. FinDer and GPSlip are currently being real-time and offline tested in a separate internal

  16. The 4-meter lunar engineering telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Keith; Giannini, Judith A.; Kilgus, Charles C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; May, B. Scott; Cooper, Shannon A.; Schlimm, Gerard H.; Sounder, Charles; Ormond, Karen; Cheek, Eric

    1991-01-01

    The 16-meter diffraction limited lunar telescope incorporates a primary mirror with 312 one-meter segments; 3 nanometer active optics surface control with laser metrology and hexapod positioners; a space frame structure with one-millimeter stability; and a hexapod mount for pointing. The design data needed to limit risk in this development can be obtained by building a smaller engineering telescope on the moon with all of the features of the 16-meter design. This paper presents a 4.33-meter engineering telescope concept developed by the Summer 1990 Student Program of the NASA/JHU Space Grant Consortium Lunar Telescope Project. The primary mirror, made up of 18 one-meter hexagonal segments, is sized to provide interesting science as well as engineering data. The optics are configured as a Ritchey-Chretien with a coude relay to the focal plane beneath the surface. The optical path is continuously monitored with 3-nanometer precision interferometrically. An active optics processor and piezoelectric actuators operate to maintain the end-to-end optical configuration established by wave front sensing using a guide star. The mirror segments, consisting of a one-centimeter thick faceplate on 30-cm deep ribs, maintain the surface figure to a few nanometers under lunar gravity and thermal environment.

  17. Non-visual effects of light on melatonin, alertness and cognitive performance: can blue-enriched light keep us alert?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Laxhmi Chellappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Light exposure can cascade numerous effects on the human circadian process via the non-imaging forming system, whose spectral relevance is highest in the short-wavelength range. Here we investigated if commercially available compact fluorescent lamps with different colour temperatures can impact on alertness and cognitive performance. METHODS: Sixteen healthy young men were studied in a balanced cross-over design with light exposure of 3 different light settings (compact fluorescent lamps with light of 40 lux at 6500K and at 2500K and incandescent lamps of 40 lux at 3000K during 2 h in the evening. RESULTS: Exposure to light at 6500K induced greater melatonin suppression, together with enhanced subjective alertness, well-being and visual comfort. With respect to cognitive performance, light at 6500K led to significantly faster reaction times in tasks associated with sustained attention (Psychomotor Vigilance and GO/NOGO Task, but not in tasks associated with executive function (Paced Visual Serial Addition Task. This cognitive improvement was strongly related with attenuated salivary melatonin levels, particularly for the light condition at 6500K. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the sensitivity of the human alerting and cognitive response to polychromatic light at levels as low as 40 lux, is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system. Thus, the selection of commercially available compact fluorescent lights with different colour temperatures significantly impacts on circadian physiology and cognitive performance at home and in the workplace.

  18. Locus coeruleus noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala facilitates alerting-induced constriction of the rat tail artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mazher; Kulasekara, Keerthi; Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W

    2016-06-01

    The amygdala, innervated by the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, processes salient environmental events. α2-adrenoceptor-stimulating drugs (clonidine-like agents) suppress the behavioral and physiological components of the response to salient events. Activation of sympathetic outflow to the cutaneous vascular bed is part of the physiological response to salience-mediated activation of the amygdala. We have determined whether acute systemic and intra-amygdala administration of clonidine, and chronic immunotoxin-mediated destruction of the noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala, impairs salience-related vasoconstrictor episodes in the tail artery of conscious freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats. After acute intraperitoneal injection of clonidine (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg), there was a dose-related decrease in the reduction in tail blood flow elicited by alerting stimuli, an effect prevented by prior administration of the α2-adrenergic blocking drug idazoxan (1 mg/kg ip or 75 nmol bilateral intra-amygdala). A dose-related decrease in alerting-induced tail artery vasoconstriction was also observed after bilateral intra-amygdala injection of clonidine (5, 10, and 20 nmol in 200 nl), an effect substantially prevented by prior bilateral intra-amygdala injection of idazoxan. Intra-amygdala injection of idazoxan by itself did not alter tail artery vasoconstriction elicited by alerting stimuli. Intra-amygdala injection of saporin coupled to antibodies to dopamine-β-hydroxylase (immunotoxin) destroyed the noradrenergic innervation of the amygdala and the parent noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. The reduction in tail blood flow elicited by standardized alerting stimuli was substantially reduced in immunotoxin-treated rats. Thus, inhibiting the release of noradrenaline within the amygdala reduces activation of the sympathetic outflow to the vascular beds elicited by salient events. PMID:27101292

  19. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  20. The ANTARES neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zornoza, Juan de Dios

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES collaboration completed the installation of the first neutrino detector in the sea in 2008. It consists of a three dimensional array of 885 photomultipliers to gather the Cherenkov photons induced by relativistic muons produced in charged-current interactions of high energy neutrinos close to/in the detector. The scientific scope of neutrino telescopes is very broad: the origin of cosmic rays, the origin of the TeV photons observed in many astrophysical sources or the nature of dark matter. The data collected up to now have allowed us to produce a rich output of physics results, including the map of the neutrino sky of the Southern hemisphere, search for correlations with GRBs, flaring sources, gravitational waves, limits on the flux produced by dark matter self-annihilations, etc. In this paper a review of these results is presented.

  1. The neutrino telescope ANTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleixner Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. The detector consists of a three-dimensional array of 885 photomultiplier tubes, distributed along 12 lines, located at a depth of 2500 m in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of the experiment is the detection of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. The detection principle is based on the observation of Cherenkov-Light emitted by muons resulting from charged-current interactions of muon neutrinos in the vicinity of the detection volume. The main scientific targets of ANTARES include the search for astrophysical neutrino point sources, the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux and the indirect search for dark matter.

  2. Spectroradiometry with Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Smith, Peter L; Colina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Radiometry has been of fundamental importance in astronomy from the early beginnings. Initially, astronomers had their own radiometric system, based on extraterrestrial standards, namely the irradiance of stars expressed in visual magnitudes. Observing and comparing magnitudes in specific spectral bands then led to the astronomical spectrophotometry. The advent of astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy offered the possibility to interpret observations through physical models of stellar atmospheres. Such models had to be constructed based on physics-related units, and such units, rather than magnitudes, were then used for observational tests of the models. In this review, we provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration, and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. Recently, the quest for independent calibrations traceable to laboratory standards has become a well-supported aim, and has led to plans for now also launching ...

  3. REDUCING THE COGNITIVE LOAD ON ANALYSTS THROUGH HAMMING DISTANCE BASED ALERT AGGREGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  4. An optics education program designed around experiments with small telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2010-08-01

    The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has led the development of a new telescope kit for kids as part of a strategic plan to interest young children in science. This telescope has been assembled by tens of thousands of children nationwide, who are now using this high-quality telescope to conduct optics experiments and to make astronomical observations. The Galileoscope telescope kit and its associated educational program are an outgrowth of the NSF sponsored "Hands-On Optics" (HOO) project, a collaboration of the SPIE, the Optical Society of America, and NOAO. This project developed optics kits and activities for upper elementary students and has reached over 20,000 middle school kids in afterschool programs. HOO is a highly flexible educational program and was featured as an exemplary informal science program by the National Science Teachers Association. Our new "Teaching with Telescopes" program builds on HOO, the Galileoscope and other successful optical education projects.

  5. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do social and behavioural patterns influence alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and psychological patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence of relevance to Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in- depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via Short Message Service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated, and so are flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for improvement. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  6. Flood warnings in coastal areas: how do experience and information influence responses to alert services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescaroli, G.; Magni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies discuss the economic and technical aspects of flood warnings. Less attention has been given to the social and behavioural patterns that affect alert services. In particular, the literature focuses on warnings activated in river basins or marine environments without providing clear evidence on Mediterranean coastal areas, even though these are subjected to growing flood risk related to climate change. This paper is a first attempt to bridge this gap. Our research develops an in-depth analysis of the village of Cesenatico on the Adriatic Sea coast. Here the municipality adopted two complementary warning systems: a siren and an alert via short message service (SMS). The analysis focuses on a survey conducted in 2011 and 2012 with 228 participants. The relationships between social and behavioural variables and warning services are investigated as well as flood preparedness and information dissemination. Qualitative evidence from informal interviews is used to support the understanding of key responses. The conclusions show how different social and behavioural patterns can influence the effectiveness and use of warning systems, regardless of the technology adopted and the structural mitigation measures implemented. Education, training and accountability are seen to be critical elements for implementation. Finally, the statistical output is used to suggest new questions and new directions for research.

  7. The OPTX Project II: Hard X-ray Luminosity Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei for z<5

    OpenAIRE

    Yencho, B.; Barger, A. J.; Trouille, L.; Winter, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the largest, most uniform, and most spectroscopically complete to faint X-ray flux limits Chandra sample to date to construct hard 2-8 keV rest-frame X-ray luminosity functions (HXLFs) of spectroscopically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to z~5. In addition, we use a new 2-8 keV local sample selected by the very hard (14-195 keV) SWIFT 9-month Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey to construct the local 2-8 keV HXLF. We do maximum likelihood fits of the combined distant plus loca...

  8. A study of the distant activity of comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) using Herschel and ground-based radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Bockelée-Morvan, D; Crovisier, J; Vandenbussche, B; Swinyard, B M; Biver, N; Lis, D C; Jarchow, C; Moreno, R; Hutsemékers, D; Jehin, E; Küppers, M K; Lara, L M; Lellouch, E; Manfroid, J; de Val-Borro, M; Szutowicz, S; Banaszkiewicz, M; Bensch, F; Blecka, M I; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, T; Fulton, T; Kidger, M; Rengel, M; Waelkens, C; Bergin, E; Blake, G A; Blommaert, J A D L; Cernicharo, J; Decin, L; Encrenaz, P; de Graauw, T; Leeks, S; Medvedev, A S; Naylor, D; Schieder, R; Thomas, N

    2010-01-01

    Comet C/2006 W3 (Christensen) was observed in November 2009 at 3.3 AU from the Sun with Herschel. The PACS instrument acquired images of the dust coma in 70- and 160-micrometers filters, and spectra covering several H2O rotational lines. Spectra in the range 450-1550 GHz were acquired with SPIRE. The comet emission continuum from 70 to 672 micrometers was measured, but no lines were detected. The spectral energy distribution indicates thermal emission from large particles and provides a measure of the size distribution index and dust production rate. The upper limit to the water production rate is compared to the production rates of other species (CO, CH3OH, HCN, H2S, OH) measured with the IRAM 30-m and Nancay telescopes. The coma is found to be strongly enriched in species more volatile than water, in comparison to comets observed closer to the Sun. The CO to H2O production rate ratio exceeds 220%. The dust to gas production rate ratio is on the order of 1.

  9. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  10. Pulsar Observations with Radio Telescope FAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ren-Dong; Wang, Qi-Ming; Zhu, Li-Chun; Zhu, Wen-Bai; Jin, Cheng-Jin; Gan, Heng-Qian

    2006-12-01

    FAST, Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical Telescope, is the Chinese effort for the international project SKA, Square Kilometer Array. An innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and wide band without involving complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Besides a general coverage of those critical technologies involved in FAST concept, the progresses in demonstrating model being constructed at the Miyun Radio Observatory of the NAOC is introduced. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of science goals, for example, the natural hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies, looking for the first generation of shining objects, hearing the possible signal from other civilizations, etc. Among these subjects, the most striking one could be pulsar study. Large scale survey by FAST will not only improve the statistics of the pulsar population, but also may offer us a good fortune to pick up more of the most exotic, even unknown types like a sub-millisecond pulsar or a neutron star -- black hole binary as the telescope is put into operation.

  11. The Student Telescope Network (STN) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannahoe, Ryan M.; Stencel, Robert E.; Bisque, Steve; Rice, Mike

    2003-02-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for pre-college students and teachers. (1) not many schools have teachers trained to use and maintain astronomy equipment; (2) school usually happens during the day and observing normally is a night-time activity; (3) the scourge of light pollution has hidden the stars from many students living in or near cities; (4) there is a general lack of access to expertise when needed. In addition, physically disabled students cannot climb ladders, to access the telescope eyepiece. Internet access to computer-controlled telescopes equipped with digital cameras can solve many of these difficulties. This enables students and their teachers to access well-maintained, robust Internet-controllable telescopes in dark-site locations and to consult more readily with experts. We present the results of technical solutions to Internet-control of telescopes, by Software Bisque, the New Mexico Skies Guest Observatory and the Youth Activities Committee of the Astronomical League in collaboration with Denver University Astronomy. We jointly submitted a funding proposal to the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom, and conducted a pilot program allowing high school students to access a CCD-equipped, accurately-pointing and tracking telescope, controllable over the Web, with a user-friendly skymap browser tool. With suitably placed telescopes worldwide, observing from the classroom in daylight will become feasible, as we have demonstrated with Australian and Eurasian student users of the New Mexico Skies Internet telescope. We report here on a three-month pilot project exploring this solution, conducted Feb-May 2002. User interest proved phenomenal, while user statistics proved diverse and there were distinct lessons learned about how to enhance student participation in the research process. We thank the Institute for Connecting Science Research to the Classroom for a grant to the University of Denver in partial

  12. Alert cell strategy: mechanisms of inflammatory response and organ protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Noboru; Matsuda, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is triggered by various factors such as surgical operation, trauma, burn injury, ischemia, pancreatitis and bacterial translocation. Sepsis is a SIRS associated with bacterial infection. SIRS and sepsis tend to trigger excessive production of inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory molecules and induce multiple organ failure, such as acute lung injury, acute kidney injury and inflammatory cardiac injury. Epithelial and endothelial cells in some major organs express inflammatory receptors on the plasma membrane and work as alert cells for inflammation, and regulation of these alert cells could have a relieving effect on the inflammatory response. In inflammatory conditions, initial cardiac dysfunction is mediated by decreased preload and adequate infusion therapy is required. Tachyarrhythmia is a complication of inflammatory conditions and early control of the inflammatory reaction would prevent the structural remodeling that is resistant to therapies. Furthermore, there seems to be crosstalk between major organs with a central focus on the kidneys in inflammatory conditions. As an alert cell strategy, volatile anesthetics, sevoflurane and isoflurane, seem to have anti-inflammatory effects, and both experimental and clinical studies have shown the beneficial effects of these drugs in various settings of inflammatory conditions. On the other hand, in terms of intravenous anesthetics, propofol and ketamine, their current status is still controversial as there is a lack of confirmatory evidence on whether they have an organ-protective effect in inflammatory conditions. The local anesthetic lidocaine suppressed inflammatory responses upon both systemic and local administration. For the control of inflammatory conditions, anesthetic agents may be a target of drug development in accordance with other treatments and drugs. PMID:25229471

  13. Thermal Energy for Space Cooling--Federal Technology Alert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2000-12-31

    Cool storage technology can be used to significantly reduce energy costs by allowing energy-intensive, electrically driven cooling equipment to be predominantly operated during off peak hours when electricity rates are lower. This Federal Technology Alert, which is sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), describes the basic types of cool storage technologies and cooling system integration options. In addition, it defines the savings potential in the federal sector, presents application advice, and describes the performance experience of specific federal users. The results of a case study of a GSA building using cool storage technology are also provided.

  14. The TACTIC atmospheric Cherenkov Imaging telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Koul, R; Kaul, S K; Kaul, S R; Kumar, N; Yadav, K K; Bhatt, N; Venugopal, K; Goyal, H C; Kothari, M; Chandra, P; Rannot, R C; Dhar, V K; Koul, M K; Kaul, R K; Kotwal, S; Chanchalani, K; Thoudam, S; Chouhan, N; Sharma, M; Bhattacharya, S; Sahayanathan, S

    2007-01-01

    The TACTIC $\\gamma$-ray telescope, equipped with a light collector of area $\\sim$9.5m$^2$ and a medium resolution imaging camera of 349-pixels, has been in operation at Mt.Abu, India since 2001. This paper describes the main features of its various subsystems and its overall performance with regard to (a) tracking accuracy of its 2-axes drive system, (b) spot size of the light collector, (c) back-end signal processing electronics and topological trigger generation scheme, (d) data acquisition and control system and (e) relative and absolute gain calibration methodology. Using a trigger field of view of 11$\\times$11 pixels ($\\sim$ 3.4$^\\circ nsiderable scope for the TACTIC telescope to monitor similar TeV $\\gamma$-ray emission activity from other active galactic nuclei on a long term basis.

  15. Cornell Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT): a 25 m aperture telescope above 5000 m altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Sebring, T A; Radford, S; Zmuidzinas, J; Sebring, Thomas A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Radford, Simon; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Cornell, California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL) have joined together to study development of a 25 meter sub-millimeter telescope (CCAT) on a high peak in the Atacama region of northern Chile, where the atmosphere is so dry as to permit observation at wavelengths as short as 200 micron. The telescope is designed to deliver high efficiency images at that wavelength with a total 1/2 wavefront error of about 10 microns. With a 20 arc min field of view, CCAT will be able to accommodate large format bolometer arrays and will excel at carrying out surveys as well as resolving structures to the 2 arc sec. resolution level. The telescope will be an ideal complement to ALMA. Initial instrumentation will include both a wide field bolometer camera and a medium resolution spectrograph. Studies of the major telescope subsystems have been performed as part of an initial Feasibility Concept Study. Novel aspects of the telescope design include kinematic mounting and active positioning of pr...

  16. Classic Telescopes A Guide to Collecting, Restoring, and Using Telescopes of Yesteryear

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Classic Telescopes explores the exciting world of telescopes past, as well as the possibilities involved in acquiring these instruments. What are classic telescopes? First, the book takes a look at the more traditional telescopes built by the great instrument makers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the dynastic houses founded by the likes of John Dollond, Alvan Clark, Thomas Cooke & Sons and Carl Zeiss, plus some lesser-known luminaries, including John Brashear, John Calver, and Henry Fitz. Instruments constructed from the 1950s until as recently as the early 1990s are now also considered 'classic.' There is thus a very active market for buying and selling these 'modern' classics. The author examines some of the most talked about instruments on the amateur Internet forums, including the Unitron refractors, the Questar 90, a classic 6-inch reflector, the RV-6; a 3-inch F/15 achromat by Fullerscopes; the time-honored AstroScan Richfield reflector; and many, many more. Classic telescopes are of...

  17. Research Experience for Teachers at NRAO-Green Bank: Planning for Cometary Observations with the Green Bank Telescope and Its Application to Chemistry Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Christopher; Lockman, F. J.; Lovell, A.

    2010-01-01

    The NSF-funded "Research Experience for Teachers" project provides teachers an opportunity to work on a current scientific or engineering research project. This paper will describe the development of a Python program as a further expansion of a previous mathematical model3 designed to simulate cometary data collected by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The program allows for user interaction to change parameters such as the comet's distance from the sun, the rate of production of gaseous outflows, lifetime of these gaseous particles and maximum limit for how many gas particles are generated. Furthermore this paper will present results of how students can write their own Python programming code to manipulate these parameters to generate velocity profiles of the out gassed chemical species. Students should be enlightened that Science can be cross disciplinary. Several concepts in Chemistry: sublimation, electromagnetic spectrum, quantum mechanics, gas behavior and chemical kinetics play an important role in the formation of a comet cloud and how that cloud could be observed using radio astronomy. Chemical species such as HCN, CS and HCO+1 have been observed in cometary clouds. The chemical composition of the cloud and its size are a function of its distance from the sun and the radial location from the center of the comet cloud. High-school students at the Louisiana School for Math, Science and the Arts, LA will learn Python programming language to create a mathematical model of a cometary cloud. The students will have formulated models for rate of sublimation, rate of photo-dissociation, and velocity of gas particles as the fundamental framework to determine frequencies and intensities of the molecular spectra. The students will be able to manipulate their code to create various comet cloud scenarios as it might be observed by the GBT.

  18. The Alert Program for Self-Management of Behaviour in Second Level Schools: Results of Phase 1 of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Cobb, Siobhan; Fitzgerald, Brian; Lanigan-O'Keeffe, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on Phase 1 of a pilot programme on self-management of behaviour with challenging class groups of students as part of the evidence-informed practice of the National Behaviour Support Service. The Alert Program is a structured active learning programme using an engine analogy. The person's engine runs on high, low or just…

  19. AGN Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Bigongiari, Ciro

    2006-01-01

    MAGIC is presently the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope with the largest reflecting surface and the lowest energy threshold. MAGIC concluded its first year of regular observation in April 2006. During this period and the preceding commissioning phase, 25 Active Galactic Nuclei have been observed and VHE gamma-ray emission has been confirmed by 4 of them. Two more AGNs have been detected as gamma-ray sources with high statistical significance for the first time. We report in this paper ...

  20. Entrepreneurial Alertness and Spontaneous Learning in the Market Process: the Case of Mama Moon in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Fu-Lai Yu

    2011-01-01

    Israel M. Kirzner’s theory of entrepreneurial alertness follows closely with Mises’ praxeology and argues that the entire role of entrepreneurs lies in their alertness to profit opportunity hitherto unnoticed in the market. In Kirzner’s subjectivist theory of knowledge, alertness to opportunity is subconscious learning. Once subconscious hunch is known, it becomes a resource (knowledge) for the entrepreneur to be utilized to exploit profit. Moreover, in Kirzner’s view, entrepreneurship means ...

  1. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  2. The Large Millimeter Telescope- Gran Telescopio Milimetrico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, W. M.; Schloerb, F. P.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.

    2004-11-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (LMT) project is a collaboration between the University of Massachusetts and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica to build a 50 m diameter telescope that will have good efficiency at wavelengths as short as 1 mm. The LMT will have an overall effective surface accuracy of 70 micrometers and an ultimate pointing accuracy of better than 1 arcsec, and will thus be the largest millimeter-wavelength telescope in the world. The LMT site is Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, at 4,640 meters above sea level in Central Mexico. At 18° 59' N latitude, it offers good sky coverage of both hemispheres. The normally low humidity will allow operation of the radio telescope at frequencies as high as 345 GHz. The LMT will make use of recent advances in structural design and active control of surface elements to achieve the required surface and pointing accuracy. At the site the alidade has been erected and the back structure for the main reflector has been assembled, while the monitor and control system has been successfully tested on another telescope. The schedule calls for acceptance tests in 2006. The initial complement of instruments will include a 32 element, heterodyne focal plane array at 3mm; a large format, focal plane bolometer array; a unique wide band receiver and spectrometer to determine the redshifts of primordial galaxies, and a 4 element receiver for the 1mm band. With its excellent sensitivity and mapping speed, the LMT/GTM will be a powerful facility for planetary science. In particular, it will enable key observations of comets, planetary atmospheres, asteroids and KBOs.

  3. Probing the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously own GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and additional image threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we develop a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image threshold. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection rate of dim bursts. As a result, our simulations suggest bursts need to be dimmer than previously expected to avoid over-producing the number of detections and to match with Swift observations. Moreover, our results indicate that these dim bursts are more likely to be high redshift events than low-luminosity GRBs. This would imply an even higher cosmic GRB rate at large redshifts than previous expectations based on star-formation rate measurements, unless other factors, such as the luminosity evolution, are taken into account. The GRB rate from our best result gives a total number of 4568 +825 -1429 GRBs per year that are beamed toward us in the whole universe.

  4. Probing the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Amy; Sakamoto, Takanori; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection thresho...

  5. Probing the Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Rate with Trigger Simulations of the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Amy; Gehrels, Neil; Palmer, David M; Barthelmy, Scott D; Graziani, Carlo; Cannizzo, John K

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate is essential for revealing the connection between GRBs, supernovae and stellar evolution. Additionally, the GRB rate at high redshift provides a strong probe of star formation history in the early universe. While hundreds of GRBs are observed by Swift, it remains difficult to determine the intrinsic GRB rate due to the complex trigger algorithm of Swift. Current studies of the GRB rate usually approximate the Swift trigger algorithm by a single detection threshold. However, unlike the previously flown GRB instruments, Swift has over 500 trigger criteria based on photon count rate and additional image threshold for localization. To investigate possible systematic biases and explore the intrinsic GRB properties, we develop a program that is capable of simulating all the rate trigger criteria and mimicking the image threshold. Our simulations show that adopting the complex trigger algorithm of Swift increases the detection rate of dim bursts. As a result, our simulations suggest bu...

  6. The Agile Alert System For Gamma-Ray Transients

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgarelli, A; Gianotti, F; Tavani, M; Parmiggiani, N; Fioretti, V; Chen, A W; Vercellone, S; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Lucarelli, F; Santolamazza, P; Fanari, G; Giommi, P; Beneventano, D; Argan, A; Trois, A; Scalise, E; Longo, F; Pellizzoni, A; Pucella, G; Colafrancesco, S; Conforti, V; Tempesta, P; Cerone, M; Sabatini, P; Annoni, G; Valentini, G; Salotti, L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions offered great opportunities of discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) onboard the AGILE space mission. The AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many gamma-ray transients of galactic and extragalactic origins. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast gamma-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe: (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for gamma-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically ...

  7. Promoting alertness with a short nap during a night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallinen, M; Härmä, M; Akerstedt, T; Rosa, R; Lillqvist, O

    1998-12-01

    The use of a short (nap in improving alertness during the early morning hours in the first night shift was examined under laboratory conditions. The study contained four experimental, non-consecutive night shifts with a nap of either 50 or 30 min at 01.00 or 04.00 hours. An experimental night shift without a nap served as a control condition. Each experimental shift was followed by daytime sleep. Fourteen experienced male shift workers went through all of the experimental conditions. The results showed that the naps improved the ability to respond to visual signals during the second half of the night shift. Physiological sleepiness was alleviated by the early naps, as measured 50 min after awakening, but not at the end of the shift. Subjective sleepiness was somewhat decreased by the naps. The naps produced sleep inertia which lasted for about 10-15 min. Daytime sleep was somewhat impaired by the 50 min naps. The study shows that a nap shorter than 1 h is able to improve alertness to a certain extent during the first night shift.

  8. Investigating Driver Fatigue versus Alertness Using the Granger Causality Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanzeng Kong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Driving fatigue has been identified as one of the main factors affecting drivers’ safety. The aim of this study was to analyze drivers’ different mental states, such as alertness and drowsiness, and find out a neurometric indicator able to detect drivers’ fatigue level in terms of brain networks. Twelve young, healthy subjects were recruited to take part in a driver fatigue experiment under different simulated driving conditions. The Electroencephalogram (EEG signals of the subjects were recorded during the whole experiment and analyzed by using Granger-Causality-based brain effective networks. It was that the topology of the brain networks and the brain’s ability to integrate information changed when subjects shifted from the alert to the drowsy stage. In particular, there was a significant difference in terms of strength of Granger causality (GC in the frequency domain and the properties of the brain effective network i.e., causal flow, global efficiency and characteristic path length between such conditions. Also, some changes were more significant over the frontal brain lobes for the alpha frequency band. These findings might be used to detect drivers’ fatigue levels, and as reference work for future studies.

  9. Towards cross-lingual alerting for bursty epidemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Nigel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online news reports are increasingly becoming a source for event-based early warning systems that detect natural disasters. Harnessing the massive volume of information available from multilingual newswire presents as many challanges as opportunities due to the patterns of reporting complex spatio-temporal events. Results In this article we study the problem of utilising correlated event reports across languages. We track the evolution of 16 disease outbreaks using 5 temporal aberration detection algorithms on text-mined events classified according to disease and outbreak country. Using ProMED reports as a silver standard, comparative analysis of news data for 13 languages over a 129 day trial period showed improved sensitivity, F1 and timeliness across most models using cross-lingual events. We report a detailed case study analysis for Cholera in Angola 2010 which highlights the challenges faced in correlating news events with the silver standard. Conclusions The results show that automated health surveillance using multilingual text mining has the potential to turn low value news into high value alerts if informed choices are used to govern the selection of models and data sources. An implementation of the C2 alerting algorithm using multilingual news is available at the BioCaster portal http://born.nii.ac.jp/?page=globalroundup.

  10. A home health monitoring system including intelligent reporting and alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsden, H; Basilakis, J; Celler, B G; Huynh, K; Lovell, N H

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an intelligent reporting and alerts system that has been designed with a specific goal to address the needs of managing chronic and complex disease through the use of home telecare technology. Our approach has been to develop these tools using as far as possible, open standards. Clinical measurement data gathered using home telecare and stored in a relational database in XML format is extracted and converted into a Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) as defined by the Health Level 7 (HL7) organization. Data trends are presented to the clinician as simple graphs and summary statistics (means, standard deviations) over time for an individual patient. Clinicians may receive this data by display through a Web-interface or by email or faxed reports. A Ripple Down Rules (RDR) knowledge base supports more complex decision-making provided in the Alerts module. The RDR output is incorporated into the output reports as a textual statement, and/or a graphical highlighting of key parameters in the trends images and tables. Rule development and validation is part of ongoing research. PMID:17270948

  11. Universal Safety Distance Alert Device for Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Virant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving with too short of a safety distance is a common problem in road traffic, often with traffic accidents as a consequence. Research has identified a lack of vehicle-mountable devices for alerting the drivers of trailing vehicles about keeping a sufficient safe distance. The principal requirements for such a device were defined. A conceptual study was performed in order to select the components for the integration of the device. Based on the results of this study, a working prototype of a flexible, self-contained device was designed, built and tested. The device is intended to be mounted on the rear of a vehicle. It uses radar as the primary distance sensor, assisted with a GPS receiver for velocity measurement. A Raspberry Pi single-board computer is used for data acquisition and processing. The alerts are shown on an LED-matrix display mounted on the rear of the host vehicle. The device software is written in Python and provides automatic operation without requiring any user intervention. The tests have shown that the device is usable on almost any motor vehicle and performs reliably in simulated and real traffic. The open issues and possibilities for future improvements are presented in the Discussion.

  12. Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a joint project of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology to build and operate a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the conceptual design of this telescope.

  13. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mattox, J R

    1999-01-01

    Because of the scheduled GLAST mission by NASA, there is strong scientific justification for preparation for very extensive blazar monitoring in the optical bands to exploit the opportunity to learn about blazars through the correlation of variability of the gamma-ray flux with flux at lower frequencies. Current optical facilities do not provide the required capability.Developments in technology have enabled astronomers to readily deploy automatic telescopes. The effort to create an Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) for blazar monitoring in the GLAST era is described. Other scientific applications of the networks of automatic telescopes are discussed. The potential of the ATN for science education is also discussed.

  14. Formation flight astronomical survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Formation Flight Astronomical Survey Telescope (FFAST) is a project for hard X-ray observation. It consists of two small satellites; one (telescope satellite) has a super mirror covering the energy range up to 80 keV while the other (detector satellite) has an scintillator deposited CCD (SDCCD) having good spatial resolution and high efficiency up to 100 keV. Two satellites will be put into individual Kepler orbits forming an X-ray telescope with a focal length of 20 m. They will be not in pointing mode but in survey mode to cover a large sky region.

  15. Polarimetry with multiple mirror telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    The polarizations of multiple mirror telescopes are calculated using Mueller calculus. It is found that the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) produces a constant depolarization that is a function of wavelength and independent of sky position. The efficiency and crosstalk are modeled and experimentally verified. The two- and four-mirror new generation telescopes are found to produce sinusoidal depolarization for which an accurate interpretation of the incident Stokes vector requires inverse matrix calculations. Finally, the depolarization of f/1 paraboloids is calculated and found to be less than 0.1 percent at 3000 A.

  16. Ice Middleware in the New Solar Telescope's Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumko, S.

    2009-09-01

    The Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is now in the process of assembling and aligning its 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST). There are many challenges controlling NST and one of them is establishing reliable and robust communications between different parts of the Telescope Control System (TCS). For our TCS we selected Ice (Internet communication engine) from ZeroC, Inc. In this paper we discuss advantages of the Ice middleware, details of implementation and problems we face implementing it.

  17. Bhavnagar Telescope: the most widely travelled telescope in the country

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Vagiswari, A

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade of the 19th century Maharaja Takhtasingji Observatory was built at Poona (1888-1912) under the supervision of K.D.Naegamavala, with the grant from Maharaja of Bhavnagar (from where the name Bhavnagar Telescope must have originated. The story of this telescope from its inception to the current status is traced. IIA Archives has been extensively used to resource information for this note.

  18. The small size telescope projects for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The small size telescopes (SSTs), spread over an area of several square km, dominate the CTA sensitivity in the photon energy range from a few TeV to over 100 TeV, enabling for the detailed exploration of the very high energy gamma-ray sky. The proposed telescopes are innovative designs providing a wide field of view. Two of them, the ASTRI (Astrophysics con Specchi a Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) and the GCT (Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope) telescopes, are based on dual mirror Schwarzschild-Couder optics, with primary mirror diameters of 4 m. The third, SST-1M, is a Davies-Cotton design with a 4 m diameter mirror. Progress with the construction and testing of prototypes of these telescopes is presented. The SST cameras use silicon photomultipliers, with preamplifier and readout/trigger electronics designed to optimize the performance of these sensors for (atmospheric) Cherenkov light. The status of the camera developments is discussed. The SST sub-array will consist of about 70 telescopes at the CTA souther...

  19. Science operations for LCOGT: a global telescope network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, T.; Brown, T.; Hjelstrom, A.; Howell, D. A.; Lister, T.; Pickles, A.; Rosing, W.; Saunders, E.; Street, R.; Walker, Z.

    2014-08-01

    The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network comprises nine 1-meter and two 2-meter telescopes, all robotic and dynamically scheduled, at five sites spanning the globe. Instrumentation includes optical imagers and low-dispersion spectrographs. A suite of high-dispersion, high-stability spectrographs is being developed for deployment starting late this year. The network has been designed and built to allow regular monitoring of time-variable or moving objects with any cadence, as well as rapid response to external alerts. Our intent is to operate it in a totally integrated way, both in terms of scheduling and in terms of data quality. The unique attributes of the LCOGT network make it different enough from any existing facility that alternative approaches to optimize science productivity can be considered. The LCOGT network V1.0 began full science operations this year. It is being used in novel ways to undertake investigations related to supernovae, microlensing events, solar system objects, and exoplanets. The network's user base includes a number of partners, who are providing resources to the collaboration. A key project program brings together many of these partners to carry out large projects. In the long term, our vision is to operate the network as a part of a time-domain system, in which pre-planned monitoring observations are interspersed with autonomously detected and classified events from wide-area surveys.

  20. Lightweighted ZERODUR for telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, T.; Davis, M.; Hartmann, P.; Hull, T.; Jedamzik, R.

    2014-07-01

    The glass ceramic ZERODUR® from SCHOTT has an excellent reputation as mirror blank material for earthbound and space telescope applications. It is known for its extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. Recent improvements in CNC machining at SCHOTT allow achieving extremely light weighted substrates up to 90% incorporating very thin ribs and face sheets. In 2012 new ZERODUR® grades EXPANSION CLASS 0 SPECIAL and EXTREME have been released that offer the tightest CTE grades ever. With ZERODUR® TAILORED it is even possible to offer ZERODUR® optimized for customer application temperature profiles. In 2013 SCHOTT started the development of a new dilatometer setup with the target to drive the industrial standard of high accuracy thermal expansion metrology to its limit. In recent years SCHOTT published several paper on improved bending strength of ZERODUR® and lifetime evaluation based on threshold values derived from 3 parameter Weibull distribution fitted to a multitude of stress data. ZERODUR® has been and is still being successfully used as mirror substrates for a large number of space missions. ZERODUR® was used for the secondary mirror in HST and for the Wolter mirrors in CHANDRA without any reported degradation of the optical image quality during the lifetime of the missions. Some years ago early studies on the compaction effects of electron radiation on ZERODUR® were re analyzed. Using a more relevant physical model based on a simplified bimetallic equation the expected deformation of samples exposed in laboratory and space could be predicted in a much more accurate way. The relevant ingredients for light weighted mirror substrates are discussed in this paper: substrate material with excellent homogeneity in its properties, sufficient bending strengths, space radiation hardness and CNC machining capabilities.

  1. Construction Milestone Announced on Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory announces completion of a major construction milestone on the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope - the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The last of 2,004 aluminum surface panels was recently installed on the GBT's two-acre (100 m x 110 m) collecting dish. The telescope is located at NRAO's Green Bank site, in rural Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The GBT will be used to study everything from the formation of galaxies in the early universe, to the chemical make-up of the dust and gas inside galaxies and in the voids that separate them, to the birth processes of stars. In conjunction with other instruments, it will help make highly accurate radar maps of some familiar objects in our own solar system. The GBT is an engineering marvel. At 485 feet tall, it is comparable in height to the Washington Monument. It weighs 16 million pounds, yet by swiveling the dish in both azimuth and elevation, it can be pointed to any point in the sky with exquisite accuracy. Additionally, the telescope's two-acre collecting dish has many novel features. Most radio telescopes in use today use receivers suspended above the dish by four struts. These struts block some of the surface of the dish, scattering some of the incoming radio waves from celestial objects under study. The GBT's offset feedarm has no struts to block incoming radio waves. The GBT also boasts an active surface. The surface of the dish is composed of 2,004 panels. On the underside of the dish, actuators are located at each corner (i.e., intersection of four panels). These actuators are motors that move the surface panels up and down, keeping the (paraboloid) shape of the dish precisely adjusted, no matter what the tilt of the telescope. The combination of its unblocked aperture and active surface promise that the GBT will display extremely high sensitivity to faint radio signals. The GBT itself is not the only precious national resource in

  2. Recent GRBs observed with the 1.23m CAHA telescope and the status of its upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gorosabel, Javier; Jelinek, Martin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Postigo, Antonio de Ugarte; Carrion, Sebastian Castillo; Guziy, Sergey; Cunniffe, Ronan; Fernandez, Matilde; Huelamo, Nuria; Terron, Victor; Morales, Nicolas; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Mottola, Stefano; Carsenty, Uri; .,

    2010-01-01

    We report on optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) followed up by our collaboration with the 1.23m telescope located at the Calar Alto observatory. The 1.23m telescope is an old facility, currently undergoing upgrades to enable fully autonomous response to GRB alerts. We discuss the current status of the control system upgrade of the 1.23m telescope. The upgrade is being done by the ARAE our group, based on members of IAA (Instituto de Astrofiisica de Andalucia). Currently the ARAE group is responsible to develop the BOOTES network of robotic telescopes based on the Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version (RTS2), which controls the available instruments and interacts with the EPICS database of Calar Alto. Currently the telescope can run fully autonomously or under observer supervision using RTS2. The fast reaction response mode for GRB reaction (typically with response times below 3 minutes from the GRB onset) still needs some development and testing. The telescope is usually operated in legacy interac...

  3. The Chinese Giant Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong; Deng, Yuanyong; Ji, Haisheng

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope is the next generation ground-based solar telescope. The main science task of this telescope is to observe the ultra fine structures of the solar magnetic field and dynamic field. Due to the advantages in polarization detection and thermal controlling with a symmetrical circular system, the current design of CGST is a 6~8 meter circular symmetrical telescope. The results of simulations and analysis showed that the current design could meet the demands of most science cases not only in infrared bands but also in near infrared bands and even in visible bands. The prominences and the filaments are very important science cases of CGST. The special technologies for prominence observation will be developed, including the day time laser guide star and MCAO. CGST is proposed by all solar observatories and several institutes and universities in China. It is supported by CAS and NSFC (National Natural Science Foundation of China) as a long term astronomical project.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Clampin, M; Doyon, R; Greenhouse, M A; Hammel, H B; Hutchings, J B; Jakobsen, P; Lilly, S J; Long, K S; Lunine, J I; McCaughrean, M J; Mountain, M; Nella, J; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Rix, H W; Smith, E P; Sonneborn, G; Stiavelli, M; Stockman, H S; Windhorst, R A; Wright, G S; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-infrared camera, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 to 5.0 microns, while the mid-infrared instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 to 29 microns. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-e...

  5. MyNewsFlash: A System for Near Real-Time Variable Star Monitoring and Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Turner, R.; Malatesta, K.; Simonsen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    MyNewsFlash is an automated and customizable system for distributing timely variable star data. It supplies near real-time reports to the user of the latest activity of a variable star or class of stars. The stars it monitors, the frequency of report delivery, the delivery format, and more features are all completely customizable so the reader receives only reports of information he or she wants and nothing more or less. In addition, manually-generated alerts called Special MyNewsFlashes are occasionally sent out with additional information on special or abnormal behavior of a variable star. MyNewsFlash evolved from the AAVSO News Flash, an electronic publication dedicated to outbursts of popular cataclysmic variable stars

  6. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Robert O.

    1994-04-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  7. Optical Synoptic Telescopes: New Science Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have proven the power of large data sets for answering fundamental astrophysical questions. This observational progress, based on a synergy of advances in telescope construction, detectors, and information technology, has had a dramatic impact on nearly all fields of astronomy, and areas of fundamental physics. The next-generation instruments, and the surveys that will be made with them, will maintain this revolutionary progress. The hardware and computational technical challenges and the exciting science opportunities are attracting scientists and engineers from astronomy, optics, low-light-level detectors, high-energy physics, statistics, and computer science. The history of astronomy has taught us repeatedly that there are surprises whenever we view the sky in a new way. This will be particularly true of discoveries emerging from a new generation of sky surveys. Imaging data from large ground-based active optics telescopes with sufficie...

  8. Vibration damping for the Segmented Mirror Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Yingling, Adam J.; Griffin, Steven F.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Cobb, Richard G.; Chambers, Trevor S.

    2012-09-01

    The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey is a next-generation deployable telescope, featuring a 3-meter 6-segment primary mirror and advanced wavefront sensing and correction capabilities. In its stowed configuration, the SMT primary mirror segments collapse into a small volume; once on location, these segments open to the full 3-meter diameter. The segments must be very accurately aligned after deployment and the segment surfaces are actively controlled using numerous small, embedded actuators. The SMT employs a passive damping system to complement the actuators and mitigate the effects of low-frequency (operating deflection shapes of the mirror and to quantify segment edge displacements; relative alignment of λ/4 or better was desired. The TMDs attenuated the vibration amplitudes by 80% and reduced adjacent segment phase mismatches to acceptable levels.

  9. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). Phase A final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.

    1994-04-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum 1,000 and 3,500 Å. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  11. Hubble Space Telescope-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than is visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  12. Physicians’ use of computerized clinical decision supports to improve medication management in the elderly – the Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technology intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagiakrishnan K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan,1 Patricia Wilson,2 Cheryl A Sadowski,3 Darryl Rolfson,1 Mark Ballermann,4,5 Allen Ausford,6,7 Karla Vermeer,7 Kunal Mohindra,8 Jacques Romney,9 Robert S Hayward10 1Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 4Chief Medical Information Office, Alberta Health Services, 5Division of Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, 6Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, 7Lynwood Family Physician, 8eClinician EMR, Alberta Health Services-Information Systems, 9Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, 10Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Background: Elderly people (aged 65 years or more are at increased risk of polypharmacy (five or more medications, inappropriate medication use, and associated increased health care costs. The use of clinical decision support (CDS within an electronic medical record (EMR could improve medication safety.Methods: Participatory action research methods were applied to preproduction design and development and postproduction optimization of an EMR-embedded CDS implementation of the Beers’ Criteria for medication management and the Cockcroft–Gault formula for estimating glomerular filtration rates (GFR. The “Seniors Medication Alert and Review Technologies” (SMART intervention was used in primary care and geriatrics specialty clinics. Passive (chart messages and active (order-entry alerts prompts exposed potentially inappropriate medications, decreased GFR, and the possible need for medication adjustments. Physician reactions were assessed using surveys, EMR simulations, focus groups, and semi-structured interviews. EMR audit data were used to identify eligible patient encounters, the frequency of CDS events, how alerts were managed, and when evidence links were followed.Results: Analysis of

  13. A New System for Clustering and Classification of Intrusion Detection System Alerts Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Azimi Alasti Ahrabi, Ahmad Habibizad Navin, Hadi Bahrbegi, Mir Kamal Mirnia, Mehdi Bahrbegi, Elnaz Safarzadeh & Ali Ebrahimi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS allow to protect systems used byorganizations against threats that emerges network connectivity by increasing.The main drawbacks of IDS are the number of alerts generated and failing. Byusing Self-Organizing Map (SOM, a system is proposed to be able to classifyIDS alerts and to reduce false positives alerts. Also some alert filtering andcluster merging algorithm are introduce to improve the accuracy of the proposedsystem. By the experimental results on DARPA KDD cup 98 the system is able tocluster and classify alerts and causes reducing false positive alerts considerably.

  14. The upgraded MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescaro, D., E-mail: dtescaro@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Dept. Astrofísica, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes underwent a major upgrade in 2011 and 2012. A new 1039-pixel camera and a larger area digital trigger system were installed in MAGIC-I, making it essentially identical to the newer MAGIC-II telescope. The readout systems of both telescopes were also upgraded, with fully programmable receiver boards and DRS4-chip-based digitization systems. The upgrade eased the operation and maintenance of the telescopes and also improved significantly their performance. The system has now an integral sensitivity as good as 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux (for E>400GeV), with an effective analysis threshold at 70 GeV. This allows MAGIC to secure one of the leading roles among the current major ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for the next 5–10 years. - Highlights: • In 2011 and 2012 the MAGIC telescopes underwent a two-stage major upgrade. • The new camera of MAGIC-I allows us to exploit a 1.4 larger trigger area. • The novel DRS4-based readout systems allow a cost-effective ultra-fast digitization. • The upgrade greatly improved the maintainability of the system. • MAGIC has now an optimal integral sensitivity of 0.6% of the Crab Nebula flux.

  15. Evaluating Alerting and Guidance Performance of a UAS Detect-And-Avoid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Man; Park, Chunki; Thipphavong, David P.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge to the routine, safe operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is the development of detect-and-avoid (DAA) systems to aid the UAS pilot in remaining "well clear" of nearby aircraft. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of alerting criteria and pilot response delay on the safety and performance of UAS DAA systems in the context of routine civil UAS operations in the National Airspace System (NAS). A NAS-wide fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess UAS DAA system performance with a large number of encounters and a broad set of DAA alerting and guidance system parameters. Three attributes of the DAA system were controlled as independent variables in the study to conduct trade-off analyses: UAS trajectory prediction method (dead-reckoning vs. intent-based), alerting time threshold (related to predicted time to LoWC), and alerting distance threshold (related to predicted Horizontal Miss Distance, or HMD). A set of metrics, such as the percentage of true positive, false positive, and missed alerts, based on signal detection theory and analysis methods utilizing the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were proposed to evaluate the safety and performance of DAA alerting and guidance systems and aid development of DAA system performance standards. The effect of pilot response delay on the performance of DAA systems was evaluated using a DAA alerting and guidance model and a pilot model developed to support this study. A total of 18 fast-time simulations were conducted with nine different DAA alerting threshold settings and two different trajectory prediction methods, using recorded radar traffic from current Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, and supplemented with DAA-equipped UAS traffic based on mission profiles modeling future UAS operations. Results indicate DAA alerting distance threshold has a greater effect on DAA system performance than DAA alerting time threshold or ownship trajectory prediction method

  16. Real Time Flood Alert System (RTFAS) for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trujillo, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The Real Time Flood Alert System is a web-based computer program, developed as a data integration tool, and designed to increase the ability of emergency managers to rapidly and accurately predict flooding conditions of streams in Puerto Rico. The system includes software and a relational database to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, water levels in streams and reservoirs, and associated storms to determine hazardous and potential flood conditions. The computer program was developed as part of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey Caribbean Water Science Center and the Puerto Rico Emergency Management Agency, and integrates information collected and processed by these two agencies and the National Weather Service.

  17. Alerting prefixes for speech warning messages. [in helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, N. M.; Voorhees, J. W.; Karl, R. L.; Werner, E.

    1984-01-01

    A major question posed by the design of an integrated voice information display/warning system for next-generation helicopter cockpits is whether an alerting prefix should precede voice warning messages; if so, the characteristics desirable in such a cue must also be addressed. Attention is presently given to the results of a study which ascertained pilot response time and response accuracy to messages preceded by either neutral cues or the cognitively appropriate semantic cues. Both verbal cues and messages were spoken in direct, phoneme-synthesized speech, and a training manipulation was included to determine the extent to which previous exposure to speech thus produced facilitates these messages' comprehension. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of human factors research in cockpit display design.

  18. Regional seismic hazard for Revithoussa, Greece: an earthquake early warning Shield and selection of alert signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of an earthquake early warning Shield in Greece is being explored as a European demonstration project. This will be the first early warning system in Europe. The island of Revithoussa is a liquid natural gas storage facility near Athens from which a pipeline runs to a gas distribution centre in Athens. The Shield is being centred on these facilities. The purpose here is to analyze seismicity and seismic hazard in relation to the Shield centre and the remote sensor sites in the Shield network, eventually to help characterize the hazard levels, seismic signals and ground vibration levels that might be observed or create an alert situation at a station. Thus this paper mainly gives estimation of local seismic hazard in the regional working area of Revithoussa by studying extreme peak ground acceleration (PGA and magnitudes. Within the Shield region, the most important zone to be detected is WNW from the Shield centre and is at a relatively short distance (50 km or less, the Gulf of Corinth (active normal faults region. This is the critical zone for early warning of strong ground shaking. A second key region of seismicity is at an intermediate distance (100 km or more from the centre, the Hellenic seismic zone south or southeast from Peloponnisos. A third region to be detected would be the northeastern region from the centre and is at a relatively long distance (about 150 km, Lemnos Island and neighboring region. Several parameters are estimated to characterize the seismicity and hazard. These include: the 50-year PGA with 90% probability of not being exceeded (pnbe using Theodulidis & Papazachos strong motion attenuation for Greece, PGANTP; the 50-year magnitude and also at the 90% pnbe, M50 and MP50, respectively. There are also estimates of the earthquake that is most likely to be felt at a damaging intensity level, these are the most perceptible earthquakes at intensities VI, VII and VIII with magnitudes MVI, MVII and MVIII

  19. Vehicle Theft Alert and Location Identification Using GSM, GPS and Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Suleiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity is one of the major challenges that the entire world is facing now, each country having their peculiar security issues. The crime rate in every part of the society these days has become a threatening issue such that vehicles are now used for committing criminal activities more than before. The issue of vehicle theft has increased tremendously, mostly at gunpoint or car parks. In view of these, there is a need for adequate records of stolen, identified and recovered vehicles which are not readily available in our society and as such very important. The development of a vehicle theft alert and location identification system becomes more necessary for vehicle owners to ensure theft prevention and a speedy identification towards recovery efforts in situations where a vehicle is missing, stolen or driven by an unauthorized person. The theft alert function makes use of a GSM application developed and installed in a mobile phone device which is embedded in the vehicle to communicate with the vehicle owner’s mobile phone. The communication is established via SMS (i.e. between the installed mobile phone device and that of the vehicle owner. The communications established include; (i. Sending an SMS alert from installed mobile phone device to vehicle owner mobile phone when the car ignition is put on. (ii. Sending an SMS from the vehicle owner’s mobile phone to start and stop the installed mobile phone device application. The location identification function makes use of a web application developed to; (i. Determine the real time location of a vehicle by means of tracking using GPS. (ii. Broadcast missing or stolen vehicle information to social media and security agency. The implementation of the installed mobile phone device application was done using JAVA because of its capabilities in programming mobile applications while PHP and MySQL was used for the web application functions. Integration testing of the system was carried out using

  20. Sensor management for collision alert in orbital object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiran; Chen, Huimin; Charalampidis, D.; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2011-06-01

    Given the increasingly dense environment in both low-earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO), a sudden change in the trajectory of any existing resident space object (RSO) may cause potential collision damage to space assets. With a constellation of electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensor platforms and ground radar surveillance systems, it is important to design optimal estimation algorithms for updating nonlinear object states and allocating sensing resources to effectively avoid collisions among many RSOs. Previous work on RSO collision avoidance often assumes that the maneuver onset time or maneuver motion of the space object is random and the sensor management approach is designed to achieve efficient average coverage of the RSOs. Few attempts have included the inference of an object's intent in the response to an RSO's orbital change. We propose a game theoretic model for sensor selection and assume the worst case intentional collision of an object's orbital change. The intentional collision results from maximal exposure of an RSO's path. The resulting sensor management scheme achieves robust and realistic collision assessment, alerts the impending collisions, and identifies early RSO orbital change with lethal maneuvers. We also consider information sharing among distributed sensors for collision alert and an object's intent identification when an orbital change has been declared. We compare our scheme with the conventional (non-game based) sensor management (SM) scheme using a LEO-to-LEO space surveillance scenario where both the observers and the unannounced and unplanned objects have complete information on the constellation of vulnerable assets. We demonstrate that, with adequate information sharing, the distributed SM method can achieve the performance close to that of centralized SM in identifying unannounced objects and making early warnings to the RSO for potential collision to ensure a proper selection of collision avoidance action.

  1. Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents” is an alert system used to safeguard our wildlife. We often hear of various accidents of wild animals like elephant, nilgai etc., who are trying to cross the railway track. So, an intelligent electronics system is necessary which can be affixed to avoid the possibilities of accidents. Regarding this, in our project we are using a Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR sensor which is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR light radiating from objects in its field of view and switches ON any electrical/electronic device to which it is connected to. The key component of the sensor module is the pyroelectric element. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it is radiated at infrared wavelengths, but it is detected by this PIR sensor. This sensor does not radiate any energy for detection purposes and thus, it has no harmful effects on living beings. In our project the PIR sensor is used as a part of a burglar alarm and the electronic in the PIR typically control a small relay. This relay completes the circuit across a pair of electrical contacts connected to a detection input zone of the burglar alarm control panel. The system is usually designed such that if no living creature is being detected, the relay contact is closed- a „normally closed‟ (NC relay. If energy emitted from any nearby creature is detected, the relay opens, triggering the alarm, a signal will be directly sent to the driver‟s chamber and it will create a message in the LED screen of his chamber also an alarm will be heard which we have implemented using an ultrasonic sensor hc-sr04.

  2. Experts Discussing "Alertness in Individuals with PIMD" : A Concept Mapping Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munde, Vera; Vlaskamp, Carla; Ruijssenaars, Wied; Nakken, Han

    2009-01-01

    The alertness of individuals with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities is a recurring issue for both researchers and direct support persons. A literature review reveals that alertness is an ambiguous concept, and information about environmental conditions that may have an impact on alertn

  3. 14 CFR 91.221 - Traffic alert and collision avoidance system equipment and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Traffic alert and collision avoidance... RULES Equipment, Instrument, and Certificate Requirements § 91.221 Traffic alert and collision avoidance... collision avoidance system installed in a U.S.-registered civil aircraft must be approved by...

  4. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  5. 76 FR 81904 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... new safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81556). As required under... arrangements, while encouraging beneficial and innocuous arrangements'' (56 FR 35952, July 29, 1991). Health... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to...

  6. 75 FR 81556 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... solicitation notice for developing new safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts on December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68762... certain non-abusive arrangements, while encouraging beneficial and innocuous arrangements'' (56 FR 35952... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to...

  7. 77 FR 76434 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... solicitation notice for developing new safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts on December 29, 2011 (76 FR 89104... non-abusive arrangements, while encouraging beneficial and innocuous arrangements'' (56 FR 35952, July... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to...

  8. 78 FR 78807 - Solicitation of New Safe Harbors and Special Fraud Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... solicitation notice for developing new safe harbors and Special Fraud Alerts on December 28, 2012 (77 FR 76434... non-abusive arrangements, while encouraging beneficial and innocuous arrangements'' (56 FR 35952, July... Fraud Alerts AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice of intent to...

  9. The Research Productivity of Small Telescopes and Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, F A; Lovell, R L; Kays, S A; Torres, Y V A

    2003-01-01

    We present statistics on the research productivity of astronomical telescopes. These were compiled by finding papers in which new data were presented, noting which telescopes were used, and then counting the number of papers, number of pages, and other statistics. The journals used were the Astronomical Journal, the Astrophysical Journal (including the Letters and Supplements), and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. We also compiled citations from the Science Citation Index. This work was designed to be similar to that of Trimble (1995), except that more recent journals (from 1995) and citations (from 1998) were used. We also did not restrict our sample to large telescopes only: we included all telescopes from which new data were presented, the smallest of which was a 0.1-m. The data were gathered by first-year work-study undergraduates, who were instructed to include data for all telescopes for which they found new data were included in the journals. A by-product of this research wa...

  10. PubMedAlertMe--standalone Windows-based PubMed SDI software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2008-05-01

    PubMedAlertMe is a Windows-based software system for automatically receiving e-mail alert messages about recent publications listed on PubMed. The e-mail messages contain links to newly available abstracts listed on PubMed describing publications that were selectively returned from a specified list of queries. Links are also provided to directly export citations to EndNote, and links are provided to directly forward articles to colleagues. The program is standalone. Thus, it does not require a remote mail server or user registration. PubMedAlertMe is free software, and can be downloaded from: http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/PubMedAlertMe/PubMedAlertMe_setup.zip.

  11. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  12. LISA Telescope Spacer Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeff; Arsenovic, P.; Catelluci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, Howard R.; Preston, A.; Sanjuan, J.; Williams, L.; Mueller, G.

    2010-01-01

    The LISA mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of - 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. We describe the mechanical requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution, layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design. Plans for fabrication and testing will be outlined.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This is a photograph of a 1/15 scale model of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is 42.5-feet (13- meters) long and weighs about 25,000 pounds (11,600 kilograms). The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  14. Alignment and phasing of deployable telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, N. J.; Ulich, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences in coaligning and phasing the Multi-Mirror Telescope (MMT), together with studies in setting up radio telescopes, are presented. These experiences are discussed, and on the basis they furnish, schemes are suggested for coaligning and phasing four large future telescopes with complex primary mirror systems. These telescopes are MT2, a 15-m-equivalent MMT, the University of California Ten Meter Telescope, the 10 m sub-mm wave telescope of the University of Arizona and the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, and the Large Deployable Reflector, a future space telescope for far-IR and sub-mm waves.

  15. The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) optical alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Martin; Koch, Dietmar; Paluszek, Heiko

    2012-09-01

    The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) is the largest radio telescope recently built in Europe - a 64m Radio Telescope designed to operate in a wavelength regime down to 1mm. The SRT is designed in a classical Gregorian configuration, allowing access to the primary mirror focus (F1), the Gregorian focus (F2) as well as a further translation to different F3 using a beam waveguide system and an automated change between different F3 receiver positions. The primary mirror M1, 64m in diameter, is composed by 1008 individual panels. The surface can be actively controlled. It’s surface, as well as the one of the 8 m Gregorian subreflector, needed to be adjusted after panel mounting at the Sardinia site. The measurement technique used is photogrammetry. In case of the large scale M1 a dedicated combination of a large scale and a small scale approach was developed to achieve extremely high accuracy on the large scale dimension. The measurement/ alignment efforts were carried out in 2010 and 2011, with a final completion in spring 2012. The results obtained are presented and discussed. The overall alignment approach also included the absolute adjustments of M2 to M1 and the alignments of M3, M4 and M5. M3 is a rotating mirror guiding the RF beam to M4 or M5, depending on the operational scenario. These adjustments are based on Lasertracker measurements and have been carried out in an integrated approach.

  16. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    Ahigh resolution(σ< 2 μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. EUDET was a coordinated detector R&D programme for the future International Linear Collider providing test beam infrastructure to detector R&D groups. The telescope consists of six sensor planes with a pixel pitch of either 18.4 μm or 10 μmand canbe operated insidea solenoidal magnetic fieldofupto1.2T.Ageneral purpose cooling, positioning, data acquisition (DAQ) and offine data analysis tools are available for the users. The excellent resolution, readout rate andDAQintegration capabilities made the telescopea primary beam tests tool also for several CERN based experiments. In this report the performance of the final telescope is presented. The plans for an even more flexible telescope with three differentpixel technologies(ATLASPixel, Mimosa,Timepix) withinthenew European detector infrastructure project AIDA are presented.

  17. A Novel Data Mining-Based Method for Alert Reduction and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current system managers often have to process huge amounts of alerts per day, which may be produced by all kinds of security products, network management tools or system logs. This has made it extremely difficult for managers to analyze and react to threats and attacks. So an effective technique which can automatically filter and analyze alerts has become urgent need. This paper presents a novel method for handling IDS alerts more efficiently. It introduces a new data mining technique, outlier detection, into this field, and designs a special outlier detection algorithm for identifying true alerts and reducing false positives (i.e. alerts that are triggered incorrectly by benign events. This algorithm uses frequent attribute values mined from historical alerts as the features of false positives, and then filters false alerts by the score calculated based on these features. We also proposed a three-phrase framework, which not only can filter newcome alerts in real time, but also can learn from these alerts and automatically adjust the filtering mechanism to new situations. Moreover our method can help managers analyze the root causes of false positives. And our method needs no domain knowledge and little human assistance, so it is more practical than current ways. We have built a prototype implementation of our method. Through the experiments on DARPA 2000, we have proved that our model can effectively reduce false positives. And on real-world dataset, our model has even higher reduction rate. By comparing with other alert reduction methods, we believe that our model has better performance.

  18. Getting drowsy? Alert/nonalert transitions and visual thalamocortical network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereshpolova, Yulia; Stoelzel, Carl R; Zhuang, Jun; Amitai, Yael; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Swadlow, Harvey A

    2011-11-30

    The effects of different EEG brain states on spontaneous firing of cortical populations are not well understood. Such state shifts may occur frequently under natural conditions, and baseline firing patterns can impact neural coding (e.g., signal-to-noise ratios, sparseness of coding). Here, we examine the effects of spontaneous transitions from alert to nonalert awake EEG states in the rabbit visual cortex (5 s before and after the state-shifts). In layer 4, we examined putative spiny neurons and fast-spike GABAergic interneurons; in layer 5, we examined corticotectal neurons. We also examined the behavior of retinotopically aligned dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) neurons, usually recorded simultaneously with the above cortical populations. Despite markedly reduced firing and sharply increased bursting in the LGNd neurons following the transition to the nonalert state, little change occurred in the spiny neurons of layer 4. However, fast-spike neurons of layer 4 showed a paradoxical increase in firing rates as thalamic drive decreased in the nonalert state, even though some of these cells received potent monosynaptic input from the same LGNd neurons whose rates were reduced. The firing rates of corticotectal neurons of layer 5, similarly to spiny cells of layer 4, were not state-dependent, but these cells did become more bursty in the nonalert state, as did the fast-spike cells. These results show that spontaneous firing rates of midlayer spiny populations are remarkably conserved following the shift from alert to nonalert states, despite marked reductions in excitatory thalamic drive and increased activity in local fast-spike inhibitory interneurons.

  19. NEAT: a microarcsec astrometric telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, M.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Goullioud, R.; Malbet, F.; Leger, A.

    2011-10-01

    NEAT, Nearby Exo-Earth Astrometric Telescope is a medium-small telescope ~ 1m in diameter that is designed to make ultra precise sources prevent normal space telescopes from obtaining accuracies close to 1 uas. Even with a small 1m telescope, photon noise is usually not a problem for the bright nearby target stars. But in general, the reference stars are much fainter. Typically a field of view of ~0.5 deg dia is needed to obtain enough bright reference stars. The NEAT concept uses a very simple but unusual design to avoid optically induced astrometric errors. The third source of error is the accuracy and stability of the focal plane. A 1uas error over a ~2000 arcsec field of view implies the focal plane is accurate or at least stable to 5 parts in 1010 over the lifetime of the mission (~5yrs). The 4th class of error has to do with our knowledge of the PSF and how that PSF is sampled by an imperfect detector. A Nyquist sampled focal plane would have > 2 pixels per λ/D, and centroiding to 1uas means centroiding to 10-5 pixels. This paper describes the mission concept, and an overview of the technology needed to perform 1uas astrometry with a small telescope, and how we overcome problems 1 and 2. A companion paper will describe the technical progress we've made in solving problems 3 and 4.

  20. Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Telescope (ST) represents a new concept regarding spaceborne astronomical observatories. Maintenance crews will be brought to the orbital worksite to make repairs and replace scientific instruments. For major overhauls the telescope can be temporarily returned to earth with the aid of the Shuttle. It will, thus, be possible to conduct astronomical studies with the ST for two decades or more. The five first-generation scientific instruments used with the ST include a wide field/planetary camera, a faint object camera, a faint object spectrograph, a high resolution spectrograph, and a high speed photometer. Attention is given to the optical telescope assembly, the support systems module, aspects of mission and science operations, unscheduled maintenance, contingency orbital maintenance, planned on-orbit maintenance, ground maintenance, ground refurbishment, and ground logistics.

  1. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  2. Superconductor lunar telescopes --Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Pitts, R.; Shore, S.; Oliversen, R.; Stolarik, J.; Segal, K.; Hojaji, H.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new type of telescope designed specifically for the lunar environment of high vacuum and low temperature. Large area UV-Visible-IR telescope arrays can be built with ultra-light-weight replica optics. High T(sub c) superconductors provide support, steering, and positioning. Advantages of this approach are light-weight payload compatible with existing launch vehicles, configurable large area optical arrays, no excavation or heavy construction, and frictionless electronically controlled mechanisms. We have built a prototype and will be demonstarting some of its working characteristics.

  3. Autonomous Dome for Robotic Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Akash; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory operates a 50cm robotic observatory at Mount Abu. This Automated Telescope for Variability Studies (ATVS) makes use of Remote Telescope System 2 (RTS2) for autonomous operations. The observatory uses a 3.5m dome from Sirius Observatories. We have developed electronics using Arduino electronic circuit boards with home grown logic and software to control the dome operations. We are in the process of completing the drivers to link our Arduino based dome controller with RTS2. This document is a short description of the various phases of the development and their integration to achieve the required objective.

  4. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseri, Angelica; Javelle, Pierre; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Floods represent one of the major natural disasters that are often responsible for fatalities and economic losses. Flood warning systems are needed to anticipate the arrival of severe events and mitigate their impacts. Flood alerts are particularly important for risk management and response in the nowcasting of flash floods. In this case, precipitation fields observed in real time play a crucial role and observational uncertainties must be taken into account. In this study, we investigate the potential of a framework which combines a geostatistical conditional simulation method that considers information from precipitation radar and rain gauges, and a distributed rainfall-runoff model to generate an ensemble of precipitation fields and produce probabilistic flood alert maps. We adapted the simulation method proposed by Leblois and Creutin (2013), based on the Turning Band Method (TBM) and a conditional simulation approach, to consider the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar data and rain gauge measurements altogether and generate precipitation ensembles. The AIGA system developed by Irstea and Météo-France for predicting flash floods in the French Mediterranean region (Javelle et al., 2014) was used to transform the generated precipitation ensembles into ensembles of discharge at the outlet of the studied catchments. Finally, discharge ensembles were translated into maps providing information on the probability of exceeding a given flood threshold. A total of 19 events that occurred between 2009 and 2013 in the Var region (southeastern France), a region prone to flash floods, was used to illustrate the approach. Results show that the proposed method is able to simulate an ensemble of realistic precipitation fields and capture peak flows of flash floods. This was shown to be particularly useful at ungauged catchments, where uncertainties on the evaluation of flood peaks are high. The results obtained also show that the approach developed can be used to

  5. A clinical data warehouse-based process for refining medication orders alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussadi, Abdelali; Caruba, Thibaut; Zapletal, Eric; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre; Degoulet, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case report is to evaluate the use of a clinical data warehouse coupled with a clinical information system to test and refine alerts for medication orders control before they were fully implemented. A clinical decision rule refinement process was used to assess alerts. The criteria assessed were the frequencies of alerts for initial prescriptions of 10 medications whose dosage levels depend on renal function thresholds. In the first iteration of the process, the frequency of the 'exceeds maximum daily dose' alerts was 7.10% (617/8692), while that of the 'under dose' alerts was 3.14% (273/8692). Indicators were presented to the experts. During the different iterations of the process, 45 (16.07%) decision rules were removed, 105 (37.5%) were changed and 136 new rules were introduced. Extensive retrospective analysis of physicians' medication orders stored in a clinical data warehouse facilitates alert optimization toward the goal of maximizing the safety of the patient and minimizing overridden alerts.

  6. Quantitative structure carcinogenicity relationship for detecting structural alerts in nitroso-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of environmentally induced cancers is a major health problem of which solutions depend on the rapid and accurate screening of potential chemical hazards. Lately, theoretical approaches such as the one proposed here - Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) - are increasingly used for assessing the risks of environmental chemicals, since they can markedly reduce costs, avoid animal testing, and speed up policy decisions. This paper reports a QSAR study based on the Topological Substructural Molecular Design (TOPS-MODE) approach, aiming at predicting the rodent carcinogenicity of a set of nitroso-compounds selected from the Carcinogenic Potency Data Base (CPDB). The set comprises nitrosoureas (14 chemicals), N-nitrosamines (18 chemicals) C-nitroso-compounds (1 chemical), nitrosourethane (1 chemical) and nitrosoguanidine (1 chemical), which have been bioassayed in male rat using gavage as the route of administration. Here we are especially concerned in gathering the role of both parameters on the carcinogenic activity of this family of compounds. First, the regression model was derived, upon removal of one identified nitrosamine outlier, and was able to account for more than 84% of the variance in the experimental activity. Second, the TOPS-MODE approach afforded the bond contributions - expressed as fragment contributions to the carcinogenic activity - that can be interpreted and provide tools for better understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Finally, and most importantly, we demonstrate the potentialities of this approach towards the recognition of structural alerts for carcinogenicity predictions

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope and multi-wavelength observations of the flaring activity of PKS 1510-089 between 2008 September and 2009 June

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar at z=0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 months period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV and gamma-ray bands, on time scales down to 6-12 hours. The brightest gamma-ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was ~ 2x10^48erg s^-1. The spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range shows a mild curvature well described by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The gamma-ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The gamma-ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry we estimated a black hole mass of ~ 5.4x10^8 solar masses, and an accretion rate of ~ 0.5 solar masses/year. Although the power in the ...

  8. Monitoring of bright blazars with MAGIC telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, C. C.; Satalecka, K.; Thom, M; Backes, M.; Bernardini, E.; Bonnoli, G.; Galante, N.; Goebel, F; Lindfors, E.; Majumdar, P.; Stamerra, A.; Wagner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Blazars, a class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) characterized by a close orientation of their relativistic outflows (jets) towards the line of sight, are a well established extragalactic TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Since 2006, three nearby and TeV bright blazars, Markarian (Mrk) 421, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, are regularly observed by the MAGIC telescope with single exposures of 30 to 60 minutes. The sensitivity of MAGIC allows to establish a flux level of 30% of the Crab flux for each such o...

  9. Sounding the Alert: Designing an Effective Voice for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, E. R.; Given, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The USGS is working with partners to develop the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3083/) to protect life and property along the U.S. West Coast, where the highest national seismic hazard is concentrated. EEW sends an alert that shaking from an earthquake is on its way (in seconds to tens of seconds) to allow recipients or automated systems to take appropriate actions at their location to protect themselves and/or sensitive equipment. ShakeAlert is transitioning toward a production prototype phase in which test users might begin testing applications of the technology. While a subset of uses will be automated (e.g., opening fire house doors), other applications will alert individuals by radio or cellphone notifications and require behavioral decisions to protect themselves (e.g., "Drop, Cover, Hold On"). The project needs to select and move forward with a consistent alert sound to be widely and quickly recognized as an earthquake alert. In this study we combine EEW science and capabilities with an understanding of human behavior from the social and psychological sciences to provide insight toward the design of effective sounds to help best motivate proper action by alert recipients. We present a review of existing research and literature, compiled as considerations and recommendations for alert sound characteristics optimized for EEW. We do not yet address wording of an audible message about the earthquake (e.g., intensity and timing until arrival of shaking or possible actions), although it will be a future component to accompany the sound. We consider pitch(es), loudness, rhythm, tempo, duration, and harmony. Important behavioral responses to sound to take into account include that people respond to discordant sounds with anxiety, can be calmed by harmony and softness, and are innately alerted by loud and abrupt sounds, although levels high enough to be auditory stressors can negatively impact human judgment.

  10. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10→22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of ∼0.2 m (along the beam) and ∼1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km3-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  11. Bringing Perfect Vision to the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevich, Russ; Johansson, Erik; Johnson, Luke; Cavaco, Jeff; National Solar Observatory

    2016-01-01

    The world's largest ground-based solar telescope is one step closer to operation with the acceptance of the deformable mirror engineered by AOA Xinetics, a Northrop Grumman Corporation company. The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST), currently under construction in Haleakala, Hawaii, will offer unprecedented high-resolution images of the sun using the latest adaptive optics technology to provide its distortion-free imaging.Led by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), the Inouye Solar Telescope will help scientists better understand how magnetic fields affect the physical properties of the Sun, what roles they play in our solar system and how they affect Earth.Ground-based telescopes, whether observing the sun or the night sky must contend with atmospheric turbulence that acts as a flexible lens, constantly reshaping observed images. This turbulence makes research on solar activity difficult and drives the need for the latest adaptive optics technology.To provide DKIST with the distortion-free imaging it requires, AOA Xinetics designed a deformable mirror with 1,600 actuators, four times the normal actuator density. This deformable mirror (DM) is instrumental in removing all of the atmospheric blurriness that would otherwise limit the telescope's performance. The mirror also has an internal thermal management system to handle the intense solar energy coming from DKIST's telescope. This poster provides the history behind this incredible success story.

  12. 3D acoustic imaging applied to the Baikal neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebkal, K.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: kebkal@evologics.de; Bannasch, R.; Kebkal, O.G. [EvoLogics GmbH, Blumenstrasse 49, 10243 Berlin (Germany); Panfilov, A.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary pr. 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Wischnewski, R. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15735 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-04-11

    A hydro-acoustic imaging system was tested in a pilot study on distant localization of elements of the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope. For this innovative approach, based on broad band acoustic echo signals and strictly avoiding any active acoustic elements on the telescope, the imaging system was temporarily installed just below the ice surface, while the telescope stayed in its standard position at 1100 m depth. The system comprised an antenna with four acoustic projectors positioned at the corners of a 50 m square; acoustic pulses were 'linear sweep-spread signals'-multiple-modulated wide-band signals (10{yields}22 kHz) of 51.2 s duration. Three large objects (two string buoys and the central electronics module) were localized by the 3D acoustic imaging, with an accuracy of {approx}0.2 m (along the beam) and {approx}1.0 m (transverse). We discuss signal forms and parameters necessary for improved 3D acoustic imaging of the telescope, and suggest a layout of a possible stationary bottom based 3D imaging setup. The presented technique may be of interest for neutrino telescopes of km{sup 3}-scale and beyond, as a flexible temporary or as a stationary tool to localize basic telescope elements, while these are completely passive.

  13. FACT - The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope: Status and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Bretz, T; Backes, M; Biland, A; Boccone, V; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Cadoux, F; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Dorner, D; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Gendotti, A; Grimm, O; von Gunten, H; Haller, C; Hildebrand, D; Horisberger, U; Huber, B; Kim, K -S; Knoetig, M L; Koehne, J -H; Kraehenbuehl, T; Krumm, B; Lee, M; Lorenz, E; Lustermann, W; Lyard, E; Mannheim, K; Meharga, M; Meier, K; Montaruli, T; Neise, D; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Renker, D; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Roeser, U; Stucki, J -P; Schneider, J; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Tobler, S; Viertel, G; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Warda, K; Weitzel, Q; Zaenglein, M

    2013-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov telescope (FACT) is the first telescope using silicon photon detectors (G-APD aka. SiPM). It is built on the mount of the HEGRA CT3 telescope, still located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and it is successfully in operation since Oct. 2011. The use of Silicon devices promises a higher photon detection efficiency, more robustness and higher precision than photo-multiplier tubes. The FACT collaboration is investigating with which precision these devices can be operated on the long-term. Currently, the telescope is successfully operated from remote and robotic operation is under development. During the past months of operation, the foreseen monitoring program of the brightest known TeV blazars has been carried out, and first physics results have been obtained including a strong flare of Mrk501. An instantaneous flare alert system is already in a testing phase. This presentation will give an overview of the project and summarize its goals, status and first results.

  14. Evaluation of patient-held carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) alert card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, K; George, R; Shryane, T; Shankar, K; Cawthorne, J; Worsley, M; Savage, N; Scott, J; Welfare, W

    2016-01-01

    Public Health England recommends patient-held cards for those colonized with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Alert cards were provided to 104 CPE-positive inpatients, with follow-up at six months. Excluding those who died, the response rate was 39%. Sixteen patients (46%) recalled receiving the card; 13 (81%) of these retained it, most (64%) of whom reported using it. This is the first evaluation of a patient-held alert card for any antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria in the UK. This study demonstrated that, when retained, CPE alert cards can be an effective communication tool. Further work is required to evaluate effectiveness and improve retention. PMID:26615457

  15. Concatenation of 'alert' and 'identity' segments in dingoes' alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déaux, Eloïse C; Allen, Andrew P; Clarke, Jennifer A; Charrier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Multicomponent signals can be formed by the uninterrupted concatenation of multiple call types. One such signal is found in dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo. This stereotyped, multicomponent 'bark-howl' vocalisation is formed by the concatenation of a noisy bark segment and a tonal howl segment. Both segments are structurally similar to bark and howl vocalisations produced independently in other contexts (e.g. intra- and inter-pack communication). Bark-howls are mainly uttered in response to human presence and were hypothesized to serve as alarm calls. We investigated the function of bark-howls and the respective roles of the bark and howl segments. We found that dingoes could discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar howl segments, after having only heard familiar howl vocalisations (i.e. different calls). We propose that howl segments could function as 'identity signals' and allow receivers to modulate their responses according to the caller's characteristics. The bark segment increased receivers' attention levels, providing support for earlier observational claims that barks have an 'alerting' function. Lastly, dingoes were more likely to display vigilance behaviours upon hearing bark-howl vocalisations, lending support to the alarm function hypothesis. Canid vocalisations, such as the dingo bark-howl, may provide a model system to investigate the selective pressures shaping complex communication systems. PMID:27460289

  16. Monster telescope hunts blue planets

    CERN Multimedia

    Leake, J

    2003-01-01

    BRITAIN is to back a project to build the world's biggest telescope - so powerful that it could see life-bearing planets in other solar systems. It will need the largest mirror ever built at about 100 metres in diameter (1/2 page).

  17. Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Solar Axion Telescope, CAST, aims to shed light on a 30-year-old riddle of particle physics by detecting axions originating from the 15 million degree plasma in the Sun 's core. Axions were proposed as an extension to the Standard Model of particle physics to explain why CP violation is observed in weak but not strong interactions.

  18. A randomised clinical trial of intrapartum fetal monitoring with computer analysis and alerts versus previously available monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrapartum fetal hypoxia remains an important cause of death and permanent handicap and in a significant proportion of cases there is evidence of suboptimal care related to fetal surveillance. Cardiotocographic (CTG monitoring remains the basis of intrapartum surveillance, but its interpretation by healthcare professionals lacks reproducibility and the technology has not been shown to improve clinically important outcomes. The addition of fetal electrocardiogram analysis has increased the potential to avoid adverse outcomes, but CTG interpretation remains its main weakness. A program for computerised analysis of intrapartum fetal signals, incorporating real-time alerts for healthcare professionals, has recently been developed. There is a need to determine whether this technology can result in better perinatal outcomes. Methods/design This is a multicentre randomised clinical trial. Inclusion criteria are: women aged ≥ 16 years, able to provide written informed consent, singleton pregnancies ≥ 36 weeks, cephalic presentation, no known major fetal malformations, in labour but excluding active second stage, planned for continuous CTG monitoring, and no known contra-indication for vaginal delivery. Eligible women will be randomised using a computer-generated randomisation sequence to one of the two arms: continuous computer analysis of fetal monitoring signals with real-time alerts (intervention arm or continuous CTG monitoring as previously performed (control arm. Electrocardiographic monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling will be available in both arms. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of fetal metabolic acidosis (umbilical artery pH ecf > 12 mmol/L. Secondary outcome measures are: caesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery rates, use of fetal blood sampling, 5-minute Apgar score Discussion This study will provide evidence of the impact of intrapartum monitoring with computer analysis and real

  19. Facility level thermal systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Fraser, Mark; Climent, Tània

    2012-09-01

    The management and control of the local aero-thermal environment is critical for success of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). In addition to minimizing disturbances to local seeing, the facility thermal systems must meet stringent energy efficiency requirements to minimize impact on the surrounding environment and meet federal requirements along with operational budgetary constraints. This paper describes the major facility thermal equipment and systems to be implemented along with associated energy management features. The systems presented include the central plant, the climate control systems for the computer room and coudé laboratory, the carousel cooling system which actively controls the surface temperature of the rotating telescope enclosure, and the systems used for active and passive ventilation of the telescope chamber.

  20. The Medium Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ~20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  1. Applying the XForms Standard to Public Health Case Reporting and Alerting

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, Rebecca A.; Baseman, Janet G.; Revere, Debra; Boge, Craig L K; Oberle, Mark W; Doctor, Jason N.; Lober, William B

    2011-01-01

    Notifiable condition reporting and alerting are two important public health functions. Today, a variety of methods are used to transfer these types of information. The increasing use of electronic health record systems by healthcare providers makes new types of electronic communication possible. We used the XForms standard and nationally recognized technical profiles to demonstrate the communication of both notifiable condition reports and patient-tailored public health alerts. This demonstra...

  2. Maximising Acute Kidney Injury Alerts--A Cross-Sectional Comparison with the Clinical Diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sawhney

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is serious and widespread across healthcare (1 in 7 hospital admissions but recognition is often delayed causing avoidable harm. Nationwide automated biochemistry alerts for AKI stages 1-3 have been introduced in England to improve recognition. We explored how these alerts compared with clinical diagnosis in different hospital settings.We used a large population cohort of 4464 patients with renal impairment. Each patient had case-note review by a nephrologist, using RIFLE criteria to diagnose AKI and chronic kidney disease (CKD. We identified and staged AKI alerts using the new national NHS England AKI algorithm and compared this with nephrologist diagnosis across hospital settings.Of 4464 patients, 525 had RIFLE AKI, 449 had mild AKI, 2185 had CKD (without AKI and 1305 were of uncertain chronicity. NHS AKI algorithm criteria alerted for 90.5% of RIFLE AKI, 72.4% of mild AKI, 34.1% of uncertain cases and 14.0% of patients who actually had CKD.The algorithm identified AKI particularly well in intensive care (95.5% and nephrology (94.6%, but less well on surgical wards (86.4%. Restricting the algorithm to stage 2 and 3 alerts reduced the over-diagnosis of AKI in CKD patients from 14.0% to 2.1%, but missed or delayed alerts in two-thirds of RIFLE AKI patients.Automated AKI detection performed well across hospital settings, but was less sensitive on surgical wards. Clinicians should be mindful that restricting alerts to stages 2-3 may identify fewer CKD patients, but including stage 1 provides more sensitive and timely alerting.

  3. Automated Alertness and Emotion Detection for Empathic Feedback During E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Happy, S L; Dasgupta, A.; Patnaik, P; Routray, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of education technology, empathic interaction with the user and feedback by the learning system using multiple inputs such as video, voice and text inputs is an important area of research. In this paper, a nonintrusive, standalone model for intelligent assessment of alertness and emotional state as well as generation of appropriate feedback has been proposed. Using the non-intrusive visual cues, the system classifies emotion and alertness state of the user, and provides appropr...

  4. Combined space and alertness related therapy of visual hemineglect: effect of therapy frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Binkofski; Fink, Gereon R.; Jutta Kuest; Hans Karbe; Klaus F Willmes

    2013-01-01

    The combined efficacy of space- and alertness related training in chronic hemineglect was tested behaviorally and in a longitudinal fMRI study. Earlier results had shown that both space as well as alertness related training as single intervention methods lead to short term improvement which, however, is not stable for longer time periods. The neurobiological data obtained in these studies revealed differential cortical reorganization patterns for the two training approaches thereby leading to...

  5. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  6. Dry tap: a diagnostic alert for underlying bone marrow pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry tap is an annoying experience in bone marrow (BM) findings, especially in cases where the diagnosis may hinge on BM findings. This study was conducted to determine, on the basis of bone marrow (BM) trephine biopsy, the frequency of various underlying conditions causing a dry tap, among different age groups. Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out at PAF hospital Mianwali, Pakistan from 1st Jan 2009 to 31 Dec 2012. Record of all BM aspirations and trephine biopsies performed during 4 years was retrieved from hospital's laboratory. Total number of BM aspirations and trephines were counted and the subject's ages and genders recorded. Frequencies and percentages of patients with dry tap, in paediatric group (<15 years of age), young to middle-aged group (15-59 years) and the elderly (?60 years) were calculated. Diagnoses of patients with dry tap made on BM biopsy were noted for each group and their frequencies calculated. Results: Of 548 BM aspirations, dry tap was encountered in 52 (9.5%) cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was the commonest cause of dry tap in paediatric age, seen in 6 (60%) of 10 children. In young to middle-aged group, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was the commonest cause, found in 6 (30%) of 20 cases. NHL and metastatic tumours, seen in 8 (36.4%) and 6 (27.3%) of 22 patients respectively, were the most frequent causes of dry tap in the elderly. Conclusion: Dry tap, in most of the cases, is like a diagnostic alert for the presence of an underlying BM pathology, nature of which depends upon age group. (author)

  7. Crew Factors in Flight Operations X: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Connell, Linda J.; Co, Elizabeth L.

    2001-01-01

    In response to a 1980 congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center initiated a Fatigue/Jet Lag Program to examine fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in aviation. Research has examined fatigue in a variety of flight environments using a range of measures (from self-report to performance to physiological). In 1991, the program evolved into the Fatigue Countermeasures Program, emphasizing the development and evaluation of strategies to maintain alertness and performance in operational settings. Over the years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has become a collaborative partner in support of fatigue research and other Program activities. From the inception of the Program, a principal goal was to return the information learned from research and other Program activities to the operational community. The objectives of this Education and Training Module are to explain what has been learned about the physiological mechanisms that underlie fatigue, demonstrate the application of this information in flight operations, and offer some specific fatigue countermeasure recommendations. It is intended for all segments of the aeronautics industry, including pilots, flight attendants, managers, schedulers, safety and policy personnel, maintenance crews, and others involved in an operational environment that challenges human physiological capabilities because of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption.

  8. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The day's work began when astronauts Story Musgrave and Jeff Hoffman stepped out into the cargo bay at 9h41 pm CST, Saturday (4h41 am CET, Sunday). They immediately set to work replacing two gyroscope assemblies, known as the Rate Sensor Units, two associated electronics boxes, called Electronic Control Units, and eight electrical fuse plugs. The work was completed ahead of schedule, but the astronauts had trouble closing the doors of the compartment housing the gyros and took over an hour to get them shut. The astronauts also prepared equipment for the replacement of the solar arrays. "The feeling down here is one of great satisfaction for a tremendous job today" said spacecraft communicator Greg Harbaugh in mission control. "We are very proud of the work that you all did and we are very confident in the continued success of the mission. Everything is going great and tomorrow is going to be another great day". ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier played a vital role during the spacewalk moving the astronauts and their equipment around the cargo bay with the shuttle's robot arm. The Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission features more robot arm operations than any other shuttle flight. The telescope's left-hand solar array was rolled up successfully at 6h24 am CST (1h24 pm CET). The 11-tonne observatory was rotated 180 degrees on its turntable before commands were sent to retract the second array at 8h23 am CST (3h23 pm CET). The crew stopped the retraction when it appeared the system may have jammed. Mission control instructed the crew to jettison the array, a procedure that they have trained for. Tomorrow astronauts Kathy Thornton and Tom Akers will make a six-hour spacewalk to jettison the troublesome wing, store the other in the cargo bay, and install two new panels supplied by ESA. The second set of arrays feature thermal shields and a modified thermal compensation system to prevent the flexing that affected the first pair. The Hubble Space Telescope was plucked

  10. Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ballmoos, Peter von

    2007-01-01

    This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference

  11. Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT): A Remotely Operated Robotic Telescope for Education and Research at Seoul National University

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Myungshin; Kim, Kihyun

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the Lee Sang Gak Telescope (LSGT), a remotely operated, robotic 0.43-meter telescope. The telescope was installed at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in 2014 October, to secure regular and exclusive access to the dark sky and excellent atmospheric conditions in the southern hemisphere from the Seoul National University (SNU) campus. Here, we describe the LSGT system and its performance, present example images from early observations, and discuss a future plan to upgrade the system. The use of the telescope includes (i) long-term monitoring observations of nearby galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae; (ii) rapid follow-up observations of transients such as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources; and (iii) observations for educational activities at SNU. Based on observations performed so far, we find that the telescope is capable of providing images to a depth of R=21.5 mag (point source detection) at 5-sigma with 15 min total integration time under good observing condi...

  12. India's National Large Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    India's 2-m National Large Solar Telescope (NLST) is aimed primarily at carrying out observations of the solar atmosphere with high spatial and spectral resolution. A comprehensive site characterization program, that commenced in 2007, has identified two superb sites in the Himalayan region at altitudes greater than 4000-m that have extremely low water vapor content and are unaffected by monsoons. With an innovative optical design, the NLST is an on-axis Gregorian telescope with a low number of optical elements to reduce the number of reflections and yield a high throughput with low polarization. In addition, it is equipped with a high-order adaptive optics to produce close to diffraction limited performance. To control atmospheric and thermal perturbations of the observations, the telescope will function with a fully open dome, to achieve its full potential atop a 25 m tower. Given its design, NLST can also operate at night, without compromising its solar performance. The post-focus instruments include broad-band and tunable Fabry-Pérot narrow-band imaging instruments; a high resolution spectropolarimeter and an Echelle spectrograph for night time astronomy. This project is led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics and has national and international partners. Its geographical location will fill the longitudinal gap between Japan and Europe and is expected to be the largest solar telescope with an aperture larger than 1.5 m till the ATST and EST come into operation. An international consortium has been identified to build the NLST. The facility is expected to be commissioned by 2016.

  13. Large size SiPM matrix for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, G.; Corti, D.; Ionica, M.; Manea, C.; Mariotti, M.; Rando, R.; Reichardt, I.; Schultz, C.

    2016-07-01

    SiPM photo detectors are nowadays commonly used in many applications. For large size telescopes like MAGIC or the future Large Size Telescope (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project, a pixel size of some square centimeters is needed. An analog amplifier and sum stage was built and characterized. A large and compact SiPM matrix prototype, with the associated focusing optics, was assembled into a monolithic light detector with an active area of 3 cm2. The performance of the electronics is tailored for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) applications, with fast signal and adequate signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio.

  14. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  15. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  16. Prototyping of Hexagonal Light Concentrators for the Large-Sized Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Reflective light concentrators with hexagonal entrance and exit apertures are frequently used at the focal plane of gamma-ray telescopes in order to reduce the size of the dead area caused by the geometries of the photodetectors, as well as to reduce the amount of stray light entering at large field angles. The focal plane of the large-sized telescopes (LSTs) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will also be covered by hexagonal light concentrators with an entrance diameter of 50 mm (side to side) to maximize the active area and the photon collection efficiency, enabling realization of a very low energy threshold of 20 GeV. We have developed a prototype of this LST light concentrator with an injection-molded plastic cone and a specular multilayer film. The shape of the plastic cone has been optimized with a cubic B\\'{e}zier curve and a ray-tracing simulation. We have also developed a multilayer film with very high reflectance ($\\gtrsim95$\\%) along wide wavelength and angle coverage. The current status of th...

  17. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  18. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  19. Twin-Telescope Wettzell (TTW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, H.; Dassing, R.; Kronschnabl, G.; Schlüter, W.; Schwarz, W.; Lauber, P.; Kilger, R.

    2007-07-01

    Following the recommendations made by the VLBI2010 vision report of the IVS, a proposal has been made to construct a Twin Telescope for the Fundamental Station Wettzell in order to meet the future requirements of the next VLBI generation. The Twin Telescope consists of two identical radiotelescopes. It is a project of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG). This article summarizes the project and some design ideas for the Twin-Telescope. %ZALMA (2005). Technical Specification for Design, Manufacturing, Transport and Integration on Site of the ALMA ANTENNAS, Doc. ALMA-34.00.00.00.006-BSPE. Behrend, D. (2006). VLBI2010 Antenna Specs, Data sheet. DeBoer, D. (2001). The ATA Offset Gregorian Antenna, ATA Memo #16, February 10. Imbriale, W.A. (2006). Design of a Wideband Radio Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and S. Weinreb and H. Mandi, California Institute of Technology. Kilger, R. (2007). TWIN-Design studies, Presentation for the IVS board members (internal document),Wettzell. Kronschnabl, G. (2006). Subject: Memo from Bill Petrachenko, E-mail to the Twin-Working Group (in German), July. Lindgren, ETS-Lindgren (2005). The Model 3164-05 Open Boundary Quadridge Horn, Data Sheet. Niell, A., A. Whitney, W. Petrachenko, W. Schlüter, N. Vandenberg, H.Hase, Y. Koyama, C. Ma, H. Schuh, G. Tucari (2006). in: IVS Annual Report 2005, pg. 13-40, NASA/TP-2006-214136, April. Olsson, R., Kildal, P.-S., and Weinreb, S. (2006). IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 54, No. 2, February. Petrachenko, B. (2006). The Case For and Against Multiple Antennas at a Site, IVS Memorandum, 2006-019v01. Petrachenko, B. (2006). IVS Memorandum, 2006-016v01. RFSpin (2004). Double Ridged Waveguide Horn-Model DRH20, Antenna Specifications, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Crossed Log- Periodic Antennas HL024A1/S1, Data Sheet. Rohde&Schwarz (2004). SHF Antennas Log-Periodic Antennas HL050/HL050S1, Data Sheet. Rogers, A.E.E. (2006). Simulations of broadband

  20. Optical design of the Discovery Channel Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J.; Dunham, Edward W.

    2004-10-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a joint venture between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. The telescope will have a 4.2-meter clear aperture, active primary mirror working at F/1.9. Two observing stations are presently planned; a Ritchey-Chretien focus some two meters behind the vertex of the primary mirror and a prime focus featuring a wide-field optical corrector (WFOC) with a two-degree field of view. The Ritchey-Chretien focus will be used for a variety of optical and near infrared imaging and spectroscopic instrumentation while the prime focus will be largely used as a survey tool to search for near-earth and Kuiper belt objects, for example. In order to take advantage of sub-arc second seeing at the DCT site, a stringent set of requirements has been placed on the two foci. The requirements are for the full-width, half-maximum (FWHM) image of a point source to be less than 0.20 arc second at the Ritchey-Chretien focus over a 21 arc minute field and less than 0.27 arc second at prime focus in each of six filter bands including a very broad band for survey purposes. This paper describes the optical design of the field correctors at the two foci. Particular attention is paid to the WFOC. This state of the art device poses a number of optical challenges which are discussed here, as well as mechanical challenges which are discussed elsewhere.

  1. GLAST Large Area Telescope Multiwavelength Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2007-10-10

    High-energy gamma-ray sources are inherently nonthermal, multiwavelength objects. With the launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) scheduled for later this year, the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) Collaboration invites cooperative efforts from observers at all wavelengths. Among the many topics where multiwavelength studies will maximize the scientific understanding, two stand out for particular emphasis: (1) Active Galactic Nuclei. The study of AGN gamma-ray jets through time variability and spectral modeling can help link the accretion processes close to the black hole with the large-scale interaction of the AGN with its environment; (2) Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources. New gamma-ray sources need first to be identified with known objects seen at other wavelengths using position, spectrum, or time variability, and then multiwavelength studies can be used to explore the astrophysical implications of high-energy radiation from these sources. Observers interested in any type of coordinated observations should contact the LAT Multiwavelength Coordinating Group.

  2. Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yongheng

    2011-01-01

    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is a meridian reflecting Schmidt telescope with a clear aperture of four meters, a focal length of 20 meters and a field of view of five degrees. By using active optics technique to control its reflecting corrector, the LAMOST is made a unique astronomical instrument in combining a large aperture with a wide field of view. The available large focal plane of 1.75 meter in diameter can accommodate up to 4,000 fibers,

  3. Herschel SPIRE FTS telescope model correction

    CERN Document Server

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward T; Valtchanov, Ivan; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Pearson, Chris P; Swinyard, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Emission from the Herschel telescope is the dominant source of radiation for the majority of SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations, despite the exceptionally low emissivity of the primary and secondary mirrors. Accurate modelling and removal of the telescope contribution is, therefore, an important and challenging aspect of FTS calibration and data reduction pipeline. A dust-contaminated telescope model with time invariant mirror emissivity was adopted before the Herschel launch. However, measured FTS spectra show a clear evolution of the telescope contribution over the mission and strong need for a correction to the standard telescope model in order to reduce residual background (of up to 7 Jy) in the final data products. Systematic changes in observations of dark sky, taken over the course of the mission, provide a measure of the evolution between observed telescope emission and the telescope model. These dark sky observations have been used to derive a time dependent correction to the tel...

  4. Tritel: 3D silicon detector telescope used for space dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the many risks of long-duration space flights is the excessive exposure to cosmic radiation, which has great importance particularly during solar flares and higher solar activity. Radiation weighting factor, which is a function of the linear energy transfer of the radiation, is used to convert absorbed dose to equivalent dose. Since space radiation mainly consists of charged heavy particles, the equivalent dose differs significantly from the absorbed dose. The objectives of this project are to develop and manufacture a three-axis silicon detector telescope (Tritel), and to develop software for data evaluation of the measured energy deposition spectra. The 3 D silicon telescope should be the first such device used for measuring the dose astronauts are subjected to. Research and development began in the K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago. The geometric parameters of the 3 D silicon Let telescope were defined, results of previous measurements were used as a benchmark. Features of various types and sizes of telescopes were analyzed. Elements of the Tritel telescope system, issues of the electronic block diagram, requirements for the mechanical construction and possibilities of data handling and data evaluation are analyzed in this paper. First results of the calibrations are presented as well. (authors)

  5. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  6. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  7. Tritel: 3D silicon detector telescope used for space dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Hirn, A.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Csoke, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Bodnar, L. [BL-Electronics, Solymar (Hungary)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long-duration space flights is the excessive exposure to cosmic radiation, which has great importance particularly during solar flares and higher solar activity. Radiation weighting factor, which is a function of the linear energy transfer of the radiation, is used to convert absorbed dose to equivalent dose. Since space radiation mainly consists of charged heavy particles, the equivalent dose differs significantly from the absorbed dose. The objectives of this project are to develop and manufacture a three-axis silicon detector telescope (Tritel), and to develop software for data evaluation of the measured energy deposition spectra. The 3 D silicon telescope should be the first such device used for measuring the dose astronauts are subjected to. Research and development began in the K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago. The geometric parameters of the 3 D silicon Let telescope were defined, results of previous measurements were used as a benchmark. Features of various types and sizes of telescopes were analyzed. Elements of the Tritel telescope system, issues of the electronic block diagram, requirements for the mechanical construction and possibilities of data handling and data evaluation are analyzed in this paper. First results of the calibrations are presented as well. (authors)

  8. AGN Spectral Energy Distributions of GLAST Telescope Network Program Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jeff; Lacy, Mark; Daou, Doris; Rapp, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda

    2005-03-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the "GLAST Telescope Network" (GTN) and includes a number of objects that have yet to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our project will observe one of these objects with the Spitzer MIPS and the IRAC instruments to determine their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which will be compared to a computer model of disk emission in order to determine what component of the SED is due to the disk and what component is due to synchrotron radiation induced by the jets. In addition we will observe our program objects prior to, simultaneously with, and after Spitzer observes them. This gives a direct connection from Spitzer research to student activities in the classroom.

  9. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Bradbury, S M; Breslin, A C; Buckley, J H; Carter-Lewis, D A; Catanese, M; Criswell, S; Dingus, B L; Fegan, D J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Grindlay, J; Hillas, A M; Harris, K; Hermann, G; Kaaret, P E; Kieda, D B; Knapp, J; Krennrich, F; Le Bohec, S; Lessard, R W; Lloyd-Evans, J; McKernan, B; Müller, D; Ong, R; Quenby, J J; Quinn, J; Rochester, G D; Rose, H J; Salamon, M B; Sembroski, G H; Sumner, T J; Swordy, S P; Vasilev, V; Weekes, T C

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of the current status and scientific goals of VERITAS, a proposed hexagonal array of seven 10 m aperture imaging Cherenkov telescopes. The selected site is Montosa Canyon (1390 m a.s.l.) at the Whipple Observatory, Arizona. Each telescope, of 12 m focal length, will initially be equipped with a 499 element photomultiplier camera covering a 3.5 degree field of view. A central station will initiate the readout of 500 MHz FADCs upon receipt of multiple telescope triggers. The minimum detectable flux sensitivity will be 0.5% of the Crab Nebula flux at 200 GeV. Detailed simulations of the array's performance are presented elsewhere at this meeting. VERITAS will operate primarily as a gamma-ray observatory in the 50 GeV to 50 TeV range for the study of active galaxies, supernova remnants, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts.

  10. Gsm Based Embedded System for Remote Laboratory Safety Monitoring and Alerting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to modify an existing safety and security model for the environment of educationalinstitutions and in home. The aim of this project is to design an embedded system for remote monitoringof the laboratory environment. Nowadays remote monitoring the laboratory and its building is necessaryfor safety and security purpose, which also help us to know the environmental status of the laboratory.The environmental parameters inside the laboratory, such as presence of alcohol, gas and fire can bedetected using respective sensors and the sensed data are then transferred to the microcontroller. Themicrocontroller takes the control action of activating an alarm whenever the presence of theseparameters is found. In turn, the Voice alarm and alert message as SMS through GSM are also sent tothe remote area. The advantage of this automated detection and alarm system is that, it offers fasterresponse time and accurate detection during an emergency. Our experimental results show that, thesystem provides safe and secure remote monitoring of the environment in laboratories and it has highreliability and easy to implement a system like this wherever needed.

  11. Room air temperature affects occupants' physiology, perceptions and mental alertness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Kwok Wai; Willem, Henry Cahyadi [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore)

    2010-01-15

    Thermal environment that causes thermal discomfort may affect office work performance. However, the mechanisms through which occupants are affected are not well understood. This study explores the plausible mechanism linking room air temperature and mental alertness through perceptual and physiological responses in the tropics. Ninety-six young adults participated as voluntary subjects in a series of experiment conducted in the simulated office settings. Three room air temperatures, i.e. 20.0, 23.0 and 26.0 C were selected as the experimental conditions. Both thermal comfort and thermal sensation changed significantly with time under all exposures (P < 0.0001). Longer exposure at 20.0 C led to cooling sensations due to lower skin temperatures (P < 0.0001) and was perceived as the least comfortable. Nevertheless, this moderate cold exposure induced nervous system activation as demonstrated by the increase of {alpha}-Amylase level (P < 0.0001) and the Tsai-partington test (P < 0.0001). A mechanism linking thermal environment, occupants' responses and performance is proposed. (author)

  12. Phasic alertness enhances processing of face and non-face stimuli in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Michal; Weinbach, Noam; Mardo, Elite; Henik, Avishai; Avidan, Galia

    2016-08-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) is a severe face processing impairment that occurs in the absence of any obvious brain damage and has often been associated with a more general deficit in deriving holistic relations between facial features or even between non-face shape dimensions. Here we further characterized this deficit and examined a potential way to ameliorate it. To this end we manipulated phasic alertness using alerting cues previously shown to modulate attention and enhance global processing of visual stimuli in normal observers. Specifically, we first examined whether individuals with CP, similarly to controls, would show greater global processing when exposed to an alerting cue in the context of a non-facial task (Navon global/local task). We then explored the effect of an alerting cue on face processing (upright/inverted face discrimination). Confirming previous findings, in the absence of alerting cues, controls showed a typical global bias in the Navon task and an inversion effect indexing holistic processing in the upright/inverted task, while CP failed to show these effects. Critically, when alerting cues preceded the experimental trials, both groups showed enhanced global interference and a larger inversion effect. These results suggest that phasic alertness may modulate visual processing and consequently, affect global/holistic perception. Hence, these findings further reinforce the notion that global/holistic processing may serve as a possible mechanism underlying the face processing deficit in CP. Moreover, they imply a possible route for enhancing face processing in individuals with CP and thus shed new light on potential amelioration of this disorder. PMID:27364232

  13. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  14. Teaching and Research in Astronomy using Small Aperture Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Small aperture (Colleges/. On the basis of over a decade's experience in observing with small optical telescopes it has been amply demonstrated that such a facility, which any University department can hope to procure and maintain, can be effectively used for teaching as well quality research. The Physics Department of Pt Ravishankar Shukla University at Raipur, India offers Astronomy & Astrophysics (A&A) as one of the specialization as a part of M Sc program in Physics. A set of observational exercises has been incorporated with a view to provide training in observations, analysis and interpretation of the astronomical data to the students. Observing facilities available in the department include 8"-14" aperture telescopes (CGE series from Celestron) equipped with the new-state-of-the-art backend instrumentation like Photometer, CCD Camera and also a CCD spectrograph. Observing facility of this kind is ideally suited for continuous monitoring of a variety of variable stars, and thus can provide valuable data for understanding the physics of stellar variability. This is especially true for a class of variable stars known as chromospherically active stars. The stars belonging to this class have variable light curves, and the most puzzling feature is that their light curves change year after year in a rather queerer way. A large fraction of these active stars are bright ones and, hence, the importance of small aperture telescope for collecting the much needed photometric data. For over a decade the research activity using 14" optical telescope is focused on photometric monitoring of well known as well suspected active stars. This together with spectroscopic data using observing facility at Indian Observatories has led to identification of new chromosperically active stars. The talk is aimed at sharing our experiences quoting examples with professional colleagues on the usage of small optical telescopes for teaching and research in Colleges/Universities.

  15. Status of the Cherenkov Telescope Array's Large Size Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cortina, J

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory, will be deployed over two sites in the two hemispheres. Both sites will be equipped with four Large Size Telescopes (LSTs), which are crucial to achieve the science goals of CTA in the 20-200 GeV energy range. Each LST is equipped with a primary tessellated mirror dish of 23 m diameter, supported by a structure made mainly of carbon fibre reinforced plastic tubes and aluminum joints. This solution guarantees light weight (around 100 tons), essential for fast repositioning to any position in the sky in <20 seconds. The camera is composed of 1855 PMTs and embeds the control, readout and trigger electronics. The detailed design is now complete and production of the first LST, which will serve as a prototype for the remaining seven, is well underway. In 2016 the first LST will be installed at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the Canary island of La Palma (Spain). In this talk we will outline the technical solutions adopted to fulfill the design requirem...

  16. Prospects for Gamma-Ray Bursts detection by the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The first Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) catalog presented by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration includes 28 GRBs, detected above 100 MeV over the first three years since the launch of the Fermi mission. However, more than 100 GRBs are expected to be found over a period of six years of data collection thanks to a new detection algorithm and to the development of a new LAT event reconstruction, the so-called "Pass 8." Our aim is to provide revised prospects for GRB alerts in the CTA era in light of these new LAT discoveries. We focus initially on the possibility of GRB detection with the Large Size Telescopes (LSTs). Moreover, we investigate the contribution of the Middle Size Telescopes (MSTs), which are crucial for the search of larger areas on short post trigger timescales. The study of different spectral components in the prompt and afterglow phase, and the limits on the Extragalactic background light are highlighted. Different strategies to repoint part of - or the entire array - are studied in det...

  17. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  18. Cosmography with the Einstein Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyaprakash, B S; Broeck, Chris Van Den

    2009-01-01

    Einstein Telescope (ET) is a 3rd generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector that is currently undergoing a design study. ET can detect millions of compact binary mergers up to redshifts 2-8. A small fraction of mergers might be observed in coincidence as gamma-ray bursts, helping to measure both the luminosity distance and red-shift to the source. By fitting these measured values to a cosmological model, it should be possible to accurately infer the dark energy equation-of-state, dark matter and dark energy density parameters. ET could, therefore, herald a new era in cosmology.

  19. Alerting, Orienting or Executive Attention Networks: Differential Patters of Pupil Dilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny eGeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention capacities, alerting responses, orienting to sensory stimulation, and executive monitoring of performance are considered independent yet interrelated systems. These operations play integral roles in regulating the behavior of diverse species along the evolutionary ladder. Each of the primary attention constructs—alerting, orienting, and executive monitoring— involves salient autonomic correlates as evidenced by changes in reactive pupil dilation (PD, heart rate, and skin conductance. Recent technological advances that use remote high-resolution recording may allow the discernment of temporo-spatial attributes of autonomic responses that characterize the alerting, orienting, and executive monitoring networks during free viewing, irrespective of voluntary performance. This may deepen the understanding of the roles of autonomic regulation in these mental operations and may deepen our understanding of behavioral changes in verbal as well as in non-verbal species.The aim of this study was to explore differences between psychosensory pupil dilation responses in alerting, orienting, and executive conflict monitoring tasks to generate estimates of concurrent locus coeruleus (LC noradrenergic input trajectories in healthy human adults using the attention networks test (ANT. The analysis revealed a construct-specific pattern of pupil responses: alerting is characterized by an early component (Pa, its acceleration enables covert orienting, and executive control is evidenced by a prominent late component (Pe. Pupil dilation characteristics seem to be task-sensitive, allowing exploration of mental operations irrespective of conscious voluntary responses. These data may facilitate development of studies designed to assess mental operations in diverse species using autonomic responses.

  20. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  1. De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K C; Barish, F

    1998-08-21

    Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.

  2. Self-awakening improves alertness in the morning and during the day after partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohide; Kuriyama, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-12-01

    The ability to awaken at a predetermined time without an alarm is known as self-awakening. Self-awakening improves morning alertness by eliminating sleep inertia; however, the effects of self-awakening on daytime alertness and alertness that has deteriorated as a result of sleep loss are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of self-awakening on both morning and daytime alertness after partial sleep deprivation. Fifteen healthy males without the habit of self-awakening participated in a cross-over trial including forced awakening and self-awakening conditions. In each condition, participants' sleep was restricted to 5 h per night in their homes for 4 consecutive days. They completed a psychomotor vigilance task and subjective ratings of sleepiness immediately upon awakening each morning. On the fourth day, participants completed subjective ratings of sleepiness, a psychomotor vigilance task and sleep latency tests in the laboratory seven times at 1-h intervals during the day. The response speed on the psychomotor vigilance task, in the morning and during the day, was higher in the self-awakening than the forced awakening condition. Our results showed that self-awakening improved alertness (assessed by response speeds) by reducing sleep inertia and alleviated daytime sleepiness heightened by partial sleep deprivation. PMID:25130898

  3. Sleep Quality, Mood, Alertness and Their Variability in CKD and ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Argyropoulos, Christos; Buysse, Daniel J.; Nayar, Harry; Weisbord, Steven D.; Unruh, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with sleep quality, mood, and alertness. In this report, we assessed these symptoms among patients with advanced CKD (stages 4–5) and those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and compared them to healthy controls without known kidney disease. Methods Patients were recruited from local dialysis units, outpatient nephrology clinics and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute. Healthy control subjects matched for age, gender and race were drawn from an archival database. Daily symptoms of sleep quality, mood, and alertness were assessed by visual analogue scales of the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the Short Form-36 instrument. Results Sixty-nine dialysis patients and 23patients with advanced CKD demonstrated worse scores in sleep quality, mood, and alertness (p < 0.001) than controls. In adjusted analyses, European-American race, dialysis dependency, younger age, and physical performance SF-36 components were significantly associated with poor sleep quality, mood and alertness (p < 0.05). The dialysis population demonstrated higher day-to-day variability in scores than either the advanced CKD patients or the controls. Conclusion Advanced CKD and dialysis dependency are associated with impaired and highly variable sleep quality, mood, and alertness. PMID:20090370

  4. Telescoping phenomenon in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Mooney, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    The course of pathological gambling (PG) in women has been described as having a later age of initiation but a shorter time to problematic gambling ("telescoped"). This study examined evidence for telescoping and its relationship with comorbidities. Seventy-one treatment-seeking individuals with ...... and suggests a need for greater clinical focus on the gender differences of gambling behavior....... underwent a diagnostic interview to examine gambling behaviors, age at initiation of gambling, and time from initiation to meeting criteria for PG. The women had a higher mean age at gambling initiation compared with that of the men (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [13.0] years, compared with 22.4 [7.9] years; p = 0.......0003) and a significantly shorter time from initiation of gambling to meeting the criteria for PG (8.33 [8.7] years compared with 11.97 [9.1] years; p = 0.0476) after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. This study presents evidence for a gender-specific course of PG unrelated to psychiatric comorbidities...

  5. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    of the Array Operations Site. This means surviving strong winds and temperatures between +20 and -20 Celsius whilst being able to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf ball at a distance of 15 km, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to better than 25 micrometres (less than the typical thickness of a human hair). Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad - a docking station with connections for power and fibre optics - and positioned it with an accuracy of a few millimetres. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars today, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 18.5 km and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. "Transporting our first antenna to the Chajnantor plateau is a epic feat which exemplifies the exciting times in which ALMA is living. Day after day, our global collaboration brings us closer to the birth of the most ambitious ground-based astronomical observatory in the world", said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in

  6. JWST Telescope Integration and Test Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Whitman, Tony L.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. The JWST Optical Telescope Element (Telescope) integration and test program is well underway. The telescope was completed in the spring of 2016 and the cryogenic test equipment has been through two optical test programs leading up to the final flight verification program. The details of the telescope mirror integration will be provided along with the current status of the flight observatory. In addition, the results of the two optical ground support equipment cryo tests will be shown and how these plans fold into the flight verification program.

  7. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  8. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568, 68008 Colmar (France); Ameli, F. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers-Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC)-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. C/Paranimf 1., 46730 Gandia (Spain); Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Baret, B. [APC-Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie, UMR 7164 (CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Diderot, CEA, Observatoire de Paris), 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); and others

    2011-11-11

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  9. An EUDET/AIDA Pixel Beam Telescope for Detector Development

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinskiy, I

    2015-01-01

    A high resolution (σ∼2μm) beam telescope based on monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) was developed within the EUDET collaboration. The telescope consists of six monolithic active pixel sensor planes (Mimosa26) with a pixel pitch of 18.4 \\mu m and thinned down to 50 \\mu m. The excellent resolution, readout rate and DAQ integration capabilities made the telescope a primary test beam tool for many groups including several CERN based experiments. Within the European detector infrastructure project AIDA the test beam telescope is being further extended in terms of cooling and powering infrastructure, read-out speed, area of acceptance, and precision. In order to provide a system optimized for the different requirements by the user community a combination of various state-of-the-art pixel technologies is foreseen. Furthermore, new central dead-time-free trigger logic unit (TLU) has been developed to provide LHC-speed response with one-trigger-per-particle operating mode and a synchronous clock for all conn...

  10. Automated health alerts from Kinect-based in-home gait measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Erik E; Skubic, Marjorie; Back, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    A method for automatically generating alerts to clinicians in response to changes in in-home gait parameters is investigated. Kinect-based gait measurement systems were installed in apartments in a senior living facility. The systems continuously monitored the walking speed, stride time, and stride length of apartment residents. A framework for modeling uncertainty in the residents' gait parameter estimates, which is critical for robust change detection, is developed; along with an algorithm for detecting changes that may be clinically relevant. Three retrospective case studies, of individuals who had their gait monitored for periods ranging from 12 to 29 months, are presented to illustrate use of the alert method. Evidence suggests that clinicians could be alerted to health changes at an early stage, while they are still small and interventions may be most successful. Additional potential uses are also discussed.

  11. Impact-based earthquake alerts with the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Garcia, D.; So, E.; Hearne, M.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the USGS began publicly releasing earthquake alerts for significant earthquakes around the globe based on estimates of potential casualties and economic losses with its Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. These estimates significantly enhanced the utility of the USGS PAGER system which had been, since 2006, providing estimated population exposures to specific shaking intensities. Quantifying earthquake impacts and communicating estimated losses (and their uncertainties) to the public, the media, humanitarian, and response communities required a new protocol—necessitating the development of an Earthquake Impact Scale—described herein and now deployed with the PAGER system. After two years of PAGER-based impact alerting, we now review operations, hazard calculations, loss models, alerting protocols, and our success rate for recent (2010-2011) events. This review prompts analyses of the strengths, limitations, opportunities, and pressures, allowing clearer definition of future research and development priorities for the PAGER system.

  12. Wearable real-time ecg monitoring with emergency alert system for scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibis, Tobias; Groh, Benjamin H; Gatermann, Heike; Leutheuser, Heike; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Medical diagnosis is the first level for recognition and treatment of diseases. To realize fast diagnosis, we propose a concept of a basic framework for the underwater monitoring of a diver's ECG signal, including an alert system that warns the diver of predefined medical emergency situations. The framework contains QRS detection, heart rate calculation and an alert system. After performing a predefined study protocol, the algorithm's accuracy was evaluated with 10 subjects in a dry environment and with 5 subjects in an underwater environment. The results showed that, in 3 out of 5 dives as well as in dry environment, data transmission remained stable. In these cases, the subjects were able to trigger the alert system. The evaluated data showed a clear ECG signal with a QRS detection accuracy of 90 %. Thus, the proposed framework has the potential to detect and to warn of health risks. Further developments of this sample concept can imply an extension for monitoring different biomedical parameters. PMID:26737677

  13. Resolution studies with the DATURA beam telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We present resolution studies carried out with the DATURA beam telescope, which belongs to the family of EUDET-type beam telescopes. The EUDET-type beam telescopes make use of CMOS MIMOSA 26 pixel detectors for particle tracking allowing for precise characterisation of particle sensing devices. A profound understanding of the performance of the beam telescope as a whole is obtained by a detailed characterisation of the sensors themselves. We extract the differential intrinsic resolution as measured in a MIMOSA 26 sensor using an iterative pull method and show various clustersize dependent quantities as the residual distribution, the intra-pixel residual width distribution and the intra-pixel frequency distribution.

  14. The Diagnostic Utility of Bact/ALERT and Nested PCR in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Apurba Sankar; Bhat K, Sandhya; Kumudavathi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The early laboratory diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is crucial, to start the antitubercular chemotherapy and to prevent its complications. However, the conventional methods are either less sensitive or time consuming. Hence, the diagnostic potentials of BacT/ALERT and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was evaluated in this study. Material and Method: The study group comprised of 62 cases and 33 controls. The cases were divided according to Ahuja’s criteria into the confirmed (two cases), highly probable (19 cases), probable (26 cases) and the possible (15 cases) subgroups. Ziehl Neelsen’s (ZN) and Auramine Phenol (AP) staining, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium culture, BacT/ALERT and nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which targeted IS6110 were carried out on all the patients. Observation and Results: The sensitivity of the LJ culture was 3.22%. BacT/ALERT showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 25.80% and 100% and those of nested PCR were found to be 40.32% and 96.97% respectively. The mean detection time of growth of the LJ culture was 31.28 days, whereas that of BacT/ALERT was 20.68 days. The contamination rate in the LJ culture and BacT/ALERT were 7.2% and 5.8% respectively. Conclusion: Nested PCR was found to be more sensitive, followed by BacT/ALERT as compared to the LJ culture and smear microscopy. As both false negative and false positive results have been reported for nested PCR, so it should not be used alone as a criterion for initiating or terminating the therapy, but it should be supported by clinical, radiological, cytological and other microbiological findings. PMID:23450650

  15. ESO Telescope Designer Raymond Wilson Wins Prestigious Kavli Award for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Raymond Wilson, whose pioneering optics research at ESO made today's giant telescopes possible thanks to "active optics" technology, has been awarded the 2010 Kavli Prize in astrophysics. The founder and original leader of the Optics and Telescopes Group at ESO, Wilson shares the million-dollar prize with two American scientists, Jerry Nelson and Roger Angel. The biennial prize, presented by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Kavli Foundation, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, was instituted in 2008 and is given to researchers who significantly advance knowledge in the fields of nanoscience, neuroscience, and astrophysics, acting as a complement to the Nobel Prize. The award is named for and funded by Fred Kavli, the Norwegian entrepreneur and phi­lanthropist who later founded the Kavlico Corpora­tion in the US - today one of the world's largest suppliers of sensors for aeronautic, automotive and industrial applications. Wilson, who joined ESO in 1972, strived to achieve optical perfection, developing the concept of active optics as a way to enhance the size of telescopic primary mirrors. It is the size of these mirrors that determines the ability of a telescope to gather light and study faint and distant objects. Before active optics, mirrors over six metres in diameter were impossible, being too heavy, costly, and likely to bend from gravity and temperature changes. The use of active optics, which preserves optimal image quality by continually adjusting the mirror's shape during observations, made lighter, thinner so-called "meniscus mirrors" possible. Wilson first led the implementation of active optics in the revolutionary New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory, and continued to develop and improve the technology until his retirement in 1993. Since then, active optics have become a standard part of modern astronomy, applied in every big telescope including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a telescope array

  16. Cockpit Interfaces, Displays, and Alerting Messages for the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Palmer, Michael T.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the IM cockpit interfaces, displays, and alerting capabilities that were developed for and used in the IMAC experiment, which was conducted at NASA Langley in the summer of 2015. Specifically, this document includes: (1) screen layouts for each page of the interface; (2) step-by-step instructions for data entry, data verification and input error correction; (3) algorithm state messages and error condition alerting messages; (4) aircraft speed guidance and deviation indications; and (5) graphical display of the spatial relationships between the Ownship aircraft and the Target aircraft. The controller displays for IM will be described in a separate document.

  17. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  18. Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Bastien

    2014-04-01

    Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability.

  19. The Optical System for the Large Size Telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, M; Teshima, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Chikawa, M; Cho, N; Fukami, S; Gadola, A; Hanabata, Y; Horns, D; Jablonski, C; Katagiri, H; Kagaya, M; Ogino, M; Okumura, A; Saito, T; Stadler, R; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Wetteskind, H; Yamamoto, T; Yoshida, T

    2015-01-01

    The Large Size Telescope (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is designed to achieve a threshold energy of 20 GeV. The LST optics is composed of one parabolic primary mirror 23 m in diameter and 28 m focal length. The reflector dish is segmented in 198 hexagonal, 1.51 m flat to flat mirrors. The total effective reflective area, taking into account the shadow of the mechanical structure, is about 368 m$^2$. The mirrors have a sandwich structure consisting of a glass sheet of 2.7 mm thickness, aluminum honeycomb of 60 mm thickness, and another glass sheet on the rear, and have a total weight about 47 kg. The mirror surface is produced using a sputtering deposition technique to apply a 5-layer coating, and the mirrors reach a reflectivity of $\\sim$94% at peak. The mirror facets are actively aligned during operations by an active mirror control system, using actuators, CMOS cameras and a reference laser. Each mirror facet carries a CMOS camera, which measures the position of the light spot of the optical ...

  20. A Seismic Index Related to the Eruption Process of Tungurahua Volcano and its Potential use as an Early Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    For opened systems an index that uses the mean diary released energy (MDRE) is proposed. The seismic signals that are detected due to the volcanic activity as tremors, explosions, long period, hybrid and volcano tectonic events have different physical interpretations and occur at different levels of energy. The MDRE index takes into account the energy and number of events of each type of event, being a normalized and pondered measure that tries to integrate the physical variables. Applying the MDRE index to the Tungurahua volcano, we have observed an acceptable relation with the principal phenomena of the 1999 2006 eruption period. The diary values of the index, its velocity and acceleration have shown significant changes few days before July 14, 2006 and August 16, 2006, dates of the two more big eruptions of Tungurahua volcano from 1999. For this reason we believe that the index may be added to a real time procedure to construct early alerts.

  1. SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, J.

    2010-02-15

    SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

  2. Recent Results from Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, M

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) is an experiment to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). TA's recent results, the energy spectrum and anisotropy based on the 6-year surface array data, and the primary composition obtained from the shower maximum Xmax are reported. The spectrum demonstrates a clear dip and cutoff. The shape of the spectrum is well described by the energy loss of extra-galactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Above the cutoff, a medium-scale (20 degrees radius) flux enhancement was observed near the Ursa-Major. A chance probability of creating this hotspot from the isotropic flux is 4.0 sigma. The measured Xmax is consistent with the primary being proton or light nuclei for energies 10^18.2 eV - 10^19.2 eV.

  3. Adaptive Optics for Large Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S

    2008-06-27

    The use of adaptive optics was originally conceived by astronomers seeking to correct the blurring of images made with large telescopes due to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. The basic idea is to use a device, a wave front corrector, to adjust the phase of light passing through an optical system, based on some measurement of the spatial variation of the phase transverse to the light propagation direction, using a wave front sensor. Although the original concept was intended for application to astronomical imaging, the technique can be more generally applied. For instance, adaptive optics systems have been used for several decades to correct for aberrations in high-power laser systems. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the world's largest laser system, the National Ignition Facility, uses adaptive optics to correct for aberrations in each of the 192 beams, all of which must be precisely focused on a millimeter scale target in order to perform nuclear physics experiments.

  4. The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Montaruli, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ANTARES is the first undersea neutrino telescope. It is in its complete configuration since May 2008 at about 2.5 km below the sea surface close to Marseille. Data from 12 lines are being analyzed and are producing first results. Here we discuss first analysis results for 5 lines and 10 lines, and we also comment on the performance of the full detector. We show that the detector has capabilities for discriminating upgoing neutrino events from the much larger amount of downgoing atmospheric muons and that data and simulation are in good agreement. We then discuss the physics reach of the detector for what concerns point-like source and dark matter searches.

  5. Demography of obscured and unobscured AGN: prospects for a Wide Field X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gilli, R; Rosati, P; Paolillo, M; Borgani, S; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Lusso, E; Marulli, F; Vignali, C

    2010-01-01

    We discuss some of the main open issues in the evolution of Active Galactic Nuclei which can be solved by the sensitive, wide area surveys to be performed by the proposed Wide Field X-ray Telescope mission.

  6. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence.

    In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy. The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso.

    Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall

  7. A process-based model for the definition of hydrological alert systems in landslide risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; De Agostini, A.; Stevan, G.; Tessari, G.; Genevois, R.

    2012-11-01

    The definition of hydrological alert systems for rainfall-induced landslides is strongly related to a deep knowledge of the geological and geomorphological features of the territory. Climatic conditions, spatial and temporal evolution of the phenomena and characterization of landslide triggering, together with propagation mechanisms, are the key elements to be considered. Critical steps for the development of the systems consist of the identification of the hydrological variable related to landslide triggering and of the minimum rainfall threshold for landslide occurrence. In this paper we report the results from a process-based model to define a hydrological alert system for the Val di Maso Landslide, located in the northeastern Italian Alps and included in the Vicenza Province (Veneto region, NE Italy). The instability occurred in November 2010, due to an exceptional rainfall event that hit the Vicenza Province and the entire NE Italy. Up to 500 mm in 3-day cumulated rainfall generated large flood conditions and triggered hundreds of landslides. During the flood, the Soil Protection Division of the Vicenza Province received more than 500 warnings of instability phenomena. The complexity of the event and the high level of risk to infrastructure and private buildings are the main reasons for deepening the specific phenomenon occurred at Val di Maso. Empirical and physically-based models have been used to identify the minimum rainfall threshold for the occurrence of instability phenomena in the crown area of Val di Maso landslide, where a retrogressive evolution by multiple rotational slides is expected. Empirical models helped in the identification and in the evaluation of recurrence of critical rainfall events, while physically-based modelling was essential to verify the effects on the slope stability of determined rainfall depths. Empirical relationships between rainfall and landslide consist of the calculation of rainfall Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) curves

  8. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, T M; Bianco, F; Bowman, M; Burleson, B; Conway, P; Crellin, M; Depagne, É; De Vera, J; Dilday, B; Dragomir, D; Dubberley, M; Eastman, J D; Elphick, M; Falarski, M; Foale, S; Ford, M; Fulton, B J; Garza, J; Gomez, E L; Graham, M; Greene, R; Haldeman, B; Hawkins, E; Haworth, B; Haynes, R; Hidas, M; Hjelstrom, A E; Howell, D A; Hygelund, J; Lister, T A; Lobdill, R; Martinez, J; Mullins, D S; Norbury, M; Parrent, J; Paulson, R; Petry, D L; Pickles, A; Posner, V; Rosing, W E; Ross, R; Sand, D J; Saunders, E S; Shobbrook, J; Shporer, A; Street, R A; Thomas, D; Tsapras, Y; Tufts, J R; Valenti, S; Horst, K Vander; Walker, Z; White, G; Willis, M

    2013-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a young organization dedicated to time-domain observations at optical and (potentially) near-IR wavelengths. To this end, LCOGT is constructing a world-wide network of telescopes, including the two 2m Faulkes telescopes, as many as 17 x 1m telescopes, and as many as 23 x 40cm telescopes. These telescopes initially will be outfitted for imaging and (excepting the 40cm telescopes) spectroscopy at wavelengths between the atmospheric UV cutoff and the roughly 1-micron limit of silicon detectors. Since the first of LCOGT's 1m telescopes are now being deployed, we lay out here LCOGT's scientific goals and the requirements that these goals place on network architecture and performance, we summarize the network's present and projected level of development, and we describe our expected schedule for completing it. In the bulk of the paper, we describe in detail the technical approaches that we have adopted to attain the desired performance. In particular, we discuss o...

  9. CFRP lightweight structures for extremely large telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J.

    2008-01-01

    Telescope structures are traditionally built out of steel. To improve the possibility of realizing the ambitious extremely large telescopes, materials with a higher specific stiffness and a lower coefficient of thermal expansion are needed. An important possibility is Carbon Fibre Reinforced...

  10. IR Spectrometer Project for the BTA Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Emelianov, E. V.; Murzin, V. A.; Vdovin, V. F.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a project of new cooled infrared spectrometer-photometer for 6-m telescope BTA (Special Astrophysical Observatory of Russian Science Academy). The device would extend the wavelength range accessible for observations on the 6-m BTA telescope toward near infrared (0.8-2.5 um).

  11. Technology and the Hubble Space Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of the Hubble Space Telescope which is a 13.1 m long, 4.27 m in diameter, and weighs 11,000 kg are described. The telescope will be placed in a 600-km circular orbit of 28.5 deg inclination and it has an expected service life of 15 years. The optical telescope assembly contains the hyperbolic Ritchey-Chretin type primary and secondary mirrors and the optical control system. The telescope is to have a field of view of 28 arcmin in diameter. The use of the fine guidance sensors for pointing stability is examined. The optical and scientific system of the telescope are contained in the support system module. A wide-field/planetary camera, ESA-furnished faint object camera, the high-speed photometer, faint-object spectrograph, high resolution spectrograph, and ESA-furnished solar arrays are located on the telescope. The maintenance and refurbishment of the telescope are discussed. The precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and stable pointing of the telescope produce good image quality for astronomical and solar system science studies. 6 references

  12. ANTARES : The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th; Charvis, Ph; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J. -J.; Di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J. -L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J. -F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J. -P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J. -L.; Galata, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hoessl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J-C; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; LeVanSuu, A.; Lefevre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Leveque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Patioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Rethore, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J. -F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schoeck, F.; Schuller, J. -P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; van Wijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design

  13. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; van Haren, H.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design

  14. The Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: TIM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Salas, L.; Ruiz, E.; Luna, E.; Pedrayes, M.; Sohn, E.; Si Erra, G.; Sanchez, B.; Valdez, J.; Gutierrez, L.; Hiriart, D.; Iriarte, A.

    2001-07-01

    We present the Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope Project (TIM). The design and construction of a 7.8 m telescope, which will operate at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), are described. The site has been selected based on seeing and sky condition measurements taken for several years. The f/1.5 primary mirror consists of 19 hexagonal off-axis hyperbolic segments of 1.8 m in diameter. The telescope structure will be alt-az, lightweight, low cost, and high stiffness. It will be supported by hydrostatic bearings. The single secondary will complement a Ritchey-Chretien f/15 design, delivering to Cassegrain focus instrumentation. The telescope will be infrared optimized to allow observations ranging from 0.3 to 20 microns. The TIM mirror cell provides an independent and full active support system for each segment, in order to achieve both, phasing capability and very high quality imaging (0.25 arcsec). The TIM project is one of the most advanced technological UNAM projects. The participation of technical and scientific professionals of other national institutions is crucial for its success. The project is seeking partners and financing.

  15. Undergraduate Research Experiences with the Global Telescope Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, Kevin M.; Wyman, K.; Broughton, N.; Coble, K.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Students at Chicago State University and Sonoma State University have undertaken observational programs using telescopes of the Global Telescope Network (GTN) and SkyNet. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by GLAST to support the science of high energy astrophysics missions, specifically GLAST, Swift and XMM-Newton. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University. SkyNet encompasses a network  of small telescopes managed from the University of North Carolina to catch gamma ray burst afterglows. A primary motivator behind both networks is education. In the program outlined here, undergraduate students will schedule, reduce and analyze observations of active galaxies and other targets. Students will then present their work as part of observational course work, or in some cases as a "capstone” research experience required for graduation. This work will give the students direct experience with several aspects of scientific research, including literature searches, data acquisition and analysis, and reporting of results.

  16. A scientific assessment of a new technology orbital telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    As part of a program designed to test the Alpha chemical laser weapons system in space, the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) developed components of an agile, lightweight, 4-meter telescope, equipped with an advanced active-optics system. BMDO had proposed to make space available in the telescope's focal plane for instrumentation optimized for scientific applications in astrophysics and planetary astronomy for a potential flight mission. Such a flight mission could be undertaken if new or additional sponsorship can be found. Despite this uncertainty, BMDO requested assistance in defining the instrumentation and other design aspects necessary to enhance the scientific value of a pointing and tracking mission. In response to this request, the Space Studies Board established the Task Group on BMDO New Technology Orbital Observatory (TGBNTOO) and charged it to instrumentation, data management, and science-operations advice to BMDO to optimize the scientific value of a 4-meter mission; and (2) support a space studies board assessment of the relative scientific merit of the program. This report deals with the first of these tasks, assisting the Advanced Technology Demonstrator's (ATD's) program scientific potential. Given the potential scientific aspects of the 4-meter telescope, this project is referred to as the New Technology Orbital Telescope (NTOT), or as the ATD/NTOT, to emphasize its dual-use character. The task group's basic conclusion is that the ATD/NTOT mission does have the potential for contributing in a major way to astronomical goals.

  17. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The key driver for a telescope's sensitivityis directly related to the size of t he mirror area that collects light from the objects being observed.The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The HDST envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. The Optical Telescope Assembly for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This reports on the concept for the MODEST, which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, a testbed for new instruments, and a tool for student's exploration of space. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Ceramic Matrix Composite that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. It has been demonstrated

  18. Unconsciously perceived fear in peripheral vision alerts the limbic system: a MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri J Bayle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In ecological situations, threatening stimuli often come out from the peripheral vision. Such aggressive messages must trigger rapid attention to the periphery to allow a fast and adapted motor reaction. Several clues converge to hypothesize that peripheral danger presentation can trigger off a fast arousal network potentially independent of the consciousness spot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present MEG study, spatio-temporal dynamics of the neural processing of danger related stimuli were explored as a function of the stimuli position in the visual field. Fearful and neutral faces were briefly presented in the central or peripheral visual field, and were followed by target faces stimuli. An event-related beamformer source analysis model was applied in three time windows following the first face presentations: 80 to 130 ms, 140 to 190 ms, and 210 to 260 ms. The frontal lobe and the right internal temporal lobe part, including the amygdala, reacted as soon as 80 ms of latency to fear occurring in the peripheral vision. For central presentation, fearful faces evoked the classical neuronal activity along the occipito-temporal visual pathway between 140 and 190 ms. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the high spatio-temporal resolution of MEG allowed disclosing a fast response of a network involving medial temporal and frontal structures in the processing of fear related stimuli occurring unconsciously in the peripheral visual field. Whereas centrally presented stimuli are precisely processed by the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the related-to-danger stimuli appearing in the peripheral visual field are more efficient to produce a fast automatic alert response possibly conveyed by subcortical structures.

  19. Emergence of a 600-Hz buzz UP state Purkinje cell firing in alert mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheron, G; Prigogine, C; Cheron, J; Márquez-Ruiz, J; Traub, R D; Dan, B

    2014-03-28

    Purkinje cell (PC) firing represents the sole output from the cerebellar cortex onto the deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei. Here, we explored the different modes of PC firing in alert mice by extracellular recording. We confirm the existence of a tonic and/or bursting and quiescent modes corresponding to UP and DOWN state, respectively. We demonstrate the existence of a novel 600-Hz buzz UP state of firing characterized by simple spikes (SS) of very small amplitude. Climbing fiber (CF) input is able to switch the 600-Hz buzz to the DOWN state, as for the classical UP-to-DOWN state transition. Conversely, the CF input can initiate a typical SS pattern terminating into 600-Hz buzz. The 600-Hz buzz was transiently suppressed by whisker pad stimulation demonstrating that it remained responsive to peripheral input. It must not be mistaken for a DOWN state or the sign of PC inhibition. Complex spike (CS) frequency was increased during the 600-Hz buzz, indicating that this PC output actively contributes to the cerebello-olivary loop by triggering a disinhibition of the inferior olive. During the 600-Hz buzz, the first depolarizing component of the CS was reduced and the second depolarizing component was suppressed. Consistent with our experimental observations, using a 559-compartment single-PC model - in which PC UP state (of about -43mV) was obtained by the combined action of large tonic AMPA conductances and counterbalancing GABAergic inhibition - removal of this inhibition produced the 600-Hz buzz; the simulated buzz frequency decreased following an artificial CS. PMID:24440752

  20. Optical design of a rotating eyepiece telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M.; Nasim, F.; Khan, A. N.; Gul, A.

    2016-08-01

    Flexible eyepiece telescope has been designed and verified. The rotating eyepiece of telescope will facilitate viewing of objects in a remote or out of sight target. Eyepiece arm of telescope can be rotated upto 360o keeping objective and reticule unchanged and ensuring zero deviation in reticule inclination. Main application of this scope is off axis viewing of objects. Image inversion has been carried out by using pair of mirrors and length of telescope is controlled by using relay lenses. The optical design, simulation and image analysis has been carried out by using ZEMAX®. Magnification of telescope is between 10∼⃒12 times with FOV of 60. Experiment has been carried out using uncoated Edmund Optics and optical tool box of Micro Series Kit, NEWPORT.