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Sample records for alendronate improve metaphyseal

  1. Short term sodium alendronate administration improves the peri-implant bone quality in osteoporotic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de OLIVEIRA, Danila; HASSUMI, Jaqueline Suemi; GOMES-FERREIRA, Pedro Henrique da Silva; POLO, Tárik Ocon Braga; FERREIRA, Gabriel Ramalho; FAVERANI, Leonardo Perez; OKAMOTO, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Sodium alendronate is a bisphosphonate drug that exerts antiresorptive action and is used to treat osteoporosis. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair process at the bone/implant interface of osteoporotic rats treated with sodium alendronate through the analysis of microtomography, real time polymerase chain reactions and immunohistochemistry (RUNX2 protein, bone sialoprotein (BSP), alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Material and Methods A total of 42 rats were used and divided in to the following experimental groups: CTL: control group (rats submitted to fictitious surgery and fed with a balanced diet), OST: osteoporosis group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy and fed with a low calcium diet) and ALE: alendronate group (rats submitted to a bilateral ovariectomy, fed with a low calcium diet and treated with sodium alendronate). A surface treated implant was installed in both tibial metaphyses of each rat. Euthanasia of the animals was conducted at 14 (immunhostochemistry) and 42 days (immunohistochemistry, micro CT and PCR). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results Bone volume (BV) and total pore volume were higher for ALE group (P<0.05). Molecular data for RUNX2 and BSP proteins were significantly expressed in the ALE group (P<0.05), in comparison with the other groups. ALP expression was higher in the CTL group (P<0.05). The immunostaining for RUNX2 and osteopontin was positive in the osteoblastic lineage cells of neoformed bone for the CTL and ALE groups in both periods (14 and 42 days). Alkaline phosphatase presented a lower staining area in the OST group compared to the CTL in both periods and the ALE at 42 days. Conclusion There was a decrease of osteocalcin precipitation at 42 days for the ALE and OST groups. Therefore, treatment with short-term sodium alendronate improved bone repair around the implants installed in the tibia of osteoporotic rats. PMID

  2. Rapid improvement of calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis with alendronate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Geoffrey R; Chaitow, Jeffrey; Rogers, Maureen; McDonald, David W; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    A 6-year-old boy with improving juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) developed severe and debilitating calcinosis, unresponsive to diltiazem and probenecid. Alendronate produced dramatic improvement within 1 month and by 12 months calcinosis had virtually resolved. The response was followed by bone mineral content measurements.

  3. Alendronate improves QOL of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaya Kawate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hisaya Kawate1, Keizo Ohnaka2, Masahiro Adachi1, Suminori Kono3, Hideyuki Ikematsu4, Hisashi Matsuo5, Kazumi Higuchi6, Takehiko Takayama7, Ryoichi Takayanagi11Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Internal Medicine, Haradoi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 5Matsuo Naika Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 6Fukuoka Teishin Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 7Takayama Icho-ka and Naika Clinic, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: Postmenopausal osteoporosis causes bone fracture as well as pain, physical, psychological and socially adverse effects, which affects a patient’s quality of life (QOL. The effect of alendronate on QOL was investigated compared with that of alfacalcidol in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.Patients and methods: A total of 44 postmenopausal osteoporotic women (mean age 69.8 years with back or joint pain, although capable of walking, were randomly assigned to two groups; group A (n = 25 received 5 mg/day of alendronate, and group B (n = 19 received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol, for the first 4 months. For the following 2 months, the group A received 0.5 μg/day of alfacalcidol and the group B received 5 mg/day of alendronate in a crossover design. The patient’s QOL was evaluated by score of Japanese Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (JOQOL, and pain intensity using a visual analog scale (VAS. Bone metabolism was measured by bone mineral density (BMD and a biomarker for bone resorption, urinary crosslinked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX.Results: With 4-month treatment, alendronate, but not alfacalcidol, improved pain-related QOL, reduced joint pain by VAS, and increased bone mineral density. Both treatments significantly reduced bone resorption, the

  4. Systemic alendronate treatment improves fixation of press-fit implants: a canine study using nonloaded implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas B; Bechtold, Joan E; Chen, Xinqian;

    2007-01-01

    Bone resorption associated with local trauma occurring during insertion of joint prostheses is recognized as an early event. Being an osteoclastic inhibitor, alendronate is a potential candidate means to decrease early periprosthetic bone resorption and thereby improve implant fixation. We......) was inserted into each proximal tibia of 16 dogs. On one side the implant was inserted press-fit whereas on the contralateral side, the implants were surrounded by a 2 mm concentric gap. Oral alendronate (0.5 mg/kg/day) was given 2 weeks following surgery to eight dogs. The dogs were euthanized after 10 weeks...... early implant stability is an important predictor of longevity, systemic alendronate treatment could be an important clinical tool to positively influence the early stages of implant incorporation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  5. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  6. Risedronate improves bone architecture and strength faster than alendronate in ovariectomized rats on a low-calcium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tetsuo; Yamada, Mei; Konda, Tomoyuki; Shiozaki, Makoto; Inoue, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that, compared with alendronate, risedronate reduces fracture risk faster and more potently, with less bone mass gain. We tested the hypothesis that risedronate improves bone quality faster than alendronate using calcium-deficient, ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats at 24 weeks of age were divided into sham-operated and OVX groups and fed a low-calcium (0.05%) diet under paired feeding. After 12 weeks, OVX rats were divided into five groups and treated with vehicle, risedronate (3.5 and 17.5 μg/kg/week, s.c.) or alendronate (7 and 35 μg/kg/week, s.c.). Rats were killed 6-8 weeks later and the bone architecture and strength of the left femur were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and a three-point bending test. Trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), number and thickness were significantly lower in OVX rats than in the sham-operated group. Cortical BMD, bone area (Ct.Ar), and thickness (Ct.Th) were similarly decreased. Risedronate significantly improved Ct.Ar (+8%) and Ct.Th (+9%) at 6 weeks, while alendronate only caused a significant improvement in Ct.Ar (+8% at 6 weeks) and only at the higher dose. At 8 weeks, both risedronate and alendronate significantly increased trabecular BMD compared with the vehicle. Bone strength parameters showed a significant correlation between Ct.Ar and Ct.Th. Risedronate significantly improved maximum load at 6 weeks, while alendronate failed to produce any significant changes. Our results suggest that risedronate is superior to alendronate at improving cortical bone architecture and strength, and that enhanced bone quality partly accounts for risedronate's efficacy.

  7. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC) osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes) on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization) and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production) of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase) was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a) decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b) increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c) deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis). Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC. PMID:27840829

  8. Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rocío Chuguransky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPARγ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC.

  9. Linhas escleróticas metafisárias em crianças e adolescentes em uso de alendronato Sclerotic metaphyseal lines in children and adolescents treated with alendronate

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    Érika C.C. Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os bisfosfonatos inibem a reabsorção óssea pela interferência na ação dos osteoclastos. Dentre os efeitos adversos, as linhas escleróticas em metáfise de ossos longos são descritas como principal alteração radiográfica na faixa etária pediátrica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de alterações radiográficas causadas pelo alendronato utilizado em crianças e adolescentes com baixa densidade óssea ou calcinose. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo do tipo coorte retrospectiva analisando-se prontuários de 21 pacientes que fizeram uso de alendronato semanal por no mínimo 10 meses. Os pacientes realizaram radiografias de ossos longos antes do início do alendronato e aproximadamente um ano após o seu uso. RESULTADOS: Onze pacientes (52,3% apresentaram linhas escleróticas em metáfise dos ossos longos. A localização mais frequente foi em tíbia (8/11 pacientes, seguida de fêmur (7/11, úmero (6/11, rádio (4/11, ulna (3/11 e fíbula (2/11. Nenhum paciente apresentou regress��o das alterações radiográficas durante o tempo de evolução (até 1,1 ano após a suspensão do alendronato. CONCLUSÃO: Se usado com critério, o alendronato é seguro e as alterações radiográficas não mostraram ter um significado mais importante.INTRODUCTION: Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by interfering with the action of osteoclasts. Among the adverse effects, sclerotic lines observed in the metaphysis of long bones have been described as the main imaging finding in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of radiographic changes caused by alendronate in children and adolescents with low bone density or calcinosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 21 patients who were treated with once-weekly alendronate for at least 10 months. Patients underwent x-rays of long bones before the start of alendronate and approximately one year after its use. RESULTS: Eleven patients

  10. Modern Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, B M

    1996-01-01

    Metaphysics is the science of being and asks the question ``What really exists?'' The answer to this question has been sought for by mankind since the beginning of recorded time. In the past 2500 years there have been many answers to this question and these answers dominate our view of how physics is done. Examples of questions which were originally metaphysical are the shape of the earth, the motion of the earth, the existence of atoms, the relativity of space and time, the uncertainty principle, the renormalization of field theory and the existence of quarks and strings. I will explore our changing conception of what constitutes reality by examining the views of Aristotle, Ptolemy, St. Thomas Aquinas, Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, Descartes, Newton, Leibnitz, Compte, Einstein, Bohr, Feynman, Schwinger, Yang, Gell-Mann, Wilson and Witten. Metaphysics is the science of being and asks the question ``What really exists?'' The answer to this question has been sought for by mankind since the beginning of recorded t...

  11. Alendronate in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Weiss, S R; Rodriguez-Portales, J A

    2000-01-01

    consented to continue and completed the extension. We are reporting data from groups using the dose of alendronate currently approved for osteoporosis prevention (5 mg) or from the group in which alendronate treatment was withdrawn: 52 women received alendronate (5 mg) for 5 yr (group I), 56 received 3 yr...

  12. Metaphysics of Logical Realism

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    Mohammadreza Abdollahnejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the often false impression that the analytic philosophy as an anti-metaphysical movement has nothing to do with metaphysics, there can be found good reasons to grant the metaphysical dispositions of analytic philosophers, and thereby, to minimize the anti-metaphysical nature of analytic philosophy in its all phases. Since analytic philosophy is a historical movement the main nature of which developed through several stages, the very kinds of metaphysical dispositions within each one of its various stages can be easily portrayed. In the meantime, logical realism as the early stage of analytic philosophy contains plenty of metaphysical dispositions. Undoubtedly, one cannot say that analytic philosophy in this period was not committed to metaphysical theses about the plurality of entities, the ultimate nature of reality and the logical structure of the world. In this paper, then, after giving a relatively complete explanation of the logical realism, we claimed that although logical realists rejected the traditional speculative metaphysics of their predecessors, they also replaced it by the metaphysics of logic that pursues the metaphysical aims, this time, by logical means. So, we portrayed this kind of metaphysics as Bolzano’s Semantic Platonism, Frege’s and Russell’s Pluralistic Platonism, Russell’s Pluralistic Atomism, and Wittgenstein’s logical atomism.

  13. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed.

  14. Possible alendronate-induced polyarticular synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökkus, K; Yazicioglu, G; Sagtas, E; Uyan, A; Aydin, A T

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of polyarticular synovitis following alendronate treatment for osteoporosis. The patient had no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis, pyrophosphate arthropathy, or seronegative/seropositive arthritis. Our main aim in this study is to highlight the potential adverse effects of alendronate and to warn orthopedic surgeons about the possibility of such a side effect that might lead orthopedic surgeons to administer wrong and unnecessary treatments like arthrocentesis. The withdrawal of alendronate is found to be the treatment of choice. Alendronate should be considered as a possible cause of synovitis or polyarthritis in patients treated with this agent in the absence of any other pathology. An association between alendronate and synovitis has rarely been described in the literature. We present a patient who developed polyarticular synovitis after treatment with alendronate and responded to its withdrawal.

  15. Logic is Metaphysics

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    Daniel Durante Pereira Alves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.

  16. Logic is Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Durante Pereira Alves

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.

  17. Possible alendronate-induced polyarticular synovitis

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    K Gökkus

    2016-01-01

    The patient had no evidence of rheumatoid arthritis, pyrophosphate arthropathy, or seronegative/seropositive arthritis. Our main aim in this study is to highlight the potential adverse effects of alendronate and to warn orthopedic surgeons about the possibility of such a side effect that might lead orthopedic surgeons to administer wrong and unnecessary treatments like arthrocentesis. The withdrawal of alendronate is found to be the treatment of choice. Alendronate should be considered as a possible cause of synovitis or polyarthritis in patients treated with this agent in the absence of any other pathology. An association between alendronate and synovitis has rarely been described in the literature. We present a patient who developed polyarticular synovitis after treatment with alendronate and responded to its withdrawal.

  18. Effect of heparin and alendronate coating on titanium surfaces on inhibition of osteoclast and enhancement of osteoblast function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Yun, Young-Pil [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Choong-Wan; Kim, Min Sung [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Soo [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Woo [Department of Technology Commercialization Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), 66, Hoegi-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-741 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-Moo; Lee, Chang-Hoon [Department of Oriental Gynecology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Su [Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Il Keun, E-mail: kwoni@khu.ac.kr [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} We examine bone metabolism of engineered alendronate attached to Ti surfaces. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti enhances activation of osteoblast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti inhibits osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions. -- Abstract: The failure of orthopedic and dental implants has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to weak bonding of the implant material to bone tissue. Titanium (Ti) is used in the field of orthopedic and dental implants because of its excellent biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. Therefore, in the field of materials science and tissue engineering, there has been extensive research to immobilize bioactive molecules on the surface of implant materials in order to provide the implants with improved adhesion to the host bone tissue. In this study, chemically active functional groups were introduced on the surface of Ti by a grafting reaction with heparin and then the Ti was functionalized by immobilizing alendronate onto the heparin-grafted surface. In the MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenic differentiation study, the alendronate-immobilized Ti substrates significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium content. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with the alendronate-immobilized Ti as confirmed by TRAP analysis. Real time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are markers for osteogenesis, were upregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti. The mRNA expressions of TRAP and Cathepsin K, markers for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti were down-regulated. Our study suggests that alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions to enhance

  19. Alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing bone density (thickness). ... have ever had anemia (condition in which the red blood cells do not bring enough oxygen to all the ...

  20. The impact of alendronate on bone mineral density of osteoporotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei-Meybodi, Hamidreza; Rashidi, Negin; Montazeri, Mahdi; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Khashayar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed the real life therapeutic effects of weekly doses of alendronate in treating a group of osteoporotic patients in Iran. The present historical cohort was conducted on patients who had undergone two or more bone mineral densitometry within an interval of 1.5-2 years in Shariati Hospital bone mineral density department between 2002 and 2010.patients were asked by phone about consumption of alendronate. The mean increase in the BMD values at different sites was calculated. There was a significant increase in the body mass index (BMI) values of both the individuals taking alendronate and the control group (P<0.001). Taking the weekly dosage of the drug was associated with a 7.67% increase in the BMD values at the femoral neck, 8.68% at the total hip, and 3.17% at the lumbar spine. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the height decline in the two groups (alendronate taking: 0.7±2.4 vs. control: -0.7±2.6, P<0.001). Comparing the results of the present study with that of previous ones revealed the drug is beneficial in improving bone mineral density in Iranians; as well alendronate is more effective in Iranian postmenopausal women when compared with the Americans.

  1. The impact of alendronate on bone mineral density of osteoporotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aghaei-Meybodi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the real life therapeutic effects of weekly doses of alendronate in treating a group of osteoporotic patients in Iran. The present historical cohort was conducted on patients who had undergone two or more bone mineral densitometry within an interval of 1.5-2 years in Shariati Hospital bone mineral density department between 2002 and 2010.patients were asked by phone about consumption of alendronate. The mean increase in the BMD values at different sites was calculated. There was a significant increase in the body mass index (BMI values of both the individuals taking alendronate and the control group (P<0.001. Taking the weekly dosage of the drug was associated with a 7.67% increase in the BMD values at the femoral neck, 8.68% at the total hip, and 3.17% at the lumbar spine. Moreover, our results showed a significant difference between the height decline in the two groups (alendronate taking: 0.7±2.4 vs. control: -0.7±2.6, P<0.001. Comparing the results of the present study with that of previous ones revealed the drug is beneficial in improving bone mineral density in Iranians; as well alendronate is more effective in Iranian postmenopausal women when compared with the Americans.

  2. The Everyday Condition of Metaphysics

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    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The question I intend to answer is whether one can speak of a tacit metaphysics, not expressed conceptually, but nevertheless common. If the answer is positive and providing that it is specific to day-to-day life, such metaphysics may be called everyday metaphysics. To this end, I review the meaning of everyday life and its ambivalent character. Next, I present several milestones in the debate on the subject, from authors who have focused on a kind of usual, common or ‘natural’ metaphysics. Lastly, I formulate the idea under consideration, namely that everyday life implies or underlies a certain metaphysics. I note that it is an implicit metaphysics – not expressed formally – and rather free. Embraced in experience with a certain degree of freedom, it is recognisable by means of certain representations active in our mind, by the manner of speaking or of understanding and by the common forms of expression. Its vibrancy, concrete and relaxed character makes it highly evocative of the mental life of an era. It ensures a truly essential difference in our everyday mode of being.

  3. Alendronate treatment in the revision setting, with and without controlled implant motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søballe, Kjeld; Chen, Xinqian; Jensen, Thomas B;

    2007-01-01

    . The other half of the implants continued pistoning. Half of the dogs were exposed to alendronate (oral). Results Stabilization of the revision implant was more effective at improving fixation (higher shear strength) than administering alendronate. As expected, the fibrous membrane remained under unstable...... model with controlled motion to evaluate the relative effects of implant motion and bisphosphonate. We implemented our established 8-week experimental revision protocol to obtain a bony and soft tissue setting of revision joint replacement in 16 dogs. At 8 weeks, we had stabilized half of the implants...

  4. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

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    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  5. Metaphysics in Education after Hutchins and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Rene Vincente

    1991-01-01

    The article discusses whether education should promote metaphysical questioning and speculation, noting the arguments of Robert Hutchins and John Dewey in the 1930s. It suggests that metaphysical questioning and meditative responses be part of education. (SM)

  6. The Scientific Metaphysics of Charles S. Peirce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo

    scientific results and conceptions of his time, but also, like Immanuel Kant, to set metaphysics on the path of a science. This collection of articles investigates central themes and difficulties in the metaphysics of Peirce - some of the articles clarify aspects of his metaphysics, others also show...

  7. Metaphyseal bands in osteogenesis imperfecta

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    Suresh S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta are undergoing pamidronate therapy to prevent the incidence of fragility fractures. The authors herein report a child aged 3 years who received five cycles of pamidronate, resulting in metaphyseal bands, known as "zebra lines."

  8. Alendronate-coated long-circulating liposomes containing 99mtechnetium-ceftizoxime used to identify osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diego dos Santos; Boratto, Fernanda Alves; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Serakides, Rogéria; Fernandes, Simone Odília; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Oliveira, Mônica Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Osteomyelitis is a progressive destruction of bones caused by microorganisms. Inadequate or absent treatment increases the risk of bone growth inhibition, fractures, and sepsis. Among the diagnostic techniques, functional images are the most sensitive in detecting osteomyelitis in its early stages. However, these techniques do not have adequate specificity. By contrast, radiolabeled antibiotics could improve selectivity, since they are specifically recognized by the bacteria. The incorporation of these radiopharmaceuticals in drug-delivery systems with high affinity for bones could improve the overall uptake. In this work, long-circulating and alendronate-coated liposomes containing (99m)technetium-radiolabeled ceftizoxime were prepared and their ability to identify infectious foci (osteomyelitis) in animal models was evaluated. The effect of the presence of PEGylated lipids and surface-attached alendronate was evaluated. The bone-targeted long-circulating liposomal (99m)technetium-ceftizoxime showed higher uptake in regions of septic inflammation than did the non-long-circulating and/or alendronate-non-coated liposomes, showing that both the presence of PEGylated lipids and alendronate coating are important to optimize the bone targeting. Scintigraphic images of septic or aseptic inflammation-bearing Wistar rats, as well as healthy rats, were acquired at different time intervals after the intravenous administration of these liposomes. The target-to-non-target ratio proved to be significantly higher in the osteomyelitis-bearing animals for all investigated time intervals. Biodistribution studies were also performed after the intravenous administration of the formulation in osteomyelitis-bearing animals. A significant amount of liposomes were taken up by the organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system (liver and spleen). Intense renal excretion was also observed during the entire experiment period. Moreover, the liposome uptake by the infectious focus was

  9. Alendronate increases BMD at appendicular and axial skeletons in patients with established osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au Szeki

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify high-risk patients and provide pharmacological treatment is one of the effective approaches in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. This study investigated the effect of 12-month Alendronate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover biochemical markers in postmenopausal women with one or more non-traumatic fractures, i.e. patients with established osteoporosis. Methods A total of 118 Hong Kong postmenopausal Chinese women aged 50 to 75 with low-energy fracture at distal radius (Colles' fracture were recruited for BMD measurement at lumbar spine and non-dominant hip using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. 47 women with BMD T-score below -2 SD at either side were identified as patients with established osteoporosis and then randomized into Alendronate group (n = 22 and placebo control group (n = 25 for BMD measurement at spine and hip using DXA and distal radius of the non-fracture side by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, and bone turnover markers, including bone forming alkaline phosphatase (BALP and bone resorbing urinary Deoxypyridinoline (DPD. All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months. Results Alendronate treatment significantly increased BMD, more in weight-bearing skeletons (5.1% at spine and 2.5% at hip than in non-weight bearing skeleton (0.9% at distal radius after 12 months treatment. Spine T-score was significant improved in Alendronate group (p Conclusion 12 months Alendronate treatment was effective to increase BMD at both axial and appendicular skeletons in postmenopausal women with established osteoporosis.

  10. Transhumanism, metaphysics, and the posthuman god.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jeffrey P

    2010-12-01

    After describing Heidegger's critique of metaphysics as ontotheology, I unpack the metaphysical assumptions of several transhumanist philosophers. I claim that they deploy an ontology of power and that they also deploy a kind of theology, as Heidegger meant it. I also describe the way in which this metaphysics begets its own politics and ethics. In order to transcend the human condition, they must transgress the human.

  11. Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, J D; Bostedor, R G; Masarachia, P J; Reszka, A A; Rodan, G

    2000-01-01

    Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Recent findings suggest that alendronate and other N-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway and interfere with protein prenylation, as a result of reduced geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels. This study identified farnesyl disphosphate synthase as the mevalonate pathway enzyme inhibited by bisphosphonates. HPLC analysis of products from a liver cytosolic extract narrowed the potential targets for alendronate inhibition (IC(50) = 1700 nM) to isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited by alendronate with an IC(50) of 460 nM (following 15 min preincubation). Alendronate did not inhibit isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase or GGPP synthase, partially purified from liver cytosol. Recombinant farnesyl diphosphate synthase was also inhibited by pamidronate (IC(50) = 500 nM) and risedronate (IC(50) = 3.9 nM), negligibly by etidronate (IC50 = 80 microM), and not at all by clodronate. In osteoclasts, alendronate inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]mevalonolactone into proteins of 18-25 kDa and into nonsaponifiable lipids, including sterols. These findings (i) identify farnesyl diphosphate synthase as the selective target of alendronate in the mevalonate pathway, (ii) show that this enzyme is inhibited by other N-containing bisphosphonates, such as risendronate, but not by clodronate, supporting a different mechanism of action for different bisphosphonates, and (iii) document in purified osteoclasts alendronate inhibition of prenylation and sterol biosynthesis.

  12. The Subversion of Metaphysical Detective Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雪晴

    2015-01-01

    Featured unexpected ending,unique approaches, subversion of the rules of traditional detective story,and unique themes,metaphysical detective story is quite different from these traditional ones.These character were clearly showed in Death and Compass.In this article,metaphysical features of the story are analyzed and the theme was discussed.

  13. The Efficacy of Alendronate in Children with Secondary Osteoporosis - Original Article

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    Halil Sağlam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis which is primarily known as an adult disease may be encountered secondarily due to chronic diseases in children. Biphosphonates can be safely used in treatment with proven benefits. Alendronate is often preferred because of its advantage of oral use. Here, the efficiency and safety of alendronate in children with secondary osteoporosis were evaluated. Materials and Method: A total of 46 children (28 boys; 60.9% and 18 girls; 39.1% with secondary osteoporosis were included. Alendronate was given orally at a dose of 5 mg once daily for children less than 30 kg and 10 mg once daily for those weighing 30 kg or more. Bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated with DEXA taken at baseline, at 6th month, at 12th month and at 24th month. Results: Mean standard deviation scores (SDS of height, weight and body mass index were -2.43, -2.82 and -1.72, respectively. Serum Ca, P and ALP levels were all normal. Mean BMD SDS at baseline, 6th month, 12th month and 24th month were -4.03±0.96 -3.51±1.02, -2.82±1.09 and -2.43±0.93, respectively. Improvements in BMD z-scores at 6th, 12th and 24th months compared to baseline were all statistically significant.Conclusion: Our results showed that oral alendronate treatment which is more comfortable and cheaper than parenteral ones results in significant improvements in BMD, can be safely used and easily tolerated in children with secondary osteoporosis, as in adults. Though a plenty of studies were performed in children, there is still no consensus on the preferred and safe dose of the drug and the duration of treatment, as well as from the beginning of what age can the drug be introduced to the children requiring osteoporosis treatment. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 86-9

  14. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  15. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  16. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  17. EXISTENTIAL DETERMINANTS OF THE LANGUAGE OF METAPHYSICS

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    Natalia Kunat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the existential determinants of the language of metaphysics primarily on the basis of the philosophical stances adopted by Stanisław Kamiński and Mieczysław A. Krąpiec. Realistic philosophy, which focuses principally on the problem of being, uses the language of metaphysics, which helps in understanding reality in itself. Moreover, the article analyses the structure of the language of metaphysics as well as the existential elements constituting its specificity, i.e., among other things, existential judgement and transcendentals.

  18. Microencapsulation of sodium alendronate reduces drug mucosal damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Letícia; Assumpção, Evelise; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Conrado, Daniela Joyce; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin

    2010-05-01

    Sodium alendronate is an effective treatment for osteoporosis, but its oral administration is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate gastroresistant sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles prepared by spray-drying using Eudragit S100 or a blend of Eudragit S100/Methocel E4M. Both formulations presented high encapsulation efficiencies, mean diameters below 17 microm, and similar collapsed shape. Dissolution experiments showed good gastro-resistance for the microparticles at pH 1.2. At pH 6.8, the blended microparticles retarded the drug release. In vivo studies showed that the formulations were able to protect the rat stomachs against ulcer formation by sodium alendronate. In conclusion, the microparticles seems to be promising oral carriers for sodium alendronate.

  19. Alendronate, a double-edged sword acting in the mevalonate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Paola Maura; Girardelli, Martina; Kleiner, Giulio; Knowles, Alessandra; Valencic, Erica; Crovella, Sergio; Marcuzzi, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Aminobisphosphonate aledronate is a compound commonly used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases, as a result of it preventing bone resorption. However, in previous years it has also been used to obtain cellular and animal models of a rare genetic disorder termed Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency (MKD). MKD is caused by mutations affecting the mevalonate kinase enzyme, in the cholesterol pathway and alendronate can be used to biochemically mimic the genetic defect as it inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase in the same pathway. Despite evidence in favor of the inhibition exerted on the mevalonate pathway, there is at least one clinical case of MKD in which alendronate improved not only skeletal and bone fractures, as expected, but also MKD clinical features. Based on this finding, the present study assessed the anti‑inflammatory properties of this aminobisphosphonate in vitro. No anti‑inflammatory effects of alendronate were observed in the in vitro experiments. Since MKD lacks specific treatments, these results may assist scientists and physicians in making the decision as to the most suitable choice of therapeutic compounds for this neglected disease.

  20. Treatment of osteoporosis after alendronate or risedronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiken, P; Vestergaard, P

    2016-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN) and risedronate (RIS) are ideal as first-choice therapy options in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. What to do for patients who do not respond adequately to bisphosphonates has not been conclusively determined, but transitioning to other therapies should be considered....... The aim of this article is to describe potential alternatives for patients switching from ALN or RIS to other therapies for osteoporosis. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted to find papers that evaluate the effects of switching therapies on fractures, bone mineral density (BMD), or bone turnover...... markers. Results from 11 studies that prospectively assessed treatment after ALN or RIS in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were reviewed. All studies are of short duration (all 24 months or less) and assess the topic of transitioning therapy from ALN or RIS. None of the studies had the statistical...

  1. An extremely rare case: osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapkara, C S; Küçükçongar, A; Boyunağa, O; Bedir, T; Oncü, F; Hasanoğlu, A; Tümer, L

    2013-01-01

    OMD (osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia) is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described by G. Nishimura in two Japanese siblings in 1993 (6). We report the case of a 12-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay and sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of specific bones. This 36-week gestation boy was born to a 26 year old gravida 5 para 1 Turkish mother and a 27 year old nonconsanguineous father. Radiographic findings obtained during the hospital stay included bilateral symmetrical osteosclerosis of the metaphyseal portions of the long bones in the upper and lower extremities with osteopenic shafts. Narrow bands of metaphyseal osteosclerosis were detected in the short tubular bones of the hands and feet. Growing parts of bilateral scapula, iliac, pubic and ischial bones show sclerotic bands. In addition superior and inferior plates of vertebras, transverse processes of sacral vertebras, all visible epiphyses, carpal and tarsal bones also show sclerotic changes. The scalp was unaffected. Based on the clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of OMD was made. We do not know any of the osteosclerotic bone disorder with changes including hypotonia, mental and motor developmental delay and metaphyseal sclerosis of the bones with a unique distribution except OMD. The syndrome is characterized by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia 18 years ago. Our patient is the 4th case of OMD described in the literature share some clinical and radiological similarities with other three reported cases of osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasias.

  2. Alendronate functionalized mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dongdong, E-mail: lidongchem@sina.cn [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhu, Yuntao; Liang, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesized mesoporous hydroxyapatite has nanostructure and bioactivity. ► The materials have high surface area and amino group. ► The materials show higher drug loading and slower release rate than pure HAP. - Abstract: Mesoporous nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) functionalized by alendronate (ALN) was synthesized using cationic surfactant CTAB as template. The structural, morphological and textural properties were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Then the obtained materials were performed as drug delivery carriers using ibuprofen (IBU) as a model drug to investigate their drug storage/release properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). The materials showed relatively slower release rate compared with HAP due to the ionic interaction between -NH{sub 3}{sup +} on the matrix and -COO{sup −}belongs to IBU. The system provides a new concept for improving the drug loading or slowing down the release rate.

  3. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed.

  4. Metaphysics after Metaphysics: The Limitative Conception of First Philosophy in Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Zöller

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Kant’s Enlightenment conception of metaphysics as a science (Wissenschaft to be kept free of ideological prejudice and extrarational cognitive resources and to be established under the conditions of public, intersubjectively valid discourse. I analyze Kant’s self-interpretation of his transcendental philosophy as “metaphysics of metaphysics” and argue for the extensional partial identity of the critique of metaphysics and the metaphysics so rendered possible. In particular, I identify the “future metaphysics” envisioned by Kant as the “metaphysics of nature in general” or the “physiology of pure reason,” which was projected by Kant but never carried out by himself and is not to be confused with the “metaphysics of material nature” presented by Kant in his Metaphysical Principles of Natural Science (1786. I further show how in Kant the “restriction” (Beschränkung of the understanding and its pure concepts (categories to sensible intuition is counterbalanced by the “bounding” (Begrenzung of sensibility and its formal conditions (space and time to the appearances, at the exclusion of the “empty space” of the non-sensory. In drawing on Kant’s distinction between “limit” (Schranke and “boundary” (Grenze, I establish the precise position of critical metaphysics “on the boundary” of the world of sense and the world of the understanding. In concluding, I argue that for Kant a “future metaphysics that will be possible as science” is restricted to transcendental philosophy, at the exclusion of the theoretical cognition of the supersensible, which is thereby delegated forever to the object domain of practically based rational but non-scientific belief or faith (Vernunftglaube.

  5. Freedom and conscience in Sartre's metaphysical novel

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Pargada, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    J.-P. Sartre defines literature as the commitment of a determined will. In his own case this commitment is double: political and metaphysical. The result will be a metaphysical novel that corresponds to existencialist and phenomenologic principles. Time, body, subject and freedom are put “into situation” in order to stage men’s “throwness into the world” through the readers consciousness. As far as commitement is concerned, it should be understood as part of the principle to which Sartre, a m...

  6. ESWT and alendronate sodium demonstrate equal protective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Huang, Chien-Yiu; Cheng, Jai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and alendronate sodium (alendronate) in osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knees. The control group was subjected to a sham surgery and did not receive either ESWT or alendronate treatment. The OA group underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) surgery and did not receive either ESWT or alendronate. The ESWT group underwent ACLT and MM surgery and received ESWT after the surgery. The alendronate group received alendronate after ACLT and MM surgery. The evaluations included radiograph, bone mineral density (BMD), serum C-telopeptide collagen II (CTX-II), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP), alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiographs at 12 weeks showed pronounced OA changes in the OA group. The BMD values, CTX-II, COMP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed no significant difference between ESWT and alendronate groups. In histopathology, the Mankin and Safranin O scores significantly increased in the OA, ESWT and alendronate groups, but without any significant difference between the ESWT and alendronate groups. In immunohistochemical analysis, the von Willebrand factor (vWF), vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin expressions in articular cartilage and subchondral bone showed a significant decrease in the OA group, but no difference was noted between the ESWT and alendronate groups. In conclusion, ESWT and alendronate sodium demonstrate equal protective effects from developing osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.

  7. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    States and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: 1609 postmenopausal women 45 to 59 years of age. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral alendronate, 5 mg/d or 2.5 mg/d; placebo; or open-label estrogen-progestin. Women in the alendronate groups received alendronate for the first 2 years...... alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen......-medroxyprogesterone acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  8. Metaphysical Beliefs as Predictors of Death Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. K.; Sinha, Ambalika

    1992-01-01

    Investigated impact of four metaphysical beliefs (existence of God, attributes of God, afterlife, consequences of suffering) on death anxiety. Householders (n=120), one-half of whom lived in high exposure to death sight areas, responded to pictures depicting death and nondeath scenes to measure death anxiety. Subjects from low exposure areas…

  9. A fatal case of pure metaphyseal chondroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Moghadam, Reza Nafisi; Abrisham, Jalil

    2013-08-23

    The chondroblastoma (CB) is a rare cartilaginous tumour; it represents less than 1% of all bone tumours. It is mostly localised at the level of the epiphysis of long bones. We report a fatal case of pure metaphyseal CB of the tibia in a 9-year-old boy whose pulmonary metastases developed soon after operative therapy of the primary tumour.

  10. Biocompatibility of alendronate-loaded acrylic cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Calvo-Fernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a biological evaluation of a non-resorbable acrylic cement loaded with alendronate for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The cement formulation was based on polymethyl methacrylate and acrylic monomers; one of these had covalently linked vitamin E residues. The same cement in the absence of alendronate was used as a control. The setting of the charged cement presented a maximum polymerization temperature of 44ºC, a setting time of 24 min, a residual monomer content lower than 3 wt.%, a compressive strength of 99±10 MPa and an elastic modulus of 1.2±0.2 GPa. Cytotoxicity studies using human osteoblast cultures revealed that the leachable substances of the alendronate loaded cement collected between 1 and 7 days decreased cell viability to values lower than 80%. However, morphological changes and cellular damage in cells produced by the extracts decreased with the leak time. Cell adhesion and growth on charged cement was significantly lower than on the control. Implantation of the cement paste in the intra-femoral cavity of rabbits showed that initially the osteogenic activity was evident for the cement charged with alendronate, and the osteosynthesis process took place mainly in the trabeculae and was manifested by the presence of a non-mineralised osseous spicule. The interface between material and adjacent bone tissue was initially characterized by a variable fibrous response that in many cases it appeared reduced to thin connective tissue after a 24-week-period.

  11. A comparative study of the effects of daily minodronate and weekly alendronate on upper gastrointestinal symptoms, bone resorption, and back pain in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toru; Okimoto, Nobukazu; Okamoto, Ken; Sakai, Akinori

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to precisely compare both the efficacy and abdominal symptom-related quality of life after treatment with daily minodronate and weekly alendronate in patients with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis. The efficacy of the two drugs was assessed based on improvements in a bone turnover marker, back pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms that impair quality of life, which was assessed using the Izumo scale questionnaire. In the minodronate group, there were no significant changes during the treatment period in the specific scores for heartburn, epigastralgia and epigastric fullness, whereas all of the scores were significantly elevated at some time point after drug administration in the alendronate group. Urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTX), a bone resorption marker, and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, significantly decreased in both groups, but decreases in uNTX in the minodronate group was observed significantly earlier compared with those in the alendronate group. The back pain scores, which were obtained using a visual analog scale, were significantly reduced in both groups. However, analgesic effects were detected earlier in the minodronate group. In conclusion, compared with weekly alendronate, daily minodronate improved bone turnover and back pain more promptly without causing upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Metaphysics and medical education: taking holism seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce

    2013-06-01

    Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context.

  13. Alveolar bone dynamics in osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene or alendronate: confocal microscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho-Ferreira, Gabriel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Grossi-Oliveira, Gustavo Augusto; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis were examined. Thirty-two rats were divided into four groups according to the induction of osteoporosis and drugs administered: OG, osteoporotic rats without treatment (negative control); SG, rats which underwent sham surgery ovariectomy (SHAM); alendronate (AG), osteoporotic rats treated with alendronate; and RG, osteoporotic rats treated with raloxifene (RG). On the 8th day after ovariectomy and SHAM surgeries, drug therapy was started with AG or RG. On the 52nd day, 20 mg/kg calcein was administered to all of the rats, and on the 80th day, 20 mg/kg alizarin red was administered. Euthanasia was performed on the 98th day. The bone area marked by fluorochromes was calculated and data were subjected to two-way ANOVA test and Tukey's post-hoc test (pbone turnover only between RG and SG (p=0.074) and AG and OG (p=0.138). All other comparisons showed significant differences (pbone turnover was observed in RG and SG groups. RG was the medication that improved the dynamics of the alveolar bone of rats with induced osteoporosis, resembling that of healthy rats.

  14. Alendronate prevents glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in patients with rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Shun-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Fang; Li, Yan; Ai, Jie; Xu, Hong; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a serious problem for patients with rheumatic diseases requiring long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Alendronate, a bisphosphonate, has been recommended in the prevention of GIOP. However, the efficacy and safety of alendronate in preventing GIOP remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of alendronate in preventing GIOP in patients with rheumatic diseases. We retrieved randomized controlle...

  15. Ayer’s critique of metaphysics: Metaphysics as dead end of philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Altuner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphysics, which is mentioned as the highest science by Aristotle, has lost its property of the queen of sciences more and more, afterwards it has been denied wherefore philosophy had been reduced to language analysis by philosophers in the Vienna Circle. Ayer has rejected metaphysics and he has argued that it had to be eliminated from philosophy because it was not be able to adapt to verifiability principle. Ayer’s purpose of verifiability is that to be proved something by experiment and observation. This, with Wittgensteinian statement, is to say drawing the picture of meaning or fact

  16. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls......Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  17. Experimental osteonecrosis: development of a model in rodents administered alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau CONTE NETO

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of this study was to cause bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws to develop in a rodent model. Adult male Holtzman rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups to receive alendronate (AL; 1 mg/kg/week; n = 6 or saline solution (CTL; n = 6. After 60 days of drug therapy, all animals were subjected to first lower molar extraction, and 28 days later, animals were euthanized. All rats treated with alendronate developed osteonecrosis, presenting as ulcers and necrotic bone, associated with a significant infection process, especially at the inter-alveolar septum area and crestal regions. The degree of vascularization, the levels of C-telopeptide cross-linked collagen type I and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, as well as the bone volume were significantly reduced in these animals. Furthermore, on radiographic analysis, animals treated with alendronate presented evident sclerosis of the lamina dura of the lower first molar alveolar socket associated with decreased radiographic density in this area. These findings indicate that the protocol developed in the present study opens new perspectives and could be a good starting model for future property design.

  18. Metaphysical Modest Proposals Manganelli dealing with Satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Marelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses Giorgio Manganelli's conception of «metaphysical satire», both in his theoretical writings (for which the most important model is Jonathan Swift, as in some concrete fictional samples. In particular, among the (posthumous edited materials of his laboratory (in his poems, as in the draft of a narrative treatise, a theme results pervasive: the satire of divinity. Here the mocking of an unbelieved – yet still feared – deity expresses itself in a specific figure: the cannibal god, whose ferocity, underneath the mask of the grotesque, reveals all the violence the author feels in the unbearable human destiny.

  19. 10 years results of an uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio J De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are concerns with regard to the femoral fixation in cementless total hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. We report a retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological results of uncemented metaphyseal fit modular stem in elderly patients irrespective of anatomic characterstics of proximal femur. Materials and Methods: This study reviews the outcomes of 60 primary hip replacements using a metaphyseal fit modular stem (third-generation Omniflex stem conducted in 54 patients, of age 75 years or older. After a mean follow-up of 10,4 years, complete clinical and radiographic records were available for 52 hips of 48 patients. The patients were evaluated by Harris Hip Score (HHS. Results: There was a significantly improved pain score and Harris Hip Score (41,6 to 83,2. Six stems (11.53% were revised: four because of periprosthetic fracture; one stem was well fixed, but presented a large osteolytic lesion in the metaphyseal area and the last stem was revised because of aseptic loosening. Stem survival taking aseptic loosening as the end-point was 98%. Bone atrophy in the proximal femur caused by stress shielding was observed in 39 stems (75%, but there was no case of subtrochanteric stress shielding. Moreover, atrophy appeared within two years postoperatively, with no extension thereafter. Conclusions: We achieved good clinical and radiographic results by uncemented metaphyseal fit femoral stem regardless of patient′s age and femoral canal type.

  20. Oral Alendronate Treatment for Severe Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia due to McCune-Albright Syndrome in a Child: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva IvaniNovato

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (FD associated to McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS often leads to fractures, deformities, and bone pain resulting in bad quality of life. Parenteral bisphosphonates have been used in children and adolescents to improve these symptoms with few adverse effects. We evaluated the response to oral Alendronate in a girl with severe MAS FD and observed improved quality of life with reduction of bone pain.

  1. On John Donne g Metaphysical Poetry--Seen from Song

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yun

    2012-01-01

    John Donne is one of the most learned and witty? poet in seventeenth century. He created? a great deal of? metaphysical poetry during his whole life, in which Song is the very popular with? readers- In this paper, we study the features of John Donne's metaphysical poetry by analyzing? this poem.

  2. The Comparison of Effects of Alendronate and Calcitonin Treatment in Men With Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülcan Gürer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in research investigating the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis and fragility fractures in men. This study was performed to compare the effects of alendronate and calcitonin treatment in male OP osteoporosis. Thirty men with osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured at the proximal femur and lumbar spine by using dual-photon absorptiometry. Thirty men with osteoporosis were randomly divided into two groups. BMD was measured twice as before the treatment and one year later. The end of the treatment a significant improvement was found in the BMD levels of the lomber spine in both groups (p0.05. There was no significant difference of BMD levels of proximal femur when the results were compared either within the groups or between two groups (p>0.05.

  3. The Effect of Alendronate and Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density and Quality of Life in Women With Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. One hundred ninety-three patients were randomly assigned to two groups: 93 patients received daily doses of 10 mg alendronate and calcium 1000 mg, and 98 patients used intranasal salmon calcitonin (sCt at a dosage of 200 IU/day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. SF-36 was used as a measure of health-related quality of life. At the end of the treatment, ALN produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p< 0.001, femur neck (p<0.05, trochanteric region (p<0.001 and at the Ward triangle (p<0.05. In contrast, intranasal sCt treatment resulted in a significant bone loss in the femur neck (p<0.01 and Ward triangle (p<0.05, and only a significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine was observed with calcitonin treatment(p< 0.05. Quality of life as assessed by SF-36 improved significantly in both groups(p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Both treatments were found to be effective for the improvement of quality of life.

  4. Constructivisms and Objectivity: Disentangling Metaphysics from Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, Richard E.

    We can distinguish the claims of cognitive constructivism from those of metaphysical constructivism, which is almost entirely irrelevant to science education. Cognitive constructivism has strong empirical support and indicates important directions for changing science instruction. It implies that teachers need to be cognizant of representational, motivational and epistemic dimensions which can restrict or promote student learning. The resulting set of tasks for a science teacher are considerably larger and more complex than on the older more traditional conception, but the resources of cognitive sciences and the history of science can provide important parts of the teachers intellectual tool kit. A critical part of this conception of science education is that students must develop the skills to participate in epistemic interchanges. They must be provided opportunities and materials to develop those skills and the classroom community must have the appropriate features of an objective epistemic community.

  5. The Metaphysics of Chinese Information Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqian, Zhou; Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Compared with other transdisciplinary frames of information Wu Kun’s philosophy of information differs in its metaphysical framework in that it has a background in a conception of Dialectics of Nature coming from the old Stalin textbook system but also a part of the renewal of thinking in China...... appearing through the thought liberty movement in the 1980s, which among other things also added a modern view of information to Chinese thinking. Still it is a philosophy in a distinctive Chinese style. Wu’s philosophical system begins by re-dividing the field of existence and founding a new ontological...... area or aspect of being, which he called the world of information and named it objective unreality. This, ontological framework, different from that in the West, made the concept of information in his system different from the information concept in Shannon’s and even Wiener’s sense. Wu’s philosophy...

  6. The physics and metaphysics of primitive stuff

    CERN Document Server

    Esfeld, Michael; Lam, Vincent; Hubert, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The paper sets out a primitive ontology of the natural world in terms of primitive stuff, that is, stuff that has as such no physical properties at all, but that is not a bare substratum either, being individuated by metrical relations. We focus on quantum physics and employ identity-based Bohmian mechanics to illustrate this view, but point out that it applies all over physics. Properties then enter into the picture exclusively through the role that they play for the dynamics of the primitive stuff. We show that such properties can be local (classical mechanics), as well as holistic (quantum mechanics), and discuss two metaphysical options to conceive them, namely Humeanism and modal realism in the guise of dispositionalism.

  7. [Non-ossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, D V; Konovalov, D M; Kozlov, A S; Talalaev, A G; Ektova, A P

    2016-01-01

    Non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) or metaphyseal fibrous defect (MFD) is benign fibroblast proliferation with the presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. The most cases of NOF/MFD occur in the metaphysis of the long tubular bones of the lower extremities, more commonly in the metaphysis of the femur and in the proximal metaphysis of the tibia. This lesion has a characteristic X-ray pattern and requires no surgical intervention, except for cases of a pathologic fracture or a risk for the latter. The paper analyzes 35 NOF/MFD cases in children and adolescents. It has been found that one and all patients have undergone surgery, suggesting the low awareness of this abnormality among radiodiagnosticians, pathologists, and surgeons.

  8. Metaphysics of the Principle of Least Action

    CERN Document Server

    Terekhovich, Vladislav

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of the possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's concept of the possibles striving from essence to existence. This paper introduces a model of a two-level modality based on an intuition that deep ontological connections exist between the possible paths in the principle of least action and possible quantum histories in the Feynman path integral. The proposed modal interpretation of the principle of least action replaces the classical representation of the system's motion along a single history in the actual modality by the simultaneous motions ...

  9. Alendronate inhibits cell invasion and MMP-2 secretion in human chondrosarcoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Te-jen LAI; Yi-chin FONG; Sheng-feng HSU; Temao LI; Horng-chaung HSU; Jaung-geng LIN; Chin-jung HSU; Ming-chih CHOU; Meng-chih LEE; Shun-fa YANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Chondrosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alendronate, a bisphosphonate, on the invasion and migration of human chondrosarcoma cells (JJ012). Methods: JJ012 cells were treated with alendronate of various concentrations up to 100 μmol/L for a speci-fied period, and then gelatin zymography and matrigel invasion assay was per-formed to study the effects of alendronate on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity and the invasion ability of JJ012 cells, respectively. Results: Our data showed that alendronate exerted a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and migration of JJ012 cells. Furthermore, gelatin zymography and RT-PCR showed that alendronate treatment decreased the activity and mRNA levels of MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Our find-ings suggest that alendronate may reduce MMP-2 secretion at the transcriptional and translational levels, and inhibit the invasion of chondrosarcoma cell. Therefore,alendronate may be a potential candidate for the systemic therapy of chondro-sarcomas, as well as other malignant diseases.

  10. Benefit period using alendronate to increase bone mineral density in women with osteoporosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferda Ozdemir; Meliha Rodoplu

    2005-01-01

    Background Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate is a specific inhibitor of bone resorption and now in the forefront of treatment of osteoporosis. In this study, we reported a significant increase in bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine and the hip in postmenopausal women taking alendronate at 10 mg/d for 1, 2 and 3 years. Methods Participants had received daily, oral, 10 mg dose of alendronate for one to three years and placed into one of three groups according to alendronate treatment duration: 41 women received alendronate for 1 year (group Ⅰ), 46 received alendronate for 2 years (group Ⅱ), and 30 received alendronate for 3 years (group Ⅲ). Measurements of bone density had been made by dual energy X-ray absorbtiometry once each year. Results The differences in L2-L4, L2, L4, femoral neck and trochanter BMD values before and after treatment for first group were significantly different. In second group, significant differences between initial and after treatment were found at the other sites except at the Ward's triangle. In the third group, only a significant increase in the L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, trochanter BMD values between before treatment and at the end of third year was found. Comparisons between groups were performed with Student's t test. ANOVA was used to test the age, menopause age, menopause duration and initial BMD values between the three groups. Calculated P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusions Alendronate had increased BMD significantly at the spine and hip in postmenopausal women over three years. Increases of BMD in third group were significant during the first and second years. However, continued therapy with alendronate had been required to maintain the gain in BMD over the third year.

  11. Contrasts in Metaphysical Writing: John Donne and Emily Dickinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Braček

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts by stating what metaphysical poetry is, what its characteristics are, and who the metaphysical poets are. Later the paper focuses on Emily Dickinson’s poetry and confirms the thesis that she can be considered a metaphysical poet. The third thing the paper deals with is to what extent Donne’s and Dickinson’s poetry as well as Donne’s Sermons correspond to the Calvinist theology, which is the common credo of the Churches to which they belong. A further issue the paper debates about is rhetorical devices in the metaphysical service. The last aspect of Donne’s and Dickinson’s writing that the essay explores is their attitude towards truth.

  12. OUT-OF-BODY EXPERIENCE, PURE BEING AND METAPHYSICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Karivets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The author will show that metaphysical concepts and the concepts of empirical sciences derive from experience. The only difference is that metaphysical concepts derive from unusual experience, i.e. out-of-body experience, while empirical sciences – from usual one. The example set metaphysical concept of pure being. Methodology. In order to obtain this goal the author uses two methods. The first one is comparative method. With the help of this method the stories of men who experienced clinical death and returned to life are compared with the famous philosophers’ metaphysical statements (Plato, Descartes, and Bonaventura. The second one is transpersonal method. It helps to study the peculiarities of the extraordinary experience in the state of clinical death or mystical ecstasy. Such experience lies in experience of transcendence, pure being as light, ultimate awareness of truth, which are identical to the metaphysical statements of philosophers and mystics. These ultimate experiences belong to different people, who lived and grown in different cultures, but nevertheless metaphysical statements of philosophers or mystics and statements of the ordinary people who experienced clinical death are the same. Therefore we can say that out-of-body experience is transpersonal. Originality. Metaphysics is neither speculative nor withdrawn from experience of a human being sphere. It arises from out-of-body experience while empirical sciences – from usual experience. Therefore, metaphysical concepts, in particular, pure being, are empirical, because they are based also on (extraordinary experience. In general, metaphysics becomes possible on the basis of out-of-body experience. Conclusions. In this article the author argues that the concepts of metaphysics are not a priori because they originate from out-of-body experience that is from the experience of the distinction between body and soul or body and mind. As a result of such experience

  13. Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with long-term followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Duncan, B P

    1987-01-01

    The fourteenth reported patient with Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is presented, with a remarkable followup from birth to the age of 15 years. Numerous invasive procedures were performed in pursuit of erroneous provisional diagnoses. Five of these patients presented in infancy with radiographic metaphyseal changes similar to rickets, but with preservation of the provisional zone of calcification. Following infancy, these patients reveal the more typical short-limbed dwarfism, with fusiform joints and bowed extremities.

  14. Newton's Metaphysics of Space as God's Emanative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquette, Dale

    2014-09-01

    In several of his writings, Isaac Newton proposed that physical space is God's "emanative effect" or "sensorium," revealing something interesting about the metaphysics underlying his mathematical physics. Newton's conjectures depart from Plato and Aristotle's metaphysics of space and from classical and Cambridge Neoplatonism. Present-day philosophical concepts of supervenience clarify Newton's ideas about space and offer a portrait of Newton not only as a mathematical physicist but an independent-minded rationalist philosopher.

  15. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  16. 阿伦膦酸钠对卵巢切除大鼠骨质量的影响%Effect of alendronate on bone quality in oophorectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴友伟; 史丽萍; 张健

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Alendronate on bone mass and bone quality in oophorecto-mized rats. Methods 48 SD rats aged 12 months were randomly divided into OVX (ovariectomized) , SHAM (sham-operated) group, ALL (Alendronate low dosage) group, and ALH (Alendronate high dosage) group. Bilateral oopho-rectomy was performed in the ALL and ALH groups. At the same time, the two groups expriment rats were given Alendronate in the dosage of 0. 5 mg/kg/day and 1. 0 mg/kg/day for 12 months. Results The urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significanly lower in Alendronate-treated OP model groups than that in OVX group ( P < 0. 05 ). The urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio and serum alkaline phosphatase level showed a decreasing tendency in Alendronate-treated OP model groups as compared with OVX group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Dry bone weight, bone ash weight, bone calcium content in SHAM group were higher than OVX group, and those in the ALL and ALH groups were higher than OVX group (P <0. 05). The femur bone mineral density, anti-bend strength, and the body bone mineral density in ALL and ALH was increased in alendronate than that in OVX group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The oophorectomized SD rats showed clearly osteoporosis 12 months groups after operation. Alendronate can increase bone mass, improve bone quality, which is dose-dependent in a certain range of bone quality improvement.%目的 探讨阿仑膦酸钠对骨量和骨质量的作用.方法 将48只12月龄SD大鼠随机分为去卵巢模型组(OVX)、假手术组(SHAM)、低剂量阿仑膦酸钠组(ALL)、高剂量阿仑膦酸钠组(ALH),每组12只.ALL与ALH组大鼠作双侧卵巢切除,分别给予阿伦膦酸钠0.5mg/ (kg·d)与1.0 mg/kg (kg·d),持续用药12个月.结果 ALL及ALH组大鼠尿钙与肌酐比值(Ca/Cr)均低于OVX组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);ALL及ALH组尿羟脯氨酸与肌酐比值(HOP/Cr)与血清碱性磷酸酶水平(ALP)均较OVX组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0

  17. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  18. Metaphyseal fractures mimicking abuse during treatment for clubfoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayev, A.M.; Boal, D.K.B. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Wallach, D.M.; Segal, L.S. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Background. Metaphyseal injuries resembling the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) of abuse may occur as the result of serial casting during treatment of clubfoot deformity. Mentioned in the orthopedic literature in 1972, this iatrogenic fracture has not been described in the radiologic literature nor has the similarity to injuries occurring with abuse been previously recognized. Objective. To describe the mechanism and radiographic appearance of metaphyseal injury observed during serial casting of clubfoot. Note similarities to the CML of abuse. Materials and methods. Eight children ranging in age from 1 to 4 months underwent casting for clubfoot. Five orthopedic surgeons from three different institutions performed the casting. Two patients had spina bifida and one, arthrogryposis. A complete skeletal survey was performed on one child who was abused; there was no suspicion of abuse in the remaining seven. Results. All children manifest injury with periosteal new bone. One child had clear evidence of abuse with 24 rib fractures. X-rays of lower extremities in short leg casts revealed bilateral tibial metaphyseal fractures. Four other children had metaphyseal fractures resembling the CML of abuse, and three developed an area of sclerosis within the metaphysis. Conclusion. In the setting of serial casting for equinovarus deformity, metaphyseal injury even the CML of abuse may be noted. Since inflicted injuries are almost always unobserved and explanations rarely offered, the fact that the CML occurs as a result of orthopedic manipulation may offer some further insight concerning the pathogenesis of this well-described abuse injury. (orig.)

  19. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel;

    2016-01-01

    and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. INTERVENTIONS: Treatment with alendronate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident fracture of the subtrochanteric femur or femoral shaft (ST/FS) or the hip. Non-fracture controls from the cohort were matched...... to fracture cases by sex, year of birth, and year of initiation of alendronate treatment. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios with and without adjustment for comorbidity and comedications. Sensitivity analyses investigated subsequent treatment with other drugs...... for osteoporosis. RESULTS: 1428 participants sustained a ST/FS (incidence rate 3.4/1000 person years, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 3.6), and 6784 sustained a hip fracture (16.2/1000 person years, 15.8 to 16.6). The risk of ST/FS was lower with high adherence to treatment with alendronate (medication possession...

  20. Life after Newton: an ecological metaphysic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowicz, R E

    1999-05-01

    Ecology may indeed be 'deep', as some have maintained, but perhaps much of the mystery surrounding it owes more simply to the dissonance between ecological notions and the fundamentals of the modern synthesis. Comparison of the axioms supporting the Newtonian world view with those underlying the organicist and stochastic metaphors that motivate much of ecosystems science reveals strong disagreements--especially regarding the nature of the causes of events and the scalar domains over which these causes can operate. The late Karl Popper held that the causal closure forced by our mechanical perspective on nature frustrates our attempts to achieve an 'evolutionary theory of knowledge.' He suggested that the Newtonian concept of 'force' must be generalized to encompass the contingencies that arise in evolutionary processes. His reformulation of force as 'propensity' leads quite naturally to a generalization of Newton's laws for ecology. The revised tenets appear, however, to exhibit more scope and allow for change to arise from within a system. Although Newton's laws survive (albeit in altered form) within a coalescing ecological metaphysic, the axioms that Enlightenment thinkers appended to Newton's work seem ill-suited for ecology and perhaps should yield to a new and coherent set of assumptions on how to view the processes of nature.

  1. Impact of Generic Alendronate Cost on the Cost-Effectiveness of Osteoporosis Screening and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Nayak; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Since alendronate became available in generic form in the Unites States in 2008, its price has been decreasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of alendronate cost on the cost-effectiveness of osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Microsimulation cost-effectiveness model of osteoporosis screening and treatment for U.S. women age 65 and older. We assumed screening initiation at age 65 with central dual-energy x-ray absorp...

  2. A Meta-analysis of alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficiency and safety of alendronate for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis (GIOP) .Methods The electronic databases of PubMed,EMBASE,Cochrane Library,Web of Science,Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM) and Wanfang Data were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCT) of alendronate vs.placebo.Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion,assessed trial quality using Jadad’s scale and extracted

  3. The metaphyseal bone defect predicts outcome in reverse shoulder arthroplasty for proximal humerus fracture sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Uschok, Stephan; Herrmann, Sebastian; Gwinner, Clemens; Perka, Carsten; Scheibel, Markus

    2014-06-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) represents an established procedure for treatment of fracture sequelae (FS) after proximal humerus fractures. The present work evaluates which factors are of influence for the clinical outcome. Fifty cases (mean age 69, range 44-89) have been evaluated postoperatively clinically [Constant Score (CS)] and radiographically (mean FU 34; range 24-93 months). The type of primary treatment, the amount of a metaphyseal bone defect, the preoperative status of the rotator cuff, the number of previous operative interventions and the type of FS according to Boileau were analysed whether they are of influence for clinical outcome. The mean CS increased significantly from 16.9 ± 6.7 preoperatively to 54.1 ± 15.7 points postoperatively. The CS of primary conservative treatment was significantly higher in comparison to primary operative treatment. Patients with a metaphyseal bone defect of more than 3 cm had significantly lower CS results. Degenerative changes of the teres minor muscle also had a significant negative influence on clinical results. Score results decreased with increasing number of previous operations. There were no significant difference in between patients classified as Boileau type I and II (category 1) compared to types III and IV (category 2). RSA significantly improved the clinical result. A metaphyseal bone defect and preoperative degeneration of the teres minor showed to be negative prognostic factors. Primary operative treatment and the number of previous operations also negatively influenced the clinical result.

  4. Radiodensitometric and DXA analyses for the measurement of bone mineral density after systemic alendronate therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucisano, Marilia Pacifico; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra da, E-mail: nelson@forp.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Clinica Pediatrica, Preventiva e Odontologia Comunitaria; Morse, Leslie [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Battaglino, Ricardo [Department of Skeletal Biology, Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watanabe, Plauto Christopher Aranha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Morfologia, Estomacologia e Fisiologia

    2013-05-15

    Precise techniques for the measurement of maxillary bone mineral density (BMD) are useful for the early diagnosis of systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and radiographic densitometry for the measurement of BMD after systemic administration of sodium alendronate. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 5), which received distilled water, and a sodium alendronate group (n = 8), which received two doses of chemically pure sodium alendronate (1 mg/kg) per week. After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, the tibias were removed, and the BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis was analyzed radiographically and by DXA. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by the Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Both of the techniques revealed that the alendronate-treated group had a significantly higher BMD (p < 0.05) than the control group after 8 weeks of treatment. Comparing the groups with and without alendronate therapy revealed increases of 14.9% and 29.6% in BMD, as detected radiographically and by DXA, respectively. In conclusion, both of the methods were able to detect an increase in BMD of the proximal tibial metaphysis after alendronate therapy. (author)

  5. Biochemical markers can predict the response in bone mass during alendronate treatment in early postmenopausal women. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Clemmesen, B; Christiansen, C

    1999-01-01

    Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N-terminal midfr......Data from the Danish cohort (n = 67) of a multicenter trial of oral alendronate in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis were used to evaluate the capacity of the biochemical markers to predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). A panel of markers were measured: serum N...

  6. A critical introduction to the metaphysics of time

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    What is the nature of time? Does it flow? Do the past and future exist? Drawing connections between historical and present-day questions, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time provides an up-to-date guide to one of the most central and debated topics in contemporary metaphysics. Introducing the views and arguments of Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Newton and Leibniz, this accessible introduction covers the history of the philosophy of time from the Pre-Socratics to the beginning of the 20th Century. The historical survey presents the necessary background to understanding more recent developments, including McTaggart's 1908 argument for the unreality of time, the open future, the perdurance/endurance debate, the possibility of time travel, and the relevance of current physics to the philosophy of time. Informed by cutting-edge philosophical research, A Critical Introduction to the Metaphysics of Time evaluates influential historical arguments in the context of contemporary developments. ...

  7. The wave function essays on the metaphysics of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, David Z

    2013-01-01

    This is a new volume of original essays on the metaphysics of quantum mechanics. The essays address questions such as: What fundamental metaphysics is best motivated by quantum mechanics? What is the ontological status of the wave function? Does quantum mechanics support the existence of any other fundamental entities, e.g. particles? What is the nature of the fundamental space (or space-time manifold) of quantum mechanics? What is the relationship between the fundamental ontology of quantum mechanics and ordinary, macroscopic objects like tables, chairs, and persons? This collection includes a comprehensive introduction with a history of quantum mechanics and the debate over its metaphysical interpretation focusing especially on the main realist alternatives.

  8. The Metaphysical Instincts & Spiritual Bypassing in Integral Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman A.K. Shirazi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Instincts are innate, unconscious means by which Nature operates in all forms of life including animals and human beings. In humans however, with progressive evolution of consciousness, instincts become increasingly conscious and regulated by egoic functions. Biological instincts associated with the lower-unconscious such as survival, aggressive, and reproductive instincts are well known in general psychology. The higher-unconscious, which is unique to human beings, may be said to have its own instinctual processes referred to here as the ‘metaphysical instincts’. In traditional spiritual practices awakening the metaphysical instincts has often been done at the expense of suppressing the biological instincts—a process referred to as spiritual bypassing. This essay discusses how the metaphysical instincts initially expressed as the religious impulse with associated beliefs and behaviors may be transformed and made fully conscious, and integrated with the biological instincts in integral yoga and psychology in order to achieve wholeness of personality.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMAGe syndrome intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies Enable Javascript to view ... combination of intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, and genital anomalies is commonly known by ...

  10. Metaphysics as the Science of Essence: E. J. Lowe and Thomas Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaphysics after being ignored for years has returned to the center of the stage in contemporary philosophy. Thomas Aquinas has lived a very similar story, which gave birth to analytical Thomism. Despite the work done in this line of research, the metaphysics of Aquinas has been heavily ignored. However, the metaphysics of Thomas Aquinas has an advantage, little discussed among Thomists and “Tomasinos”, and it is the fact that it is essentialist metaphysics. So, in keeping with the work of metaphysical E. J. Lowe, who presents his metaphysics as “serious essentialist” it is shown here that the metaphysics of Aquinas has the same virtues of “serious essentialism”, which allows to postulate it as a valid and plausible position for contemporary metaphysics.

  11. Ulnar metaphyseal osteochondrosis in seven captive bred cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Graeme; Portas, Timothy; Bryant, Benn; Howlett, Rolfe; Blyde, David

    2008-01-01

    Distal ulna metaphyseal osteochondrosis was identified in seven captive bred cheetahs raised in Australia between 1984 and 2005. The disorder was characterized by bilateral carpal valgus conformation. In the metaphyseal region of the distal ulnae, an osteolucent defect that appeared as a proximal extension of the lucent physis was identified radiographically between 6 and 10 months of age. Ulna ostectomy was done to correct the angular limb deformity. Histologically, changes were identified in the osteolucent lesion that resembled osteochondrosis. We propose that the condition is probably familial and/or dietary in origin.

  12. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens.

  13. METAPHYSICAL REVOLUTION OF DESCARTES AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii M. Malivskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to reveal and comprehend forms of influence metaphysical' revolution for a way of interpretation of the anthropological project by Descartes on the basis of investigations of modern dekartes's researchers, that is the recognition of a fundamental role of metaphysics. Methodology. As methodological base modern investigations of dekartes's researchers accenting a fundamental role of metaphysics and expediency of unbiassed judgment of heritage of the great thinker are used. The scientific novelty. The transformation of the anthropological project is outlined as manifestation of metaphysical revolution. It is about a transcendencecy of naive anthropology (as an embodiment of reductive mindset, that is interpretations of human nature as its corporality and transition to metaphysical anthropology which consists in upholding of unconditional priority of human thinking as associated with God. As result of transition concentration of attention on intense human nature, that is at tension between sensuality and intelligence, aspiration to truth and tendency to delusion, between Life and Nothing, etc. Conclusions. The appeal to the incomplete anthropological project of Descartes on the basis of innovative researches allows proving the thesis about influence of metaphysical revolution on a way of its interpretation. The main forms of oriented to science ideals of naive anthropology, trust in evidence of the senses, atheism, interpretation of science as the main form of detection rationality of human nature, which Descartes tends constructively to overcome in the text of "meditation", are highlighted. During creation of metaphysical anthropology the attention of the thinker is drawn by the fact of impossibility of comprehension of human nature by means of natural-science rationality and expediency of the appeal to metaphysics. The subject of attention of the thinker is the tension between sensuality and intelligence, need

  14. Revisiting the Applicability of Metaphysical Identity in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    da Costa, Newton

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the hypothesis that the debate about the interpretation of the orthodox formalism of quantum mechanics (QM) might have been misguided right from the start by a biased metaphysical interpretation of the formalism and its inner mathematical relations. In particular, we focus on the orthodox interpretation of the congruence relation, '=', which relates equivalent classes of different mathematical representations of a vector in Hilbert space, in terms of metaphysical identity. We will argue that this seemingly "common sense" interpretation, at the semantic level, has severe difficulties when considering the syntactic level of the theory.

  15. The experiment in rat model with alendronate inhibiting abnormal alve olar bone resorption%Alendronate阻止牙槽骨骨吸收的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓敏; 杨宗萍; 于世凤

    2001-01-01

    Objective.Osteoporosis and periodontal disease animal models were used to evaluate the anti-resorption effect of alendr onate on bone.Methods.To establish osteoporosis and alveo lar bone resorption animal models.The experimental groups (ovariectomized dental ligature group and simple dental ligature group) were given alendronate in 0. 5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection after six weeks of ovariectomy and dental ligature,three times a week for 6 weeks.All the animals were sacrifised 12 weeks after the operation.The blood samples were collected for determination of bioch emical indexes.The left femora and jaw bone were processed for histomorphometry. The right femora and mendibles were prepared for determination of bone density and bone biodynamics.Results.As compared with the control groups (without alendronate),the values of experimental groups (with alendronate ) were all significantly improved on bone density and bone anti-curve power.The alkaline phosphatase,calcium in serum of ovariectomy groups (without alendronate ) were obviously increased.In the alendronate group,however,these indexes werec lose to normal levels.In histomorphometry,there were little inflammation in gingiva and less level alveolar bone resorption in the experimental groups;but there was obvious gingivitis and level alveolar bone resorption in the control groups .Conclusion.Alendronate can effectively treat osteoporosis,increase bone volume and prevent bone lose in ovariectomized female rats and inhibit pathological alveolar bone resorption.%目的 评价双膦酸盐Alendronate抑制牙槽骨骨吸收的作用。方法 建立骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收动物模型,建模术后六周,给实验组皮下注射Alendronate每周3次,共6周;用血生化指标骨生物力学、骨密度测量、组织形态学等方法进行药效评价。结果 股骨骨密度对照 组与用药组相比明显降低(P<0.01);血清碱性磷酸酶对照组与用药组相比明显升

  16. Comparing Tolerability and Efficacy of Generic versus Brand Alendronate : A Randomized Clinical Study in Postmenopausal Women with a Recent Fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Joop P. W.; Bouts, Marian E.; van der Veer, Eveline; van der Velde, Robert Y.; Janssen, Marcel J. W.; Geusens, Piet P.; Winkens, Bjorn; Oldenhof, Nico J. J.; van Geel, Tineke A. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An increasing number of generic alendronate formulations have become available. Although expected to have the same tolerability and efficacy, head-to head comparison of generic and brand alendronate was never performed. Therefore, we compared the tolerability and efficacy of generic an

  17. A fast and simple spectrofluorometric method for the determination of alendronate sodium in pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alendronate sodium enhances bone formation and increases osteoblast proliferation and maturation and leads to the inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis. Therefore, a rapid and simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of it. Methods: The procedure is based on the reaction of primary amino group of alendronate with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA in sodium hydroxide solution. Results: The calibration graph was linear over the concentration range of 0.0-2.4 μM and limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method was 8.89 and 29 nanomolar, respectively.The enthalpy and entropy of the reaction between alendronate sodium and OPA showed that the reaction is endothermic and entropy favored (ΔH = 154.08 kJ/mol; ΔS = 567.36 J/mol K which indicates that OPA interaction with alendronate is increased at elevated temperature. Conclusion: This simple method can be used as a practical technique for the analysis of alendronate in various samples.

  18. Gastroresistant microparticles containing sodium alendronate prevent the bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Letícia; Assumpção, Evelise; Andrade, Sérgio F; Conrado, Daniela J; Kulkamp, Irene C; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2010-08-11

    Sodium alendronate, an antiresorptive drug, primarily used in the treatment of osteoporosis was encapsulated in blended microparticles composed of Eudragit S100 and Methocel K15M. The micropowder obtained by spray-drying technique was characterized in terms of its morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vivo studies were carried out in order to evaluate the pharmacodynamic effect and the ulcerogenic activity of sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles after oral administration in rats. Drug encapsulation efficiency was close to 80% and particle mean diameter of 13.8 microm. SEM analysis showed spherical collapsed shape particles with smooth surface. At pH 1.2, in vitro experiments showed that <10% of the drug was released from the microparticles. At pH 6.8, the microparticles were able to prolong the sodium alendronate release for 12h. In vivo experiments carried out in ovariectomized rats showed bone mineral density significantly higher for the sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles than for the negative control groups. Furthermore, the microencapsulation of the drug showed a significant reduction in the ulcerative lesion index. In conclusion, the blended microparticles are excellent oral carriers for sodium alendronate since they were able to maintain the drug antiresorptive effect and to reduce the gastrointestinal drug toxicity.

  19. Alendronate prevents glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in patients with rheumatic diseases: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Shun-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Fang; Li, Yan; Ai, Jie; Xu, Hong; Sun, Jing-Cheng; Feng, Shi-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a serious problem for patients with rheumatic diseases requiring long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Alendronate, a bisphosphonate, has been recommended in the prevention of GIOP. However, the efficacy and safety of alendronate in preventing GIOP remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of alendronate in preventing GIOP in patients with rheumatic diseases.We retrieved randomized controlled trials from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias and quality of the evidence. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and the mean difference (MD) with a 95% CI for continuous outcomes using Review Manager, version 5.3.A total of 339 studies were found, and 9 studies (1134 patients) were included. Alendronate was not able to reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures (RR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.10-4.04, P = 0.62) and nonvertebral fractures (RR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.15-1.12, P = 0.08). Alendronate significantly increased the percent change in bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (MD = 3.66, 95% CI: 2.58-4.74, P power.

  20. Preparation of collagen/hydroxyapatite/alendronate hybrid hydrogels as potential scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; He, Zhiwei; Han, Fengxuan; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Development of biomimetic scaffolds represents a promising direction in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we designed a two-step process to prepare a type of biomimetic hybrid hydrogels that were composed of collagen, hydroxyapatite (HAP) and alendronate (ALN), an anti-osteoporosis drug. First, water-soluble ALN-conjugated HAP (HAP-ALN) containing 4.0wt.% of ALN was synthesized by treating HAP particles with ALN. Hydrogels were then formed from HAP-ALN conjugate and collagen under physiological conditions using genipin (GNP) as the crosslinker. Depending on the ALN/collagen molar ratio and GNP concentration, the gelation time of hydrogels ranged from 5 to 37min. Notably, these hybrid hydrogels exhibited markedly improved mechanical property (storage modulus G'=38-187kPa), higher gel contents, and lower swelling ratios compared to the hydrogels prepared from collagen alone under similar conditions. Moreover, they showed tunable degradation behaviors against collagenase. The collagen/HAP-ALN hybrid hydrogels supported the adhesion and growth of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells well. Such tough yet enzymatically degradable hybrid hydrogels hold potential as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  1. Probing the Limits of Reality: The Metaphysics in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses metaphysical questions concerning the ultimate structure of reality and discusses scientific nature. Suggests that the world cannot afford to neglect the role of conceptual analysis in thinking critically about the possibilities that science fiction claims to describe. (Author/KHR)

  2. Metaphyseal osteopathy-like disease in two sibling kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Valeria; D'Ettorre, Paolo; Caldin, Marco; Vezzoni, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a growth plate disturbance resembling canine metaphyseal osteopathy in two, two-month-old, sibling, intact, female Domestic Shorthair cats. Clinical signs and radiographic lesions resolved spontaneously after three months. Follow-up examination at six months of age showed complete recovery and no radiographic abnormalities.

  3. Peirce’s Scientific and Spiritual Process Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    Peirce saw as his primary task to develop a comprehensive metaphysical and epistemological system in which a new theory of categories, developed after Kant and Hegel, was defined in a completely new way. His triadic category theory was connected to a dynamic triadic web of semiotics viewed...

  4. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l nabavi

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  5. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  6. Tocilizumab - Alendronate Conjugate for Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwiwon; Bhang, Suk Ho; Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Hyemin; Hahn, Sei Kwang

    2017-01-20

    An autoimmune disease of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes severe inflammation on the synovial membrane, which results in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Here, Tocilizumab (TCZ) - Alendronate (ALD) conjugate is synthesized for the early intervention of RA. A humanized monoclonal antibody of TCZ shows an immunosuppressive effect, targeting interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor in the RA pathogenesis. ALD is an anti-inflammatory bisphosphonate drug which can bind to the exposed bone surface. ALD is conjugated selectively to N-glycan on Fc region of TCZ using a chemical linker of 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionyl hydrazide (PDPH) - poly(ethylene glycol) - N-hydroxysuccinimide (PDPH-PEG-NHS). The successful synthesis of TCZ-ALD conjugate is corroborated by 1H NMR, the purpald assay, mass spectrometry (MS), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro binding affinity and cell viability tests confirmed the biological activity of TCZ-ALD conjugate. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy of TCZ-ALD conjugate is confirmed by micro computed tomography (CT), histological, and western blot analyses for the treatment of RA.

  7. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  8. Alendronate affects calcium dynamics in cardiomyocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny-Suss, Naomi; Kasneci, Amanda; Rivas, Daniel; Afilalo, Jonathan; Komarova, Svetlana V; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Therapy with bisphosphonates, including alendronate (ALN), is considered a safe and effective treatment for osteoporosis. However, recent studies have reported an unexpected increase in serious atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients treated with bisphosphonates. The mechanism that explains this side effect remains unknown. Since AF is associated with an altered sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium load, we studied how ALN affects cardiomyocyte calcium homeostasis and protein isoprenylation in vitro. Acute and long-term (48h) treatment of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes with ALN (10(-8)-10(-6)M) was performed. Changes in calcium dynamics were determined by both fluorescence measurement of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration and western blot analysis of calcium-regulating proteins. Finally, effect of ALN on protein farnesylation was also identified. In both atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, ALN treatment delayed and diminished calcium responses to caffeine. Only in atrial cells, long-term exposure to ALN-induced transitory calcium oscillations and led to the development of oscillatory component in calcium responses to caffeine. Changes in calcium dynamics were accompanied by changes in expression of proteins controlling sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium. In contrast, ALN minimally affected protein isoprenylation in these cells. In summary, treatment of atrial cardiomyocytes with ALN-induced abnormalities in calcium dynamics consistent with induction of a self-stimulatory, pacemaker-like behavior, which may contribute to the development of cardiac side effects associated with these drugs.

  9. Atypical periprosthetic acetabular fracture in long-term alendronate therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Giuseppe; Capone, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bisphosphonates have been commonly used in the treatment of osteoporosis, demonstrating its efficacy in fracture risk reduction. However, even if are generally safe and well tolerated, concerns have emerged about atypical fractures related to its prolonged use. Although atypical femoral fracture are more common, case reports demonstrated that even other skeletal areas can be involved by unusual pattern of fracture. We report a atypical acetabular periprosthetic fracture in a 83-year-old female patient after prolonged alendronate treatment for osteoporosis and isolated acetabular revision surgery. The patient underwent to clinical, bioumoral and radiological evaluation and all the history cases were fully reported. We believe this periprosthetic fracture, according to the available data, may have similar underlying pathology to atypical femoral fractures. Awareness of symptoms, in addition to a regular radiographic survey may facilitate early diagnosis and possible prevention of spontaneous periprosthetic fractures, in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy beyond 5 years. The treatment of this atypical periprosthetic fracture should include both surgical than pharmacological therapy to obtained bone healing. PMID:28228784

  10. Efficacy of Alendronate and Cholecalciferol Combination in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis Receiving Antiviral Therapy: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Coşkun Benlidayı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, the efficacy of 12-month alendronate and cholecalciferol combination therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in two male patients with chronic viral hepatitis aged above 60 years who were on antiviral treatment was evaluated. The patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry while receiving 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate once daily and started on alendronate and cholecalciferol combination (70 mg/2800 IU. Baseline T-scores of the two patients were -2.6 and -4.9, respectively. Baseline bone mineral density (BMD and 25(OHD (ng/ml values were compared with post-treatment values. Regarding the first case, following treatment, lumbar, femoral neck and total hip BMD values were improved by 1.9%, 5.2% and 13.8%, respectively. In the second case, L1-L4 lumbar, femoral neck and total hip BMD values were improved by 23.2%, 25.9% and 14.8%, respectively. However, when pre- and posttreatment 25(OHD levels were compared, a decrease was observed in both patients. In conclusion, 12-month treatment with alendronate and cholecalciferol combination improved BMD values, in patients with chronic viral hepatitis who were on antiviral therapy. Considering that tenofovir therapy effects vitamin D metabolism independently in these patients, it is necessary to control 25(OHD levels in a regular basis and to support the patient with adequate vitamin D supplementation, in order to optimize serum vitamin D levels and prevent from vitamin D insufficiency. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 96-9

  11. Changes in bone density and turnover after alendronate or estrogen withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasnich, Richard D; Bagger, Yu Z; Hosking, David J

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover changes after therapy withdrawal in postmenopausal women treated with alendronate or estrogen-progestin. DESIGN: In this randomized, blinded, multinational, placebo-controlled trial, 1,609 healthy postmenopausal women ages 45 to 59...... years were assigned to receive alendronate, placebo, or open-label estrogen-progestin (conjugated equine estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate or a cyclic regimen of 17 beta-estradiol, norethisterone acetate and estradiol). Of the original women, one third after year 2 and one third after year 4...... were switched from alendronate to placebo, while remaining blinded to treatment assignment. The women taking estrogen-progestin in years 1 to 4 were followed off therapy in years 5 and 6. BMD at the lumbar spine and hip and biochemical markers of bone turnover were measured. RESULTS: The treatment...

  12. High encapsulation efficiency of sodium alendronate in eudragit S100/HPMC blend microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic drug sodium alendronate was encapsulated in blended microparticles of Eudragit® S100 and Methocel® F4M or Methocel® K100LV. Both formulations prepared by spray-drying showed spherical collapsed shape and smooth surface, encapsulation efficiencies of 85 and 82% and mean diameters of 11.7 and 8.4 µm, respectively. At pH 1.2, in vitro dissolution studies showed good gastro-resistance for both formulations. At pH 6.8, the sodium alendronate release from the microparticles was delayed and was controlled by Fickian diffusion. In conclusion, the prepared microparticles showed high encapsulation efficiency of sodium alendronate presenting gastro-resistance and sustained release suitable for its oral administration.

  13. Osteosynthesis with long volar locking plates for metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paritosh Gogna; Harpal Singh Selhi; Rohit Singla; Mukul Mohindra; Amit Batra; Reetadyuti Mukhopadhyay; Rajesh Rohilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius are a major treatment dilemma and orthopaedic surgeons have to pay due consideration to restoration of anatomy of distal radius together with rotation of the radial shaft and maintenance of radial bow and interosseous space.We performed this study to evaluate the clinic-radiological outcome of metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the distal radius treated with long volar locking plates.Methods:This prospective study involved 27 patients (22 males and 5 females) with metaphyseal-diaphyseal fracture of the distal radius.Their mean age was (30.12±11.48) years (range 19-52 years) and the follow-up was 26.8 months (range 22-34 months).All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation with a long volar locking plate.According to AO/OTA classification,there were 7 type A3,13 type C2 and 7 type C3 fractures.Subjective assessment was done based on the disabilities of the arm,shoulder and hand (DASH) questionnaire.Functional evaluation was done by measuring grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiological determinants included radial angle,radial length,volar angle and ulnar variance.The final assessment was done according to Gartland and Werley scoring system.Results:Postoperative radiological parameters were well maintained throughout the trial,and there was significant improvement in the functional parameters from 6 weeks to final follow-up.The average DASH scores improved from 37.5 at 6 weeks to 4.2 at final follow-up.Final assessment using Gartland and Werley scoring system revealed 66.67%(n=l8) excellent and 33.33% (n=9) good results.There was one case of superficial infection which responded to antibiotics and another carpel tunnel syndrome which was managed conservatively.Conclusion:Volar locking plate fixation for metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of distal radius is associated with excellent to good functional outcome,early rehabilitation and minimal complications.

  14. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Han-Qiang Ren; Xiao-Bo Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis.Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment.Results:On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant.Conclusions:It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  15. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing bone loss associated with menopause and aging and maintaining the normal micro-architecture of bone provide important opportunities for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate......, for preventing postmenopausal bone loss. DESIGN: 3-year double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: 15 osteoporosis centers throughout the world. PARTICIPANTS: 447 women who had recently experienced menopause (6 to 36 months before study entry). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned...

  16. Can classic metaphyseal lesions follow uncomplicated caesarean section?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, AnnaMarie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); Donoghue, Veronica B. [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); National Maternity Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2007-05-15

    Classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is the term given to a fracture that most often occurs in the posteromedial aspect of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and proximal humerus in infants; this finding is strongly associated with non-accidental injury. To demonstrate that the CML may occur following simple lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). A review of 22 years of an obstetric practice that delivers 8,500 babies per year. We identified three neonates born by elective LSCS, each with distal femoral metaphyseal fractures on postpartum radiographs. All caesarean sections were elective and uncomplicated. External cephalic version was not employed preoperatively. Postpartum radiographs demonstrated a fracture of the distal femoral metaphysis in each neonate, typical of a CML. We propose that a CML can occur in the setting of a simple, elective and uncomplicated LSCS where no external cephalic version is employed. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of patients who suffer major osteoporotic fractures despite adhering to alendronate treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; Rubin, Katrine Hass; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2013-01-01

    Antiresorptive treatment reduces the risk of fractures, but most patients remain at elevated risk. We used health registers to identify predictors of new major osteoporotic fractures in patients adhering to alendronate. Risk factors showed a different pattern than in the general population and in...

  18. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogen system for local delivery of sodium alendronate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posadowska, U.; Parizek, M.; Filova, E.; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, M.K.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Bacakova, L.; Pamula, E.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic administration of bisphosphonates, e.g. sodium alendronate (Aln) is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. To omit aforementioned drawbacks an injectable system for the intra-bone delivery of Aln based on Aln-loaded nanoparticles (NPs-Aln) suspended in a hydrogel

  19. Beware of mereologists bearing gifts: prolegomena to a medical metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushf, George

    2013-10-01

    This essay considers implications of formal mereologies and ontologies for medical metaphysics. Edward Fried's extensional mereological account of the human body is taken as representative of a prominent strand in analytic metaphysics that has close affinities with medical positivism. I show why such accounts fail. First, I consider how Fried attempts to make sense of the medical case of Barney Clark, the first recipient of an artificial heart, and show that his analytic metaphysical categories do not have the right kind of fit with the case. A proper medical metaphysic should involve a richer two way dialogue with medicine, and it should not just "apply" formal accounts worked out in other settings. Second, I argue that any effort to account for real wholes with extensional mereological sums requires all sorts of ad hoc, supplementary mechanisms that do the real work, and the full repertoire of these mechanisms involves inconsistencies and semantic shifts. Finally, I consider an alternative strand of work on non-extensional whole/part relations that is closer to medicine and that can deepen reflection on some core problems in bioethics, for example, associated with the determination of death when an organism ceases to function as a whole. In addition to the utility such formal ontologies have for addressing traditional problems such as the determination of death, philosophers of medicine should appreciate the increasingly influential role such formal tools are playing in the development of data system ontologies. Assumptions integral to these ontologies have far reaching implications for the way future research and practice in medicine will be conducted, and much greater critical reflection is needed on the full range of issues associated with the development and use of such medical ontologies.

  20. Probing the limits of reality: the metaphysics in science fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction provides a genre in which metaphysical questions concerning the ultimate structure of reality regularly arise. In addressing these questions, contemporary scientists tend to assume that the questions are of a scientific nature and should be handled solely by reference to our best theories. In this paper, it is argued that we cannot afford to neglect the role of conceptual analysis - a distinctively philosophical task - in thinking critically about the possibilities that science fiction claims to describe.

  1. A distinctive type of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with characteristic thickening of the distal ulna and radius: possible metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-Rosenberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Seng; Elliott, Alison M; Loke, Kah-Yin; Lachman, Ralph S

    2003-05-15

    We report an 8-year-old boy with a distinctive form of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (MCD). He presented with moderate disproportionate short stature and bony swelling of his wrists, knees, and ankles. There were severe metaphyseal abnormalities with a honeycomb appearance affecting the distal tibiae and fibulae, proximal tibiae, distal femurs, distal ulnae and radii, and both hands. His thoracolumbar spine was normal. Radiological examination of the mother's forearms revealed widening of the distal radii and short ulnae with hypoplastic distal ends. Rosenberg and Löhr [1986: Eur J Pediatr 145:40-45] reported a four-generational kindred in which affected members had thickening of the wrist proximal to the styloid process of the ulna and thickening of the dorsum sellae. Although many of the radiographic features of this patient are those of MCD-Rosenberg, the skeletal features of our patient do not appear to represent any known classified forms of MCD.

  2. Superiority of a combined treatment of Alendronate and Alfacalcidol compared to the combination of Alendronate and plain vitamin D or Alfacalcidol alone in established postmenopausal or male osteoporosis (AAC-Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Farahmand, P; Schacht, E; Rozehnal, A

    2007-03-01

    A combined therapy with the strongly antiresorptive Alendronate and the pleiotropically acting D-hormone analogue Alfacalcidol may have additive effects on bone quality, falls and fracture risk in established osteoporosis. The aim of this study (Alfacalcidol Alendronate Combined-AAC) was to compare the efficacy and safety of a combined parallel therapy with Alendronate and Alfacalcidol to the treatment with either Alendronate in combination with plain vitamin D or Alfacalcidol alone in patients with established postmenopausal or male osteoporosis. Ninety patients were included as matched triplets to receive randomly either 1 microg Alfacalcidol daily + 500 mg calcium (group A, n = 30) or 70 mg Alendronate weekly + 1,000 mg calcium + 1,000 IU vitamin D daily (group B, n = 30) or 1 microg Alfacalcidol daily + 70 mg Alendronate weekly + 500 mg calcium daily (group C, n = 30). Patients were recruited in one centre and were followed up for 24 months. Analysis was intention-to-treat and the primary outcome was lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density (measured observer blind). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and at the proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR Prodigy, GE, USA) at the beginning and after 12 and 24 months. During the 2-year-study we observed descriptively significant increases at the lumbar spine of 3.0% in group A compared to baseline, of 5.4% in group B and of 9.6% in group C, respectively. The superiority of the Alendronate + Alfacalcidol treatment group over Alfacalcidol alone and over Alendronate + vitamin D was of more than large rele-vance (both tests: MW > 0.71; CI-LB > 0.64; P vitamin D, but not versus Alfacalcidol alone. We found 80% of the patients in the Alendronate + Alfacalcidol group free from back pain at month 24, compared to 30% in the Alendronate + vitamin D and 43% in the Alfacalcidol monotherapy group. The superiority is relevant (both tests: MW > 0.64; CI-LB > 0.56; P back pain over either Alendronate in

  3. Metaphysics in China and in the West:Common Origin and Later Divergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Dunhua

    2006-01-01

    There are two tendencies in the arguments of the legitimacy of metaphysics in ancient China:the tendency to argue that there was no metaphysics in ancient China and the tendency to argue that ancient Chinese metaphysics is totally different from that of the West.In this article,the author counters these tendencies and argues that Chinese and western metaphysics both originated from a dynamic cosmology and shared objects of investigation and characteristics of thinking in terms of Becoming.However,in their later development,due to the difference in the problems of their focus,traditions of "moral metaphysics" and "(natural) metaphysics of Being" were formed in China and in the West,respectively.The author also explores the reasons for the rise of modem science in the West and its lack of progress in China.

  4. Feng Youlan’s Interpretation of Western Philosophy:A Critical Examination from the Perspective of Metaphysical Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to display a limited observation of Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy through the window of metaphysical methodology. This paper concentrates on Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy from the perspective of metaphysical methodology and aims to display a limited observation of Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy through the window of metaphysical methodology. Based on a brief review the recent studies of Feng Youlan and Western philosophy, this paper analyzes the progress and insufficient aspects in current studies on this issue and particularly clarifies what are the metaphysics and metaphysical methods in the context of Feng Youlan’s philosophy. In clarifying Feng’s interpretation of Western philosophy from the perspective of methodology, this paper further critically analyzes the Feng’s positive metaphysical methods and negative metaphysical methods, and assumes that Feng’s negative metaphysical methods essentially is a kind of attitudes towards metaphysics but neither a kind of metaphysics nor a kind of metaphysical methods. Instead of characterizing metaphysical methods as positive and negative as Feng did, this paper suggests an alternative division of metaphysical methods: direct and indirect methods of dealing with metaphysical issues.

  5. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, D; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P;

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting ...

  6. Distinctive metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe distal radius and ulna involvement (upper extremity mesomelia) and normal height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Andrea; Camera, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Metaphyseal chondrodysplasias (MCD) are skeletal disorders characterized by metaphyseal irregularities and, usually, by short stature. In MCD, wide heterogeneity exists with regard to clinical and radiological changes. We report on a patient with clinical and radiological findings of MCD who had coxa valga and normal height with metaphyseal involvement of the long bones. The short radii and ulnae showed a very severe change in their distal metaphyses, leading to mesomelic shortening confined to the upper limbs. Hematological, ophthalmological, and hearing examinations were normal. This type of MCD appears to represent a yet undescribed syndrome.

  7. Alendronate Sodium as Enteric Coated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles; Preparation, Optimization, and In Vivo Evaluation to Enhance Its Oral Bioavailability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Hosny

    Full Text Available Treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate sodium has several challenges. The first challenge is the low bioavailability. The second main challenge is side effects, which include oesophageal ulceration. The aim of this research was to reformulate alendronate sodium as enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles in order to enhance its bioavailability, and preventing the free alendronate sodium from coming into direct contact with the gastrointestinal mucosa, and thereby reducing the possibility of side effects. Enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared according to the Box-Behnken design employing Design expert® software, and characterized for size, morphology, and entrapment efficiency. The optimized formula was coated with an Eudragit S100 and evaluated for drug release in acidic and basic media, stability studies and pharmacokinetic evaluations on rabbits. The results indicated that, using Derringer's desirability functional tool for optimization, the highest entrapment efficiency value of 74.3% and the smallest size value of 98 nm were predicted under optimum conditions with a desirability value of 0.917. The optimized nanoparticles released alendronate sodium only at an alkaline pH. The pharmacokinetic evaluation revealed that alendronate sodium bioavailability was enhanced by more than 7.4-fold in rabbits. In conclusion, enteric coated solid lipid nanoparticles is a promising formula for the delivery of alendronate sodium, eliminating its oesophageal side effects and enhancing its bioavailability.

  8. Basic structures of reality essays in meta-physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinn, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In Basic Structures of Reality, Colin McGinn deals with questions of metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of mind from the vantage point of physics. Combining general philosophy with physics, he covers such topics as the definition of matter, the nature of space, motion, gravity, electromagnetic fields, the character of physical knowledge, and consciousness and meaning. Throughout, McGinn maintains an historical perspective and seeks to determine how much we really know of the world described by physics. He defends a version of "structuralism": the thesis that our knowledge is p

  9. Like an Image: Sensibility and Reflexivity in Descartes’ Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at questioning the role of image and imagination in Descartes’ Metaphysics, especially in the Meditations on First Philosophy, by holding both a certain doctrinal or theoretical discourse on image/imagination and the Cartesian use of images/imagination. Besides the fact that this rarely considered perspective prevents from freezing the original text, this strategy allows to highlight the ambiguity of theses notions, revealed through what is doing by the act of imagining compared to the act of conceiving with the understanding.

  10. Systemic alendronate prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. A bone chamber study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspenberg Per

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avascular necrosis of bone (osteonecrosis can cause structural failure and subsequent deformation, leading to joint dysfunction and pain. Structural failure is the result of resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization, before new bone has formed or consolidated enough for loadbearing. Bone resorption can be reduced by bisphosphonates. If resorption of the necrotic bone could be reduced during the revascularization phase until sufficient new bone has formed, it would appear that structural failure could be avoided. Methods To test whether resorption of necrotic bone can be prevented, structural grafts were subjected to new bone ingrowth during systemic bisphosphonate treatment in a rat model. Results In rats treated with alendronate the necrotic bone was not resorbed, whereas it was almost entirely resorbed in the controls. Conclusion Systemic alendronate treatment prevents resorption of necrotic bone during revascularization. In patients with osteonecrosis, bisphosphonates may therefore prevent collapse of the necrotic bone.

  11. The will: from metaphysical freedom to normative functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthous, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    Free will is regarded by some as the most and by others as the least relevant concept for criminal responsibility. Contributions from religious and philosophical thinkers over the classical and medieval Christian eras demonstrate that, despite the passionate and historically consequential debates over the meaning of "freedom," the unifying theme that joined the will with the intellect remained persistent and pervasive. Leading historical jurists in England eventually dropped the descriptor "free," but retained the central importance of the will to criminal responsibility and emphasized its dependence on the intellect to function properly. Modern rationalist philosophers denied the will's metaphysical freedom, but not its existence. Today the neurosciences reveal more and more about how the will functions, even as lawyers and psychiatrists hesitate to utter the word. In properly avoiding metaphysical freedom within forensic inquiry and discourse, it is a grave conceptual mistake to overlook the will itself. Once greater conceptual clarity on the empirical nature of the will is achieved and accepted, the law itself could rediscover the core mental faculty behind human agency, the will.

  12. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  13. "Bewitching" or confusing methaphysics? The demarcation between science and metaphysics according to Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of both classical and modern theory of knowledge, according to Popper, reside in the problem of demarcation: a problem closely re­ lated to the problem of induction. The paper argues the view that Popper's view of metaphysics is ambiguous, requiring another criterion to distinguish between "good " and "bad " metaphysics. The sources of the problem are pinpointed, and Popper's distinction between three types of theory outlined. The article then explores the distinction between types of theories and the issues of falsification, testability and refutation, before going on to a consideration of the relationship between science and metaphysics, and w eighing up the issue of good ancid metaphysics. From this emerges clearly that the second "criterionot demarcation" is needed to make precisely this distinction; also in view of Popper's u n ­ clear, even ambiguous, view of metaphysics.

  14. The parody in Death and the Compass by Jorge Luis Borges as a Metaphysical Detective Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜楠

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of metaphysical detective novels changed the situation that traditional detective novels are often criticized as vulgar literature for its escaping from reality and its purpose of recreation and stimulus. Jorge Luis Borges is one of the forerunners of metaphysical detective fiction. Especially, some of his short novels become the classics of metaphysical detective novels. In this thesis, I will try to analyze the parody of one of Jorge Luis Borges’ representative metaphysical detective novels -“Death and the Compass” to see the main differences between metaphysical detective novels and traditional detective novels. This thesis is divided into three parts. Chapter one gives brief introduction about traditional detective novels. Chapter two discusses the parody in this novel. And chapter three comes to the conclusion which gives the reason for this change.

  15. Prolonged risk of subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures after discontinuing alendronate treatment: A nationwide nested case-control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Foung Huang, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Discontinuation of alendronate therapy did not reduce the risk of subtrochanteric femoral fractures until it was discontinued for >5 years. In conclusion, alendronate use significantly increased the risk of subtrochanteric femoral fractures, and the risk may persist for 5 years after discontinuation.

  16. The Effect of Alendronate and Intranasal Calcitonin Treatments on Bone Mineral Density in Men with Idiopathic Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taşçıoğlu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of alendronate and calcitonin treatments on bone mineral density (BMD in men with idiopathic osteoporosis. After performing a detailed clinical and laboratory assessment in order to eliminate secondary factors that can lead to osteoporosis, fifty-two men with idiopathic osteoporosis were randomly assigned to two groups: 28 patients in the first group received intranasal salmon calcitonin at a dosage of 200 IU/ day and they also received daily doses of 1000 mg calcium supplements. Twenty-four patients in the second group used 10 mg alendronate/day and 1000 mg calcium/day. DXA was used for the measurement of BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur before and after the study period. At the end of the treatment, alendronate produced significant increases in BMD at the lumbar spine (p0.05. When the groups were compared with each other, a significant increase in lumbar BMD was obtained in favor of alendronate treatment (p<0.05. In conclusion, alendronate seemed to be more effective than calcitonin, increasing both spinal and femoral BMD, for the treatment of idiopathic male osteoporosis.

  17. Effect of Weekly Alendronate on Knee Symptoms in Patients with Osteoporosis and Knee Osteoarthritis Coexistence - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Ediz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alendronate 70 mg weekly on knee symptoms in elderly women with osteoporosis and knee OA coexistence. Material and Methods: Elderly women who diagnosed as osteoporosis between 60-75 years old, underwent radiography of the knee if they reported symptoms of knee OA. Radiographs were read for Kellgren and Lawrence grade and individual features of OA. Osteoporotic patients with Knee OA treated with 70 mg alendronate once weekly for one year. Knee symptoms were assessed by interview before the treatment and 6 and 12 months after the treatment, and knee pain severity was evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Lequense index, VAS at rest and at movement. Results: Alendronate 70 mg once weekly use was associated with less severity of knee pain as assessed by WOMAC scores, Lequense index, VAS at rest and at movement at 6th and 12th month assessments. Conclusion: This current study has shown that Alendronate 70 mg once weekly use was associated with less severity of knee symptoms in elderly women with osteoporosis and knee OA coexistence. Additional long-term randomised, placebo controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this effect of weekly Alendronate. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2010;16:17-21

  18. The efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly alendronate 70 mg on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuxiang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Hanmin; Li, Mei; Liu, Jianli; Luo, Bangyao; Xie, Haibao; Zhang, Guangjian; Li, Fuobao

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become an important health problem in postmenopausal Chinese women. Bisphosphonates currently are the preferred therapy for treating osteoporosis. However, the use of daily regimen of alendronate in women at risk for osteoporosis has been relatively low in China because of its dosing inconvenience. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of once-weekly alendronate 70 mg in Chinese, a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed in China. Five hundred and sixty postmenopausal women (osteoporosis were randomly assigned to receive either alendronate 70 mg or placebo once-weekly for 12 months. All women received calcium 500 mg daily and vitamin D 200 IU daily. A significant increase in lumbar spine BMD was already evident at 6 months of alendronate treatment (P or =0% and > or =3% BMD increase in lumbar spine was significantly greater in women with alendronate than placebo (P osteoporosis in Chinese women.

  19. Beauty and conservation: a metaphysical, pedagogical and ecclesiastical perspective

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    Mauro Mantovani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After considering the notions of technology, art and culture, this essay presents a brief study on the metaphysical concept of beauty referring particularly to the thought of Thomas Aquinas and then proposing its application in an anthropological-pedagogical sphere. Focus then moves onto the philosophical concept of “conservation”. In this way the paper intends to show how Christian thought has necessarily deepened – in the light of the fundamental notions that belong to it – both the meaning of beauty, the artistic one included, and the concept of conservation and how these perspectives can represent in some way an interesting contribution for those who work in the field of conservation sciences or in the field of the planning and promotion of artistic and cultural events, especially if these events relate to religious heritage.

  20. Evaluating the Metaphysical Realism of Étienne Gilson

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    Brian Kemple

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is an absence of treatises devoted to the question of ens ut primum cognitum, there is no shortage of brief and implicit treatments; indeed, nearly every Thomist of the past seven centuries seems to have at least something to say about the notion that being is the first of our intellectual conceptions. Most recent Thomist thinkers—including Gilson—assume this ens to be nothing other than the ens reale of things entitatively considered, operating as they do out of a framework within which realism and idealism are presumed to be exhaustive and mutually exclusive attempts to answer the question of human knowledge. It is the intent of this essay to examine how Gilson arrives at his position, which he calls “metaphysical realism,” and to point to some of the difficulties it entails.

  1. Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

    2009-10-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible.

  2. Alendronate decreases orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumor growth and metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väänänen Kalervo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic prostate cancer is associated with a high morbidity and mortality but the spreading mechanisms are still poorly understood. The aminobisphosphonate alendronate, used to reduce bone loss, has also been shown to inhibit the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. We used a modified orthotopic PC-3 nude mouse tumor model of human prostate cancer to study whether alendronate affects prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Methods PC-3 cells (5 × 105 were implanted in the prostates of nude mice and the mice were treated with alendronate (0.5 mg/kg/day in PBS, s.c. or vehicle for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, the sizes of tumor-bearing prostates were measured and the tumors and prostate-draining regional iliac and sacral lymph nodes were excised for studies on markers of proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results Tumor occurrence in the prostate was 73% in the alendronate-treated group and 81% in the control group. Mean tumor size (218 mm3, range: 96–485 mm3, n = 11 in the alendronate-treated mice was 41% of that in the control mice (513 mm3, range: 209–1350 mm3, n = 13 (p p p p Conclusion Our results demonstrate that alendronate treatment opposes growth of orthotopic PC-3 tumors and decreases tumor metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes. This effect could be at least partly explained by decreased angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. The results suggest that bisphosphonates have anti-tumoral and anti-invasive effects on primary prostate cancer.

  3. Effects of long-term alendronate treatment on bone mineralisation, resorption parameters and biomechanics of single human vertebral trabeculae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Krause

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to their well-established fracture risk reduction, bisphosphonates are the most frequently used therapeutic agent to treat osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates reduce fracture risk by suppressing bone resorption, but the lower bone turnover could have a negative impact on bone quality at the tissue level. Here, we directly assess the structural and mechanical characteristics of cancellous bone from the lumbar vertebrae (L5 in non-treated osteoporotic controls (n = 21, mid-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 6, and long-term alendronate-treated osteoporotic patients (n = 7. The strength and toughness of single trabeculae were evaluated, while the structure was characterised through measurements of microdamage accumulation, mineralisation distribution, and histological indices. The alendronate-treated cases had a reduced eroded surface (ES/BS, p < 0.001 and a higher bone mineralisation in comparison to non-treated controls (p = 0.037, which is indicative of low turnover associated with treatment. However, the amount of microdamage and the mechanical properties were similar among the control and treatment groups. As the tissue mineral density (TMD increased significantly with alendronate treatment compared to non-treated osteoporotic controls, the reduction in resorption cavities could counterbalance the higher TMD allowing the alendronate-treated bone to maintain its mechanical properties and resist microdamage accumulation. A multivariate analysis of the possible predictors supports the theory that multiple factors (e.g., body mass index, TMD, and ES/BS can impact the mechanical properties. Our results suggest that long-term alendronate treatment shows no adverse impact on mechanical cancellous bone characteristics.

  4. Comparing tolerability and efficacy of generic versus brand alendronate: a randomized clinical study in postmenopausal women with a recent fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop P W van den Bergh

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of generic alendronate formulations have become available. Although expected to have the same tolerability and efficacy, head-to head comparison of generic and brand alendronate was never performed. Therefore, we compared the tolerability and efficacy of generic and brand alendronate. METHODS: In a randomized double-blinded single centre cross-over study in 37 postmenopausal women (mean age 65.4±6.4 years with osteoporosis were treated with generic and branded alendronate during 24 (2x12 weeks. Tolerance was evaluated by the Gastro intestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS and self-reported side effects. Efficacy was assessed by serum bone turnover markers, carboxy terminal telopeptide (CTX and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP. No wash out period was allowed (ethical reasons. Because of possible carry over effect only data of the first 12 weeks were analyzed using linear mixed models. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in overall tolerance (GSRS between treatment groups. However, for subscale abdominal pain, patients using generic had a significantly higher mean GSRS score at week 4 (estimated mean difference (B: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.05 to 0.74, p = 0.024. The level of bone turnover markers significantly decreased over 12 weeks of follow-up for generic and branded alendronate (p < 0.001. Mean level of CTX was significantly lower with branded at week 4 (B: 121.3; 95%CI: 52.0 to 190.5, but not at week 12 (B: 53.6; 95%CI:-3.7 to 110.9. No significant differences were found for PINP at week 4 or 12. CONCLUSIONS: Bone turnover markers were significantly reduced with branded and generic alendronate. With branded, CTX was significantly lower at 4 weeks. Generic caused significantly higher abdominal pain scores in the first 4 weeks of treatment. Therefore, generic alendronate may not have the same tolerability and efficacy as branded alendronate in the first weeks after starting treatment in patients

  5. Development and characterization of a gastroretentive dosage form composed of chitosan and hydroxyethyl cellulose for alendronate

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    Chen YC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chen Chen,1,* Hsiu-O Ho,1,* Chiao-Chi Chiu,1 Ming-Thau Sheu1,2 1School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, 2Clinical Research Center and Traditional Herbal Medicine Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In this study, alendronate, the most commonly used biphosphonate for treating osteoporosis, was formulated as gastroretentive dosage form (GRDF tablets to enhance its oral bioavailability. GRDF tablets were characterized with the effects of different molecular weights (MWs of chitosan (CS and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC at various ratios on swelling, floating, and physical integrity. The CS component was formed using various acids: acetic, lactic, malic, succinic, and citric, and a high viscosity grade of HEC was selected. The results demonstrated that the swelling ratios of the formulations comprising high MW CS were lower than those of low or medium MW CS when salts were formed with any countering acids except for acetic acid. The decreasing ranking of the swelling rates was: CS-citrate > CS-malate > CS-lactate > CS-succinate > CS-acetate. A negative correlation was found between the pKa of the respective countering acid and the swelling rate. The swelling rate was promoted if an acidic salt of CS with a lower water content was incorporated, while it became slower when tablet hardness was higher or the compression force to form tablets was increased. Although HEC did not contribute to swelling or floating, it played a role in maintaining structural integrity. A prolonged dissolution profile of alendronate GRDF tablets developed in this study was observed.Keywords: gastroretentive dosage form, chitosan, hydrogel, hydroxyethyl cellulose, swelling, alendronate

  6. A Case Against the Linguistic Approach to Metaphysics Zeno Vendler ’s Project and Beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiao-ling

    2014-01-01

    There are two approaches to metaphysics that concern language, the logical and the linguistic. Zeno Vendler, who took the linguistic one, distinguished with transformational techniques between two semantic categories, namely fact and event, and regarded them as corresponding respectively to a metaphysical category of beings. In doing this he presupposed that indepen-dent semantic categories could be sorted out, and corresponding categories of beings that are independent of language can be de-rived. But our analysis of Vendler’s case shows that it is not semantic categories but grammar that functions in differentiating event and fact. At least some semantic categories could not be separated from grammar, and this casts doubt on the linguistic ap-proach to metaphysics. If semantic categories are not independent of grammar, we could not derive metaphysics from linguistic study.

  7. Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverthorn, K.G.; Houston, C.S.; Duncan, B.P.

    1987-02-01

    The fourteenth reported patient with Murk Jansen's metaphyseal chondrodysplasia is presented, with a remarkable followup from birth to the age of 15 years. Numerous invasive procedures were performed in pursuit of erroneous provisional diagnoses. Five of these patients presented in infancy with radiographic metaphyseal changes similar to rickets, but with preservation of the provisional zone of calcification. Following infancy, these patients reveal the more typical short-limbed dwarfism, with fusiform joints and bowed extremities.

  8. 阿仑膦酸钠防治牙槽骨吸收的实验研究%The treatment of osteoporosis and bone resorption of alveoli with alendronate in rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓敏; 杨宗萍; 于世凤

    2001-01-01

    目的用骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收动物模型评价阿仑膦酸盐对骨吸收的防治作用。方法建立骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收的动物模型,建模手术次日,给实验组皮下注射阿仑膦酸钠液,每周3次,共6周。用血生化指标、骨生物力学、骨密度测量及组织形态学方法进行药效评价。结果股骨密度:对照组(0.123 g/cm2)与实验组(0.151 g/cm2)相比明显降低(P<0.01);血清碱性磷酸酶:对照组(259.63 U/L)与实验组(151.13 U/L)相比明显升高(P<0.01);骨生物力学各项指标,实验组与对照组也有明显差异。组织形态学:实验组牙龈轻度炎症,牙槽嵴顶未见明显吸收;对照组牙龈乳突炎症明显,上皮钉突增生,炎细胞浸润,牙槽嵴顶明显吸收。结论阿仑膦酸钠能减少骨质丢失从而可以防止骨质疏松及病理性牙槽骨骨吸收。%Objective To evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effect of alendronate on bone in rat model. Methods The osteoporosis and alveolar bone resorption animal model were established in rats. The experimental groups were given alendronate in 5 mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection after first day of ovariectomy and dental ligature, three times a week for 6 weeks. All the animals were sacrifised 12 weeks after the operation. The blood samples were collected for determination of biochemical indices. The left femora and jaw bones were processed for histomorphometry. The right femora and mendibles were prepared for determination of bone density and bone biodynamics. Results As compared with the control groups(without alendronate), the values of experimental groups (with alendronate) were all significantly improved on bone density, bone anti-flexure ability and body weight. The alkaline phosphatase, calcium in serum of ovariectomy groups(without alendronate) were obviously increased. In the experimental group, however, these indices were close to normal levels. In

  9. Alendronate affects osteoprotegerin/receptor of activator of nuclear factor κB-ligand expression in human marrow stroma cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of alendronate on osteoprotegerin(OPG)and receptor of activator of nuclear factor κB-ligand(RANKL)expression in human marrow stroma cells(hMSCs)in vitro.Methods hMSCs were isolated from human marrow,cultured in vitro,and randomly divided into two groups:alendronate group,hMSCs culture fluid containing 1×10-7mol/L alendronate;control group,no special treatment but culturing hMSCs in DMEM.Two weeks after treatment,the expressions of OPG and RANKL were evaluated by RT-PCR and W...

  10. Beyond positivism: a metaphysical basis for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J

    1992-09-01

    Medicine does not have its own unified body of scientific knowledge. Instead, physicians who are oriented to research make sporadic incursions into the basic sciences such as genetics, biochemistry, immunology, epidemiology, physiology, pharmacology and so on. These latter, taken together, comprise biomedicine which is said to have adopted the positivist epistemology or the Cartesian/Newtonian one that regards the scientist as an uninvolved observer of nature. In effect, medical science has come to rest on a theory of knowledge which links meaning to probability and considers prediction as the scientist's chief task. Like its predecessor, the probability theory of meaning rejects metaphysical speculation and remains connected to observations made, directly or indirectly, by means of the five senses. Despite some brilliant successes touching on relatively uncommon disorders, biomedicine cannot explain most day-to-day clinical activity. An understanding of what transpires between patient and doctor, of its diagnostic potential and therapeutic weight requires hermeneutic, or phenomenological, inquiry which brings about changes in both parties to it. Such a science, as ontological speculation has been called, cannot be deciphered by an epistemology couched in the imagery of physics and chemistry.

  11. On Kinds of Indiscernibility in Logic and Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Caulton, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hilbert-Bernays account as a spring-board, we first define four ways in which two objects can be discerned from one another, using the non-logical vocabulary of the language concerned. (These definitions are based on definitions made by Quine and Saunders.) Because of our use of the Hilbert-Bernays account, these definitions are in terms of the syntax of the language. But we also relate our definitions to the idea of permutations on the domain of quantification, and their being symmetries. These relations turn out to be subtle---some natural conjectures about them are false. We will see in particular that the idea of symmetry meshes with a species of indiscernibility that we will call `absolute indiscernibility'. We then report all the logical implications between our four kinds of discernibility. We use these four kinds as a resource for stating four metaphysical theses about identity. Three of these theses articulate two traditional philosophical themes: viz. the principle of the identity of indis...

  12. Fundamental awareness: A framework for integrating science, philosophy and metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theise, Neil D; Kafatos, Menas C

    2016-01-01

    The ontologic framework of Fundamental Awareness proposed here assumes that non-dual Awareness is foundational to the universe, not arising from the interactions or structures of higher level phenomena. The framework allows comparison and integration of views from the three investigative domains concerned with understanding the nature of consciousness: science, philosophy, and metaphysics. In this framework, Awareness is the underlying reality, not reducible to anything else. Awareness and existence are the same. As such, the universe is non-material, self-organizing throughout, a holarchy of complementary, process driven, recursive interactions. The universe is both its own first observer and subject. Considering the world to be non-material and comprised, a priori, of Awareness is to privilege information over materiality, action over agency and to understand that qualia are not a "hard problem," but the foundational elements of all existence. These views fully reflect main stream Western philosophical traditions, insights from culturally diverse contemplative and mystical traditions, and are in keeping with current scientific thinking, expressible mathematically.

  13. Philosophical Creationism: Thomas Aquinas’ Metaphysics of Creatio ex Nihilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All philosophers, beginning with the pre-Socratics, through Plato and Aristotle, and up to Thomas Aquinas, accepted as a certain that the world as a whole existed eternally. The foundation for the eternity of the world was the indestructible and eternal primal building material of the world, a material that existed in the form of primordial material elements (the Ionians, in the form of ideas (Plato, or in the form of matter, eternal motion, and the first heavens (Aristotle. The article outlines the main structure of the philosophical theory of creation ex nihilo developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and indebted to his metaphysical thought. It shows the wisdom-based and ratiocinative foundation of the rational cognition of reality—reality that comes from the personal creative act of God. It concludes that the perception that the beings called to existence by the personal act of God the Creator are intelligible is the ultimate rational justification for the fact that our human cognition, love, and spiritual creativity are rational.

  14. Iontophoresis significantly increases the trans-dentinal delivery of osteoprotegerin, alendronate, and calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchens, James A; Schwartz, Scott A; Schindler, William G; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the delivery of alendronate, calcitonin, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) through human dentin by both diffusion and iontophoresis for the potential treatment of invasive cervical resorption. Radiolabeled alendronate, calcitonin, and OPG were added to the top of a split chamber device that contained 1-mm thick dentin disks devoid of a smear layer. Transdentinal movement of medicaments by either random diffusion or application of an iontophoretic current was measured by analysis of gamma emission of effluent fractions. In addition, calcitonin delivery was evaluated at differing magnitudes of current (0-4 mA) by using the aforementioned chamber. Diffusion of all 3 medicaments was minimal. In contrast, the application of a 3-mA iontophoretic gradient significantly increased delivery for all 3 compounds at 10-, 20-, and 30-minute intervals. In addition, a linear increase in permeability was seen for calcitonin as milliamperes were increased from 0 to 4 (r = 0.947), with more than a 100-fold increase in delivery observed with iontophoresis. Delivery of the tested medicaments by using iontophoresis might prove to be a useful technique for treatment of invasive cervical resorption.

  15. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Alendronate has been shown to reduce bone turnover and increase bone mass. However, little is known about the duration of the effect on bone after treatment withdrawal. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover of various alendr...

  16. Subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures in patients treated with alendronate: a register-based national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Alendronate (aln) is a potent bisphosphonate with a prolonged duration of action. Recent reports have found long-term aln use to be common in patients with subtrochanteric or proximal diaphyseal femur fracture, raising concerns that these fractures could be a consequence of excessive suppression...

  17. Impaction grafting with morsellised allograft and tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite: incorporation within ovine metaphyseal bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J N J; Griffon, D J; Dunlop, D G; Smith, N; Howie, C R

    2002-08-01

    An ovine model was used to investigate the in vivo properties of impacted tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) aggregates, varying in chemical composition (ratio of TCP to HA) and particle size distribution (8 versus 3 particle size ranges). All pellets were impacted to a standard compactive effort. Eight sheep underwent implantation of pellets in 4 metaphyseal defects in both rear limbs. Treatment groups consisted of: (1) allograft (clinical control). (2) 50/50 allograft/80% HA/20% TCP in 8 particle size ranges, (3) 50/50 allograft/80% TCP/20% HA in 8 sizes and (4) 50/50 allograft/80% HA/20% TCP in only 3 sizes of particles. Healing of defects was evaluated at 14 weeks with computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry. The computer tomography (CT) density measured in all defects containing synthetic agents was higher than in defects filled with allograft alone (p<0.01). Defects containing 8 sizes of 80% HA/ 20% TCP granules (group 2) achieved lower histological scores and contained less bone than the clinical control (p<0.05), whereas groups 3 and 4 did not differ from the control. Although all synthetic agents were osteoconductive, our results suggest that increasing the ratio of TCP over HA and limiting the number of particle size ranges to 3 instead of 8 improve the performance of impacted aggregates as graft expanders. Evaluation under loading conditions of morsellised allograft expanded with 80% TCP/20% HA (BoneSave) in 3 particle size ranges is warranted.

  18. The Effect of Local Delivery Doxycycline and Alendronate on Bone Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limirio, Pedro Henrique Justino Oliveira; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Batista, Jonas Dantas; Guimarães-Henriques, João César; de Melo, Geraldo Batista; Dechichi, Paula

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the local effect of 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate combined with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on bone repair. Thirty rats were divided into three groups, as follows: control group (CG), drug group (DG), and vehicle-PLGA group (VG). Bone defect was created in the right femur and filled with the following: blood clot (CG); PLGA gel, 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate (DG); or vehicle-PLGA (VG). The animals were euthanized 7 or 15 days after surgery. Bone density, bone matrix and number of osteoclasts were quantified. At 7 days, the findings showed increased density in DG (177.75 ± 76.5) compared with CG (80.37 ± 27.4), but no difference compared with VG (147.1 ± 41.5); no statistical difference in bone neoformation CG (25.6 ± 4.8), VG (27.8 ± 4), and DG (18.9 ± 7.8); and decrease osteoclasts in DG (4.6 ± 1.9) compared with CG (26.7 ± 7.4) and VG (17.3 ± 2.7). At 15 days, DG (405.1 ± 63.1) presented higher density than CG (213.2 ± 60.9) and VG (283.4 ± 85.8); there was a significant increase in percentage of bone neoformation in DG (31.5 ± 4.2) compared with CG (23 ± 4), but no difference compared with VG (25.1 ± 2.9). There was a decreased number of osteoclasts in DG (20.7 ± 4.7) and VG (29.5 ± 5.4) compared with CG (40 ± 9.4). The results suggest that the association of 10% doxycycline and 1% alendronate with PLGA-accelerated bone repair.

  19. The Bone Resorption Inhibitors Odanacatib and Alendronate Affect Post-Osteoclastic Events Differently in Ovariectomized Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L;

    2014-01-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a bone resorption inhibitor which differs from standard antiresorptives by its ability to reduce bone resorption without decreasing bone formation. What is the reason for this difference? In contrast with other antiresorptives, such as alendronate (ALN), ODN targets only...... the very last step of the resorption process. We hypothesize that ODN may therefore modify the remodeling events immediately following osteoclastic resorption. These events belong to the reversal phase and include recruitment of osteoblasts, which is critical for connecting bone resorption to formation. We...... in the interface between osteoclasts and surrounding osteoblast-lineage cells. This increase is expected to favor the osteoclast-osteoblast interactions required for bone formation. Regarding bone resorption itself, we show that ODN, but not ALN, treatment results in shallower resorption lacunae, a geometry...

  20. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  1. Association of farnesyl diphosphate synthase polymorphisms and response to alendronate treatment in Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Liu Haijuan; Li Mei; Zhou Peiran; Xing Xiaoping; Xia Weibo; Zhang Zhenlin

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis,but less is known about the genetic determinants of osteoporosis treatment.We aimed to explore the association between the gene polymorphisms of key enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) in mevalonate signaling pathway of osteoclast and response to alendronate therapy in osteoporotic postmenopausal women in China.Methods The study group comprised 639 postmenopausal women aged (62.2±7.0) years with osteoporosis or osteopenia who had been randomly assigned to low dose group (70 mg/2w) or standard dose group (70 mg/w) of alendronate in this 1-year study.We identified allelic variant of the FDPS gene using the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme Faul.Before and after treatment,serum levels of calcium,phosphate,alkaline phosphatase (ALP),cross linked C-telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen (β-CTX) were detected.Bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured.The association was analyzed between the polymorphisms of FDPS gene and the changes of BMD,bone turnover biomarkers after the treatment.Results The FDPS rs2297480 polymorphisms were associated with baseline BMD at femoral neck,and patients with CC genotype had significantly higher baseline femoral neck BMD ((733.6±84.1) mg/cm2) than those with AC genotypes ((703.0±86.9) mg/cm2) and AA genotypes ((649.8±62.4) mg/cm2) (P <0.01).No significant difference in BMD at lumbar spine was observed among different genotypes of FDPS.The percentage change of serum ALP level was significantly lower in patients with CC genotype (-22.9%) than that in those with AC genotype (-24.1%) and AA genotype (-29.8%) of FDPS after 12 months of alendronate treatment (P <0.05).Neither percentage change of BMD nor β-CTX level after alendronate treatment had association with FDPS genotype.Conclusions FDPS gene was probably a candidate gene to predict femoral neck BMD at baseline.FDPS gene alleles could predict

  2. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing

  3. The Discovery of the Existence of the Absolute in Existential Metaphysics

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    Andrzej Maryniarczyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the way in which the discovery of the existence of the Absolute is made in existential metaphysics. This existential metaphysics provides us with knowledge about reality. It shows the content of the experience of being, the content given to us in the transcendentals. It also unveils the foundation of the rational order, which is given to us in the discovery of the first principles of the existence of being and of cognition. Metaphysics provides us also with knowledge concerning the structure of being. It shows us being as composite and plural; being which is “insufficient” in its structure and calls for an explanation. That being—that is problematized in existence, given to us in experience, and incompletely intelligible in itself—lifts us toward its ultimate “complement” and understanding, to the Absolute.

  4. Comparative Study of Plating versus Nailing in Distal Tibia Metaphyseal Fractures

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    Jayesh V Vaza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Distal tibial metaphyseal fracture are unique.we have studied 40 pt in sir j.j.hospital group of the hospitals from periods MAY 2009 and APRIL 2011 .The study prospective and comparative for the methods used for management of this fracture. The best option for surgical treatment of distal metaphyseal fractures of tibia is still unclear. The purpose of this study was, first, to confirm whether closed reduction and intramedullary nailing produces better results than open reduction and internal fixation with precontoured locked plate and screws and, second, to establish indications for each modality. The overall results were comparable and most patients were satisfied with the results. These results indicate that both modalities of treatment deserve a place in treating distal metaphyseal fractures of tibia. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(4.000: 340-344

  5. On How physics Could impact on the Metaphysics of Space and Time

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    Alireza Mansouri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to illustrate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the context of the philosophy of space and time. We especially emphasize, in this paper, that scientific development could impact on our position regarding the reality of space and time. To illustrate this point, we investigate the mutual inter-relation of physics and metaphysics in the modern developments of physics, i.e. neo-Newtonian structure, special and general relativity (GR. This paper ends up anticipating that it is likely, by considering modern physics, especially GR, that substantivalism to be a more defensible position.

  6. A Metaphysical Reflection on the Notion of Background in Modern Spacetime Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vassallo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a metaphysical characterization of spatiotemporal backgrounds from a realist perspective. The conceptual analysis is based on a heuristic sketch that encompasses the common formal traits of the major spacetime theories, such as Newtonian mechanics and general relativity. It is shown how this framework can be interpreted in a fully realist fashion, and what is the role of background structures in such a picture. In the end it is argued that, although backgrounds are a source of metaphysical discomfort, still they make a spacetime theory easy to interpret. It is also suggested that this conclusion partially explains why the notion of background independence carries a lot of conceptual difficulties.

  7. 阿仑膦酸钠联合辛伐他汀对骨质疏松骨折的影响%Impact of alendronate combined with simvastatin on osteoporotic fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江义; 张晶晶; 卢向东; 徐彬

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of alendronate combined with simvastatin on the osteoporotic fracture healing in rats.Methods 50 SD adult female rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:(A)sham operation control group;(B)ovariectomized control group;(C)ovariectomized alendronate group;(D)simvastatin group;(E) ovariectomized alendronate and simvastatin group.B,C,D,Egroup underwent ovariectomy surgery,A group only partially excised adipose tissue.8 weeks later,2 rats were selected randomly from each group to confirm osteoporosis successful modeling.Then the midshaft femur fracture model was established by an operation and intramedullary nails fixation was achieved with Kirschner wire.Deal each group of rats with such drug intervention as follows:(A,B) physiological saline 5mL/(kg·d)gavage for 8 weeks; (C)alendronate 0.5mg/(kg·d) gavage for 8 weeks;(D) simvastatin 20mg/(kg·d)gavage for 8 weeks (E)alendronate 0.5mg/(kg·d)+ simvastatin 20mg/(kg·d) gavage for 8 weeks.All the rats were killed and their blood samples and left femurs were collected.The serum calcium, phosphorus,alkaline phosphatase(ALP)content,X-ray bone mineral density(BMD) and biomechanical strength were detected.Results Compared with the sham group,the ovariectomized group had significantly reduced bone mineral density,elevated ALP level and serum calcium,phosphorus content had no significant change.After treatment witn alendronate and simvastatin for 8 weeks,calcium,phosphorus content had no significant change;alkaline phosphatase level decreased;femoral bone mineral density and biomechanical strength were improved.This result is more obvious in alendronate and simvastatin group, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion Alendronate is beneficial to the restoration of biomechanical function in the osteoporosis fracture healing,and simvastatin can play a synergistic effect.%目的:通过实验观察阿仑膦酸钠联合辛伐他汀对骨质疏松大鼠骨折愈合的影

  8. Effects of denosumab, alendronate, or denosumab following alendronate on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, bone mass and bone strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Jolette, Jacquelin; Zhou, Lei; Ominsky, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic disease wherein increased bone remodeling reduces bone mass and bone strength. Antiresorptive agents including bisphosphonates are commonly used to mitigate bone loss and fracture risk. Osteoclast inhibition via denosumab (DMAb), a RANKL inhibitor, is a newer approach for reducing fracture risk in patients at increased risk for fracture. The safety of transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy (alendronate; ALN) to DMAb was examined in mature ovariectomized (OVX) cynomolgus monkeys (cynos). One day after OVX, cynos (7-10/group) were treated with vehicle (VEH, s.c.), ALN (50 μg/kg, i.v., twice monthly) or DMAb (25 mg/kg/month, s.c.) for 12 months. Other animals received VEH or ALN for 6 months and then transitioned to 6 months of DMAb. DMAb caused significantly greater reductions in serum CTx than ALN, and transition from ALN to DMAb caused further reductions relative to continued ALN. DMAb and ALN decreased serum calcium (Ca), and transition from ALN to DMAb resulted in a lesser decline in Ca relative to DMAb or to VEH-DMAb transition. Bone histomorphometry indicated significantly reduced trabecular and cortical remodeling with DMAb or ALN. Compared with ALN, DMAb caused greater reductions in osteoclast surface, eroded surface, cortical porosity and fluorochrome labeling, and transition from ALN to DMAb reduced these parameters relative to continued ALN. Bone mineral density increased in all active treatment groups relative to VEH controls. Destructive biomechanical testing revealed significantly greater vertebral strength in all three groups receiving DMAb, including those receiving DMAb after ALN, relative to VEH controls. Bone mass and strength remained highly correlated in all groups at all tested skeletal sites, consistent with normal bone quality. These data indicate that cynos transitioned from ALN to DMAb exhibited reduced bone resorption and cortical porosity, and increased BMD and bone strength, without

  9. Self-assembled monolayers of alendronate on Ti6Al4V alloy surfaces enhance osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Gharibi, Borzo; McLister, Robert; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta

    2016-07-01

    Phosphonates have emerged as an alternative for functionalization of titanium surfaces by the formation of homogeneous self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via Ti-O-P linkages. This study presents results from an investigation of the modification of Ti6Al4V alloy by chemisorption of osseoinductive alendronate using a simple, effective and clean methodology. The modified surfaces showed a tailored topography and surface chemistry as determined by SEM microscopy and RAMAN spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that an effective mode of bonding is created between the metal oxide surface and the phosphate residue of alendronate, leading to formation of homogenous drug distribution along the surface. In-vitro studies showed that alendronate SAMs induce differentiation of hMSC to a bone cell phenotype and promote bone formation on modified surfaces. Here we show that this novel method for the preparation of functional coatings on titanium-based medical devices provides osseoinductive bioactive molecules to promote enhanced integration at the site of implantation.

  10. Bone formation induced by strontium modified calcium phosphate cement in critical-size metaphyseal fracture defects in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Ulrich; Ray, Seemun; Sommer, Ursula; Elkhassawna, Thaqif; Rehling, Tanja; Hundgeburth, Marvin; Henß, Anja; Rohnke, Marcus; Janek, Jürgen; Lips, Katrin S; Heiss, Christian; Schlewitz, Gudrun; Szalay, Gabor; Schumacher, Matthias; Gelinsky, Michael; Schnettler, Reinhard; Alt, Volker

    2013-11-01

    The first objective was to investigate new bone formation in a critical-size metaphyseal defect in the femur of ovariectomized rats filled with a strontium modified calcium phosphate cement (SrCPC) compared to calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and empty defects. Second, detection of strontium release from the materials as well as calcium and collagen mass distribution in the fracture defect should be targeted by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). 45 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three different treatment groups: (1) SrCPC (n = 15), (2) CPC (n = 15), and (3) empty defect (n = 15). Bilateral ovariectomy was performed and three months after multi-deficient diet, the left femur of all animals underwent a 4 mm wedge-shaped metaphyseal osteotomy that was internally fixed with a T-shaped plate. The defect was then either filled with SrCPC or CPC or was left empty. After 6 weeks, histomorphometric analysis showed a statistically significant increase in bone formation of SrCPC compared to CPC (p = 0.005) and the empty defect (p = 0.002) in the former fracture defect zone. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher bone formation at the tissue-implant interface in the SrCPC group compared to the CPC group (p < 0.0001). These data were confirmed by immunohistochemistry revealing an increase in bone-morphogenic protein 2, osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin expression and a statistically significant higher gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, collagen10a1 and osteocalcin in the SrCPC group compared to CPC. TOF-SIMS analysis showed a high release of Sr from the SrCPC into the interface region in this area compared to CPC suggesting that improved bone formation is attributable to the released Sr from the SrCPC.

  11. The Age of Milton--Paradise, Metaphysics, and Chivalric Codes: 5114.303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard

    Developed for a high school unit on the age of Milton, this guide is designed to examine the dominant literary modes of thought expressed in Spenser's "The Faerie Queene," Milton's "Comus,""Paradise Lost," and "Paradise Regained," and John Donne's metaphysical poetry. Performance objectives are listed along…

  12. The fine-grained metaphysics of artifactual and biological functional kinds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrara, M.; Vermaas, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider the emerging position in metaphysics that artifact functions characterize real kinds of artifacts. We analyze how it can circumvent an objection by David Wiggins (Sameness and substance renewed, 2001, 87) and then argue that this position, in comparison to expert judgments,

  13. Migraine and Metaphysics: Sentinels of science in nineteenth-century physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In an old boy network of nineteenth-century natural philosophers, all with a background in mathematics from the University of Cambridge, a conspicuous aversion ruled against metaphysics. Within these circles it produced a strong compulsion to define the limits of genuine scientific endeavour. The...

  14. The Problem of Absolute Knowledge. Metaphysics as Intellectual Intuition in Classic Modern European Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torubarova, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    Classic modern European philosophy explicate, reflect; leaving own history in fundamental metaphysical position, where the existence is understood as conscience. This position is representative in the process of historic development, transition of philosophical thought from R. Dekart to G. Hegel. It appears exactly the field of key metaphysical…

  15. Let's keep metaphysics out of medical ethics: a critique of Poplawski and Gillett.

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, F J

    1992-01-01

    I argue that the concept of 'longitudinal form', which Poplawski and Gillett have introduced into ethical discussions about embryos and gametes, involves too many metaphysical subtleties to be a useful aid to making moral decisions. I conclude by suggesting a criterion for relevance in medical ethics.

  16. Metaphysical Communication of I. Kant’s Theory of Experience: M. Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Rimkus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the reception of Kantian conception of experience in Martin Heidegger’s book Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. The context of Immanuel Kant’s theory of experience forms the basis for collation of Kant’s and Heidegger’s philosophies. Epistemological and metaphysical components of Kantian conception of experience are extracted. Two main Kant’s theoretical distinctions are discussed: the difference between the sensual matter of experience and conceptual form of experience; and the difference between the thing-in-itself and appearance. The research is focused on Kantian understanding of experience or empirical cognition, which is a process of synthesis of sensuous data and concepts. Collation of Kant’s and Heidegger’s philosophies and evaluation of Heidegger’s interpretational position appeals to theoretical contexts of metaphysical nominalism and metaphysical realism. The basic conclusion states that Heidegger’s interpretation of Kant’s theory of experience is transfused by the premises of Heidegger’s fundamental Dasein ontology. These premises determine significant transformations of Kant’s philosophy and the omission of some aspects of Kant’s theory of experience.

  17. New Grand Narratives: The Metaphysical Worldview of 'Avatar' and 'Cloud Atlas'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Früchtl, J.

    2016-01-01

    Referring to the films Avatar (2009) and Cloud Atlas (2012), the author will demonstrate that a new era of metaphysical holism follows Postmodernism. These films celebrate a resurrection of the flesh with 3-D technology and a reincarnation of souls with the aesthetic technique of morphing. However a

  18. Local treatment of osteoporosis with alendronate-loaded calcium phosphate cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jindong; Tang Hai; Wang Jiayang; Li Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background A new treatment strategy is to target specific areas of the skeletal system that are prone to clinically significant osteoporotic fractures.We term this strategy as the "local treatment of osteoporosis".The study was performed to investigate the effect of alendronate-loaded calcium phosphate cement (CPC) as a novel drug delivery system for local treatment of osteoorosis.Methods An in vitro study was performed using CPC fabricated with different concentrations of alendronate (ALE,0,2,5,10 weight percent (wt%)).The microstructure,setting time,infrared spectrum,biomechanics,drug release,and biocompatibility of the composite were measured in order to detect changes when mixing CPC with ALE.An in vivo study was also performed using 30 Sprague-Dawley rats randomly divided into six groups:normal,Sham (ovariectomized (OVX) + Sham),CPC with 2% ALE,5%ALE,and 10% ALE groups.At 4 months after the implantation of the composite,animals were sacrificed and the caudal vertebrae (levels 4-7) were harvested for micro-CT examination and biomechanical testing.Results The setting time and strength of CPC was significantly faster and greater than the other groups.The ALE release was sustained over 21 days,and the composite showed good biocompatibility.In micro-CT analysis,compared with the Sham group,there was a significant increase with regard to volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular number (Tb.N) in the treated groups (P <0.05).Trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) showed a significant increase in the Sham group compared to other groups (P <0.01).However,trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) showed no significant difference among the groups.In biomechanical testing,the maximum compression strength and stiffness of trabecular bone in the Sham group were lower than those in the experimental groups.Conclusions The ALE-loaded CPC displayed satisfactory properties in vitro,which can reverse the OVX rat vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture and biomechanical

  19. Injectable nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel system for local delivery of sodium alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadowska, Urszula; Parizek, Martin; Filova, Elena; Wlodarczyk-Biegun, Malgorzata; Kamperman, Marleen; Bacakova, Lucie; Pamula, Elzbieta

    2015-05-15

    Systemic administration of bisphosphonates, e.g. sodium alendronate (Aln) is characterized by extremely low bioavailability and high toxicity. To omit aforementioned drawbacks an injectable system for the intra-bone delivery of Aln based on Aln-loaded nanoparticles (NPs-Aln) suspended in a hydrogel matrix (gellan gum, GG) was developed. Aln was encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA 85:15) by solid-oil-water emulsification. Drug release tests showed that within 25 days all the encapsulated drug was released from NPs-Aln and the release rate was highest at the beginning and decreased with time. In contrast, by suspending NPs-Aln in a GG matrix, the release rate was significantly lower and more constant in time. The GG-NPs-Aln system was engineered to be easily injectable and was able to reassemble its structure after extrusion as shown by rheological measurements. Invitro studies showed that the GG-NPs-Aln was cytocompatible with MG-63 osteoblast-like cells and it inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastic differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells. The injectability, the sustained local delivery of small doses of Aln and the biological activity render the GG-NPs-Aln system promising for the local treatment of osteoporosis and other bone tissue disorders.

  20. A novel PHBV/HA microsphere releasing system loaded with alendronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ren Li; Du Chang; Shi Xuetao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Functional Materials, South China University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2009-08-31

    Microspheres of poly({beta}-hydroxybutyrate-co-{beta}-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) incorporated with hydroxyapatite (HA) and loaded with alendronate (AL), an osteoporosis preventing drugs, were prepared by single emulsion technique. Several methods were used to evaluate this novel drug carrier microsphere system (referred as PHBV/HA-AL). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to evaluate the enwrapping of HA and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis further confirmed the success. The morphology of PHBV/HA-AL microspheres was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), showing rough surface with HA particles enwrapped in the PHBV matrix. The in vitro drug releasing profile of PHBV/HA-AL system was investigated in a 26-day period. There is a sustained releasing pattern after a slight burst release during the first few days. Additionally, rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the PHBV/HA-AL composites. This controlled release system can well support the proliferation of MSCs. The novel PHBV/HA-AL controlled release system is promising for bone repair therapy.

  1. Montage, Militancy, Metaphysics: Chris Marker and André Bazin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cooper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Abstract (E: This article focuses on the relationship between the work of André Bazin and Chris Marker from the late 1940s through to the late 1950s and beyond. The division between Bazin's ŘRight Bankř affiliation with Les Cahiers du Cinéma on the one hand, and Markerřs ŘLeft Bankř allegiances on the other, is called into question here as my argument seeks to muddy the waters of their conventional ideological separation across the river Seine. Working alliteratively through Markerřs well-known talent for deft montage along with his militancy, I consider Bazinřs praise for Markerřs editing technique Ŕ in spite of famously expressing a preference elsewhere for the long take, and deep focus cinematography Ŕ and I address their political differences and convergences. Yet I also explore the rather more unexpected question of metaphysics in order to further emphasize a closer relationship between these two figures. I chart the emergence of an enduring spiritual bond between critic and filmmaker that surfaces first in Markerřs writings for the left-wing Catholic journal L’EspritDoes Alendronate reduce the risk of fracture in men? A meta-analysis incorporating prior knowledge of anti-fracture efficacy in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Alexandra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alendronate has been found to reduce the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women as demonstrated in multiple randomized controlled trials enrolling thousands of women. Yet there is a paucity of such randomized controlled trials in osteoporotic men. Our objective was to systematically review the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate in men with low bone mass or with a history of prevalent fracture(s and incorporate prior knowledge of alendronate efficacy in women in the analysis. Methods We examined randomized controlled trials in men comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of alendronate to placebo or calcium or vitamin D, or any combination of these. Studies of men with secondary causes of osteoporosis other than hypogonadism were excluded. We searched the following electronic databases (without language restrictions for potentially relevant citations: Medline, Medline in Process (1966-May 24/2004, and Embase (1996–2004. We also contacted the manufacturer of the drug in search of other relevant trials. Two reviewers independently identified two trials (including 375 men, which met all inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results of the male trials were pooled using Bayesian random effects models, incorporating prior information of anti-fracture efficacy from meta-analyses of women. Results The odds ratios of incident fractures in men (with 95% credibility intervals with alendronate (10 mg daily were: vertebral fractures, 0.44 (0.23, 0.83 and non-vertebral fractures, 0.60 (0.29, 1.44. Conclusion In conclusion, alendronate decreases the risk of vertebral fractures in men at risk. There is currently insufficient evidence of a statistically significant reduction of non-vertebral fractures, but the paucity of trials in men limit the statistical power to detect such an effect.

  2. Production, quality control, biodistribution assessment and preliminary dose evaluation of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhari, Ashraf [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiopharmacy; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Yousefnia, Hassan; Zolghadri, Samaneh; Samani, Ali Bahrami; Akbari, Mahmoud Reza; Deha, Fariba Johari [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shafiee-Ardestani, Mahdi; Khalaj, Ali [Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of {sup 166}Ho-alendronate have been presented and followed by dosimetric evaluation for human based on biodistribution data in wild-type rats. {sup 166}Ho chloride was obtained by thermal neutron irradiation of natural {sup 165}Ho(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} samples. {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of alkaline alendronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/mL) to 3-5 mCi of the {sup 166}HoCl{sub 3} solution. Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). {sup 166}Ho-alendronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC) and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The major accumulation of the radio-complex was in the bone tissues followed by absorbed dose evaluation of each human organ by RADAR software used for modelling the radiation dose delivered. The final preparation was administered to wild-type rats and biodistribution of the complex was performed 2-48 h post injection showing major accumulation of the complex in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for {sup 166}Ho-alendronate is observed in bone surface and red marrow with 2.670 and 1.880 mSv/MBq; respectively. These findings suggest that {sup 166}Ho-alendronate has considerable characteristics compared to {sup 166}Ho-DOTMP and can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  3. Prolegomena to any future metaphysics that will be able to come forward as science the Paul Carus translation

    CERN Document Server

    Kant, Immanuel

    1977-01-01

    Kant’s Prolegomena -- its full title, in the eighteenth-century manner, is Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics Which Will Be Able to Come Forth as Science -- is a classic in metaphysics and the theory of knowledge. It deals with the perennially baffling questions: How do we know? How much can we know? Its answers to these questions are interesting especially now. We live in one of the recurring periods of intellectual and cultural history that are skeptical and impatient of systems of speculative metaphysics, and a distrust of speculation is the leading motif of the Prolegomena. Though Kant's arguments against speculative metaphysics differ from those of our contemporaries, in some of his results he anticipates their negative conclusions. The Prolegomena, however, is not interesting merely as an historical anticipation of recent views; indeed, as such it has been as it were condemned in advance by Kant (Prolegomena, Introduction). Rather, its chief interest to the student of philosophy is probably the way...

  4. Purpose in the Universe the moral and metaphysical case for ananthropocentric purposivism

    CERN Document Server

    Mulgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Two familiar worldviews dominate Western philosophy: materialist atheism and the benevolent God of the Abrahamic faiths. Tim Mulgan explores a third way. Ananthropocentric Purposivism claims that there is a cosmic purpose, but human beings are irrelevant to it. Purpose in the Universe develops a philosophical case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism that it is at least as strong as the case for either theism or atheism. The book borrows traditional theist arguments to defend a cosmic purpose. These include cosmological, teleological, ontological, meta-ethical, and mystical arguments. It then borrows traditional atheist arguments to reject a human-centred purpose. These include arguments based on evil, diversity, and the scale of the universe. Mulgan also highlights connections between morality and metaphysics, arguing that evaluative premises play a crucial and underappreciated role in metaphysical debates about the existence of God, and Ananthropocentric Purposivism mutually supports an austere consequentialis...

  5. The metaphysical club at the Johns Hopkins University (1879-1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Peter J

    2005-11-01

    Of the earliest American universities, The Johns Hopkins in Baltimore holds a unique position for psychology. At Hopkins, many of America's first psychologists received their graduate training. Of special interest is the Hopkins Metaphysical Club, organized in 1879 by Charles Sanders Peirce. It provided a forum for research and scholarship by faculty and students. Papers related to topics of the "new" psychology began to appear in 1883, about the time G. Stanley Hall was given a 3-year appointment at Hopkins. When Peirce departed Hopkins in 1885, Hall was free to develop psychology in his image and disbanded the club. Nevertheless, the Metaphysical Club played an important role in the emergence of American scientific psychology.

  6. The politics of the metaphysical imagination. Critiquing transnational corporate power via Plato’s cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Tyson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s analogy of the cave evokes a complex picture of the way cultural power is imaginatively constructed in order to maintain prevailing norms and stratifications, via the use of technologies of collective belief manipulation. To Plato, collective imagination is central to the modes of spiritual enslavement which embed us in morally defective structures of power. This paper will argue, along Plato’s metaphysical trajectory, that without the positing of moral truth, critique is self-defeating and every type of power devolves towards mute violence in support of the interests of the strong at the expense of the weak. Following Plato’s trajectory, this paper will seek to morally critique the post-political advance of transnational corporate power, drawing out both the manipulative and immoral technologies of collective imagination formation which underpins this trend, and the role of metaphysical imagination as a still viable path towards the moral reform of power.

  7. Effect of alendronate on bone mineral density in adult patients with Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshed, Varda; Benbassat, Carlos A; Laron, Zvi

    2006-04-01

    Severe short stature resulting from a deficiency in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a prominent feature of Laron syndrome (LS). Whether patients with LS are osteopenic or not, and whether they need treatment with bisphosphonates, remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action of alendronate on the IGF-I-deficient bones of adult patients with LS and osteoporosis, as determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry . Seven patients (5 women and 2 men) of mean age 40.8+/-7.6 years and mean bone mass density (BMD) 0.843+/-0.06 g/cm2 (T score -2.9+/-0.5) at the lumbar spine and 0.734+/-0.11 g/cm2 (T score -2.2+/-0.9) at the femoral neck were treated with alendronate 70 mg once/weekly over a 12-month period. Treatment led to an increase of 5.3% in BMD (p=0.038) at the femoral neck. There was a similar trend at the lumbar spine, but the difference was not statistically significant (2.3%, p=0.34). Mean total alkaline phosphatase decreased by 14% from normal range at baseline (p=0.007). Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels, which were elevated at baseline (10+/-2.3 nM/mMcre), showed a nonsignificant change during treatment. Our study suggests that treatment with alendronate may have positive effects in patients with LS and low BMD on dual X-ray absorptiometry.

  8. Osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia: a skeletal dysplasia that may mimic lead poisoning in a child with hypotonia and seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennel, Emilie A. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); John, Susan D. [Department of Radiology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, 6431 Fannin-MSB2.100, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-month-old male with hypotonia, developmental delay, and complex seizures. Radiographs revealed profound sclerosis of the metaphyses and epiphyses of the long and short bones in the extremities, with a unique pattern of distribution. Sclerosis also involved the anterior ribs, iliac crests, talus, and calcaneus. The skull and vertebral bodies appeared unaffected. Blood lead levels were normal. We believe that this constellation of clinical and radiographic abnormalities closely resembles osteosclerotic metaphyseal dysplasia (OMD) due to an autosomal recessive defect. Characteristic skeletal findings were instrumental in determining the diagnosis. OMD is a very rare sclerosing bone disorder, first described in 1993. The syndrome is characterized clinically by developmental delay of a progressive nature, hypotonia, elevated alkaline phosphatase, and late-onset spastic paraplegia. We encountered a young child with these neurologic symptoms who displayed sclerotic metaphyseal changes on hand radiographs obtained to determine the bone age. Lead poisoning, a known cause of metaphyseal sclerosis, was initially suspected. Careful analysis of the metaphyseal bone changes helped to distinguish this bone dysplasia from lead poisoning and other causes of metaphyseal sclerosis. (orig.)

  9. "Pros and cons" of total hip arthroplasty with metaphyseal Proxima endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraźen, Waldemar; Golec, Edward B; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Golec, Piotr; Jaworowski, Michał de Lubicz; Dudkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    The authors present their own experience concerning total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. Proxima, a metaphyseal prosthesis, provides an innovative supplement to total hip arthroplasty. In this study, the authors present their own experience using Proxima in patients with hip osteoarthritis. This study was performed between 2008 to 2013 and comprised of 62 patients, of which 38 were male (61.3%) and 24 female (38.7%). All patients were operated on due to hip osteoarthritis using total hip arthroplasty with the metaphyseal prosthesis Proxima. The age of patients included into the study ranged from 23 years to 62 years with the mean age of 46 years. The authors paid close attention to the "pros and cons" of surgical techniques and assessed clinical and radiological results in both the short and long-term observation periods. The clinical evaluation was based on the Harris Hip Score and radiological assessment of fixation of the acetabular cup of the endoprosthesis was based on Pradhan's criteria. The endoprosthesis Proxima stem was positioned using the manufacturer's recommended method, evaluating the direction, scope and duration of the displacement in the marrow cavity of the proximal stump of the femur. According to the authors' analysis, the surgery gives good functional and radiological results both in the short- and long-term observation periods. The effectiveness depends on precise qualification for surgery, proper surgical techniques and specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femur stump. The most common reasons for primary and secondary dislocations of the metaphyseal endoprosthesis Proxima stem occur during the first three months post surgery. This is due to incorrect surgical techniques, which disregard the importance of specific anatomical conditions of the proximal femoral stump, which affects Proxima implantation, and cause deviations towards a varus or valgus orientation.

  10. Metaphysics of infinity the problem of motion and the infinite brain

    CERN Document Server

    Soteropoulos, Ion

    2013-01-01

    A work of impressive and original scholarship, Metaphysics of Infinity: The Problem of Motion and the Infinite Brain is an informed and informative study that is especially recommended to the attention of anyone with in interest in the logical mechanics of the physical universe, the capacity of the human brain, and integrated role of robots and artificial intelligence in the future. An understanding of elementary mathematical equations is required to fully appreciate the principles upon which Ion Soteropoulos has founded her pr

  11. Alendronato de sódio: metodologias para análise quantitativa Sodium alendronate: methods for analytical quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferreira Ribeiro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of some published proposals for the analysis of sodium alendronate. The drug is an aminobisphosphonate compound used to inhibit the osteoclastic resorption of bone, and different methods were developed for its quantitative determination. These methodologies employed reversed-phase or ion-exchange HPLC analysis, both associated with different detectors: UV and fluorescence detection after derivatization of the drug, conductivity and refractive index detectors, as well as the indirect UV detection. Titrimetry and spectrophotometry (with previous complexation of the drug, which are simpler procedures, were also described, but they showed poor specificity when compared to liquid chromatography.

  12. A remarkable hematological and molecular response pattern in a patient with polycythemia vera during combination therapy with simvastatin and alendronate

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    Anders Lindholm Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year old man with polycythemia vera, who had a remarkable hematological and molecular response during treatment with simvastatin and alendronate. The patient was treated with this combination for 56 months, and during this period the patient has been in complete hematological remission. The JAK2-V617F allele burden has dropped from 64% to sustained values below 20%, and follow-up bone marrow biopsies have revealed no change in PV features, without any regular cytoreductive treatment.

  13. Cancellous Screws Are Biomechanically Superior to Cortical Screws in Metaphyseal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tim; Boone, Christopher; Behn, Anthony W; Ledesma, Justin B; Bishop, Julius A

    2016-09-01

    Cancellous screws are designed to optimize fixation in metaphyseal bone environments; however, certain clinical situations may require the substitution of cortical screws for use in cancellous bone, such as anatomic constraints, fragment size, or available instrumentation. This study compares the biomechanical properties of commercially available cortical and cancellous screw designs in a synthetic model representing various bone densities. Commercially available, fully threaded, 4.0-mm outer-diameter cortical and cancellous screws were tested in terms of pullout strength and maximum insertion torque in standard-density and osteoporotic cancellous bone models. Pullout strength and maximum insertion torque were both found to be greater for cancellous screws than cortical screws in all synthetic densities tested. The magnitude of difference in pullout strength between cortical and cancellous screws increased with decreasing synthetic bone density. Screw displacement prior to failure and total energy absorbed during pullout strength testing were also significantly greater for cancellous screws in osteoporotic models. Stiffness was greater for cancellous screws in standard and osteoporotic models. Cancellous screws have biomechanical advantages over cortical screws when used in metaphyseal bone, implying the ability to both achieve greater compression and resist displacement at the screw-plate interface. Surgeons should preferentially use cancellous over cortical screws in metaphyseal environments where cortical bone is insufficient for fixation. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e828-e832.].

  14. Typology reconfigured: from the metaphysics of essentialism to the epistemology of representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to encourage a reconfiguration of the discussion about typology in biology away from the metaphysics of essentialism and toward the epistemology of classifying natural phenomena for the purposes of empirical inquiry. First, I briefly review arguments concerning 'typological thinking', essentialism, species, and natural kinds, highlighting their predominantly metaphysical nature. Second, I use a distinction between the aims, strategies, and tactics of science to suggest how a shift from metaphysics to epistemology might be accomplished. Typological thinking can be understood as a scientific tactic that involves representing natural phenomena using idealizations and approximations, which facilitates explanation, investigation, and theorizing via abstraction and generalization. Third, a variety of typologies from different areas of biology are introduced to emphasize the diversity of this representational reasoning. One particular example is used to examine how there can be epistemological conflict between typology and evolutionary analysis. This demonstrates that alternative strategies of typological thinking arise due to the divergent explanatory goals of researchers working in different disciplines with disparate methodologies. I conclude with several research questions that emerge from an epistemological reconfiguration of typology.

  15. Truth, Art, and the “New Sensuousness”: Understanding Heidegger’s Metaphysical Reading of Nietzsche

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    James Magrini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first of four lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy, “The Will to Poweras Art” (1936-37, Heidegger argues that the unique and importantrelationship between truth and art, which Nietzsche suggests, must beunderstood “with a view to the conquest of nihilism,” i.e., within the historical context of a radically novel interpretation of sensuous reality. Beginning with the project of overturning Platonism as the active countermovement to nihilism, this essay interprets Heidegger’s difficult notion of the discordant relationship between truth (the fixation of semblance and art (the transfiguration of semblance in Nietzsche’s philosophy, emphasizing the supreme importance of art as life’s greatest enhancing force. The analysis is conducted within the context of Nietzsche’s metaphysics as presented by Heidegger, who claims thatas a metaphysical thinker, Nietzsche could not explain such topics as “truth,” “Being,” and “Becoming” in terms beyond the conceptualization of Western philosophy. In spite of that, his thought intimates a movement beyond the constraints of the tradition within which he was entrenched. In addition to providing a detailed exegesis of Heidegger’s lecture course, the problems associated with Heidegger’s metaphysical interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy will be discussed, problems that commentators such as Alan Schrift (Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation believe stem from Heidegger’s stringent and restrictive methodological choices for approaching the reading of Nietzsche.

  16. Descriptive Metaphysics, Natural Language Metaphysics, Sapir-Whorf, and All That Stuff: Evidence from the Mass-Count Distinction

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    Francis Jeffry Pelletier

    2010-12-01

    . Language 5: 207–214. Reprinted in David Mandelbaum (ed., Selected Writings of Edward Sapir in Language Culture and Personality, 160-166 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968.Schank, Roger. 1972. ‘Conceptual Dependency: A Theory of Natural Language Understanding’. Cognitive Psychology 3: 552–631.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(7290022-9Sharvy, Richard. 1978. ‘Maybe English has No Count Nouns: Notes on Chinese Semantics’. Studies in Language 2: 345–365.http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/sl.2.3.04shaStrawson, Peter. 1959. Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics. London: Methuen.Strawson, Peter. 1966. The Bounds of Sense. London: Methuen.Vendler, Zeno. 1967. Linguistics in Philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Chapter 5. “Nouns and Nominalizations”.Vendler, Zeno. 1972. Res Cogitans. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. Chapter 5. “On What One Knows”.Whorf, Benjamin. 1940a. ‘Linguistics as an Exact Science’. Technology Review 43: 61–63, 80–83. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 220–232.Whorf, Benjamin. 1940b. ‘Science and Linguistics’. Technology Review 42: 229–231,247–248. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 207–219.Whorf, Benjamin. 1941. ‘The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behavior to Language’. In L. Spier (ed. ‘Language, Culture, and Personality: Essays in Memory of Edward Sapir’, 75–93. Menasha, WI: Sapir Memorial Publication Fund. Reprinted in (Whorf 1956, 134–159.Whorf, Benjamin. 1956. Language, Thought and Reality. Cambridge UP: MIT Press. Edited by J. Carroll.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1988a. ‘Oats and Wheat: Mass Nouns, Iconicity, and Human Categorization’. In Anna Wierzbicka (ed. ‘The Semantics of Grammar’, 499–560. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1988b. The Semantics of Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1994. ‘Opening Statement’. In ‘Semantic and Lexical Universals’, 1–3. Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.Wierzbicka, Anna. 1996. Semantics: Primes and Universals

  17. Czy sądy metafizyczne mówią coś o świecie? Wittgensteinowskie źródła deflacjonizmu metafizycznego i jego modele [Do metaphysical judgments say something about the world or not? Wittgensteinian roots of deflationary metaphysics and its models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kolodziejczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of contemporary philosophers argue against metaphysics putting forward a thesis that metaphysical claims are deflationary. This way of thinking seems to be not only persuasive but above all it rightly expresses a main difficulty of metaphysical inquires. In this paper I am trying to shed a little light on the problem of deflation of metaphysical judgments. In the first section I refer to some Wittgenstein's ideas from Tractatus logico-philosophicus and I focus on the phenomenon of manifestation as a possible source of deflation of metaphysics. The second section is devoted to the Wittgenstein's concepts of language games on the one hand and rules on the other; both of them are a key to understanding of the deepest dimensions of deflationary metaphysics. The third section is an elaboration of three models of deflation of metaphysical expressions: 1. deflation in regard to the informative status of metaphysical judgments; 2. deflation in regard to the metasemantic properties of judgments about the world, and 3. deflation in regard to the semantic ground of ontological judgments. The fourth and last part of the paper is an exposition of two crucial problems which metaphysics has to face with. I call the first of them 'a problem with conceptualization of the metaphysical experience', whereas the second one is labeled 'a problem with semantic inclusion of metaphysical expressions into judgments about facts'.

  18. Effect of Alendronate on Bone Formation during Tooth Extraction Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, R; Koi, K; Yamashita, J

    2015-09-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is an antiresorptive agent widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Its suppressive effect on osteoclasts has been extensively studied. However, the effect of ALN on bone formation is not as clear as its effect on resorption. The objective was to determine the effect of short-term ALN on bone formation and tooth extraction wound healing. Molar tooth extractions were performed in mice. ALN, parathyroid hormone (PTH), or saline (vehicle control) was administered. PTH was used as the bone anabolic control. Mice were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21 d after extractions. Hard tissue healing was determined histomorphometrically. Neutrophils and lymphatic and blood vessels were quantified to evaluate soft tissue healing. Gene expression in the wounds was assessed at the RNA level. Furthermore, the vossicle bone transplant system was used to verify findings from extraction wound analysis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was visualized in the vossicles to assess osteoblast activity. ALN exhibited no negative effect on bone formation. In intact tibiae, ALN increased bone mass significantly more than PTH did. Consistently, significantly elevated osteoblast numbers were noted. In the extraction sockets, bone fill in the ALN-treated mice was equivalent to the control. Genes associated with bone morphogenetic protein signaling, such as bmp2, nog, and dlx5, were activated in the extraction wounds of the ALN-treated animals. Bone formation in vossicles was significantly enhanced in the ALN versus PTH group. In agreement with this, ALN upregulated ALP activity considerably in vossicles. Neutrophil aggregation and suppressed lymphangiogenesis were evident in the soft tissue at 21 d after extraction, although gross healing of extraction wounds was uneventful. Bone formation was not impeded by short-term ALN treatment. Rather, short-term ALN treatment enhanced bone formation. ALN did not alter bone fill in extraction sockets.

  19. Characterization of alendronate sodium-loaded UHMWPE for anti-osteolysis in orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Dan [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Tribology Research Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qu Shuxin, E-mail: qushuxin@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Huang Jie [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Material Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cai Zhenbing; Zhou Zhongrong [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Tribology Research Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), a potential drug to prevent debris-induced osteolysis, was developed in our previous study. This study aims to investigate the wear performance of UHMWPE-ALNs. In this study, wear test, mechanical test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and contact angle test were applied to characterize the wear performance, mechanical behavior and physical properties of UHMWPE-ALNs. The effect of ALN on the wear performance of UHMWPE-ALNs was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), back scattering electrons (BSE) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX). The results of wear test showed that the friction coefficient and volumetric loss of UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.% were comparable with those of UHMWPE. The result of SEM-BSE-EDX revealed that the wear debris detached easily from the ALN-agglomerated regions, which was mainly responsible for the decrease of wear resistance of UHMWPE-ALN 1.0 wt.%. The loaded ALN resulted in the increase of hydrophilicity of UHMWPE-ALNs. The decrease of toughness and crystallinity of UHMWPE-ALN 1.0 wt.% attributed to the non-uniform distribution of ALN. The UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.%, in which no ALN agglomeration was observed, possessed approving mechanical properties and wear performance, might have potential clinical application to prevent the debris-induced osteolysis in prosthetic joints. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear resistance, mechanical and physical properties UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.% are not significantly different with those of UHMWPE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrophilicity of UHMWPE increased after loaded ALN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease of wear performance of UHMWPE-ALN 1.0 wt.% attributed to the non uniform distribution of ALN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ALN-agglomerated region of UHMWPE-ALN 1.0 wt.% was most easily worn out during wear processing.

  1. Reciprocating sliding wear behavior of alendronate sodium-loaded UHMWPE under different tribological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jing; Yang, Dan; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), a potential drug to treat osteolysis, under different normal loads and lubrication conditions. A mixture of UHMWPE powder and ALN (1.0 wt.%) solution was dried and hot pressed. The static and dynamic friction coefficients of UHMWPE-ALN were slightly higher than those of UHMWPE except under normal load as 10 N and in 25 v/v % calf serum. The specific wear rates of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE were the lowest in 25 v/v % calf serum compared to those in deionized water or physiological saline. In particular, the specific wear rate of UHMWPE-ALN was lower than that of UHMWPE at 50 N in 25 v/v % calf serum. The main wear mechanisms of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN in deionized water and UHMWPE in physiological saline were abrasive. The main wear mechanism of UHMWPE-ALN in physiological saline was micro-fatigue. In 25 v/v % calf serum, the main wear mechanism of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN was abrasive wear accompanied with plastic deformation. The results of Micro-XRD indicated that the molecular deformation of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE under the lower stress were in the amorphous region but in the crystalline region at the higher stress. These results showed that the wear of UHMWPE-ALN would be reduced under calf serum lubricated, which would be potentially applied to treat osteolysis.

  2. Comparison of Effectiveness of Strontium Ranelate and Alendronate Sodium in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis - Original Investigation

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    Kurtuluş Kaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Comparison of the effectiveness of strontium ranelate (SR and alendronate sodium (AS on bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Material and Methods: A total of 41 patients were included in the study. 2 gr/day SR was applied a group (SR, n=21, while the other group received 70 mg/week AS randomly (AS, n=20. Both groups received daily doses of 1200 mg calcium+800 IU vitamin D3. BMD was measured before treatment (BT and at the 6th and 12th months after treatment (AT using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine (L2-L4, femoral neck and femoral total BMD values were recorded. 15 of the patients who received SR treatment (n=21 came for AT 6th month, and 17 of them came for AT 12th month follow-up, while 10 of patients receiving AS treatment (n=20 came for AT 6th month, and 7 came for AT 12th month follow-up. On the other hand, twenty patients (SR n=13, AS n=7 came for both 6th and 12th month follow-up. Results: Age, body mass index, and BT BMD values in all regions were similar (p>0.05. When BMD values at AT6th and AT12th months were compared with BT values, it was found that SR produced significant increases in BMD values of all regions examined (p0.05. Conclusion: It has been found that both SR and AS produced significant increases in femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values at AT12th months, while SR is found to be more effective than AS on femoral total BMD values. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2009;15:70-4

  3. Effects of short-term alendronate treatment on the three-dimensional microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of dog trabecular bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, J; Ding, Ming; Søballe, K;

    2002-01-01

    The bisphosphonate, alendronate, is well known for its potent inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. It has been used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis and has also recently been used to reduce osteolysis around prostheses in a canine revision model of implant loosening (fe...

  4. The Reconstruction of Kant's Moral Metaphysics---On the Demarcation between Knowledge and Metaphysics%康德道德形而上学的重建--兼论知识与形而上学的划界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新文; 黄逸超

    2015-01-01

    Kant criticized the dogmatism of metaphysics since Leibniz and Wolff ,and completed the de‐marcation between knowledge and metaphysics .In the moral philosophy ,to ensure the purity of morali‐ty ,Kant's tried to seek and establish a metaphysical basis .This paper analyses the reconstruction of Kant's metaphysics thinking ,demonstrates the basic meanings ,as good will and absolute command , etc .in the moral philosophy ,and briefly expounds the historical influence and value of Kant's moral metaphysics .%康德批判了莱布尼茨、沃尔夫以来的形而上学独断论,完成了知识与形而上学的划界。在其道德哲学中,为保证道德的纯洁性,康德努力寻求并建立形而上的基础。在分析了康德形而上学重建的思路基础上,论证了道德哲学中善良意志、绝对命令等基本概念的含义,简要阐述了康德道德形而上学的历史影响及价值。

  5. Micro-computed tomography assisted distal femur metaphyseal blunt punch compression for determining trabecular bone strength in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Uma; Pritchard, Zachary J; Voor, Michael J

    2016-05-03

    Shorter generation time and the power of genetic manipulation make mice an ideal model system to study bone biology as well as bone diseases. However their small size presents a challenge to perform strength measurements, particularly of the weight-bearing cancellous bone in the murine long bones. We recently developed an improved method to measure the axial compressive strength of the cancellous bone in the distal femur metaphysis in mice. Transverse micro-computed tomography image slices that are 7µm thick were used to locate the position where the epiphysis-metaphysis transition occurs. This enabled the removal of the distal femur epiphysis at the exact transition point exposing the full extent of metaphyseal trabecular bone, allowing more accurate and consistent measurement of its strength. When applied to a murine model system consisting of five month old male wild-type (WT) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) knockout (KO) Camkk2(-/-) mice that possess recorded differences in trabecular bone volume, data collected using this method showed good correlation between bone volume fraction and strength of trabecular bone. In combination with micro-computed tomography and histology, this method will provide a comprehensive and consistent assessment of the microarchitecture and tissue strength of the cancellous bone in murine mouse models.

  6. Risk of hip, subtrochanteric, and femoral shaft fractures among mid and long term users of alendronate: nationwide cohort and nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia; Eastell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the skeletal safety and efficacy of long term (≥10 years) alendronate use in patients with osteoporosis. Design Open register based cohort study containing two nested case control studies. Setting Nationwide study of population of Denmark. Participants 61 990 men and women aged 50-94 at the start of treatment, who had not previously taken alendronate, 1996-2007. Interventions Treatment with alendronate. Main outcome measures Incident fracture of the subtrochanteric femur or femoral shaft (ST/FS) or the hip. Non-fracture controls from the cohort were matched to fracture cases by sex, year of birth, and year of initiation of alendronate treatment. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios with and without adjustment for comorbidity and comedications. Sensitivity analyses investigated subsequent treatment with other drugs for osteoporosis. Results 1428 participants sustained a ST/FS (incidence rate 3.4/1000 person years, 95% confidence interval 3.2 to 3.6), and 6784 sustained a hip fracture (16.2/1000 person years, 15.8 to 16.6). The risk of ST/FS was lower with high adherence to treatment with alendronate (medication possession ratio (MPR, a proxy for compliance) >80%) compared with poor adherence (MPR 80% was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture (0.73, 0.68 to 0.78; Pfracture outcomes, even for over 10 years of continuous use. PMID:27353596

  7. A comparative study of zoledronic acid and once weekly Alendronate in the management of acute Charcot arthropathy of foot in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bharath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the response to two forms of treatment-immobilization with zoledronic acid injection and immobilization with oral weekly Alendronate, in patients with diabetes mellitus and acute Charcot arthropathy (CA of foot in terms of clinical and radiological parameters. Material and Methods: Patients attending the endocrinology and podiatry clinic with history of diabetes mellitus and Acute CA were taken for study. The patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Group Z-zoledronic acid injection along with total contact cast (TCC. Group A-Tab. Alendronate 70 mg. once a week till the complete clinical resolution of acute CA along with TCC. Forty-five patients were randomized and 40 of them completed the study. The primary end point was complete clinical resolution of acute CA-defined as temperature difference between normal and affected foot <1oF. Results: Among the 40 patients, 30 (75% had complete clinical resolution. The mean number of days taken for complete clinical resolution since the initiation of treatment (either Zoledronic acid or Alendronate was approximately 122 days. There was no significant difference in a number of days required for complete clinical resolution, between the two forms of therapy. There was more than 50% reduction in the visual score between the baseline and the final scan. The target to non-target ratio in the skeletal phase also showed an average of 40% reduction from the baseline to the final skeletal scintigraphy. Conclusion: Both Intravenous Zoledronic acid and oral alendronate had comparable efficacy with respect to the time taken for attaining complete clinical resolution of acute CA of foot. However, Alendronate therapy was cost effective among the two. 99m Tc MDP bone scan can be used as an adjuvant to the clinical parameters in assessing the response to therapy.

  8. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.D. Nicolau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H2S donor, against alendronate (ALD-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO. Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip. After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm2; increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively; increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg; and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g. ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm2; reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively; lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg; and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g. Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels.

  9. Does Metaphyseal Cement Augmentation in Fracture Management Influence the Adjacent Subchondral Bone and Joint Cartilage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzen, Michael; Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Arens, Daniel; Zeiter, Stephan; Stadelmann, Vincent; Nehrbass, Dirk; Richards, R. Geoff; Blauth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Augmentation of implants with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in osteoporotic fractures is a promising approach to increase implant purchase. Side effects of PMMA for the metaphyseal bone, particularly for the adjacent subchondral bone plate and joint cartilage, have not yet been studied. The following experimental study investigates whether subchondral PMMA injection compromises the homeostasis of the subchondral bone and/or the joint cartilage. Ten mature sheep were used to simulate subchondral PMMA injection. Follow-ups of 2 (4 animals) and 4 (6 animals) months were chosen to investigate possible cartilage damage and subchondral plate alterations in the knee. Evaluation was completed by means of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) imaging, histopathological osteoarthritis scoring, and determination of glycosaminoglycan content in the joint cartilage. Results were compared with the untreated contralateral knee and statistically analyzed using nonparametric tests. Evaluation of the histological osteoarthritis score revealed no obvious cartilage damage for the treated knee; median histological score after 2 months 0 (range 4), after 4 months 1 (range 5). There was no significant difference when compared with the untreated control site after 2 and 4 months (P = 0.23 and 0.76, respectively). HRpQCT imaging showed no damage to the metaphyseal trabeculae. Glycosaminoglycan measurements of the treated joint cartilage after 4 months revealed no significant difference compared with the untreated cartilage (P = 0.24). The findings of this study support initial clinical observation that PMMA implant augmentation of metaphyseal fractures appears to be a safe procedure for fixation without harming the subchondral bone plate and adjacent joint cartilage. PMID:25621690

  10. The bio-philosophical "insufficiency" of Darwinism for Henri Bergson's metaphysical evolutionism

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 Philosophy Documentation Center. All Rights Reserved. The main goal of Henri Bergson’s philosophy of nature is to offer a dynamic understanding of living phenomena. It is in this context that we maintain that the author left us a “bio-philosophy”, that is, an interpretation which, by adopting a positive model of biology as a cognitive paradigm, describes the essential character of living activity as time or duration (durée). Bergson’s positive metaphysics, which brings sci...

  11. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Fahime Jamei; Dr Musa Akrami

    2009-01-01

    According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, ...

  12. Arnold Chiari Malformation With Sponastrime (Spondylar and Nasal Changes, With Striations of the Metaphyses) Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Je Hoon; Lee, A Leum; Cho, Sung Yoon; Jin, Dong Kyu; Im, Soo-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract SPOndylar and NAsal changes, with STRIations of the Metaphyses (SPONASTRIME) dysplasia (SD) is a dwarfing autosomal recessive syndrome, characterized by a variety of clinical and radiographic features, which form the basis for diagnosis. We describe the presentation of an Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of SD. The malformation was successfully treated by decompression of the foramen magnum and elevation of the cerebellum, with complete resolution of pain. We report a rare case of Arnold Chiari malformation in a patient presenting with clinical and radiographic features strongly suggestive of SD and be successfully treated. PMID:27149441

  13. To weave the forms of Mystery: Travel, mystical and metaphysical in Sufi poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Del Percio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mystery is not just an enigma but a force, an impulse that gives emphasis to the real. And the ways in which this mystery unfolds are probably endless. In Sufism, travel literature is established as the quintessential poetic mysticism, where the description of incessant movement throughout the world invariably takes the value of metaphysical experience, freedom of spirit, understanding of the presence of the divine in every aspect and at every step of the journey. A mystic is a “nomadic metaphysics”, able to describe the man, the cosmos and God himself as travelers. Among the Sufi mystic poets, stands the figure of Ibn ‘Arabi, Andalusian born in Murcia in 1165 and died in Damascus in 1240. His particular metaphysics, Neoplatonist undeniable base, conceived not as a system but as a poetic movement, is a unique interface between East and West philosophies. This is observable in his works The Seals of Wisdom (Fusus al-Hikam and, especially, The splendor of the fruits of the trip (Kitab al-Isfar ‘an al-asfar nata’iy, which we will study in this work.

  14. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  15. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  16. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of "Decisive Necessity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nabavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle in the Organon (1949: 9,30 a ,15-19 explicitly states that in a categorical syllogism when the minor premise is absolute (without modality operator and the major is necessary, the conclusion will be necessary too. This Aristotle's view has been the source of many conflicts and disputes in the history of logic. The famous logicians and historians of logic in the twentieth century as "Nicholas Rescher" and "Becker" believe that Aristotle's view is justifiable and defensible (at least compared to the first figure only if, the modality of major premise is considered as the property of predicate (modality de re. Today, we know very well that the modality of predicate is closely linked to Metaphysical and philosophical Modality. “Shihab al-Din al- Suhrawardi” in the theory of "Decisive (Battateh Necessity” by accepting this base, explicitly states that, in the beginning, the modality must be mentioned as a part of the predicate and then the modality of relation or copula is summarized and reduced to necessity. The modern formalization of the most important part of this theory is as follows: ("x (àAx É à Bx º ("x □ (àAx É à BxThis paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  17. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS......: We studied the effect of 2.5 mg or 5 mg of alendronate per day or placebo on bone mineral density in 1174 postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. An additional 435 women who were prepared to receive a combination of estrogen and progestin were randomly assigned to one of the above treatments...... or open-label estrogen-progestin. The main outcome measure was the change in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, hip, distal forearm, and total body measured annually for two years by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The women who received placebo lost bone mineral density at all measured...

  18. Fraturas transtrocanterianas: uso de alendronato no pós-operatório Transtrochanterian fractures: postoperative use of alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Nunes Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar resultados do uso de alendronato de sódio em pós operatório de fratura transtrocanteriana. MÉTODO: Durante seis meses, 75 pacientes foram atendidos no Serviço de Ortopedia devido à fratura transtrocanteriana de fêmur, sendo submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico com fixação através de placa DHS 135°. Foram selecionados 19 pacientes, hígidos, cooperativos, previamente deambuladores, classificados segundo Tronzo em tipo III e cujos quadris contra laterais não haviam sido submetidos a nenhuma cirurgia prévia, permitindo a realização de Densitometria Óssea Mineral no pós-operatório imediato e após seis meses. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupos I e II, com e sem uso de alendronato de sódio, a partir do pós-operatório imediato, respectivamente. O seguimento mínimo foi de seis meses. Após quatro semanas, os pacientes foram avaliados de acordo com a Escala Visual Analógica de Dor (EVA, para observação do índice de reabsorção óssea, a massa óssea e a consolidação radiológica da fratura. RESULTADOS: Houve uma tendência estatística de consolidação radiológica mais precoce com menor reabsorção óssea nos pacientes com uso de alendronato de sódio na pós-fratura com osteoporose estabelecida. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que, radiologicamente, os pacientes que utilizaram alendronato de sódio tiveram uma consolidação óssea mais rápida, com menor índice de reabsorção.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the use of alendronate sodium in postoperative transtrochanteric femoral fractures. METHOD: Over a six-month period, 75 patients were treated at the Orthopedic Service for transtrochanteric femoral fractures, undergoing surgery with 135 degree DHS plate fixation. We selected 19 patients who were healthy, cooperative, previously unable to walk, classified as type III according to Tronzo, whose contralateral hips had not undergone any previous surgery, enabling the evaluation of bone mineral density

  19. A witnessed case of a classic metaphyseal fracture caused during IV line placement in a child: Insight into mechanism of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Tanya; Opfer, Erin; Berglund, Lisa; Lowe, Lisa H; Anderst, James

    2015-10-01

    Recent publications argue that classic metaphyseal fractures are caused by rickets as opposed to trauma. Previous case reports of accidental traumatic classic metaphyseal fractures have been discounted due to lack of identification of the fracture at the time of the traumatic event, and lack of an evaluation for boney metabolic disorders. We report a case of a 20 day old male with a diagnosis of congenital vertical talus who sustained a classic metaphyseal fracture of the distal tibia during manipulation in preparation for intravenous line placement. The mechanics of the event causing the classic metaphyseal fracture were witnessed and accompanied by an audible "pop". Prior x-rays of the tibia demonstrate normal osseous morphology, and an evaluation for boney metabolic disorders was normal. This case identifies a traumatic classic metaphyseal fracture and provides insight into the types of forces necessary to cause such a fracture.

  20. Copernican Metaphysics

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    Paul Ennis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781 Kant introduced the transcendental method on a precarious footing and he never shied away from the fact that the transcendental method is structured, and I mean it in the most direct sense possible, aporetically. The aporetic element, the unstable core within Kantian thought, is the distinction between phenomenal and noumenal content in the chapter entitled "On the ground of the distinction [Unterscheidung] of all objects [Gegenstände] in general into phenomena and noumena" (Kant A236/B295-A260/B315. This distinction is noteworthy for introducing into the philosophical tradition the notion of the thing-in-itself [Ding-an-sich]. Depending on your interests this is either the most profound or absurd of ideas in our tradition. I prefer to think of it as the most productive notion in our tradition. We can see its generative function at work almost immediately when it spurred the German idealists into thinking obscenely ingenious thoughts, but the phenomenal-noumenal distinction, hereafter the aporetic distinction, remains an ever-persistent aporia for all continental thinking after Kant. In this article I want to focus on how the aporetic distinction functions in its generative capacity with an emphasis on its ontological rather than epistemological register. Considered as such I claim that it is possible to identify in the aporetic distinction a generative capacity (or logic or function that is intrinsic to both it and all thought responding to it including, or perhaps especially, the speculative responses.

  1. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  2. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  3. Cumulative Alendronate Dose and the Long-Term Absolute Risk of Subtrochanteric and Diaphyseal Femur Fractures: A Register-Based National Cohort Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard

    2010-01-01

    are currently the subject of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Objective: Our objective was to examine the risk of subtrochanteric/diaphyseal femur fractures in long term users of alendronate. Design: We conducted an age- and gender-matched cohort study using national healthcare data. Patients...... fractures occurred at a rate of 13 per 10,000 patient-years in untreated women and 31 per 10,000 patient-years in women receiving alendronate [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-2.17]. Rates for men were six and 31 per 10,000 patient-years, respectively (HR = 3.98; 95% CI...

  4. Lower Limb Metaphyseal Bone Is Lost in Men with Coeliac Disease and Does Not Relate to Parathyroid Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. J. Davie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate regional lower limb bone density and associations with weight, PTH, and bone breakdown in coeliac men. Methods. From whole body DXA scans bone mineral density (BMD was measured in 28 coeliac men, in the lower limb (subdivided into 6 regions, 3 being metaphyseal (mainly trabecular and 2 diaphyseal (mainly cortical. BMD at femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine L2–4, body weight, height, serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and urinary calcium and NTx/Cr, a measure of bone breakdown, were also measured. Age matched healthy men provided values for BMD calculation of z and T scores and for biochemical measurements. Results. Low BMD z scores were found at metaphyseal regions in the leg (p<0.001 and in the FN (p<0.05. The distal metaphyseal region BMD in the leg was lower than spine or FN (p<0.05. PTH, urinary calcium/creatinine, and urinary NTx/Cr were similar to controls. Both metaphyseal and diaphyseal BMD z scores were associated with body weight (p<0.02, but not with either PTH or urinary NTx/Cr. Conclusions. Low BMD lower limb regions comprising mostly trabecular bone occur early in CD and in the absence of elevated PTH or increased bone resorption. Low BMD is associated with low body weight.

  5. Lower Limb Metaphyseal Bone Is Lost in Men with Coeliac Disease and Does Not Relate to Parathyroid Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sally F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To investigate regional lower limb bone density and associations with weight, PTH, and bone breakdown in coeliac men. Methods. From whole body DXA scans bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 28 coeliac men, in the lower limb (subdivided into 6 regions, 3 being metaphyseal (mainly trabecular) and 2 diaphyseal (mainly cortical)). BMD at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine L2–4, body weight, height, serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and urinary calcium and NTx/Cr, a measure of bone breakdown, were also measured. Age matched healthy men provided values for BMD calculation of z and T scores and for biochemical measurements. Results. Low BMD z scores were found at metaphyseal regions in the leg (p < 0.001) and in the FN (p < 0.05). The distal metaphyseal region BMD in the leg was lower than spine or FN (p < 0.05). PTH, urinary calcium/creatinine, and urinary NTx/Cr were similar to controls. Both metaphyseal and diaphyseal BMD z scores were associated with body weight (p < 0.02), but not with either PTH or urinary NTx/Cr. Conclusions. Low BMD lower limb regions comprising mostly trabecular bone occur early in CD and in the absence of elevated PTH or increased bone resorption. Low BMD is associated with low body weight. PMID:27672477

  6. Clinical Efficacy and Analysis of Alendronate for 40 Cases of Diabetic Patients with Osteoporosis%阿仑膦酸钠治疗糖尿病合并骨质疏松40例临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈云玲; 唐海平

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the clinical efficacy of alendronate for diabetes mellitus combined with osteoporosis. Methods 40 cases of diabetes mellitus combined with osteoporosis admitted to our hospital were given symptomatic treatment, alendronate for osteoporosis symptoms for 6 months, then the efficacy for osteoporosis was observed. Results After the symptomatic treatment, pain in 40 cases improved significantly( P<0.01 ),bone mineral density test results showed that the lumbar spine, femoral neck,inter-trochanteric ,fossil triangle BMD values increased( P<0.05 ), no serious adverse reactions. Conclusion In diabetic patients with osteoporosis, active measures of symptomatic treatment can significantly improve the symptoms of osteoporosis and prevent bone disease caused by osteoporosis effectively.%目的分析阿仑膦酸钠治疗糖尿病合并骨质疏松患者的临床疗效.方法 对本院收治的40例糖尿病合并骨质疏松患者进行对症治疗,以阿仑膦酸钠治疗骨质疏松症状,6个月后,观察药物治疗患者骨质疏松的临床疗效.结果 经对症治疗后,40例患者的疼痛症状明显改善(P<0.01),骨密度检测结果显示腰椎、股骨颈、股骨粗隆、化石三角区的骨密度值增加(P<0.05),且无严重不良反应.结论 对于合并骨质疏松的糖尿病患者,积极采取对症治疗措施,能够明显改善骨质疏松症状,有效预防因骨质疏松导致的其他骨科疾病.

  7. Localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis captured on an X-ray before alendronate therapy in two cases of atypical femoral fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iizuka, Yoichi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Shibukawa General Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shibukawa, Gunma (Japan); Takechi, Rumi [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Cardiovascular Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Iizuka, Haku; Takagishi, Kenji [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Omodaka, Takuya [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Gunma Central Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We herein report two cases of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-ray examinations at the first visit of these two female patients showed a complete fracture of the femoral diaphysis diagnosed as an atypical femoral fracture (AFF). X-rays of these two cases also showed localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis. Both patients had been taking alendronate for more than 3 years because of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We assumed that both of the fractures were associated with the long-term use of alendronate. However, we retrospectively identified localized cortical thickening of the femoral diaphysis on an X-ray taken before the alendronate therapy in both of these cases. Therefore, we suspected a pathogenesis of AFFs in which preexisting stress or an insufficient fracture unrelated to bisphosphonate (BP) therapy and subsequent suppression of bone turnover due to BP administration led to the occurrence of an AFF. The patient underwent surgery using intramedullary nails in both of these cases, followed by the administration of teriparatide, and they were able to walk without any support at the final follow-up examination. (orig.)

  8. Potent effect of zinc acexamate on bone components in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues of elderly female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Gao, Y H

    1998-03-01

    1. The effect of zinc compounds on bone components in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues from elderly female rats (50 weeks old) was investigated in vitro. Bone tissues were cultured for 24 hr in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing either vehicle or zinc compounds (10[-7] to 10[-5] M). 2. Zinc content, alkaline phosphatase activity, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and calcium contents in the metaphyseal tissues were significantly increased by the presence of zinc sulfate (10[-6] and 10[-5] M), beta-alanyl-L-histidinato zinc (AHZ; 10[-6] and 10[-5] M) and zinc acexamate (10[-7] to 10[-5] M). At 10[-5] M, the effect of zinc acexamate on the increase of bone components was more potent than that of zinc sulfate or AHZ. 3. The effect of zinc acexamate (10[-5] M) on the increase of alkaline phosphatase activity in the metaphyseal tissues was remarkable as compared with that of insulin (10[-8] M), estrogen (10[-9] M), insulin-like growth factor-I (10[-8] M), transforming growth factor-beta (10[-10] M), sodium fluoride (10[-3] M), dexamethasone (10[-7] M) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone-4; 10[-5] M) with an effective concentration. 4. The stimulatory effect of zinc acexamate (10[-5] M) on alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content in the metaphyseal tissues was completely blocked by the presence of dipicolinate (10[-3] M), a chelator of zinc ion, and of cycloheximide (10[-6] M), an inhibitor of protein synthesis. 5. The present study demonstrates that zinc acexamate has a potent anabolic effect on bone components in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues from female elderly rats in vitro. The effect of zinc acexamate may be based in part on protein synthesis related to zinc ion in bone cells.

  9. The Metaphysical Dimension of Pedagogy%教育学的玄学之维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭维智

    2012-01-01

    Besides the scientific dimension, pedagogy also has a metaphysical dimension. Metaphysics deals with the mind and spirit of human beings through examining the internal world by means of introspection and interpretation, which focuses on the issues of the spirit and soul of people that science is unable to touch upon. The inner space of education is a domain that science can not reach. The ultimate goal of education aims to realize the conversion and promotion of heart and nature. In other words, education should accomplish internal comprehension, moral wisdom, contemplative insights, interpretation of knowledge as well as introspective perception and aesthetic performance, which can not be realized only by relying on scientific ways. Consequently, metaphysics is an alternative way to think about education. There are many differences between educational knowledge and natural scientific knowledge in the ways of playing their roles, which requires different research methods. Currently, the metaphysical trend has appeared from the emphasis on knowledge and skill to spiritual development, internal cognition and comprehension around the world.%在教育学的科学维度之外,还有一种玄学维度。玄学是以内省、诠释的方式对内在世界进行领会,它回答的是科学无法涉及的关于人的精神、心灵的问题。教育的内在空间是科学所无法、无力达至的领地,教育最终要实现的是心、性的转化和提升,要达成内在领悟、道德智慧、默观洞见、诠释知识、内省感知、美感表现,这些方面不能完全靠科学化的路径,而是要从“玄”门进入。,教育中知识发挥作用的方式与自然科学中知识的“运动方式”是完全不同的,我们不能用对待自然知识的方式(科学)对待教育中的知识。当前,在世界范围内,教育学研究已经出现一种由重视知识技能的掌握向重视心灵发展、内在认知、内在领悟的玄学转向。

  10. Transcendence in the current theology, philosophy and metaphysics in Russian cosmism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human interests to Religion and Metaphysics are well explained by the desire of the people to answer to fundamental and eternal questions as “what is the sense of life” and “what is the purpose of life”. These questions have accompanied them from the beginning of conscious life. Many intellectuals, scientists and writers of former USSR and democratic Russia have brought essential contributions, opened new directions and finally have enriched with new concepts, ideas, ideologies and systems the worldwide Philosophy and Religion. A possible answer is the Creation allowing to Divinity to transcend in common life. Soul as Spiritual reflection of Divinity tends to perfection, reiterating in every generation the transcendence to God. At first sight there are no meeting points between Transcendence and Cosmism because the last notion has its beginning in the progress of Science. The evolution of modern Sciences, philosophical concepts and Religion gradually demonstrates correlated aspects which must be discovered in the future.

  11. Borrowed philosophy: bedside physicalism and the need for a sui generis metaphysic of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Shawn D

    2014-12-01

    The character of medicine has changed over the last 100 years such that medicine is more interested in diseases than the people who suffer from them. Despite notable efforts to address this, the medical humanities do not challenge doctors' fundamental view of the world. Students adopt a metaphysic of physicalism during basic science training that gets carried into medical training. While necessary for medical science, physicalism is insufficient for clinical care. Physicalism offers no foundation for the sine qua non of medicine, the doctor-patient relationship. The character of medicine will not see a renewed interest in humanity until educators address the insufficiency of physicalism for clinical care, and clinicians partner with experts in the humanities to build a sui generis philosophy of medicine.

  12. Metaphysics within the Limits of Phenomenology: Balthasar and Husserl on the Nature of the Philosophical Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Schindler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the accounts Edmund Husserl and Hans Urs von Balthasar offer of the ultimate philosophical act: the transcendental reduction and contemplation of the fourfold difference, respectively. It argues that Husserl's method precludes from the outset the raising of the question of being, and that as a consequence, all four of the distinctions that Balthasar describes must ultimately collapse in his phenomenology. An adequate response to Husserl must attend, at least implicitly, to the whole of the fourfold difference in all of its dimensions. The article concludes with a brief reflection on the significance of metaphysics for Christianity and the significance of Christianity for metaphysics.Este artículo compara los relatos que ofrecen Edmund Husserl y Hans Urs von Balthasar sobre el acto definitivo filosófico: la reducción trascendental y la contemplación de la diferencia de cuatro partes, respectivamente. Postula que el método de Husserl impide desde el principio la consideración de la cuestión del ser, y, en consecuencia, todas las cuatro distinciones que Balthasar describe deben derrumbarse en su fenomenología, al final. Una respuesta adecuada a Husserl debe atender, por lo menos implícitamente, al conjunto de la diferencia de cuatro partes en todas sus dimensiones. Este artículo concluye con una breve reflexión sobre el significado de la metafísica para el cristianismo y el significado del cristianismo para la metafísica.

  13. Descartes and the “metaphysical dualism”: Excesses in interpreting a classic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Afloroaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the most serious accusations brought against Descartes and modern philosophy, namely “the dualism of substance”. The accusers claim that the human body and soul were viewed as completely separate; consequently, their relationship as such and the united being of man become incomprehensible. As has been shown above, the idea of the separation of the soul from the body did not originate with Descartes; it was formulated much earlier, and repeated by a disciple of Descartes’, Henry Leroy, known as Regius. When Descartes became aware of this bizarre interpretation he was dismayed and sought to clarify the matter. He sought to distinguish between two terms, “distinction” and “separation” and to illuminate the relationship between body and soul at three different levels, i.e. ordinary experience, analytical mind and metaphysical meditation.Eventually, he embraced the paradox of the two natures – the double substantial make-up of the human being, a paradox of patristic inspiration. However, the later history of ideas was not sympathetic to Descartes: nowadays, when one looks up the term “metaphysical dualism” in dictionaries or glossaries, even in the studies of prestigious researchers, one will find views similar to those of the unfaithful disciple Regius. The resilience of this locus obscurus is explained both by the power of a new mode of interpreting discourse (as technical or logical analysis and by the ever more privilegedposition of the reader (intentio lectoris. Both attitudes are related to modern ideologies and to changes which have occurred in the intersubjective lifeworld, especially in the communication of the scholarly and academic world.

  14. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology.

  15. Crusius et la certitude métaphysique en 1762 Crusius and metaphysical certainty in 1762

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    Tinca Prunea-Bretonnet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’article se propose d’analyser le rôle joué par la pensée de Christian August Crusius dans la genèse et l’articulation de la Preisschrift kantienne de 1762. Décidément anti-wolffien, Kant opte pour la méthode analytique comme seule capable d’assurer la scientificité de la philosophie. Dans un double mouvement de rapprochement et de prise de distance par rapport à certaines thèses crusiennes centrales, il entend démontrer que la certitude atteignable en métaphysique est suffisante pour la conviction, qu’elle est toute aussi « sûre » et « complète » que la certitude mathématique. Ne pouvant fonder cette certitude sur une simple conviction subjective, selon le principe de Crusius, Kant s’éloignera définitivement de ce dernier, non sans avoir intégré dans sa propre doctrine des éléments crusiens fondamentaux.This article aims to discuss the role played by Crusius’ thought in the genesis and the structure of Kant’s Preisschrift of 1762. Definitely opposed to Wolffian philosophy, Kant argues for the analythical method as the only method capable of ensuring a scientific status for philosophy. Simultaneously embracing and criticizing some central Crusian principles, he intends to demonstrate the possibility of a “sure” and “complete” metaphysical certainty, which would be as sufficient for conviction as the mathematical certainty. Kant refuses, however, to base metaphysical certainty on a simply subjective conviction, as Crusius suggests. That is why he ultimately rejects his predecessor’s philosophy, although not without making some fundamental Crusian elements part of his own doctrine.

  16. Comparative bone uptake study of alendronate sodium from vaginal suppositories prepared with polyethylene glycol and massa estarinum bases

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    Derya İlem-Özdemir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the bone uptake of alendronate sodium (ALD from vaginal suppositories prepared with massa estarinum AB (ME and polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG bases. For this purpose, ALD was radiolabeled with 99mTecnetium Pertechnetate (99mTc by direct method. Radiochemical purity and stability of 99mTc-ALD was performed with chromatographic studies. 99mTc-ALD containing suppositories were prepared with ME and PEG bases. Physical properties of suppositories were evaluated. The physicochemical diffusion study was carried out to compare the release of ALD from different suppository bases. The bone uptake of 99mTc-ALD was observed by gamma scintigraphy studies. 99mTc-ALD containing suppositories were administrated to rabbits via vaginal route. The scintigraphic images were obtained with a gamma camera at different time intervals up to 240 minutes. According to our studies, radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ALD was observed more than 95% up to 6 hours. At 240 minutes of physicochemical diffusion studies, released ALD has 0.620 ± 0.091 mm and 10.465 ± 0.651 mm diameter zone from ME and PEG base suppositories respectively. According to the gamma scintigraphy studies, although no bone uptake observed after ME suppositories application, rabbit’s bones were clearly visible after PEG suppositories applied. The results of physicochemical diffusion and gamma scintigraphy studies were found compatible in each other

  17. The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model

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    Kwang-Won Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of alendronate (Aln released from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds. We evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of Aln/BCP scaffolds using MG-63 cells and the in vivo bone regenerative capability of Aln/BCP scaffolds using a rat tibial defect model with radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT, and histological examination. In vitro studies included the surface morphology of BCP and Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds visualized using field-emission scanning electron microscope, release kinetics of Aln from BCP scaffolds, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The in vitro studies showed that sustained release of Aln from the BCP scaffolds consisted of porous microstructures, and revealed that MG-63 cells cultured on Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds showed significantly increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression compared to cells cultured on BCP scaffolds. The in vivo studies using radiograph and histology examination revealed abundant callus formation and bone maturation at the site in the Aln/BCP groups compared to the control group. However, solid bony bridge formation was not observed at plain radiographs until 8 weeks. Micro-CT analysis revealed that bone mineral density and bone formation volume were increased over time in an Aln concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that Aln/BCP scaffolds have the potential for controlling the release of Aln and enhance bone formation and mineralization.

  18. The Metaphysical Background of St. Thomas’s Five Ways. An approach from Lawrence Dewan, O.P.

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    Liliana Irizar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Dewan presents an approach of St. Thomas’s Five Ways to God which surpasses in metaphysical fineness and intellectual deepness the numerous excellent presentations about this topic. Dewan, in presenting the Metaphysical framework which serves as an argumentative foundation of the Five Ways, demonstrates, once again, to be an expert knower of Saint Thomas Aquinas’s work. Likewise, the different writings which Dewan has dedicated to this subject allow him to use nuclear notions of Thomism that master Dewan has rethought and, so to speak, refreshed with quite unusual scientific rigor. Such notions are, for example: the central role of the substantial form and the vision of esse as a nature.

  19. Metaphysical invariants: considerations about the self Invariantes metafísicos: considerações sobre o ser

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    Ricardo Sá Earp

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we develop certain metaphysical invariants moving around the main question of the Self. We derive common aspects on the boundary of Philosophy. Psychology and Mathematics.Neste estudo n6s desenvolvemos alguns invariantes metafísicos que giram em tomo da questão central do Ser, explorando certos aspectos comuns na fronteira da Filosofia, da Psicologia e da Matemática.

  20. 阿仑膦酸钠与雷洛昔芬对牙槽骨吸收的影响*%Alendronate and raloxifene affect alveolar bone resorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦波; 刘铁玉; 阎美凤; 曲晓娟

    2013-01-01

      背景:研究证明阿仑膦酸钠与雷洛昔芬对骨质疏松有抑制作用。目的:建立实验性大鼠骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收模型,评价阿仑膦酸钠与雷洛昔芬对骨吸收的防治作用。方法:56只雌性 SD 大鼠建立骨质疏松及牙槽骨吸收的动物模型,实验动物分组:①去势+结扎组和单纯结扎组又分别分为3个亚组:阿仑膦酸钠组、雷洛昔芬组和非用药组。②单纯去势非用药组。③假手术组做空白对照。建模手术后第5日开始灌胃给药,1次/d,治疗3个月。用血生化指标、骨密度测量及组织形态学方法进行药效评价。结果与结论:阿仑膦酸钠治疗组较雷洛昔芬组有更强的降低去势组碱性磷酸酶和血钙的作用;提高去势组骨密度。结果证实阿仑膦酸钠与雷洛昔芬均能减少骨质丢失,从而可以防止骨质疏松及病理性牙槽骨骨吸收,且阿仑膦酸钠作用较好。%BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that alendronate and raloxifene can suppress osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effect of alendronate and raloxifene in rat models of osteoporosis and alveolar bone resorption. METHODS: Total y 56 female Sprague-Dawley rats were enrol ed to establish animal models of osteoporosis and alveolar bone resorption. Ovariectomized+ligation group and ligation group were respectively divided into three subgroups: alendronate, raloxifene and non-drug groups. Ovariectomized group and sham operation group (blank control) were set. Intragastric administration was performed at 5 days after modeling, once a day, total y for 3 months. Blood biochemical markers, bone mineral density measurement and histomorphological method were done for evaluation of drug effectiveness. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: As compared with the raloxifene groups, alendronate groups could significantly reduce alkaline phosphatase and serum calcium levels and promote bone mineral density in the

  1. The Existential Turn: Reappraising Being and Time’s Overcoming of Metaphysics

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    Rufus Duits

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to propose an answer to these relatedquestions. It amounts to an attempt to work through conceptually step by step Heidegger’s so called “overcoming of metaphysics”. It is true of course that the locution, “the overcoming of metaphysics”, does not appear in Being and Time. The discourse of the overcoming of metaphysics is held by Heidegger’s commentators to belong to a period post-dating the early work, after the so called Kehre. I shall stubbornly evade this knotty issue of Heidegger interpretation here. For my purposes it suffices merely if our understanding ofBeing and Time, its content, intent and consequence, can be deepened or expanded if it is read in the light of the task of overcoming metaphysics—or at least in the light of that task as it is to be conceived in the context I shall present here. What is to be understood by the phrase “the overcoming of metaphysics”?

  2. Gadolinium-enhanced MR Imaging of Epiphyseal and Metaphyseal Marrow in Normal Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoming; WANG Renfa; QI Jianpin; TANG Lihua

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the appearance of normal epiphyseal and metaphyseal marrow and normal changes of marrow due to fatty conversion on Gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MR Imaging. Unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging were performed in proximal and distal femoral ends of 8 healthy piglets at the ages of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks, respectively. The changes with age in signal intensity and enhancement ratio of the epiphyseal and tnetaphyseal marrow with age were examined. The correlation of MRI characteristics with histological findings was studied. Our study showed that marrow of the metaphysis and of periphery of the 2nd ossification center were well vascularized hematopoietic marrow and had great enhancements. The enhancement ratio of metaphysis was greater than that of epiphyseal marrow and both enhancement ratios degraded gradually with age. The central regions of the epiphyseal ossification center and of the diaphysis were of fatty marrow and had little enhancement. It is concluded that on Gd-enhanced MR imaging the hematopoietic marrow of metaphysis and of periphery of the 2nd ossification center had greater enhancement than that of fatty marrow of central region of the 2nd ossification center. All of their enhancements decreased gradually with age.

  3. Heidegger, environmental ethics, and the metaphysics of nature: inhabiting the earth in a technological age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of philosophical problems concerning the human disruption and destruction of the natural environment have tended to presuppose (a) that the problems themselves are adequately defined by the natural sciences, and (b) that the proper philosophical approach is by means of an ethics that restricts itself to determining the character and limits of moral obligation. This dissertation (a) argues that modern natural science, which is expected to define the problem of an environmental crisis, itself employs a concept of nature, derived from the metaphysical tradition, that is generative of the very problems to be resolved; (b) develops, on the basis of Heidegger's rethinking of the traditional question of being, a more adequate understanding of nature; and (c) shows that the resolution of these problems can best be accomplished by means of a more broadly conceived ethics that closes the breach between theory and praxis by articulating an appropriate manner of comportment toward entities as a whole (and not soley human, nor even sentient, entities) which displays an integration of thought and action, and which Heidegger calls inhabitation or dwelling.

  4. The uncertain foundation of neo-Darwinism: metaphysical and epistemological pluralism in the evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G

    2009-06-01

    The Evolutionary Synthesis is often seen as a unification process in evolutionary biology, one which provided this research area with a solid common theoretical foundation. As such, neo-Darwinism is believed to constitute from this time onward a single, coherent, and unified movement offering research guidelines for investigations. While this may be true if evolutionary biology is solely understood as centred around evolutionary mechanisms, an entirely different picture emerges once other aspects of the founding neo-Darwinists' views are taken into consideration, aspects potentially relevant to the elaboration of an evolutionary worldview: the tree of life, the ontological distinctions of the main cosmic entities (inert matter, biological organisms, mind), the inherent properties of self-organizing matter, evolutionary ethics, and so on. Profound tensions and inconsistencies are immediately revealed in the neo-Darwinian movement once this broader perspective is adopted. This pluralism is such that it is possible to identify at least three distinct and quasi-incommensurable epistemological/metaphysical frameworks as providing a proper foundation for neo-Darwinism. The analysis of the views of Theodosius Dobzhansky, Bernhard Rensch, and Ernst Mayr will illustrate this untenable pluralism, one which requires us to conceive of the neo-Darwinian research agenda as being conducted in more than one research programme or research tradition at the same time.

  5. Monitoring of alendronate treatment and prediction of effect on bone mass by biochemical markers in the early postmenopausal intervention cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Hosking, D; Thompson, D;

    1999-01-01

    To establish whether biochemical markers could be used to monitor alendronate (ALN) treatment and predict long-term response in bone mass, we used results from an ongoing, randomized trial of ALN treatment for prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 1202). In women treated with ALN (5 mg......-point, validly identified women who responded, on ALN treatment, with a stabilization or an increase in bone mass. However, lack of decrease below the cut-point in NTX or OC could not be used to identify women with a bone loss during ALN treatment....

  6. Adherence to alendronic or risedronic acid treatment, combined or not to calcium and vitamin D, and related determinants in Italian patients with osteoporosis

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    Calabria S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available S Calabria,1 E Cinconze,2 M Rossini,3 E Rossi,2 AP Maggioni,1,4 A Pedrini,1 M De Rosa2 1CORE, Collaborative Outcome Research, Bologna, Italy; 2Health Care Systems Department, CINECA, Interuniversity Consortium, Bologna, Italy; 3Rheumatology Unit, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 4ANMCO Research Center, Firenze, ItalyPurpose: Osteoporosis is a chronic disease and an important health and social burden due to its worldwide prevalence. Literature and clinical experience report incomplete adherence to the therapy. This retrospective observational study aimed at assessing the adherence to first-line antiosteoporosis drugs (AODs; reimbursed by the National Health System, according to the Italian Medicine Agency recommendation number 79, alendronate or risedronate, with or without calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, in a real, Italian clinical setting.Patients and methods: Analyses were carried out on data present in the ARNO Observatory, a population-based patient-centric Italian database. From a population of 5,808,832 inhabitants with available data, a cohort of 3.3 million of patients aged ≥40 years was selected. New users of first-line AODs as monotherapy (accrual period, 2007–2009 were followed up over 3 years to assess adherence at 6, 12, and 36 months to AODs and to supplements and related determinants.Results: Approximately 40,000 new users were identified: mostly women, aged on average (standard deviation 71±10 years. Alendronate was the most prescribed (38.2% of patients, followed by risedronate (34.9% and alendronate with colecalciferol as a fixed-dose combination (25.8%. Adherence at the 6-month follow-up was 54%, and this constantly and significantly decreased after 1 year to 46%, and after 3 years to 33% (P<0.01. Adherence to the fixed-dose combination was higher than to plain alendronate throughout the follow-up period. Similarly, adherence to supplements constantly decreased with the duration of treatment. Women and patients

  7. Comparative clinicoradiographical evaluation of effect of aminobisphosphonate (sodium alendronate) on peri-implant bone status: Controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rajni; Babaji, Prashant; Nathan, S. Senthil; Attokaran, George; Santosh Kumar, S. M.; Sathnoorkar, Sharanpriya

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study aims to compare the peri-implant bone status around immediately loaded dental implants treated with aminobisphosphonate solution and untreated control implants in terms of clinical and radiographical parameters. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients were randomly divided equally into two groups. This study was conducted in accordance to the Helsinki's declaration of 1975, revised in 2000, and with the approval of the institutional ethical committee. In the control group after preparation, osteotomy sites were irrigated with normal saline solution, whereas in the test group osteotomy sites were irrigated with modified bisphosphonate solution and then TRX-OP, Hi-Tec dental implants were inserted. Clinical parameters, such as modified plaque and gingival index, probing depth, mobility, and radiographic parameters were recorded at baseline (0), 3, 6, and 9 months. Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 for windows, and the statistical techniques employed were repeated measures analysis of variance, independent sample t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: Reduction in mean radiographic bone levels (height) was observed on the mesial and distal aspect of the control group in comparison to its baseline at all intervals. In the test group, there was reduction in mean radiographic bone levels on mesial and distal aspect of the implant site in comparison to its baseline till 6-month follow up, however, at 9 month, there was gain in bone level on both mesial and distal aspect of implant. This represents the effectiveness of sodium alendronate in enhancing the bone formation. On comparison, between both groups on mesial and distal aspect of implants, statistically significant differences were observed at 3 and 9 months on mesial and distal aspect, respectively, without any clinical evidence of mobility in the test group. Conclusion: Implant site treated with aminobisphosphonate solution

  8. The susceptive alendronate-treatment timing and dosage for osteogenesis enhancement in human bone marrow-derived stem cells.

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    Chih-Hsiang Chang

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicated that alendronate enhanced osteogenesis in osteoblasts and human bone marrow-derived stem cells. However, the time- and dose-dependent effects of Aln on osteogenic differentiation and cytotoxicity of hBMSCs remain undefined. In present study, we investigated the effective dose range and timing of hBMSCs. hBMSCs were treated with various Aln doses (1, 5 and 10 µM according to the following groups: group A was treated with Aln during the first five days of bone medium, groups B, C and D were treated during the first, second, and final five days of osteo-induction medium and group E was treated throughout the entire experiment. The mineralization level and cytotoxicity were measured by quantified Alizarin Red S staining and MTT assay. In addition, the reversal effects of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate replenishment in group B were also investigated. The results showed that Aln treatment in groups A, B and E enhanced hBMSC mineralization in a dose-dependent manner, and the most pronounced effects were observed in groups B and E. The higher dose of Aln simultaneously enhanced mineralization and caused cytotoxicity in groups B, C and E. Replenishment of FPP or GGPP resulted in partial or complete reverse of the Aln-induced mineralization respectively. Furthermore, the addition of FPP or GGPP also eliminated the Aln-induced cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that hBMSCs are susceptible to 5 µM Aln during the initiation stage of osteogenic differentiation and that a 10 µM dose is cytotoxic.

  9. An Analysis of the Agency and Providence in Platonic, Aristotelian and Avicennan Metaphysics

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    S. Mahdi Emamijomeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions as to whether the cosmic order of this world is based on action/agent or not? And if an agent is involved and the world and what it contains have to be seen as action, could we declare the cosmic order a providential order? are among the problems which have always occupied the mind of philosophers.      Reading through Platonic corpse leads us to the conclusion that he has founded his metaphysics upon the very idea of world of ideas. According to his works and words, Plato is a proponent of the theory of ideas. As a matter of fact, Plato's metaphysics lies in the theory of ideas. Plato illustrates the general makeup of the world of ideas and the way sensible objects stand in relation with the beings dwelling in the latter world by the well-known cave allegory in the seventh book of Republic. In his view, whatever we find around ourselves not only are not authentic realities but rather they are merely shadows of the truth. Every phenomenon has an essence or reality which is known as its form. The idea of Good overshadows the other ideas insofar as these latter ideas or forms are seen as the effects of the former. It seems we can take God, the One, Absolute Good, Absolute Beauty and Good in itself as expressions of the same reality which Plato has used in different contexts through his works. Along these terms some other notions have also been brought up like intellect, divine intellect, Demiurge, ideas and the particulars of material world. By explaining Plato's taking of these notions and terms, we believe, one can discover Platonic ontological system.    In Republic, Plato argues that God is the creator of ideal bed and all other things, and he is the creator of intelligible entities (ideas. The One or reality as a whole not only contains ideas but the spirit too. The One is the final principle and the source of ideas and is beyond all human attributes. Having said these, it is not clear how reason gets itself related to the

  10. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); McDonald, Anna G. [Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm{sup 3}) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm{sup 3}). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  11. The Possibility of a New Metaphysics for Quantum Mechanics from Meinong's Theory of Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Matías

    According to de Ronde it was Bohr's interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (QM) which closed the possibility of understanding physical reality beyond the realm of the actual, so establishing the Orthodox Line of Research. In this sense, it is not the task of any physical theory to look beyond the language and metaphysics supposed by classical physics, in order to account for what QM describes. If one wishes to maintain a realist position (though not nave) regarding physical theories, one seems then to be trapped by an array of concepts that do not allow to understand the main principles involved in the most successful physical theory thus far, mainly: the quantum postulate, the principle of indetermination and the superposition principle. If de Ronde is right in proposing QM can only be completed as a physical theory by the introduction of `new concepts' that admit as real a domain beyond actuality, then a new ontology that goes beyond Aristotelian and Newtonian actualism is needed. It was already in the early 20th century that misunderstood philosopher Alexius von Meinong proposed a Theory of Objects that admits a domain of being beyond existence-actuality. Member of the so called `School of Brentano', Meinong's concerns were oriented to provide an ontology of everything that can be thought of, and at the same time an intentionality theory of how objects are thought of. I wish to argue that in Meinong's theory of objects we find the rudiments of the ontology and the intentionality theory we need to account for QM's basic principles: mainly the possibility of predicating properties of non-entities, or in other words, the possibility of objectively describing a domain of what is, that is different from the domain of actual existence.

  12. Deus: metafísica e pensar pós-metafísico (God: metaphysics and post-metaphysical thinking - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraim Vitor de Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Editorial - Dossiê: Pensamento pós-metafísico e discurso sobre Deus – (Dossier: Post-metaphysical thought and speech about God Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Deus: metafísica e pensar pós-metafísico (God: metaphysics and post-metaphysical thinking - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n16p8 

  13. Long-term treatment with alendronate increases the surgical difficulty during simple exodontias – an in vivo observation in Holtzman rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conte-Neto Nicolau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atraumatic teeth extractions protocols are highly encouraged in patients taking bisphosphonates (Bps to reduce surgical trauma and, consequently, the risk of jaws osteonecrosis development. In this way, this paper aims to report the findings of increased surgical difficulty during simple exodontias in animals treated with bisphosphonates. Methods Sixty male Holtzman rats were randomly distributed into three groups of 20 animals and received daily subcutaneous administration of 1 mg/kg (AL1 or 3 mg/kg (AL3 of alendronate or saline solution (CTL. After 60 days of drug therapy all animals were submitted to first lower molars extractions under general anesthesia. Operatory surgical time and the frequency of teeth fractures were measured as principal outcomes and indicators of surgical difficulty degree. Results Animals treated with alendronate (AL1 and AL3 were associated to higher operatory times and increased frequency of teeth fractures compared to match controls. Conclusions The bisphosphonate therapy may be associated with an increased surgical difficulty and trauma following simple exodontias protocols, which is considered a critical issue when it comes to osteonecrosis development.

  14. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone loss in the tibia following transient muscle paralysis are spatiotemporally distinct resorption events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausk, Brandon J; Huber, Philippe; Srinivasan, Sundar; Bain, Steven D; Kwon, Ronald Y; McNamara, Erin A; Poliachik, Sandra L; Sybrowsky, Christian L; Gross, Ted S

    2013-12-01

    When the skeleton is catabolically challenged, there is great variability in the timing and extent of bone resorption observed at cancellous and cortical bone sites. It remains unclear whether this resorptive heterogeneity, which is often evident within a single bone, arises from increased permissiveness of specific sites to bone resorption or localized resorptive events of varied robustness. To explore this question, we used the mouse model of calf paralysis induced bone loss, which results in metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption of different timing and magnitude. Given this phenotypic pattern of resorption, we hypothesized that bone loss in the proximal tibia metaphysis and diaphysis occurs through resorption events that are spatially and temporally distinct. To test this hypothesis, we undertook three complimentary in vivo/μCT imaging studies. Specifically, we defined spatiotemporal variations in endocortical bone resorption during the 3weeks following calf paralysis, applied a novel image registration approach to determine the location where bone resorption initiates within the proximal tibia metaphysis, and explored the role of varied basal osteoclast activity on the magnitude of bone loss initiation in the metaphysis using μCT based bone resorption parameters. A differential response of metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone resorption was observed throughout each study. Acute endocortical bone loss following muscle paralysis occurred almost exclusively within the metaphyseal compartment (96.5% of total endocortical bone loss within 6days). Using our trabecular image registration approach, we further resolved the initiation of metaphyseal bone loss to a focused region of significant basal osteoclast function (0.03mm(3)) adjacent to the growth plate. This correlative observation of paralysis induced bone loss mediated by basal growth plate cell dynamics was supported by the acute metaphyseal osteoclastic response of 5-week vs. 13-month-old mice. Specifically

  15. Critique of metaphysics, capital logic and totality, and social critique theory: the three critical dimensions of Marx's philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Karl Marx's philosophy includes three dimensions of critique.The first is the critique of metaphysics,which is also the major premise on the basis of which Marx turns his philosophical viewpoint to the analysis of social life and its cultural logic.The second is the capital logic and totality,the core of Marx's philosophy,according to which Marx exposes the totality and contradictions inherent in the capital logic.The third is the theory of social critique that is the realistic end of his philosophy.

  16. Different combination of alendronate and teriparatide in the treatment of osteoporosis%阿仑膦酸钠与特立帕肽不同联合方案治疗骨质疏松

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开泽; 林文锋; 方淑斌; 张振

    2015-01-01

    Using alendronate and teriparatide simultaneously can increase bone mass density (BMD),but the effect was lower than that in teriparatide used alone.Using alendronate and terinaration in sequence can increase BMD,as well as bone microstructure and the homogeneous distribution of mineral substance.Using alendronate and teriparatide intermittently,such as using teriparatide for a while,and then combined with alendronate followed by alendronate treatment only,can increase BMD.Therefore,different combinations have positive but different effects on osteoporosis,which are helpful in providing the theoretical basis for osteoporosis treatment.%阿仑膦酸钠与特立帕肽同步应用,可增加骨密度,但疗效比特立帕肽单独治疗低.阿仑膦酸钠与特立帕肽序贯治疗,在增加骨密度的同时还能够促进骨组织微损伤修复和提高骨矿物质分布的均一性;阿仑膦酸钠与特立帕肽间断疗法,如在特立帕肽单药治疗基础上联合阿仑膦酸钠、然后停止特立帕肽并继续应用阿仑膦酸钠,可增加骨密度.不同联合方案对骨质疏松均有一定的疗效而作用不尽相同,为骨质疏松的临床治疗提供了理论依据.

  17. The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, L.A.D. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D. [Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Aragão, K.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Barbosa, A.L.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil); Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P. [Laboratório de Farmacologia da Inflamação e do Câncer, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Medeiros, J.V.R. [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais, Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Laboratório de Fisiofarmacologia Experimental, Centro de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, PI (Brazil)

    2013-08-16

    Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H{sub 2}S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm{sup 2}); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm{sup 2}); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K

  18. Dialectics:Hegel,Marx and post-metaphysics%辩证法:黑格尔、马克思与后形而上学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙正聿

    2008-01-01

    In the history of philosophical development,Hegel fulfilled the"convergence"of dialectics and metaphyrsics and blazed a dialectical philosophical path that transcended metaphysics.through his crfique of abstract reason.Via critiques of both abstract reason and abstract being(capital),Marx managed to"end"metaphysics with dialectics,and initiated dialectics'"ruthless criticism of everything existing."To"clarify"the dialectics of Hegel and Marx in a"post-metaphysical"vision and construct a theory of dialectics of modem human praxis,it is necessary to dccpen criticism of"the metaphysical horror"and the exploration of truth-law-objectivity,and adhere to"anti-metaphysical""metaphysical pursuit."%在哲学发展史上,黑格尔对抽象理性的批判,实现了辩证法与形而上学的"合流",并开启了超越形而上学的辩证法的哲学道路.马克思在对抽象理性和抽象存在(资本)的双重批判中,实现了辩证法对形而上学的"终结",展开了辩证法"对现存的一切进行无情的批判".在"后形而上学"的视域中"澄清" 黑格尔和马克思的辩证法,构建当代人类的实践的辩证法理论,既需要深化对"形而上学的恐怖"的批判,又需要深化对真理一规律一客观性的探索,坚守"反形而上学"的"形上追求".

  19. Science Awareness and Science Literacy through the Basic Physics Course: Physics with a bit of Metaphysics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Aloysius

    2016-08-01

    Until the 1980s, it is well known and practiced in Indonesian Basic Physics courses, to present physics by its effective technicalities: The ideally elastic spring, the pulley and moving blocks, the thermodynamics of ideal engine models, theoretical electrostatics and electrodynamics with model capacitors and inductors, wave behavior and its various superpositions, and hopefully closed with a modern physics description. A different approach was then also experimented with, using the Hobson and Moore texts, stressing the alternative aim of fostering awareness, not just mastery, of science and the scientific method. This is hypothesized to be more in line with the changed attitude of the so-called Millenials cohort who are less attentive if not interested, and are more used to multi-tasking which suits their shorter span of attention. The upside is increased awareness of science and the scientific method. The downside is that they are getting less experience of the scientific method which intensely bases itself on critical observation, analytic thinking to set up conclusions or hypotheses, and checking consistency of the hypotheses with measured data. Another aspect is recognition that the human person encompasses both the reasoning capacity and the mental- spiritual-cultural capacity. This is considered essential, as the world grows even smaller due to increased communication capacity, causing strong interactions, nonlinear effects, and showing that value systems become more challenging and challenged due to physics / science and its cosmology, which is successfully based on the scientific method. So students should be made aware of the common basis of these two capacities: the assumptions, the reasoning capacity and the consistency assumption. This shows that the limits of science are their set of basic quantifiable assumptions, and the limits of the mental-spiritual-cultural aspects of life are their set of basic metaphysical (non-quantifiable) assumptions. The

  20. The old with the die. A contribution to metaphysics of quantum mechanics; Der Alte mit dem Wuerfel. Ein Beitrag zur Metaphysik der Quantenmechanik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Since the rise of quantum mechanics also their ideological implications and consequences were discussed. Meanwhile still scarcely a metaphysical problem exists, which was not supposedly solved under calling on quantum theory. Anna Ijjas inquires the usual practice and developes a new model of the assignment of quantum mechanics and metaphysics. She discusses both the physical foundations and the classical philosophical controversies, before she draws consequencies for the relation determination of brain and consciousness, the problem of freedom of will, as well as for the question of the influence of God in the world.

  1. DWORKIN ALÉM DA METAFÍSICA E DO CETICISMO / DWORKIN BEYOND THE METAPHYSICS AND SCEPTICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Mansur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article starts in the existence or not of justice in personal preferences and in the content of the rules of law. It examines the response of legal idealistic philosophies, specifically, the philosophy of Plato, according to which, there is a metaphysically correct answer for each legal issue. It analyzes the response of skeptical philosophies, specifically the skeptical point of Erasmus of Rotterdam in “Praise of Folly”, according to which, naturalistic responses are results of arbitrary actions that not even the philosopher escapes. It also identifies the influences of skepticism in the political and legal philosophies, as the political realism by Machiavelli and the Legal Positivism. Our research notes the paradox that both platonism and skepticism start from the same conception of truth that is used to criticize human conduct and the contents in the rules of law. It exposes the legal theory of Ronald Dworkin, for which there is rationality and criteria to criticize besides metaphysical entities. This article begins in the comparison of philosophical ideas to achieve the objective of demonstrating the relevance of political tradition in Dworkin.

  2. Comment on Metaphysics in Teaching Practice%对教学实践中形而上学的评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌凤山

    2011-01-01

    Since the new curriculum reform,metaphysics has become relatively conspicuous in teaching practice.The main reason of its prevalence is either/or thoughts and flood of formalism,whose essence is ideological nihilism and behavioral socialism.In order to make the development of new curriculum reform healthy and harmonious,we need to understand comprehensively and solve metaphysical problem in teaching from the macro,mid and micro level.%新课改以来,形而上学在教学实践中表现得比较突出。其盛行的原因主要是非此即彼的绝对化思想和形式主义的泛滥,其本质是思想上的虚无主义和行为上的技术主义。为使新课改健康和谐的发展,需要我们从宏观、中观和微观层面全面认识并解决教学中的形而上学倾向。

  3. Retraction: 'Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial,' by Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The above article, published online on 14 March 2006 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in Volume 21, Issue 7, Pages 924-929, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief, Jose A. Obeso, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to an acknowledgement from the authors that the co-authors did not participate in study design, data collection, data analysis, interpretation of data and drafting the manuscript. Thus all co-authors are honorary. Reference Sato, Y., Iwamoto, J., Kanoko, T., and Satoh, K. (2006) Alendronate and vitamin D2 for prevention of hip fracture in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. doi: 10.1002/mds.20825.

  4. Heidegger on the Metaphysical Grammaticalized Language%海德格尔论形而上学语法化的语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖斌; 任婧辰

    2016-01-01

    In Heidegger's opinion,grammar is metaphysical Language's symbol and standard. Metaphysics studies the form and law of Language and formulates logic regulation of grammar, according to which it arranges the pattern of words and connects them together,ultimately occupies the dominance over the interpretation of Language with the criteria Subject-predicate structure. Heidegger traced back to the root of metaphysical Language and criticized the neglect of Being itself and Language itself which brought about to save metaphysics from crisis.%海德格尔认为,形而上学的语言是以语法为标志和标准的。形而上学研究语言的形式及规律,订立语法的逻辑规则,由此安排词语的结构,将它们连接在一起,最后以主谓结构为基准取得了对语言解释的支配地位。海德格尔追溯了形而上学语言的根源,并就其所造成的存在和语言本身的荒疏予以批判,以挽救形而上学的危机。

  5. 刺向神秘主义和形而上学独断论的双刃剑%An Attack at Both Mysterious Necromancy and Metaphysical Dogmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵林

    2009-01-01

    In Dreams of a Spirit-seer Explained through the Dreams of Metaphysics, a long treatise written by Kant in his pre-critical period, he did not only attack mysterious necromancy and metaphysical dogmatism on the basis of empirical experience, but also differentiated between metaphysics in the positive sense and metaphysics in the negative sense, and gave the first expression to the important ideas of limitations of reason and moral faith that later became the substantial content of Kantian critical philosophy. In this sense, this book marks Kant's departure from Wolff's school.%是康德早年所写的一篇长篇论文.在该文中,康德不仅以经验为根据,对神秘主义通灵术和形而上学独断论进行了深刻的批判,而且对形而上学的积极意义和消极意义进行了区分,初步表达了关于理性的界限和道德的信仰等重要思想,这些思想后来构成了康德批判哲学的基本内容.

  6. Changes in strain patterns after implantation of a short stem with metaphyseal anchorage compared to a standard stem: an experimental study in synthetic bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Gronewold

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short stem hip arthroplasties with predominantly metaphyseal fixation, such as the METHA® stem (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany, are recommended because they are presumed to allow a more physiologic load transfer and thus a reduction of stress-shielding. However, the hypothesized metaphyseal anchorage associated with the aforementioned benefits still needs to be verified. Therefore, the METHA short stem and the Bicontact® standard stem (Aesculap, Tuttlingen, Germany were tested biomechanically in synthetic femora while strain gauges monitored their corresponding strain patterns. For the METHA stem, the strains in all tested locations including the region of the calcar (87% of the non-implanted femur were similar to conditions of synthetic bone without implanted stem. The Bicontact stem showed approximately the level of strain of the non-implanted femur on the lateral and medial aspect in the proximal diaphysis of the femur. On the anterior and posterior aspect of the proximal metaphysis the strains reached averages of 78% and 87% of the non-implanted femur, respectively. This study revealed primary metaphyseal anchorage of the METHA short stem, as opposed to a metaphyseal-diaphyseal anchorage of the Bicontact stem.

  7. Metaphyseal osteomyelitis in children: how often does MRI-documented joint effusion or epiphyseal extension of edema indicate coexisting septic arthritis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schallert, Erica K.; Kan, J.H.; Monsalve, Johanna; Zhang, Wei; Bisset, George S. [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Rosenfeld, Scott [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Joint effusions identified by MRI may accompany osteomyelitis and determining whether the joint effusion is septic or reactive has important implications on patient care. Determine the incidence of epiphyseal marrow edema, joint effusions, perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement in the setting of pediatric metaphyseal osteomyelitis and whether this may be used to predict coexisting septic arthritis. Following IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated children who underwent MRI and orthopedic surgical consultation for suspected musculoskeletal infection between January 2011 and September 2013. Criteria for inclusion in the study were microbiologically/pathologically proven infection, MRI prior to surgical intervention, long bone involvement and age 0-18 years. MRI exams were independently reviewed by two faculty pediatric radiologists to confirm the presence of appendicular metaphyseal osteomyelitis, to evaluate extent of edema, to determine subjective presence of a joint effusion and to assess perisynovial edema and epiphyseal non-enhancement. Any discrepant readings were reviewed in consensus. Charts and operative notes were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. One hundred and three joints with metaphyseal osteomyelitis were identified (mean age: 7.1 years; M:F 1.3:1), of whom 53% (55/103) had joint effusions, and of those, 75% (41/55) had surgically confirmed septic arthritis. The incidence of coexisting septic arthritis was 40% in the setting of epiphyseal edema, 74% in epiphyseal edema and effusion, 75% with perisynovial edema, 76% with epiphyseal non-enhancement and 77% when all four variables were present. Of these, the only statistically significant variable, however, was the presence of a joint effusion with a P-value of <0.0001 via Fisher exact test. Statistical significance for coexisting septic arthritis was also encountered when cases were subdivided into intra-articular vs. extra-articular metaphyses (P

  8. I CHING'S METAPHYSICAL APPROACH TO CITY ANALYSIS%“易”之形而上的城市辨析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤晔峥

    2012-01-01

    The difference of the urban body or certain concept between Ⅰ Ching's Metaphysics and the Western logical thinking is structural and fundamental. So. the native theory study could also be enlightened by system annotation and transformation, not only putting forward the adaptation theory from practice check.%“易”之形而上的城市本体或概念与西方的差异是结构性和根本性的.因而,对本土城市理论的研究可以从系统的角度进行诠释和转化,而不以实践校验得出新的适应性理论为唯一路径.

  9. Od metafizyki do empirii. Antropologiczno-filozoficzne wizje człowieka [From metaphysics to empiricism. Philosophical anthropology on man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Chrobak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on three conceptions of man formulated within the German school of philosophical anthropology. I discuss, one by one, theories by Max Scheler, Helmuth Plessner and Arnold Gehlen. First, I emphasize the common to these theoreticians methodological assumptions consisting primarily in an opposition against the Cartesian dualism and in founding a ground for philosophical analysis in the results of scientific research. Second, I present their conceptions of man stressing at the same time dissimilarities that differ them from each other. These differences concern first and foremost their general orientation: while Scheler’s understanding of man is clearly determined by a metaphysical idea of a permanent essence of man, Plessner’s conception focuses rather on a dynamic, historical way of manifesting of their existence. Philosophy by Gehlen in turn presents a picture of man as a biological being who by their own effort, by emerging institutional reality, stabilizes their existence.

  10. 74例老年骨质疏松患者应用鲑鱼降钙素联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗的疗效观察%The observation of the effect of salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium on the treatment of senile osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾霞; 徐彤; 王学宏; 李荣娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium on bone and joint pain, and to observe the changes of bone mineral density ( BMD) , and the serum concentrations of bone Gla protein (BGP) and calcitonin (CT) in senile osteoporosis patients. Methods Seventy-four senile osteoporosis patients in our hospital were treated with salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium. All of them were given an intramuscular injection of 50 IU salmon calcitonin once every other day. After 15 continuous injections, they were given an oral medication of 1 capsule alendronate sodium once a week. The whole treatment lasted for 6 months. The degree of bone and joint pain before and after treatment was estimated with visual analogue scale (VAS). BMD of the lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) , the femur neck, and Wards region was tested before and after the treatment. Serum concentrations of BGP and calcitonin were tested before and after the treatment. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results After 6-month treatment with salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium in senile osteoporosis patients, the relief of pain in bone and joint was obvious , and the difference was significant ( P < 0. 01). BMD and the serum concentrations of BGP and calcitonin after the treatment were significantly different from those before the treatment (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The treatment with salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium in senile osteoporosis patients can significantly improve BMD and serum concentration of calcitonin, and can reduce the serum concentration of bone Gla protein , relieve bone and joint pain in patients, ameliorate the symptoms, and increase BMD. It has an evident efficacy on senile osteoporosis .%目的 评估联合应用鲑鱼降钙素与阿仑膦酸钠治疗缓解老年性骨质疏松症患者骨关节疼痛及血清骨钙素(BGP)、降钙素(CT)及骨密度(BMD)水平的变化.方法 联合应用鲑鱼降钙素和

  11. 阿仑膦酸钠对绝经后骨质疏松性骨痛的疗效分析%Effect analysis of alendronate on postmenopausal osteoporosis with bone ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone component and regeneration of the microstructure of bone tissues, osteoporosis occurs in postmenopausal women for decreased estrogen level. Those women with osteoporosis often suffer from bone ache, such as pain at low back, back, knees and heels. In severe cases, there may be crookback or non- violent fracture. Objective: To discuss treatment effect of the Alendronate on 56 postmenopausal women with bone ache caused by osteoporosis. Unit: 210 Hospital of PLA.

  12. The efficacy of Xianlinggubao capsule combined with alendronate sodium tablets and salmon calcitonin in the treatment for the patients with osteoporosis%仙灵骨葆胶囊联合阿仑膦酸钠片、鲑降钙素对骨质疏松症患者的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文丛; 何伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the efficacy of Xianlinggubao capsule combined with alendronate sodium tablets and salmon calcitonin in the treatment of the patients with osteoporosis. Methods: Seventy-nine outpatients and inpatients with osteoporosis in our hospital from May, 2013 to May, 2014 were selected and divided into a control group (n=39, received alendronate sodium tablets and salmon calcitonin treatment) and an observation group (n=40, received Xianlinggubao capsule on the basis of the control group) by digital randomized method. The clinical efficacy was compared between two groups. Results:The efficiency and treatment effectiveness of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P0.05). The BMD of the observation group was significantly higher 3 ~ 12 months after treatment than before, and that of the control group. The S-P, S-Ca and BGP levels of all patients were significantly higher while the serum ALP was significantly lower after treatment than before (P0.05). Conclusion: Xianlinggubao capsule combined with alendronate sodium tablets and salmon calcitonin shows an obvious therapeutic effect in the treatment of the patients with osteoporosis and can improve bone metabolism index.%目的:探讨仙灵骨葆胶囊联合阿仑膦酸钠片、鲑降钙素对骨质疏松症患者的治疗作用。方法:选取2013年5月-2014年5月期间我院门诊和住院部就诊的骨质疏松症患者79例,采用随机数字表法将患者分为对照组(n=39,阿仑膦酸钠片联合鲑降钙素药物治疗)和观察组(n=40,在对照组基础上采用仙灵骨葆胶囊治疗),比较两组临床疗效。结果:观察组显效率和治疗有效率均明显高于对照组(P <0.05)。治疗前,两组患者骨密度值(BMD)、血磷(S-P)、血钙(S-Ca)、血清碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和血骨钙素(BGP)水平比较差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。治疗3~12个月后,观察组 BMD 值

  13. 浅析魏晋玄学中所体现的法律思想%Analysis of Legal Thinking Embodied in Weijin Metaphysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段知壮

    2014-01-01

    魏晋玄学在发展上大体经历了“名教本自然”、“越名教而任自然”和“名教即自然”三个阶段,从这样一种发展历程上就可以看出,魏晋玄学最终极的目的乃是旨在解决“名教”和“自然”之间的矛盾,把两者予以调和。中国传统法律思想可以说始终有着一条“名教”的主线,魏晋玄学与其说是对“名教”进行批判,倒不如说是为“名教”寻找“自然”的依据,这尤其体现在玄学中的伦理道德思想、自然主义思想和人本主义思想三个方面。%Weijin Metaphysics has undergone the development of “the Confucian is from nature”, “from the Confucian to nature”, and “Confucian is nature”. This development process reveals that the ultimate purpose of Metaphysics is to solve the contradiction between “Confucian” and “nature” and achieve reconciliation between them. “Confucian” has always been the central idea in the traditional Chinese legal thinking and Weijin Metaphysics was seeking a foundation in “nature” for “Confucian” rather than criticizing, which is explicitly embodied in the Metaphysics ethical thinking, naturalism and humanism.

  14. The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.

  15. On "Wen-Yi" of Jin Dynasty,Song Dynasty and "Metaphysics Tail" of Xie Lingyun Landscape Poems%晋宋“文义”与谢诗“玄学尾巴”成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜剑云; 霍贵高

    2012-01-01

    从曹魏后期到晋宋之际,玄学经历了三个形态的变化。一是曹魏后期的"政治的玄学",二是西晋前期的"哲学的玄学",三是晋宋之际的"艺术的玄学"。以正始为代表的曹魏后期文学创作"有玄无文",以太康为代表的西晋前期文学创作"有文无玄",以陶、谢为代表的晋宋之际文学创作"有文有玄"。谢灵运就生活在"艺术的玄学"的时代,他不仅重"文","情必极貌以写物,辞必穷力而追新",而且重"义",体现在诗歌创作中,就是其山水诗的"玄学尾巴"。%From the period of late Cao-wei to the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty,metaphysics have undergone three changes in their patterns.The first is "political metaphysics" in late Cao-wei period,the second is "philosophy metaphysics" in former western Jin dynasty,the third is"art metaphysics" in the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty.In the period of late Cao-wei,literature has metaphysic but no grace.In former western Jin dynasty,literature has grace but no metaphysic.In the period of Jin dynasty and Song dynasty,literature has grace and metaphysic.Xie Lingyun just lived in such a "arts metaphysics" era which appreciating "Wen-Yi" became a fashion tide.Therefore,he not only thought a lot of literature,but also paid more attention to metaphysics.In poems,it shows the controversial "metaphysics tail".

  16. The Metaphysical Quest on the Fear of Death%对死亡恐惧的形而上追问

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳长红; 马静松

    2014-01-01

    The fear of death accompanying with self-consciousness is an eternal anxiety what cannot be eradicated by people . It is rooted from the empirical fear of others’ death ,from the cognitive fear of social culture about the denial of death ,and from the metaphysical fear of ego death .The fear of death cannot be dispelled completely ,but only be reduced .It is necessary and useful for human to keep an appropriate fear of death because it is the inner motivation of all spiritual pursuit of human .People often try to remove or transcend the fear by extroversion pursuit . However ,only by introspection instead of external help ,people can achieve the awareness and transcendence of life ultimately .%死亡恐惧与自我意识相伴而生,成为人类无法根除的永恒性焦虑。它既根源于他人之死呈现出的经验性恐惧,也来自于拒斥死亡的社会文化所导致的认知性恐惧以及面临“自我”之死时产生的形而上恐惧。死亡恐惧不能彻底消解只能消减,保持适当的死亡恐惧是必要的,也是有益的,它是人类一切精神性追求的内在动力。人们通常力求通过外向性的追求去摆脱或超越死亡恐惧,然而只有通过反躬自省,不假外求的方式,才能最终完成对生命的觉解与超越。

  17. The role of galenic innovation in improving treatment compliance and persistence: three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Marco A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available York Zoellner1, Maria-Magdalena Balp2, Andrea Gili Marco21Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany; 2Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore whether newer galenic formulations with lower treatment burdens are associated with better patient compliance and persistence compared with older more burdensome modalities.Methods: Data from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were analyzed retrospectively for two pairs of analogs (alendronate sodium once daily vs once weekly and immediate-release vs extended-release methylphenidate and one pair of drugs with similar indications but important differences in convenience and dosing instructions (desferrioxamine vs deferasirox. Compliance was calculated as the sum of prescription durations for all prescriptions for each patient over 1 year. Persistence was calculated as the time between first and last prescriptions over 2 years (1 year for deferasirox and desferrioxamine. Data from Germany and the UK were available and used for analysis.Results: Incremental improvements in compliance were +30% in the UK and +26% in Germany for alendronate once weekly vs once daily, +14% in the UK and +19% in Germany for extended-release vs immediate-release methylphenidate, and +15% in Germany for desferrioxamine vs deferasirox. Incremental improvements in persistence were +9 months in the UK and +8 months in Germany for alendronate once weekly vs once daily, +4 months in the UK and +3 months in Germany for extended-release vs immediate-release methylphenidate, and +2 months in Germany for deferasirox vs desferrioxamine.Conclusion: The new formulations that we evaluated were associated with better compliance and persistence compared with older formulations. Despite the fact that some sources of bias could not be excluded, it is likely that these improvements can be attributed to the lower treatment burdens of the galenic formulations of the drugs considered

  18. Study on critical-sized ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles loaded with alendronate sodium: in vitro release and cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yumei; Shi, Feng; Gong, Kemeng; Liu, Yang; Zhi, Wei; Weng, Jie; Qu, Shuxin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro release and the effect of RAW 264.7 macrophages of critical-sized wear particles of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), one of the most effective drugs to treat osteoporosis in clinic. The critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN 0.5 wt.% wear particles were prepared by vacuum gradient filtration combined with Pluronic F-68. In vitro release of ALN from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was investigated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C with a shaker. Cell morphology, proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and secretions of cytokines were evaluated after co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles in vitro. Results showed that ALN released from critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles included burst release and slow release in vitro. Macrophages would be chemotaxis and aggregated around the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN or UHMWPE wear particle, which was phagocytosed with time. The proliferation of macrophages co-cultured with critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles was significantly decreased compared with that of critical-sized UHMWPE group. Meanwhile, the critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN wear particles significantly induced the LDH leakage of macrophages, which indicated the cell death. The death of macrophages induced by ALN was one of pathways to inhibit their proliferation. The secretions of cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in critical-sized UHMWPE-ALN group were significantly lower than those in critical-sized UHMWPE group due to the released ALN. The present results suggested that UHMWPE-ALN had the potential application in clinic to treat osteolysis induced by wear particles.

  19. Pharmacodynamic responses to combined treatment regimens with the calcium sensing receptor antagonist JTT-305/MK-5442 and alendronate in osteopenic ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John E; Scott, Kevin; Wei, Nan; Zhao, Jing Z; Cusick, Tara; Tijerina, Monica; Karanam, Bindhu; Duong, Le; Glantschnig, Helmut

    2012-06-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the anabolic standard of care for patients with severe osteoporosis. The CaSR allosteric antagonist JTT-305/MK-5442, a PTH secretagogue, could offer an oral osteoanabolic treatment alternative for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Here we disclose the pharmacokinetic profile of JTT-305/MK-5442 and its activity on bone remodeling in ovariectomized (OVX) osteopenic rats. Daily treatments (0.3 to 2.4 mg/kg/d) for 12 weeks resulted in plateaued BMD increases (3.8 to 5.3%) at axial and appendicular skeletal sites. However, treatment effects were not statistically significant, in agreement with effects seen in animals treated with low dose PTH (1-84) (5 μg/kg/d). In a consecutive study we tested JTT-305/MK-5442 effects on bone formation in OVX-rats challenged with combined alendronate (ALN) treatment paradigms. At 7 month, JTT-305/MK-5442 treatment significantly increased BMD in lumbar vertebrae (LV), while no change in BMD was observed in femora or tibiae. ALN add-on co-treatment produced incremental increases in LV, distal femur (DF) and proximal tibia (PT) BMD over the respective ALN control. Histological analyses confirmed modest increases in mineralized surface (MS/BS) and bone formation rate (30.5±1.9%) on trabecular surfaces by JTT-305/MK-5442. As expected, ALN administration profoundly reduced bone formation, however, JTT-305/MK-5442 significantly stimulated MS/BS and BFR in ALN treated groups. In summary, JTT-305/MK-5442 acts as a PTH secretagogue in the osteopenic OVX-rat, eliciting consistent, though modest effects on remediation of BMD due to estrogen depletion. Induction of bone formation by JTT-305/MK-5442 at trabecular bone surfaces appears to be resilient to ALN-mediated suppression of bone formation. This study provides for the first time, a mechanistic evaluation of combination treatment of a PTH secretagogue with ALN.

  20. Effect of odanacatib on bone turnover markers, bone density and geometry of the spine and hip of ovariectomized monkeys: a head-to-head comparison with alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald S; McCracken, Paul J; Purcell, Mona; Pickarski, Maureen; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Szumiloski, John; Jayakar, Richa Y; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Krause, Stephen; Brown, Keenan; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Scott, Boyd B; Cook, Lynn; Motzel, Sherri L; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Cabal, Antonio; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; Duong, Le T

    2013-10-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible Cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor currently being developed as a once weekly treatment for osteoporosis. Here, effects of ODN compared to alendronate (ALN) on bone turnover, DXA-based areal bone mineral density (aBMD), QCT-based volumetric BMD (vBMD) and geometric parameters were studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys. Treatment was initiated 10 days after ovariectomy and continued for 20 months. The study consisted of four groups: L-ODN (2 mg/kg, daily p.o.), H-ODN (8/4 mg/kg daily p.o.), ALN (15 μg/kg, twice weekly, s.c.), and VEH (vehicle, daily, p.o.). L-ODN and ALN doses were selected to approximate the clinical exposures of the ODN 50-mg and ALN 70-mg once-weekly, respectively. L-ODN and ALN effectively reduced bone resorption markers uNTx and sCTx compared to VEH. There was no additional efficacy with these markers achieved with H-ODN. Conversely, ODN displayed inversely dose-dependent reduction of bone formation markers, sP1NP and sBSAP, and L-ODN reduced formation to a lesser degree than ALN. At month 18 post-OVX, L-ODN showed robust increases in lumbar spine aBMD (11.4%, pmonkeys in prevention mode. Taken together, the results from this study have demonstrated that administration of ODN at levels which approximate clinical exposure in OVX-monkeys had comparable efficacy to ALN in DXA-based aBMD and QCT-based vBMD. However, FN cortical mineral content clearly demonstrated superior efficacy of ODN versus ALN in this model of estrogen-deficient non-human primates.

  1. A Review on Study of Max Horkheimer 's Metaphysics Critique%霍克海默形而上学批判研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓培

    2014-01-01

    As far as the study about metaphysics critical of Max Horkheimer is concerned , researches still stay in the preliminary stage , focusing on the study of Horkheimer's critique of positivism , the features and the origin of his critical the-ory, and the dilemma of his critical theory ,etc..But Max Horkheimer's thinking about the metaphysics critique is randomly reflected in the texts of these studies .By combing scholars'views, It can be found that the metaphysics critique of Max Horkheimer is the authentic origin of Critical Theory .%国内外学界对霍克海默形而上学批判的研究不系统,研究领域主要集中在关于霍克海默对实证主义的批判研究、关于霍克海默批判理论的特色研究、关于霍克海默批判理论的理论来源研究以及关于霍克海默批判理论的困境等方面,而关于霍克海默形而上学批判思想零星地反映在这些研究的文本中。通过梳理国内外学者的观点可以发现,霍克海默形而上学批判思想是其构建批判理论的真正发源地。

  2. The space, the solitude and the simulacrum: the metaphysicals trajectories in the Italian’s narrative in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Santurbano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses, through the analysis of works of authors which Gadda, Savinio, Bontempelli, Buzzati and Morselli, an anti-realistic tendency, though multiform in its stylistic and thematic success, which can be identified in the Italian literature of the twentieth century. In a comparative perspective, in dialogue with the avant-garde art, and more specifically, with the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, seeks to reflect on some aspects of these narratives as spatial and symbolic elements, to the threshold of the genus (or mode fantastic metaforize and constitute a condition of existential concern.

  3. Effect of weight-bearing exercise and calcium supplement on cortical and trabecular bone in the proximal tibia metaphyseal- an experimental protocol in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliollah Dabidy Roshan1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 4 April, 2009; Accepted 17 June, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Osteoporotic fractures are much more common in older post-menopausal women and account for significant morbidity and mortality. Although age is an independent risk factor for fractures, bone micro-architecture is the predictor of subsequent fractures. Adequate calcium and Weight-bearing exercise are known to affect skeletal development, however, the effects of calcium supplement and treadmill endurance running on bone micro-architecture are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of treadmill endurance running training and calcium supplement, on micro-architectures of cortical and trabecular bone in the proximal tibia metaphyseal in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats.Materials and methods: Forty-three rats were randomly divided into endurance running training, calcium supplement, control, pre-test and base groups. The rats in the treadmill running group performed the progressive running exercise in 12 to 20 m/minutes for a total of 10 to 60 minutes, 5 times a week. Calcium group received ca supplement using Gavage (35 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, micro-architecture parameters in the proximal tibia metaphyseal were measured by using a semi-automated image analysis system.Results: The ovariectomay was associated with a significant decrease in the trabecular volume and thickness, while separation insignificantly decreased in the cortical volume and thickness in the proximal tibia metaphyseal. The treadmill running exercise and calcium supplement significantly increased cortical or trabecular volume and also thickness and the trabecular separation compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, the micro-architectures of cortical and trabecular bone in the proximal tibia metaphyseal was insignificant between the treadmill endurance running and calcium supplement groups.Conclusion: Skeletal benefits can be obtained by changes in

  4. On the Metaphysical Premise of Heidegger's Neo-Humanism%论海德格尔新人道主义的形而上学前提

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽燕

    2009-01-01

    Martin Heidegger holds that metaphysics does not include man in philosophy and his philosophy tries to study man, whose point of departure is the redefining of "Being". It is also the point of departure of Heidegger's Neo-Humanism.%海德格尔认为,形而上学把人关在了哲学之门外,他的哲学力求把人从门外请进来.这一尝试的起点是重新界定Being,它成为了海德格尔新人道主义思想的起点.

  5. Clinical effect of meloxicam combined with alendronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with osteoporosis%美洛昔康联合阿仑膦酸钠对膝骨性关节炎合并骨质疏松的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮琪; 茹选良; 刘春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical effect of meloxicam and alendronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with osteoporosis. Methods A total of 64 cases of Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2-3 of knee osteoarthritis with osteoporosis patients were randomly divided into treat-ment group and control group.Treatment group was treated with meloxi-cam 15 mg, three times a day for three months, and alemdronate 70 mg, once three day for one month.Control group was treated with meloxicam only.The clinical effect, pain, stiff degree, daily activities difficulty and quality of life of the two groups were compared.Results After treat-ment, total effective rate of treatment group was 96.9%, significantly higher than 78.1% in control group ( P <0.05 ) .The pain degree in treatment group after treatment significantly decreased than that before treatment ( P<0.05).The degree of stiffness, difficulty of daily activi-ties and the changes in quality of life were significantly better than those of control group ( P <0.05 ) .Conclusion Meloxicam combined with alendronate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis with osteoporosis can not only significantly reduce the pain, improve the stiff degree, but also improve the quality of life in early treatment of knee osteoarthritis.%目的:探讨美洛昔康联合阿仑膦酸钠对膝骨性关节炎合并骨质疏松患者的临床疗效。方法64例Kellgren-Lawrence 2-3级的膝骨性关节炎合并骨质疏松患者随机分为试验组32例和对照组32例。试验组口服美洛昔康片,每次15 mg,每天3次,连用3个月;口服阿仑膦酸钠片,每次70 mg,每3天1次,连用1个月。对照组仅口服美洛昔康片。比较2组患者的临床疗效、疼痛、僵硬程度、日常活动难度及生存质量。结果治疗后,试验组有效率(96.9%)显著高于对照组(78.1%,P<0.05)。试验组疼痛程度较治疗前显著降低( P<0.05)。试验组的僵硬程度、日常活动

  6. 探析《道德形而上学原理》的历史维度%The historical dimension of"The principle of moral metaphysics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宏

    2014-01-01

    With the development of Chinese society, the moral after being abandoned for a long time, finally returns to the field of vision, gradually aroused people's attention. Then I will be in accordance with the principle of Kant's moral metaphysics, the essay discusses the time sequence of construction, and combined with the example of the development of the society and Kant. Hope to be able to deepen understanding of the principles of Kant's moral metaphysics, in order to have a new understanding.%随着中国社会的发展,道德在被抛弃良久之后,终于渐渐重回视野,引起了人们的重视。下面我将按照康德本人对于道德形而上学原理构建的时间顺序进行论述,并结合社会的当下发展与康德的文中例证加以论述。希望能够加深对于康德道德形而上学原理的理解,以求有新的认识。

  7. The Influence of Chinese Metaphysical Poetry on Neo-Confucian Poetry%论魏晋玄言诗对两宋理学诗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利民

    2015-01-01

    玄言诗以其崇义重理的特征深刻地影响了理学诗,并为理学诗奠定了基本的意义生成模式,即以诗化的议论阐释深邃的哲理,通过意象呈现情感和理智的融合,用玄境的构造传达悠远的理趣。玄言诗所具有的形上性、隐喻性和主体性,为理学诗同样特性的形成起到了发轫作用。“玄”和“理”的至上性和至善本质规定了玄言诗和理学诗的道德性,使二者具有鲜明的道德立场。根据述事、抒情和说理三种元素在诗中所占的地位和比例,可以将玄言诗划分为“但陈要妙”的玄理诗、“冥然玄会”的玄感诗和“超入玄境”的玄境诗。玄理诗是阐说义理之性理诗的先导,玄感诗是吟咏性情之理兴诗的前茅,玄境诗是表现意境之理趣诗的始基。理学诗风类似于玄言诗风的历史重演。在题材、类型的规定性上,玄言诗能对理学诗造成影响,主要是因为两者有着相似的体用思维模式。这种思维模式以理事不二、体用相即为思想基础,暗含着月映万川、理一分殊意识的萌芽。%Metaphysical poetry in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, characterized by its emphasis on philo-sophical thinking, profoundly affected Neo-Confucian poetry and laid the foundation for the way Neo-Confucian poetry expressed its philosophical themes. This mode of meaning generation has the following features:it used poetic comments to interpret profound philosophical meaning; created vivid images to present the fusion of emotion and rationality; and constructed metaphysical situations to convey rich philosophical flavor. Metaphysical, metaphorical and subjective in meaning and expression, metaphysi-cal poetry foreshadowed the emergence of Neo-Confucian poetry. The supremacy and perfectionism of“metaphysics” and “rationality” defined the moral pursuits of metaphysical poetry and Neo-Confucian poetry, enabling them to bear a clear moral

  8. Metaphysics of wickedness

    OpenAIRE

    Cobley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses Peirce's MS 1476 in relation to the issue of subjectivity. It does this also with close reference to Colapietro's 1989 book, Peirce's Approach to the Self. It argues that Peirce's work will continue to offer a critical prospectus on subjectivity through its analysis of logic (the semiotic) interacting with the agentive (person).

  9. Metaphysics after Aquinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Aaron T. Angeles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to note that after the death of St. Thomas his mentor, St. Albert the Great, remarked that his student put up an end to everybody's labor, not only in their own time, but even right up to the end of time. This was reported to us by a certain Bartholomew of Capua, protonotary from the Kingdom of Sicily, who was a witness of St. Thomas' canonization process. After the sudden demise of Thomas, Albert, already advanced in age, has assumed the task of defending the integrity of his student as a theologian and philosopher. On his return to Cologne, he wanted that all the works of Thomas read to him in set order, and he concluded his encomia saying that "Brother Thomas had in his writings put an end to everybody's labors right up to the end of the world, and that from now on all further work would be without purpose." Certainly modern readers would question such an assertion. Now that every ideology and systems of thought are under the suspicious eyes of postmodern thinkers, care must be exercised in proclaiming something as final and definite. No wonder such a statement was rarely uttered even within the ranks of the Dominican Friars.

  10. Logic is Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Daniel Durante Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Analisando alguns aspectos das posições de dois filósofos cujas abordagens são reconhecidamente divergentes, W. O. Quine e M. Dummett, pretendemos sustentar um contundente ponto de acordo entre eles: a ideia de que nossos princípios lógicos constituem nossos princípios sobre o que há, e portanto, que lógica é metafísica.  DOI: 10.5007/1808-1711.2011v15n1p3  Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to suppor...

  11. 阿仑膦酸钠治疗骨质疏松性脊柱压缩性骨折椎体成形术后残余疼痛的早期疗效观察%Early efficacy of alendronate in treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures vertebroplasty postoperative residual pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方贺; 何芳明; 傅英华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy of alendronate in treatment of postoperative residual pain with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures(OVCF) of vertebroplasty.Methods 62 patients with OVCF from September 2013 to October 2014 were divided into observation group and control group, each had 31 cases.All patients were given calcium carbonate D3 tablets 1 day after surgery, observation group were given alendronate on this basis.The degree of pain score between two groups pre-and post-treatment two weeks, one month, two months were observed and compared.Pain improvement in two groups were observed, and activity ability score, painkiller use and bone mineral density between two groups pre-and post-treatment were compared.Results The pain scores in observation group a month postoperative was (0.8 ±0.4) points and (0.4 ±0.2) points after two months, were significantly lower than those in control group[(1.6 ±0.7) points, (1.1 ±0.8) points, P<0.05].The excellent rate of pain improvement in observation group(83.87%) was significantly higher than that in control group (58.06%, P <0.05) .After treatment, activity ability score in observation group was (1.13 ±0.53) points and painkiller usage was (0.44 ±0.07) times per day, all significantly lower than those in control group [(1.79 ±0.89) points, (0.89 ±0.12) times per day, P<0.05].BMD level in observation group was (5.78 ±1.02)%, higher than that in control group[(3.21 ±0.79)%, P<0.05].Conclusion Alendronate in treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures vertebroplasty postoperative residual pain has good early outcome and low adverse reactions, and security is relatively high.%目的 研究阿仑膦酸钠治疗骨质疏松性脊柱压缩性骨折(osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures,OVCF)椎体成形术后残余疼痛的早期疗效.方法 选取2013年9月~2014年10月期间浙江省磐安县人民医院收治的62例OVCF患者,按照入院顺序将患者分为

  12. The Collision of Language and Metaphysics in the Search for Self-Identity: on ahaṃkāra and asmitā in Sāṃkhya-Yoga

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    Marzenna JAKUBCZAK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper discusses three major points: (1 a significant feature of linguistic analysis in the classical Indian philosophical tradition; (2 the role of the religious practice (īśvara-pranidhāna in the search for true self-identity in Sāṁkhya and Yoga schools (darśana-s with special reference to their gnoseological purposes; and (3 some possible readings of “ahaṁkāra” and “asmitā” displayed in the context of Sāṁkhya-Yoga phenomenology and metaphysics. The collision of language and metaphysics refers to the risk of paralogism caused be the common linguistic procedures making the subject define its identity within the semantic order (that is verbal conventions and grammatical rules which do not reflect the actual metaphysical situation of the self, though it determines one’s self-understanding in the empirical sense. Whereas Sāṁkhya-Yoga aims at recognizing, reorganizing and, finally, going beyond these procedures regarded as the obstacles on the path towards selfknowledge and liberation from metaphysical ignorance.

  13. Observation on Efficacy of Atorvastatin Combined with Salmon Calcitonin, Caltrate D3, Alendronate in Treatment of Senile Osteoporosis%阿托伐他汀联合鲑鱼降钙素、碳酸钙D3、阿伦磷酸钠治疗老年骨质疏松症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱雪丰; 曹平; 刘拴; 张明勇

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To probe into the clinical efficacy of atorvastatin combined with salmon calcitonin , caltrate D3 , alendronate in treatment of senile osteoporosis .METHODS:280 patients with senile osteoporosis admitted into Tianyou Hospital Affiliated to Wuhan University of Science and Technology were selected to be divided into observation group and control group via the random number table , with 140 cases in each .The control group were treated with caltrate D 3 combined with alendronate , and the observation group additionally received atorvastatin combined with salmon calcitonin based on the control group .The VAS score , clinical efficacy , BMD values and adverse drug reactions were compared between two group of patients .RESULTS: VAS score of two groups after treatment were significantly lower than those of before treatment , and those of the observation group were even lower than those the control group , with statistically significance ( P<0.05 ) .The total efficacy in observation group was 85.71%(120/140), significantly higher than that in control group 68.57%(96/140), with statistically significant difference(P<0.05),lumbar bone mineral density of two groups after treatment were significantly more increased than those of before treatment , and the observation group was increased obviously ,with statistically significance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The efficacy of atorvastatin combined with salmon calcitonin , caltrate D3 , alendronate in treatment of senile osteoporosis is remarkable , which can improve bone density and relieve pain effectively with high safety .%目的:探讨阿托伐他汀联合鲑鱼降钙素、碳酸钙D3、阿伦磷酸钠治疗老年骨质疏松症患者临床疗效。方法:选取武汉科技大学附属天佑医院收治的老年骨质疏松症患者280例为研究对象,以随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组各140例。对照组患者给予碳酸钙D3联合阿伦磷酸钠,观察组在此基础上加用鲑鱼降钙素及

  14. 道德与自然:"形上之道"与"形而上学"的本质区别%Morality and nature:The essential difference between the Dao of Chinese philosophy and metaphysics in Western philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余卫东; 徐瑾

    2009-01-01

    中国哲学的"形上之道"与西方哲学的"形而上学"都是对超经验的形上事物的研究,但是两者存在着根本的不可通约的区别:"形而上学"是着眼于从认识论求"真"的角度来研究的关于自然本体论的"知识",即"自然形而上学";而"形上之道"更多地表现为求"善"的内心体验式的对道德境界的追求和精神寄托,即"道德形而上学".产生区别的内在原因是传统西方以"主客两分"为特征的理性传统与传统中国以"天人合一"为特征的德性传统的不同.%Both thinkings on Dao in Chinese philosophy and metaphysics in Western philosophy investigate things on a spiritual level that transcends experience, but there are incommensurable differences between them. The objective of "metaphysics" is ontological knowledge about nature from the perspective of epistemological "truth-pursuing". Western metaphysics is thud a "metaphysics of nature". Dao in Chinese philosophy, on the other hand, more often manifests itself in "good-pursuing" by means of the internal, experiential pursuit of moral stature and spiritual security. Philosophy of Dao is thus a "metaphysics of ethics". The cause of this difference can be traced back to the differences between the rational tradition of the West, characterized by the dualism of the subject and the object, and the moral tradition of China, characterized by the integration of man and nature.

  15. Improving the outcome of established therapies for osteoporosis by adding the active D-hormone analog alfacalcidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, J D; Schacht, E

    2007-12-01

    While in other chronic diseases combined treatment regimens are the rule there is a lack of reported experience or study data on combining different specific drugs to treat osteoporosis. Significant differences in the mode of action (MOA) of the substances to be combined may be important for achieving optimal therapeutic results. Recognising that today bisphosphonates are the leading therapy for osteoporosis we suggest that the active D-hormone analog alfacalcidol with its completely different mechanisms of action could be an interesting combination to improve the therapeutic outcome of the pure antiresoptive action of bisphosphonates. Alfacalcidol is activated by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver for systemic and in osteoblasts for local D-hormone actions. It possesses a unique pattern of pleiotropic effects on, e.g. gut, bone, pararthyroids, muscle and brain. Alfacalcidol is superior to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol) because the final kidney activation of the latter is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. In vitamin D replete patients or patients with impaired kidney function no increased D-hormone action at the target tissues can be achieved. Animal studies and several trials in humans with alendronate plus calcitriol or alfacalcidol proved that the combination induced significantly higher increases of bone mineral density (BMD) than the respective mono-therapies. The results of the 2-year AAC-trial from our group indicate that the combination alendronate and alfacalcidol is also superior in terms of falls, fractures and back pain. From the review of the literature and the own new results we conclude that this combined therapeutic regimen is a very promising option for treating established osteoporosis and propose a differentiated use of alfacalcidol alone or the combination with alendronate in different stages and clinical situations of osteoporosis.

  16. A Posteriorly Displaced Distal Metaphyseal Clavicular Fracture (Type IV AC Joint Dislocation-Like in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review Study

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    Ahmed Kotb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle are common in pediatric patients; most of these fractures occur at the physeal level representing Salter Harris injuries. The vast majority of fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle are managed nonoperatively. In this report, we describe a unique type of fracture of the distal end of the clavicle in the pediatric patients in which the fracture occurs in the metaphyseal lateral clavicle with the proximal edge of the fracture displaced posteriorly through the trapezius muscle causing obvious deformity. It is similar in pathology to type IV AC joint dislocation. In this study we report this injury in eleven-year-old boy. Literature review showed that similar injuries were described before three times (two of them in pediatric patients. Due to the significant clinical deformity of this category with entrapment of the bone through the trapezius muscle, reduction (open or closed of the fracture is the recommended treatment.

  17. The Metaphysics of {D-CTCs}: On the Underlying Assumptions of {Deutsch}'s Quantum Solution to the Paradoxes of Time Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse'', and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent ...

  18. Zabójstwo jako akt metafizyczny. Na marginesie dramatu alberta Camusa 'Kaligula' (CRIME AS A METAPHYSICAL ACT. ABOUT ALBERT CAMUS' DRAMA 'CALIGULA'

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    Ireneusz Ziemiński

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the article is the possibility of a crime as such. The analysis of the Caligula's crime motivation presented by Camus leads to conclusion that Caligula used to kill his dependents not by political or psychological reasons (as revenge for his sister's death, frightening of his own death or desire for eternity. It was not also moral motivation (an attempt to confirm his freedom, to realize absolute evil or to call people for authentic life. The main Caligula's motivation is rather metaphysical experience of his sister's death showing the cruelty of gods (they make people to live only to put them to death. According to Caligula, his own crimes are only imitation of gods to show how cruel and nonhuman the order of world is. The conclusion is that the question about the possibility of crime is incorrect, because the crime is essential part of the order of world.

  19. 约翰·邓恩诗歌的玄妙之处%Study on Metaphysical Features of John Donne′s Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春香

    2016-01-01

    约翰·邓恩是17世纪英国玄学派诗歌鼻祖与集大成者,玄学派诗歌以玄妙著称。邓恩的作品是诗人坎坷命运的映像。研究邓恩诗歌的写作内容和写作手法,可以体味到玄学派诗歌的玄妙之处。%Metaphysical poetry in seventeenth century is noted for inventive metaphors with John Donne as the founder and the pre-eminent representative. A study of the contents and writing style of John Donneˊs poems helps to taste the profound meaning of metaphysical poetry.

  20. 阿仑膦酸钠中药属性之临床探析%Clinical Analysis of Properties of Alendronate Sodium Based on the Theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓云; 苏励; 茅建春; 顾军花

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析总结阿仑膦酸钠治疗原发性及继发性骨质疏松症前后症状及不良反应变化情况,并运用中药药性理论对阿仑膦酸钠进行“西药中辨”。方法:通过前瞻性队列研究,观察我院风湿科门诊及病房收治的原发性、继发性骨质疏松患者各30例,均予阿仑膦酸钠每周70 mg口服,治疗6个月后,观察两组腰椎(L2~L4)骨密度变化,同时用中医症状积分法观察60例患者治疗前后症状及不良反应的发生情况。从药物治疗时中医症状变化及不良反应分析其病机,以中药学理论按药物“气味、归经”理论分析阿仑膦酸钠的性味、归经与功效。结果:原发性骨质疏松组治疗前后骨密度较继发性骨质疏松组治疗有显著增加(P<0.05)。中医症状积分方面,两组患者腰背酸痛均有改善(38.9%,61.5%),肢冷畏寒有改善(59.3%,63.2%),关节僵痛有改善(45.34%,47.41%);但亦出现了部分不良反应,口干咽痛加重(-32.2%,-40.5%),烦热加重(-36.6%,-39.3%),失眠多梦加重(-29.5%,-31.2%)。结论:阿仑膦酸钠对原发性及继发性骨质疏松均有增加骨密度的作用,对原发性骨质疏松症效果更显著。阿仑膦酸钠按中药学理论分析,药性属温热,归肾经,有温阳补肾填精作用。临床上根据其药性辨证结合中药治疗,可有效避免其不良反应的发生。%Objective:To study the symptoms and adverse reactions of the primary and secondary osteoporosis (OP) patients before and after taking alendronate sodium,and to analyze alendronate sodium properties based on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Methods:A prospective cohort study was performed. OP patients from the clinic and ward of the rheumatology department were enrolled. There were 30 patients with primary osteoporosis and 30 patients with secondary osteoporosis. All the 60 patients were given oral

  1. Metaphyseal locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures--clinical outcome and a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Lin, Ting-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated both the outcome of using a locking plate as a definitive external fixator for treating open tibial fractures and, using finite element analysis, the biomechanical performance of external and internal metaphyseal locked plates in treating proximal tibial fractures. Eight open tibial patients were treated using a metaphyseal locked plate as a low-profile definitive external fixator. Then, finite element models of internal (IPF) as well as two different external plate fixations (EPFs) for proximal tibial fractures were reconstructed. The offset distances from the bone surface to the EPFs were 6 cm and 10 cm. Both axial stiffness and angular stiffness were calculated to evaluate the biomechanical performance of these three models. The mean follow-up period was 31 months (range, 18-43 months). All the fractures united and the mean bone healing time was 37.5 weeks (range, 20-52 weeks). All patients had excellent or good functional results and were walking freely at the final follow-up. The finite element finding revealed that axial stiffness and angular stiffness decreased as the offset distance from the bone surface increased. Compared to the IPF models, in the two EPF models, axial stiffness decreased by 84-94%, whereas the angular stiffness decreased by 12-21%. The locking plate used as a definitive external fixator provided a high rate of union. While the locking plate is not totally rigid, it is clinically stable and may be advisable for stiffness reduction of plating constructs, thus promoting fracture healing by callus formation. Our patients experienced a comfortable clinical course, excellent knee and ankle joint motion, satisfactory functional results and an acceptable complication rate.

  2. To Analysis the Clinical Effect of Xianlinggubao Capsule Combined with Alendronate Sodium in the Treatment of Osteoporosis%仙灵骨葆联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗骨质疏松症的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周油山; 邱林; 叶会桃; 何忠明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究针对骨质疏松患者行仙灵骨葆胶囊联合阿仑膦酸钠肠溶片口服药物治疗的临床疗效。方法:择取2014年1月至2015年12月赣州市大余县人民医院收治的骨质疏松患者142例作为本次研究对象,按照患者的入院时间先后顺序随机将其等分为研究组和参照组,每组各包含71例患者,参照组患者行碳酸钙D3片和阿仑膦酸钠肠溶片口服药物治疗,研究组患者在参照组患者的服药治疗方案基础上,联合实施仙灵骨葆胶囊口服药物治疗,观察比较两组患者的治疗有效率、骨转换生化标志物以及骨密度水平。结果:研究组患者的治疗有效率显著高于参照组,组间数据差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。治疗后,研究组患者和参照组患者的骨转换生化标志物水平均显著降低,骨密度水平均显著提升,前后数据差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). After treatment, the biochemical markers of bone turnover in the study group and the control group were significantly decreased; the level of bone mineral density was significantly improved (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density between the study group and the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: For osteoporosis patients, Xianlinggubao capsule combined with alendronate sodium enteric coated tablets oral drug treatment, can significantly improve treatment efficiency, decrease bone turnover biochemical markers of physiological indexes, improve bone mineral density, improve body comfort and quality of life, thus, it is worth promoting in clinics.

  3. Heidegger leitor de Nietzsche: a metafísica da vontade de potência como consumação da metafísica ocidental Heidegger reader of Nietzsche: a metaphysics of the will power as a consummation of Western metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley J. Ferreira Jr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos básicos da leitura heideggeriana de Nietzsche. As possibilidades e as possíveis distorções operadas por tal interpretação em alguns conceitos fundamentais do pensamento nietzschiano. Num primeiro momento, explicitam-se as duas atitudes de Heidegger diante da história da filosofia e de seus principais pensadores, em momentos diferentes de seu pensamento. Em seguida, analisa-se, com um certo distanciamento crítico, em que sentido, conforme Heidegger, ocorre a consumação da metafísica do sujeito pensante [Descartes] na metafísica da vontade de potência e na ideia de além do homem, em Nietzsche.This article presents the basic aspects of Heidegger's reading of Nietzsche and the possibilities and possible distortions of this interpretation with regard to some basic concepts of Nietzschean thought. First, we make explicit two different attitudes of Heidegger toward the history of philosophy and its leading thinkers, as found in different periods of Heidegger's thought. Secondly we analyze, with a certain critical distance, in what sense, according to Heidegger, metaphysics is the consummation of the thinking subject (Descartes in the metaphysics of the will to power and the idea of beyond man in Nietzsche.

  4. PTH1-34 Alleviates Radiotherapy-induced Local Bone Loss by Improving Osteoblast and Osteocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Tribble, Mary Beth; Zhu, Ji; Altman, Allison R.; Tseng, Weiju; Zhang, Yejia; Akintoye, Sunday O.; Cengel, Keith; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Cancer radiotherapy is often complicated by a spectrum of changes in the neighboring bone from mild osteopenia to osteoradionecrosis. We previously reported that parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1–34), an anabolic agent for osteoporosis, reversed bone structural deterioration caused by multiple microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans in adolescent rats. To simulate clinical radiotherapy for cancer patients and to search for remedies, we focally irradiated the tibial metaphyseal region of adult rats with a newly available small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) and treated these rats with intermittent injections of PTH1–34. Using a unique 3D image registration method that we recently developed, we traced the local changes of the same trabecular bone before and after treatments, and observed that, while radiation caused a loss of small trabecular elements leading to significant decreases in bone mass and strength, PTH1–34 preserved all trabecular elements in irradiated bone with remarkable increases in bone mass and strength. Histomorphometry demonstrated that SARRP radiation severely reduced osteoblast number and activity, which were impressively reversed by PTH treatment. In contrast, suppressing bone resorption by alendronate failed to rescue radiation-induced bone loss and to block the rescue effect of PTH1–34. Furthermore, histological analyses revealed that PTH1–34 protected osteoblasts and osteocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis and attenuated radiation-induced bone marrow adiposity. Taken together, our data strongly support a robust radioprotective effect of PTH on trabecular bone integrity through preserving bone formation and shed light on further investigations of an anabolic therapy for radiation-induced bone damage. PMID:24998454

  5. Ação local do alendronato sódico na reparação óssea de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR Local action of sodium alendronate in bone repair of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR

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    Mônica Dal Pian Nobre

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão arterial é uma desordem caracterizada por alterações relevantes no tecido ósseo. O alendronato sódico tem indicação no tratamento de doenças ósseas, por causa de sua afinidade pela hidroxiapatita, inibindo as reabsorções ósseas. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ação local do alendronato sódico na reparação óssea de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR. MÉTODOS: Um defeito ósseo foi criado no fêmur esquerdo de 80 ratos. De acordo com o material utilizado no local, criaram-se quatro grupos: controle (C, amido (Am, alendronato 1 mol (A1 e alendronato 2 mol (A2. Após 7 e 21 dias, os animais foram sacrificados. Foram realizadas análises histológicas e histomorfométricas e os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (5%. RESULTADOS: Aos 7 dias, observou-se, na área do defeito, tecido conjuntivo com hemorragia e inflamação em todos os grupos. Alguns apresentavam matriz osteóide. Os grupos A1 e A2 apresentaram, ainda, uma rede de fibrina. Aos 21 dias, as trabéculas ósseas fechavam praticamente a extensão do defeito nos grupos C e Am. No grupo A1 de animais machos, observaram-se trabéculas que se irradiavam do canal medular até a área do defeito. Nos grupos A1 e A2, constatou-se apenas a presença de tecido conjuntivo com mínima deposição de osteóide. Um achado histológico marcante foi a formação de tecido ósseo extracortical subperiosteal nos animais dos grupos A1 e A2. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a administração do alendronato sódico não contribuiu para o reparo ósseo nos ratos SHR, mas possivelmente tenha sido responsável pelas formações ósseas extracorticais observadas.BACKGROUND: The arterial hypertension is a disorder characterized by relevant alterations in the bone tissue. The sodium alendronate is indicated in the treatment of bone diseases, because of its affinity with the hydroxyapatite, inhibiting the bone reabsorptions. OBJECTIVE: To analyze

  6. 马克思对现代性形而上学基础的批判及其哲学革命%The Basis of Marx's Critique and the Philosophy of Modern Metaphysics of Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明娣

    2012-01-01

    Various contradictions of modernity behind its profound metaphysical foundation are the philosophy of modem rational- ism, in other words, modem philosophy, hut modem rationalism of the "root. " Radical critique of modernity led Marx to the modem requirements of the metaphysical basis of modern rational philosophy of the two foundations the abstract and the abstract body to criticism, to overcome the metaphysical way of thinking, then move toward philosophical revolution, the final creation of the practice as the fundamental point of view of its philosophy of "new materialism. " Therefore, the basis of Marx's metaphysics of the modem philos- ophy of criticism of modem rationalism is the philosophy of the revolutionary path appearance of reality, and its philosophy of revolution is its radical critique of modern philosophy conclusions. In other words, the modern basis of modem rationalism and its metaphysical philosophy and Marx's philosophical revolution is not by chance among the external implications, but integral to inter-related with.%现代性诸矛盾现象背后有其深刻的形而上学基础,这就是近代理性主义哲学。对现代性批判的彻底性要求导致马克思对现代性的形而上学基础近代理性主义哲学的两大根基——抽象本体和抽象的人进行批判,颠覆其形而上学的思维方式,进而走向哲学革命,最终创立以实践作为其哲学根本观点的"新唯物主义"。因此,马克思对近代理性主义哲学的批判是其哲学革命出场的现实路径,而其哲学革命则是其现代性批判彻底化的哲学结论。

  7. The influence of ovariectomy, simvastatin and sodium alendronate on alveolar bone in rats Influência da ovariectomia, da sinvastatina e do alendronato sódico no osso alveolar em ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lia Anbinder

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of many diseases involving increased bone resorption such as osteoporosis. Statins have been widely used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and recent studies have shown that these drugs are also capable of stimulating bone formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of an estrogen deficient state and the effects of simvastatin and sodium alendronate therapies on alveolar bone in female rats. Fifty-four rats were either ovariectomized (OVX or sham operated. A month later, the animals began to receive a daily dose of simvastatin (SIN - 25 mg/kg, sodium alendronate (ALN - 2 mg/kg or water (control orally. Thirty-five days after the beginning of the treatment, the rats were sacrificed and their left hemimandibles were removed and radiographed using digital X-ray equipment. The alveolar radiographic density under the first molar was determined with gray-level scaling and the values were submitted to analysis of variance (a = 5%. Ovariectomized rats gained more weight (mean ± standard deviation: 20.06 ± 6.68% than did the sham operated animals (12.13 ± 5.63%. Alveolar radiographic density values, expressed as gray levels, were lowest in the OVX-water group (183.49 ± 6.47, and differed significantly from those observed for the groups receiving alendronate (sham-ALN: 193.85 ± 3.81; OVX-ALN: 196.06 ± 5.11 and from those of the sham-water group (193.66 ± 4.36. Other comparisons between groups did not show significant differences. It was concluded that the ovariectomy reduced alveolar bone density and that alendronate was efficient for the treatment of this condition.Os bisfosfonatos são empregados atualmente para o tratamento de várias doenças caracterizadas pelo aumento da reabsorção óssea, como a osteoporose. As estatinas são amplamente utilizadas para redução de níveis elevados de colesterol e estudos recentes têm revelado sua ação anabólica no osso

  8. LAS CRÍTICAS DE ARISTÓTELES A PLATÓN EN METAFÍSICA I, 9 ARISTOTLE’S CRITICISMS OF PLATO IN METAPHYSICS I, 9

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    Silvana Gabriela Di Camillo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O recurso à exposição crítica das doutrinas anteriores é um procedimento metodológico usual em Aristóteles. Mas a característica distintiva do Livro I da Metafísica é que, ao invés de estabelecer uma nova doutrina, o exame dos predecessores serve para confirmar os próprios conceitos aristotélicos, os quais ele usa para avaliar os êxitos e os erros das doutrinas analisadas. Essa imposição de conceitos próprios lhe valeu a acusação de ter uma compreensão histórica distorcida. Com a análise detalhada das críticas da teoria platônica das Idéias na Metafísica I, 9, pretendemos mostrar: a que as críticas de manipulação e distorção das opiniões dos seus antecessores ofuscam o grau em que as suas próprias posições emergem de uma análise crítica do pensamento anterior; e b que a imposição de conceitos próprios não é uma distorção, mas uma proposta de solução para os problemas que as teorias anteriores deixaram sem solução.

    The use of critical exposition of previous doctrines is a methodological procedure usual in Aristotle. But the distinctive characteristic of Book I of the Metaphysics is that, rather than to establish a new doctrine, a review of  predecessors serves to confirm the own concepts to be used in the evaluation of the doctrines examined. This imposition of own terms has cost him the charge of distorting historical understanding. With the detailed analysis of the criticisms of Plato's theory of Ideas in Metaphysics I, 9, we intend to show a that the criticism of manipulation and distortion of his predecessors' views overshadow the degree to which Aristotle's own positions emerge from a critical review of previous thought and b that the

  9. Métaphysique du désir The metaphysics of desireThe intentions of spirits and (reactions of humans among the Kulung (Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Schlemmer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente, du point de vue des Kulung, une population de l’Himalaya népalais, les actions des esprits sur les hommes et leurs motivations supposées, ainsi que les réactions des hommes et leurs effets escomptés. Il en ressort une métaphysique implicite du désir où les désirs sont conçus comme conditionnant l’action des esprits. Ces désirs spirituels influencent le cycle d’économie énergétique qui lie les Kulung aux esprits et qui est animé par une quête de vitalité : certains esprits favorisent cette vitalité alors que d’autres la contrarient. Les actions des esprits sur la vie humaine, et les réactions qu’elles impliquent, ont aussi pour effet d’engendrer des modalités d’action sur le monde qui s’inscrivent dans une dynamique oscillant entre la retenue et l’assouvissement des désirs.From the perspective of the Kulung, a population of the Nepalese Himalaya, this article presents the actions of spirits upon men and the presumed motives behind them, as well as men’s reactions to them and their anticipated effects. From this emerges an implicit metaphysics of desire in which desires are conceived as conditioning the actions of spirits. These spiritual desires influence the energy economy cycle that links the Kulung to spirits and is driven by a search for vitality; some spirits favour this vitality while others thwart it. The actions of spirits upon human life, and the reactions they entail, also have the effect of engendering in men modes of action that are part of a dynamic that oscillates between the restraint and the acknowledgement of desires.

  10. 军事装备理论研究的形而上学蓝图%On the Metaphysics Blueprint of Theoretical Study of Military Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉树

    2013-01-01

    Philosophy of military equipment would be the inherent soul of the development of military equipment. The theoretical study of military equipment must be reflected on roundly from the point of view of metaphysics. The intension and extension of series of concepts, such as science of military equipment, theory of military equipment, philosophical problems in military equipment and philosophy of military equipment, as well as all their academic norms associated with must be studied. It is the only way of enriching, deepening, developing and perfecting the theoretical study of military equipment. It must be essential for the awareness of transcendence and possibility to theoretical study of military equipment. One must be go to the possible world from the real world out of all the everyday work experience and countermeasure research, so as to catch big ideas, and promote the development of military equipment toward a new future constantly.%军事装备哲学是军事装备发展的灵魂.从形而上学层面全面反思军事装备理论研究,明确军事装备学、军事装备论、军事装备中的哲学问题和军事装备哲学等概念的内涵、外延及其学术规范,是丰富、深化、发展和完善军事装备理论研究的必由之路.军事装备理论研究应当具有一种超越意识和可能意识,从现实世界走向可能世界,从日常的工作经验与对策研究中解脱出来,拓宽视野,才能够引领军事装备建设不断地走向新的未来.

  11. The fate of the hip in spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia: clinical and radiological evaluation of adults with SEMD Handigodu type

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    Siddesh, N.D.; Shah, Hitesh; Joseph, Benjamin [Kasturba Medical College, Paediatric Orthopaedic Service, Manipal, Karnataka State (India)

    2012-08-15

    This study was undertaken to document the fate of the hip with reference to its structure and function in patients with spondylo-epi-metaphyseal dysplasia tarda Handigodu type (SEMD{sub HG}). Radiographs of 271 adult patients with SEMD{sub HG} were studied to identify the pattern of long-term sequelae in the hips. Several measurements of the proximal femur and acetabulum were made to quantify morphological alterations in the hip. Fifty-four adult patients were examined and administered a questionnaire to evaluate the extent of disability attributable to the hips. Three patterns of changes in the hips were noted: 35% had acetabular protrusio, 33% had subluxation of the hip, and 32% had no protrusio or subluxation. Distinctly different anthropometric measurements and dimensional alterations around the hip were noted in these three patterns. Patients with protrusio were relatively tall while those with subluxation were the shortest. All the patients had developed degenerative arthritis of the hips by the fourth decade of life irrespective of the pattern of hip involvement. The reduction in the range of hip motion and fixed deformities were most severe in patients with protrusio. All the patients had significant disability and very low functional hip scores. Degenerative arthritis of the hip develops in the majority of patients with SEMD{sub HG}; the symptoms are severe enough to warrant reconstructive surgery by the fourth decade of life. Protrusio or subluxation develops in a third of the patients each; both these complications will influence the surgical approach if total hip arthroplasty is planned. (orig.)

  12. 锝[99Tc]亚甲基二膦酸盐注射液和阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年骨质疏松症的临床疗效对比观察%Comparison of clinic efficacy between 99 Tc-MDP and alendronate in patients with senile osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘卫民; 王身坚; 颜卫文; 谢权; 周影; 王超群

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of 99Tc-MDP and alendronate therapy on senile osteoporosis. METHODS: Adult patients (n= 80) with senile osteoporosis were randomized into Group alendronate (n = 40) and Group 99Tc-MDP (n = 40 ), all patients were given full dosage of calcium agent and vitamin D therapy. Group alendronate (w = 40) were given alendronate; Group 99Tc-MDP ( n = 40 ) were given 99Tc-MDP. After treatment, the efficacy was evaluated by the digital analog score (VAS) of the pain and detecting bone mineral density(BMD). RESULTS: After treatment, the lumbodorsal pain scores were decreased in twogroups. While the efficacy of odynolysis in Group 99 Tc-MDP was faster and better than that in Group alendronate(P<0. 05); the BMD of two groups were increased to some extent , the peak clinical efficacy appeared at six months in Group 99 Tc-MDP ( P < 0. 05 ). CONCLUSION: " TcMDP decreases pain more quickly and obviously, and can also increase the BMD in patients with severe senile osteoporosis. Alendronate shows higher safety in long-term treatment of senile osteoporosis.%目的:观察锝[99 Tc]亚甲基二膦酸盐注射液(云克)和阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年性骨质疏松症患者的临床疗效与安全性.方法:采用随机对照方法,80例骨质疏松患者分为阿仑膦酸钠组(n=40)和云克组(n=40),两组服用足量基础药物钙剂和维生素D同时分别增行阿仑膦酸钠和云克的治疗.疗程结束后,用数字模拟评分法(VAS)及测定骨密度(BMD)评定疗效.结果:阿仑膦酸钠组、云克组两组治疗后腰背痛均有缓解,组间比较云克组止痛起效快,改善最为显著(P<0.05).阿仑膦酸钠组、云克组两组治疗后BMD均有一定增加,BMD的增加以云克组治疗后6个月最为显著(P<0.05).结论:对于严重的老年骨质疏松症,云克可在短期内迅速缓解疼痛,增加BMD.阿仑膦酸钠安全性较好,在老年骨质疏松症的长期药物治疗中具有极大的优越性.

  13. Effect and impact of alendronate on arteriosclerosis in postmenopausal patients with diabetic osteoporosis%阿仑膦酸钠治疗绝经后糖尿病性骨质疏松的疗效及对动脉硬化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丹军; 王征; 任洪丽; 孙秀娟; 周菁荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of alendronate sodium in treatment of postmenopausal diabetic osteo-porosis( DOP) and effect on atherosclerosis( AS) .Methods 86 cases of postmenopausal DOP patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with 43 cases in each group.All patients were given Caltrate D oral based on quantified diet, exercise therapy and blood sugar control, the treatment group was treated with Allen alendronate 70 mg/week for 6 months.Bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers and area of plaque and intima-media thickness (IMT) changes between the 2 groups were observed.Results After treatment, BMD and bone turnover markers were significantly improved in the treatment group ( P 0.05).After the treatment, the treatment group’ s carotid plaque area reduced obviously, IMT was obviously thinning ( t =2.64, 4.61, P 0.05).Plaque area were negative correlated with lumbar L2~4 BMD ( r =-0.578, P <0.05), IMT was negatively correlated with Wards triangle and Troch BMD (r =-0.591, -0.541, P <0.05).Conclusion Postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of postmenopausal diabetic osteoprosis, Allen phosphonic acid sodium in treatment of postmenopausal DOP is safe and effective, can significantly increase the bone density, decrease bone conversion level, and has a certain role in the prevention and treatment of atheroscle-rosis.%目的:探讨阿仑膦酸钠治疗绝经后糖尿病性骨质疏松(DOP)患者的疗效及其对动脉硬化(AS)的影响。方法将绝经后DOP患者86例随机分为治疗组和对照组各43例。所有患者均在量化饮食、运动治疗及控制血糖的基础上给予钙尔奇D口服,治疗组加用阿仑膦酸钠70 mg/周,连服6个月。观察2组患者骨密度( BMD)、骨转换指标及斑块面积和内膜中层厚度( IMT)的变化。结果治疗后治疗组各部位BMD及骨转换指标均较治疗前显著改善( P <0.05),且L2~4、

  14. Clinical study on" xian ling gu bao" plus alendronate in treating osteoporosis of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang%仙灵骨葆联合阿伦膦酸钠治疗肾阳亏虚型骨质疏松症的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚建程; 陈圣华; 徐卫国; 鲁光钱

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察研究仙灵骨葆联合阿伦膦酸钠治疗肾阳亏虚型骨质疏松症的临床疗效.方法:通过随机对照试验设计,对90例肾阳亏虚型骨质疏松症患者分组,在常规治疗的基础上,设立治疗组(仙灵骨葆联合阿伦膦酸钠)及2组对照组(仙灵骨葆组A、阿伦膦酸钠组B),观察临床疗效、肾阳亏虚型症状及骨密度改变.结果:治疗后三组均有疗效,治疗组和对照组A及对照组B比较,均有统计学意义,治疗组疗效显著优于对照组,肾阳亏虚型症状及骨密度均有显著改变(P <0.001),而且治疗组优于对照组.结论:仙灵骨葆联合阿伦膦酸钠治疗肾阳亏虚型骨质疏松症方面有良好的疗效.%To study the clinical effects of xian ling gu bao plus alendronate on osteoporosis of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang. Methods: By random number generating method, 90 osteoporosis of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang patients were randomly divided into a treatment group with xian ling gu bao plus alendronate, control group A only with xian ling gu bao, and control group B only with alendronate. To investigate the change of the clinical effects, the symptom of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang and the bone mineral density (BMD) after recording of the treatments. Results; There were significant differences before and after treatment, between treatment group and the control group A, between treatment group and the control group B. There wcrc significant differences between the treatment groups and the control groups. There was significant difference about the symptom of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang and the bone mineral density (BMD) after recording of the treatments (P <0.001) , and the treatment group was better than the control group. Conclusions: xian ling gu bao plus alendronate has definite therapeutic effects on osteoporosis of insufficiency of the kidney-Yang.

  15. Adorno’s criticism of Metaphysics in the Negative Dialectics%浅析阿多诺《否定的辩证法》中的形而上学批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓丹

    2014-01-01

    Adorno criticized metaphysics in his book, Negative Dialectics.The main target are the identity, concept imperialism and system which among the traditional metaphysics. He think the identity thought need to be criticized because it destroy the variety and peculiar in the phenomenon world and want to dispel every contradiction. Meantime, Adorno also repudiate Heidegger' view of metaphysics ,especially the his concept of Being and Existential ontology. In the end , Adorno bring forward his negative dialectics and constellation concept where the negative dialectics lives in.%阿多诺在《否定的辩证法》一书中对形而上学进行了批判,主要批判了形而上学传统中的同一性思维、概念帝国主义以及体系性。阿多诺认为同一性思想破坏了现象界的多样性和特殊性,妄图消解一切矛盾是需要批判的。同时,阿多诺也批判了海德格尔的形而上学观,特别是海德格尔的存在概念和基础本体论。最后,阿多诺提出了自己的否定的辩证法并且建构了这一理论存在的空间-星丛。否定的辩证法强调非同一性和彻底的否定性,注重特殊性和个别性。

  16. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis of bone strength at the distal radius in ovariectomized adult rhesus monkey demonstrate efficacy of odanacatib and differentiation from alendronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Antonio; Jayakar, Richa Y; Sardesai, Swanand; Phillips, Eual A; Szumiloski, John; Posavec, Diane J; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Scott, Boyd B; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Motzel, Sherri; Cook, Lynn; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; McCracken, Paul J; Duong, Le T; Williams, Donald S

    2013-10-01

    Translational evaluation of disease progression and treatment response is critical to the development of therapies for osteoporosis. In this study, longitudinal in-vivo monitoring of odanacatib (ODN) treatment efficacy was compared to alendronate (ALN) in ovariectomized (OVX) non-human primates (NHPs) using high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Treatment effects were evaluated using several determinants of bone strength, density and quality, including volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), three-dimensional structure, finite element analysis (FEA) estimated peak force and biomechanical properties at the ultradistal (UD) radius at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of dosing in three treatment groups: vehicle (VEH), low ODN (2 mg/kg/day, L-ODN), and ALN (30 μg/kg/week). Biomechanical axial compression tests were performed at the end of the study. Bone strength estimates using FEA were validated by ex-vivo mechanical compression testing experiments. After 18months of dosing, L-ODN demonstrated significant increases from baseline in integral vBMD (13.5%), cortical thickness (24.4%), total bone volume fraction BV/TV (13.5%), FEA-estimated peak force (26.6%) and peak stress (17.1%), respectively. Increases from baseline for L-ODN at 18 months were significantly higher than that for ALN in DXA-based aBMD (7.6%), cortical thickness (22.9%), integral vBMD (12.2%), total BV/TV (10.1%), FEA peak force (17.7%) and FEA peak stress (11.5%), respectively. These results demonstrate a superior efficacy of ODN treatment compared to ALN at the UD radii in ovariectomized NHPs.

  17. Influence of treatment with alendronate on the speed of sound, an ultrasound parameter, of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis: a clinical practice-based observational study

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    Iwamoto J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto,1 Tetsuya Takada,2 Yoshihiro Sato,3 Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hiyoshi Medical Clinic, Kanagawa, 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanPurpose: The influence of alendronate (ALN treatment on the quantitative ultrasound parameters of the calcaneus remains to be established in Japanese patients. The aim of the present clinical practice-based observational study was to examine the influence of ALN treatment for 1 year on the speed of sound (SOS of the calcaneus and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Patients and methods: Forty-five postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis who had received treatment with ALN for more than 1 year were enrolled in the study. The SOS and bone turnover markers were monitored over 1 year of ALN treatment.Results: The urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly from the baseline values (–44.9% at 3 months and –22.2% at 12 months, respectively. The SOS increased modestly, but significantly, from the baseline value (0.6% at both 6 and 12 months. The percentage decrease in the urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen at 3 months was significantly correlated with the percentage increase in the SOS only at 6 months (correlation coefficient, 0.299.Conclusion: The present study confirmed that ALN treatment suppressed bone turnover, producing a clinically significant increase in the SOS of the calcaneus in postmenopausal Japanese women with osteoporosis.Keywords: postmenopausal osteoporosis, quantitative ultrasound (QUS, SOS, bone turnover, biochemical markers

  18. Open, Prospective, Multi-Center, Two-Part Study of Patient Preference with Monthly Ibandronate Therapy in Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Switched From Daily or Weekly Alendronate or Risendronate-BONCURE: Results of Turkish Sub-Study

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    Nurten Eskiyurt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: BONCURE (Bonviva for Current Bisphosphonate Users Regional European Trial, aimed to evaluate patient preference with monthly ibandronate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis who previously received daily or weekly alendronate or risendronate. Materials and Methods: This prospective, open-label study consisted of two sequential stages, Part A (screening and Part B (treatment. Patients enrolled into Part A completed the Candidate Identification Questionnaire (CIQ. In Part B, after completing the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (OPSATQ, patients received monthly oral ibandronate 150 mg for 6 months. Following treatment, patients completed the OPSAT-Q and Preference Questionnaire. Results: A total of 223 patients (mean age, 63.7±9.51 years were enrolled in Part A from Turkey. Among them, 103 (46.2% answered “YES” to at least one CIQ question. The mean composite OPSAT-Q domain scores increased for convenience (mean change, 15.3±17.7 points, quality of life (10.4±20.4 points, overall satisfaction (11.9±22.7 points, and side effects (3.3±18.8 points. At month 6, 177 subjects (92.7% preferred once-monthly dosing schedule and 99.0% were compliant (≥80% with study treatment. Thirty (15.6% subjects experienced mild to moderate adverse events, mostly gastrointestinal. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis prefer and are more satisfied and compliant with monthly dosing of ibandronate than daily or weekly bisphosphonate treatment. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2012;18:1-7

  19. Efectos de los productos de glicación avanzada (AGEs y alendronato sobre el desarrollo osteoclástico: posibles mecanismos de acción Effect of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Alendronate on osteoclastic development: possible mechanisms of action

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    María Virginia Gangoiti

    2012-03-01

    effect of AGEs and Alendronate (an N-containing BP on the development of Oc in culture, as well as possible mechanisms of action involved in these effects. Materials and Methods: RAW264.7 macrophages and UMR106 osteoblasts were co-cultured for 8 days, with BSA or AGEs (50-200 µg/ml, with or without Alendronate (10-8-10-4M. The effect of these culture conditions on Oc formation was evaluated (number of Oc, cell-associated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase [TRAP] activity, as well as Oc expression of RAGE (receptor for AGEs, and osteoblastic expression of RANK ligand (RANKL. These last two parameters were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence, in order to estimate the expression and sub-cellular distribution of both membrane-associated proteins. Results: AGEs (50-200 µg/ml dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity (10-30 % and the number of multinucleated Oc (55 %. Similar results were observed for low doses of Alendronate (10-8M-10-6M. The co-incubation of low doses of Alendronate with 100 mg/ml of AGEs, did not induce an additional inhibition of TRAP activity or Oc number, to that observed for AGEs alone. High levels of Alendronate (10-5M-10-4M inhibited Oc TRAP activity (20-25 % inhibition versus BSA, and 17 % versus AGEs, and also decreased the number of Oc formed in the presence of AGEs (16 % inhibition versus AGEs. Oc incubated in the presence of 100 µg/ml AGEs, showed a significant increase in the expression of RAGE (152 % versus BSA. Similar results were found after incubating with 10-8M Alendronate (130 % versus BSA. On the contrary, high doses of Alendronate (10-5M did not affect the expression of RAGE in co-cultures incubated with BSA (95 % versus BSA. On the other hand, low doses of Alendronate in the presence of AGEs, did not affect the up-regulation of RAGE induced by AGEs (145 % versus BSA. However, when the Oc were co-incubated with AGEs and 10-5M Alendronate, this dose of BP was able to block the stimulation of RAGE expression induced by AGEs (105

  20. Value Criticism of Thinking Logic and Historical Logic-Important Part of Metaphysics Criticism%价值的思维逻辑和历史逻辑批判--形而上学批判的重要内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路红芳

    2014-01-01

    Metaphysics criticism is a major trend of modern philosophy,with value criticism as its ultimate purport.Specifical_ly,there are double meanings with metaphysics criticism:thinking Logic and historical logic.Through them,modern philosophy has achieved the philosophical paradigm shift and logical transition,also completed a value-based critique and reconstruction.%形而上学批判是现代哲学一大潮流,而这一批判的最终旨归是价值批判。具体来讲,形而上学的价值论批判包括两重含义:思维逻辑批判和历史逻辑批判,通过这双重批判,现代哲学实现了哲学理性范式的转换和自身逻辑的跃迁,并完成了一次价值基础的批判与重建。

  1. Metaphysical Presuppositions of Modern Science

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    Ernest Wolf-Gazo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay intends to show that science, especially the natural sciences, operate on presuppositions. In a nutshell view of aspects of the history of science the presuppositions, as part of the relevant historical context, operate within the scientific enterprise. Science used to be views as positivist and final; yet, the logic of methodology, from E.A. Burtt to T.S. Kuhn and Karl Popper show that presuppositions are part of the scientific research. Particularly the pioneering work of the archeologist and philosopher R.G. Collingwood and the seminal thinker S.N. Nasr, who opened the doors for the inquiry of the role of science within Islamic Civilization, are highlighted. We show that the tension between the humanities (human sciences and the natural sciences still exist and need to be explored on a global level, especially as to their cultural presuppositions involved.

  2. MSM Poems: Haiku: Philosophy, metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Brenner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unexpectedly /I slip upon certainty /So I unravel***In the beginning,/Though I can't recall, I'm sure,/Therein lies my end.***I sat by water/ As the sun rose before me/ A Sandwich of Life***In expectations -/ In their very subversion -/ There lies the sublime.***Take lead from the Fool:/ Knowing nothing, nothing hurts./ All is feasible.***What is worse than hate?/ An ass, between two hay bales/ Starving to its death***Clouded behind words/ In time clouds pass, but so too/ Does that which they shroud***A star darts away/ Failing to see, all the while/ It's already caught***Are humans that scared/ Of a reality that/ They cannot cling to?***Tracing the path back/ Each day a new regression -/ I find my future

  3. Energy: Between Physics and Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunge, Mario

    2000-01-01

    The general concept of energy is somewhat unclear as long as it is confined to physics since every chapter of it defines its own particular concept of energy. The general concept can be elucidated in terms of the hypergeneral concepts of concrete things and changeability. Concludes that physicists and philosophers can learn from one another.…

  4. Eldecalcitol improves muscle strength and dynamic balance in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: an open-label randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimio; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Matsunaga, Toshiki; Hongo, Michio; Kasukawa, Yuji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    The antifracture efficacy of vitamin D in osteoporosis is due to its direct action on bones and indirect extraskeletal effects to prevent falls. Eldecalcitol is an analog of active vitamin D3 that improves bone mineral density and reduces the risk of osteoporotic fractures. However, the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance are unclear. In this open-label randomized controlled study, we assessed the effects of eldecalcitol on muscle strength and static and dynamic postural balance in 50 postmenopausal women (mean age 74 years) with osteoporosis treated with bisphosphonate. Participants were randomly divided into a bisphosphonate group (alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) or an eldecalcitol group (eldecalcitol at 0.75 μg/day and alendronate at 35 mg/week; n = 25) and were followed up for 6 months. Trunk muscle strength, including back extensor strength and iliopsoas muscle strength, was measured. Static standing balance was evaluated and the one leg standing test was performed to assess static postural balance. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated and the 10-m walk test, functional reach test, and timed up and go test were performed to assess dynamic postural balance. At 6 months, there were no significant changes in any measure of muscle strength or balance in the bisphosphonate group, whereas eldecalcitol significantly increased back extensor strength (p = 0.012) and iliopsoas muscle strength (p = 0.035). Eldecalcitol also significantly improved findings on the timed up and go test (p = 0.001) and dynamic sitting balance (p = 0.015) at 6 months. These results with eldecalcitol may have an impact on prevention of falls.

  5. Osteoporosis grave con aplastamientos vertebrales en dermatomiositis juvenil: Efecto del tratamiento con alendronato oral Severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes in juvenile dermatomyositis: Effect of oral alendronate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Los glucocorticoides son usados comúnmente para el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias, autoinmunes, enfermedades malignas, y en la prevención de rechazo de órganos trasplantados. Un efecto secundario frecuente del tratamiento prolongado es la pérdida de masa ósea que se produce por varios mecanismos y es causa de osteoporosis y fracturas vertebrales. El tratamiento con disfosfonatos ha sido propuesto para esta situación. Presentamos un caso clínico de osteoporosis grave en una niña con dermatomiositis juvenil, que respondió favorablemente al tratamiento con disfosfonatos orales.Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, cancer, and in prevention of organ rejects. A frequent secondary effect of longterm treatment with corticoids is the loss of bone mass, caused by several mechanisms: decrease in the intestinal calcium absorption, increase of the renal calcium excretion at the distal renal tubule, suppressive effect on the osteoblast and also in apoptosis of osteoclasts, inhibition in local production of IGF I (Insulin-like growth factor and IGFBPs (binding IGF I proteins necessary for bone metabolism, and decrease on osteocalcin production. Longterm treatment with corticoids is associated with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. To improve this condition, treatment with bisphosphonates has been proposed. We present here a clinical case of a girl with dermatomyositis and severe osteoporosis with vertebral crushes, who responded well to oral bisphophonate treatment.

  6. How is Non-metaphysical Ethics Possible---On the Methodology of Hume′s Ethics%非形而上学的伦理学如何可能--休谟伦理学方法论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄济鳌

    2014-01-01

    传统理性主义伦理学认为,道德是理性认识永恒的是非标准并通过自由意志指导行为的结果。休谟将经验主义贯彻到底,导致了伦理学方法论上的非形而上学转向,认为理性不能认识超经验的是非标准,因而自由意志和理性的能动作用就失去了依据,他进而提出情感才是道德区别的标准和伦理学研究的主要对象。休谟据此建立的以情感进步观为基本特征的德性伦理学对西方现代伦理学的发展产生了深远影响。%According to traditional rationalism ethics, a behavior is virtuous because it is guided by free will subject to reason that can find eternal standard about right and wrong. Hume carries through empiricism and leads to the turn of ethical methodology from metaphysics to non-metaphysics, and thinks reason can not obtain the metempirical standard about right and wrong, so there is no basis for the initiative of reason and free will. Furthermore Hume puts forward that moral sentiments are the main research objects of ethics, and are the standards which distinguish between virtues and vices. Hume has further established virtue ethics of sentimentalism, which is characterized by the view of the progress of sentiments, and which has a far-reaching impact on the development of modern western ethics.

  7. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  8. 被窃的侦探小说:帕慕克玄学侦探小说论%The Purloined Detective Fiction:On Orhan Pamuk’s Metaphysical Detective Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉洪

    2015-01-01

    奥尔罕·帕慕克的侦探小说特点已经引起国内外学界的注意,然而现有的研究未将帕慕克与传统侦探小说从本质上进行区分。《我的名字叫红》《黑书》《雪》等作品属于反侦探小说或称玄学侦探小说范畴。作者“窃取”和改写传统侦探小说文本,颠覆传统的侦探形象和情节结构,质疑认知的有效性和真理的一元性,动摇理性王国和“我思”的本体性地位,体现出不可知论和反一元论的特点。帕慕克从本体论角度追问存在之谜和身份之谜,以文学叙事的方式回应世俗化和西化洪流中的土耳其民族身份问题。%Researchers have found that Orhan Pamuk employs the genre of detective fiction in such novel as My Name Is Red, The Black Book and Snow. They regard him as a writer of whodunit. The present paper ar-gues that Pamuk is actually writing anti-detective novels or metaphysical detective novels. By purloining and rewriting the traditional genre, Pamuk creates texts characterized by failed detectives as well as ontologi-cal quest of identity, which subverts the Cogito and the Reason Kingdom. By metaphysical detective fiction, he responds to the issue of Turkishness in the face of secularization and westernization.

  9. 浅谈约翰·福尔斯的《幻想》:一部奇特的玄学侦探小说%On John Fowles’s A Maggot:Special Metaphysical Detective Fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赵萍

    2014-01-01

    约翰·福尔斯的最后一部小说《幻想》自从问世以来一直被评论界和读者所忽略。事实上,这部小说是一部奇特的玄学侦探小说。它具有玄学侦探小说的基本特征,既是悬而未决的迷案小说又是自反小说,从内容和形式上均反映出作者的“失踪”创作理论。%John Fowles’s last novel A Maggot has been ignored by critics and readers since its publication. As a matter of fact, it is a special metaphysical detective story with distinctive characters. It is not only an unsolved mystery but a self-reflexive novel, re⁃flecting Fowles’s theory of disappearance in both its content and form.

  10. Clinical Observation of Shangke Jiegu Tablet Combined with Alendronate in Treating Senile Osteoporotic Fracture%伤科接骨片联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年性骨质疏松骨折的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志豪; 凌云志; 林亮君; 郑文集

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨伤科接骨片联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年性骨质疏松骨折(osteoporotic fracture , OPF)的临床疗效。方法将30例本院收治的老年性 OPF患者,在行骨折内固定术后,随机分为对照组和观察组,对照组15例术后给予服用复方丹参片,3次/d ,每次3片及碳酸钙 D3咀嚼片,2次/d ,每次2片;观察组15例给予术后服用伤科接骨片,3次/d ,每次4片,阿仑膦酸钠1次/d ,每次1片,检测患者股骨颈骨密度(BM D )并比较2组的临床疗效。结果治疗后观察组的股骨颈BM D及总有效率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),2组的骨折平均愈合时间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论伤科接骨片联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年性OPF临床疗效显著,值得推广应用。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Shangke Jiegu tablet combined with alendronate in the treatment of senile osteoporotic fracture(OPF) .Methods 30 cases of senile osteoporosis fractures were ran‐domly divided into the control group (15 cases) and the observation group (15 cases) after undergoing fracture in‐ternal fixation .Patients in the control group were treated by compound salvia tablet ,3 times/d ,3 tablets each time and calcium carbonate D3 chewable tablets ,2 times/d ,2 tablets each time .Patients in the observation group were treated by Shangke Jiegu tablet is worth the promotin ,3 times/d ,4 tablets each time and alendronate 1 times/d ,1 tablet each time .The femoral neck bone mineral density and the total effective rate were observed . Results After the treatment ,the femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the total effective rate of the ob‐servation group were significantly higher than those of the control group .The average healing time of fracture in the two groups was no significant difference (P>0 .05) .Conclusion The clinical efficacy of Shangke Jiegu tablet combined with alendronate in the

  11. Effect of alendronate sodium on serum alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and bone mineral density in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis%阿仑膦酸钠对绝经后骨质疏松症患者骨密度及血清碱性磷酸酶、骨钙素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白孟海; 白洁; 郑蓉; 陈克明; 刘茗露

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨阿仑膦酸钠对绝经后骨质疏松症患者骨密度(BMD)及血清碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、骨钙素(BGP)的影响.方法:62例绝经后骨质疏松症患者随机分为2组,治疗组32例,对照组30例.治疗组口服阿仑膦酸钠、阿法迪三;对照组口服阿法迪三.分别于治疗前、治疗6个月、治疗12个月双能X线骨密度仪测定患者正位腰椎(L2~4)、髋部股骨颈(Neck)、大转子(Troch)和Ward’s三角区BMD,全自动生物分析仪测定血清ALP和BGP含量.结果;治疗组治疗6个月、12个月血清ALP和BGP含量与对照组比较有明显差异(P<0.01).治疗组,治疗12个月后L1_4和髋部(Neck,Troch.Ward's)BMD值与治疗前比较显著增加(P<0.01).治疗组与对照组比较L1-4和全髋部BMD值明显差异(P<0.01).结论:阿仑膦酸钠能有效阻止绝经后骨矿丢失,降低血清ALP含量和提高血清BGP含量.%Objective: To investigate the effect of alendronate sodium on serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osleocalein and bone mineral density (BMD) in patienis with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods,- A iota! Of 62 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were randomly divided into 2 groups: 32 treatment patients received alendronate sodium and Alpha D3 treatment, and 30 control patients received Alpha D3 only. Before treatment, 6 and 12 months after treatment, the postmenopausal BMD of anterior - posterior lumbar spines and proximal femur were determined by dual - energy X - ray abaorptiometry, and the serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalein were detected. Results-. Compared with control group, the serum ALP and osteocalcin levels were significantly decreased 6 and 12 months after treatment (P<0.01). Compared with that before treatment, the BMD value of the lumbar spine and proximal femur wag significantly increased 12 months after treatment (P <0.05 ). There was also obvious difference in BMD level of the lumbar spine and proximal femur 12 months afiei treatment between

  12. 论康德道德形而上学对亚里士多德“四因说”的实践转化%On Kant”s Practical Transformation of Aristotle”s“Four Causes"in His Moral Metaphysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓曦

    2014-01-01

    一门探究“存在之为存在”和“实体”的学问在亚里士多德那里被把握为形而上学。康德在摧毁了一种知性的旧的形而上学之余,着力建构的是道德形而上学,其中理论理性上的原因概念与其说被抛弃毋宁说是被转化为实践意义上的根据或原因。在亚氏的形而上学中,“四因说”扮演了形而上学探究中的重要角色,那么在康德的实践的形而上学里面,如何理解康德将传统理论理性中的“四因说”转换并纳入到实践理性的根据或原因的讨论之中,则是把握康德伦理学内在结构的一个新角度。%A philosophical work concerning“being understood as being"and“being(ousia)"is regarded by Aristotle as metaphysics.When Kant destroyed the old rational metaphysics,he made every effort to construct moral meta-physics.In the course of this,he transformed the concepts of cause in thereotical rationality into the ground or cau-ses in practical rationality rather than merely discarded them.If it is held that in Aristotle”s metaphysics,the“Four Causes"play a crucial role in metaphysical research,then how to understand Kant”s transformation and incorpora-tion of the“Four Causes"into the traditional theoretical rationality into the discussion of the ground and causse in his practical rationality in his new practical metaphysics,proves to be a new perspective to understand the inner structure of his ethics.

  13. The comparison between alendronate and active vitamin D3 in controlling glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in premenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus%阿伦膦酸钠与活性维生素D3对比防治绝经期前SLE患者GIOP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 张晓; 崔阳; 雷云霞; 张光峰; 谢悦胜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe comparatively the efficacies between alendronate and active vitamin D3 in controlling glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in premenopausal patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and without a history of fragility fracture. Methods 91 premenopausal female SLE patients with low-dose glucocorticoids (GCs) therapy or high-dose GCs therapy were divided into 2 groups, including 47 patients who were collected from the outpatient department and received low-dose GCs and 44 patients who were collected from the inpatient department and received high-dose GCs. The patients with either therapy were randomly divided into 3 groups: the calcium group, calcium plus active vitamin D3 group and calcium plus alendronate group. Bone metabolism serological markers and bone mineral density (BMD) values were tested in the first 0, 3 and 6 months. The incidence of fractures and femoral head necrosis was recorded during the treatment process. Results (1) In all groups with low-dose GCs therapy, there was no significant difference in the serum levels of calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (PO4) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) before and after treatment. The serum levels of N-MID osteocalcin (N-MID) and β collagen decomposition segment (β-CT) significantly decreased after the treatment in the calcium plus alendronate group (P0.05). In the calcium plus alendronate group, the BMD values significantly increased after the treatment (P0.05). (3) There was no fracture and femoral head necrosis in all groups with low-dose GCs therapy. In all groups with high-dose GCs therapy, femoral head necrosis occurred in the calcium group and calcium plus active vitamin D3 group, and meanwhile, there was no femoral head necrosis in the calcium plus alendronate group. Conclusions When premenopausal female SLE patients receive low-dose or high-dose GCs therapy respectively, alendronate can better decrease bone turnover, increase BMD and reduce the incidence of femoral head

  14. Study of the efficacy of salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium on senile osteoporosis and the regulation mechanism%鲑鱼降钙素联合阿仑膦酸钠治疗老年性骨质疏松的部分机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方钧; 郑季南; 洪庆南; 陈敏葵

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察鲑鱼降钙素联合阿仑膦酸钠对老年骨质疏松的疗效以及探讨其影响骨代谢的调控机制。方法将本院收治的60例伴有疼痛症状的老年骨质疏松患者,计算机随机分为2组,对照组27例,治疗组33例,对照组口服阿仑膦酸钠70 mg/次/周,治疗组在对照组治疗基础上注射鲑鱼降钙素,50 IU/次,每天,连续7d,第8 d开始以同等剂量隔天注射,第14 d开始同等剂量2次/周,28 d为一个疗程,共6个疗程,检测治疗前后患者疼痛症状、骨密度、血清1,25-(OH)2D3和PTH水平的变化情况。结果①两组治疗后腰背痛量化结果均有一定程度的改善;与对照组比较,治疗组VAS等级综合评分显著下降,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05),对照组腰背痛VAS等级综合评分均>5,而治疗组评分均<4;②两组治疗后第1-4腰椎( L1-L4)和股骨颈、总髋部的骨密度与治疗前相比均具统计学差异(P<0.05),其中治疗组治疗后骨密度远高于对照组(P<0.05);对照组与治疗组在治疗后的T值均显著高于治疗前(P<0.05),且治疗组显著高于对照组(P<0.05);③治疗后对照组患者血清1,25-(OH)2D3水平明显低于治疗组(P<0.05),对照组血清PTH含量明显高于治疗组(P<0.05)。结论骨质疏松发生发展过程中伴有腰背疼痛,骨密度降低,鲑鱼降钙素联合阿仑膦酸钠可能通过增加1,25-(OH)2D3,抑制PTH的合成来改善骨质疏松症状。%Objective To observe the efficacy of salmon calcitonin combined with alendronate sodium on the treatment of senile osteoporosis and to explore its mechanism of regulation of bone metabolism.Methods Sixty elderly patients with osteoporosis were divided into two groups, 27 cases in the control group and 33 cases in the treatment group.The patients in control group received 70mg

  15. Amino acid substitutions of conserved residues in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the [alpha]I(X) chain of type X collagen occur in two unrelated families with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallis, G.A.; Rash, B.; Sweetman, W.A.; Thomas, J.T.; Grant, M.E.; Boot-Handford, R.P. (Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)); Super, M. (Royal Manchester Children' s Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom)); Evans, G. (Robert Jones Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (United Kingdom))

    1994-02-01

    Type X collagen is a homotrimeric, short-chain, nonfibrillar extracellular-matrix component that is specifically and transiently synthesized by hypertrophic chondrocytes at the site of endochondral ossification. The precise function of type X collagen is not known, but its specific pattern of expression suggests that mutations within the encoding gene (COL10A1) that alter the structure or synthesis of the protein may cause heritable forms of chondrodysplasia. The authors used the PCR and the SSCP techniques to analyze the coding and upstream promoter regions of the COL10A1 gene in a number of individuals with forms of chondrodysplasia. Using this approach, they identified two individuals with metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) with SSCP changes in the region of the gene encoding the carboxyl-terminal domain. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the individuals were heterozygous for two unique single-base-pair transitions that led to the substitution of the highly conserved amino acid residue tyrosine at position 598 by aspartic acid in one person and of leucine at position 614 by proline in the other. The substitution at residue 598 segregated with the phenotype in a family of eight (five affected and three unaffected) related persons. The substitutions at residue 614 occurred in a sporadically affected individual but not in her unaffected mother and brother. Additional members of this family were not available for further study. These results suggest that certain amino acid substitutions within the carboxyl-terminal domain of the chains of the type X collagen molecule cause MCDS. These amino acid substitutions are likely to alter either chain recognition or assembly of the type X collagen molecule, thereby depleting the amount of normal type X collagen deposited in the extracellular matrix, with consequent aberrations in bone growth and development. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Feature Selection in Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions from the Health Improvement Network (THIN Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reaction (ADR is widely concerned for public health issue. ADRs are one of most common causes to withdraw some drugs from market. Prescription event monitoring (PEM is an important approach to detect the adverse drug reactions. The main problem to deal with this method is how to automatically extract the medical events or side effects from high-throughput medical events, which are collected from day to day clinical practice. In this study we propose a novel concept of feature matrix to detect the ADRs. Feature matrix, which is extracted from big medical data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, is created to characterize the medical events for the patients who take drugs. Feature matrix builds the foundation for the irregular and big medical data. Then feature selection methods are performed on feature matrix to detect the significant features. Finally the ADRs can be located based on the significant features. The experiments are carried out on three drugs: Atorvastatin, Alendronate, and Metoclopramide. Major side effects for each drug are detected and better performance is achieved compared to other computerized methods. The detected ADRs are based on computerized methods, further investigation is needed.

  17. The Principle of Universality and the Principle of Freedom:A Probe into the Origin of Kant”s Metaphysics of Morals%普遍性原则与自由原则:康德道德形而上学理念探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腾

    2014-01-01

    康德道德形而上学的来源一直是学术界争论的问题。一般认为,康德道德形而上学有两个来源:一是休谟;二是卢梭。康德在对休谟的“因果大原理”分析与批判的基础上明确区分了“自然”与“自由”,从而为“道德”提供“地盘”;卢梭社会契约论展现出来的“普遍性原则”和“自由原则”促成了康德对先验纯粹的“道德法则”与“意志自律”原则的道德形而上学原理建构。除了休谟和卢梭,莱布尼茨也是康德道德形而上学的重要来源,其理性灵魂单子的“自发性”与“自决性”思想开启了康德道德形而上学的“自由”理论---“先验自由”与“实践的自由”。%The origin of Immanuel Kant”s metaphysics of morals has long been a controversial issue in academic cir-cles.Generally speaking,there are two sources,one being David Hume and the other being Jean-Jacques Rousseau. On the basis of Hume”s“cause and effect relationships"analysis and critique,Kant makes a clear distinction be-tween“nature"and“freedom",providing“turf"for“morals";the“principle of universality"and“the principle of freedom"prosposed in Rousseau”s social contract facilitates Kant”s construction of his metaphysics of morals as to the principle of transcendental pure“moral laws"and“self-determination".Besides Hume and Rousseau,Leibniz is also an important source of Kant”s metaphysics of morals,as his“spontaneity"and“self-determination"of rational soul monads have inspired Kant to come up with his“theory of freedom"of moral metaphysics,which consists of“transcendental freedom"and“practice of freedom".

  18. On the Metaphysical Basis and Modern Interpretation of Dong Zhongshu’s Political Philosophy%董仲舒政治哲学的形上基础及其现代诠释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成中英

    2015-01-01

    The research on Dong Zhongshu should start with his achievements on historical philosophy in integrating, inheriting, studying and annotating Confucian classics and observe their central propositions. Dong Zhongshu’s thought does not totally depend on political facts of the Han Dynasty but on Confucianism and the philosophers in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States. He put forward the theory of “telepathy between heaven and man” based on Spring and Autumn as well as The Annals of Spring and Autumn. His Confucian thoughts originated from the theories of The Book of Change, The Book of History, The Annals of Spring and Autumn and different schools in Pre-qin Period. Besides, during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Western Han Dynasty, there was a realistic demand in political change and the government wanted to transform from being inactive to being enterprising, which is the basis for the formation of Dong Zhongshu’s thought. Dong Zhongshu’s political philosophy has not only metaphysical basis but also modern interpretation. It can be called as the management system of modern ecology.%对董仲舒的研究应从对他整合、继承、研究、注解儒学经典的历史哲学成果入手,体察其中心命题。董仲舒的思想不完全依赖汉代政治事实而定,其另有儒学及诸子之学所本。董仲舒在《春秋》经与《公羊传》的基础上提出了“天人感应”理论。其在儒学内部的思想渊源包括易学、尚书学、春秋公羊学,还综合了先秦的各家学说。同时,西汉进入汉武帝时期,政治变革已然有了现实需求,政府意欲从无为清静转变为有为进取,这是董仲舒思想形成的基础。董仲舒的政治哲学,不但具备形而上学的基础,还有其现代诠释,是具有现代生态化的管理体系。

  19. Efeitos de tratamento combinado de alendronato de sódio, atorvastatina cálcica e ipriflavona na osteoporose induzida com dexametasona em ratas Effects of combined treatment of alendronate of sodium, calcic atorvastatin and ipriflavone in osteoporosis induced with dexamethasone in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio da Silva Pinto

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a influência das combinações: bifosfonato (alendronato de sódio + estatina (atorvastatina cálcica, bifosfonato (alendronato de sódio + flavonóide (ipriflavona e estatina (atorvastatina cálcica + flavonóide (ipriflavona em ratas com osteoporose induzida pelo glicocorticóide dexametasona. As influências das associações dessas substâncias foram pesquisadas pela análise de testes dos marcadores bioquímicos de remodelação óssea, tais como, cálcio e fósforo sérico, fosfatase alcalina óssea e por exames histomorfométricos, caracterizando a densidade trabecular óssea. Através da avaliação da densidade trabecular óssea foi possível verificar o aumento da mesma em todos os tratamentos efetuados. Ressaltando-se, ainda, que as associações contendo alendronato de sódio apresentaram elevadas taxas de restauração tecidual óssea, alcançando valores superiores aos do grupo dos animais normais. Os marcadores bioquímicos não apresentaram resultados estatisticamente significativos, não fornecendo subsídios para o diagnóstico e acompanhamento da osteoporose. No entanto, a avaliação histomorfométrica permitiu a análise estática e dinâmica, bem como detecção de alterações teciduais na unidade metabólica óssea, particularmente, no osso trabecular.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the combinations: biphosphonate (alendronate of sodium + statin (calcic atorvastatin, biphosphonate (sodium alendronate + flavonoid (ipriflavone and statin (calcic atorvastatin + flavonoid (ipriflavone in female rats with osteoporosis induced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The influence of the combinations of those drugs was observed through tests of the biochemical markers of bone remodeling, such as, levels of serum calcium and phosphorus and bone alkaline phosphatase and through histomorphometric exam, visualizing the bone trabecular density. Through the evaluation of the

  20. Analysis on the Images in“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”from the Metaphysical Poetic Theories’ Perspective%《杰•阿尔弗瑞德•普鲁弗洛克的情歌》中的玄学意象解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明明

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most important poets and critics of the 20th century in the history of British and American literature, T. S. Eliot had made greatest remarks on the Metaphysical Poetry of the 17th century. In his early poem“The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”, Eliot revealed the loss, confusion and frustration of the modern western men by endowing rich implication to the metaphor and allusion images through the technique of metaphysical conceit.%作为20世纪英美文学史上重要的一位诗人及批评家,T.S.艾略特对17世纪的“玄学派诗歌”推崇备至,在其早期《普鲁弗洛克的情歌》中,诗人借用“玄学奇喻”的技巧赋予大量隐晦的隐喻和典故意象丰富的蕴意,展现了现代西方人的迷惘、困惑及挫败感。

  1. Effects of Alendronate Sodium on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Marker in Prostate Cancer Elderly Pa-tients after Medical Castration Therapy%阿仑膦酸钠对前列腺癌老年患者药物去势治疗后骨密度和骨标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓宇; 朱虹; 黄娟

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the effects of alendronate sodium on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marker in prostate cancer elderly patients after medical castration therapy. METHODS:In perspective study,84 elderly patients undergoing medical castration therapy were selected and divided into treatment group(45 cases)and control group(39 cases)according to ran-dom number table. Control group received medical castration therapy+Calcium carbonate D3 tablets,1 tablet,po,qn;treatment group was additionally given Alendronate sodium tablets 70 mg,po,once a week,1 week after routine treatment,on the basis of control group. Treatment course of 2 groups lasted for 12 months. The levels of 25-OH-D,testosterone,BMD and bone marker were observed in 2 groups,and the occurrence of ADR was recorded. RESULTS:3 cases of treatment group and 1 case of control group dropped out of the study. Before treatment,there was no statistical significance in above indexes between 2 groups (P>0.05). After treatment,25-OH-D levels of 2 groups were increased slightly,but there was no statistical significance(P>0.05);tes-tosterone level of 2 groups were decreased significantly compared to before treatment,with statistical significance (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Alendronate sodium can prevent bone loss and reduce the rate of bone turnover in elderly patients with prostate cancer receiving medical castration therapy.%目的:探讨阿仑膦酸钠对前列腺癌老年患者药物去势治疗后骨密度(BMD)和骨标志物的影响。方法:本研究为前瞻性研究。选取84例拟行药物去势治疗的前列腺癌老年患者,按照随机数字表法分为治疗组(45例)和对照组(39例)。对照组患者给予药物去势治疗+碳酸钙D3片1片,po,qn;治疗组患者在此基础方案开始后1周给予阿仑膦酸钠片70 mg,po,每周1次。两组患者治疗时间均为12个月。观察两组患者25-羟基维生素D(25-OH-D)、睾酮、BMD、骨标志物水平,并

  2. The Metaphysics of Crackle: Afrofuturism and Hauntology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Fisher

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There has always been an intrinsically “hauntological” dimension to recorded music. But Derrida’s concept of hauntology has gained a new currency in the 21st century, when music has lost its sense of futurism, and succumbed to the pastiche- and retro-time of postmodernity. The emergence of a 21st century sonic hauntology is a sign that “white” culture can no longer escape the temporal disjunctions that have been constitutive of the Afrodiasporic experience since Africans were first abducted by slavers and projected from their own lifeworld into the abstract space-time of Capital. Time was always-already out of joint for the slave, and Afrofuturism and hauntology can now be heard as two versions of the same condition.

  3. The Market Order as Metaphysical Loot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism through which the ideology of market capitalism emerged has mostly been interpreted as part of an incremental, inevitable, and thus legitimate ousting of theological concepts from a public sphere that became organized around the principles of the Enlightenment as a secular project...... for the mobilization of individual choice as a principle of social organization. The same process was responsible for underpinning the often unjust and illiberal market order with the vision of the world as an ordered and benign kosmos that emerged spontaneously from chaos....

  4. Anaesthetic gardens. On Metaphysics by Lech Majewski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Baron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of Metaphisics – the novel written by Lech Majewski, is the subject matter of theoretical, aesthetic and antropological considerations. Synthesis of arts: literature, film, painting and theatre, which occur in the novel, opens a perspective of intertextuality and provokes questions about ekphrasis, varied materials, ways of experience mediated by dispositives and reflections on humans among other problems. The crucial point in both: Majewski’s novel and this dissertation, is a triptych painted by Hieronymus Bosch – The Garden of Earthly Delight, which gradually annexes the featured world – becomes a basic figure in trying to show, how the aesthetization of reality brings Wolfgang Welsch’s cahegory of an(aesthetics.

  5. Space perception and William James's metaphysical presuppositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Martin J

    2011-05-01

    William James's overtly philosophical work may be more continuous with his psychological work than is sometimes thought. His Essays in Radical Empiricism can be understood as an explicit statement of the absolute presupposition that formed the basis of Jamesian psychology: that direct experience is primary and has to be taken at face value. An examination of James's theory of space perception suggests that, even in his early work, he presupposed the primacy of direct experience, and that later changes in his account of space perception can be understood as making his view more consistent with this presupposition. In his earlier view of space perception, James argued that sensations were directly experienced as spatial, though he accepted that spatial relations between sensations may be constructed by higher order thought. In his later view, however, James argued that spatial relations were just as directly experienced as sensations. The work of T. H. Green may have prompted James to recognize the full consequence of his ideas and to realize that taking experience at face value required that spatial relations be thought of as intrinsic to experience rather than the result of intellectual construction.

  6. "Humanitas", Metaphysics and Modern Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a new myth of the heterogeneous that is reducing the concept of humanity to a sinful enlightenment. In this article I investigate the contribution that a renewed understanding of liberal arts education might offer for the idea of a humanist education and for the concept of humanity; and this at a time when not only the concept of humanity…

  7. The Metaphysics of Chinese Information Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liqian, Zhou; Brier, Søren

    2015-01-01

    appearing through the thought liberty movement in the 1980s, which among other things also added a modern view of information to Chinese thinking. Still it is a philosophy in a distinctive Chinese style. Wu’s philosophical system begins by re-dividing the field of existence and founding a new ontological...... area or aspect of being, which he called the world of information and named it objective unreality. This, ontological framework, different from that in the West, made the concept of information in his system different from the information concept in Shannon’s and even Wiener’s sense. Wu’s philosophy...

  8. Presenting Nonreflexive Quantum Mechanics: Formalism and Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Decio

    2015-01-01

    Nonreflexive quantum mechanics is a formulation of quantum theory based on a non-classical logic termed \\ita{nonreflexive logic} (a.k.a. `non-reflexive'). In these logics, the standard notion of identity, as encapsulated in classical logic and set theories, does not hold in full. The basic aim of this kind of approach to quantum mechanics is to take seriously the claim made by some authors according to whom quantum particles are \\ita{non-individuals} in some sense, and also to take into account the fact that they may be absolutely indistinguishable (or indiscernible). The nonreflexive formulation of quantum theory assumes these features of the objects already at the level of the underlying logic, so that no use is required of symmetrization postulates or other mathematical devices that serve to pretend that the objects are indiscernible (when they are not: all objects that obey classical logic are \\ita{individuals} in a sense). Here, we present the ideas of the development of nonreflexive quantum mechanics an...

  9. The physics and metaphysics of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the current situation in the philosophy of time, partly to investigate Michael Dummett’s complaint that the philosophy of physics has become too specialized and technical to be able to communicate with mainstream philosophy. We conclude that the situation in this case is different: there i

  10. 世界的图景化--现代数理实验科学的形而上学基础%Pictorialization of the World:the Metaphysical Foundation of Modern Mathematical Experimental Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国盛

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical experimental sciences are the main elements of modern science. One of the meta-physical foundation of modern mathematical experimental sciences is pictorialization of world. The pictorial-ization of world comes from the subjective will of human being. The pictorialization of world included math-ematization, spatialization, temporalization and mechanicalization. The movement of mathematization of na-ture changed the Aristotlean physics into new mathematical physics and connected the Greek physics and mathematics. Copernican Revolution made the transmission from closed world to infinite universe. Galileo and Descartes realized mathematization of Space. Newton's absolute space became the base of modern phys-ics. The temporalized world picture of modern time was made by Christian Universalist’ s idea of one di-mension linear time, the development of technology of mechanical clock, the mathematization of time in the Scientific Revolution, as well as the emergence of idea of efficiency in Industrial Revolution. The idea of Creation and technological revolution in late medieval helped to materialize the view of nature based on me-chanical analogy. Newtonian mechanics is the model of modern science.%现代科学的主体是数理实验科学,数理实验科学的形而上学基础之一是世界的图景化。世界的图景化来源于人的主体意志,包括数学化、空间化、时间化和机械化。自然数学化运动把亚里士多德的物理学转变为数学化的新物理学,填平了希腊物理学与数学之间的鸿沟。哥白尼革命实现了从封闭世界到无限宇宙的转变,伽利略和笛卡尔实现了空间的数学化,牛顿的绝对空间概念成为现代物理学的基础。由基督教的普世主义单向线性时间观、机械钟表技术的发展、科学革命中时间的数学化、工业革命中效率观念的突现等诸多复杂因素,共同编制了时间化的现代世界图景。机械化包含

  11. Art as a function of existence——An exploration of Karl Jaspers' idea of metaphysics of existenctial art%作为一种"生存的功能"的艺术——雅斯贝斯"生存艺术形而上学"思想探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀昌

    2009-01-01

    Karl Jaspers is devoted to an existential philosophy towards the transcendent dimension. He re-gards art as an organ of philosophy, and forms a peculiar idea of metaphysics of existential art. He takes it for granted that existence is the resource of art. The artistic action brings out the connotation that the art is function of existence.%雅斯贝斯所致力的是一种祈向超越之维的生存哲学,由此视域出发,他把艺术视为"哲学的器官",并提出了一种独具慧心的"生存艺术形而上学"思想.他认为,艺术根源于"生存",艺术活动透示了艺术作为"生存的功能"这一人文意趣.

  12. 阿仑磷酸钠联合透明质酸钠在膝关节细胞凋亡中作用的初步研究%Preliminary research of alendronate joint hyaluronate acid to treat chondrocytes apoptosis in osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马钢; 刘勇; 任明姬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of Caspase-3, Caspase-12 in osteoarthritis (OA) and the effect of Alendronate and Hyaluronic Acid.MethodsWe randomly divided healthy 50 Wista Rats aged 5 months into two groups. One group was 40 rats that were underwent the transecting operation on anterior cruciate ligament of bilateral hindlimbs and were driven 30 minutues after operation. Another group was 10 rats named control group. Then 40 rats that underwent operation were randomly divided into four groups. The operation model group; Alendronate (AL) group were given alendronate suspension fluid 2 ml(1.75 mg/ml) by irrigating stomach method; Hyaluronic Acid(HA) group were injected hyaluronate acid 0.1 ml into double knee intra-articular joints; Combined treatment group were given alendronate suspension fluid 3.5 mg/2 ml by irrigating stomach method and were injected hyaluronate acid 0.1 ml into double knee intra-articular joints. All animals were irrigated stomach once a day and injected drugs once a week. The experimental period was 6 weeks. Dissected the double knee to observing general form of cartilage and then fixed the femoral condyle and tibial plateau cartilage to HE stainingafter the last druged 1 week. Adopted the light microscope to examining the pathology chang of cartilage cell; the immunohisto chemical method and the Western blot method were used to examining the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-12 in cartilage cell.Results The index of model group was more serious than other groups.The Mankin score were (3.30±0.41) in model group, (2.33±0.36) in AL group, (2.10±0.34) in HA group, (1.36±0.50) in combined treatment group, (0.54±0.50) in control group; There were statistical significance between model group and each drug experimental group(P<0.05). The light microscope displayed that The articular surface cell fibrosis, erosion, ulcer or rared, and layer cells presented characteristic clumps arrangement with mast cells disappeared or the rate of empty

  13. O darwinismo e o sagrado na segunda metade do século XIX: alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos do debate Darwinism and "the sacred" during the second half of the 19 th century: some ideological and metaphysical features of the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanma Sánchez Arteaga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa alguns aspectos ideológicos e metafísicos da transformação do imaginário ocidental sobre a origem da espécie humana - a velha questão, "quem somos?", respondida de formas diversas pelo cristianismo e pela biologia evolutiva - na segunda metade do século XIX. Nesse período passa-se do predomínio da antropogênese cristã ao das explicações evolucionistas. Analisa-se a confrontação histórica que teve lugar, nesse período, entre alguns dos principais defensores científicos do evolucionismo materialista - Haeckel, Clémence Royer e Huxley - e os defensores de uma antropologia anti-evolucionista e cristã. Analisam-se brevemente os pontos principais da crítica de Darwin à religião e algumas similitudes e discrepâncias de sua crítica ao pensamento religioso com relação à realizada por Marx no mesmo período. Determinados aspectos ideológico-metafísicos foram componentes essenciais do discurso darwinista na sua luta para se impor às narrativas do cristianismo sobre a origem do ser humano.This paper analyzes some of the ideological and metaphysical features of the historical transformation of Western imaginary on human origins, during the second half of 19th Century. In this period, predominance of the Christian Natural Theology accounts about anthropogenesis gave place to a new paradigm, based on evolutionary biological explanations. We thus analyze the historical confrontation that took place between prominent materialistic scientists - Haeckel, Royer, Huxley - defending evolutionary theories, on one hand, and advocates of a non-evolutionist anthropology linked to Christian believe in Creation, on the other. This paper analyzes the main features of Darwin's criticism of religious thought, based on naturalistic basis, and presents some similarities and differences with the critique of religion made by Marx in the same period. Darwinism included some metaphysical and ideological elements as essential parts of

  14. 海德格尔论对哲学的两种“误解”——海德格尔《形而上学导论》研读手记%Two Kinds of "Misunderstanding" of Philosophy by Heidegger: A Study of the Notes of The Introduction of Metaphysics by Heidegger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王黔首

    2012-01-01

    海德格尔在《形而上学导论》中重点分析了对哲学的种种流行误解之中的两种误解,认为这对于弄清当今以及将来的哲学状况十分重要。这两种误解的实质一是对哲学的形而上学的理解;二是对哲学的技术性的要求。前者使哲学成为追问和确立根据的科学,最终使哲学终结于科学之中;后者则使哲学技术化,以计算为特征。这两种哲学实际上是传统哲学存在的两种形态。海德格尔以此提出以“思想”代替“哲学”作为一种新的哲学形态,以消除对哲学误解的根本途径。%In The Introduction of Metaphysics, Heidegger focused on an analysis of two kinds of misunder- standing of philosophy among a variety of misunderstanding popular at that time. He believed that this was very important to the development of philosophy at that time and will be so even in the future. Generally, one of these two kinds of misunderstanding is metaphysical understanding of philosophy, while the other is a technical re- quirement of philosophy. The former makes philosophy be questioning and established according to science, which will eventually end philosophy in science; while the latter makes philosophy technological -oriented, characterized by calculation. These two kinds of philosophy are actually two kinds of existing traditional philoso- phy. To make it clear, Heidegger presents "thought" instead of "philosophy" as a new philosophical form to e- liminate the basic approach to a misunderstanding of philosophy.

  15. Long-Term Alendronate Use Not without Consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Somford

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown side effect of biphosphonate use is emerging. In a specific patient group on long term biphosphonate therapy stress femur fractures seem to occur. The typical presentation consists of prodromal pain in the affected leg and/or a discrete cortical thickening on the lateral side of the femur in conventional radiological examination or the presentation with a spontaneous transverse subtrochanteric femur with typical features. We present three cases of this stress fracture in patients on bisphosphonate therapy. One of these patients suffered a bilateral femur fracture of the same type. In our opinion, in patients on bisphosphonate therapy who present with a spontaneous femur fracture, seizing therapy is advisable. In bilateral cases preventive nailing should be considered.

  16. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and the Antifracture Efficacy of Alendronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in elderly patients and are frequently coadministered in users of oral bisphosphonates. Biologically, PPIs could affect the absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, and bisphosphonates and could affect the osteoclast proton pump, thus interacting...

  17. Limited open reduction and internal fixation with anterolateral L-shape locking compression plate for treatment of distal metaphyseal tibial fractures%有限切开复位结合前外侧 L 形锁定加压接骨板内固定治疗胫骨远端干骺端骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炎; 杨越; 刘世清; 余铃; 廖琦; 赵奇; 张春; 黄涛; 张锐; 夏韶强

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨胫骨远端干骺端骨折应用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形锁定加压接骨板( locking compression plate, LCP)内固定治疗的临床疗效。方法2011年6月~2013年1月共收治15例胫骨远端干骺端骨折患者。骨折按照国际内固定研究协会( AO/ASIF)分型:43A2型3例,43A3型10例,43B1型2例,均合并腓骨下端骨折;胫骨远端干骺端骨折线距踝关节面1.6~4.5cm,平均2.8cm;闭合性骨折8例,开放性骨折7例( GustiloⅠ型2例,Ⅱ型3例,ⅢA型2例)。 GustiloⅢA型2例急诊行清创、腓骨内固定及外固定支架固定,余患者术前行跟骨骨牵引。运用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形LCP内固定治疗,术中酌情植骨,术后早期功能锻炼。结果所有患者术后获12~18个月(平均16个月)随访,术后2例切口表皮坏死,经换药处理后愈合,余切口均一期愈合。骨折于术后16~24周(平均20周)获骨性愈合。末次随访时根据美国骨科协会足踝外科分会( American Orthopedic Foot Ankle Society,AOFAS)评分标准:评分为73~95分,平均89.5分,其中优10例,良3例,可2例,优良率86.7%。随访期间无感染、骨不连及内固定松动断裂等并发症发生。结论采用有限切开复位结合前外侧L形LCP内固定治疗胫骨远端干骺端骨折,术中利用微创置板技术,并酌情植骨,术后早期功能锻炼,可获得良好疗效。%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of limited open reduction and internal fixation with anterolateral L-shape locking compression plate for treatment of distal metaphyseal tibial fractures.Methods Fifteen patients with distal metaphyseal tibial fractures were treated in our department between Jun.2011 and Jan.2013.According to AO/ASIF classification,3 patients were with Type 43A2 fracture,10 patients with Type 43A3 fracture, 2 patients with Type 43B1 fracture and all were combined

  18. Improved confinem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Kholy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional steel ties reinforcement cannot provide superior confinement for reinforced concrete (RC columns due to the constraints on tie spacing and disturbance of concrete continuity. This paper presents a practical confinement configuration consisting of single Expanded Metal Mesh (EMM layer in additional to regular tie reinforcement. The EMM layer is warped above ties. The proposed transverse reinforcement, with various volumetric ratios of ties, was investigated in sixteen square short RC column specimens categorized in two groups according to their slenderness ratios. The specimens were cast in vertical position simulating the construction field and they were tested under concentric compression till failure. The results indicated that the columns, confined with proposed lateral reinforcement, revealed significant improvement in the strength and ductility. Also, high reduction in ties volumetric ratio with no loss in ultimate load could be achieved by installing the EMM layer.

  19. From Leibnitz's monad to Whitehead's actual entity:one creative pattern of western metaphysics%从莱布尼茨的单子到怀特海的实有——西方形而上学的一种创生模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立志

    2012-01-01

    Leibnitz introduced the tradition that the entities, which are the ultimate actual things, are in some sense procedures of organization. Whitehead's organism philosophy began with monadism and absorbed the contemporary achievement of natural science. For Whitehead, actual entity, which is the monad with windows, is the prehensive unity. Leibnitz described the relationship between monads and its perspective in term of perceptions that is transformed into "prehension" or "feeling". This development from Leibnitz to Whitehead exhibits one pattern of western metaphysics.%把机体的假说作为哲学的基础应归功于莱布尼茨。撇开现象的数学物理秩序,深入实体的形而上学秩序,理解机体系列生长的共同根据,在原始力量中寻找派生力量的基础是莱布尼茨单子论的任务。单子论呈现了一个动态的、关系的宇宙图景,强调了实在的不确定性,指出了完满的协调、完整秩序和宇宙统一的可能性。怀特海的机体哲学是以单子论为出发点,以现代科学为基础对关系本体论和动态宇宙观的深化。

  20. 形而上的“价值”与形而下的“用法”——索绪尔与后期维特根斯坦意义理论比较研究%Metaphysical Value and Physical Usage:A Study of Meaning Theory between Saussure and Post-Wittgenstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳茹

    2012-01-01

    在西方哲学的语言转向中,索绪尔和维特根斯坦在语言哲学领域中分别作出了不同贡献。在意义理论中,两者既有相同之处,也有相异之处。相同之处在于二者都提出了对命名论的批判、都恪守整体主义的意义观,相异之处在于二者对于判定意义的标准不同,索绪尔提出了形而上的"价值"决定论,维特根斯坦提出了形而下的"用法"决定论,而二者意义观的不同是他们语言观差异的体现。%In the linguistic turn of western philosophy,Saussure and Wittgenstein did great contribution on philosophy of language.Both of them made similarities and dissimilarities on meaning theory.The similarities lie in the criticism on naming theory and observation of holism while the dissimilarities rest with the distinctive standards on criticizing meaning.Saussure advances value-determinism from metaphysical aspect on the contrary Wittgenstein advances usage-determinism from physical aspect.Their distinctive views on meaning are decided by their different outlooks on language.

  1. Effect of T-2 toxin on growth and development of rat knee epiphyseal plate and metaphyseal bone in normal and low nutritional status%T-2毒素在正常和低营养状态下对大鼠膝关节骺板及干骺端骨组织生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚运峰; 康鹏德; 李兴波; 杨静; 沈彬; 周宗科; 裴福兴

    2010-01-01

    异有统计学意义(P均<0.01).结论 在正常营养状态下,T-2毒素可导致大鼠骺板软骨肥大层细胞坏死,骺板胶原含量降低,干骺端骨小梁形成障碍;在低营养状态下,T-2毒素可导致大鼠骺板细胞坏死和于骺端成骨障碍更为显著,但这种表现是否与大骨节病的发生有关,还有待研究.%Objective To observe the effect of T-2 toxin on growth and development of rat epiphyseal plate of left knee and metaphyseal bone of femur and tibia in normal and low nutritional status, to find out possible pathogenic factors of Kashin-Beck disease and provide experimental basis for early intervention. Methods Ninety 3-week-old Wistar rats, weighing 60 - 70 g, were randomly divided into three groups: control group(general feed), T-2 toxin + general feed group, T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group, thirty rats in each group with equally sex ratio. T-2 toxin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered orally 5 times a week via a gavage needle for 4 weeks. The change of hair, activity and body weight was observed. After 1, 2, 4 weeks, the epiphyseal plate of left knee and metaphyseal bone of femur and tibia (including distal femur and proximal tibia) were collected. Specimens were processed with HE and Masson staining. The morphology of chondrocytes and matrix collagen content in epiphyseal plate was observed. Trabecular bone volume fraction in tibial metaphyseal bone was analyzed by Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. Results In the control group, rats were in good movement and hair with light, but in T-2 toxin + general feed group and T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group, rats were found with reduced activities and hair with dark color. Body weights(g) of the control group, the T-2 toxin + general feed group and the T-2 toxin + low nutrition feed group were 81.0 ± 6.2, 79.0 ±5.1, 77.0 ± 7.5, respectively, by the end of first week; 101.8 ± 6.7, 97.0 ± 6.8, 93.0 ± 5.3, respectively, by the end of second week; 151.1 ± 15.7, 126.5 ± 11.9, 106.5 ± 11.5, respectively

  2. 科学公理、感性经验与知识层理化--“科玄论战”中的美学问题%Scientific Axioms, Perceptual Experience and Differentiation of Knowledge:The Aesthetic Issues in the"Controversy between Science and Metaphysics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐一超

    2014-01-01

    近现代科学主义思潮具有知识、认识论与伦理道德等价值范畴的一体性,它的发展以及对它的质疑催生了“科玄论战”。在论争过程中,基于感性经验的美学范畴被与科学范畴相区别,美学知识体系内部的美、美学等概念也被加以区分,这可以被视作一个“知识层理化”的过程,是现代性生成背景下知识分化与转型的重要体现。而在形式层面,貌似学术讨论的论战文本事实上呈现出基于感性经验的修辞特征与俗化的美学风格,“论理”过程本身其实是“乏理”的,这也是考察“科玄论战”中美学问题的一个视角。%Scientism in modern China is characterized by the fusion of knowledge, epistemology and value categories exem-plified by ethics and morality, and its development, as well as the queries about it, gave birth to the"Controversy between Science and Metaphysics"in 1923.During the debate, the aesthetic categories based on perceptual experience were differen-tiated from the scientific ones, and the concepts belonging to the aesthetic knowledge system such as beauty and aesthetics were also distinguished from each other.This process of knowledge differentiation can be seen as an important modern trans-formation against the background of the emergence of modernity.As for the form of text, the articles in the controversy made use of meaningful rhetoric intertwined with perceptual experience and laymen's style, even though they seemed to be academic and scholastic.

  3. Leibniz on the most perfect state of moral world:fromMetaphysics toMonadology%莱布尼茨论“最完美国家的道德世界”--从《形而上学序论》到《单子论》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王腾

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by European Enlightenment, the cultural spiritual structure of modern German presented the state of disenchantment, revealed the decline of theology and the rise of rational theology. In the context of rational theology, Leibniz’s moral philosophy is constructed on the dual dimension of theology and philosophy. At the same time, pre-established harmonious system is the theoretical cornerstone of moral philosophy of Leibniz. InMetaphysics, Leibniz first puts forward the concept of moral world, laying a preliminary sketch of the moral world. With the transition from ontology to monadology, Leibniz, inMonadology, carefully portrays the moral relationship between monads and God monad. Meanwhile, on the basis of the free spirit of monads, he constructs an ideal picture of the moral world.%受欧洲启蒙运动的影响,近代德国的文化精神结构呈现祛魅化态势,启示神学式微,理性神学兴起。在理性神学语境下,莱布尼茨最完美国家的道德世界即是在“神学信仰”与“哲学理性”的双重向度上建构的。同时,“预定和谐”体系是莱布尼茨道德哲学建构的理论基石。在《形而上学序论》中,莱布尼茨最早提出了“道德世界”概念,建构了“道德世界”的“草图”。随着“实体论”向“单子论”过渡,在《单子论》中,莱布尼茨细致地描画了单子与上帝单子之间的道德关系,与此同时,在单子精神自由状态基础上,他建构了一个理想的“道德世界”图景。

  4. Pursuing the Good, Ethics and Metaphysics in Plato s Republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas; Cairns; Fritz-Gregor; Herrmann; Terry; Penner

    2008-01-01

    ‘Pursuing the good’ is an old subject in both social history of ancient Greece and Greek philosophy studies. There is hardly anything new when we talk about virtue or morality in the time of Plato and Aristotle. In the area of Greek history, many books and articles on or relevant to that

  5. Humanities’ Metaphysical Underpinnings of Late Frontier Scientific Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibiades Malapi-Nelson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The behavior/structure methodological dichotomy as locus of scientific inquiry is closely related to the issue of modeling and theory change in scientific explanation. Given that the traditional tension between structure and behavior in scientific modeling is likely here to stay, considering the relevant precedents in the history of ideas could help us better understand this theoretical struggle. This better understanding might open up unforeseen possibilities and new instantiations, particularly in what concerns the proposed technological modification of the human condition. The sequential structure of this paper is twofold. The contribution of three philosophers better known in the humanities than in the study of science proper are laid out. The key theoretical notions interweaving the whole narrative are those of mechanization, constructability and simulation. They shall provide the conceptual bridge between these classical thinkers and the following section. Here, a panoramic view of three significant experimental approaches in contemporary scientific research is displayed, suggesting that their undisclosed ontological premises have deep roots in the Western tradition of the humanities. This ontological lock between core humanist ideals and late research in biology and nanoscience is ultimately suggested as responsible for pervasively altering what is canonically understood as “human”.

  6. Machine Code and Metaphysics: A Perspective on Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A major, but too-little-considered problem for Software Engineering (SE) is a lack of consensus concerning Computer Science (CS) and how this relates to developing unpredictable computing technology. We consider some implications for SE of computer systems differing scientific basis, exemplified with the International Standard Organisations Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) layered architectural model. An architectural view allows comparison of computing technology components facilitatin...

  7. The Production of Seriousness The Metaphysics of Economic Reason

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Professor Emeritus Claes

    2011-01-01

    This book is about the roots of managerial rationality. A theoretical base, founded on the concept of 'memetics' is developed in order to explain human thinking and human reason as products of cultural evolution. Cultural change and development are explained by simple, value-driven memetic mechanisms like 'ritualization' and 'extremization'.

  8. Mirror neurons: Enigma of the metaphysical modular brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Shukla, Samarth

    2012-07-01

    Mirror neurons are one of the most important discoveries in the last decade of neuroscience. These are a variety of visuospatial neurons which indicate fundamentally about human social interaction. Essentially, mirror neurons respond to actions that we observe in others. The interesting part is that mirror neurons fire in the same way when we actually recreate that action ourselves. Apart from imitation, they are responsible for myriad of other sophisticated human behavior and thought processes. Defects in the mirror neuron system are being linked to disorders like autism. This review is a brief introduction to the neurons that shaped our civilization.

  9. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, R.A.; Tipler, F.J.

    1984-04-15

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  10. Metaphysics of colliding self-gravitating plane waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzner, Richard A.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1984-04-01

    We discuss certain global features of colliding plane-wave solutions to Einstein's equations. In particular, we show that the apparently local curvature singularities both in the Khan-Penrose solution and in the Bell-Szekeres solution are actually global. These global singularities are associated with the breakdown of nondegenerate planar symmetry in the characteristic initial data sets.

  11. Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Rutledge M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that science is often used as a justification to propose, project, and enact racist social policies. The philosophy of Social Darwinism is reviewed, and its assumptions about race and human abilities is discussed. The consequences of scientific racism for dominant groups are analyzed. (GR)

  12. THE CONCEPT OF SENCE IN THE WORLD, METAPHYSICS AND SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sicinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of objective sense is commonly used in various contexts, and is also frequently misused. It has been often criticised in the context of natural sciences during the last 200 years - the period of positivistically oriented science. In the ancient Greek philosophy the problem of Nature possessing its own sense was stressed, and from the problem the first germs of science started in the Ionic and Pythagorean schools. Contrary to that, Aristotelean approach initiated the positivist tradition which banned from science the question of Nature as possessing an internal sense, and the scholastics introduced a concept of Nature's sense being not intrinsic but granted to it by the divine action. The mathematisation of physics caused that the the divine action started to be interpreted as "mathematical", and in consequence, the sense of Nature was seen as expressed by mathematics. Later on, this mathematically expressed sense of Nature, as seen in physical theories, started to be perceived as independent from God and having not much to as supernatural: inside the mathematical science there was no place for any anthropomorphic Creators.Recently, however when in the newest physics the mathematical structures have already been perceived not only as a language but also as a kind of ultimate reality, a place for quasi-religious feeling of mystery hidden in these structures has been welcome. It means that within the field of modern physical theories there is no place for the traditional religious concepts, but there is a place for a kind of mystics of objective mathematics in the Pythagorean style, related to the modern "new spirituality" mysticism.The situation is completely different in the area of less mathematised branches like biology. The tensions between science and religion are strong there, and the alternative is as follows: traditional religiousness versus traditional atheism, but not a neutral science separated from religion versus a non-traditional mysticism of the mathematics beings united with nature, as it is in the case of newest physics. So, the biologist who are not ready to accept the popular tradition notion of God directly interfering with nature, e.g. creating the phenomenon of life or man, are ready to accept the old-fashioned "scientific" atheism. That is why the dialogue science and religion is rather difficult in relation to biology, despite being so fruitful in relation to physics and cosmology.

  13. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…

  14. Neither metaphysical dichotomy nor pure identity: clarifying the emergentist creed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartenaer, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Emergentism is often misleadingly described as a monolithic "third way" between radical monism and pluralism. In the particular case of biology, for example, emergentism is perceived as a middle course between mechanicism and vitalism. In the present paper I propose to show that the conceptual landscape between monism and pluralism is more complex than this classical picture suggests. On the basis of two successive analyses-distinguishing three forms of tension between monism and pluralism and a distinction between derivational and functional reduction-I define three different versions of emergentism that can be considered as consistent middle courses between monism and pluralism (respectively theoretical, explanatory and causal emergence). I then emphasise the advantage of this taxonomy of the concepts of emergence by applying the results of my analysis to the historical controversy that pertains to the relationship between life and matter.

  15. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  16. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  17. Improving Paver Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    to improved preventive maintenance : Improved decision making: Other: 42. Do you intend to implement PAVER for roads/streets? A. Yes; we plan to...Elimination of a project due to improved preventive maintenance : Improved decision making: Other: 36. Do you intend to implement PAVER for roads/streets? A...Increased funding for pavement projects: Elimination of a project due to improved preventive maintenance : Improved decision making: Other: 39. Do you

  18. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  19. Improved technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  20. Mistik ve Metafizik Bağlamda Bir Yolculuk Üçlemesi: “Hüsn ü Aşk - Hacının Yolu - Simyacı” A Journey Trilogy In The Context Of Mystic And Metaphysic “Hüsn ü Aşk - The Pilgrim’s Progress - The Alchemist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire ERBAY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Journey is a mystical action in which a person goes through a metaphysical experience regardless of his physical existence even though it has just a meaning of a usual moving in time and place. The journey that brings the individual to maturity and tranforms/changes him is quite dangerous and challenging one. In this study, acomparative analysis has been carried out on the factors that make thecharacters who constitute the central idea in the works called ‘Hüsn üAşk’ by Şeyh Galip, ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’ by John Bunyan and ‘TheAlchemist’ by Paulo Coelho set out an esoteric journey andmutual/different symbols that are used in these three works duringthat journey, characters in the role of helper, obstacles encounteredduring the journey and the goals that the characters eventually achieveat the end of their journeys and meanings of these goals. During thejourney conveyed by the dream metaphor in the three works,individual’s transformation and growing into maturity after witnessingand commenting on the symbolic messages faced in order to findmeaning in life is narrated. Awareness of the transformation isn’tgained by another person; rather it is gained by the individual himself.The enduring journey, as can be seen as learning process, is conveyedby numerous events and situations experienced by the characters in theworks, and each book’s distinctive symbols and images with their ownmeanings. It is important that the heroes make out the omens facedand get over the obstacles and be aware of their own realities. In thethree works of three different cultures, The Pilgrim’s Progress, TheAlchemist, Hüsn-ü Aşk, the heroes similarly undergo a transformationand achieve the endless happiness by overcoming symbolic obstacles. Yolculuk, zaman ve mekân içinde her ne kadar sıradan bir yer değiştirme anlamı taşısa da, mistik anlamda, insanın mevcut varlığını bir tarafa bırakıp metafizik bir tecrübe yaşamasıdır.

  1. The Gendered Metaphysics of Puritan Culture:Towards an Interpretive Explanation of the Salem Witch Trials%清教文化的性别形而上学:对萨勒姆审巫案的诠释性解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊萨克·里德; 童韵评(译)

    2015-01-01

    ,in terms of its points of tension and controversy:the place of women in society,the relationship of the Colony to God, and metaphysical beliefs abort of how the world worked (e.g.witchcraft and spell-casting).This investigation of the Salem Witch Trials raises qrestions abort crltrre, interpretation,and sociological explanation.In answer to these qrestions,the paper srggests that explanations in crltrral sociology:(1 )inclrde,brt also move beyond, the stated intentions,consciors and spoken meanings,and strategic manervers of actors;(2 )consider the intersection of symbolic strrctrres with political economy, brt do not redrce the former to the latter;and (3 )that the direction that a crisis or event takes is intertwined with the interpretation of that crisis by those participating in it. This srggests, then, that crltrral sociology transcends the longstanding distinction between rnderstanding and explanation, offering instead a carsal hermenertics of social life.

  2. Process Improvement Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Persse, James R

    2006-01-01

    Process Improvement Essentials combines the foundation needed to understand process improvement theory with the best practices to help individuals implement process improvement initiatives in their organization. The three leading programs: ISO 9001:2000, CMMI, and Six Sigma--amidst the buzz and hype--tend to get lumped together under a common label. This book delivers a combined guide to all three programs, compares their applicability, and then sets the foundation for further exploration.

  3. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  4. Software Process Improvement Defined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of the development of explanatory theory on software process improvement. The last one or two decades commitment to prescriptive approaches in software process improvement theory may contribute to the emergence of a gulf dividing theorists and practitioners....... It is proposed that this divide be met by the development of theory evaluating prescriptive approaches and informing practice with a focus on the software process policymaking and process control aspects of improvement efforts...

  5. Improving assisted living care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nancy; Gesell, Sabina B; Widmer, Tom

    2007-01-01

    In the absence of a national measurement system, private vendors of satisfaction measurement and improvement services have played a crucial role in the quality movement in the assisted living industry. Survey responses from 175 resident-family dyads at 20 facilities were analyzed to identify priorities for service improvement from the customers' perspective. They include improving care provided by aides and management, meal service, and activities. Practical solutions for addressing these issues are presented.

  6. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  7. Teaching quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marry Ellen; Douglas, Stephen; Girdley, Diana; Jarzemsky, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Practicing nurses are required to engage in quality improvement work as a part of their clinical practice, but few undergraduate nursing education programs offer course work and applied experience in this area. This article presents a description of class content and teaching strategies, assignments, and evaluation strategies designed to achieve the Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies related to quality improvement and interdisciplinary teams. Students demonstrate their application of the quality improvement process by designing and implementing a small-scale quality improvement project that they report in storyboard format on a virtual conference Web site.

  8. THE IMPROVED XINANJIANG MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-jia; YAO Cheng; KONG Xiang-guang

    2005-01-01

    To improve the Xinanjiang model, the runoff generating from infiltration-excess is added to the model.The another 6 parameters are added to Xinanjiang model.In principle, the improved Xinanjiang model can be used to simulate runoff in the humid, semi-humid and also semi-arid regions.The application in Yi River shows the improved Xinanjiang model could forecast discharge with higher accuracy and can satisfy the practical requirements.It also shows that the improved model is reasonable.

  9. Improving palliative care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Sue

    2009-05-01

    Any service improvement project requires planning, action and evaluation. Using a recognised quality improvement framework can offer a structured approach to implementing and assessing changes to patient care. This article describes how use of the Deming Cycle has helped to identify nurses\\' learning needs.

  10. Teamwork Improves Office Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Susan K.

    1993-01-01

    The Smeal College of Business Administration at the Pennsylvania State University selected its advising center as the pilot unit for a continuous quality improvement project using Total Quality Management principles. It was found that a quality improvement culture evolves when team practices are carried into the everyday office environment.…

  11. Improving your oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kylafree

    2005-01-01

    The most common question my students ask is ""How can I improve my oral English?"" My answer is always the same: practice. There is no quick way to learn another language. You cannot magically learn new words and have perfect pronunciation. The only way to improve is with practice and patience.

  12. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  13. Improving Agile Software Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    Software process improvement in small and agile organizations is often problematic, but achieving good SPI-assessments can still be necessary to stay in the marked or to meet demands of multinational owners. The traditional norm driven, centralized and control centered improvement approaches has...

  14. Improving College Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Peter; And Others

    This volume contains 20 papers providing practical, ready-to-use, research-based information to foster effective college teaching. Four sections group the papers under the following topics: (1) key influences on teaching quality; (2) programs to improve teaching; (3) strategies for teaching improvement; and (4) approaches to nontraditional…

  15. Improved Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    to analyze the difficulties of providing improved strategic planning needed for more orderly progress in human affairs. This analysis consists of an...identification of important conceptual difficulties which stand in the way of improving strategic planning . This thesis concludes that it is necessary

  16. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  17. Bioequivalence of Alendronate and Vitamin D3 in a Combination Tablet Versus Corresponding-Dose Individual Tablets in Healthy Taiwanese Volunteers, Determined Using a Novel Plasma Alendronate Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hamish Wright, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The combination tablet was considered bioequivalent to coadministration based on ALN AUC0–∞ and unadjusted vitamin D3 parameters. Slight differences for ALN AUC0–last and Cmax (upper 90% CIs outside the bounds were not considered clinically significant. The combination tablet was well tolerated. No serious adverse experiences were reported. © 2015. The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of pain and regional osteoporotic changes in the foot and ankle by low-dose bisphosphonate therapy for complex regional pain syndrome type I: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Takuro

    2011-08-01

    in radioactivity in his foot. One month after the start of oral administration of alendronate (35 mg per week, his bone pain had fallen from a visual analog scale score of 83 out of 100 to 30 out of 100 and, at nine months, was further reduced to 3 out of 100. The treatment was discontinued at 15 months because of successful pain reduction. At 30 months, our patient had no pain and the radiographic findings revealed marked improvement in regional osteoporotic changes. Conclusions We believe low-dose oral administration of bisphosphonate is worth considering for the treatment of idiopathic complex regional pain syndrome type I accompanied by regional osteoporotic change.

  19. Improved nonlinear prediction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi

    2014-06-01

    The analysis and prediction of time series data have been addressed by researchers. Many techniques have been developed to be applied in various areas, such as weather forecasting, financial markets and hydrological phenomena involving data that are contaminated by noise. Therefore, various techniques to improve the method have been introduced to analyze and predict time series data. In respect of the importance of analysis and the accuracy of the prediction result, a study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the improved nonlinear prediction method for data that contain noise. The improved nonlinear prediction method involves the formation of composite serial data based on the successive differences of the time series. Then, the phase space reconstruction was performed on the composite data (one-dimensional) to reconstruct a number of space dimensions. Finally the local linear approximation method was employed to make a prediction based on the phase space. This improved method was tested with data series Logistics that contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of noise. The results show that by using the improved method, the predictions were found to be in close agreement with the observed ones. The correlation coefficient was close to one when the improved method was applied on data with up to 10% noise. Thus, an improvement to analyze data with noise without involving any noise reduction method was introduced to predict the time series data.

  20. Improvement on GM models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党耀国; 刘思峰; 刘斌

    2004-01-01

    Since grey system theory was established by prof. Deng, GM models and their improvements have all taken the first vector of the original sequence as the initialization, which resulted to deficiency in making use of the latest infor-mation. Based on the principle, which new information should be used fully, we think it is scientific to pay more atten-tion to the new information or endow them a more weigh. So, this paper deals with the GM improvement by taking the n-th vector as the initialization, and gets great improvement in forecasting precision. Last, we validate the practicability and reliability of the moelds with examples.

  1. Improved inverted Stepanov apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, S.; Temple, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Modifications in inverted Stepanov process improve heat transfer and energy efficiency in growing silicon ribbon crystals. Using system, silicon is directly heated by induction, minimizing heat transfer and contamination problems.

  2. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  3. Improving combustion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulsari, A.; Wemberg, A.; Multas, A. [Nonlinear Solutions Oy (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The paper describes how nonlinear models are used to improve the efficiency of coal combustion while keeping NOx and other emissions under desired limits in the Naantali 2 boiler of Fortum Power and Heat Oy. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  5. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  6. IMPROVING CONCEPTUAL DESIGN QUALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Stuart; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    This paper will consider how Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) processes can be used to improve the design quality of products at the concept stage. We appreciate that both QFD and DFMA are techniques that have been used for some time by mature product...... quality is maintained in design project work. The projects described have been carried out with products manufactured by small to medium sized enterprises (SME's), where we have found significant opportunities for product improvement. The quantitative nature of DFMA analysis results allows the novice...... for continuous improvement of their products. However, we consider that if novice designers are able to successfully utilise design tools like QFD and DFMA and achieve improvements in design quality, then SME’s have no excuses for ignoring the benefits they could bring to their own product development activity....

  7. Improvement of plastic properties

    OpenAIRE

    D. Manas; Manas, M.; Stanek, M.; Daněk, M. (Michal)

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to present the results of research programme on improve polymer materials properties by irradiation. This method can be helpful in improving some of mechanical properties and thermal stability of polymers.Design/methodology/approach: Radiation processing involves the use of natural or man-made sources of high energy radiation on an industrial scale. The principle of the radiation processing is the ability of the high energy radiation to produce reactive cations, anio...

  8. KAIZEN CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yenque D., Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; García P., Manuel; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Raez G., Luis; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Many times we ask the question why Japanese companies are competitive?, Surely many of the answers to this mystery have support in the Kaizen. And the Kaizen is not a simple concept, it is a whole way of life that involves both managers and workers in the pursuit of progressive improvement of enterprises. In his book Kaizen, The Key to Japanese Competitive Advantage, Masaaki Imai explains in simple terms what is the essence of this philosophy: Kaizen means improvement means further progressiv...

  9. Improving Communication in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Doenmez, Denniz; Hepperle, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    of tasks. To improve these factors in order to enable effective communication, this paper collates more than hundred recommendations from journal articles and textbooks published in the fields of engineering design, management science, sociology, and psychology. Recommendations include, for example......Communication permeates every aspect of an engineer’s work – from clarifying product specifications to shaping social ties. This paper offers an overview of recommendations from literature to improve communication within and among engineering teams. We assume communication problems are often...... the outcome of underlying factors and that it is fruitful to study and improve these influences. Having been empirically elicited in prior research, 24 factors considered in this paper include, e.g., availability of information about product specifications, roles and responsibilities, and overview of sequence...

  10. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  11. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  12. GPS Control Segment Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Systems Center GPS Control Segment Improvements Mr. Tim McIntyre GPS Product Support Manager GPS Ops Support and Sustainment Division Peterson...DATE 29 APR 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Control Segment Improvements 5a. CONTRACT...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Space Command,Space and Missile Systems Center, GPS Ops Support and Sustainment Division,Peterson AFB,CO,80916 8

  13. An improved variational method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Zhuo-Quan; SHEN Peng-Nian; DING Yi-Bing

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the unitarity of the S-matrix, an improved variational formulism is derived by proposing new generating functionals and adopting proper asymptotic boundary conditions for trial relative wave functions. The formulas with the weighted line-column balance for the single-channel and multi-channel scatterings, where the non-central interaction is implicitly considered, are presented. A numerical check is performed with a soluble model in a four coupled channel scattering problem. The result shows that the high accuracy and the unitarity of the S-matrix are reached.

  14. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  15. Improve Your BIM Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Boeykens, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Do you want to improve your firm’s use of BIM during the early design phases? Here are ten tips, applicable in most BIM applications, based on experience gathered from teaching, researching, and using BIM software. Share these with your project teams!

  16. Sulfur recovery further improved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsboom, J.; Grinsven, M. van; Warners, A. van [Jacobs Nederland B.V., (Netherlands); Nisselrooy, P. van [Gastec N.V., (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    The original 100-year-old Claus process for producing sulfur from hydrogen sulfide in acid gas is described together with improvements which have been made over the years. The most recent modification, EUROCLAUS, achieves sulfur recoveries of 99-99.9 per cent. Five commercial units are being designed.

  17. Globalisation, Effectiveness and Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimore, Peter

    This paper reports principally on two studies, prompted by research on school effectiveness in the United States and England, which indicate globalization is beginning to affect school improvement. The first study cites case studies of two schools--from working-class, multi-ethnic, poorly educated areas of Singapore and London--to determine if…

  18. Room for Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With an 8-percent growth rate all but secured, China needs to focus more on improving the quality of its economic growth China experienced a successful economic rebound in 2009, thanks to the government’s mobilization of resources to support the growth.

  19. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  20. Improvements in agricultural sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    This editorial provides insight on investigations regarding advancements in agri-food quality and testing of eco-friendly organic farming methodologies. The discussion elaborates on the advantages of recent farming techniques and their impact on improved crop yield, crop quality, and minimization of...

  1. Improving Educational Administrative Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.

    This paper discusses the financial crisis facing public education in the United States today and argues that the most effective response to this crisis is to improve the decision-making skills of educational administrators. Based on a review of the literature on administrative decision-making and organizational change, the author examines several…

  2. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Diebold, Philipp; Münch, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...

  3. Improving Software Developer's Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Pekka; Kautz, Karlheinz; Sieppi, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    Emerging agile software development methods are people oriented development approaches to be used by the software industry. The personal software process (PSP) is an accepted method for improving the capabilities of a single software engineer. Five original hypotheses regarding the impact...

  4. Cave Dwellers’ Lives Improved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    IN the Loess Plateau of northern Shaanxi. there are many gullies but little rain, which has deeply affected the growth of crops there. People have been living under hard conditions for generations until very recently. The State government has encouraged rural economic policies which has enabled the people of this area to develop a diversified economy that has greatly improved life.

  5. Nuclear energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    Nuclear energy already today plays an important role in decarbonisation of the electricity sector while providing energy security and being economically competitive. Nuclear energy is characterized by its very high energy density and is well suited for large-scale, baseload electricity supply. Similar to renewable energy sources such as wind, solar or biomass, nuclear power is characterized by an abundant supply of its primary energy source, uranium, but is not limited to the same extent as these renewable energy sources from being an intermittent energy supply or imposing severe restrictions on land-use. Improving energy efficiency of nuclear power plants has contributed to a better utilization of the uranium resources and has helped improving the economic performance of nuclear power plants. This is to a large degree accomplished through optimisation of nuclear fuel assemblies as well as renewing turbines and generators. More importantly however, the overall economy of nuclear power has improved though better plant management leading to higher capacity factors and by extending the lifetimes of existing nuclear power plants. Provided that improved safety, economics and successful waste management can be demonstrated nuclear power is likely to grow in the future. Non-electricity applications may further boost the growth of nuclear energy, especially with the development of new reactor systems allowing for cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen or biofuels for transport. (Author)

  6. Keeping Improvement in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Paul; Frontier, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Like high-stakes student assessment, high-stakes teacher evaluation threatens to be an occasional event that is disconnected from day-to-day teaching and learning, producing results that do not help teachers improve their performance and placing teachers in a passive role as recipients of external judgment. For several years, the authors have…

  7. Improving Teachers' Verbal Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Suggests strategies center directors can use to improve teachers' verbal interactions with children. Directors can help teachers (1) understand child growth and development; (2) understand that what they say matters; (3) hear themselves talking to children; and (4) develop their observation skills. Directors can also share good models with…

  8. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  9. Improved reservoir exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, P.R. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with reservoir exploitation and it highlights some ideas on how to improve exploitive skills to optimise the recovery of a field. The author looks closer at what needs to be done to optimise the reservoir data and the exploitation tools, and what are the needs of the reservoir production management. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Driving collaborative improvement processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Rick; Gieskes, José; Fisscher, Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Continuous Improvement is a consolidated concept in theory and practice, mainly in the context of stand-alone companies. However, the battlefield of competition is increasingly moving from the level of individual firms to that of organisational settings based on loose company boundaries and collabor

  11. Driving collaborative improvement processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, R.; Gieskes, J.; Fisscher, O.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous improvement is a consolidated concept in theory and practice, mainly in the context of stand-alone companies. However, the battlefield of competition is increasingly moving from the level of individual firms to that of organizational settings based on loose company boundaries and collabor

  12. Measuring to improve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Bobbitt, M

    1995-01-01

    Rush Prudential Health Plans, a managed care company located in Chicago, Illinois, is implementing a service quality improvement process across the three products it markets in the Chicago area: The Anchor Plan (a primarily staff model HMO), The Affiliates Plan (a network model HMO), and The Plus Plan (a point of service plan). In 1994, the company instituted an annual member satisfaction research study, conducted across the three plans, and began building a link between external customer requirements and internal operations. The research process consisted of three stages: determining external customer requirements, translating these customer-defined "symptoms" into underlying root causes, and developing a service quality improvement action plan. Rush Prudential determined that traditional "report card" surveys would not meet their goals for the information measurement process. A detailed diagnostic telephone survey was used to provide a picture of the entire clinical encounter, from scheduling an appointment through the time a member left the physician's office.

  13. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it.

  14. IMPROVING PATIENT SAFETY:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Every year millions of patients worldwide suffer injury or death due to unsafe care, thus improving patient safety is both a national and international priority. A developmental project involving University College Zealand and clinical partners in the region focused upon the improvement of patient...... safety by optimizing the theory-practice connection with respect to the development of students’ competencies and the reporting of clinical errors. Population: 2nd year nursing students at University College Zealand (N: 56). Informed consent and full anonymity. Aims: - To increase patient safety...... by raising student awareness with respect to the role of the reporting of clinical errors and thus increase patient safety - To prepare a structured and systematical teaching program Methodology: an explorative, longitudinal study - Identification of students’ self-evaluated knowledge, skills and competences...

  15. IMPROVING PATIENT SAFETY:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Bettan; Taylor Kelly, Hélène; Hørdam, Britta

    2013-01-01

    , social and cultural factors have resulted in a greater emphasis upon digital technology. Attempts to improve patient safety by optimizing students’ competencies in relation to the reporting of clinical errors, has resulted in the development of an interdisciplinary e-learning concept. The program makes......Improving patient safety is both a national and international priority as millions of patients Worldwide suffer injury or death every year due to unsafe care. University College Zealand employs innovative pedagogical approaches in educational design. Regional challenges related to geographic...... it possible for the students to train and test their knowledge and understanding independent of time and place. Data accumulated from the e-learning program will be used to further develop digital learning initiatives....

  16. Diversification improves interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Giesbrecht, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of interpolating an unknown multivariate polynomial with coefficients taken from a finite field or as numerical approximations of complex numbers. Building on the recent work of Garg and Schost, we improve on the best-known algorithm for interpolation over large finite fields by presenting a Las Vegas randomized algorithm that uses fewer black box evaluations. Using related techniques, we also address numerical interpolation of sparse complex polynomials, and provide the first provably stable algorithm (in the sense of relative error) for this problem, at the cost of modestly more interpolation points. A key new technique is a randomization which makes all coefficients of the unknown polynomial distinguishable, producing what we call a diverse polynomial. Another departure of our algorithms from most previous approaches is that they do not rely on root finding as a subroutine. We show how these improvements affect the practical performance with trial implementations.

  17. Improved Adaptive Fingerprint Binarization

    OpenAIRE

    Bartunek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Nordberg, Jörgen; Claesson, Ingvar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper improvements to a previous work are presented. Removing the redundant artifacts in the fingerprint mask is introduced enhancing the final result. The proposed method is entirely adaptive process adjusting to each fingerprint without any further supervision of the user. Hence, the algorithm is insensitive to the characteristics of the fingerprint sensor and the various physical appearances of the fingerprints. Further, a detailed description of fingerprint mask generation not ful...

  18. IMPROVING ENGLISH TEACHER TALK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research shows teachers’speaking less so involvesstudents more.So English teacher talk determines tosome extent whether the teaching is successful or not.After giving a brief introduction to teacher talk inEnglish class,this paper analyzes the possible factorsthat affect teacher talk.It then suggests some im-provements of teacher talk in order to better our teach-ing methodology.

  19. Improving Carbon Fixation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ducat, Daniel C.; Silver, Pamela A

    2012-01-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing...

  20. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  1. MEMORY IMPROVING FOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviorand attitudes. Memory is the ability of the brain to store, retain and subsequently to recall information received fromthe world. Cognition can be defined as organization of information. It includes acquiring information (perception,selecting (attention, representing (understanding and retaining (memory information and using it to guidebehavior (reasoning and coordination of motor outputs.There are so many conditions associated with memory and cognitive impairment which include Aging,Alzheimer’s disease, Stroke, Stress, Head injuries, Seizures, Benzodiazepines, Brain tumors, Depression, Temporallobe defects and Schizophrenia etc.Choline rich foods can enhance memory and learning and may be useful in improving cognitive abilities. Theseinclude sea foods, liver, egg yolk, soysbeans, broccoli, ash gourd. Coloured fruits and vegetables are good source ofantioxidants which improve concentration. It is advised to decrease the consumption of foods rich in transfats likehydrogenated oils, fried foods, beef, pork, mutton and ice creams and pastries. Such foods increase the deposition offats in the neurons and impair cognition. Tea, cocoa and turmeric are reported to have good nootropic activity i.e.improving memory and learning. Apart from the foods, one should keep the brain active to maintain its cognitivefunction well.

  2. Improved flywheel materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Bell, Nelson S; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Anderson, Benjamin John; Miller, William Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    As alternative energy generating devices (i.e., solar, wind, etc) are added onto the electrical energy grid (AC grid), irregularities in the available electricity due to natural occurrences (i.e., clouds reducing solar input or wind burst increasing wind powered turbines) will be dramatically increased. Due to their almost instantaneous response, modern flywheel-based energy storage devices can act a mechanical mechanism to regulate the AC grid; however, improved spin speeds will be required to meet the necessary energy levels to balance these green energy variances. Focusing on composite flywheels, we have investigated methods for improving the spin speeds based on materials needs. The so-called composite flywheels are composed of carbon fiber (C-fiber), glass fiber, and a glue (resin) to hold them together. For this effort, we have focused on the addition of fillers to the resin in order to improve its properties. Based on the high loads required for standard meso-sized fillers, this project investigated the utility of ceramic nanofillers since they can be added at very low load levels due to their high surface area. The impact that TiO2 nanowires had on the final strength of the flywheel material was determined by a three-point-bend test. The results of the introduction of nanomaterials demonstrated an increase in strength of the flywheels C-fiber-resin moiety, with an upper limit of a 30% increase being reported. An analysis of the economic impact concerning the utilization of the nanowires was undertaken and after accounting for new-technology and additional production costs, return on improved-nanocomposite investment was approximated at 4-6% per year over the 20-year expected service life. Further, it was determined based on the 30% improvement in strength, this change may enable a 20-30% reduction in flywheel energy storage cost ($/kW-h).

  3. Software Process Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Konopka, Claudia; Nellemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Software process improvement (SPI) is around for decades: frameworks are proposed, success factors are studied, and experiences have been reported. However, the sheer mass of concepts, approaches, and standards published over the years overwhelms practitioners as well as researchers. What is out...... directions. An analysis of 635 publications draws a big picture of SPI-related research of the past 25 years. Our study shows a high number of solution proposals, experience reports, and secondary studies, but only few theories. In particular, standard SPI models are analyzed and evaluated for applicability...

  4. Hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone and alendronate composites for bone regeneration in rabbits' olecranon: histological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Valente

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a biocompatibilidade e a osseointegração de compósitos de hidroxiapatita (HA, policaprolactona (PCL e alendronato (ALN em defeitos ósseos produzidos no olécrano de coelhos. Trinta e seis coelhos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos, recebendo como tratamento: (1 compósito de HA (49,5%, PCL (49,5% e ALN (1%; (2 HA (50% e PCL (50%; (3 PCL (100%; e (4 solução salina 0,9%. As amostras para análise histológica foram coletadas de três animais de cada grupo aos oito, 45 e 90 dias de pós-operatório. No oitavo dia, as bordas do defeito ainda eram identificáveis em todos os grupos. Tecido ósseo novo era formado em contato com o biomaterial apenas nas formulações que incluíam HA. Essas características continuaram evidentes nos outros momentos analisados, embora o defeito estivesse preenchido pelo tecido regenerado. A presença dos biomateriais foi verificada nos três momentos em todos os grupos. Não houve evidências de reação indesejável ao biomaterial. As análises histológicas e histomorfométricas mostraram que os biomateriais são biocompatíveis e aqueles contendo a hidroxiapatita favoreceram a formação óssea no início do processo de regeneração, embora o alendronato não tenha apresentado qualquer efeito.

  5. Efficacy and safety of alendronic acid in the treatment of osteoporosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Siguero, Alberto; Áreas Del Águila, Vera Lucía; Franco Sereno, María Teresa; Fernández Marchante, Ana Isabel; Pérez Serrano, Raúl; Encinas Barrios, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: describir la efectividad y seguridad del uso de acido alendronico en el tratamiento de la osteoporosis en ninos y adolescentes, en condiciones distintas a las autorizadas en la ficha tecnica. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo (2008-2014) de todos los pacientes menores de 18 anos a los que se dispenso acido alendronico para esta indicacion. Los criterios para iniciar tratamiento fueron: densidad mineral osea con puntuacion Z-score ≤ -2,5 DE, antecedentes de fracturas oseas sin traumatismo previo y dolor persistente. Las variables recogidas fueron: demograficas, de tratamiento, clinicas y de seguridad. Se considero efectividad del tratamiento al aumento de la densidad mineral osea hasta obtener Z-score > -2,5 DE. Resultados: un total de 12 pacientes, 8 varones, con una media de edad de 11 anos (} 3 DE), fueron tratados con acido alendronico. Tras un tiempo medio de tratamiento de 2,15 anos (} 1,2 DE), se produjo aumento de la densidad mineral osea en todos los pacientes, 9 de los cuales obtuvieron Z-score > -2,5 DE, por lo que el farmaco se considero efectivo en el 75% de los casos. Ningun paciente presento fracturas oseas ni manifesto efectos adversos durante el tratamiento. Conclusiones: el acido alendronico incremento la densidad mineral osea y se tolero bien en todos los pacientes, por lo que se podria considerar como opcion terapeutica en el tratamiento de la osteoporosis infantil.

  6. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  7. Wind energy efficiency improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Badger, J.; Rasmussen, Flemming; Soerensen, Poul

    2012-11-15

    As we have shown above, wind energy can help to secure energy efficiency in power generation, and research results and tools are being developed that will increase the role of wind energy in the global energy supply. An important instrument is the development of wind turbine technology to reduce capital and operational costs. This has not been the emphasis in this chapter, though; instead we have focused on equally important instruments, namely making best use of the wind resource and available sites, adapting wind farm layout and technology to the increased exploitation of wind, and improving the interaction between wind farms and the power system. With these developments we expect that wind energy can become the backbone of the power system globally and play a major role in creating an efficient and sustainable power system. (Author)

  8. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  9. Improving University Research Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley O’Reilly

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the current data management practices of university researchers at an Intermountain West land-grant research university in the United States. Key findings suggest that researchers are primarily focused on the collection and housing of research data. However, additional research value exists within the other life cycle stages for research data—specifically in the stages of delivery and maintenance. These stages are where most new demands and requirements exist for data management plans and policies that are conditional for external grant funding; therefore, these findings expose a “gap” in current research practice. These findings should be of interest to academics and practitioners alike as findings highlight key management gaps in the life cycle of research data. This study also suggests a course of action for academic institutions to coalesce campus-wide assets to assist researchers in improving research value.

  10. Improved Lattice Radial Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, Richard C; Fleming, George T

    2014-01-01

    Lattice radial quantization was proposed in a recent paper by Brower, Fleming and Neuberger[1] as a nonperturbative method especially suited to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories. The lessons learned from the lattice radial quantization of the 3D Ising model on a longitudinal cylinder with 2D Icosahedral cross-section suggested the need for an improved discretization. We consider here the use of the Finite Element Methods(FEM) to descretize the universally-equivalent $\\phi^4$ Lagrangian on $\\mathbb R \\times \\mathbb S^2$. It is argued that this lattice regularization will approach the exact conformal theory at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum. Numerical tests are underway to support this conjecture.

  11. Software Engineering Improvement Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In performance of this task order, bd Systems personnel provided support to the Flight Software Branch and the Software Working Group through multiple tasks related to software engineering improvement and to activities of the independent Technical Authority (iTA) Discipline Technical Warrant Holder (DTWH) for software engineering. To ensure that the products, comments, and recommendations complied with customer requirements and the statement of work, bd Systems personnel maintained close coordination with the customer. These personnel performed work in areas such as update of agency requirements and directives database, software effort estimation, software problem reports, a web-based process asset library, miscellaneous documentation review, software system requirements, issue tracking software survey, systems engineering NPR, and project-related reviews. This report contains a summary of the work performed and the accomplishments in each of these areas.

  12. Room for improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvang, Pia; Dalby, Mette Strømgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops the notion of a project war room as an innovation practice in companies. We argue that the consistent use of a project war room, in which customer and user research serves as a background for design work, improve the quality of product innovation. We describe our experiences...... from a project with four Danish medium-sized manufacturing companies aiming to become more competitive in the European export market. In the project, one challenge was how to convey results from customer interviews and user studies from the researcher team (which in all instances included a company...... manager) to the development team in each company. We chose to collaboratively build a ‘war room’ in each of the companies to make sense of research materials and establish design principles for products that would better align with customer needs....

  13. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen.

  14. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry; Fisscher, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of theoretical and practical knowledge has been developed on continuous improvement. However, there is still a considerable lack of impirically grounded contributions and theories on collaborative improvement, that is, continuous improvement in an interorganizational setting....... The CO-IMPROVE project investigated whether and how the concept of continuous improvement can be extended and transferred to such settings. The objective of this article is ti evaluate the CO-IMPROVE research findings in view of existing theories on continuous innovation. The article investigates...

  15. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  16. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  17. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and

  18. Improved Search Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Caleb Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of millions of documents are stored and updated daily in the World Wide Web. Most of the information is not efficiently organized to build knowledge from the stored data. Nowadays, search engines are mainly used by users who rely on their skills to look for the information needed. This paper presents different techniques search engine users can apply in Google Search to improve the relevancy of search results. According to the Pew Research Center, the average person spends eight hours a month searching for the right information. For instance, a company that employs 1000 employees wastes $2.5 million dollars on looking for nonexistent and/or not found information. The cost is very high because decisions are made based on the information that is readily available to use. Whenever the information necessary to formulate an argument is not available or found, poor decisions may be made and mistakes will be more likely to occur. Also, the survey indicates that only 56% of Google users feel confident with their current search skills. Moreover, just 76% of the information that is available on the Internet is accurate.

  19. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  20. Continuous Improvement and Collaborative Improvement: Similarities and Differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middel, Rick; Boer, Harry; Fisscher, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    A substantial body of theoretical and practical knowledge has been developed on continuous improvement. However, there is still a considerable lack of empirically grounded contributions and theories on collaborative improvement, that is, continuous improvement in an inter-organizational setting. The

  1. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  2. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  3. Improved design for frontal protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, N.; Vendrig, R.; Houtzager, K.

    2001-01-01

    The requirements of frontal impact legislation and the comparative evaluations of consumer organizations have improved occupant crash protection. Passenger vehicle bodies have crumple zones developed through rigid flat barrier testing and improved passenger cell stability has resulted from considera

  4. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  5. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  6. Georgia - Improving General Education Quality, Improved Learning Environment Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The school rehabilitation activity seeks to decrease student and teacher absenteeism, increase students’ time on task, and, ultimately, improve learning and labor...

  7. Framework for Patient Flow Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Medina-León

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been much research where the flow of patients was improved, but most of this study is case-specific and only a few papers offer guidelines for patient flow analysis and improvement. In this study a general framework for the analysis and improvement of patient flow is presented, based on a literature review and on experience from a case study in a hospital in Mexico dealing with identifying improvement opportunities that reduced waiting times in the obstetrics/gynecology area of the emergency department. The framework involves an initial analysis using basic tools followed by the selection of a strategy based on system complexity; financial investment required and team participation. The alternative strategies considered were use of advanced analysis tools; use of kaizen events; or direct recommendations. The aim of the framework is to serve as guideline in patient flow improvement projects by helping select the most appropriate improvement path, resulting in project success.

  8. Performance improvement in multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to develop a performance improvement model template which supports multinational corporations in their daily operations. This has been achieved through literature review and four case studies. With analysis and synthesis, a complete performance improvement model template is carried out based on balanced score card which can be considered as an instruction or reference for improvement work in multinational corporations. After experienced the transformation from i...

  9. Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and...

  10. Georgia - Improved Learning Environment Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The school rehabilitation activity seeks to decrease student and teacher absenteeism, increase students’ time on task, and, ultimately, improve learning and labor...

  11. Sol-gel derived titania coating with immobilized bisphosphonate enhances screw fixation in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Areva, Sami; Aspenberg, Per; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-08-01

    A variety of surface modifications have been tested for the enhancement of screw fixation in bone, and locally delivered anti-osteoporosis drugs such as bisphosphonates (BP) are then of interest. In this in vivo study, the impact of surface immobilized BP was compared with systemic BP delivery and screws with no BP. After due in vitro characterization, differently treated stainless steel (SS) screws were divided into four groups with 10 rats each. Three of the groups received screws coated with sol-gel derived TiO(2) and calcium phosphate (SS+TiO(2)+CaP). One of these had no further treatment, one had alendronate (BP) adsorbed to calcium phosphate mineral, and one received systemic BP treatment. The fourth group received uncoated SS screws and no BP (control). The screw pullout force was measured after 4 weeks of implantation in rat tibiae. The immobilized amount and release rate of alendronate could be controlled by different immersion times. The SS+TiO(2)+CaP coating did not increase the pullout force compared to SS alone. Surface delivered alendronate enhanced the pullout force by 93% [p = 0.000; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 67-118%] compared to SS, and by 39% (p = 0.044; 95% CI: 7-71%) compared to systemic alendronate delivery. Both surface immobilized and systemically delivered alendronate improved implant fixation. Also, locally delivered, that is, surface immobilized alendronate showed a better fixation than systemically delivered. Using sol-gel derived TiO(2) as a platform, it is possible to administer controllable amounts of a variety of BPs.

  12. Improvement Of The Helmholtz Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Duane L.

    1992-01-01

    Helmholtz-resonator system improved to enable it to absorb sound at more than one frequency without appreciable loss of effectiveness at primary frequency. Addition of annular cavities enables absorption of sound at harmonic frequencies in addition to primary frequency. Improved absorber designed for use on structures of high transmission loss. Applied to such machines as fixed-speed engines and fans.

  13. An Improved Moving Mesh Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    we consider an iterative algorithm of mesh optimization for finite element solution, and give an improved moving mesh strategy that reduces rapidly the complexity and cost of solving variational problems.A numerical result is presented for a 2-dimensional problem by the improved algorithm.

  14. Improving Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Vriesendorp (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractImproving outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is focused on the improvement of the therapeutic strategies for patients with HCM. First it demonstrates that individual patient selection in patients with obstructive and symptomatic HCM can lead to near normal life-expectancy;

  15. Substantial Improvements of Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluates the scope for improving the energy and environmental impacts of road transport by means of electrical and hybrid propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy compared to equivalent vehicles mas well as beneficial effects for the energy...... and traffic systems. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulation....

  16. Atraumatic intracapsular neck of femur fractures after prolonged bisphosphonate treatment: a new atypical variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameer Khalid; Savaridas, Terence; Hemers, Jennifer S.; Maarouf, Zouheir; Orgee, Jane M.; Orr, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We present 2 cases of elderly females presenting with atraumatic, near-vertical (Pauwells grade 3), intracapsular neck of femur fractures. Following diagnosis of osteoporosis on DEXA scans, they had received alendronic acid for 7 and 10 years respectively. Routine blood tests and serum estimations of calcium, vitamin-D and thyroid-stimulating hormone, done at admission, were within the normal ranges. These patients were managed with a hemiarthroplasty and a dynamic hip screw (DHS) respectively, following discontinuation of bisphosphonates. We present these 2 cases in light of emerging evidence that associates long-term bisphosphonate use with atypical low energy femoral fractures. Only subtrochanteric/diaphyseal fractures have been reported to date. We present a new variant of atypical femoral neck fractures in metaphyseal bone related to prolonged bisphosphonate therapy. PMID:27252743

  17. Continuous quality improvement: improving hemodialysis catheter patency using urokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northsea, C

    1996-12-01

    Opportunities for improvements in patient outcomes through applied continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are endless and exciting. Improving vascular access outcomes has been a long-standing clinical problem for hemodialysis patients and the nephrology team. During the past few years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of dialysis catheters as permanent accesses for hemodialysis patients. All hemodialysis with dialysis catheters are at risk for catheter occlusion. An innovative, 2-year CQI program was developed, implemented, and designed to improve dialysis catheter patency rates with the use of urokinase. The CQI program resulted in a number of clinical outcomes that were beneficial to the patients and dialysis staff, and were cost-effective to the program.

  18. Healthcare quality improvement programme improves monitoring of people with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denig, Petra

    2004-01-01

    Question. Does a healthcare quality improvement programme, incorporating education and claims-based feedback about practice-specific models of monitoring diabetes care, increase the regularity with which primary care physicians assess people with diabetes mellitus receiving Medicare benefits? Study

  19. Improving self-esteem by improving physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, G L

    1997-01-01

    Many characteristics comprise a person's personality: achievement orientation, interest to be sociable, aggressiveness, need for order, disposition, and so on. One of the most important personality characteristics in every person's life is self-esteem, which can be defined in terms of cognitive generalizations derived from past experiences. Since people are not isolated from their environment, a person's experiences impact his or her self-esteem. Since a person's physical attractiveness is known to be a major factor in his or her experiences, it is logical (as well as empirically documented) to be a substantial influence on self-esteem. The research shows that improving a physical trait improves attitude, personality, and self-esteem. Likewise, improving physical attractiveness improves interpersonal interactions. These more positive interactions are internalized intrapersonally (within a person), with direct, corresponding impact on the person's self-esteem.

  20. Lessons Learned on Stage: How Improv Can Improve Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Kohn, C.; McPeek, M. A.; Serrell, N.

    2014-12-01

    A challenge facing STEM graduate students is the daunting task of communicating their research to a non-specialist audience. Strategies that work well in lab group meetings, such as using acronyms and jargon, do not work in the real world. Ideally, scientists should directly connect with any audience, responding spontaneously and actively, distilling their messages into conversational morsels that resonate with that audience. Scientists should listen. This presentation highlights a 10-week, interdisciplinary graduate course at Dartmouth College that teaches methods for communicating science with clarity, vividness, and emotion. The course was developed in partnership with Stony Brook University's Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science, and emphasizes story-telling, two-way communication, active listening, and so much more. Effective message development and communication skills - spontaneity, authenticity, and connectivity - are honed through improvisational theater exercises. One might ask, "why improv?" As a co-developer/co-instructor of this graduate course and a Ph.D. candidate in Earth Sciences, my response is, "why not improv?" Improv is acting without a script. It is also underground rap battles, baking from scratch, and playing jazz flute. Improv is Macguyver. Improv is not any one particular thing so much as it is a process through which we do things. Improv can teach us a lot: how to play, how to feel comfortable and present even while flailing, and how to truly listen.

  1. Improving a Dental School's Clinic Operations Using Lean Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Fonda G; Cunningham, Larry L; Turner, Sharon P; Lindroth, John; Ray, Deborah; Khan, Talib; Yates, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    The term "lean production," also known as "Lean," describes a process of operations management pioneered at the Toyota Motor Company that contributed significantly to the success of the company. Although developed by Toyota, the Lean process has been implemented at many other organizations, including those in health care, and should be considered by dental schools in evaluating their clinical operations. Lean combines engineering principles with operations management and improvement tools to optimize business and operating processes. One of the core concepts is relentless elimination of waste (non-value-added components of a process). Another key concept is utilization of individuals closest to the actual work to analyze and improve the process. When the medical center of the University of Kentucky adopted the Lean process for improving clinical operations, members of the College of Dentistry trained in the process applied the techniques to improve inefficient operations at the Walk-In Dental Clinic. The purpose of this project was to reduce patients' average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time from over four hours to three hours within 90 days. Achievement of this goal was realized by streamlining patient flow and strategically relocating key phases of the process. This initiative resulted in patient benefits such as shortening average in-the-door-to-out-the-door time by over an hour, improving satisfaction by 21%, and reducing negative comments by 24%, as well as providing opportunity to implement the electronic health record, improving teamwork, and enhancing educational experiences for students. These benefits were achieved while maintaining high-quality patient care with zero adverse outcomes during and two years following the process improvement project.

  2. Process improvement in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopko, P M; Holland, P V

    1999-07-01

    Ongoing efforts to decrease costs in the clinical laboratory make continuous process improvement especially important in difficult economic times. Process improvement can result in decreased workload, cost savings, and increased customer satisfaction but is an abstract concept in and of itself. To illustrate the steps of process improvement, we applied them to our blood component retrieval policy. By identifying the problems with the current system, proposing and implementing solutions, and measuring the effects before and after revamping the process, we have been able to show impressive reductions in the number of component retrievals initiated, the number acted on, wasted components, and customer complaints, all of which translate into cost savings. Once the cycle is completed, it begins anew. There must always be continuous process improvement.

  3. Progress Report: Experimental Saltmarsh Improvement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A series of recommendations for the improvement of the Parker River National Wildlife refuge salt marshes including mound constructions as well as plantings and...

  4. Possibilities of Logistics Policy Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Průša; David Tilkeridis

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the strategic logistics management with emphasis on clear, accurate and effective material flow from the suppliers and internally, as well as an outline of the logistics policy for continuous improvement. The implementation of a complete Supplier Logistics Performance System is essential to support internal processes efficiency and establish a continuous improvement system according to the main logistics policy. Every company should consider such a system in order to win in...

  5. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  6. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  7. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement.

  8. Improvability of assembly systems II: Improvability indicators and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-Y. Chiang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the performance analysis technique developed in Part I, this paper presents improvability indicators for assembly lines with unreliable machines. In particular, it shows that assembly lines are unimprovable with respect to workforce re-distribution if each buffer is, on the average, close to being half full. These lines are unimprovable with respect to buffer capacity re-distribution if each machine is starved and blocked with almost equal frequency. In addition, the paper provides indicators for identification of bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffers. Finally, the paper reports on an application of these improvability indicators in a case study at an automotive components plant.

  9. Improving Case Discussion with an Improv Mind-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Improvisational comedy emphasizes collaboration over competition. This leads to creative ideas and solutions to problems. By establishing this "improv mind-set" in the business classroom, an instructor may be able to overcome some of the problems associated with the case method (e.g., shy students, dominating students). By doing so, the learning…

  10. Improving the Identification of Schools for Chapter 1 Program Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Jerome

    Technical problems with norm-referenced achievement testing that can lead to the erroneous evaluation of schools for Chapter 1 Program improvement is discussed, and an alternative testing model is presented. The history of Chapter 1 testing and evaluation policies is briefly reviewed, and problems with the norm-referenced model are explored. Data…

  11. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...... problem of dynamic d-dimensional orthogonal range searching, stating that tqtu = Ω((lg n/lg lg n)d-1). Here tq denotes the query time and tu the update time of the data structure. This is an improvement of a lg1-δn factor over the recent lower bound of Larsen [FOCS'11], where δ>0 is a small constant......Table of Contents -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In this paper we present a number of improved lower bounds for range searching in the pointer machine and the group model. In the pointer machine, we prove lower bounds for the approximate simplex...

  12. Improving Software Citation and Credit

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Mink, Jessica; Nemiroff, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark; Teuben, Peter; Wallin, John

    2015-01-01

    The past year has seen movement on several fronts for improving software citation, including the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, the Software Publishing Special Interest Group that was started at January's AAS meeting in Seattle at the request of that organization's Working Group on Astronomical Software, a Sloan-sponsored meeting at GitHub in San Francisco to begin work on a cohesive research software citation-enabling platform, the work of Force11 to "transform and improve" research communication, and WSSSPE's ongoing efforts that include software publication, citation, credit, and sustainability. Brief reports on these efforts were shared at the BoF, after which participants discussed ideas for improving software citation, generating a list of recommendations to the community of software authors, journal publishers, ADS, and research authors. The discussion, recommendations, and feedback will help form recommendations for software citation to those publishers...

  13. Improved BLAST for wireless communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongzhao; Liao Guisheng; Wang Feng

    2006-01-01

    Bell layered space-time architecture (BLAST) is a multi-antenna communication structure with high spectrum efficiency, and it has found wide applications in LANs and WLANs. However, its performance is much poorer than those of other space-time coding approaches. In order to improve its performance, an improved BLAST based on RAKE receiving is investigated. The new system introduces orthogonal spreading sequences (OSS) into the transmitter while retains the basic structure of BLAST. The proposed receiver suppresses interferences from other antennas by the orthogonality contained in the received signals, and extracts information from each receiving antenna by using RAKE receiving principle to construct efficient statistic decision. Simulation results show that the improved system performs well over both frequency-flat and frequency-selective fading channels.

  14. Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Fehn, Steven

    2007-01-01

    NASA Dryden presents an improved and automated site-specific algorithm for heat-stress approximation using standard atmospheric measurements routinely obtained from the Edwards Air Force Base weather detachment. Heat stress, which is the net heat load a worker may be exposed to, is officially measured using a thermal-environment monitoring system to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). This instrument uses three independent thermometers to measure wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and the black-globe temperatures. By using these improvements, a more realistic WBGT estimation value can now be produced. This is extremely useful for researchers and other employees who are working on outdoor projects that are distant from the areas that the Web system monitors. Most importantly, the improved WBGT estimations will make outdoor work sites safer by reducing the likelihood of heat stress.

  15. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  16. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... with respect to the overall energy performance of windows. By selecting some of the best solutions a new low energy window has been developed for high latitude climates and a prototype manufactured. Simple and realistic improvements such as reducing the frame width and using glass with low iron content have...... be improved considerably in a fairly simple way without increasing the cost....

  17. Performance improvement CME: managing schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, John M; Correll, Christoph U

    2011-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling disorder characterized by positive and negative symptoms and poor functioning in almost every area of life. Multiple antipsychotics have demonstrated varying levels of efficacy in reducing symptoms in schizophrenia, but adverse effects are common, adherence to medication is low, and relapse rates are high. Psychosocial interventions used in conjunction with antipsychotic pharmacotherapy may help improve treatment outcomes. This Performance Improvement CME activity focuses on individualizing treatment for schizophrenia, assessing treatment adherence, minimizing medication-induced adverse events, and preventing relapse, for children, adolescents, and adults with schizophrenia.

  18. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  19. Ways to Improve Oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧婧

    2015-01-01

    Speaking has been the bottom of the list in college English teaching since last few decades. This dissertation focus on this topic and it is mainly divided into following parts:Firstly, it analyses why college students make no significant progress in oral English. Secondly, it argues how to reform college English teaching to change this situation. It is concluded that teachers should em⁃phasize the importance of oral English in commercial lives and incent students to make great effort to improve speaking. Finally, ways to improve students' English speaking skill both in and outside the classroom are suggested.

  20. Improving Precision of Generated ASTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    The parser-generator is an essential tool in grammarware and its output, the parse tree in form of the concrete or abstract syntax tree, often forms the basis for the whole structure of the grammarware application. Several tools for Java encode the parse tree in a class hierarchy generated to mod...... the parsed documents closely within the Java type system. We present two algorithms used in the generation of such classes which improve the precision with which the parsed input is modeled and show that these improvements greatly ease the use of the generated classes....