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  1. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  2. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil; Avaliacao da incidencia e mortalidade por cancer na populacao residente em regiao com anomalia geologica na ocorrencia de uranio: estudo de caso: Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Leticia Rodrigues

    2009-04-15

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  3. Evaluation of {sup 222}Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao do {sup 222}Rn nos ambientes internos e externos de residencias do municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vicente de Paula

    1999-07-01

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas {sup 222}Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 {sup W}, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of {sup 222}Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m{sup 3} (action level) and 600 Bq. m{sup 3} (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  4. Injury risk prediction for traffic accidents in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the experimental application of Machine Learning techniques to build prediction models that can assess the injury risk associated with traffic accidents. This work uses an freely available data set of traffic accident records that took place in the city of Porto Alegre/RS (Brazil) during the year of 2013. This study also provides an analysis of the most important attributes of a traffic accident that could produce an outcome of injury to the people involved in the accident.

  5. Determination of the frequency of polymorphisms in genes related to the genome stability maintenance of the population residing at Monte Alegre, PA (Brazil) municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on earth, for man and all living things have always been exposed to these sources. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent which can affect the genomic stability and genes related to DNA repair may play a role when they have committed certain polymorphism. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair and cell cycle control: hOGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC3 (Thr241 Met) and p53 (Arg72Pro) in saliva samples from a population located Monte Alegre, state of Para were collected in August 2008 and 40 samples of men and 46 samples of women, adding a total of 86 samples. By RFLP was determined the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous for polymorphic genes. The I)OGG1 gene was 5% of the allele 326Cys, XRCC3 gene found about 21 % of the allele 241 Met and p53 gene showed 40.8% of the 72Pro allele. And the genotype frequencies of individuals for the three genes were 91.04%, 88.06% and 59.7% for homozygous wild genotype, 5.97%, 11.94% and 22.39% for heterozygote genotype and 2,99%, zero and 17:91% for homozygous polymorphic hOGG1 genes respectively, XRCC3, p53. These values are similar to those found in previous studies. The influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, which is statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology in Monte Alegre, that help to characterization of local population. (author)

  6. Evaluation of chromosome aberration frequency instable in individual groups residents at the municipality of Monte Alegre, Para, Brazil, exposed to radon; Avaliacao da frequencia de aberracoes cromossomicas instaveis em grupos de individuos residentes no municipio de Monte Alegre - PA expostos diferencialmente ao radonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunes, Samira Nogarol

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Monte Alegre is a region that presents natural radiation high due to the presence of the radionuclide uranium ({sup 238}U) in its soil, which through its decay gives rise to element Rn, a gas. The radioactivity of the rocks has become a problem for the population of Monte Alegre, from the moment when the radioactive material began to be used in the construction of houses and paving of streets. Among all bio markers related to environmental exposures and its biological effects, the chromosomal aberrations are considered good bio markers as predictors of the risk of cancer. Studies suggest that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations may be related to the genetic instability individual and/or exposure to ionizing radiation. Our work aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals in the region of high natural radioactivity in Monte Alegre-PA. As well as to correlate the cytogenetic analysis made in this study with the results of analysis of frequency of polymorphisms of genes of DNA repair carried out in another study that resulted in other dissertation. In accordance with the distribution of the data obtained in characterizing environmental radiological and in the calculation of dose, were chosen residents of homes with more and less exposure to radiation. The samples of peripheral blood of 85 individuals of the resident population of the region of Monte Alegre - PA were collected and examine provided two slides for individual was performed to verify the quality of the sample. Through this evaluation we decide that 33% of the material collected, or is, samples of 28 individuals were in suitable conditions for analysis of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. After the collections lymphocytes present in the sample were cultivated in accordance with the methodology proposed for obtaining of cells in metaphase. were analyzed 6,177 metaphases of 28 individuals among which were found dicentric chromosomes 4 and 19

  7. Factors associated with uncontrolled asthma in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    P.T.R. Dalcin; D.M. Menegotto; A. Zanonato; L. Franciscatto; Soliman, F.; Figueiredo, M.; Pereira, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of uncontrolled and controlled asthma, and the factors associated with uncontrolled asthma were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Patients aged 11 years with confirmed asthma diagnosis were recruited from the outpatient asthma clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were excluded if they had other chronic pulmonary disease. They underwent an evaluation by a general questionnaire, an asthma control questionnaire (based on the 2006 Global Initiativ...

  8. Determination of the frequency of polymorphisms in genes related to the genome stability maintenance of the population residing at Monte Alegre, PA (Brazil) municipality; Determinacao da frequencia de polimorfismos em genes relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma na populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Cristiny Gomes

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on earth, for man and all living things have always been exposed to these sources. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent which can affect the genomic stability and genes related to DNA repair may play a role when they have committed certain polymorphism. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair and cell cycle control: hOGG1 (Ser326Cys), XRCC3 (Thr241 Met) and p53 (Arg72Pro) in saliva samples from a population located Monte Alegre, state of Para were collected in August 2008 and 40 samples of men and 46 samples of women, adding a total of 86 samples. By RFLP was determined the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous for polymorphic genes. The I)OGG1 gene was 5% of the allele 326Cys, XRCC3 gene found about 21 % of the allele 241 Met and p53 gene showed 40.8% of the 72Pro allele. And the genotype frequencies of individuals for the three genes were 91.04%, 88.06% and 59.7% for homozygous wild genotype, 5.97%, 11.94% and 22.39% for heterozygote genotype and 2,99%, zero and 17:91% for homozygous polymorphic hOGG1 genes respectively, XRCC3, p53. These values are similar to those found in previous studies. The influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, which is statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology in Monte Alegre, that help to characterization of local population. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  10. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  11. Brazil : Toward a More Inclusive and Effective Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report is about effective participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre. The process was initiated during the early years of re-democratization and decentralization in Brazil, following the end of the military dictatorship in 1985. The 1988 constitution initiated a process of decentralization and tax reforms that created the fiscal space for municipalities to make more significant public in...

  12. Evaluation of the frequency of polymorphisms in XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) genes related to the genome stability maintenance in individuals of the resident population from Monte Alegre, PA/Brazil municipality; Avaliacao da frequencia de polimorfismos nos genes XRCC1 (Arg399Gln) e XPD (Lys751Gln) relacionados a manutencao da estabilidade do genoma em individuos da populacao residente no municipio de Monte Alegre, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Isabelle Magliano

    2010-07-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation coming from natural sources is an inherent feature of human life on Earth. Ionizing radiation is a known genotoxic agent, which can affect biological molecules, causing DNA damage and genomic instability. The cellular system of DNA repair plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability by repairing DNA damage caused by genotoxic agents. However, genes related to DNA repair may have their role committed when presenting a certain polymorphism. This study intended to analyze the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of DNA repair XRCC1 (Arg39-9Gln) and XPD (Lys751Gln) in a: population of the city of Monte Alegre, that resides in an area of high exposure to natural radioactivity. Samples of saliva were collected from individuals of the population of Monte Alegre, in which 40 samples were of male and 46 female. Through the use of RFLP (length polymorphism restriction fragment) the frequency of homozygous genotypes and / or heterozygous was determined for polymorphic genes. The XRCC1 gene had 65.4% of the presence of the allele 399Gln and XPD gene had 32.9% of the 751Gln allele. These values are similar to those found in previous studies for the XPD gene, whereas XRCC1 showed a frequency much higher than described in the literature. The. influence of these polymorphisms, which are involved in DNA repair and consequent genotoxicity induced by radiation depends on dose and exposure factors such as smoking, statistically a factor in public health surveillance in the region. This study gathered information and molecular epidemiology for risk assessment of cancer in the population of Monte Alegre. (author)

  13. Outline of the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Assessoria e Estudos Urbanos, CIDADE

    2000-01-01

    Since 1994 CIDADE has been actively involved in the Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre and has been a major instrument in the democratization of municipal budgets, which are formulated with the direct participation of the public in setting priorities for public investment. It breaks radically with the practice of elaborating the municipal budget inside official meetings, and through this method the public are part of the decision making process for management of their local area.

  14. City and School: the Visible Construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School in Porto Alegre/RS - Brazil (1913-1935)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane De Freitas Ermel

    2016-01-01

    In the context of studies about space and school architecture, this article analyses the visual construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School, which was located in downtown Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil between 1913 and 1935. Designed by the engineer Afonso Hébert, head of the Department of Public Works in the State of Rio Grande do Sul/RS, the building was completed in 1922. In addition to functional elements, i.e., a large number of classrooms that would serve to increase the access of chi...

  15. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron; André Klafke de Lima; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Nelson Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental eval...

  16. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  17. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  18. Frequency of dermatophytes in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEZZARI Adelina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the distribution of dermatophytes in Porto Alegre, the capital of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, they were isolated from the skin, hairs and nails samples and retrospectively analyzed from June 1981 to June 1995, in two different institutions in the city of Porto Alegre: (i the Serviço de Micologia do Instituto de Pesquisas Biológicas Jandyr Maya Faillace, da Secretaria de Saúde e Meio Ambiente do Rio Grande do Sul which attends the low income population (low and middle classes and, (ii Laboratório Weinmann, a clinical pathology laboratory which attends predominantly the higher income population (middle and upper classes, both which attend in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. The dermatophyte predominance of Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed (55.33% followed by T. mentagrophytes (21.46%. The data obtained were compared with the existing prevalence data which were collected in the interior of the state over a period of 32 years (1960-1992. T. verrucosum, T. simii, Microsporum persicolor, T. schöenleinii, M. nanum and M. cookei were isolated in the interior and have not been found in the capital so far. On the other side, T. violaceum was, isolated in the capital and has not been found in the interior so far.

  19. Volcanism and stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Campo Alegre Basin, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO B. CITRONI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The depositional succession of the Campo Alegre Basin (Santa Catarina - southern Brazil was investigated having the evolution of the volcanic activity as background. The different stratigraphic units are interpreted as belonging to different volcanic stages: Bateias Formation, conglomerates and sandstones, related with a pre-volcanic stage; Campo Alegre Group, at the main volcanic stage, with each different formation corresponding to different episodes of volcanism - Rio Negrinho Formation, corresponding to the basic volcanism, Avenca Grande Formation to ignimbritic event, Serra de São Miguel Formation to the acid volcanism and Fazenda Uirapuru Formation, related to an explosive event; Rio Turvo and Arroio Água Fria formations correspond respectively to inner and extra-caldera deposits.A sucessão deposicional das rochas vulcânicas e sedimentares da Bacia de Campo Alegre (Santa Catarina - sul do Brasil foi estabelecida tendo como "background" a evolução da atividade vulcânica. As diferentes unidades estratigráficas são consideradas como pertencentes a diferentes estágios do vulcanismo: Formação Bateias, constituída por conglomerados e arenitos, é relacionada a um estágio pré-vulcânico; Grupo Campo Alegre, depositado durante o estágio vulcânico principal, é constituído de diferentes formações que refletem os diversos momentos desse vulcanismo - Formação Rio Negrinho, relacionada ao vulcanismo básico, Formação Avenca Grande a eventos ignimbríticos, Formação Serra de São Miguel ao vulcanismo ácido e a Formação Fazenda Uirapuru a um evento explosivo; as formações Rio Turvo e Arroio Água Fria correspondem respectivamente a depósitos do interior e do exterior de uma caldeira abatida.

  20. Geography and Participatory Democracy in Brazil: Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Wood

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the participatory budgeting  process that an increasing number of municipalities, primarily but not exclusively in Brazil, are  using as a tool of governance. Background is  provided on municipal governance in Brazil as  well as on the Partido dos Trabalhadores, the political party primarily responsible for introducing participatory budgeting. This is followed by a  comparison of the participatory budgets of two  Brazilian cities: Porto Alegre and Belo Horizonte.  From this comparison we draw conclusions as to  how geography can condition the outcomes of  participatory budgeting processes. Resumen: Geografía y democracia participativa en Brasil:  Comparación entre Porto Alegre y Belo Horizonte Este artículo estudia el proceso de presupuestos  participativos que un número creciente de municipalidades, especialmente en Brasil, aunque no  exclusivamente, está utilizando como instrumento  de gobernabilidad. En el artículo se entrega información de fondo sobre los gobiernos municipales en Brasil y sobre el Partido de los Trabajadores, el partido político que es responsable de la  introducción del presupuesto participativo, para  posteriormente comparar los presupuestos participativos de dos ciudades brasileñas: Porto Alegre y  Belo Horizonte. Sobre la base de esta comparación sacamos conclusiones sobre cómo puede la  geografía condicionar el resultado de procesos de  presupuesto participativo.

  1. International Symposium on Nuclear Oncology, Por to Alegre, Brazil, 19-23 January, 2004: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An International Symposium on Nuclear Oncology was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency at Porto Alegre, Brazil from 19-23 January 2004. The symposium was hosted by the Government of Brazil through Santa Rita Hospital, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Porto-Alegre in collaboration with the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNM and B), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM), Asia and Oceania Federation of Nuclear Science and Biology (AOFNM and B), Latin American Society of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (ALASBIMN), Brazilian Society of Nuclear Medicine, World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council (WRPTC) and European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). The main objectives of the symposium were to evaluate the current status of nuclear oncology globally and, in particular, in developing countries; exchange information on the current advances in the field between scientists from developed and developing countries; interact with user groups (Internists, oncologists, surgeons, radiopharmacists, medical physicists, etc.) and bring them the most important information in the field and define future directions. A total number of 431 professionals from 57 IAEA Member States attended the symposium which included 332 participants and 99 Members of the Industry (who took part in the trade exhibition). There were also 11 participants from various collaborating organizations. A total number of 200 contributed and 31 invited papers were presented in 18 Scientific Sessions (16 oral and 2 poster sessions) during the five days of the Symposium

  2. Between Care and Order: Street-Level Workers’ Discretion and Drug Policies in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quadros Rigoni (Rafaela)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This comparative study analyses the implementation of policies on so-called ‘problem drugs’ (crack cocaine and heroin) for the cities of Amsterdam (in the Netherlands) and Porto Alegre (in Brazil). Using a variant on the street level bureaucracy approach, the study assu

  3. City and School: the Visible Construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School in Porto Alegre/RS - Brazil (1913-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane De Freitas Ermel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of studies about space and school architecture, this article analyses the visual construction of the Fernando Gomes Elementary School, which was located in downtown Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil between 1913 and 1935. Designed by the engineer Afonso Hébert, head of the Department of Public Works in the State of Rio Grande do Sul/RS, the building was completed in 1922. In addition to functional elements, i.e., a large number of classrooms that would serve to increase the access of children to primary school, its monumental proportions incorporated a series of symbolic elements aligned with the ideals of the First Brazilian Republic (1889–1930. The documentary analysis was performed on the archives of the Directorship of Public Education and the Directorship of Public Works of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as various iconographic sources, capital improvement plans and periodicals of the time. The construction of the school inaugurated a new conception of the space and architecture of public elementary schools in the State, as the visible improvement and sanitation of the cities were considered of great importance in the period. The construction of school buildings was also one of the greatest advertising tools of the new Republican political regime.

  4. Aspectos psicossociais da imigração familiar na grande Porto Alegre Psychosocial aspects of familiar immigration at the Porto Alegre region (Brazil

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    Jorge Castellá Sarriera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresentam-se alguns aspectos psicossociais presentes no processo migratório de seis famílias hispano-americanas na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre. Estes aspectos, relatados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com os integrantes das famílias, indicam os principais tópicos que nortearam as entrevistas: suas trajetórias migracionais, decisão de imigrar, sua inserção na cultura local, suas relações comunitárias, identidade e expectativas de vida. São analisadas as formas como ocorrem as transições aculturativas no contexto local.On this article some psychosocial aspects included on the migratory process of six Hispanic families at the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre (Brazil are presented. These aspects, obtained through semi-structured interviews with the members of the families that had indicated the principal topics that guided the interviews: their emigrational paths, their decision to immigrate, their insertion on the local culture, their community relations, identity and life expectations. The ways by which the acculturative transitions on the local context happen are analyzed.

  5. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  6. Evaluation of exploitation alternatives of iron - titanium - vanadium ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of experiences carried out in order to develop an economic process for vanadium, is presented. The attempts which are being developed in the Metallurgical Engineering Program at COPPE/UFRJ, are described, and the other technical and economical possibilities of existing technologies, are analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of integrated steel making process to recover iron, titanium and vanadium contained in the ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes deposit, in Bahia-Brazil are considered. (Author)

  7. The Perilous Paths of Deeper Democracy: Understanding the Rise and Decline of Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa R. Melgar

    2015-01-01

    Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil is widely regarded internationally as one of the most significant innovations in participatory governance. Launched in the late 1980s, it has been credited with deepening political and social inclusion, enabling ordinary citizens to shape municipal budget policy and redistribute state resources. But since the mid-2000s, this initiative has experienced significant weakening under a series of conservative local governments, putting into serious qu...

  8. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Alex Nogueira; Gaio, Eduardo José; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Rios, Fernando Silva; Costa, Ricardo dos Santos Araujo; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Albandar, Jasim; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26083520

  9. A population-based cohort study of oral health in South Brazil: The Porto Alegre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira Haas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few population-based cohort studies have been established in Dentistry and this is especially true for Latin America. We conducted a population-based prospective study focusing on oral health in Porto Alegre, south Brazil, and herein we describe its methodology and discuss directions for further research. The cohort was established in 2001 using a multistage probability sample of 1,465 toothed and 121 edentulous subjects. A 5-year follow-up was performed in 2006 that included 755 individuals. The main aim of this study was to determine the pattern and risk factors for periodontal disease progression and tooth loss incidence. A full-mouth protocol was used including periodontal assessments at six sites per tooth. Primary outcomes were periodontal attachment loss and tooth loss. Oral mucosal lesions, dental plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus, probing depths, gingival recession, and dental caries were also assessed. This is the first population-based cohort study to focus on periodontal disease in Latin America. Findings will contribute to our understanding of the epidemiology of periodontal disease and provide valuable data for the planning and implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  10. The Perilous Paths of Deeper Democracy: Understanding the Rise and Decline of Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa R. Melgar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil is widely regarded internationally as one of the most significant innovations in participatory governance. Launched in the late 1980s, it has been credited with deepening political and social inclusion, enabling ordinary citizens to shape municipal budget policy and redistribute state resources. But since the mid-2000s, this initiative has experienced significant weakening under a series of conservative local governments, putting into serious question its sustainability amid inhospitable political conditions. This article advances an analytical framework to understand both the rise and subsequent weakening of participatory budgeting. By drawing together elements in the state, civil society and broader politico-institutional and economic environment, and showing how these changed over time, the paper provides an analytical account of the shifting fortunes of participatory budgeting in Porto Alegre.

  11. Presence of p-synephrine in teas commercialized in Porto Alegre (RS/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Dutra Arbo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium (bitter orange is characterized by the presence of p-synephrine, an amine structurally and pharmacologically related to ephedrine. Besides the same adverse effects as ephedrine, nowadays it is believed that altered levels of p-synephrine can be associated to the occurrence of migraine and cluster headaches. Leaves and fruits of this species are highly commercialized in form of teas and herbal preparations, but without taking into account the risks associated with its use. This work describes a survey of teas and herbal preparations containing C. aurantium, commercialized in Porto Alegre (RS/Brazil, in order to verify the presence of p-synephrine. Comparing with the mean amount available in the supermarkets, around 20% of the teas and 10% of the herbal preparations declared the presence of C. aurantium in their labels. In a sampling of 15 teas and 2 herbal preparations selected for the analysis, the presence of p-synephrine was characterized in all samples, with levels between 0.0040 to 0.2308%, leading to a caution that even being natural products, they are not free of adverse effects.Citrus aurantium (laranjeira-azeda é caracterizada pela presença de p-sinefrina, amina estrutural e farmacologicamente similar à efedrina. Além de poder causar efeitos adversos similares aos da efedrina, atualmente acredita-se que níveis endógenos alterados de p-sinefrina possam estar associados à causa da enxaqueca. Folhas e frutos desta espécie são largamente comercializados na forma de chá e em preparados de erva-mate, sem que sejam considerados os riscos associados ao seu uso. Neste sentido, este trabalho descreve uma pesquisa em chás e preparados de erva-mate comercializados em Porto Alegre, para verificar a presença de C. aurantium e p-sinefrina. Comparando com a quantidade média disponível nas prateleiras dos supermercados, cerca de 20% dos chás e 10% dos preparados de erva-mate declaravam nos rótulos conter C. aurantium. De

  12. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  13. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM10-2.5 and PM). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM).

  14. LEAD DISTRIBUTION BY URBAN SEDIMENTS ON IMPERMEABLE AREAS OF PORTO ALEGRE – RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Luz Garcia Martinez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, like lead (Pb, are subproducts of industrial activities; however, in recent years, studies have shown that even in non-industrial areas, elevated concentrations of this element have been found. In this study, Pb concentrations were measured in 20 composite samples of urban sediments collected in an urban watershed of 4.85 km² with three types of soil use (commercial/residential, commercial and industrial in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Concentrations were determined by acid digestion (EPA 3050 of the 209 µm, 150 µm, 90 µm, 63 µm and 45 µm fractions followed by atomic emission spectrophotometry with inductively coupled plasma. Average values of 178.1 µg.g-¹ (± 332; 226.5 µg.g-¹ (± 500; 245.2 µg.g-¹ (± 454.1; 272.4 µg.g-¹ (± 497.3 and 251.5 µg.g-¹ (± 322.6 were obtained in the 209, 150, 90, 63 and 45 µm fractions, respectively. Concentrations of the metals studied were interpolated and represented geographically using Idrisi© Andes. Results show that the greatest concentrations are located in the commercial part of the study area, characterized as presenting high vehicle flow most of the day, with this being considered a potential source of lead. All concentrations were above that of the local background. Studies of this type are important because they make the establishment of control targets possible within sustainable management of water resources, allowing inferences regarding future pollution scenarios of local water resources.

  15. Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Vera Maria Ferrão Vargas

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter collected from three different sites within the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, was investigated using a Salmonella/microsome assay. Samples were extracted by sonication, sequentially, with cyclohexane (CX, and dichloromethane (DCM, for a rough fractionation by polarity. The different fractions were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix fraction, and TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6, without metabolic activation. Mutagenic response was observed for frameshift strain TA98 in assays with and without metabolization for two sites (sites 2 and 3, which had considerable risk of environmental contamination by nonpolar (CX and/or moderately polar (DCM compounds. However, the values of revertants/m3 (rev/m3 were highest on the site subject to automobile exhaust (site 3 in assays without (9.56 rev/m3 and with metabolization (5.08 rev/m3. Maximum mutagenic activity was detected in the moderately polar fraction, decreasing after metabolization. Nevertheless, the nonpolar fractions (CX gave higher mutagenic activity in the presence of metabolization than in the absence of the S9 mix fraction. The responses observed for TA98NR and TA98/1,8-DNP6 strains suggest the activity of nitrocompounds.Foi investigada a atividade mutagênica de material particulado de amostras de ar coletadas em três diferentes locais dentro da área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil, através do ensaio Salmonella/microssoma. As amostras foram extraídas, em ultra-som, por fracionamento seqüencial de acordo com a polaridade, utilizando os solventes ciclohexano (CX e diclorometano (DCM. As diferentes frações foram testadas para mutagenicidade com as linhagens de Salmonella typhimurium TA98, em presença e ausência de ativação metabólica, e TA98NR e TA98/1,8-DNP6 em ausência de metabolização. Observou-se resposta mutagênica positiva, do tipo erro

  16. Adenovirus, enterovirus and thermotolerant coliforms in recreational waters from Lake Guaíba beaches, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, C P; Simonetti, A B; Staggemeier, R; Rigotto, C; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, molecular detection of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and enteroviruses (EV) was performed in surface water samples collected from beaches Ipanema and Lami, located on the shores of Lake Guaíba, city of Porto Alegre, RS, southern Brazil. Furthermore, water safety was evaluated by counting thermotolerant coliforms (TC), following local government regulations. A total of 36 samples were collected monthly from six different sites along the beaches. Viral genomes were found in 30 (83.3%) samples. The higher detection rate was observed for HAdV (77.8%), followed by EV (22.2%). Although low concentrations of TC have been found, the occurrence of viral genomes in water samples was frequent and may pose a potential risk of infection for people bathing in these beaches. PMID:26608773

  17. Pharmacy clerks' prescribing practices for STD patients in Porto Alegre, Brazil: missed opportunities for improving STD control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mauro Cunha; da Silva, Rodrigo D Correa; Gobbato, Ricardo O; da Rocha, Felipe Civeira; de Lucca Júnior, Giusepe; Vissoky, Jacques; Cestari, Tania; Filgueiras, Absalom

    2004-05-01

    STDs are a significant public health problem in Brazil. A primary control strategy is the immediate treatment of symptomatic individuals. When services are unavailable, STD patients seek care in alternative settings. Probably the most frequently used settings are commercial pharmacies, where pharmacy clerks provide treatment, although Brazilian law prohibits selling antibiotics without prescription. Our objective was to evaluate prescribing practices by pharmacy clerks for STDs. We performed a cross-sectional study. Trained medical students visited 62 pharmacies in the city of Porto Alegre during March 2002. These were randomly chosen from a list of 863 registered pharmacies. The students presented to the pharmacy complaining of dysuria and urethral discharge. After obtaining a prescription, or not, they asked for additional instructions to be followed. Immediately after leaving the premises, the instructions were anonymously recorded. Of the 62 pharmacies visited, a clerk in 56 (90.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.1%-96.4%) provided a prescription. Most frequently prescribed drugs were ampicillin with probenecide (29/51.8%) and rosoxacin (11/19.6%). Ministry of Health-recommended treatment was not suggested by any of the clerks. Forty-six additional recommendations were given. The use of condoms was the most frequent additional advice (42/46). Prescribing by pharmacy clerks is very prevalent in Porto Alegre. This may represent a lost opportunity for more comprehensive prevention effort (counselling, partner management, and diagnosing other STDs). Additionally, the most frequently prescribed drugs are not recommended by international or national health authorities for treatment of STDs, and none of these drugs covers chlamydia. We conclude that pharmacy clerks are a potentially important source of STD treatment and control but that their practices are in need of vast improvement. PMID:15117504

  18. Patterns of alcohol use in an elderly sample enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Luiz Guidolin; Irênio Gomes da Silva Filho; Eduardo Lopes Nogueira; Francisco Pascoal Ribeiro Junior; Alfredo Cataldo Neto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to determine the pattern of alcohol use in the elderly and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics in an elderly sample of patients from the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 557 seniors, aged 60 years or more, through application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a global assessment questionnaire for the elderly. The majority of the 557 senior citizens did not compl...

  19. ANALYSIS OF SPACE-TIME DYNAMICS OF FOREST FRAGMENTS IN THE ALEGRE RIVER SUBWATERSHED, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmila Gomes da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the history of forest fragmentation in watersheds helps plan and implement practices based on restoration of degraded forest areas. Structural analysis of forest fragments in the Alegre River subwatershed, State of Espírito Santo, was based on landscape metrics using ArcGIS 10 software with Patch Analyst extension, regarding changes during 1975, 2002, and 2007. Analysis showed an increase of about 7% in the total area of forest cover and emergence of 645 new forest fragments. Numerous patches and a small drainage area resulted in a high perimeter-to-area ratio. Simple geometric shapes predominated in smaller patches ( 20 ha were close to each other, with a tendency to decrease proximity metric values. The results show that despite increase in vegetated area, the environmental quality of forest remnants is highly jeopardized.

  20. Geologic and geomorphologic controls of the kaolin deposits of Campo Alegre basin (SC-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important kaolin deposits from Campo Alegre region (S C) were formed by the conjunction of at least one hydrothermal phase followed by many others weathering, supergenic, phases. Possibly deposits formed by only one of these processes exist, but these deposits shall be small and smaller than those mined today. Besides kaolinization, illitization/muscovitization and silicification, hydrothermalism also generated pyritized and propilitized zones, with quartz + chlorite. Together, hipogenic alterations related to kaolin deposits are very similar to alterations of high sulfidation epigenetic volcanogenic gold deposits. Most part of the biggest kaolin mines from the southern part of Campo Alegre Basin are distributed along a 13 Km long and 0,5 Km width bent zone that is parallel to structural alignments that point out the eastern Basin border. This zone was originated by deformation that has inclined and broken rocks, generating a fault system alongside and parallel to structural lineaments. This fault system has made possible the ascent of hydrothermal hot aqueous fluids and of diqueform intrusions that caused hydrothermalism genetically related to kaolin deposits. Gamma spectrometry may indicate hydro thermalized zones. Although the potassium equivalent rock contents, derived from aerial gamma spectrometry of the mine regions, varies from a minimum of 2,07% to a maximum of 3,78%, 17 of the 20 mines are on high grade regions, with equivalent potassium contents grater than 3,04% and lower than 3,58%. The 'F factor' ((K.U)/Th) seems to indicate hydro thermalized zones better than potassium equivalent rock contents. Practically all the biggest mines on region are placed where 'F factor' is large, bigger than 10,05% and lower than 13,70%. The biggest mines are restricted to regions with altitudes between 950 and 1060 m. The average altitude of 23 mines is 1012,1+-13,8 m. This zone agrees with an ancient peneplane that makes possible the development of the intense

  1. Case Study 2 - Porto Alegre, Brazil : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    Run by dictators for over 20 years (1964-1985), Brazil only had a democratic constitution promulgated in 1998 that allowed an already active civil society to function more freely. A country of 156 million, Brazil has been dubbed one of the most unequal, with one of the largest numbers of poor people among comparable middle-income countries. After the end of dictatorship in 1998, people who...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOODPLAIN SOILS IN THE PORTO ALEGRE METROPOLITAN REGION, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de França da Silva Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn the Porto Alegre metropolitan region (PAMR there are a significant proportion of floodplain soils, mainly Planosols and Gleysols, in relation to upland soils. This study aimed to evaluate the morphological, chemical and physical characteristics, and to classify floodplain soils in the PAMR. Six soil profiles were evaluated under different sedimentary lithologies and drainage classes, and samples were collected for chemical and physical analyzes. Two orders of mineral soils (Planosols and Gleysols and one order of organic soil (Organosols were identified. The soils were moderately deep to deep and stratified. In mineral soils hue ranged between 7.5YR and 2.5Y, with the occurrence of Bg, Btg or Cg gley horizons, while in organic soil the colors were neutral. Sand and silt were the predominant particle sizes according to the origin sedimentary deposits. The organic carbon content was negatively related to soil density and positively related to soil specific surface area and with soil cation exchange capacity. Soil chemical characterization showed expressive variation in bases, aluminum and sodium saturation. Ki index and Fe(CBD/Fe(H2SO4 ratio indicated a low soil weathering degree. The different sedimentary lithologies and the soil hydromorphism degree were the main factors related to differences in morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils in the PAMR.

  3. [Spatial clusters detection of violent deaths in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S M; Barcellos, C; Carvalho, M S; Flôres, R

    2001-01-01

    Violence is of major importance in the health profile of Brazilian metropolitan areas and should be treated as a public health problem. Spatial analysis methods can be highly useful for the surveillance and prevention of violence. This paper analyzes the spatial distribution of victims' place of residence in relation to the main causes of violent death in Porto Alegre (1996) in order to identify vulnerable areas. For motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicide, the victim's place of residence was pinpointed using the municipal Geographic Information System. The point patterns of health events and population density were analyzed using a Kernel smoother, visually compared. Some areas with higher concentration of events are similar to population distribution but differ from each other in the remaining high concentration areas, thus indicating specific micro-areas at risk. Areas of higher homicide risk are mainly located on the periphery of the more urbanized area, with worse socioeconomic conditions. Motor vehicle accidents are concentrated in areas that are simultaneously commercial and residential and are traversed by streets with heavy traffic. Suicide deaths are more evenly distributed over the territory. Identification of risk areas provides meaningful information for developing preventive and health promotion measures focusing on the events for which health policies may play a central role. PMID:11679889

  4. Blackberry and redberry production in crop and intercrop in Pouso Alegre, southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Csaignon Mariano Caproni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The cultivation of mulberry ( Rubus sp. is highly disseminated in cold climates, but some cultivars adapt to warm weather environments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the production of blackberry and redberry in season and off season in Pouso Alegre, south of Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized block, with twelve cultivars ('Arapaho', 'Xavante', 'Brazos', 'Tupy' 'Comanche', 'Choctaw', 'Guarani', 'Caingangue', 'Cherokee', 'Chicasaw' and 'Clone' and a redberry, three blocks and an experimental unit of four plants with a spacing of 0.5x3.0m and a total density of 6,666 plants per hectare. Conventional pruning was performed to produce the crop (October-December and for off-season production (April-July. In 'Brazos' there was increased production in the two seasons evaluated against other mulberry trees, conversely, in the off season, there was a positive effect of pruning carried out in January only in 'Tupy', 'Choctaw', 'Comanche' and 'Clone', with 'Tupy' presenting the highest productivity off season. In 'Brazos' and 'Tupy' there was the best balance between soluble solids and acidity in the crop and red berry in season. 'Brazos' and 'Cherokee' had the highest average content of total sugars. Due to the lack of supply of fruit, pruning mulberry trees in January is an alternative to increase the income of family-based farms.

  5. Homicides among teenagers in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: vulnerability, susceptibility, and gender cultures

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    Ana Rosária Sant'Anna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a quantitative and qualitative study on homicides among teenagers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, based on a historical series during the 1990s and the life and death histories in this group, with a special focus on 1997. In that year there were 68 homicides in which the victims were from 10 to 19 years old. Of the 68, 62 were males and only 6 females, or a ratio of 10:1, showing that young males are more vulnerable and susceptible to being murdered. The data indicate that cause of death is influenced by gender culture and that homicides are based on power and status symbols characterizing a kind of virility. This expression of virility in the shaping of violence also appears in the domination of the female body observed in homicides with young women as the victims. The life and death histories of these teenagers highlight the pertinence of the gender-based analysis as a theoretical-analytical category, in addition to analyses considering socioeconomic aspects and social inequity.

  6. Homicides among teenagers in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: vulnerability, susceptibility, and gender cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Ana Rosária; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a quantitative and qualitative study on homicides among teenagers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, based on a historical series during the 1990s and the life and death histories in this group, with a special focus on 1997. In that year there were 68 homicides in which the victims were from 10 to 19 years old. Of the 68, 62 were males and only 6 females, or a ratio of 10:1, showing that young males are more vulnerable and susceptible to being murdered. The data indicate that cause of death is influenced by gender culture and that homicides are based on power and status symbols characterizing a kind of virility. This expression of virility in the shaping of violence also appears in the domination of the female body observed in homicides with young women as the victims. The life and death histories of these teenagers highlight the pertinence of the gender-based analysis as a theoretical-analytical category, in addition to analyses considering socioeconomic aspects and social inequity. PMID:12488876

  7. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  8. Estimated mental retardation and school dropout in a sample of students from state public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Tramontina Silzá

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between estimated Mental Retardation (MR and school dropout in a sample of students of the third and fourth grades at state schools in Porto Alegre, the capital of the southernmost state of Brazil. METHOD: In this case - control study, students that dropped out from schools (n=44 and a control group who continued attending schools (n=44 had their intelligence quotient (IQ determined by the vocabulary and cubes subtests of the Wescheler Intelligence Scale fraction three-quarters third edition (WISCfraction three-quartersIII. Students with IQ lower than 70 were considered as potential cases of MR. Other prevalent mental disorders in this age range were assessed in both groups using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Schoolfraction three-quarters Age Children, Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E. RESULTS: The prevalence of potential MR was significantly higher in the dropped out group than in the control group (p<0.001. Odds ratio for school dropout was significantly higher in the presence of MR even after controlling for potentially confounding factors (age, conduct disorder, grade repetition, family structure and income (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Children with IQ lower than 70 (potential MR were at higher risk for school dropout. These children need to be identified at school and specific educational strategies should be implemented to assure their inclusion in the learning process.

  9. Homicides among teenagers in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: vulnerability, susceptibility, and gender cultures

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    Sant'Anna Ana Rosária

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a quantitative and qualitative study on homicides among teenagers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, based on a historical series during the 1990s and the life and death histories in this group, with a special focus on 1997. In that year there were 68 homicides in which the victims were from 10 to 19 years old. Of the 68, 62 were males and only 6 females, or a ratio of 10:1, showing that young males are more vulnerable and susceptible to being murdered. The data indicate that cause of death is influenced by gender culture and that homicides are based on power and status symbols characterizing a kind of virility. This expression of virility in the shaping of violence also appears in the domination of the female body observed in homicides with young women as the victims. The life and death histories of these teenagers highlight the pertinence of the gender-based analysis as a theoretical-analytical category, in addition to analyses considering socioeconomic aspects and social inequity.

  10. Flow-by-flow chemical stratigraphy and evolution of thirteen Serra Geral Group basalt flows from Vista Alegre, southernmost Brazil

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    Viter M Pinto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The geochemical characterization of thirteen Serra Geral Group flows in the Vista Alegre region (RS-SC, southern Brazil, displays the homogeneous basaltic composition near 50 wt.% SiO2. Each of the five basal flows (Pitanga-type, high-Ti/Y ~600, TiO2 > 3 wt.% and eight upper flows (Paranapanema-type, medium Ti/Y ~400, TiO2 > 2 wt.% can be identified from their chemical composition; sets of flows have parallel variation in chemical composition. The flow-by-flowcorrelation in four sections shows the horizontal position of the flows in three profiles and an approximately 200-m downdrop of the Itapiranga block with respect to the Frederico Westphalen block. The world-class amethyst geode mineralization and the systematic presence of native copper in the basalts make the correlation of great geological and economic significance.A caracterização geoquímica de treze derrames do Grupo Serra Geral na região de Vista Alegre (RS e SC, sul do Brasil, exibe uma composição basáltica homogênea próxima a 50% de SiO2. Os cinco derrames basais são classificados quimicamente como tipo Pitanga (alto Ti/Y ~600 e TiO2 > 3 em peso percentual, os demais oito derrames possuem médio Ti/Y ~400 com TiO2 ~2.5 em peso percentual, sendo classificados como magma tipo Paranapanema. Cada derrame pode ser identificado através de sua composição química e correlacionado, com variação paralela entre os perfis estudados. A correlação derrame a derrame nos quatro perfis demonstra uma posição horizontal em três perfis e um rejeito vertical de aproximadamente 200 m do bloco Itapiranga em relação ao bloco Frederico Westphalen. A presença de jazidas de ametista em geodos e a sistemática ocorrência de cobre nativo nos basaltos da região tornam a correlação de grande significado geológico e econômico.

  11. Risk-Taking Behavior for HIV Acquisition during Pregnancy in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Yeganeh; Ivana Varella; Breno Riegel Santos; Marineide Gonçalves de Melo; Mariana Simon; Taui Melo; Karin Nielsen-Saines

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that acquisition of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and breastfeeding is associated with a high risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission. This study evaluates risk factors associated with HIV acquisition during pregnancy in women delivering at a large metropolitan medical facility located in the south of Brazil. From February to August 2009, our group conducted a cross-sectional study assessing women's risk for HIV acquisition by administering an oral survey to peripar...

  12. Competência social infantil: análise discriminante entre crianças imigrantes e não imigrantes no contexto escolar de Porto Alegre Children’s social competence: discriminant analysis among immigrant and nonimmigrant children at the educational context of Porto Alegre (Brazil

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    Adolfo Pizzinato

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo visa identificar como crianças imigrantes são diferenciadas de seus pares não imigrantes, no tocante à competência social, em escolas públicas e privadas de Porto Alegre. Após tradução, adaptação e análises de fidedignidade e validade do instrumento Revised Class Play, foi aplicado em 32 crianças imigrantes de diferentes países residentes e estudando em classes regulares, assim como em seus colegas de classe (543, perfazendo um total de 575 crianças participantes. Ao instrumento foram adicionadas perguntas de cunho sociodemográfico, a fim de melhor descrever o perfil dos grupos. Os dados da análise indicam haver uma percepção do grupo imigrante como mais isolado; menos agressivo e menos sociável, por parte de seus pares não imigrantes. Tais dados contrastam com a percepção de sociabilidade por parte dos próprios imigrantes.The present study aims to identify how immigrant children differ from their non-immigrant peers, concerning social competence, on public and private schools of Porto Alegre (Brazil. After translation, adaptation and reliability analysis of the instrument Revised Class Play, was applied on 32 immigrant children from different countries, who were living and studying on regular classes, as well as their classmates (a total of 575 participant children. At the instrument social-demographical questions were added, with the objective of better describe the group’s profile. The data indicates a perception that the immigrant children were more isolated, less aggressive and less sociable than their nonimmigrant peers. Such data contrasts with the perception of sociability that the immigrant children had about themselves.

  13. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

  14. Il bilancio Partecipativo a Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Monteleone, Raffaele

    2002-01-01

    The text describes the experience of the participatory budget promoted by the Municipality of Porto Alegre (Brazil) since 1989. It describes the Porto Alegre participatory budget framework and the operational dynamics of this practice of public management of political power. This practice allows citizens to participate in designing local development strategies and to monitor the utilization of public funds.

  15. Evaluation of chromosome aberration frequency instable in individual groups residents at the municipality of Monte Alegre, Para, Brazil, exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipality of Monte Alegre is a region that presents natural radiation high due to the presence of the radionuclide uranium (238U) in its soil, which through its decay gives rise to element Rn, a gas. The radioactivity of the rocks has become a problem for the population of Monte Alegre, from the moment when the radioactive material began to be used in the construction of houses and paving of streets. Among all bio markers related to environmental exposures and its biological effects, the chromosomal aberrations are considered good bio markers as predictors of the risk of cancer. Studies suggest that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations may be related to the genetic instability individual and/or exposure to ionizing radiation. Our work aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in individuals in the region of high natural radioactivity in Monte Alegre-PA. As well as to correlate the cytogenetic analysis made in this study with the results of analysis of frequency of polymorphisms of genes of DNA repair carried out in another study that resulted in other dissertation. In accordance with the distribution of the data obtained in characterizing environmental radiological and in the calculation of dose, were chosen residents of homes with more and less exposure to radiation. The samples of peripheral blood of 85 individuals of the resident population of the region of Monte Alegre - PA were collected and examine provided two slides for individual was performed to verify the quality of the sample. Through this evaluation we decide that 33% of the material collected, or is, samples of 28 individuals were in suitable conditions for analysis of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. After the collections lymphocytes present in the sample were cultivated in accordance with the methodology proposed for obtaining of cells in metaphase. were analyzed 6,177 metaphases of 28 individuals among which were found dicentric chromosomes 4 and 19 fragments

  16. Um perfil de formação e de atuação de professores de piano de Porto Alegre Professional training and practice profile of piano teachers in Porto Alegre (Brazil

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    Karla Dias de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um survey interseccional realizado com 104 professores de piano atuantes de Porto Alegre. Com relação à formação, cerca de 60% dos professores pesquisados possuem uma formação acadêmica na área de Música e menos da metade cursou o Bacharelado em Piano. A maioria dos professores considera ter aprendido a ensinar na prática e um terço da amostra alega seguir o modelo de seus professores. Quanto à atuação, os locais mais destacados são: a própria casa, seguido da escola de música e da casa do aluno. Os resultados revelaram que os professores investigados parecem aproximar-se dos modelos de professor improvisado, professor artesão e professor como profissional (RAMALHO, NUÑEZ e GAUTHIER, 2004.This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional survey conducted with 104 piano teachers in Porto Alegre (Brazil. Concerning the professional training, about 60% of the interviewed teachers possessed an academic degree in Music, and less than half of them were Piano undergraduates. Most of the teachers considered that they have learned how to teach within their daily practice and one third followed the model provided by their previous piano teachers. Regarding their professional practice profile, most of the participants teach at home, followed by those who work in music schools or at the student’s home. The results revealed that the investigated teachers could be described according to what RAMALHO, NUÑEZ & GAUTHIER (2004 named as improvised, artisan and professional teacher models.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of feline obesity in Alegre, Espírito Santo, BrazilPrevalência e fatores de risco da obesidade felina em Alegre-ES, Brasil

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    Aguinaldo Francisco Mendes-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of body fat. In humans, this condition has shown fast and worrying growth, like in pets. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of obese cats living in Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brazil and its association with risk factors. Spearman correlation and chi-square test were used, considering a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 14% in the studied population of 50 cats. Neutered and male cats were considered a risk factor for the development of obesity, unlike physical activity, considered as a protective factor. No correlation was found between the frequency or type of food provided and obesity. O acúmulo excessivo de gordura corpórea é a condição que caracteriza a obesidade. Esta condição na espécie humana vem mostrando um crescimento acelerado e preocupante, se fazendo da mesma forma em animais de companhia. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estabelecer a prevalência de gatos obesos domiciliados no município de Alegre – Espírito Santo e sua associação com fatores de risco. Utilizou-se o método de correlação de Spearman e o teste do Qui-quadrado, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de obesidade ou sobrepeso foi de 14% na população estudada de 50 gatos domiciliados. Gatos machos e castrados foram considerados como fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da obesidade, ao contrário da prática de atividade física, considerada como um fator protetor. Não houve correlação entre a frequência ou o tipo de alimento fornecido e o desenvolvimento da obesidade.

  18. Ecology of colonizing populations of the figfly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera, Drosophilidae in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil Ecologia de populações colonizadoras da mosca-do-figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera, Drosophilidae em Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil

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    Norma Machado da Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological parameters such as trophic niche overlap and niche breadth were computed from the frequency of all drosophilid species collected in 2001 and 2002, in the urban area of Porto Alegre city, Brazil. Independently of place, drosophilids community composition and components breeding or feeding sites, the highest frequencies of Zaprionus indianus (Gupta, 1970 were obtained during seasons with higher average temperatures, especially during summer. From a total of the 19,146 individuals of Z. indianus sampled, 80% were found in this season. The data of trophic niche breadth suggest a higher opportunism of adult flies in feeding substrate use, but the females are still selective in oviposition substrate choice. For the values of niche overlap, only for some species, did we find any correlation between these and species richness and/or number of resources, and the most of the correlation values considering breeding and feeding sites were positive. The colonization of Z. indianus in Porto Alegre could be leading to adjustments in the survival strategies of the resident species, but it is possible that many species have conditions for coexisting with the invader.Parâmetros ecológicos tais como sobreposição e amplitude de nicho trófico foram aplicados a partir da freqüência de todas as espécies de drosofilídeos coletados em 2001 e 2002 na área urbana da cidade de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Independentemente do local, da composição da comunidade de drosofilídeos e dos componentes sítios de ovoposição e alimentação, as maiores freqüências de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta, 1970 foram obtidas durante as estações com médias de temperatura maiores, especialmente durante o verão. De um total de 19.146 indivíduos de Z. indianus amostrados, 80 % foram coletados nesta estação. Os dados de amplitude de nicho trófico sugerem um maior oportunismo de moscas adultas no uso de substratos para alimentação, mas as fêmeas permanecem seletivas na

  19. Prevalência de cárie, gengivite e fluorose em escolares de 12 anos de Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, 1998/1999 Prevalence of dental caries, gingivitis and fluorosis in 12-year-old schoolchildren from Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, 1998/1999

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    Berenice Barbachan e SILVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de cárie, gengivite e fluorose em escolares de 12 anos de Porto Alegre - RS. Foram examinados 1.000 escolares da rede de ensino público e particular da cidade. Os índices utilizados foram o ISG, CPO e o ITF. Após a coleta do ISG, a criança foi submetida à remoção da placa e secagem dos dentes para proceder-se aos exames de cárie e fluorose. A média e erro padrão do CPOD, incluindo as lesões não cavitadas, foi de 2,22 ± 0,08, o ISG foi de 19,76% ± 0,54% e a prevalência de escolares com fluorose foi de 52,9%. Em relação à severidade, 45,9% das crianças apresentaram ITF 1, 6,1%, ITF 2 e 0,9%, ITF 3. Os escolares com CPOS maior que 7 (51,2% compreenderam 14,4% da amostra. Quanto ao sangramento gengival, observou-se que 12% das crianças apresentavam ISG > ou = 40%. O CPOD de Porto Alegre é comparável ao de países desenvolvidos, resultado provavelmente em decorrência do uso intensivo de flúor, que também está ocasionando a fluorose. A severidade da fluorose encontrada não justifica qualquer medida de saúde pública. As medidas de saúde pública de impacto populacional estão sendo efetivas, porém, existe uma parcela da população que necessita de cuidados adicionais.The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries, gingival bleeding and fluorosis in twelve-year-old schoolchildren from Porto Alegre, Brazil. One thousand students from private and public schools were examined. The indexes used were BI, DMF and TFI. The data pertaining to BI were the first to be collected. After that, the children were submitted to plaque removal and their teeth were dried prior to the examination for caries and fluorosis. The average value for DMFT, including cavitated and non-cavitated lesions, was 2.22 ± 0.08 (standard error. The average value for BI was 19.76% ± 0.54% (standard error and the prevalence of students with fluorosis was 52.9%. Regarding the severity of

  20. Moluscos em área de horticultura no município de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Mollusca in horticultural production area in Porto Alegre county, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Gisela Bruschi-Figueiró

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural production areas are favorable to development and maintenance of land mollusks populations. To know the mollusk fauna diversity in that kind of production area a research project was conduced in a rural-urban district of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The production property studied is located in the Southern zone of the city and has 17 ha of cultivated area. The sampling period was from August/2000 to August/2001, with monthly quantitative collects on the different culture production beds previously selected. Six taxa were registered: Deroceras leave (Müller, 1774 (1.389 specimens = 82,82%, Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 (195 specimens = 11,7%, Succinea meridionalis d'Orbigny, 1846 (82 specimens = 4,9%, Lamellaxis gracilis (Hutton, 1834 (03 specimens = 0,17%, Bulimulus (Bulimulus vesicalis angustus Weyrauch, 1966 (05 specimens = 0,3% and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Bequaert, 1948 (02 specimens = 0,11 %, only the last two being natives.

  1. Caracterização da comunidade liquênica corticícola de Porto Alegre e áreas adjacentes, RS, Brasil Characterization of the corticolous lichen community from Porto Alegre and adjacent areas, RS, Brazil

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    Márcia Isabel Käffer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquens são organismos em simbiose que habitam os mais diversos ambientes, entretanto em regiões urbanizadas a comunidade liquênica pode ser modificada devido à influência de fatores antrópicos. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a composição da comunidade liquênica corticícola na cidade de Porto Alegre e áreas adjacentes, assim como verificar a freqüência, cobertura e valor de importância dos táxons, apresentando uma chave de identificação para as espécies urbanas. Foram analisadas 300 forófitas distribuídas em 30 estações de amostragem divididas em 33 bairros da cidade. Foram registrados 144 táxons liquênicos com prováveis três novos registros para a ciência e dois novos registros para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies mais importantes na comunidade foram Canoparmelia texana (Tuck. Elix & Hale e Dirinaria picta (Sw. Schaer. ex Clem, as quais apresentaram os maiores valores de importância, freqüência e cobertura. O grande número de táxons encontrados nas áreas analisadas representa uma contribuição significante para as pesquisas na área da liquenologia, principalmente por serem utilizados em programas de monitoramento da qualidade do ar, bem como para avaliar a estrutura de ecossistemas florestais.Lichens are symbiotic organisms found in a variety of habitats; however, in urban areas the lichen community can be altered due to the influence of anthropogenic factors. This study aimed to analyze the corticolous lichen community composition in Porto Alegre and adjacent areas, as well as to investigate the frequency, coverage and importance value of the reported taxa. A key to the urban species is also provided. Three hundred phorophytes distributed in 30 sampling stations, divided among 33 city districts, were analyzed. One hundred and forty-four taxa of lichenized fungi were recorded with three probable new citations for Brazil and two new records for Rio Grande do Sul State. The most important

  2. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias: um estudo piloto em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies: a pilot study in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Liane Esteves Daudt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, tem como o objetivo determinar a freqüência das hemoglobinopatias em neonatos, que realizaram a coleta para o Teste de Triagem Neonatal para Distúrbios Metabólicos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O método utilizado para a determinação das variantes da hemoglobina, foi eletroforese por focalização isoelétrica em amostra de sangue total, coletadas em papel filtro por punção do calcanhar. Para confirmação diagnóstica dos casos alterados, foram realizadas eletroforeses das hemoglobinas em acetato de celulose com pH 8,6 e em citrato de ágar com pH 6,2, em amostra de sangue total dos neonatos e dos seus progenitores. Foram analisados, 1.615 indivíduos, e identificada a presença da hemoglobina S em 20 amostras e da hemoglobina C em seis amostras. Esses valores, correspondem a uma freqüência de 1,2% para o gene da anemia falciforme e 0,4% para o gene da doença de hemoglobina C, independente da raça ou ascendência. Esses dados, sugerem que a inclusão da triagem neonatal universal para hemoglobinopatias nos projetos já implementados para fenilcetonúria e hipotireoidismo congênito, apresenta vantagens e deve ser considerada pelos programas de saúde.This study was conducted to establish the frequency of hemoglobinopathies among newborns undergoing screening tests for metabolic diseases at the University Hospital (Hospital de Clínicas in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Testing for abnormal hemoglobins was performed by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on agarose gel with blood obtained by heel stick and applied to filter paper. For confirmatory testing of abnormal neonatal screening, a venopuncture blood sample was obtained from the infant and parents and then submitted to hemoglobin electrophoresis on cellulose acetate at pH 8.6 and citrate agar at pH 6.2. A total of 1,615 subjects were studied: 20 samples showed the Hb S pattern and six samples showed Hb C. Thus, frequency of the sickle cell

  3. Evaluation of 222Rn concentration of the internal and external environments of residences at Monte Alegre municipality, Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human being is constantly exposed to the natural radioactivity in the environment where he lives. This radioactivity comes mainly from materials present in the terrestrial crust that possess in their constitution chemical elements belonging to the radioactive families of uranium and thorium. The use of such materials for the construction of houses constitutes an important exposure form to the natural radiation, above all to the radioactive gas 222Rn, that it is exhaled from them. The Brazilian soil is composed, among other, of minerals that contain appreciable concentrations of these elements. The inhabitants of Monte Alegre town in Para, located at 2 deg 00' 24,9 'S ; 54 deg 04 ' 13,5 W, used in the construction of their houses stones obtained from an area 20 km distant of Monte Alegre, denominated Ingles de Souza, located at 01 deg 56' 4 0,1 S; 54 deg 12 149,7 W, where a small residential village, denominated National Agricultural Colony of Para (CANP), is located. The objective of this work was to evaluate the indoor concentration of 222Rn in the residences of Monte Alegre and CANP. Determinations of the 238U and 226Ra concentrations, measurements of the radon flux in samples of stones and soils of the two regions, as well as measurements to the gamma dose close of the soil and inside the residences, were also carried out. The average results of the radon concentration in the air of the investigated residences did not exceed the limits of 200 Bq. m3 (action level) and 600 Bq. m3 (intervention level) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The concentrations of natural radionuclides and the radon flux determined at the village showed values 17 times higher than those found at the urban area of Monte Alegre, while the average indoor gamma dose rate in the village residences was 0.86 mSv/a. (author)

  4. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, F.; Rizzati, M.R. [Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre, HPS (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  5. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  6. Acidentes de trabalho: violência urbana e morte em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Work-related accidents: urban violence and death in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Antonio Barros Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo identifica a magnitude dos óbitos relacionados com o trabalho entre os residentes de Porto Alegre. A partir das Declarações de óbito, e utilizando metodologia qualitativa, confirmando a causa das mortes através de inquérito familiar, foram investigados 159 óbitos, 18% dos 877 classificados como devidos a Causas externas ocorridos em 1992. Foram identificados 31 casos. As principais causas dos óbitos entre estes trabalhadores foram homicídio, em 58% dos casos (15 com arma de fogo e 3 com arma branca, seguido de acidente de trânsito, em 29% (5 colisões e 4 atropelamentos. Dos 31 óbitos, 17 foram de trabalhadores do mercado formal de trabalho e, dentre estes, 11 não se enquadram nas normas de notificação acidentária. Outros 14 óbitos foram de trabalhadores ligados: ao mercado informal de trabalho (7, à execução de atividades ilícitas (6 e à atividade ignorada (1, os quais também não são notificáveis. Isto desvela a omissão do Estado no tratamento desta questão e o quanto os dados oficiais não traduzem a realidade existente no cotidiano do trabalho. Os autores concluem que, para fins de Vigilância em Saúde, faz-se necessária a utilização de outros mecanismos de coleta de dados, além dos utilizados pela Previdência Social, de modo a incluir todas as situações reais de risco à saúde provenientes do trabalho.This article focuses on the magnitude of work-related deaths in Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Death certificates were used to investigate 159 cases, or 18% of the 877 deaths from external causes in 1992. Some 31 cases were identified. The principal cause of death among these workers was homicide, with 58% of cases (15 from fire arms and 3 from knives, followed by traffic accidents, with 29% (5 motor vehicle collisions and 4 pedestrians run down by motor vehicles. Of these 31 deaths, 17 were workers from the formal labor market, of whom 11 did not fit into the

  7. ASPECTOS HIGIENICO-SANITÁRIO NA OBTENÇAO DO LEITE NO ASSENTAMENTO ALEGRE NO MUNICÍPIO DE ARAGUAÍNA - TOCANTINS HYGIENIC AND SANITARY ASPECTS IN MILK COLLECTION AT ALEGRE SETTLEMENT, ARAGUAINA, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL

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    Luiz Antonio Ribeiro Machado

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A produção de leite apresenta grande expressão econômica, sendo uma das grandes geradoras de emprego no meio rural brasileiro. No entanto, as pequenas propriedades leiteiras possuem dificuldades de se estabelecerem, diante das exigências impostas pelo mercado. A busca pela qualidade na cadeia produtiva do leite no Brasil tem gerado grandes debates. A Instrução Normativa nº. 51 (IN nº. 51, do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento, instituiu regulamentos técnicos, fixando condições e requisitos mínimos higienico-sanitários para a obtenção e produção da matéria-prima. Este trabalho objetivou analisar os aspectos higiênico-sanitários na obtenção do leite no Assentamento Alegre, município de Araguaína, TO, verificando se o leite produzido obedecia aos padrões da IN nº. 51. Os dados utilizados são de natureza primária e foram obtidos mediante entrevistas diretas realizadas com 41 produtores rurais, em março de 2007. Os resultados obtidos mostram que as normas da IN nº. 51 não estavam sendo respeitadas em relação ao manejo empregado na ordenha, no que diz resepeito à higienização do ordenhador e dos utensílios. Verificou-se, além disso, que parte do leite produzido era entregue nos laticínios dentro dos prazos estabelecidos pela legislação. No entanto, a obtenção do leite precisa ser melhorada para que se possa adequar às exigências da IN nº. 51.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Instrução Normativa nº. 51, manejo sanitário, qualidade do leite.

    The milk production show large economical expression, and is one the big ones generating of job. The small dairy properties have difficulties of establish, front the demands imposed by market. The search  the quality in productive of the milk in Brazil has been generate debates, Instruction Normative nº 51 of the Ministry of the Agriculture, Livestock and

  8. Prevention of blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil: incidence, risk factors, laser treatment and outcomes from 2002 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Joao Borges Fortes; Barros, Cristiano Koch; Lermann, Viviane Levy; Eckert, Gabriela Unchalo; Coelho da Costa, Marlene; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a multifactorial disease and a leading cause of blindness in children. Purposes: The objectives of this paper are to evaluate in a prospective study the incidence, risk factors, the rate of diode laser treatment and main outcomes, in all very low birth weight and extremely premature infants from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, between October 2002 and May 2006, in a screening program according to the Brazilian recommendat...

  9. [Health care access and receptivity to users in a unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Donatela Dourado; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on users' views of factors influencing quality of care at a health care unit in the city of Porto Alegre, relating to access and receptivity. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and participatory observation and treated using thematic analysis. The results compare ease and difficulties in geographic, economic, and functional access. Organization of services and professional competency were determinant factors in ease of reception, leading to user satisfaction. Poor reception and unsatisfactory professional performance were identified as difficulties. The study concluded that there is a need to increase the professional staff, train them in receiving users, implement a complementary modality for dental care, open the facility earlier for scheduling appointments, and prioritize care for residents of the catchment area. PMID:12700781

  10. Comparative study of bird communities in green areas of the Porto Alegre metropolitan region, South of Brazil

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    Marcelo Fischer Barcellos dos Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to compare the bird richness and composition among different urban green areas in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. Data on the composition of species in 14 green areas were collected from the literature. Similarity analysis (Jaccard’s was used to compare the areas in relation to bird composition. We used multiple regression analysis in addition to the stepwise method in order to establish whether bird richness in the urban green areas was influenced by the following factors: dimension, variety of habitats, area and distance of the nearest neighbor. Our data compilation registered 224 bird species in the consulted areas. Jaccard’s analysis showed that larger green areas are more similar in their composition of bird species than smaller ones. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated positive correlations between bird richness and the analyzed factors (except for distance between areas. We concluded that, despite the importance of small green areas to certain bird species, larger ones with higher habitat heterogeneity are able to support significant bird richness, and that these areas are important to the maintenance of many bird species in urban areas.

  11. Patterns of alcohol use in an elderly sample enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Bruno Luiz; Silva Filho, Irênio Gomes da; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Ribeiro Junior, Francisco Pascoal; Cataldo Neto, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to determine the pattern of alcohol use in the elderly and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics in an elderly sample of patients from the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 557 seniors, aged 60 years or more, through application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a global assessment questionnaire for the elderly. The majority of the 557 senior citizens did not complete elementary school (58.3%), were white (65.1%), married (37.6%), had no caregiver (62.2%), were catholic (65.5%) and practicing their religion (68.6%), were retired (67.7%), and had a personal income of up to one minimum salary (56.1%). The study revealed 67 (12%) elderly people with a history of alcoholism, of which 17 (3.1%) had a diagnosis of current alcoholism, 50 (9%) had a history of alcohol dependence in the past and 16 (2.9%) had a current alcohol abuse problem. Men had a prevalence ratio of 11.6 times for a history of alcoholism in comparison to women. The results confirm that alcoholism is frequent in the population of Brazilian elderly, drawing attention to some socio-demographic characteristics that can make a difference in the early diagnosis of alcoholism. PMID:26816160

  12. Study of enteroparasites infection frequency and chemotherapeutic agents used in pediatric patients in a community living in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Morrone Fernanda B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoan and helminths affect more than two billion people worldwide and chemotherapy is the most commonly used therapeutic procedure. Considering the problems created by parasitic infections and the incorrect use of drugs, the aim of this work was to detect the frequency of enteroparasites infection and to estimate the use of chemotherapeutic agents in children living in the periphery of the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Ninety-six preschool age children, who had parasitological exams and who used antiparasitic drugs, were analyzed. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by stool examination repeated six months after treatment. The same diagnostic test was used to evaluate parasitological cure, which was defined as absence of eggs and cysts in the stool. From these children, 79 (82.3% were contaminated by some species of parasite, the most prevalent were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Giardia lamblia. The most commonly used drugs were mebendazole (86% of prescriptions and metronidazole (30.3%. The cure rate in the 79 children, examined 6 months after treatment, was 65.3% for A. lumbricoides and 66.1% for T. trichiura. This study suggests that a continuous education program regarding the prevention and treatment of parasitic infections is an essential tool for their eradication.

  13. Evaluation of natural foci of Panstrongylus megistus in a forest fragment in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Jose Eloy dos Santos Jr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Panstrongylus megistus is commonly found in wild environments of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize the network of refuges used by triatomine in a forest fragment of Porto Alegre and to identify Trypanosoma cruzi infection, associated hosts and the epidemiological importance of both hosts and triatomines. Methods Techniques including the spool-and-line method and active searching (transects were used to identify natural foci. Results The food source for each triatomine was determined using the precipitin test, and the infection of marsupials was determined by xenodiagnosis. A total of 33 adults (domestic environment and 27 nymphs (wild environment of P. megistus were found in addition to 43 Didelphis albiventris specimens. The infection rates of triatomine adults, triatomine nymphs and opossums with T. cruzi I were 64%, 73% and 69%, respectively. Birds, rodents and opossums were the main resources used by triatomine. Conclusions This work presents the first characterization of a natural focus of P. megistus in Rio Grande do Sul. The natural characteristics of this focus and its implication in the transmission of T. cruzi are discussed.

  14. Species richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake in the Porto Alegre Botanical Garden, RS, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic composition and richness of the genera Trachelomonas and Strombomonas (pigmented Euglenophyceae in a subtropical urban lake (30º03'05"S; 51º10'34"W within the Botanical Garden, in the city of Porto Alegre, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to contribute to the floristic knowledge of Euglenophyta in artificial urban lakes. From July 2007 to June 2008, we collected samples monthly from two sampling stations, using a 25-µm mesh plankton net. The samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde. We evaluated the following environmental variables related to the water in the lake: ammonia content, silica content, organic matter content, dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, pH, depth, transparency, electrical conductivity and rainfall. To study the species composition in relation to environmental factors, we used cluster analysis, principal components analysis, canonical correspondence analysis and indicator species analysis. At the specific and infraspecific level, 22 taxa were identified, Trachelomonas elliptica (Playf. Defl. and T. gracillima Bal. & Dast. representing new records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The cluster analysis indicated seasonal variation, species richness being highest in the spring of 2007. Seven indicator species were characterized as acid-tolerant.

  15. Molecular characterization of clinical multiresistant isolates of Acinetobacter sp. from hospitals in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alessandra Einsfeld Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hospitals around the world have presented multiresistant Acinetobacter sp. outbreaks. The spread of these isolates that harbor an increasing variety of resistance genes makes the treatment of these infections and their control within the hospital environment more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and dissemination of Acinetobacter sp. multiresistant isolates and to identify acquired resistance genes. METHODS: We analyzed 274 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp. from five hospitals in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. We evaluated the susceptibility to antimicrobial, acquired resistance genes from Ambler's classes B and D, and performed molecular typing of the isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR technique. RESULTS: A high (68% percentage of multiresistant isolates of Acinetobacter sp. was observed, and 69% were resistant to carbapenems. We identified 84% of isolates belonging to species A. baumannii because they presented the gene blaOXA-51. The gene blaOXA-23 was detected in 62% of the isolates, and among these, 98% were resistant to carbapenems. Using the ERIC-PCR technique, we identified clones of Acinetobacter sp. spread among the four hospitals analyzed during the sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the dissemination of Acinetobacter sp. isolates among hospitals and their permanence in the hospital after one year.

  16. Patterns of alcohol use in an elderly sample enrolled in the Family Health Strategy program in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Bruno Luiz Guidolin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to determine the pattern of alcohol use in the elderly and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics in an elderly sample of patients from the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 557 seniors, aged 60 years or more, through application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a global assessment questionnaire for the elderly. The majority of the 557 senior citizens did not complete elementary school (58.3%, were white (65.1%, married (37.6%, had no caregiver (62.2%, were catholic (65.5% and practicing their religion (68.6%, were retired (67.7%, and had a personal income of up to one minimum salary (56.1%. The study revealed 67 (12% elderly people with a history of alcoholism, of which 17 (3.1% had a diagnosis of current alcoholism, 50 (9% had a history of alcohol dependence in the past and 16 (2.9% had a current alcohol abuse problem. Men had a prevalence ratio of 11.6 times for a history of alcoholism in comparison to women. The results confirm that alcoholism is frequent in the population of Brazilian elderly, drawing attention to some socio-demographic characteristics that can make a difference in the early diagnosis of alcoholism.

  17. Avaliação inicial do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência na Cidade de Porto Alegre Evaluación inicial del servicio de atención móvil de urgencia en la ciudad de Porto Alegre Initial evaluation of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Gladis Semensato

    2011-03-01

    atendidos por el SAMU de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional y prospectivo. Los desenlaces evaluados fueron sobrevida en 30 días y hasta el alta hospitalaria, además de escore del Cerebral Performance Category (CPC I-II. RESULTADOS: De enero a octubre de 2008, fueron atendidos 593 pacientes en PCR no traumática y fueron realizadas 260 tentativas de resucitación cardiopulmonar (RCP. Hubo éxito inicial en 52 (20,0% casos, estando 16 pacientes vivos en el 30º (6,0% día, 10 teniendo recibido alta hospitalaria (3,9%, siendo que 6 (2,3% con escore CPC I-II. La PCR en el domicilio se asoció inversamente con la sobrevida en el 30º día (p = 0,001 y en el alta hospitalaria (p = 0,02. Un ritmo inicial pasible de "shockeable" (p = 0,008 se asoció a la sobrevida a los 30 días. El intervalo tiempo-respuesta y tiempo colapso hasta comienzo de la RCP fueron significativamente menores en supervivientes a los 30 días. En análisis multivariado, fueron predictores independientes de mortalidad a los 30 días un ritmo inicial "shockeable" (razón de posibilidad [RC] = 0,28 y intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95,0% = 0,10 - 0,81; p = 0,02 y PCR en el domicilio (RC = 3,0 y IC 95,0% = 1,04 - 8,7; p = 0,04. CONCLUSIÓN: La atención prehospitalaria de la PCR en Porto Alegre tiene resultados limitados, sin embargo equiparables a otras localidades internacionales. Es necesario el refuerzo de cada eslabón de la cadena de supervivencia para perfeccionar la atención prehospitalaria, buscando mejora de resultados clínicamente relevantes.BACKGROUND: Little is known about the immediate outcomes of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical predictors of survival of patients in cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA in the nonhospital environment treated by the SAMU in the city of Porto Alegre. METHODS: The present study has a prospective and observational design. The evaluated outcomes were 30-day survival and hospital discharge, in addition to the

  18. Prevalência e determinantes de anemia em crianças de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Prevalence and risk factors for anemia among children in Brazil

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    Loraine Storch Meyer da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de anemia e seus possíveis determinantes em crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade que freqüentam escolas municipais infantis. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal pelo qual foram estudadas 557 crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade de todas as escolas municipais infantis de Porto Alegre, RS. Foi feita antropometria e dosagem de hemoglobina pelo fotômetro portátil HemoCue, considerando-se anemia níveis inferiores a 11 g/dl. As informações sobre as crianças foram obtidas por questionário aplicado às mães. A associação das variáveis estudadas com a anemia foi analisada pela técnica de regressão log-binomial aplicada ao modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma prevalência de anemia de 47,8% entre toda a população estudada, cujos determinantes foram: famílias com renda per capita igual ou inferior a um salário-mínimo (razão de prevalência [RP] = 1,6, faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses (RP=1,4 e presença de dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos (RP=1,4. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de anemia na população estudada é bastante elevada, especialmente nas crianças de nível socioeconômico mais baixo, na faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses, e nas crianças com dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos, indicando a necessidade urgente de medidas efetivas visando o seu combate e a sua prevenção.OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of anemia among children aged 0 to 36 months, who attend public day care centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil, and assess its possible risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 557 children aged 0 to 36 months of all public day care centers in Porto Alegre. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels were performed. The portable HemoCue photometer was employed to measure hemoglobin levels, and anemia was considered when the hemoglobin level was below 11 g/dl. Information regarding each child

  19. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms. PMID:23295507

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus groups A and B in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 1990 to 1995 and 1998

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    Straliotto Selir M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV groups and their epidemiological pattern that were detected over the course of seven years in southern Brazil. The two RSV groups co-circulated each year, but frequencies of groups A and B varied both between and within yearly outbreaks. In 1991, group A predominated over group B (p=0.0016. RSV outbreaks analyzed showed a temperature-dependent pattern and no association with rainfall, similarly to other countries from southern South America. Knowledge of the variants is important in terms of both diagnosis and definition of a vaccine composition.

  1. Brazil is a country of “balangandãs” (swaying ornaments in French imaginary O Brasil é um país de “balangandãs” no imaginário francês

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    Maranúbia Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how the French have built a distorted image of Brazil in their imaginary. Such image was built long before, based on French travelers reports and even Brazilian historians. For the French, Brazil is a country of balangandãs, plenty of festivals, bronzed female mulattoes, carnival and football. In 2005, there was the Year of Brazil in France and the event organizers insisted on exhibiting stereotyped images (clichés of Brazil.Este artigo mostra como os franceses construíram uma imagem distorcida do Brasil em seu imaginário. Essa imagem foi construída, desde os primórdios, a partir de relatos de viajantes franceses e mesmo de historiadores brasileiros. Para os franceses, o Brasil é um país de balangandãs, muita festa, gente alegre, sol o ano inteiro, mulatas bronzeadas, carnaval e futebol. Em 2005, aconteceu o Ano do Brasil na França e a organização do evento insistiu em exibir imagens estereotipadas (clichês do Brasil.

  2. Um perfil de formação e de atuação de professores de piano de Porto Alegre Professional training and practice profile of piano teachers in Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Karla Dias de Oliveira; Regina Antunes Teixeira dos Santos; Liane Hentschke

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um survey interseccional realizado com 104 professores de piano atuantes de Porto Alegre. Com relação à formação, cerca de 60% dos professores pesquisados possuem uma formação acadêmica na área de Música e menos da metade cursou o Bacharelado em Piano. A maioria dos professores considera ter aprendido a ensinar na prática e um terço da amostra alega seguir o modelo de seus professores. Quanto à atuação, os locais mais destacados são: a própria casa, se...

  3. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias: um estudo piloto em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies: a pilot study in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Liane Esteves Daudt; Débora Zechmaister; Liliana Portal; Eurico Camargo Neto; Lúcia Mariano da Rocha Silla; Roberto Giugliani

    2002-01-01

    Este estudo, tem como o objetivo determinar a freqüência das hemoglobinopatias em neonatos, que realizaram a coleta para o Teste de Triagem Neonatal para Distúrbios Metabólicos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O método utilizado para a determinação das variantes da hemoglobina, foi eletroforese por focalização isoelétrica em amostra de sangue total, coletadas em papel filtro por punção do calcanhar. Para confirmação diagnóstica dos casos alterados, foram realizadas eletroforeses das h...

  4. Espécies medicinais comercializadas como "quebra-pedras" em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Medicinal species sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Adriana Morais Aita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa identificar as espécies comercializadas como quebra-pedras em Porto Alegre, verificar indícios de toxicidade e estabelecer padrões morfológicos para diferenciação das mesmas. São espécies utilizadas na medicina popular principalmente para afecções nos rins e bexiga bem como diuréticas. As 16 amostras foram adquiridas de 14 comerciantes atuantes em bancas fixas ou em feiras-livres. Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica para levantamento de dados referentes à utilização de plantas medicinais com o nome de quebra-pedras em diferentes cidades do Rio Grande do Sul. Indícios de toxicidade, dados químicos e biológicos destas plantas foram revisados em diferentes bases de dados e em bibliografia específica. Identificaram-se sete espécies comercializadas como quebra-pedras em Porto Alegre: Euphorbia prostrata e E. serpens (Euphorbiaceae, Phyllanthus niruri e P. tenellus (Phyllanthaceae, Desmodium incanum (Fabaceae, Cunila microcephala (Lamiaceae e Heimia salicifolia (Lythraceae. Destas, as espécies de Phyllanthus e Euphorbia são as que apresentam maior semelhança morfológica quando comercializadas secas e fragmentadas.The aims of this work were to identify the species sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre, verify signs of toxicity and establish morphological patterns that help to distinguish such species. Those species are believed to be diuretic and are used in popular medicine mainly to treat kidney and bladder affections. The samples (16 were purchased from 14 sellers who work in permanent market stalls or in public marketplaces. A bibliographic revision gathered data on the use of medicinal plants called "quebra-pedras" in several cities of Rio Grande do Sul. Signs of toxicity, chemical and biological data of these plants were reviewed from different databases and specific bibliography. Seven species were identified among those sold as "quebra-pedras" in Porto Alegre: Euphorbia prostrata and E. serpens

  5. A model to optimize public health care and downstage breast cancer in limited-resource populations in southern Brazil. (Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort

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    Giacomazzi Juliana

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is a major public health problem, with rising incidence in many regions of the globe. Although mortality has recently dropped in developed countries, death rates are still increasing in some developing countries, as seen in Brazil. Among the reasons for this phenomenon are the lack of structured screening programs, a long waiting period between diagnosis and treatment, and lack of access to health services for a large proportion of the Brazilian population. Methods and design Since 2004, an intervention study in a cohort of women in Southern Brazil, denominated Porto Alegre Breast Health Intervention Cohort, is being conducted in order to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a model for BC early detection and treatment. In this study, over 4,000 women from underserved communities aged 40 to 69 years are being screened annually with mammography and clinical breast examination performed by a multidisciplinary team, which also involves nutritional counseling and genetic cancer risk assessment. Risk factors for BC development are also being evaluated. Active search of participants by lay community health workers is one of the major features of our program. The accrual of new participants was concluded in 2006 and the study will last for 10 years. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate significant downstaging of BC in an underserved population through proper screening, attaining a higher rate of early-stage BC diagnoses than usually seen in women diagnosed in the Brazilian Public Health System. Preliminary results show a very high BC incidence in this population (117 cases per 100,000 women per year, despite a low prevalence of classical risk factors. Discussion This study will allow us to test a model of BC early diagnosis and treatment and evaluate its cost-effectiveness in a developing country where the mortality associated with this disease is very high. Also, it might contribute to the

  6. Violência sexual e sua prevalência em adolescentes de Porto Alegre, Brasil Sexual violence and its prevalence among adolescents, Brazil

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    Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência da exposição à violência sexual entre adolescentes estudantes de escolas estaduais. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 52 escolas estaduais de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, com ensino fundamental completo, por meio de um processo de amostragem aleatória, estratificada de acordo com o tamanho das escolas. Foi selecionada, em cada escola, uma turma de oitava série por sorteio aleatório e foram incluídos todos os adolescentes presentes nas salas de aula que consentiram em participar do estudo. Foi utilizado o instrumento Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade para identificar jovens que foram vítimas, testemunhas ou que conheciam vítimas de atos de violência sexual. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 1.193 adolescentes, representando 10,3% dos alunos matriculados na oitava série da rede estadual da cidade. Vinte e sete (2,3% adolescentes relataram ter sido vítimas de violência sexual, 54 (4,5% ter sido testemunhas de algum tipo de violência sexual e 332 (27,9% relataram conhecer alguém que tenha sido vítima de violência sexual. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição à violência sexual pelas três formas de contato relatadas mostrou-se freqüente entre os adolescentes estudados. São necessários estudos que abordem a violência sexual como um fenômeno social amplo, com múltiplos fatores associados, amparando estratégias comunitárias de prevenção e de tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence o sexual violence among adolescents of public schools. METHODS: Fifty-two public elementary schools of Porto Alegre, Brazil, were selected through random sampling stratified by school size. An 8th grade class was selected in each school through simple random sampling and all adolescents attending the classes who agreed to participate were included in the study. The Screening Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence was used to identify adolescents who were victims, witnesses or knew

  7. Coexistence of halloysite and kaolinite: a study on the genesis of kaolin clays of Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

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    Marisa T.G. de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin at Campo Alegre Basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil was formed from alteration of volcanic acid rocks. Halloysite clays dominate the clay fraction of the matrix of the kaolin body, whereas a poorly crystalline kaolinite is abundant in veins. Some primary blocky structures have high amounts of illite, in one mine, but in general, only low contents of illite-smectite, illite, chlorite-vermiculite, vermiculite and quartz were identified in the clay fraction of the samples. Toward the top of the mines, hematite and lepidocrocite appear in horizontal red and ochre colored levels and the amount of kaolinite increases compared to halloysite. The vertical zoning of alteration levels, the changes in mineralogy, the positive correlation between depth and Cation Exchange Capacity of the clays, the preservation of different types of rock textures in the kaolin bodies, the dominant tube morphology of the halloysite clays indicate a supergene genesis for the deposits. Criteria to distinguish between supergene and hypogene kaolin are discussed. Transmission Electron Microscopy of the cross sections of halloysite tubes showed polygonal forms that are ascribed to be transitional between kaolinite and halloysite. It is proposed that some of the kaolinite of these deposits be inherited from the dehydration of halloysite tubes.O caolim da Bacia de Campo Alegre, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, formou-se da alteração de rochas vulcânicas ácidas. A haloisita predomina na fração argila da matriz do corpo de caolim, enquanto a caolinita, de baixa cristalinidade, é abundante nos veios. Algumas estruturas em blocos, primários, têm altos teores de ilita em uma mina, mas no geral, somente foram identificadas, na fração argila das amostras, baixas quantidades de ilita-esmectita, ilita, clorita-vermiculita, vermiculita e quartzo. Em direção ao topo das minas aparecem hematita e lepidocrocita em níveis vermelhos e ocres e as quantidades de caolinita

  8. Two decades of colonization of the urban environment of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, by Drosophila paulistorum (Diptera, Drosophilidae Duas décadas de colonização do ambiente urbano de Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil, por Drosophila paulistorum (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Ana Cristina L. Garcia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila paulistorum Dobzhansky & Pavan, 1949 had initially been considered absent in anthropogenically disturbed environments, but in 1985 the detection of the species in Porto Alegre city, southern Brazil, suggested its potential to colonize new habitats and laid the foundations for ecologic studies on this species' populations. This study followed the variations in D. paulistorum populations in this town almost 20 years after its first local record. Drosophilid specimens were collected in sites with different urbanization grades and the results point to the expressive decline in D. paulistorum populations in Porto Alegre. This decline may be linked to urban growth and to naturally driven population decline, as imputed to climatic changes like variations in maximum and minimum temperatures as a consequence of a global climate warming. Also, the recent introduction of exotic species Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970 seems to play a role in this scenario, changing the interactions between native species.Drosophila paulistorum Dobzhansky & Pavan, 1949 era considerada inicialmente ausente em ambientes com influência antrópica, mas a detecção dessa espécie na cidade de Porto Alegre, sul do Brasil, em 1985, sugeriu seu potencial de colonização de novos ambientes e levou a fundação de estudos ecológicos com populações desta espécie. Este estudo acompanhou as variações populacionais de D. paulistorum nesta cidade quase 20 anos depois de seu primeiro registro neste local. Coletas de Drosophilidae foram realizadas em pontos com diferentes graus de urbanização e os resultados apontaram para uma expressiva diminuição dos tamanhos populacionais de D. paulistorum em Porto Alegre. Este declínio pode estar relacionado com o crescimento da cidade, assim como com retrações naturais no tamanho das populações devido a mudanças climáticas, tais como, variações nas temperaturas mínimas e máximas como conseqüência do aquecimento global

  9. Mulheres cuidando de mulheres: um estudo sobre a Casa de Apoio Viva Maria, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Women caring for women: a study on the "Viva Maria" shelter, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados a respeito de mulheres vitimizadas que são atendidas em uma casa abrigo governamental denominada "Casa de Apoio Viva Maria", situada na cidade de Porto Alegre. Analisaram-se informações referentes a 110 mulheres que estiveram albergadas na casa durante os últimos dois anos - janeiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. O perfil da clientela mostrou que as mulheres eram jovens - em média, 29 anos; todas de baixa renda; 12% analfabetas, 21% negras, 80% delas com história de violência doméstica freqüente. Além disso, 18% destas mulheres retornaram à relação com o companheiro violento. Foram efetuadas visitas domiciliares a 34 ex-moradoras, convidando-as a participar de uma série de oficinas de avaliação. Um total de 118 pessoas - mães e crianças - integrou os três encontros de avaliação. Durante estes, os pesquisadores estimularam as participantes a expressar suas opiniões, percepções e sentimentos a respeito da experiência vivida na casa abrigo, assim como seus conceitos no tocante à violência. Finalmente, realizou-se um grupo focal com a equipe técnico-administrativa da casa. As trabalhadoras enfatizaram o quanto esse tipo de trabalho tem sido útil para seu desenvolvimento pessoal e auxiliou a modificar suas vidas.This research was conducted in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, with a sample of battered women selected from a government shelter called the "Casa Viva Maria". We analyzed data on 110 women staying at the shelter during the previous two years (January 1996-June 1998. The profile of the women was as follows: abused women were young (mean age 29 years, all had low socioeconomic status, 12% were illiterate, 21% were black, 80% reported frequent abuse by their partners, and 18% had returned to violent homes. The researchers visited 34 former lodgers from the shelter and invited them to participate in a series of evaluation workshops. A total of 118 persons, including mothers and

  10. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha; Flavio Pechansky; Daniela Benzano; Carlos Alberto Sampaio Martins de Barros; Raquel Brandini De Boni

    2014-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI) is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were ...

  11. Frutificação, características físicas de frutos e produtividade em cultivares e seleções de pessegueiro em Vista Alegre do Alto-SP Fruiting, physical fruit characteristics and productivity of peach tree cultivars and selections in Vista Alegre do Alto, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Fernando Mendes Pereira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A microrregião de Jaboticabal, SP, considerada como marginal para o cultivo do pessegueiro, apresenta vantagens comparativas importantes em relação às principais regiões produtoras do Brasil, como o reduzido risco de geadas, a baixa umidade relativa do ar e o déficit hídrico entre abril e setembro, além da possibilidade de produção precoce (agosto a outubro, o que tem remunerado satisfatoriamente os produtores. Entretanto, os resultados de pesquisa são consistentes apenas para a cultivar "Aurora-1". Visando consolidar esta microrregião como um novo pólo produtor de pêssegos de alta qualidade, o presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Vista Alegre do Alto-SP e teve por objetivo estudar a frutificação, as características físicas de frutos e a produtividade das cultivares "Aurora-1" e "Régis" e das seleções "Jab 484" e "Jab 694". Com as avaliações realizadas no 2° e no 3° ano após o transplantio das mudas (safras de 2005 e 2006, foi possível concluir que: a a frutificação das cultivares "Régis" e "Aurora-1" e das seleções "Jab 484" e "Jab 694"é satisfatória em condições climáticas normais do município de Vista Alegre do Alto-SP; b a cultivar "Régis" pode apresentar produção e produtividade equivalentes à "Aurora-1", podendo se tornar opção para produção ultraprecoce com frutos de dupla finalidade, ainda que sejam menores e mais leves em relação à "Aurora-1", "Jab 484" e "Jab 694"; c as seleções "Jab 484" e "Jab 694" apresentam potencial para o cultivo em Vista Alegre do Alto-SP, por apresentarem frutos com características de dupla finalidade (servem para consumo in natura e para processamento, por serem mais pesados que "Aurora-1", podendo atingir produção e produtividade equivalentes a esta cultivar.The Jaboticabal Micro-region, located in São Paulo State, Brazil, considered unsuitable for peach tree culture, presents important comparative advantages in relation to other traditional

  12. Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil

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    Adriane Bartmann

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939. Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198 foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116 constituídos por animais menores de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82 constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (pThe method of Faust et al. (1939 was utilized for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in feces from dogs in Porto Alegre city, Rio Grande Sul State, Brazil. From the 526 analyzed samples 38% (198 showed positive results for the presence of G. lamblia cyst, so 22% (116 belonged to group one, formed by animals that were less than eleven months old; and 16% (82 belonged to group two, formed by animals that were twelve months or older. There was a significant difference (p<0,05 among the two groups checked by the c² test. From the animals researched, 54% (285 were male dogs and from these 20% (104 presented cysts in their feces. From the other 46% (241, which were female dogs, 18% (95 presented positive results for the cysts of G. lamblia in their sample. The c² test applied to these data showed that there was not any significant difference between the results found in female or male dogs of all ages. Based on these results, we can come to the conclusion that 38% of the analyzed dogs showed positive results for the infection of G. lamblia and that the younger animals those aged less than eleven months presented a rate of risk to get infected which is two times bigger than the ones for the animals with 12 months or older, as well as, the fact that the sex of the animals did not present any association to the positive results of infection.

  13. Preditores de soropositividade para HIV em indivíduos não abusadores de drogas que buscam centros de testagem e aconselhamento de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predictors of HIV seropositive status in non-IV drug users at testing and counseling centers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Flávio Pechansky

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve comportamentos de risco para HIV, obtidos através de questionário, em 570 indivíduos de Porto Alegre que não usavam drogas regularmente. A idade média foi 30,3, 51,1 % eram homens, e a maioria tinha baixa renda (59,1%. A soropositividade foi de 9,9% (13,1% entre homens e 6,9% entre mulheres, associada a sexo masculino, ter mais de 30 anos e baixa renda. Mulheres reportaram mais sexo desprotegido (86,4% do que homens (74,4% e mais sexo com usuários de droga injetável (11,6% versus 2,1%; homens relataram mais sexo homossexual desprotegido (18,7% versus 1,4% e mais relações com profissionais de sexo (19,0% versus 0,4%. Não houve associação entre uso eventual de drogas e soropositividade. A idade associada à soropositividade confirma achados anteriores, indicando maior exposição a riscos durante a vida. O estudo confirma a pauperização da epidemia, com indivíduos pobres apresentando maior soropositividade. Homens e mulheres apresentaram diferentes comportamentos associados à soropositividade, confirmando a necessidade de prevenção específica e distinta para cada grupo.This study describes HIV-related behaviors recorded through a questionnaire applied to 570 individuals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, who were not regular drug users. Mean age was 30.3 years, 51.1 % were male, and most were low-income (59.1%. The HIV seropositive rate was 9.9% (13.1% for males, 6.9% for females, and there was a positive association with male gender, age over 30 years, and low income. Women reported more unprotected sex (86.4% than men (74.4% and more sex involving drugs (11.6% vs. 2.1%; men reported more unprotected homosexual sex (18.7% vs. 1.4% and more sex with sex workers (19.0% vs. 0.4%. There was no association between sporadic drug use and seropositive status. The association between age and seropositive status confirms previous findings, indicating more lifetime risk exposure. The study confirms the so

  14. O impacto odontológico no desempenho diário dos trabalhadores do departamento municipal de limpeza urbana de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The impact of oral health on daily performance of municipal waste disposal workers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Andréa Silveira Gomes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência do impacto bucal no desempenho diário em adultos brasileiros. Uma amostra representativa, composta por 276 funcionários do Departamento Municipal de Limpeza Urbana de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre 35 e 44 anos, responderam a entrevista e permitiram a realização do exame clínico. O Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP foi utilizado para avaliar o impacto bucal no desempenho diário. Do total de participantes, 73,6% tiveram pelo menos um desempenho diário afetado por problemas odontológicos nos últimos seis meses. O mais afetado foi comer e apreciar a comida (48,6%. O desconforto (40,6% e a insatisfação com a aparência (31,5% foram os sintomas mais prevalentes. A falta de dentes (21,7% e a dor de dente (20,7% foram as principais causas percebidas de impacto no desempenho diário. O OIDP mostrou-se útil para avaliar os impactos odontológicos nas dimensões físicas, psicológicas e sociais do desempenho diário.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of oral health impact on daily performance in Brazilian adults. 276 civil servants 35 to 44 years of age from the Public Works and Waste Disposal Department of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil, were interviewed and clinically examined. Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP was used to evaluate the impact of oral health status on daily performance. 73.6% of all subjects had at least one daily performance affected by an oral impact in the previous six months. The most commonly affected performance was eating (48.6%, while the most common symptoms were discomfort (40.6% and dissatisfaction with one's appearance (31.5%. Missing teeth (21.7% and toothache (20.7% were recognized as the main causes of oral impacts on daily performance. OIDP was useful for measuring (physically, psychologically, and socially the oral impacts on daily performance.

  15. Anticorpos neutralizantes contra os vírus da cinomose e da parainfluenza em cães de canis dos municípios de Novo Hamburgo e Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Neutralizing antibodies to distemper and parainfluenza viruses in dogs in shelter kennels in the municipalities of Novo Hamburgo and Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

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    Tamahine Larronda Schmidt Hartmann

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo, foi realizada uma pesquisa em busca de anticorpos neutralizantes contra os vírus da cinomose (CDV e da parainfluenza (CPIV caninos em amostras de soro de 173 cães recolhidos a canis municipais em Novo Hamburgo (n=82 e Porto Alegre (n=91, RS. A pesquisa de anticorpos neutralizantes foi realizada pela técnica de soroneutralização frente a duas amostras vacinais de CDV (Rockborn e Snyder Hill e frente a uma amostra de CPIV (V660. Em relação ao CDV, 95,9% das amostras de soros foram negativas para anticorpos neutralizantes contra a amostra Snyder Hill e 90,7% soronegativas para a amostra Rockborn. Entre os soropositivos (n=20; 11,6%, somente três deles apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes frente às duas amostras de CDV testadas, indicando pouca reatividade cruzada entre as mesmas. Quanto ao CPIV, a prevalência de anticorpos neutralizantes encontrada frente à amostra V660 foi de 51,4%. Esses achados indicam que a maioria dos cães examinados não teve contato prévio com o CDV, seja por infecção natural ou por imunização prévia. O CPIV, porém, parece estar amplamente difundido na população canina examinada, provavelmente por exposição natural ao vírus.In this report a serological survey was carried out in search for antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV in 173 sera from dogs withdraw in kennels of the municipalities of Novo Hamburgo (n=82 and Porto Alegre (n=91, RS, Brazil. Neutralizing antibodies were evaluated against two CDV strains used for vaccine production (Rockborn and Snyder Hill as well as one strain of CPIV (V660. Search for anti-CDV neutralizing antibodies revealed that 95.9% of sera were negative for antibodies to CDV Snyder Hill and 90.7% were negative for antibodies to CDV Rockborn. Among the positive sera (n=20; 11.6 % only three of those had neutralizing antibodies to both CDV strains, indicating a low degree of cross reactivity between those. As

  16. Rotas críticas de mulheres em situação de violência: depoimentos de mulheres e operadores em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Critical trajectories of female victims of gender violence: discourse analysis of women and staff professionals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa tem por objetivo estabelecer a trajetória de mulheres em situação de violência de gênero na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A metodologia incluiu entrevistas em profundidade com mulheres e operadores sociais, procurando mapear a rota crítica das mulheres quando decidem procurar ajuda. Foram entrevistadas 21 mulheres em situação de violência e 25 operadores das áreas jurídica, policial, ação social, saúde e organizações não governamentais. A rota percorrida pelas mulheres nos serviços foi mapeada e analisada, sendo identificados aspectos facilitadores e limitadores no processo de romper com a violência. As mulheres relataram a pressão dos operadores para que retornem ao casamento e a ineficiência do setor policial para dar-lhes proteção. Nos depoimentos dos operadores, perceberam-se as diferentes concepções de violência entre os serviços, a medicalização da violência e a fragmentação da rede.This qualitative study aims to describe the trajectories of female victims of gender violence in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The methodology included in-depth interviews with women and staff, attempting to map the critical paths of women when they made the decision to seek professional help. We interviewed 21 women victims of gender violence and 25 professionals, including law enforcement officials, health and social workers, and nongovernmental organizations. The women's trajectories in the services were mapped, identifying facilitating factors and obstacles in the process of breaking with gender violence. The victims reported: pressure by professional staff to return to their marriages and police inefficiency in providing protection. The discourse of law enforcement officials and health and social workers showed a range of different concepts regarding violence, medicalization of violence, and network fragmentation.

  17. Influence of intracranial hemorrhage and neonatal seizures on the neurological and psychomotor development of premature infants at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil Influência da hemorragia intracraniana e crises neonatais sobre o desenvolvimento neurológico e psicomotor de recém-nascidos prematuros no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil

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    Lygia Ohlweiler

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the results of neurodevelopmental examination at 6 months' corrected age of premature infants with neonatal seizures and/or intracranial hemorrhage and normal premature infants. There was a statistically significant correlation (p=0.000007 between intracranial hemorrhage and seizures in the group of 68 premature infants seen in the neurodevelopmental outpatient service at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Intracranial hemorrhage was significantly associated with multiparity (p=0.02. The neurodevelopmental examination at 6 months' corrected age revealed that patients who suffered neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and/or seizures had inappropriate muscle tone, strength and reflexes, as well as delay in head control. Conclusion: we compared the results of neurodevelopmental examinations of two groups of premature infants at 6 months' corrected age. The difference in neurological development at 6 months' corrected age was statistically significant when comparison was corrected for premature infants who had neonatal seizures and periventricular hemorrhage.Este estudo comparou os resultados do exame do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor aos seis meses de idade corrigida de lactentes prematuros com crises neonatais e/ou hemorragia intracraniana com lactentes prematuros sem estas intercorrências. Houve uma correlação estatisticamente significativa (p=0.000007 entre hemorragia intracraniana e crises neonatais no grupo de 68 lactentes prematuros vistos no ambulatório de neurodesenvolvimento do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. Hemorragia intracraniana foi significativamente associada com multiparidade (p=0.02. O exame do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor aos 6 meses de idade corrigida mostrou que pacientes que sofreram hemorragia intracraniana neonatal e/ou crises neonatais tiveram tônus, forças e reflexos inapropriados, bem como atraso no controle do sustento cefálico. Conclusões: Comparamos os resultados

  18. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Tatiana Stürmer Badalotti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, therewas no significant relation between social sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases.

  19. Effect of a health education program in the oral health profile of preschool children: an experience in the public network of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Stürmer Badalott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the effect of health promotion activities developed in a child education school, on the children’s oral health profile, relating oral manifestations to social, sanitary and feeding factors. Methods: Interventional, longitudinal and describing quantitative work, accomplished with 41 preschool children from four to six years old, living in the area assisted by a Family Health Team (Equipe de Saúde da Família-ESF in the city of Porto Alegre-RS. Diagnosis of dental caries and gingivitis was carried out through oral clinical examination at the beginning and at the end of the study. The dietary pattern was obtained by applying a questionnaire and the social-sanitary aspects of the families, from the records of File A in the Basic Health Care Information System (Sistema de Informação da Atenção Básica-SIAB. Results: Caries disease was diagnosed in 58.5% of the children, whose dmft index (total sum of decayed, extracted and filled teeth was 2.43. There was a decrease in the number of decayed teeth and an increase in extracted and filled teeth. The rates of visible plaque and gums bleeding got better. The social-sanitary aspects were standardized in the community, being not representative. The group presenting the highest dmft values followed a diet containing sugars, with viscous consistence and an intake frequency of four or more times a day. Conclusion: The activities of health promotion developed in the school partially changed the children’s oral conditions. There was a positive correlation between consistency, composition and frequency of diet and the presence of caries disease; on the other hand, there was no significant relation between social-sanitary conditions and the presence of oral diseases

  20. Differences between attendance in emergency care of male and female victims of traffic accidents in Porto alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

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    Raquel Forgiarini Saldanha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol/ drugs (DUI is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents, and men and women have different consumption patterns. The scope of this paper is to analyze differences in alcohol and drug consumption, as well as on behavior associated with traffic accidents among men and women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 609 sequential traffic accident victims attended in emergency care from Porto Alegre. Subjects gave a structured interview, were breathalyzed and had a saliva test for alcohol/drug screening. Results showed that women were mainly passengers or pedestrians (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in positive blood alcohol concentration. However, men reported more binge drinking and THC use, while women had more benzodiazepine in their saliva (p<0.05. This is the first Brazilian study to compare alcohol and drug use among men and women who were the victims of traffic accidents. Results point to differences in the pattern of substance abuse, as well on risk behavior. Data may be useful for specific prevention strategies that take gender differences into consideration.

  1. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508± 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The TDM model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated TCHUR model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  2. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Varzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age), a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Varzea Alegre intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination if field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. this was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, with strong influence of mantle-derived melts. (author)

  3. Porto Alegre as a Counter-Hegemonic "Global City": Building Globalization from below in Governance and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Luis Armando

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the case of Porto Alegre, Brazil as a counter-hegemonic global city. Porto Alegre is a city with no particular relevance to neoliberal globalization that, nevertheless, was launched to a global scale by transformations in local governance. New mechanisms of deliberative democracy captured the attention of social actors…

  4. Violência nos relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais entre adolescentes de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: busca de ajuda e rede de apoio Violencia en las relaciones afectivo-sexuales entre adolescentes de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: búsqueda de ayuda y red de apoyo Violence in affective and sexual relationships among adolescents in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: search for help and support networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Julia Marques Lopes

    2013-06-01

    problemas derivados de violencia y, cuando lo hicieron, buscaron principalmente amigos y familiares. Los profesionales de salud fueron poco citados por los adolescentes como fuente de ayuda. Se destaca la necesidad de cuestionar las implicaciones del sistema de atención a la salud en la prevención de la violencia y promoción de la salud de los adolescentes con vistas a la adopción de relaciones saludables.This study aimed to analyze the support network reported by adolescents dealing with violent situations in affective and sexual relationships. A quantitative approach was used for the epidemiological component and a qualitative approach for the data from interviews and focus groups. The sample consisted of 283 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age who were sophomores at public and private high schools in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The quantitative data were analyzed by description of frequencies and analysis of associations between variables. For the qualitative data, thematic content analysis was used. The results showed that only 5% of the adolescents sought help for problems resulting from violence, and when they did so, they mainly turned to friends and family. Few adolescents cited healthcare professionals as a source of support. The study highlights the need to inquire into the implications for the healthcare system in the prevention of violence and health promotion for adolescents, aimed at the adoption of healthy relationships.

  5. Prevalência de tabagismo em uma unidade de internação psiquiátrica de Porto Alegre Predominancia de tabaquismo en una unidad de internación Psiquiátrica de Porto Alegre Smoking prevalence in a Psychiatric Unit in Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Raquel De Boni

    2003-12-01

    abstinencia - que pueden ser confundidos con los síntomas de los trastornos de base - en pacientes psiquiátricos internados.Based on anecdotal clinical reports about the high prevalence of tobacco dependence in psychiatric inpatients, the Psychiatric Services of Hospital de Clinicas of Porto Alegre requested a study to ascertain its prevalence. Three consecutive censuses were developed, each 30 days apart, with a total of 103 in-patients, utilizing the Fagerström questionnaire for tobacco dependence to ascertain the severity of nicotine dependence. The prevalences found were 46.7% , 54.3 % and 38.9% , respectively, in the three consecutive samples (p>0.05. Dependence was categorized as severe in approximately 50% of all smokers in the three censuses. The high prevalence of nicotine dependence and the highest severity of dependence among the psychiatric patients confirms literature data and justifies interventions aimed at minimizing withdrawal symptoms - which may be confounded with symptoms of the psychiatric primary diagnosis - in patients hospitalized for psychiatric disorders.

  6. Homicides among teenagers in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: vulnerability, susceptibility, and gender cultures Homicídios entre adolescentes na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: vulnerabilidade e culturas de gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosária Sant'Anna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a quantitative and qualitative study on homicides among teenagers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, based on a historical series during the 1990s and the life and death histories in this group, with a special focus on 1997. In that year there were 68 homicides in which the victims were from 10 to 19 years old. Of the 68, 62 were males and only 6 females, or a ratio of 10:1, showing that young males are more vulnerable and susceptible to being murdered. The data indicate that cause of death is influenced by gender culture and that homicides are based on power and status symbols characterizing a kind of virility. This expression of virility in the shaping of violence also appears in the domination of the female body observed in homicides with young women as the victims. The life and death histories of these teenagers highlight the pertinence of the gender-based analysis as a theoretical-analytical category, in addition to analyses considering socioeconomic aspects and social inequity.Este é um estudo quanti/qualitativo sobre homicídios entre adolescentes em Porto Alegre, tendo como base uma seriação histórica para a década de 90 e as histórias de vida e morte nesse grupo, particularizando o ano de 1997. Nesse ano houve 68 homicídios na faixa etária de 10 a 19 anos, dos quais 62 do sexo masculino e 6 do sexo feminino, numa razão de 10:1, mostrando que os homens estão mais vulneráveis e suscetíveis a morrer por essa causa de morte. Admite-se, a partir disso, que as formas de morrer sofrem influência das culturas de gênero e os homicídios se sustentam em símbolos e posições de poder que caracterizam um tipo de masculinidade. Essa expressão de masculinidade na forma de violência mostra sua face também no domínio sobre o corpo feminino, observado nas situações de homicídio envolvendo as mulheres adolescentes. Esses achados apontam para a conotação relacional e para a assimetria social

  7. Perfil do usuário de crack e fatores relacionados à criminalidade em unidade de internação para desintoxicação no Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro de Porto Alegre (RS Profile of crack users and factors related to criminality at the detoxication ward at Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro, Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Cristian Fabiano Guimarães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo transversal foi realizado com usuários de crack do sexo masculino internados na Unidade de Desintoxicação do Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro de Porto Alegre (RS no período de março a dezembro de 2007. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar o perfil sociodemográfico e de consumo de substâncias psicoativas e a presença de conduta anti-social, sintomas de ansiedade e de depressão em usuários de crack internados na Unidade de Desintoxicação do Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro de Porto Alegre (RS, bem como verificar fatores associados à criminalidade nessa clientela. MÉTODO: Trinta sujeitos participaram do estudo, e os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário sociodemográfico e de avaliação do consumo de substâncias psicoativas e de antecedentes criminais com 55 questões, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade, Inventário Beck de Depressão, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence e Escala Analógico-Visual de Fissura. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados apontam para uma população de adultos jovens, de cor/raça branca, com idade média de 27,3 anos e em situação de subemprego ou desemprego. A presença de antecedentes criminais foi observada em 40% da amostra e está associada a maior fissura (U = 58,00; p = 0,035, a mais sintomas de ansiedade (U = 56,50; p = 0,028 e de depressão (U = 47,00; p = 0,009. CONCLUSÕES: É freqüente a presença de antecedentes criminais em dependentes de crack e esta variável está relacionada a mais ansiedade, depressão e fissura. Estudos deste tipo permitem ampliar o conhecimento da população atendida, para delinear de forma mais efetiva o plano terapêutico para esta clientela.INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study was carried out with 30 crack users admitted at the male detoxication ward at Hospital Psiquiátrico São Pedro, in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from March to December, 2007. The objective of the present study was

  8. Age and gender as risk factors for the transmission of HIV in a sample of drug users of Porto Alegre, Brazil Idade e gênero como fatores de risco para a transmissão do HIV em uma amostra de usuários de drogas, Porto Alegre, Brasil

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    Raquel De Boni

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the association between age and gender regarding HIV seropositivity in drug users who seek public health centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Methods: The authors designed a cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling of 695 men and women aged above 15, who reported recent drug use and risk behaviors to HIV exposure. We used a standard questionnaire (CRA, Brazilian version of the RAB, Risk Assessment Battery to assess risk behaviors and we collected blood for HIV testing. Results: Most individuals were males (75,8%, with a mean age of 29.4 years, less than seven years of schooling (42,4%, and family income equal or superior to four minimum wages (46%. There was no significant association between gender and seropositivity. Multivariate analyses showed that individuals aged above 30 had a three-fold increased odds of being seropositive over subjects aged 20 or less. Intravenous drug users who had been using drugs since 1980 had five-fold odds of seropositivity and those who had been using them in the month prior to the interview had four-fold odds. Discussion: Subjects aged more than 30 showed higher odds of seropositivity than the younger group. This is possibly due to a higher use of intravenous cocaine and to having more risk behaviors along their lifetime. There was no difference in seropositivity between genders, what differs from current data of other studies, if we take into consideration that rates of populational seropositivity among women have increased, mostly among drug users, who are, therefore, at 'double risk'. The development of further studies is mandatory in order to assess gender and age as risk factors for seropositivity, whether to confirm or to deny these findings, and to plan specific strategies for high-risk groups.Objetivo: Verificar se idade e gênero estão relacionados à soropositividade para HIV em usuários de drogas que procuram centros de atendimento em saúde de Porto Alegre. Método: Estudo

  9. Espécies e prevalência das infestações por carrapatos em cães de rua da cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Species and prevalence of ticks infestations on stray dogs in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil

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    Vera Lúcia Sardá Ribeiro

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de carrapatos que parasitam os cães da área urbana de Porto Alegre e conhecer suas prevalências nesta população. Para isso, foram examinados 450 cães de rua de Porto Alegre, colhidos os carrapatos nos animais infestados e estes identificados ao estereomicroscópio por espécie e por estágio. Dentre os animais examinados, 52,44% albergavam carrapatos e destes, 93,22% estavam parasitados por Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 2,97% por Amblyomma aureolatum e 3,81% pelas duas espécies simultaneamente. Do total de carrapatos colhidos, a espécie mais abundante nos animais foi R. sanguineus representando 99,43% desse total; foram encontrados ínstares de todos os estágios parasitários de R. sanguineus e só do estágio adulto de A.aureolatum.The purpose of this study was to identify and to know the prevalence of ticks recovered from dogs of urban area of Porto Alegre, RS. Four hundred and fifty stray dogs were examined and the ticks found were identified according to the species and parasitic stage. A percentage of 52.44% of those dogs were infested with ticks, among these, 93.22% were parasitized by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 2.97% by Amblyomma aureolatum and 3.81% by both species. R. sanguineus was the more prevalent species among infested animals representing 99.43% of the total number of ticks sampled. All parasitic stages of R. sanguineus were present on the stray dogs but only the adult stage of A. aureolatum was found.

  10. Freqüência de Giardia lamblia em cães atendidos em clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil Frequency of Giardia lamblia in dogs attended by veterinary clinics in Porto Alegre city, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Bartmann; Flávio Antônio Pacheco de Araújo

    2004-01-01

    A pesquisa de cistos de Giardia lamblia em fezes de cães oriundos de clínicas veterinárias de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, foi realizada pelo método de FAUST et al. (1939). Das 526 amostras analisadas, 38% (198) foram positivas para cistos de G. lamblia, sendo 22% (116) constituídos por animais menores de 11 meses de idade e 16% (82) constituídos por animais com 12 meses ou mais de idade. Houve diferença significativa (p

  11. Associação entre desempenho das funções corticais e alfabetização em uma amostra de escolares de primeira série de Porto Alegre Performance of literacy and cortical brain functions in a sample of first grade students of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ANA GUARDIOLA; LUCIA TERESINHA CUNHA FERREIRA; NEWRA TELLECHEA ROTTA

    1998-01-01

    As funções corticais constituem a base do processo de aprendizado e o exame neurológico evolutivo (ENE) avalia o nível de desenvolvimento em que elas se encontram. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar, através do ENE, as funções corticais de uma população representativa da 1. série de Porto Alegre e investigar seu desempenho no aprendizado. Efetuou-se estudo observacional, analítico e de delineamento transversal. A amostra foi aleatória, constituída de 484 crianças. Avaliaram-se sexo, idade,...

  12. Acesso e acolhimento aos usuários em uma unidade de saúde de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Health care access and receptivity to users in a unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Donatela Dourado Ramos; Maria Alice Dias da Silva Lima

    2003-01-01

    Aborda-se a visão dos usuários sobre fatores que influenciam a qualidade do atendimento em uma unidade de saúde de Porto Alegre, relativos a acesso e a acolhimento. Os dados, coletados através de entrevista semi-estruturada e observação participante, foram tratados mediante análise temática. Os resultados mostram facilidades e dificuldades de acesso geográfico, econômico e funcional. A organização do serviço e a competência profissional determinaram facilidades com relação ao acolhimento, lev...

  13. Musgos (Bryophyta na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

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    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp. e Leucobryaceae (5 spp., as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr. e Trichosteleum papillosum (Hornsch. A. Jaeger. Evidenciou-se maior diversidade de espécies na mata de terra firme, confirmando a preferência das briófitas por este ecossistema. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. é citada como primeira referência para o Estado do Pará.This work presents a survey of mosses from different ecosystems of Trambioca Island, municipality of Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil. Forty taxa of mosses were found, belonging to 20 genera and 13 families. The families with highest number of species were Calymperaceae (12 spp., Sematophyllaceae (6 spp., and Leucobryaceae (5 spp., which also presented the highest number of individuals. The most common species were Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw. Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Hornsch. Müll. Hal., Callicostella pallida (Hornsch. Årgstr., and Trichosteleum papillosum (Honrsch. A. Jaeger. It was observed a higher richness of species in the primary low land rainforest, confirming the preference of bryophytes for this ecosystem. Philonotis gracillima Ångstr. is mentioned as the first report to Pará State.

  14. Prevalence study of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit at the Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Estudo de prevalência das dermatoses encaminhadas ao setor de fototerapia do ambulatório de dermatologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

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    Carolina Casara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phototherapy consists of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for therapeutic reasons. Radiation is already used in dermatological practice, and many studies have already proved the beneficial effect of UV light treatment for chronic inflammatory or lymphoproliferative skin diseases. The Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre has been using phototherapy for a long time, and no official data have been described so far. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit at the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre and describe the total number of patients who have already been referred to this sector and their phototype. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through a review of the phototherapy patients' records (secondary data, which are available on a database of the Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre, from August 1997 to July 2011. RESULTS: A total of 653 records were analyzed. Phototype 3 was the most prevalent (n=313. Distribution of the prevalence of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit was as follows: vitiligo (279, psoriasis (255, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma/mycosis fungoides (29, graftversus-host disease (15, scleroderma (11, atopic dermatitis (10, alopecia areata (6, parapsoriasis (5, eczema (4, granuloma annulare (4, and others (35. As vitiligo and psoriasis were the two most prevalent dermatoses, they were analyzed separately, with no statistical difference in prevalence between them (P=0,177. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are in accordance with the literature, showing that although phototherapy is still mostly indicated to treat psoriasis, it has been used to treat other dermatoses, since the results are promising. FUNDAMENTOS: Fototerapia é exposição à radiação ultravioleta para uso terapêutico. O uso dessas radiações já é utilizado na prática dermatológica, e

  15. Pesquisa de Acinetobacter sp e Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtores de metalo-β-lactamase em hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Investigation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Vani Dos Santos Laranjeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aparecimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp produtores de metalo-β-lactamases (MBLs é um desafio para os hospitais. MÉTODOS: Verificou-se a produção de MBL em cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp de um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre pelo método de aproximação de disco e E-test MBL. Os genes bla foram pesquisados pela PCR. RESULTADOS: Duas cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e oito Acinetobacter sp demonstraram fenótipo de MBLs. A amplificação do gene blaSPM-1 confirmou a enzima em P. aeruginosa.. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter cautela ao avaliar testes fenotípicos utilizados na detecção rotineira de metalo-enzima.INTRODUCTION: The appearance of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. is a challenge for hospitals. METHODS: The production of MBL in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. From an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre was investigated using the disk approximation test and MBL E-test. The bla genes were determined using PCR. RESULTS: Two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eight of Acinetobacter sp were shown to be MBL phenotypes. Amplification of the blaSPM-1 gene confirmed the presence of the enzyme in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is needed in evaluating phenotype tests used for routine detection of metallo-β-lactamases.

  16. A negociação do sexo seguro na TV: discursos de gênero nas falas de agentes comunitárias de saúde do Programa Saúde da Família de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Safe sex negotiation on TV: gender discourses among female community health workers under the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa, com base numa pesquisa realizada no ano de 2003, o entendimento de agentes comunitárias de saúde do Programa Saúde da Família de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, sobre a noção de "negociação de sexo seguro" veiculada nas campanhas de prevenção à AIDS que são endereçados às mulheres. A pesquisa tinha como foco de análise alguns dos anúncios televisivos que integraram as campanhas implementadas pelo Ministério da Saúde no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2000. A análise foi informada pelas vertentes dos estudos feministas e culturais que se aproximam da perspectiva pós-estruturalista de Michel Foucault e tinha como objetivo produzir subsídios para uma leitura crítica desse tipo de estratégia educativa para a prevenção da AIDS, em especial no que se refere às relações de gênero ali representadas. A análise das informações sugere que os conhecimentos e práticas que circunscrevem o discurso da negociação do sexo seguro incorporam, re-produzem ou veiculam representações hegemônicas de masculinidade e feminilidade e que estas diferenciam e hierarquizam mulheres em relação aos homens e/ou diferenciam mulheres de outras mulheres, produzindo e/ou reforçando preconceitos e desigualdades.This paper analyzes the understanding among female community health workers in the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, concerning the notion of safe sex negotiation promoted by the Brazilian government in AIDS prevention campaigns targeting women. The paper is based on empirical data gathered in 2003. The study focused on TV advertisements used in campaigns by the Brazilian Ministry of Health from 1994 to 2000. The analytical approach was informed by feminist and cultural studies, taken from a post-structuralist and Foucauldian perspective. The research aimed to produce knowledge to support a critical reading of such education for HIV/AIDS prevention, especially concerning

  17. A construção do cuidado pela equipe de saúde e o cuidador em um programa de atenção domiciliar ao acamado em Porto Alegre (RS, Brasil The construction of care by the health team and the caretaker within a home-care program for bedridden patients in Porto Alegre (RS, Brazil

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    Ivani Bueno de Almeida Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é um estudo de caso cujo objetivo principal foi compreender a construção do cuidado no Programa de Atendimento Domiciliar ao Acamado (PADA de uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS em Porto Alegre, RS. Os dados foram obtidos em 13 grupos de cuidadores na UBS e em observação participante registrada em diário de campo nos domicílios. Foi realizada análise das práticas discursivas, inspirada nos conceitos de discurso de Foucault e nos estudos sobre ética e cuidado de si. No transcurso dos grupos, os cuidadores ocuparam um espaço que chamamos metaforicamente de Oráculo de Delfos, lócus de acolhimento, escuta e de suporte. Escutar os diálogos travados entre equipe e cuidadores defrontou-nos com a contradição presente no discurso institucional que ao mesmo tempo que estimula o cuidado de si impõe normas, deveres e fazeres. O cuidado como direito de cidadania em contraposição ao cuidado como submissão e assujeitamento tensionou o grupo em vários momentos. A noção foucaultiana de cuidado compreende uma síntese entre o exercício de uma pessoa sobre ela mesma, tornando-a melhor como ser humano e, ao mesmo tempo, capacitando-a a se tornar melhor como cidadãoThe main objective of this case study was to understand the construction of care in the Homecare Program for Bedridden Patients (PADA of a basic health unit (UBS in Porto Alegre, RS. Data were obtained from 13 caretaker groups in the UBS, and participating observation recorded in field diary in the patient's homes. An analysis of the discourse practices was performed inspired in Foucault's discourse concepts speeches and in studies on ethics and self-care. In the groups, the caretaker occupied a space that we metaphorically called the Delphic Oracle, a place for acceptance, listening and support. Hearing the dialogues that took place between the team and the caretakers made us face the contradiction present in the institutional discourse, which both stimulates self

  18. Acesso e acolhimento aos usuários em uma unidade de saúde de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Health care access and receptivity to users in a unit in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatela Dourado Ramos

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se a visão dos usuários sobre fatores que influenciam a qualidade do atendimento em uma unidade de saúde de Porto Alegre, relativos a acesso e a acolhimento. Os dados, coletados através de entrevista semi-estruturada e observação participante, foram tratados mediante análise temática. Os resultados mostram facilidades e dificuldades de acesso geográfico, econômico e funcional. A organização do serviço e a competência profissional determinaram facilidades com relação ao acolhimento, levando à satisfação dos usuários. Má recepção e desempenho profissional insatisfatório foram dificuldades identificadas. Concluiu-se pela necessidade de aumento de profissionais, capacitação para o acolhimento, implantação de modalidade complementar de atendimento odontológico, antecipação da abertura do prédio para marcação de consultas e priorização de atendimento aos moradores da área de atuação.This study focuses on users' views of factors influencing quality of care at a health care unit in the city of Porto Alegre, relating to access and receptivity. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview and participatory observation and treated using thematic analysis. The results compare ease and difficulties in geographic, economic, and functional access. Organization of services and professional competency were determinant factors in ease of reception, leading to user satisfaction. Poor reception and unsatisfactory professional performance were identified as difficulties. The study concluded that there is a need to increase the professional staff, train them in receiving users, implement a complementary modality for dental care, open the facility earlier for scheduling appointments, and prioritize care for residents of the catchment area.

  19. Avaliação da presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil Evaluation of the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in food served in public schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Ribeiro de Itapema Cardoso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo avaliar a presença de microrganismos indicadores higiênico-sanitários em amostras de alimentos servidos em escolas públicas de Porto Alegre. Foram analisados todos os alimentos servidos na refeição do turno da visita, quanto à presença de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, Salmonella sp. e Shigella sp. No total de 196 alimentos analisados de 120 escolas, 4 apresentavam contagem de Escherichia coli acima do permitido e dois tinham a presença de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva. Os gêneros Shigella e Salmonella não foram encontrados. Foi observado que a maioria das escolas estudadas servia alimentos dentro de padrões higiênico-sanitários adequados. Foi evidenciado que somente escolas municipais contavam com a orientação de responsável técnico pela alimentação escolar. Das escolas estaduais 60% nunca haviam recebido visita de nutricionista nas quais foram encontrados procedimentos em desacordo com as exigências da legislação. Na maioria das escolas, os alimentos servidos estavam dentro de padrões adequados, porém os problemas detectados demonstram a necessidade da implantação das Boas Práticas no ambiente escolar.The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of hygienic and sanitary indicator microorganisms in samples of food served in public schools in Porto Alegre. All the food served in the meal of the session visited was analyzed for Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. Of the total of 196 food products analyzed in 120 schools, 4 contained and Escherichia coli score above the permitted level, and 2 contained coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Neither Shigella nor Salmonella genus were detected. In the majority of schools studied, it was found that food was of an adequate hygienic-sanitary standard. However, only municipal schools had the supervision of a technician responsible for school food. In the state

  20. Idosos vacinados e não vacinados contra a influenza: morbidade relatada e aspectos sociodemográficos, Porto Alegre (RS, Brasil, 2004 Influenza-vaccinated and non-vaccinated elderly: reported morbidity and sociodemographic aspects, Porto Alegre (RS, Brazil, 2004

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    Maria Aparecida Müller Vilarino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aproveitando o evento da campanha nacional de vacinação de idosos contra o vírus influenza em 2004, realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico transversal descritivo com objetivo de comparar populações de idosos vacinadas e não vacinadas em relação à ocorrência de situações de doença ou internações hospitalares dentro do período de três meses após a vacinação. Não foi possível trabalhar com amostragem probabilística, e a tentativa de pareamento de idosos vacinados e não vacinados não teve sucesso devido à elevada cobertura vacinal observada (73% da população-alvo e ao curto espaço de tempo para obter as entrevistas. O resultado da análise descritiva dos 1.130 idosos entrevistados foi muito interessante, mesmo não sendo possível inferir para o universo de idosos de Porto Alegre. Encontrou-se maior proporção na população vacinada de pessoas na faixa etária de 70 a 79 anos (42% e na população não vacinada na faixa de 60 a 64 anos (40%. Os idosos vacinados são na maioria mais velhos; mulheres; têm plano de saúde; declaram renda mais elevada; realizam atividades físicas e não são fumantes. Os idosos não vacinados são na maioria homens; mais jovens; com menor renda; não realizam atividades físicas e são fumantes. Observou-se percentual menor de relato de pneumonias e internações hospitalares entre os vacinados em relação aos não vacinados.This descriptive transversal epidemiological study had the objective of comparing the elderly population who took the influenza vaccine and who did not regarding the occurrence of events of diseases or hospital admittances within three months after the vaccination. It was not possible to work with probable sampling and the attempt of pairing the vaccinated and non-vaccinated elderly was not successful due to the high vaccine coverage observed (73% of the target population and due to the short time available to make the interviews. The result of the descriptive

  1. Associação entre desempenho das funções corticais e alfabetização em uma amostra de escolares de primeira série de Porto Alegre Performance of literacy and cortical brain functions in a sample of first grade students of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    ANA GUARDIOLA

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available As funções corticais constituem a base do processo de aprendizado e o exame neurológico evolutivo (ENE avalia o nível de desenvolvimento em que elas se encontram. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar, através do ENE, as funções corticais de uma população representativa da 1. série de Porto Alegre e investigar seu desempenho no aprendizado. Efetuou-se estudo observacional, analítico e de delineamento transversal. A amostra foi aleatória, constituída de 484 crianças. Avaliaram-se sexo, idade, cor, peso, estatura, exame neurológico, exame neurológico evolutivo, desempenho nos subtestes números, completar figuras e código da escala de WISC e alfabetização. Os itens do ENE encontravam-se abaixo do esperado para idade em 11,4% e 38,2% das crianças; o mais atingido foi sensibilidade e gnosias (38,2% e o menos comprometido foi persistência motora (11,4%. Nos testes psicométricos, 40,5% tinham desenvolvimento abaixo do esperado em números, 39,0% em completar figuras, 71,5% em código. Quanto a alfabetização, 94,4% das crianças se alfabetizaram. A disfunção neuropsicológica e a lateralidade mal estabelecida foram fatores de risco para o aprendizado.Cortical brain functions are the basis of the learning process and evolutionary neurological examination (ENE provides the level of development of the brain. The purpose of this work was to study by means of the ENE the brain funtions in a representative sample of first grade students of Porto Alegre, to investigate the learning performance. An observation, analytical and transversal delineated study was performed. The random sample had 484 children. It was observed: sex, age, race, weight, height, neurological examination, ENE, performance in the number sub-tests, completing figures and codes from WISC scale and literacy learning. The items of ENE were below the expected for the age in 11.4% and 38.2% of the children: the most affected ones were the sensitivity activity and

  2. Perfil clinicopatológico dos pacientes com pioderma gangrenoso do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre (RS - Brasil (2000-2006 Clinic and pathological profile of the patients with pyoderma gangrenosum at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (RS - Brazil (2000-2006

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    Mariana Tremel Barbato

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O pioderma gangrenoso é doença neutrofílica pouco freqüente. Caracteriza-se por lesões cutâneas ulceradas, dolorosas, com bordas subminadas e violáceas. Os membros inferiores configuram o local mais acometido. Sua etiologia é incerta, mas em 50% dos casos encontra-se associação com outras doenças. A histopatologia é inespecífica, e o diagnóstico, essencialmente clínico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil clinicopatológico de pacientes com pioderma gangrenoso. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo dos pacientes diagnosticados no período de 2000 a 2006 no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 16 pacientes cuja idade média foi 49 anos, com predomínio do sexo feminino (62,5%. O período médio entre início da doença e diagnóstico foi de 1,6 ano. A forma clínica predominante foi a ulcerativa (81,25%, e 87,5% das lesões localizavam-se nos membros inferiores. O sintoma mais freqüentemente associado foi dor local (37,5%. Doze pacientes (66% apresentaram doenças sistêmicas concomitantes. Doença de Crohn, diabetes e colagenoses foram as principais comorbidades encontradas. O tratamento mais utilizado foi a corticoterapia sistêmica, associada ou não a outros medicamentos (50%, tendo 43,75% dos pacientes apresentado recidiva do quadro. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados avaliados condizem com os encontrados na literatura. As doenças associadas mais prevalentes foram ileíte regional, diabetes melitus e afecções do tecido conectivo. O tratamento mais utilizado incluiu corticoterapia sistêmica. A maioria dos pacientes apresentou cicatrização completa , porém o número de recidivas foi elevado.BACKGROUND: Pyoderma gangrenosum is an infrequent neutrophilic dermatosis. It presents more frequently with painful cutaneous ulcers, with undermined violaceous borders. The legs are most commonly affected. Etiology is uncertain, although there is an association with other diseases in 50% of

  3. O gênero Phacus (Euglenophyceae em lago urbano subtropical, no Jardim Botânico de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The genus Phacus (Euglenophyceae, in a subtropical urban lake, in the Jardim Botânico of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o gênero Phacus Duj. do "Lago da Ponte", localizado no Jardim Botânico de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, a 30°03'05"S e 51°10'34"W. O estudo do "Lago da Ponte" tem como objetivo a identificação de Phacus provenientes de 24 amostras coletadas com rede de plâncton, em duas margens do lago, com periodicidade mensal, de julho/2007 a junho/2008. Ainda, realizar a comparação da riqueza desse gênero nesse ambiente depois de sua transformação de banhado para lago, assim como, fornecer a amplitude das variáveis ambientais de ocorrência de cada táxon. Da análise qualitativa resultou o registro de 22 táxons em nível específico e infraespecífico, distribuídos em 18 variedades típicas, três variedades que não as típicas da espécie e uma forma que não a típica. Phacus brachykentron Pochm. e P. stokesii Lemm. são citados pela primeira vez no Rio Grande do Sul. Os táxons mais freqüentes foram: Phacus brachykentron Pochm., P. longicauda (Ehr. Duj., P. hamatus Pochm, P. orbicularis Hübner e P. raciborskii Drez.var. longus Conf. A comparação da riqueza do banhado versus lago, segundo o índice de Sörensen, indicou baixa similaridade entre estes biótopos aquáticos, ocorrendo maior riqueza de Phacus no sistema lago.This study focused on the genus Phacus Duj. of "Lago da Ponte," located in the Jardim Botânico of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (30°03'05"S and 51°10'34"W. The study of "Lago da Ponte" aimed to identify Phacus species from 24 samples collected monthly (from July/2007 to June/2008 using a plankton net along two margins of the lake. Other goals of this study were to compare the richness of this genus in this environment because it was transformed from a swamp to a lake, and to supply with the amplitude of the environmental variable of occurrence of each taxon. Based on the qualitative analysis, 22 specific and infra-specific taxa were recorded. These were distributed in 18 typical varieties

  4. Estudo sobre as características de usuários de drogas injetáveis que buscam atendimento em Porto Alegre, RS A study on the characteristics of intravenous drug users who seek treatment in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Flavio Pechansky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O estudo descreve uma amostra de usuários de droga injetável (UDI que buscam atendimento na cidade de Porto Alegre, a fim de conhecer melhor os métodos de exposição ao vírus HIV, gerando hipóteses para estudos futuros e diretrizes para programas preventivos. Métodos: Foram entrevistados 142 UDI, utilizando uma entrevista estruturada para levantamento de fatores de risco. Foram analisadas características demográficas e das relações sexuais, utilizando-se como desfechos de interesse o status sorológico e as características do uso de drogas, tais como freqüência e tipo de droga utilizada. Resultados: 97% dos indivíduos havia injetado cocaína (8,6 dias do mês, 9,3 vezes por dia e usado álcool e maconha no mês prévio à entrevista; apenas 44 apresentavam testes HIV (54,5% soropositivos. Quase 90% haviam recebido aconselhamento para HIV, porém a mudança de condutas aconteceu somente numa parcela dos casos, sem informação adequada sobre limpeza de seringas; 53% dos indivíduos relataram compartilhamento de equipamento prévio à coleta de dados, utilizando 16,2 vezes a mesma seringa. Os entrevistados eram sexualmente ativos e predominantemente heterossexuais, com uma média de sete relações por mês; 44% não usou camisinha nas relações sexuais e 48% afirmou ter utilizado pelo menos álcool antes ou durante as relações. Conclusões: Os achados sugerem que o aconselhamento é importante para modificar hábitos dos UDI mas não contempla necessidades de usuários recreacionais. A limpeza de seringas é infreqüente, talvez produto da pouca informação sobre práticas de risco. Os UDI são sexualmente ativos, heterossexuais e na maioria têm poucos parceiros, o que pode justificar o baixo uso de preservativos nessa amostra. É possível que o uso freqüente de drogas antes ou durante as relações contribua para tal fato.Introduction: This paper presents data on a sample of inner city injection drug users

  5. INSTITUIÇÕES GOVERNAMENTAIS E PARTICIPAÇÃO CIDADÃ: FINANÇAS PÚBLICAS INCLUSIVAS EM PORTO ALEGRE - BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Schneider; Marcello Baquero

    2009-01-01

    A recurrent theme in political science links new forms of participatory democracy to citizens’ attitudes and their willingness to abide with their obligation to pay taxes. In this paper we examine how the citizens of Porto Alegre - Brazil view tax paying, from the perspective of material and non-material benefits. Usingsurvey data collected in Porto Alegre in 2003 with 687 interviews, we find that, overall poor sectors show a tendency to support tax paying because of the material benefits, wh...

  6. Mapeando Programas de Redução de Danos da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre / Mapping harm reduction programs in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Quadros Rigoni (Rafaela); H.C. Nardi (Henrique)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study mapped and described 11 harm reduction interventions/programs in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2004-2006. Mapping was based on interviews and analysis of available documents and comparison with a previous study with data from 2003. We a

  7. do município de Porto Alegre-RS

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    Márcia Cançado Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was evaluated of self-perceptions and knowledge about oral health of deprived population, and previously the introduction of an Oral Health Promotion Program. It is about a cross-sectional and descriptive study made with people who go to the Health Basic Units (HBU Timbaúva, located in Mário Quintana’s Quarter, in Porto Alegre municipality - RS, in 2007, with data collected from a questionnaire structured with closed questions, previously tested in a pilot study. The questionnaires were filled by 185 parents or responsibles of children enrolled in the school of the community. The results showed that just 31, 98% went already to the dentist because of tooth pain. About the self perception linked to the oral health, 63, 78% had already experience of tooth decay, 40% refer gingival blood to brush and 32, 43% had already a permanent tooth extracted. 95,13% said that they have a toothbrush at home and 9,73% share this instrument of oral hygiene with the family. About the usage of dentifrice 98, 37% use it and 50, 81% eat sweets. Therefore, strategies of health promotion should be based on previous knowledge and self-perceptions of health in order to the actions in education in oral health may generate better health conditions.

  8. A não aceitação da gravidez e o desenvolvimento de crianças com quatro anos de idade no bairro Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Unwanted pregnancy and children development at four years of age in Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil No aceptación del embarazo y el desarrollo infantil a los cuatro años de edad en Vila Jardim, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Angela Helena Marin

    2012-12-01

    úmero de filhos, está associado com as dificuldades de desenvolvimento da criança, sendo sensível a intervenções terapêuticas e/ou programas de prevenção.

    Objective: To investigate how the unplanned and unaccepted pregnancy may affect children’s development and associated demographic and relational factors. Method: 82 women who did not plan their pregnancies participated. They are part of a larger study that follows all children born in public hospitals, from November 1998 to December 1999 in a Porto Alegre neighborhood, in South of Brazil. They were divided in two groups: 73 accepted the pregnancy after the fourth month and nine did not accept it. Participants were interviewed on: the pregnancy and birth; the couple’s relationship; the impact of the child’s birth for their lives and to the child’s fathers, as well as to the family of origin. Children were evaluated at age four using Denver II test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups: children of mothers that did not accept the pregnancy had developmental difficulties in language and fine motor coordination. These mothers had significantly more couple relationship problems and more children. Conclusions: children of unaccepted pregnancies showed evidences of more developmental problems in language and fine motor coordination than children of mothers who did not plan but accepted their pregnancies by the fourth month. This finding emphasizes the importance of health professionals to look for acceptance or not of pregnancy during prenatal care - as well as the quality of the couple’s relationship and the number of children - since these factors are associated with difficulties of child development, which may be sensitive to therapeutic intervention and/or prevention programs

  9. Consumer behaviour towards organic food in porto alegre: an application of the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia Hoppe; Luciana Marques Vieira; Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental...

  10. Investigação da presença de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer e em E. triandra Tul. (Ephedraceae coletadas em Porto Alegre/RS Investigation of the presence of ephedrines in Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer and E. triandra Tul. (Ephedraceae collected in Porto Alegre/RS

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    Bruna de S. Boff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de Ephedra tweediana Fisch & C.A. Meyer, coletadas de populações nativas da Reserva Biológica do Lami José Lutzenberger (Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, e amostras de Ephedra triandra Tul., obtidas de plantas cultivadas em Porto Alegre/RS, foram extraídas com acetona, derivatizadas com ciclohexanona e analisadas por CG/EM. Para verificação da eficiência da metodologia, além das amostras de Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra, foram analisadas cinco amostras comerciais de Ephedra, de procedências distintas, cedidas por farmácias de manipulação locais. Os resultados encontrados indicam a ausência de efedrinas em Ephedra tweediana e E. triandra e presença de efedrina e/ou pseudoefedrina nas amostras comerciais.Samples of Ephedra tweediana, collected from native populations occurring in the Reserva Biológica do Lami José Lutzenberger (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, and from cultivated plants of Ephedra triandra were submitted to extraction with acetone, derivatized with cyclohexanone and analyzed by GC/MS. In order to verify the efficiency of the methodology, besides Ephedra tweediana and E. triandra, samples of five commercial Ephedra extracts were analyzed, from distinct origins, get up from local drugstores. The results showed the absence of ephedrines in Ephedra tweediana and E. triandra, and the presence of ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine in commercial samples.

  11. Musgos (Bryophyta) na Ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, PA, Brasil Mosses (Bryophyta) in Trambioca Island, Barcarena, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Paula da Silva Souza; Regina Célia Lobato Lisboa

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizado o inventário dos musgos em diferentes ecossistemas da Ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, PA. Foram encontradas 40 espécies, pertencentes a 20 gêneros e 13 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Calymperaceae (12 spp.), Sematophyllaceae (6 spp.) e Leucobryaceae (5 spp.), as quais destacaram-se também quanto ao número de indivíduos. As espécies mais comuns foram Sematophyllum subsimplex (Hedw.) Mitt, Calymperes erosum Müll. Hal., Pilosium chlorophyllum (Horn...

  12. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    SILVIA R. MEDEIROS

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  13. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Neves, Mikaelle S; Santos, Rudã F B; Souza, Natalino C; Do Couto, Márcia V S; Lopes, Josiane N S; Diniz, Daniel G; Eiras, Jorge C

    2013-09-01

    A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias,Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata) were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish. PMID:23903566

  14. The political culture in Porto Alegre/RS: the PT and PMDB sympathizers

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    Bianca de Freitas Linhares

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many and different approaches used in Political Science to work with political parties, and most of them with an institutionalist character. In order to broaden the discussion in another direction, this article aims to verify if there are differences of political culture between voters sympathizers of political parties in the city of Porto Alegre/RS. This research helps in understanding the reasons that lead some parties to have greater mobilization of supporters in certain times. For this purpose, data are used from a survey conducted in Porto Alegre/RS in 2005. These data represent the tripod: interest-confidence-political participation. It is the assumption that voters of the left parties have a profile more cooperative, more confidence and interest in politics, hypothesis which is confirmed.

  15. Surveying neotropical social wasps: an evaluation of methods in the "Ferreira Penna" research station (ECFPn, in Caxiuanã, PA, Brazil (Hym., Vespidae, Polistinae

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    Orlando Tobias Silveira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of social wasps was made in the area of the "Ferreira Penna" Research Station (ECFPn in Caxiuanã, PA, Brazil. Traditional collecting methods as the use of Malaise traps and the search for individuals and colonies of wasps along trails in the forest and by river margins, were applied in a more systematized fashion. Seventy-nine species belonging to 18 genera were discovered within a discontinuous period of 52 days of collecting. Angiopolybia pallens, Polybia liliacea, and several Agelaia species were the most frequently collected species. Active search for wasps in the forest and by river margins was far more efficient than Malaise traps regarding the discovery of polistine species.O artigo apresenta e discute os métodos empregados e resultados de um levantamento das vespas sociais da Estação Científica Ferreira Penna (ECFPn, em Caxiuanã, PA, Brasil. Métodos tradicionais, como armadilhas de Malaise e a procura ativa por indivíduos e colônias de vespas em trilhas e pelas margens de rios, foram usados segundo um esquema de amostragem mais sistematizado do que é usual em tais levantamentos, com o fim de produzir dados mais facilmente analisáveis e comparáveis. Setenta e nove espécies de 18 gêneros de Polistinae foram registradas num período de 52 dias descontínuos de trabalho de campo. Angiopolybia pallens, Polybia liliacea e algumas espécies de Agelaia foram as mais freqüentes. A procura ativa pelas vespas no interior da floresta e pelas margens de rios foi muito mais eficiente em respeito à descoberta de espécies, do que as armadilhas de Malaise.

  16. Evaluation of the potential of water aquifers located in the field of production of Fazenda Alegre, in the municipality of Jaguare, northern state of Espirito Santo, Brazil: a new horizon for the rational and sustainable use of groundwater by the local community; Avaliacao do potencial hidrico dos aquiferos situados no campo de producao de Fazenda Alegre, no municipio de Jaguare, norte do estado do Espirito Santo, Brasil: um novo horizonte para o uso racional e sustentado da agua subterranea pela comunidade local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Claudio A.; Rodriguez, Sergio G.H. [PETROBRAS, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio

    2004-07-01

    Petroleo Brasileiro S.A - PETROBRAS, through Espirito Santo Business Unit, has been intensifying the utilization of underwater on its onshore production activities, where the utilization of water or steam injection techniques on the reservoir rock become necessary, aiming at supplemental hydrocarbons recovery in the mature fields or heavy oil fields, such as Fazenda Alegre field. The hydrogeologic study of the groundwater potential appears as a tool capable to improve the planning and utilization of the hydro resources of the region. The main tool used was the geophysics investigation of electric resistivity technique able to investigate aquifers as deep as 200 m. The drilling of the first wells selected proves the expectations according to the groundwater potential resources of the area. The maximum rate water obtained before that was about 30 m{sup 3}/h. Considering deeper wells (180 m), which incorporate news aquifers, it practically doubles, achieving values in a set of 60 m{sup 3}/h. The characterization of these recent discoveries/aquifers is a sign of news horizons for the local society, especially concerning the possibility of giving support in agricultural projects and rural communities supply concomitant with the process of petroleum projects expected in Fazenda Alegre helping thus, the sustainable development in the areas surrounding the project. (author)

  17. Produtividade da cultivar de uva de mesa niagara rosada sobre diferentes porta-enxertos, em Monte Alegre do Sul-SP Yield of the niagara rosada table grape cultivar grafted on different rootstocks, in Monte Alegre do Sul-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento da cultivar de uva de mesa Niagara Rosada enxertada sobre diferentes porta-enxertos, um experimento foi conduzido na região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP, durante seis anos consecutivos. Os porta-enxertos estudados foram 'Schwarzmann', IAC 572 'Jales', IAC 313 'Tropical', 'Traviú', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Kober 5BB'. Os porta-enxertos IAC-313 'Tropical', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Traviú' são recomendados para a uva de mesa 'Niagara Rosada' na região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP. A cultivar Niagara Rosada sobre o porta-enxerto 'Kober 5BB' teve menor produtividade em comparação com os demais porta-enxertos avaliados, não sendo recomendado para a região de Monte Alegre do Sul-SP.With the objective of studying the behavior of the Niagara Rosada table grape cultivar grafted on different rootstocks, a trial was carried out in the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP, Brazil, by six consecutive years. The rootstocks studied were 'Schwarzmann', IAC 572 'Jales', IAC 313 'Tropical', 'Traviú', IAC 766 'Campinas' e 'Kober 5BB'. It was verified from the results obtained, that the rootstocks IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 766 'Campinas' and 'Traviú' are recommend for the 'Niagara Rosada' for the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP. The Niagara Rosada grafted on the rootstock 'Kober 5BB' had a minor yield per vine compared with the others rootstocks, and can not be recommended for the region of Monte Alegre do Sul-SP.

  18. Evaluation of child health care in the Family Health Program, in the southern region of Porto Alegre, Brazil Evaluación de la atención a la salud infantil del Programa Saúde da Família en la región sur de Porto Alegre, Brasil Evaluación de la atención a la salud infantil del Programa Saúde da Família en la región sur de Porto Alegre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erno Harzheim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    La atención primaria de salud (APS busca optimizar la salud y promover la equidad. Es definida, a través de SUS atributos, como el primer nivel de asistencia, caracterizándose por la continuidad e integralidad de la atención, la coordinación de la asistencia, la atención centrada en la familia, la orientación comunitaria y la aptitud cultural. En la literatura, se evidencia una creciente asociación entre sus atributos y una mayor efectividad y equidad de la atención sanitaria. Así, investigaciones que respondan preguntas complementarias sobre el binomio proceso/efectividad de la APS presentan relevancia internacional. En Brasil, desde 1994, el Ministerio de la Salud inició una estrategia de multiplicación de los servicios de atención básica llamada Programa Saúde da Familia (PSF. Esta estrategia, basada en los atributos de la APS, pretende complementar la red de servicios públicos ya existente, las Unidades Sanitarias (USs, aumentando el acceso AL Sistema Único de Saúde para la población más vulnerable. En 2002, el PSF ya atendía cerca de 30% de la población, más de 50 millones de personas, y seguía creciendo. Resulta importante, así, evaluar la extensión de los atributos de APS en los servicios de atención básica brasileños y su relación con la efectividad de la atención. Para ello fue necesario validar uma herramienta de medida de la extensión de los atributos de la APS, el Primary Care Assesment Tool (PCATool, para su uso em los servicios de atención a la salud infantil en Brasil. Además, se ha comparado la extensión de estos atributos entre El PSF y las USs de Porto Alegre, municipio del sur de Brasil, y la relación entre estos atributos y la satisfacción de los cuidadores de los niños que consultaban en estos servicios, la salud percibida por los cuidadores y la cobertura de actividades preventivas realizadas. Se ha realizado estudio transversal, a través de encuestas estructuradas incluyendo El

  19. Porto Alegre, un modelo de presupuesto participativo

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Rendón Corona

    2004-01-01

    The paper exposes the evolution of participatory budget as a new kind of polity based upon direct participation and a pyramid of social representation which share governance along with municipal authorities. Both actors decide about public policies and municipal budget under a criteria of distributive justice. The experience of participatory budget in Porto Alegre opens up the debate about the construction of a model that retrieves diverse Brazilian and Latin American experiences, which main ...

  20. Report: citizen participation as a part of integrated solid waste management: Porto Alegre case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2007-06-01

    This study presents the effects of citizen participation on integrated solid waste management. Porto Alegre was chosen as the area of study since its system is a good example for developing countries, based on the partnership between local government and the former scavengers' association that implements selective collection in the city. A life-cycle approach was used to estimate environmental loadings and economic costs based on solid waste generation, and a survey assessment tool was used to analyse social aspects. The results showed a decrease in environmental and economic impacts in the current situation, allowing Porto Alegre to have one of the most affordable integrated solid waste management systems in Brazil. The survey assessment pointed out that public campaign changed the perceptions and practices of most of Porto Alegre's citizens regarding solid waste management. On the other hand, it also pointed out that citizens need more education to increase their participation. Therefore, more research is needed to increase cooperation among all stakeholders, improve citizen participation, and consequently, further decrease the environmental impacts and economic costs. PMID:17612329

  1. Terapia anti-hipertensiva utilizada por pacientes idosos de Porto Alegre/RS, Brasil = Antihypertensive therapy used by elderly patients from Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeter, Guilherme

    2006-01-01

    Conclusões: Os diuréticos, inibidores da ECA e betabloqueadores foram os anti-hipertensivos mais utilizados. Muitas vezes o usuário comete erros na medicação, o que pode ser resolvido com uma assistência correta a esse paciente. Diante da prevalência da hipertensão entre os idosos, observa-se a necessidade de uma maior atenção dos profissionais de saúde a esses pacientes

  2. Omeprazole use at University Hospital in Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil / Uso de omeprazol en el hospital universitario de Porto Alegre-RS (Brasil / Uso de omeprazol em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre-RS (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrone FB

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bleeding are important cause of hospital admissions and death, being relevant in critically weak patients and those with arthritis and osteoarthritis using NSAIDs. Omepazole is the first choice drug for prophylaxis of stress ulcer and NSAID complications prevention, because it prevent not only duodenal but also gastric ulcer and eradication of H pylori used with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of use, indications and characteristics of population using omeprazole. A qualitative and quantitative drug utilization study was done. In-hospital adults at a University Hospital constituted study population. From 91 patients studied, the majority suffered from cancer (24.2%. Average length of stay and omeprazole use time was 20 and 12 days, respectively. Abdominal surgery team was the higher omeprazole prescriber, and main indication was post-surgery. Although most of omeprazole uses was acceptable, those could be better evaluated. T could be useful implementing a pharmaceutical care program and creating a omeprazole use guideline with the objective of prescribing it in a more rationale and adequate way for each patient.

  3. Omeprazole use at University Hospital in Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil) / Uso de omeprazol en el hospital universitario de Porto Alegre-RS (Brasil) / Uso de omeprazol em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre-RS (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone FB; Munari L; Hart D

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal bleeding are important cause of hospital admissions and death, being relevant in critically weak patients and those with arthritis and osteoarthritis using NSAIDs. Omepazole is the first choice drug for prophylaxis of stress ulcer and NSAID complications prevention, because it prevent not only duodenal but also gastric ulcer and eradication of H pylori used with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of use, indications and characteristics of population using...

  4. Efeitos da participação em um Grupo de Coluna sobre as dores musculoesqueléticas, qualidade de vida e funcionalidade dos usuários de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de Porto Alegre - Brasil Effects of participation in a Back School on musculoskeletal pain, quality of life and functionality of users of a Unidade Básica de Saúde from Porto Alegre- Brazil

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    Raquel Gonçalves Borges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do Grupo de Coluna ministrado em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde de Porto Alegre. Foram avaliados e reavaliados 29 usuários, os quais participaram do Grupo de Coluna. Foi utilizada a Escala Visual Analógica para avaliar a intensidade da dor, o questionário Oswestry Disability Índex para avaliar a capacidade funcional, e o questionário Short-Form Health Survey - SF-36 para avaliar a qualidade de vida. Os resultados, obtidos a partir do teste de Wilcoxon (a=0,05, demonstraram a eficácia do Grupo de Coluna na melhora da intensidade das dores musculoesqueléticas (pThis study was carried out in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the Back Group project, in a Porto Alegre’s Basic Health Unit. We evaluated and re-evaluated 29 users before and after the participated in a Back Group. It’s were used the Visual Analogue Scale to assess pain, the Oswestry Disability Index to assess the functionality, and the questionnaire Item Short-Form Health Survey-SF-36 to assess the quality of life. The results, obtained from the Wilcoxon test (a=0.05, demonstrated the effectiveness of the Back Group in the improvement of the intensity of musculoskeletal pain (p<0.05, in the physical functioning (p=0.005, in the quality of life in the functional capacity (p=0.001, by the physical limitations (p=0.001, pain (p=0.001, vitality (p=0.004, emotional limitation (p=0.026 and mental health (p=0.010 dominions. It is concluded that the Back Group was effectiveness in the improved of the pain, function and quality of life’s users.

  5. Adequacy of escolar curriculum for riverine population’s peculiarity: the influence of harvesting of açaí fruit in island of Combu, Belém-PA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Roseane Rodrigues Siqueira; Simey Thury Vieira Fisch

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to analyze the reasons for absenteeism and school retention of the children of Riverine that harvest açaí fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) on Combu Island, City of Belém - PA, Brazil and to suggest ways to minimize these problems in the island’s primary schools. It was found that the harvesting of açaí is not the only cause of school dropout but also scholastic curriculum guidelines that are geared towards an urban reality, disconnected from the economic reality of...

  6. Prevalência de sintomas de asma e tratamento de crianças e adolescentes de 2 a 14 anos no Campus Aproximado da PUCRS Prevalence of asthma symptoms and treatment of children and adolescents from 2 to 14 years of age in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasília Itália C. S. Ache

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas décadas tem havido aumento da prevalência da asma. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de sintomas de asma em crianças e adolescentes de 2 a 14 anos em Porto Alegre (RS, relacionando-a com o perfil socioeconômico, tratamento e hábito de fumar intradomiciliar. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal em que foram entrevistadas todas as famílias atendidas em junho de 2000. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas de asma foi de 49,5%. Em 66,8% das famílias a renda era inferior a quatro salários mínimos e em mais de 50% a escolaridade materna e paterna era menor que cinco anos. Em 98,5% não havia utilização de tratamento preventivo para asma. Nas 174 famílias estudadas 38,7% das mães, 43,7% dos pais e 32,7% de ambos eram fumantes. Houve associação entre as seguintes variáveis: exposição ao fumo intradomiciliar e número de crises de asma no último ano (p = 0,02; RR = 2,9; IC: 1,1 - 4,5; escolaridade materna e número de crises no último ano (p = 0,03; RR = 2,03; IC: 1,01 - 4,19; aglomeração e número de crises no último ano entre as crianças expostas ao fumo (p = 0,04; RR = 2,7; IC: 1,4 - 5,1; hospitalização e número de crises no último ano (p = 0,004; RR = 1,46; IC: 1,15 -1,86; hospitalização e aglomeração (p = 0,03; RR = 1,47; IC: 1,15 -1,86. Nos menores de cinco anos, houve associação entre fumo materno e número de crises no último ano (p = 0,03; RR = 1,79; IC: 1,04 - 3,08. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de sintomas de asma foi alta. A comunidade estudada é limitada do ponto de vista socioeconômico e não trata adequadamente a enfermidade, o que demonstra necessidade de atendimento priorizado, normatizado e com insumos e processos avaliativos para controle da doença.BACKGROUND: In recent decades, the prevalence of asthma has increased. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children and adolescents from 2 to 14 years of age living in Porto Alegre (in the state of Rio Grande

  7. Perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de câncer bucal atendidos no Hospital Santa Rita, Porto Alegre/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Emanuele Werner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient's records of Hospital Santa Rita (Porto Alegre/Brazil with diagnosis of mouth cancer in the year 2005 were consulted. The studied variables seek to know social, economic, and demographic data and habits related to the population, as well as information related to characteristics of wound, evolution and treatment. From the 65 records revised, 96,29% were cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Some data were found eventually related in the records, in a way that associations between the variables of the study couldn¿t be established. The epidemiologic profi le found was male patient, 51 to 60 years old, from capital and metropolitan region, showing tongue cancer with up to 6 months evolution, diagnosed as grade II squamous cell carcinoma, being treated with the surgery and chemotherapy combination.

  8. Innovaciones en la gestión del desarrollo local: la experiencia de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Suzana MOURA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo versa sobre las perspectivas de gestión del desarrollo local en el municipio de Porto Alegre en Brasil, donde se vienen desarrollando estrategias de democratización de carácter innovador en lo que se refiere a las relaciones entre el gobierno y la sociedad civil. El análisis crítico del discurso y de algunas de las iniciativas tornadas por el gobierno que se hace en este trabajo ponen en evidencia las posibilidades y los límites de la acción local en materia de desarrollo económico. Con base en la literatura existente, se discute el activismo democrático y el estilo de gerencia aquí denominada "emprendedurismo" competitivo como tendencias innovadoras en la gestión local de los 90. A través de algunas datos empíricos, se discuten las bases de estrategia de desarrollo local del municipio y los factores que potencian y limitan el proceso.ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the prospecta of local development management in the Municipality of Porto Alegre, Brazil. This city's council has been developing new strategies of democratization in relation to the articulation between the government and civil society. The critical analysis of the discourse and of some of the government's proposals evidences the possibilities and limits of local actions related to economic development. Based upon the current literature on this topic, the article debates the democratic activism and the competitive enterprise as tendencies of innovation in the local management of the 90s. Empirical information about the Municipality of Porto Alegre and the bases of its local development strategy are given in order to discuss the factors that facilitate or difficult the process.

  9. Entre Aldeia Kaingang ou Parque Natural: o processo de configuração de um conflito socioambiental na disputa pelo Morro do Osso, Porto Alegre, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Fuhr; Cleyton Henrique Gerhardt; Rumi Regina Kubo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the socio-environmental conflicts around the logics of occupation at Morro do Osso (Bone’s Hill) in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Disputes involving different types of appropriation, use and significance of this area have been motivating actions of quite heterogeneous institutions and social organizations. Since the late 70’s, environmentalists who were concerned about the growing urbanization mobilized to ensure the hill’s preservation, a process that culminated on the creatio...

  10. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological advances by newly industrialized countries (NICs) have become a central concern of the recent literature on the political economy of development. Striking a fatal blow to dependency thinking, in so far as it had diagnosed a structural barrier to technological development, these countries have absorbed foreign technology and have developed a very impressive domestic technological capacity. Moreover, their exports have evolved from a traditional reliance on raw materials and unprocessed goods to include increasingly sophisticated manufactured goods and technology itself. The capabilities, motivations, and structures behind nuclear exports must be examined in light of these secular trends. This paper reports on this exploratory analysis of the country's emergence as a nuclear supplier which focuses on six major areas: the balance of motivations and constraints underlying Brazil's nuclear export potential; areas of extant capabilities that would allow the country to play a significant role as a nuclear supplier; formal and informal structures beneath nuclear export policy; patterns of nuclear trade as reflected in past transactions; prospects for continuity and change; generalizability of findings to other emerging suppliers

  11. Estudo exploratório da utilização de saw palmetto no tratamento da hiperplasia benigna da próstata por urologistas de Porto Alegre Investigation study concerning the saw palmetto use for the benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment by urologists in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização de fitoterápicos a base de saw palmetto na terapia sintomática da hiperplasia benigna da próstata (HBP por médicos urologistas da cidade de Porto Alegre. Consistiu em um estudo transversal, exploratório, por meio de entrevista semi-estruturada aplicada a urologistas de Porto Alegre. A amostra foi obtida utilizando catálogo do plano de saúde UNIMED- Porto Alegre. A randomização foi realizada através de sistemática aleatória, sendo sorteados trinta e cinco médicos, dos quais 21 foram selecionados para realização da pesquisa através de questionário. Todos os urologistas entrevistados avaliam e tratam pacientes com hiperplasia benigna da próstata. O saw palmetto não foi citado como terapia medicamentosa de 1ª ou 2ª escolhas no tratamento da HBP. O grupo farmacológico mais freqüentemente utilizado para o tratamento da HBP foi ∝-bloqueadores. Mais da metade dos médicos entrevistados relata ter conhecimento sobre a utilização do saw palmetto, principalmente através de artigos científicos. Os resultados indicam que o saw palmetto não é prescrito pelos urologistas em Porto Alegre, todavia a maior parte destes profissionais tem conhecimento sobre sua utilização.The aim of this work was to assess the prescription of saw palmetto phytomedicines for improving symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by urologists in Porto Alegre (Brazil. The study was transversal and exploratory consisting of a semi-structured interview with urologists. The sample was obtained from the UNIMED Catalog - Porto Alegre (Brazil. The randomization was made by chance, being selected thirty-five physicians. The first twenty-one who accepted to participate were interviewed. All the interviewed urologists treat patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The saw palmetto was not mentioned as the first or second choice for treating BPH. The α-blockers were the most mentioned pharmacological

  12. Manometria esofágica: limpeza e desinfecção do equipamento com glutaraldeído. Protocolo do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS Esophageal manometry: equipment cleaning and disinfection with glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana MÜLLER

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Racional - A necessidade de desinfecção e esterilização apropriada de materiais reutilizáveis, com a finalidade de evitar infecções cruzadas, tem sido enfatizada por inúmeras publicações. Assim como os endoscópios, os cateteres de manometria esofágica são considerados materiais semicríticos e devem estar livres de microorganismos. Objetivo - Padronizar o processo de limpeza e desinfecção do material e equipamento de manometria esofágica no Serviço de Manometria do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, RS, a fim de garantir a segurança dos pacientes na reutilização de materiais semicríticos, baseado em protocolos internacionais e de acordo com a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Material e Métodos - Foi utilizado detergente enzimático para a limpeza do cateter, seguido de imersão em glutaraldeído a 2% por 20 minutos para desinfecção de alto nível. O reservatório foi armazenado limpo e seco. Foram consultados os protocolos utilizados pelo Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, França e pela Sociedade Americana de Enfermeiras do Trato Gastrointestinal e Associados. Conclusões - A desinfecção de alto nível com glutaraldeído a 2%, precedido de limpeza com detergente enzimático, constitui técnica segura e simples para evitar transmissão de infecções cruzadas no material e equipamento de manometria esofágica, devendo ser realizada após cada procedimento. Os transdutores, pelas suas características, devem ser reesterilizados em óxido de etileno a cada 6 meses. Os profissionais envolvidos nesta área devem trabalhar conjuntamente com a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, conhecer normas e portarias do País e manterem-se atualizados quanto a novos processos de esterilização de materiais oferecidos no mercado.Background - Many publications have emphasized the need of proper cleaning, disinfection and sterilization process for reused materials

  13. Detection of HTLV-IIa in blood donors in an urban area of the Amazon Region of Brazil (Belém, PA

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    Ishak R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The human lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II are members of a group of mammalian retroviruses with similar biological properties, and blood transfusion is an important route of transmission. HTLV-I is endemic in a number of different geographical areas and is associated with several clinical disorders. HTLV-II is endemic in several Indian groups of the Americas and intravenous drug abusers in North and South America, Europe and Southeast Asia. During the year of 1995, all blood donors tested positive to HTLV-I/II in the State Blood Bank (HEMOPA, were directed to a physician and to the Virus Laboratory at the Universidade Federal do Pará for counselling and laboratory diagnosis confirmation. Thirty-five sera were tested by an enzyme immune assay, and a Western blot that discriminates HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection. Two HTLV-II positive samples were submitted to PCR analysis of pX and env genomic region, and confirmed to be of subtype IIa. This is the first detection in Belém of the presence of HTLV-IIa infection among blood donors. This result emphasizes that HTLV-II is also present in urban areas of the Amazon region of Brazil and highlights the need to include screening tests that are capable to detect antibodies for both types of HTLV.

  14. Qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre/RS Microbiological and physical-chemical quality of orange juices commercialised in public streets of Porto Alegre city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla K. RUSCHEL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de sucos de laranja não pasteurizados vem aumentando nos últimos anos na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS. Com o intuito de avaliar a qualidade desses produtos, análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas em 52 amostras de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram 44,23% (n=23 das amostras, em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Legislação Federal vigente, sendo os bolores e leveduras encontrados em níveis inapropriados em todas as amostras reprovadas. Coliformes fecais foram encontrados acima das quantidades permitidas em 5,7% (n=3 das amostras e Salmonella cholerasuis foi identificada em uma das amostras analisadas. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram 89,47% das amostras em desacordo com pelo menos um dos parâmetros analisados. Com base nestes resultados, sugerem-se maiores cuidados nas boas práticas de fabricação (BPF, principalmente na higiene pessoal de manipuladores e sanificação de máquinas extratoras.The commercialisation of nonpasteurized orange juice has been increased in recent years in Porto Alegre city, in South Brazil. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the quality of this product. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in 52 samples of orange juice purchased in the streets of Porto Alegre city. The microbiological analysis demonstrated that 44,23% (n=23 of the samples did not agree with Federal Regulations. All the reproved samples presented inappropriate levels of molds and yeasts. Fecal coliforms were found in 5,7% (n=3 of the samples, while Salmonella Cholerasuis was isolated from one sample. The physical-chemical analysis demonstrated that 89,47% of the samples were in discordance with parameters established by Federal Regulations. Based on the results, good manufacturing practices (GMP, specially on personnel hygienic habits, and equipment sanitization are necessary.

  15. INSTITUIÇÕES GOVERNAMENTAIS E PARTICIPAÇÃO CIDADÃ: FINANÇAS PÚBLICAS INCLUSIVAS EM PORTO ALEGRE - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Schneider

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A recurrent theme in political science links new forms of participatory democracy to citizens’ attitudes and their willingness to abide with their obligation to pay taxes. In this paper we examine how the citizens of Porto Alegre - Brazil view tax paying, from the perspective of material and non-material benefits. Usingsurvey data collected in Porto Alegre in 2003 with 687 interviews, we find that, overall poor sectors show a tendency to support tax paying because of the material benefits, while middle sectors also have supporting attitudes, but for non-material benefits. Through the use of logit regression we find empirical evidence of a connection between trust in participatory budget and citizenssupport for the municipal government.

  16. Evaluation of Forest Fire Danger Indexes for Eucalypt Plantations in Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa Alves Secundo White; Benjamin Leonardo Alves White; Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    A Forest Fire Danger Index is a valuable tool in forest fire prevention and firefight because it grades fire occurrence possibility on a daily basis. Six Fire Danger Indexes were tested for accuracy based on forest fire occurrence in eucalyptus plantations of the north coast of Bahia, Brazil. They are Angstron, Nesterov, Telicyn Logarithmic Index, Monte Alegre, Rodríguez and Moretti, and Modified Monte Alegre. The results were analyzed using two parameters of the Heidke Skill Score test: Skil...

  17. Trabajadores, economía de guerra y huelga general. Porto Alegre, 1942- 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Schneider, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 1942-1945, los trabajadores porto-alegrenses se encontraban inmersos en una economía que podríamos llamar de guerra. Esa economía tuvo implicancias en su calidad de vida, debido a la carestía, especulación y pérdida progresiva del salario real. Asimismo, si bien desde la implementación del Estado Novo en 1937 el gobierno se proponía domesticar a los trabajadores, en 1942, con la intromisión del Brasil en la Segunda Guerra Mundial para lograr la intensificación de la producción, fue recortada la legislación que protegía a los trabajadores. Se pretende a partir del análisis de la escasez de alimentos y aumento del costo de vida, analizar cómo esto afectaba la vida de los trabajadores porto-alegrenses, y a su vez, cómo los trabajadores en 1945 inician un movimiento huelguista en el marco de la crisis del Estado Novo. From 1942 to 1945, the workers of Porto Alegre were immersed in what could be called a war economy. That economy had consequences in their quality of life, given the scarcity, speculation and progressive loss of the real wages. Also, despite the implementation of the Estado Novo in 1937, an attempt to placate the workers; in 1942, with the involvement of Brazil in the Second World War and with the purpose of intensifying production, the legislation that protected workers was whittled down.Considering the information about food shortages and the increase in the cost of living, the impact on the life of the Porto Alegre worker is analyzed, as well as, the manner in which in 1945, the workers started a strike movement in the context of the crisis of the Estado Novo.

  18. Prevalência do consumo de drogas na FEBEM, Porto Alegre Drug use prevalence at FEBEM, Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Ferigolo

    2004-03-01

    já terem utilizado drogas ilícitas.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of drug use among institutionalized children and adolescents; to assess the degree of associated use of illicit drugs with alcohol and tobacco; and to determine which is the gateway drug to illicit drug use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Fundação Estadual do Bem-Estar do Menor, in Porto Alegre (FEBEM Southern Brazil. A questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization to determine prevalence off drug use was answered anonymously by a population of literate minors who were in FEBEM because of delinquency or due to social risk. The analysis aimed to describe the frequency of use of each drug and relate it to gender, age of beginning, and reason of institutionalization. RESULTS: A total of 382 participants answered the questionnaire. The substances most frequently used on an experimental basis were: alcohol (81,3%, tobacco (76,8%, marijuana (69,2%, cocaine (54,6%, inhalants (49,2%, anxiolytic drugs (13,4%, hallucinogens (8,4%, amphetamines (6,5% and barbiturates (2,4%. Overall, around 80% of the respondents reported having used some illicit drug at least once in the past. Licit drugs, like alcohol and tobacco, were used mainly by males, while medicines were used mostly by females. Adolescents with delinquency records showed a significantly higher frequency of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and solvent use. The mean age of beginning was under 12 years for alcohol and tobacco use, under 13 years for marijuana and inhalants, and under 14 years for cocaine. Concomitant use of illicit and licit drugs was found to be high in this population. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of precocious drug use was found among institutionalized children and adolescent, with alcohol and tobacco being used earlier than illicit drugs. Delinquent males were more likely to have used illicit drugs.

  19. Kooperative Planung im Kontext informeller Siedlungen in Porto Alegre, Brasilien

    OpenAIRE

    Zellhuber, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Wie die meisten lateinamerikanischen Großstädte zeichnet sich die Peripherie von Porto Alegre durch ein dynamisches und ungeregeltes Siedlungswachstum in Form von Landbesetzungen und illegalen Parzellierungen aus. Mit Hilfe von Methoden der qualitativen Sozial¬forschung werden anhand einer Fallstudie insbesondere die damit verbundenen städtischen Umweltkonflikte analysiert und deren Einbeziehung in kooperative Planungsverfahren untersucht. Die Prozesse des ungeregelten Siedlungswachstums am S...

  20. Une approche géographique du tourisme intérieur dans un pays émergent : l’exemple du Brésil A geographic approach to domestic tourism in an emerging country: the example of Brazil Uma abordagem geográfica do turismo doméstico num país emergente : o exemplo do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Le Brazidec

    2010-11-01

    country, aims at clarifying the methods of the setting in tourism of places whose site and situation are rather distinct. The first one, localized on the littoral between Florianópolis and Curitiba, constitutes the principal seaside resort of the State of Santa Catarina. The second one is located at 800 meters above sea level, on the plateaus at the north of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul. Despite their similarities in the chronology of their tourist development, Balneário Camboriú was created ex nihilo by the tourist activity whereas Gramado preexisted and was invested by tourism. Especially, their trajectories rather early differed, according to the choices carried out by the local actors. The massification of tourism in Balneário Camboriú contrasts with the rather elitist character of Gramado. Nowadays, one takes part in a touristic conurbation whose spreading out continues, while the other endeavors to build an image of idealized village which one can be described as “disneylandized”. However, in any case, the tourist frequentation maximizes social interactions (real ones or supposed ones clean to satisfy the search of sociability, social distinction and, more generally, otherness of those which go there. This is a universal characteristic of tourist places.O turismo não é mais o privilégio das sociedades ocidentais. O final do século XX foi marcado por uma expansão muito forte dos fluxos turísticos nos países emergentes. Assim como a sua integração crescente na globalização, esta situação nova contribui para fazer evoluir o nosso olhar sobre os países do Sul. Ela nos conduz também a nos interrogar sobre as paisagens, as formas espaciais, os atores e os desafios deste desenvolvimento turístico. Do mesmo modo, põe-se a questão das lógicas de imitação ou, pelo contrário, de distinção entre as práticas dos turistas dos países do Norte e dos “do Sul” . O exemplo do Brasil permite salientar estas evoluções socioeconómicas e estas

  1. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos; Rafael Laitano Lionello

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF) in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been gr...

  2. Prevalência de diabetes mellitus em pacientes renais crônicos sob hemodiálise em Porto Alegre, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Jayme Eduardo Burmeister; Camila Borges Mosmann; Renata Bau; Guido Aranha Rosito

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A causa mais frequente de insuficiência renal crônica (IRC) nos pacientes iniciando tratamento dialítico nos países desenvolvidos é o diabetes mellitus (DM), com índices crescentes e que hoje se aproximam de 50%. No Brasil, os dados disponíveis indicam que essa prevalência é inferior, em torno de 27%, embora venha aumentando. OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência de DM na população adulta de pacientes em tratamento hemodialítico por IRC em Porto Alegre, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transver...

  3. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio R. dos Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  4. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio R. dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Margareth L. Sekiama

    1999-01-01

    A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  5. Consumer behaviour towards organic food in porto alegre: an application of the theory of planned behaviour

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    Alexia Hoppe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental friendly, although being less attractive and more expensive than conventional food. Respondents from the farmers' market represent a specific segment whose values are more oriented toward society. The findings showed an alignment between positive attitude and consumption behaviour among the surveyed consumers. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes more valued by consumers can help retailers to play the role of coordinators of this supply chain, stimulating producers to adhere to organic certification, helping them to upgrade their production practices and improve their income. Consumers are also benefiting from this offer in the market.

  6. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba C. Teixeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA. The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The results showed a decrease for emissions PM, CO, and HC, and a slight increase for NOX. The characterization of atmospheric pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre showed that they are influenced by mobile sources, particularly diesel vehicles. The diagnosis of ratios analysis that was applied to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs, indicated an influence of diesel oil.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar as emissões de alguns poluentes (CO, NOX, HC, SOX e MP na frota diesel devido à adição de biodiesel em diferentes misturas, bem como avaliar as concentrações de poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre (MAPA. A metodologia foi fundamentada em inventários de fontes móveis baseados em relatórios técnicos da US EPA. Em relação à qualidade do ar foram determinado os seguintes parâmetros: PM10, MP2,5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC e HPAs. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição das emissões de PM, CO e HC e um ligeiro aumento de NOX. A caracterização dos poluentes atmosféricos na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre mostrou que eles são influenciados por fontes móveis, principalmente, por veículos a diesel. A análise de diagnóstico das razões, que foi aplicada para facilitar a identificação das fontes de HPAs, indicou influência de óleo diesel.

  7. Estimated atmospheric emissions from biodiesel and characterization of pollutants in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre-RS

    OpenAIRE

    Elba C. Teixeira; Mattiuzi, Camila D. P.; Sabrina Feltes; Flavio Wiegand; Eduardo R.R. Santana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate emissions of some pollutants (CO, NOX, HC, SOX, and PM) in diesel fleet due to the addition of biodiesel in different blends, as well as to assess atmospheric pollutant concentrations in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre (MAPA). The methodology was based on inventories from mobile sources based on US EPA's technical report. Regarding air quality the following parameters were determined: PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOX, O3, SO2, HC and PAHs. The result...

  8. Consumer behaviour towards organic food in porto alegre: an application of the theory of planned behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Hoppe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental friendly, although being less attractive and more expensive than conventional food. Respondents from the farmers' market represent a specific segment whose values are more oriented toward society. The findings showed an alignment between positive attitude and consumption behaviour among the surveyed consumers. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes more valued by consumers can help retailers to play the role of coordinators of this supply chain, stimulating producers to adhere to organic certification, helping them to upgrade their production practices and improve their income. Consumers are also benefiting from this offer in the market.O estudo investiga o processo de tomada de decisão dos consumidores, suas atitudes e valores em relação ao alimento orgânico pelo uso da Teoria do Comportamento Planejado, adaptando a metodologia de um estudo da União Europeia. Foram entrevistados 450 consumidores em supermercados e feiras ecológicas em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os resultados indicam um grande nível de penetração e uma atitude muito positiva em relação aos produtos orgânicos. Os entrevistados acreditam que os alimentos orgânicos são mais saudáveis, saborosos, mais naturais e ambientalmente corretos, apesar de serem menos atraentes visualmente e mais caros que alimentos convencionais. Os respondentes das feiras ecológicas representam um segmento específico com valores mais orientados

  9. Condições termodinâmicas de eventos de precipitação extrema em Belém-PA durante a estação chuvosa Thermodynamic conditions of extreme rainfall events in Belém-PA, Brazil, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Nardin Tavares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As condições termodinâmicas de uma região são muito importantes para o desenvolvimento da convecção úmida profunda, principalmente nas regiões tropicais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de entender e caracterizar o papel das condições termodinâmicas da atmosfera durante os eventos de precipitações extremas na estação chuvosa, no período de 1987 a 2007, em Belém (PA. Os resultados mostram que as precipitações extremas, em sua maioria (56% apresentam um ambiente precursor com forte instabilidade, indicada pelos altos valores de CAPE (acima de 1000 J/kg e valores significativos dos índices de instabilidade. Houve, contudo, eventos com baixos valores de CAPE na sondagem das 1200 UTC do dia do evento, mas valores maiores na véspera, o que indica que a chuva em questão pode ter começado na madrugada e ter perdurado por várias horas, atravessando a hora da sondagem, explicando a queda deste parâmetro. Os índices de instabilidade K, TT e LI apresentaram uma boa representação do ambiente, prognosticando as tempestades com chuvas fortes com índice de acerto de até 74%, se levados em conta os eventos em que todos os índices apontavam os mesmos resultados e indicavam forte instabilidade. As condições termodinâmicas de forte instabilidade ajudam a promover, mas não são as únicas responsáveis pelas tempestades convectivas com precipitações extremas.The thermodynamic conditions from any region are very important to the development of the deep, moist convection, mainly in the tropical region. Therefore, the aim of this work was to understand and characterize the role of atmospheric thermodynamic conditions during extreme rainfall events in the rainy season, in Belém (PA, Brazil. The results show that the extreme rainfall, in their majority (56% present a pre-storm environment with strong instability, indicated by the CAPE high values (above 1000 J/kg and meaningful values of the instability indexes. There was

  10. Perfil de puérperas adolescentes atendidas em um hospital ensino do sul do país = The profile of teenage mothers attending in a teaching hospital at Southern Brazil

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    Keila Okuda Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A gravidez na adolescência acarreta consequências sociais, emocionais e de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil de puérperas adolescentes atendidas em um Hospital Ensino do Sul do país. Trata-se de uma pesquisa observacional, retrospectiva, transversal. A amostra foi composta por puérperas adolescentes, atendidas na Maternidade do Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP, em outubro de 2008. Foi evidenciado alto número de partos em adolescentes (26,22%. A maior parte residia na zona urbana, apresentava Ensino Médio incompleto, início precoce da vida sexual, união consensual, renda familiar baixa, não exercia atividade remunerada, iniciou tardiamente o pré-natal e era primigesta. Os resultados encontrados são semelhantes aos de outros estudos com adolescentes grávidas no Brasil. Os programas voltados para a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e consequentemente a gravidez indesejada na adolescência, não estão apresentando os resultados esperados. São necessárias atividades de educação em saúde para que as estratégias sejam incorporadas ao dia-a-dia. Um trabalho educacional realizado em parceria com as escolas e com os pais é uma alternativa. Durante o pré-natal e após o nascimento da criança, é necessário um trabalho que vai além da assistência voltada à saúde física da mãe e do bebê.The adolescent pregnancy brings social, emotional and health consequences. The aim of this study was to delineate the profile of teenage mothers attended in a Teaching Hospital in Southern Brazil. This is an observational, retrospective, and transversal research. The sample was composed by adolescents, attended at the Maternity from the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP, during October 2008. A high number of births among adolescents (26.22% was evidenced. Most of them lived in urban areas, with incomplete secondary education, early sexual activity, consensual union, low

  11. Definição de níveis aceitáveis baseados no risco para hidrocarbonetos no Município de Porto Alegre segundo a metodologia RBCA Definition of risk-based screening levels to hydrocarbons in Porto Alegre municipality according to the RBCA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Takeuchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo definiu valores de NABR (Níveis Aceitáveis Baseados no Risco para hidrocarbonetos no Município de Porto Alegre, de acordo a metodologia RBCA, adotando-se dados hidrogeológicos dos compartimentos Embasamento Cristalino alterado e Depósitos Sedimentares Quaternários. Os parâmetros de exposição adequados à população do município, bem como dados de toxicidade dos compostos selecionados, foram definidos a partir de fontes bibliográficas e bancos toxicológicos disponíveis. As tabelas de referência geradas são, em geral, mais restritivas para o Embasamento Cristalino em relação aos Depósitos Sedimentares. Comparados às tabelas de referência da Cetesb, os valores correspondentes a Porto Alegre são inferiores, resultando na necessidade de investigações ambientais mais detalhadas em áreas impactadas por hidrocarbonetos.This study defined RBSL (Risk Based Screening Levels values to hydrocarbons in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. The values were obtained through the RBCA methodology, using hydrogeological data from the Crystalline Altered Basement and the Quaternary Sedimentary Deposits. The exposure parameters appropriate to the urban population, as well as toxicity data of selected compounds, were obtained from bibliographical sources and toxicological databases. The reference tables demonstrated that the Crystalline Altered Basement values, in general, are more restrictive than those from the Quaternary Sedimentary Deposits. In comparison to Cetesb's reference tables, the values in Porto Alegre are lower, resulting in the need of more detailed environmental investigations in hydrocarbons polluted areas.

  12. Social capital and political culture in Brazil: prospectives and constrains Capital social y cultura política en brasil: posibilidades y límites

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    Cesar Marcelo BAQUERO JACOME

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between political culture and social capital in Brazil. It emphasizes the importance of constructing a political system founded in the interpersonal or reciprocal trust, as well as the confidence in the political institutions. After examining the main controversies about the definition of social capital, this article defends the idea of reterritorializing this concept, giving a strategic value insofar as the instrumental dimension is concerned, which is, the empowerment of the citizens so as to help to construct and institutionalize a participant political culture. After examining surveys carried out in Porto Alegre, Brazil, the main conclusion is that the levels of social capital in this city, and probably extensive to the country, are very low compromising, in the short run, the possibility of gerating a critical and participative citizenship.El presente artículo examina la relación entre cultura política y capital social en Brasil. Se enfatiza la importancia de construir un sistema político fundamentado en la confianza recíproca o interpersonal así como la confianza con relación a las instituciones políticas. Después de examinar las controversias sobre la conceptualización de capital social, este trabajo defiende la idea de la reterritorialización de ese concepto, valorizando su dimensión instrumental, es decir, el empoderamiento de los ciudadanos objetivando el desarrollo e institucionalización de una cultura política participativa. Tras desarrollar un análisis de encuestas llevadas a cabo en Porto Alegre, Brasil, se llega a la conclusión de que los niveles de capital social en el país son muy bajos comprometiendo, a corto plazo la posibilidad de generar una ciudadanía crítica y participativa.

  13. Radioprotection in nuclear medicine department of 'Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine allows great benefits. Nuclear Medicine uses ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic, such as: tumor, cancer, and dysfunctions location. However the use of ionizing radiation must be controlled in order to avoid likely biological effects in human beings. In order to extremely minimize that these effects appear, the Medical Physics Department of the Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital has implemented some procedures to assure that handling and use of radioactive material are in a safe way. This preoccupation is considered in all the places of nuclear medicine sector since the moment when the radioactive material is brought into including its manipulation and retirement, the exam process being accompanied. (authors). 4 refs

  14. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

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    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  15. Diferenças entre fatores de risco para infecção pelo HIV em usuários de drogas injetáveis do Rio de Janeiro e Porto Alegre Risks differences of HIV infection between injection drug users in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre

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    Raquel De Boni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, aproximadamente 19 mil pessoas adquiriram o vírus HIV por meio do uso de drogas injetáveis desde o início da epidemia, com a soroprevalência em amostras destes usuários variando entre 25% e 65%. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar os comportamentos de risco para infecção por HIV entre amostras de usuários de cocaína injetável do Rio de Janeiro e de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Comparação entre dados de estudos transversais conduzidos em Porto Alegre e no Rio de Janeiro. Um grupo de 250 indivíduos que haviam utilizado cocaína injetável nos seis meses prévios à coleta respondeu ao RBA (Risk Behaviour Assessement e realizou testagem anti-HIV em ambos os centros. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dados demográficos, exceto entre as médias de idade (31 anos no Rio de Janeiro e 28 anos em Porto Alegre. Em Porto Alegre, houve maior uso de cocaína injetável e maior número de comportamentos de risco relacionados a este uso. No Rio de Janeiro, houve mais comportamentos sexuais de risco e uso mais freqüente de cocaína aspirada e álcool. DISCUSSÃO: Os usuários de cocaína injetável das duas regiões estudadas apresentavam freqüências diferentes nos comportamentos de risco para HIV, e estes comportamentos parecem estar relacionados com o tipo, a via e a freqüência das drogas utilizadas. Os dados foram coletados entre 1994 e 1997, quando o uso de crack era menor nestas cidades, o que pode ter alterado o padrão atual de comportamentos de risco para HIV em usuários de cocaína.INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, about 19.000 of HIV cases have been attributed to injection drug use, with the seroprevalence among such samples ranging from 25% to 65%. The aim of this study is to compare drug using and HIV risk behaviors among injection cocaine users in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre. METHODS: Comparative analysis of cross-sectional data from two studies conducted in Porto Alegre and

  16. PaTux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of PaTux, an authoring tool for designing levels in SuperTux game through combining patterns. PaTux allows game designers to specify the design of their levels using patterns extracted from training level samples. The Non-negative Matrix Factorisation (NMF) method is...

  17. Quando o povo fala: A democracia deliberativa da teoria Habermasiana a uma experiência em Porto Alegre/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Bueno Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present the model of deliberative democracy, which Habermas envisioned to be a third way to modern models, be they liberal or communitarian. Habermas presents itself as the resolution of normative legitimation procedure, through the exercise of public reason, seeking compromise on the solution of social problems. This position requires a different form of proceduralism, based on intersubjective legitimacy of norms and institutions, according to their suitability for the reference of free deliberation. Given this, it aims to demonstrate ways in which Habermas's theory differs from modern models, as well as evaluating how would be able to generate social stability and reduce inequities. Finally, studies by the Center for Deliberative Democracy at Stanford University will be analyzed in an experiment conducted in the city of Porto Alegre / RS.

  18. Cien años con Ciro Alegría: la vigencia del indigenismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Garcés

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este año, 2009, se celebran los cien años del nacimiento de uno delos más grandes escritores peruanos del siglo XX: Ciro Alegría. Preclarorepresentante de la novela regionalista en la línea indigenista, Alegríapuede ser considerado, además, como uno de nuestros primeros novelistasclásicos.

  19. O Estudo e sua materialidade: revista das alunas-mestras da Escola Complementar/Normal de Porto Alegre/RS (1922-1931 - O Estudo and its materiality: student’s journal of the Escola Complementar/Normal From Porto Alegre/RS (1922-1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Silva de Fraga, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A revista O Estudo é um impresso estudantil publicado pelas alunas do Grêmio de Estudantes da Escola Complementar/Normal de Porto Alegre/RS, entre os anos de 1922 a 1931. Na perspectiva da História da Educação e dos pressupostos da história da cultura escrita, o artigo tem como propósito apresentar a descrição de sua materialidade, isto é, do seu suporte e dos diferentes aspectos que caracterizam O Estudo como objeto impresso, de modo a compreender sua composição e especificidades.Palavras-chave: imprensa estudantil, história da educação, história da cultura escrita. O ESTUDO AND ITS MATERIALITY: STUDENT’S JOURNAL OF THE ESCOLA COMPLEMENTAR/NORMAL FROM PORTO ALEGRE/RS (1922-1931AbstractThe journal O Estudo isa student printed published by the guild of students of the Escola Complementar/Normal from Porto Alegre/RS, between the years 1922 to 1931. In view of the history of education and premises of history of written culture, the article has the purpose present a description of its materiality, that is, your support and the different aspects that characterize O Estudo as a printed object, in order to understand their composition and characteristics.Key-words: student press, history of education, history of written culture O ESTUDO Y SU MATERIALIDADE: REVISTA DE LAS ALUMNAS-MAESTRAS DE LA ESCOLA COMPLEMENTAR/NORMAL DE PORTO ALEGRE/RS (1922-1931ResumenLa revista O Estudo es un impreso dosestudiantes publicado por lo Gremio de los estudiantes de la Escola Complementar/Normal de Porto Alegre/RS, entre los años 1922 a 1931. En vista de la historia de la educación y los supuestos de la historia de la cultura escrita, el artículo tiene como objetivo presentar una descripción de su materialidad, es decir, el soporte y los diferentes aspectos que caracterizan O Estudo como un objeto impreso, con el fin de entender su composición y especificidades.Palabras-clave: prensa estudiante, historia de la educación, historia de la cultura

  20. Filariose bancroftiana no Brasil Bancroftian filariasis in Brazil

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    Eliana M. M. Rocha

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita revisão dos estudos sobre a distribuição geográfica e prevalências da filariose linfática bancroftiana no Brasil. Entre 1951 a 1958 foram realizados inquéritos hemoscópicos e entomológicos no País, sendo a transmissão autóctone comprovada em apenas 11 Municípios: Ponta Grossa (SC, 14,5%; Belém (PA, 9,8%; Barra de Laguna (SC, 9,4%; Recife (PE, 6,9%; Castro Alves (BA, 5,9%; Florianópolis (SC, 1,4%; São Luís (MA, 0,6%; Salvador (BA, 0,4%; Maceió (AL, 0,3%; Manaus (AM, 0,2% e Porto Alegre (RS, 0,1%. A distribuição da parasitose era urbana e focal, principalmente em cidades litorâneas. As ações de controle implementadas levaram a uma apreciável queda nas taxas de microfilarêmicos sendo consideradas, a partir de então, áreas endêmicas para filariose linfática no Brasil somente as cidades de Belém e Recife. Estudos recentes mostram transmissão ativa da parasitose, com prevalências superiores às detectadas no passado, em Maceió, cujo foco era considerado extinto, e em Recife. O conhecimento da situação atual da bancroftose no Brasil é de fundamental importância para a implementação de ações de controle da endemia envolvendo o Ministério da Saúde e órgãos de saúde pública.The past and present distribution of Bancroftian filariasis in Brazil is reviewed. Parasitological and entomological surveys were conducted between 1951 and 1958, the autochthonous transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti having been found only in 11 places in the country as follows, with the corresponding prevalences: Ponta Grossa (SC, 14.5%; Belém (PA, 9.8%; Barra de Laguna (SC, 9.4%; Recife (PE, 6.9%; Castro Alves (BA, 5.9%; Florianópolis (SC, 1.4%; São Luis (MA, 0.6%; Salvador (BA, 0.4%; Maceió (AL, 0.3%; Manaus (AM, 0.2% and Porto Alegre (RS, 0.1%. The distribution of infection was urban and focal, occurring mainly along the coast. Control measures carried out against filariasis achieved considerable success, reducing

  1. A New Look at Teenage Pregnancy in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Cristiane S.; Maria Luiza Heilborn

    2011-01-01

    This paper brings a synthesis of some of the main results provided by GRAVAD survey (Teenage pregnancy: multicentric study about youth, sexuality and reproduction in Brazil). GRAVAD is a study about sexual and reproductive behavior among Brazilian youth that interviewed 4,634 individuals in a population survey with a random sample. Women and men between 18 and 24 years old were interviewed in three capitals—Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador. “Teen pregnancy” is not the consequence of ...

  2. "O país do futebol" mediatizado: mídia e Copa do Mundo no Brasil The country of football" in the media: the relationship between the media and the FIFA World Cup in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Gastaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o discurso midiático relativo à Copa do Mundo no Brasil. Em uma revisão crítica acerca da constituição social dos "meios de comunicação de massa", discuto o processo pelo qual a mídia atua na sociedade, a partir da noção de "mediação". A partir de dados sobre a audiência e foco temático na televisão brasileira durante a Copa do Mundo de 1998, analiso o papel desempenhado pela mídia na construção social do interesse pela Copa do Mundo no Brasil. Sem pretender negar a legitimidade do interesse social pelo futebol no Brasil, destaco, entretanto, a participação da mídia neste processo.This paper examines the media discourse on the World Cup in Brazil. In a critical review of the social formation of the "mass media", it discusses the way in which the media operates in society, through the concept of "mediation". Considering the data on the audience and the thematic focus on Brazilian television during the World Cup of 1998, the article analyzes the role of media in the development of the interest for the World Cup in Brazil. Without denying the legitimacy of the social concern for football in Brazil, the author emphasizes the participation of the media in this process.

  3. Fenômeno Bullying: desvendando esta violência nas escolas públicas de Porto Alegre = The Bullying Phenomenon: unveiling this violence in public schools in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Andréia Mendes dos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying é uma palavra inglesa que foi adotada em diversos países para se referir à intimidação. Brigas, ofensas, comentários maldosos, agressões físicas e psicológicas, repressão são tipos de violência geralmente associados à infância. Estudos indicam que brincadeiras de mau gosto podem gerar conseqüências sérias como baixa auto-estima, novas fontes de violência e, inclusive, casos de suicídio. Este estudo vem sendo desenvolvido desde julho de 2007 em quatro escolas publicas da cidade de Porto Alegre – RS, totalizando 192 alunos participantes. Através de questionário e grupos focais observou-se que mais de 70% dos alunos percebem a existência de preconceitos no ambiente escolar e quase 40% consideram regular/ ruim/ péssimo as relações na escola, refletindo o mal-estar do estudante em relação à escola. Essa dinâmica vem levando cada vez mais jovens ao isolamento e a exclusão

  4. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa) skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras; Elias Fernandes Medeiros Júnior; Marileide Moraes Alves

    2015-01-01

    Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region....

  5. NUEVOS PRECEPTOS PARA REGULACIONES URBANAS DEL REPARTO VISTA ALEGRE EN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo; Luis Enrique Bello Caballero

    2012-01-01

    El reparto Vista Alegre constituye un sitio de significativos valores patrimoniales de Santiago de Cuba. Desde su génesis, en 1907, desarrolló particularidades urbano-arquitectónicas que revelaron su trascendencia como un proyecto vanguardista para su tiempo y lugar cuya praxis lo convirtió en la experiencia urbanística más importante del siglo XX en la ciudad. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha observado un creciente deterioro de la imagen urbana en Vista Alegre que ha puesto en pelig...

  6. Natural radionuclides concentration in agricultural products and water from the Monte Alegre region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements to determine the content of natural radionuclides were performed in agricultural products in the brazilian Central Amazon Basin Monte Alegre region, for the soil-plant transfer calculation. these measurements were concentrated in the Ingles de Souza agricultural settlement, were several uranium and thorium occurrences exist in geological formations called Monte Alegre and Faro. The values obtained in foodstuff cultivated in the anomalous region are 10 times higher than those ones observed in the Alenquer region, which is the chosen region due to its low level natural radioactivity and its proximity to the anomalous region. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Feministas y feminismos en el II Foro Social Mundial de Porto Alegre Feminists and feminisms in the Second World Social Forum, Porto Alegre

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    Silvia Chejter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata acerca de la presencia feminista en el II Foro Social Mundial, realizado en Porto Alegre, a fines de enero y principio de febrero de 2002. En el marco de los discursos y prácticas de oposición a la globalización neoliberal hegemónica, los movimientos de mujeres y feministas colocaron en el centro del debate diferentes aspectos de la interrelación entre patriarcado y capitalismo desde distintos enfoques y estrategias.The article is about the presence of feminists at the II World Social Forum, organized in Porto Alegre at the end of January and the beginning of February 2002. Among the discurses and practices of oposition to the hegemonic neoliberal globalization, women's and feminist's movements put in the centre of the debate different aspects of the interrelation between patriarchy and capitalism from different points of view and strategies.

  8. Prevalência de bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentadores de pacientes internados em Porto Alegre-RS

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Deliberali; Kendi Nishino Myiamoto; Carlos Hugo Del Priore Winckler Neto; Rafael Silvio Remus Pulcinelli; Alzira Resende do Carmo Aquino; Bruno Stefanello Vizzotto; Roberto Christ Vianna Santos

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Os bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentadores (BGNNF) são frequentemente associados às infecções hospitalares. Além da alta incidência, esses microrganismos possuem resistência a diversos antimicrobianos. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência e o perfil de resistência de BGNNF. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 14.971 laudos de pacientes em um hospital privado de Porto Alegre-RS, no período de maio de 2006 a março de 2008, sem distinção de sexo e idade. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Foram isoladas 326...

  9. Estado e ações coletivas na África do Sul e no Brasil: por uma sociologia contemporânea dos países não exemplares State and collective actions in South Africa and Brazil: for a contemporary sociology of non-model countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo busca, por meio da análise da atuação do Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (no Brasil e do Landless People's Movement (na África do Sul, analisar as formas emergentes que o Estado adquire nesses dois contextos sociais. O objetivo central é mostrar que nesses países, chamados aqui de não exemplares, é preciso que se desenvolva uma teoria complexa que rompa com o dualismo sociológico Estado/Sociedade civil. Romper com os esquemas analíticos tradicionais, voltados para o caso europeu, significa necessariamente ter que trilhar novos, e menos preconceituosos, caminhos para compreender as formas políticas de pertencimento social nos países do sul.This article analyses the actions of the Landless Workers' Movement (MST - Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra in Brazil, and the Landless People's Movement in South Africa, in order to examine the form that the State assumes in these two social contexts. Its main objective is to show that in these countries, here defined as non-model, it is necessary to develop a complex theory to break away from the sociological dichotomy state/civil society. To break with the traditional analytical schemes, focused on the European case, it is necessary to embrace new and less biased ways of understanding the political forms of social belonging in the southern countries.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallarosa, Juliana Braga; Mônego, Josiane Garcia; Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Stefens, Josemar Luis; Wiegand, Flávio

    The aim of the present study is to identify and quantify the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with aerosols (PM 10) collected at three different sampling stations: 8° Distrito, CEASA and Charqueadas. The samples were collected between November 2001 and November 2002, and the concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in Soxhlet and the extracts were later analysed in a gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GS/MS). The average concentrations of PAHs ranged between 0.04 and 2.30 ng m -3. The analysis of principal components was applied to the chemical and meteorological variables in order to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs emission into the atmospheric particulate. The study identified the following sources of PAHs: vehicular emissions, such as diesel oil, petrol, alcohol, and kerosene; industrial emissions, like lubricating oils; emissions from hospital waste burning, and coal burning at power plants.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallarosa, J.B.; Monego, J.G.; Teixeira, E.C.; Stefens, J.L.; Wiegand, F. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify and quantify the main sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with aerosols (PM10) collected at three different sampling stations: 8 degrees Distrito, CEASA and Charqueadas. The samples were collected between November 2001 and November 2002, and the concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. The filters containing particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in Soxhlet and the extracts were later analysed in a gaseous chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GS/MS). The average concentrations of PAHs ranged between 0.04 and 2.30ng m{sup -3}. The analysis of principal components was applied to the chemical and meteorological variables in order to facilitate the identification of sources of PAHs emission into the atmospheric particulate. The study identified the following sources of PAHs: vehicular emissions, such as diesel oil, petrol, alcohol, and kerosene; industrial emissions, like lubricating oils; emissions from hospital waste burning, and coal burning at power plants.

  12. [Epidemiologic profile of human anti-rabies treatment in Porto Alegre, RS, brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Rejane Dias; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Fetzer, Liane Oliveira; Anjos, Celso Bittencourt Dos; Sangiovanni, José Carlos

    2011-12-01

    Animal bites are injuries that carry the risk of rabies transmission, a disease with a 100% mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiologic profiles of post exposure human anti-rabies treatments and to analyze whether prescriptions were appropriate. This cross-sectional study collected data from the forms of the Brazilian Notification System (Sistema Nacional Agravos de Notificação - SINAN), which were filled out by the professionals responsible for treatment in healthcare services in the second semester of 2006. Of the 2,223 cases identified, 50.3% of the individuals were male, the age group with the greatest number of cases was 20 to 59 years (47.6%); the type of injury responsible for the largest number of medical consultations was animal bite (87.4%), and 35.3% of the injuries were in the lower extremities. Dogs were the animals that caused the most injuries (91.7%). The analysis of type of treatment showed that vaccination was prescribed for 78.1% of the individuals, and anti-rabies serum, for 6.4%. Of the all treatments, 96.2% were classified as correctly prescribed. Although treatments were classified as necessary, the option of keeping animals that cause aggressions under observation should be considered so that the number of treatments administered can be reduced. PMID:22124927

  13. Happiness is Like Water in a Net: Presentation notes on the Porto Alegre Participatory Budget, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Baierle, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Tolstoy once said that happiness is like water in a net. When you bring the net out, it loses its density. The same happens to the democratic process. You can sell its basic rules (regular elections, freedom of speech and organization, rule of law), but you can't sell its flesh. You can't have an entire society reproduced. According to our view, Participatory Budgeting is not only a government program, we think of it as part of a broader process, the building of a new social contract.

  14. Nuevos preceptos para regulaciones urbanas del reparto Vista Alegre en Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo

    2015-03-01

    The present article offers a different look to this problem, starting from the formulation of new urban regulations for Vista Alegre neighbourhood, focused toward the protection of its built patrimony. The upgrade and reformulation of them constituted the main contribution of this urban investigation.

  15. Assessment of chromium contamination in the Monte Alegre stream: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Felipe André dos Santos; Ricardo Zerlin; Ademir dos Santos; Claudio Gilberto Froehlich; Susana Trivinho-Strixino

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the contamination by chromium in the sediments of the Monte Alegre stream and in the larvae of Odonata and the possible impact caused by them on the stream macroinvertebrates community. It was found that chromium contaminated the sediments and the aquatic biota. Although, the stream macroinvertebrates community structure did not appear to be modified.

  16. Vida Alegre: Preliminary Findings of a Depression Intervention for Immigrant Latino Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Lissette M.; Byoun, Soo-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the outcome of a pilot study of a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) intervention--"Vida Alegre" (the contented life)--designed for use with depressed immigrant mothers living in communities with small but rapidly growing Hispanic populations. Method: The study used a pretest/posttest/follow-up design to…

  17. Consumo de suplementos nutricionais por frequentadores de academias da cidade de Porto Alegre Consumo de suplementos nutricionales por los frecuentadores de las academias de la ciudad de Porto Alegre Consumption of nutritional supplements among individuals in Porto Alegre's fitness centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência do uso de suplementos alimentares nas academias da cidade de Porto Alegre. Foram entrevistados 316 indivíduos com idade entre 18-59 anos. A abordagem foi por voluntariedade, em 22 academias da cidade. Observou-se um expressivo uso de suplementos nutricionais pelos participantes (28,8%, e os homens utilizam mais suplementos do que as mulheres (pEl objetivo del estúdio fue verificar la prevalencia de la utilizacíon de suplementos dietéticos en las academias de la ciudad de Porto Alegre. Fueron entrevistadas 316 personas con edad entre 18 y 59 años. La abordaje fue por voluntariedad en 22 academias de la ciudad. Se ha observado un expresivo uso de suplementos nutricionales por los participantes (28,8%, y los hombres utilizan más los suplementos que las mujeres (pThe aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of the use of food supplements at fitness centers in the city of Porto Alegre. Were interviewed 316 individuals at an age range between 18 and 59. Individuals participated voluntarily in 22 fitness centers in the city. The study has revealed a significant use of nutritional supplements by the participants (28.8% and men intake more supplements than women (p<0.05. The most common supplements reported in the study were those mainly based on proteins, which are mainly chosen because of suggestions made by physical educators. The high intake of nutritional supplements indicates the necessity of alerting the population about the risks related to the inappropriate use of nutritional supplements.

  18. Misunderstanding International News in Brazil

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    Jacques Wainberg

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the nature of the Brazilian public comprehension of international news by revealing the quality of such reception with regard to a sample of 170 subjects randomly selected in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A questionnaire was created taking as a basis the directives of Bloom et al(1972. Evaluated in it are the cognitive and aff ective dimensions of thought. In the fi rst case, questions were formulated that allowed the establishment of the level of knowledge of individuals, as well as their comprehension abilities, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of a wide range of international news topics. For the aff ective dimension the following abilities were evaluated: attention, response, valorization, organization and the structuring of a value scale.

  19. Qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre/RS Microbiological and physical-chemical quality of orange juices commercialised in public streets of Porto Alegre city

    OpenAIRE

    Carla K. RUSCHEL; Heloisa H. CARVALHO; Roberval B. de SOUZA; Tondo, Eduardo C.

    2001-01-01

    O comércio de sucos de laranja não pasteurizados vem aumentando nos últimos anos na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS. Com o intuito de avaliar a qualidade desses produtos, análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas foram realizadas em 52 amostras de sucos de laranja comercializados nas vias públicas de Porto Alegre. As análises microbiológicas demonstraram 44,23% (n=23) das amostras, em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela Legislação Federal vigente, sendo os bolores e leveduras encontrados e...

  20. 131I, 99mTc, 67Ga, 201Tl: evaluation of dose calibrators in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre City over a period of 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme for the comparison of activity measurements of radionuclides, administered to patients in Nuclear Medicine Services with the purpose of diagnosis or therapy, is being conducted under the coordination of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission. All Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil are required to employ dose calibrators, also known as activity meters, to measure the activity of solutions containing radionuclides prior to the administration of these radiopharmaceuticals to patients for the purpose of either diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. It is important, however, to measure with accuracy the activity of the administered radiopharmaceuticals to ensure images with the desired quality without submitting patients to unnecessary or insufficient radiation exposures. In the present work, measurements of the activity of samples of 131I, 99mTc, 67Ga and 201Tl, employing 5 ml radioactive samples in penicillin flasks, were conducted in the dose calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the city of Porto Alegre, from 2004 until 2008. The performance of the dose calibrators was evaluated by means of the Ratio R, obtained by dividing the mean value of the measurements obtained in each Nuclear Medicine Services, by the mean reference value measured for each of the radioactive samples in an activity meter previously calibrated by Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute. Values of R between 0,90 and 1,10 are considered to be in accordance with the requirements specified in the Brazilian Regulation. The results were analysed to evaluate the compliance with the applicable regulation and were also compared to data available in the literature and obtained in other Brazilian cities and regions. The performance of the activity meters in Porto Alegre is shown to be very good, which contributes to ensure the radiological protection of patients submitted to diagnosis or therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  1. Formulación participativa del presupuesto en el municipio Caroní: comparación con la experiencia de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar GARCÍA-GUADILLA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo evalúa la experiencia de descentralización local que se lleva a cabo desde 1990 hasta la fecha en el Municipio Caroní de Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela. Focalizándose en la elaboración del presupuesto participativo, se identifican los alcances y limitaciones de algunas prácticas de democracia participativa tales como la participación ciudadana en la gestión local. Finalmente, se hace una comparación con la experiencia de elaboración del presupuesto en forma participativa del municipio de Porto Alegre (Brasil estableciéndose las semejanzas y diferencias entre ambos procesos en lo que se refiere a los siguientes aspectos: la apertura de nuevos espacios de participación, el acceso a la información, la satisfacción de las demandas sociales en consonancia con los criterios de equidad y eficiencia, la existencia y utilización de mecanismos de control de la gestión y la posibilidad de trascender desde la participación local hacia la cultura política de ciudadanos o ciudadanía activa.ABSTRACT: This article evaluates the experience with local decentralization of the Municipio Caroní, in Venezuela since 1990 from the point of view of participatory democracy. It analyzes the decision making process around the elaboration of the socalled "Participatory Budgeting" and compares it with the case of the Municipio Porto Alegre in Brazil in order to draw some conclussión about: the opening of new spaces for participation, access to vital information, residente" satisfacction of their demands according to the criteria of efficiency and equity, mechanisms of control over the representatives and the possibility to trascend from a culture of local participatión to a citizens and active culture.

  2. Development of an artisanal tanning method of the acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa skin and its transfer through a workshop to a community in the city of Bragança, PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno José Corecha Fernandes Eiras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bragança is one of the largest fishing centers in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. In the city, there are several environmental and socio-economic problems such as lack of waste management and contamination of water sources that supply to the city and the Caeté river estuary. The social and economic problems are mainly caused by social inequality, which usually occurs in communities where the population depends mainly on fishing. Fish waste forms a part of the waste disposed in the region. Fish skin represents a significant portion of this waste and may be used for manufacturing leather by the tanning process, thereby generating income for the community and reducing environmental impacts. The acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa has a high potential for tanning because of its large size and high yield of skin. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for artisanal skin tanning of acoupa weakfish and the subsequent transfer of this methodology to a fishing community through a workshop. The methodology developed in the laboratory is more streamlined than traditional methods and is based on tanning methods cited in the literature and techniques applied in regional tanneries. To assess the quality of acoupa weakfish leather, resistance tests were performed, which proved its potential for manufacturing clothing and footwear. An economic analysis of the hypothetical production of leather based on the tanning methodology developed in this work revealed that the project is feasible and the effluents generated during the process are less harmful to the environment, compared to those generated by traditional tanning methods.

  3. Microbiological quality of minimally processed vegetables sold in Porto Alegre, Brazil Qualidade microbiológica de hortaliças minimamente processadas comercializadas em Porto Alegre, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia R. Pavan da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed vegetables go through various steps during their preparation, with many modifications to their natural structure. However, they must maintain the same quality as the fresh produce. The aim of the present study was to quantify mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms and total and faecal coliforms, and to assess the presence of Escherichia coli, parasites, and dirt material in ready-to-eat minimally processed vegetables. Fifty-six samples of minimally processed vegetables were analysed for the presence of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms by the plate-count method. Monthly means ranged from 4.7x10(5 to 1.6x10(8 CFU/g and from 7.9x10(6 to 2.7x10(8 CFU/g, respectively for mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms. Coliforms were analysed by the multiple-tube method; total coliforms ranged from Hortaliças minimamente processadas passam por várias etapas durante seu processamento, no qual ocorrem várias modificações de sua estrutura natural, todavia elas devem manter a mesma qualidade do produto não processado. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar microrganismos mesófilos e psicrótróficos, coliformes totais e fecais e verificar a presença de E. coli, parasitas e sujidades em hortaliças minimamente processadas prontas para consumo. Foram analisadas 56 amostras para mesófilos e psicrotróficos pelo método de contagem em placas, com média mensal 4,7x10(5 a 1,6x10(8 UFC/g e de 7,9x10(6 a 2,7x10(8 UFC/g, respectivamente. Os coliformes foram analisados pela técnica dos tubos múltiplos, onde coliformes totais variaram de <3 a ³ 2,4x10(4 NMP/g e coliformes fecais, de <3 a 1,1x10(4 NMP/g, e E. coli foi observada em oito amostras. De 52 amostras, 8 (15,3% apresentaram oocistos de Eimeria spp. Sujidades, como fragmentos de insetos e ácaros jovens foram encontrados. Contaminação de origem fecal foi verificada no presente estudo, sugerindo falhas nas etapas do processamento das hortaliças, ou que o solo ou a água de irrigação também poderiam ser fontes de disseminação destes microrganismos.

  4. Abundância, Composição e Diversidade de Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae em um fragmento de floresta na Amazônia Oriental em Altamira, PA, Brasil Abundance, Composition and Diversity of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae in a forest fragment in the Eastern Amazon in Altamira, PA, Brazil

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    José Augusto Teston

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a fauna de Arctiinae em um fragmento de floresta primária em Altamira, Pará, na Amazônia Oriental brasileira. As mariposas foram amostradas durante dois anos (de agosto de 2007 a julho de 2009, com auxílio de armadilha luminosa. Foram medidos os seguintes parâmetros: riqueza, abundância, constância, índices de diversidade e uniformidade de Shannon (H' e E' e de Brillouin (H e E e o índice de dominância de Berger-Parker (BP. As estimativas de riqueza, foram efetuadas através dos procedimentos não paramétricos, "Bootstrap", "Chao 1", "Chao 2", "Jackknife 1", "Jackknife2" e "Michaelis-Mentem". Foram capturados 466 exemplares pertencentes a 78 espécies de Arctiinae, das quais 12 são novos registros para o Estado. Os valores dos parâmetros analisados para todo o período foram: H'= 3,08, E'= 0,708, H= 2,86, E= 0,705 e BP= 0,294. As comunidades dos meses menos chuvosos foram mais diversas. Os estimadores previram o encontro de 17 a 253 espécies a mais.This study evaluated the Arctiinae fauna in a fragment of primary forest in Altamira, Pará, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil. The moths were sampled during two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 with a light trap. The following parameters were measured: richness, abundance, constancy, diversity and evenness indices (Shannon H ‘and E' and Brillouin (H and E, and dominance index of Berger-Parker (BP. The richness estimatives were made by nonparametric procedures, Bootstrap, Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1, Jackknife2 and Michaelis-Mentem. Four hundred and sixty-six individuals of 78 species of Arctiinae were captured, of which twelve are new records for Pará State. Values of parameters analyzed for the entire period were: H ‘= 3.08, E' = 0.708, H = 2.86, E = 0.705, and Sp = 0.294. Communities of the less rainy months were more diverse. Estimators predicted an increase between 17 to 253 in species richness.

  5. PA strategies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of promoting nuclear public acceptance in Korea is to secure necessary sites for construction of large nuclear facilities in a timely manner. Another important purpose is to maintain a good neighbor relationship between the operator of nuclear facilities and local population. To promote better understanding about the nation's peaceful nuclear programs to the general public is another facet of nuclear information activities. However, opposition by the local population living around the nuclear facilities has always been aggressive. The primary concern of the local population is basically focused on the financial issues. Professional nationwide anti-nuclear groups are abetting the local population directly but with fabricated information in order to increase psychological fears. In an effort to compensate for the psychological and sociological burdens of the local population, the Korean government arranged legal provisions. To this end, beginning in 1990, community support programs have been implemented. As the nation's nuclear power program expanded, anti-nuclear activities also became very active. Public information programs should be expanded. Some highlights of public acceptance programs of the nuclear industries are 'Go and Meet' rather than 'Come and See', 'Act rather than react', 'Proper messages to proper target groups', 'Maximum use of the third party communicators', and so on. An orchestrated effort among the nation's nuclear industries is essential to the successful implementation of the PA strategies. (author)

  6. Fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis: inquérito domiciliar no Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil. Metodologia e resultados preliminares Risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases: a domiciliary enquiry in the City of S. Paulo, Brazil. Methodology and preliminary results

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    Ricardo A. Rego

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças crionicas não-transmissíveis são causa importante de morte no Brasil, principalmente nos grandes centros urbanos. Existem inúmeros fatores de risco relacionados a este tipo de doenças, cuja remoção, ou atenuação, pode contribuir para o declínio da mortalidade. Descreve-se a metodologia do primeiro estudo muiticêntrico abrangente realizado na América Latina sobre a questão dos fatores de risco de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. No Brasil o estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Paulo, SP e Porto Alegre, RS. São apresentados resultados preliminares para o Município de São Paulo quanto à prevalência de hipertenção arterial (22,3%, tabagismo (37,9%, obesidade (18,0%, alcoolismo (7,7% e sedentarismo (69,3%. Os resultados obtidos são comparados com dados existentes para o Brasil e outros países, e discute-se a relação entre a magnitude dos diversos fatores de risco e a mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares em São Paulo e alguns países desenvolvidos.The non-communicable chronic diseases are important causes of death in Brazil, mainly in the great urban centres. There are various risk factors related to these diseases, whose remotion or attenuation would contribute to a fall in mortality. The methodology of the first comprehensive multicenter study into risk factors of non-communicable chronic diseases carried out in Latin America is explained. In Brazil, this study was carried out in the cities of S. Paulo, SP and Porto Alegre, RS. Preliminary results from the city of S. Paulo as to the prevalence of arterial hypertension (22.3%, tabagism (37.9%, obesity (18.0%, alcoholism (7.7% and sedentarism (69.3% are presented. These results are compared with existing data from Brazil and other countries, and the relationship between various risk factors and the mortality from cardiovascular diseases in S. Paulo and some developed countries is discussed.

  7. O Crisol: periódico das alunas do Colégio Americano (Porto Alegre/RS, 1945-1964 - O Crisol: the jornal by students of the Colégio Americano (Porto Alegre/RS, 1945-1964

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    Dóris Bittencourt Almeida, Brasil

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho investiga-se o periódico O Crisol, produzido pelas alunas do Colégio Americano, uma escola de Porto Alegre/RS, entre os anos de 1945 e 1964. Esse periódicodiz muito à História da Educação, pois evidencia saberes e práticas que circulavam nacomunidade do Colégio e revela um pouco das representações da cultura juvenil daquele tempo. Aqui interessam os significados dos discursos difundidos pelo periódico nos processos de subjetivação provocados pelos textos e suas possíveis influências na construção das identidades das jovens leitoras e escritoras do jornal. A pesquisa identifica-se com os pressupostos teóricos da História Cultural e se inscreve no campo das práticas de leitura e escrita e de memórias juvenis, tendo como referenciais as concepções da cultura escrita enquanto produção discursiva de um determinado tempo e lugar.Palavras-chave: memórias juvenis, escritas escolares, práticas de escrita. O CRISOL: THE JORNAL BY STUDENTS OF THE COLÉGIO AMERICANO (PORTO ALEGRE/RS, 1945-1964 AbstractThis work investigates the journalO Crisolproduced by students of the Colégio Americano, a school in Porto Alegre/RS, between the years 1945 and 1964.The journal says much to the History of Education, as evidenced knowledges and pratices circulating in the community,showing a bit of representations of youth culture in that time. Herethe interest by meaning’s dissemination of speeches by the journal in the processes of subjectivation caused by texts and their possible influences on the construction of identities of young readers and writers of the newspaper. The research identifies with the theoreticals presuppositions o Cultural History and inscribed in the field of reading and writing practices and memories of youth, taking as reference the concepts of the writing culture as a discursive production of a determinated time and place.Key-words: youth’s memories, written school, writing practices. O CRISOL: EL

  8. O jornal A Voz da Escola: escritas dos alunos do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940 - The journal A Voz da Escola: written by children of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940

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    Maria Helena Camara Bastos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda as escritas de alunos do ensino primário do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS, publicadas no jornal A Voz da Escola (1934-1940, como prática de formação pessoal, cívica e religiosa, de aprendizagem da moral ou da civilidade. Busca-se analisar os discursos veiculados, os processos de subjetivação e suas influências nos modos como as crianças, na faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos, pensavam, agiam e se expressavam nos espaços de construção de suas identidades. Insere-se nas práticas de escritas escolares e infantis, especialmente na interface da História da Educação e da história da cultura escrita, que analisa a produção, difusão, conservação e o uso dos objetos escritos, em suas várias modalidades. Os exemplares do periódico são tomados como lócus privilegiado para adentrarmos no cotidiano de uma escola primária, da década de 1930, isto é, o universo escolar e toda uma rede paralela de significações.Palavras-chaves: escrita infantil, jornal escolar, periódico estudantil, cultura escolar. THE JOURNAL A VOZ DA ESCOLA: WRITTEN BY CHILDREN OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SOUZA LOBO (PORTO ALEGRE/RS - 1934/1940 Abstract The article discusses the writings of primary school pupils of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS, published in the newspaper A Voz da Escola (1934-1940, as a practice of civic, religious and personal formation, learning of moral or civic education. It aims to analyze conveyed discourses, subjective processes and their influence in way children, aged 10-12, thought, acted and expressed themselves in spaces of construction of their identities. It is inset in the practice of school and children’s writings, especially in the interface of the history of education and the history of written culture, which analyze the production, distribution, conservation and the usage of written objects in their several forms. Copies of the journal are taken as a privileged place in order

  9. First evidence for expressive neoproterozoic intraplated mafic rocks and magma mixing in post-collisional A-PA type granites, Southern Brazil: Geochemistry and U-Pb (zircon), Nd-Sr-18O(zircon) isotope investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New and recent geological investigations around Pien-Tijucas suture zone, between Luis Alves and Curitiba Microplates (Basei et al.2000) led to mapping of Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro A-PA type Granites with expressive expositions of alkaline felsic ans mafic rocks and, associated mafic and felsic hybrid rocks. The suture zone is formed by subduction arc-related Pien-Mandirituba deformed calc-alkaline I-type granite belt and serpentinized supra subduction zone (SSZ) obducted mantle rocks with intrusive Neoproterozoic (650-630 Ma) very high Cr and Ni tholeitic gabbros. The Pien-Mandirituba calc-alkaline I-type Granite Belt is constituted by three main granite suites. The older emplaced pre-collisional suite is constituted by deformed to highly deformed amphibole and biotite-rich, magmatic epidote-absent quartz-monzodiorites and granodiorites formed between 620 and 610 Ma. The second sincollisional granite suite is constituted by deformed and slightly deformed low content amphibole-biotite-magmatic epidote-bearing, quartz-monzodiorites, granodiorites and leucogranodiorites emplaced between 605 and 595 Ma. The third, also sincollisional, granite suite is deformed to highly deformed biotite ± amphibole monzogranites. The deformation age of the three non-cogenetic granite suites of this granite belt is between 605-595 Ma. The granite rocks of the Pien-Mandirituba Granite Belt are meta-aluminous to slightly peraluminous, high K calc-alkaline, generally with high Ba, high Sr and low Rb contents. Palermo, Agudos do Sul and Rio Negro Granites are components of the expressive Neoproterozoic volcanic and plutonic alkaline-peralkaline Serra do Mar Suite (Kaul 1997), emplaced in extensional post-collisional and anorogenic settings along the central portion and northern border of the Luis Alves Microplate and southern border of the Curitiba Microplate. Magma mixing evidence is rare ou absent in the other components of the Serra do Mar volcanic and plutonic suite. The

  10. The Brazilian smoker: a survey in the largest cities of Brazil Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar do brasileiro: um estudo nas maiores cidades do país

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    Emérita Sátiro Opaleye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the sociodemographic factors associated with daily consumption of cigarettes and pattern of cigarette use among Brazilian smokers. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005 involving the 108 largest Brazilian cities. Data were collected through interviews with subjects aged 12 to 65 years in randomly selected households. Based on a questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context, a logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and smoking. RESULTS: Of the 7,921 subjects interviewed, 16.4% reported daily use of cigarettes. The smoking prevalence was similar between genders, although women reported to start smoking at a later age and smoke fewer cigarettes per day. Almost 65% of the smokers were interested in quitting or reducing their smoking habit. The main sociodemographic characteristics associated with smoking were as follows: adult age (30-59 years old, unemployment, low education level, and low socioeconomic level. Alcohol abuse was also shown to be associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse socioeconomic characteristics are implicated in increased susceptibility to smoking in Brazil. In our sample, a high proportion of smokers reported interest to quit or reduce smoking. These data suggest that sociodemographic factors should be considered in the elaboration of smoking prevention and treatment policies.OBJETIVO: Conhecer fatores sociodemográficos associados ao consumo diário de cigarros, bem como o padrão de uso de cigarros do tabagista brasileiro. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado em 2005 nas 108 maiores cidades brasileiras através de entrevistas a indivíduos de 12 a 65 anos em domicílios sorteados por amostragem representativa. Com base em questionário adaptado para o contexto brasileiro, as características sociodemográficas foram investigadas em modelo de regressão logística para

  11. Microfitoplâncton de águas costeiras amazônicas: Ilha Canela (Bragança, PA, Brasil Microphytoplankton of Amazon coastal waters: Canela Island (Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

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    Eliane Brabo de Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações sazonal e nictemeral do microfitoplâncton foram estudadas em uma estação fixa (00º46'37,2''S-046º43'24,5''W, localizada em uma área costeira próxima à ilha Canela (Norte do Brasil, durante os meses de setembro e dezembro/2004 (período seco e março e junho/2005 (período chuvoso. As amostras destinadas à análise qualitativa do fitoplâncton foram obtidas a partir da filtragem de 400 L de água, através de uma rede planctônica (65 μm de abertura de malha, durante marés de sizígia, em intervalos regulares de três horas, por um período de 24 horas. O material coletado foi fixado com formol neutro a 4%. Paralelamente a essas coletas foi medida a salinidade da superfície da água. A salinidade apresentou variação significativa ao longo do período de estudo, variando entre 26,1 (junho/2005 e 39,0 (dezembro/2004, caracterizando o ambiente como eualino-polialino. Foram identificados 130 táxons incluídos nas divisões Cyanophyta (dois táxons, Bacillariophyta (115 táxons e Dinophyta (13 táxons. As diatomáceas dominaram o microfitoplâncton da área, sendo Asterionellopsis glacialis, Dimeregramma minor, Skeletonema sp. e Thalassiosira subtilis os táxons mais freqüentes e abundantes. Os altos valores de salinidade condicionaram a maior representatividade das espécies marinhas neríticas, polialóbias. Os processos de ressuspensão provocados pelos ventos e arrebentação das ondas promoveram intercâmbios entre as populações planctônicas e ticoplanctônicas, dentre as quais as espécies Dimeregramma minor, Triceratium biquadratum e T. pentacrinus representaram novas ocorrências para as águas costeiras do litoral amazônico.Seasonal and nyctemeral variations of the microphytoplankton were studied at a fixed station (00º46'37.2''S-046º43'24.5''W on Canela Island (North Brazil in September and December/2004 (dry season and in March and June/2005 (rainy season. Samples for qualitative phytoplankton studies were

  12. The distribution of tuberculosis in Porto Alegre: analysis of the magnitude and tuberculosis-HIV coinfection

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    Rarianne Carvalho Peruhype

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective Analyzing the geographical distribution of the tuberculosis (TB, its incidence and prevalence and TB-HIV coinfection in the districts of Porto Alegre from 2007 to 2011. Method An ecological, descriptive study of time series that used descriptive and geoprocessing techniques. Results In total, were recorded 3,369 incident cases and 3,998 prevalent cases of pulmonary TB. In both contexts, there was predominance of cases in males and in Caucasians. Seventeen districts showed prevalence rates above 79.2 cases/100,000 inhabitants, considering that 15 of them had incidence rates above 73.7 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The TB-HIV coinfection rates reached 67% in some districts, which is above the city average value (30%. Conclusion The distribution analysis showed that the reformulation and restructuring of policies and health services in Porto Alegre are essential.

  13. Evaluation of dose calibrators in nuclear medicine services of Porto Alegre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme for the comparison of activity measurements of radionuclides administered to patients in Nuclear Medicine Services, for the purpose of diagnosis or therapy, is being conducted under the coordination of the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, IRD/CNEN. In the present work, measurements of the activity of samples of 131I and 99mTc and, more recently, 201Tl and 67Ga were conducted in the dose calibrators of the Nuclear Medicine Services of the city of Porto Alegre, from 2004 to 2007. The results were analysed to evaluate the compliance with the Brazilian regulation and were also compared to data available in the literature for the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia. The performance of the activity meters in Porto Alegre is shown to be very good, which contributes to the radiological protection of patients submitted to diagnosis or therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  14. O jornal A Voz da Escola: escritas dos alunos do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940) - The journal A Voz da Escola: written by children of the Elementary School Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS - 1934/1940)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Camara Bastos; Tatiane de Freitas Ermel, Brasil

    2013-01-01

    O artigo aborda as escritas de alunos do ensino primário do Colégio Elementar Souza Lobo (Porto Alegre/RS), publicadas no jornal A Voz da Escola (1934-1940), como prática de formação pessoal, cívica e religiosa, de aprendizagem da moral ou da civilidade. Busca-se analisar os discursos veiculados, os processos de subjetivação e suas influências nos modos como as crianças, na faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos, pensavam, agiam e se expressavam nos espaços de construção de suas identidades. Insere-se ...

  15. Uso de drogas psicotrópicas no Brasil: pesquisa domiciliar envolvendo as 107 maiores cidades do país - 2001 Uso de drogas psicotrópicas en Brasil: investigación domiciliaria en las 107 mayores ciudades del país - 2001 Use of psychotropic drugs in Brazil: household survey in the 107 biggest Brazilian cities - 2001

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    José Carlos F. Galduróz

    2005-10-01

    of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and the use of non-medical psychotropics. This study enclosed the 107 biggest cities in Brazil; sample: ages between 12 and 65 years. Sampling in three periods: tax sectors; household and the respondent. Were interviewed 8,589 people. The lifetime use of the alcohol was 68.7%, closer to 70.8% in Chile. The lifetime use of the tobacco was of 41.1%, lower than U.S.A. (70.5%. The lifetime use of the marijuana was of 6.9% closer to Colombia (5.4% and lower than U.S.A. (34.2%. The lifetime use of the cocaine was 2.3%, lower than U.S.A. (11.2%. The lifetime use of solvent was of 5.8%, much lower than the United Kingdom (20.0%. The stimulants have had 1.5% of lifetime use and the anxiolytics with 3.3%. These findings will allow the implantation of adjusted public politics to our reality in the field of the psychotropics drugs.

  16. Assessment of chromium contamination in the Monte Alegre stream: a case study

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    Juliano José Corbi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the contamination by chromium in the sediments of the Monte Alegre stream and in the larvae of Odonata and the possible impact caused by them on the stream macroinvertebrates community. It was found that chromium contaminated the sediments and the aquatic biota. Although, the stream macroinvertebrates community structure did not appear to be modified.

  17. NUEVOS PRECEPTOS PARA REGULACIONES URBANAS DEL REPARTO VISTA ALEGRE EN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

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    María Teresa Muñoz Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El reparto Vista Alegre constituye un sitio de significativos valores patrimoniales de Santiago de Cuba. Desde su génesis, en 1907, desarrolló particularidades urbano-arquitectónicas que revelaron su trascendencia como un proyecto vanguardista para su tiempo y lugar cuya praxis lo convirtió en la experiencia urbanística más importante del siglo XX en la ciudad. Sin embargo, en las últimas décadas se ha observado un creciente deterioro de la imagen urbana en Vista Alegre que ha puesto en peligro su integridad como conjunto residencial de altos valores ambientales. El presente artículo ofrece una mirada diferente a esta problemática, a partir de la formulación de nuevas regulaciones urbanas para el reparto Vista Alegre, enfocado hacia la protección de su patrimonio construido. La actualización y reformulación de las mismas constituyó el principal aporte de esta investigación urbana.

  18. Prevalência de bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentadores de pacientes internados em Porto Alegre-RS

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    Bruno Deliberali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os bacilos Gram-negativos não fermentadores (BGNNF são frequentemente associados às infecções hospitalares. Além da alta incidência, esses microrganismos possuem resistência a diversos antimicrobianos. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência e o perfil de resistência de BGNNF. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 14.971 laudos de pacientes em um hospital privado de Porto Alegre-RS, no período de maio de 2006 a março de 2008, sem distinção de sexo e idade. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: Foram isoladas 326 amostras de BGNNF. As espécies mais prevalentes foram: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (65,03%, Acinetobacter baumannii (16,56% e Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9,5%. Outras espécies apresentaram índices inferiores a 5%. Os microrganismos foram isolados de diversos sítios infecciosos. Os materiais biológicos que apresentaram maior positividade para esses microrganismos foram o aspirado traqueal (38,34%, o escarro (18,71% e a urina (15,95%. A resistência bacteriana mostrou-se mais expressiva a tetraciclinas (89,57% e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprima (79,75%. Os antimicrobianos mais ativos foram polimixina B, com 100% de sensibilidade, e piperaciclina/tazobactam, com 75,2% de sensibilidade.

  19. Comparação do código de ética médica do Brasil e de 11 países Comparison of the code of medical ethics of Brazil with those of eleven countries

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    Jayme Augusto Rocha Vianna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o Código de Ética Médica do Conselho Federal de Medicina do Brasil com códigos de diferentes países com o objetivo de melhorar a compreensão da sua estrutura, contribuindo para o cumprimento de seus objetivos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 11 países dos cinco continentes: Argentina, Chile, Canadá, Estados Unidos, Portugal, Reino Unido, África do Sul, Egito, China, Índia e Austrália. As informações foram obtidas na internet, pelo acesso a sites de agências reguladoras e associações médicas. Os códigos foram descritos e comparados segundo informações sobre sua organização elaboradora, abrangência espacial, obrigatoriedade, data de elaboração, organização das orientações, e documentos auxiliares. RESULTADOS: Os códigos de ética médica estudados eram: 59% elaborados pela agência reguladora da medicina de seu país, 92% com abrangência nacional, 67% obrigatórios para todos os médicos e 73% tiveram sua última reelaboração após o ano 2000. Foi observada relação entre a organização elaboradora e a obrigatoriedade e abrangência espacial dos códigos. Foi evidenciada a necessidade de atualização sistemática dos códigos, o que freqüentemente é realizado por meio de documentos auxiliares, entretanto, pode haver dificuldade de conhecimento desse conteúdo. Foi observada a possibilidade de organizar as orientações por tópicos, na forma de pequenos textos para cada tema. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo apresentou sugestões quanto ao Código de Ética Médica do Brasil: realizar uma revisão e atualização do código; organizar suas orientações de modo a incluir explicações e justificativas; e separar as resoluções de caráter ético, melhorando sua divulgação.OBJECTIVE: Compare the Code of Medical Ethics of the Federal Council of Medicine of Brazil with codes from 11 different countries, with the purpose of improving the comprehension of their structure and contribute to the achievement of

  20. AVALIAÇÃO COPROPARASITOLÓGICA E CLÍNICA DE AVES SILVESTRES E EXÓTICAS MANTIDAS EM CRIATÓRIOS PARTICULARES NO MUNICÍPIO DE ALEGRE-ES

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    MILENA BATISTA CARNEIRO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the gastrointestinal parasites and to carry out a clinical evaluation of particular birds of Alegre, ES, Brazil. Of the 36 examined birds, 14 (38.89% were positive. Of the 25 examined Sporophila caerulescen, six (24% werepositive for coccidia and one (4% for coccidia and Strongyloidea. Of eight Saltator similis, four (50% were positive for coccídios and two (25% for coccidia and Giardia. The Nymphicus hollandicus presented coccidia and Giardia and both Serinus canaria and Passerinabrissonii were negative. Of the 25 examined animals the physical alterations were: six birds with big nails (24%, three animals with skin descamation (12%, two fat birds (8%, one thin bird (4%, one animal with diarrhea (4% and an animal presented cough signals and sneeze (4%. The study showed a high frequency of parasites in thebirds without clinical signs. The lack of specialized professionals in the area of wild animals in Alegre, ES makes difficult specific examinations and detailed orientations on birds handling.

  1. Capacidade de Carga Turística: Um Estudo no Caminhos Rurais de Porto Alegre, RS

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    Juliane Magagnin Da Soller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, apresenta-se o contexto do turismo de base comunitária, além de breve histórico e discussão acerca do conceito e da metodologia da Capacidade de Carga Turística, assim como a adaptação da metodologia para estudo aqui relatado. Descreve-se o estudo realizado para determinar a Capacidade de Carga Turística, tendo por amostra as propriedades rurais partícipes da Associação Porto Alegre Rural (POA RURAL, mais especialmente do roteiro Caminhos Rurais de Porto Alegre, no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Propôs-se adaptar a para o local a metodologia de cálculo de Capacidade de Carga Turística a partir de Cifuentes (1992; et al 1996, considerando suas particularidades, principalmente aquelas que dizem respeito a saúde e ao bem-estar das famílias que recebem os visitantes e aos impactos ambientais causados pelas construções de infraestrutura turística. A Capacidade de Carga Turística é uma metodologia desenvolvida para áreas preservadas de uso público. Assim, não costuma dar enfoque às questões referentes à comunidade local e aos resíduos gerados pelas instalações e pelos serviços prestados no Turismo.  Tourist Carrying Capacity: A study in the Caminhos Rurais de Porto Alegre, RS  - This paper presents the community based tourism and a brief history, concept and methodology of Tourist Carrying Capacity, and the adaptation of that methodology to the present case. The paper presents the study to determine the Tourist Carrying Capacity in rural proprieties that currently constitute the Porto Alegre Rural Association (RURAL POA, the tourist destination Caminhos Rurais de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The research proposes to adapt the methodology of Tourist Carrying Capacity from Cifuentes (1992, et al 1996, to the Caminhos Rurais, considering its particularities, especially those relate to health and well-being of families who receives visitors, and the environmental impacts caused by the construction of

  2. Saindo da "escuridão": perspectivas da inclusão social, econômica, cultural e política dos portadores de deficiência visual em Porto Alegre Leaving "the shadows": perspectives for social, economic, cultural and political inclusion of visually impaired people in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Brumer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto abarca os aspectos sociais, econômicos, culturais e políticos relativos à inclusão dos portadores de deficiência visual (PDV em Porto Alegre. Inicialmente apresentam-se as principais leis, formuladas nos anos de 1990, no Brasil, as quais se propõem a ampliar as perspectivas de inclusão dos PDV à sociedade brasileira. No aspecto cultural, abarca o preconceito e as terminologias utilizadas para referir-se ao PDV (cego, deficiente visual, portador de deficiência visual, "invidente" e os estigmas associados a elas. Nos aspectos social e econômico, abrange a educação e a formação profissional, assim como o acesso ao mercado de trabalho. No aspecto político, trata dos direitos de votar e de ser eleito, assim como da ação fiscalizadora dos direitos dos PDVs e das pressões feitas por suas associações representativas na luta contra o preconceito e a discriminação.The text covers social, economic, cultural and political aspects related to social inclusion of visually impaired people in Porto Alegre. Firstly, it presents the main legislation formulated in the 1990's in Brazil to widen the perspectives for inclusion of visually impaired people into Brazilian society. In the cultural aspect, in approaches prejudice and terminologies used to refer to visually impaired people (cego, deficiente visual, portador de deficiência visual, "invidente" - Portuguese for blind, visually impaired, visual impairment bearer, "non-seeing", respectively and the stigmas linked to them. As for social and economic aspects, it includes education and professional training as well as access to the job market. In the political aspect, it approaches the rights to vote and to be elected and the enforcement of visually impaired people's rights and the pressures exerted by their associations in the struggle against prejudice and discrimination.

  3. The cost of the Family Health Program in Porto Alegre - 1998 and 2002 Os custos do Programa de Saúde da Família de Porto Alegre - 1998 e 2002

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    Janice Dornelles de Castro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    This study aims at a broader understanding of the functioning of the health system from the perspective of economics, utilizing the tools made available by this area for evaluating an important public policy proposed by the Brazilian federal government: the Family Health Program. This first approach consists in a case study conducted in the city of Porto Alegre during the period 1998-2002. The purpose of this study was creating an instrument for the cost management of the program allowing for monitoring and redirecting actions when necessary. An extensive review of the literature was carried out and data about the work processes, the organizational structure of the secretariat in charge and cost and production of the program were collected for constructing the cost management instrument. The study showed no important variation in the total cost of the program during the period but considerable variations in some specific cost categories. Furthermore it was shown that different health units involve different costs related to the size of the team or to the target population.

    Este estudo pretende, por meio da perspectiva das ciências econômicas, ampliar a compreensão sobre funcionamento do sistema de saúde, utilizando o instrumental disponível nesta área do conhecimento, as avaliações econômicas, para avaliar uma importante política pública proposta pelo governo federal e implantada em todo o país: o Programa de Saúde da Família. Nesta primeira aproximação será feito um estudo de caso do município de Porto Alegre, no período de 1998 a 2002. O objetivo do estudo é criar um instrumento de gestão dos custos do programa, que permita o monitoramento e redirecionamento das ações quando se fizer necessário. Foi feita extensa revisão da literatura e, para a construção do instrumento de gestão de custos, foi necessário o levantamento dos processos de trabalho, da estrutura gerencial da secretaria e por fim dos dados de

  4. Unidades de conservação como estratégia para a redução do desmatamento na Amazônia: o caso do Parque Estadual Monte Alegre / Protected Areas as a strategy to reduce deforestation in the Amazon: the case of Monte Alegre State Park

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    Denise Zanatta Martini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoUnidades de conservação de proteção integral buscam a manutenção dos ecossistemas livres de alterações causadas por interferência humana, admitindo apenas o uso indireto de seus recursos naturais. Portanto, este trabalho estudou a dinâmica do uso e cobertura da terra na unidade de conservação de proteção integral Parque Estadual Monte Alegre (PEMA do município de Monte Alegre (PA, bem como sua respectiva Zona de Amortecimento, para avaliar a efetividade de sua criação como iniciativa de preservação da biodiversidade local. Foram avaliados produtos de sensoriamento remoto dos anos de 1990, 2001 e 2011, sendo 2001 o ano de criação da unidade em estudo. O resultado permite afirmar que a criação da unidade de conservação PEMA foi importante, uma vez que ao observar dados referentes a dez anos de unidade percebe-se a diminuição do desflorestamento quando comparado ao período anterior à sua implantação. Porém, do ponto de vista conservacionista, tal resultado não é satisfatório, já que fatores que ameaçam a integridade biológica das áreas protegidas não deveriam ocorrer após sua criação. Medidas de proteção mais adequadas devem ser tomadas visando atingir o objetivo da unidade de conservação.

  5. Produção científica sobre psicoterapias breves no Brasil e demais países latino-americanos (1990-2000 Scientific production on brief psychotherapies in Brazil and other Latin-American countries (1990-2000

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    Neci Sena Ferreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de delinear um perfil da literatura científica sobre as psicoterapias breves no Brasil e demais países da América Latina, entre 1990 e 2000, através de levantamento realizado nas seguintes bases eletrônicas de dados: Lilacs, PsycINFO, Medline, Adolec, Scielo, MedCarib, Teses Brasileiras, PAHO e WHOLIS. Os 81 resumos obtidos foram analisados segundo as seguintes categorias: distribuição da produção, autoria, afiliação institucional dos autores, fonte de publicação, ano da publicação, idioma, suporte de publicação, população alvo, enfoque teórico, natureza do trabalho. Os resultados sugerem que: 1 as bases de dados eletrônicas constituem atualmente importante fonte de acesso à produção brasileira sobre as psicoterapias breves, não se podendo dizer o mesmo dos demais países latino americanos; 2 apesar da diferença numérica, verifica-se um perfil semelhante quanto às variáveis estudadas para o conjunto das produções.The purpose of this study was to outline a profile of the scientific literature concerning brief psychotherapies in Brazil and other countries of Latin America, from 1990 to 2000, based on an electronic databases survey. Data obtained from Lilacs, PsycINFO, Medline, Adolec, Scielo, MedCarib, Brazilian Thesis, PAHO and WHOLIS resulted in 81 abstracts analyzed according to the: production distribution, authorship, affiliation, source, publication year, language, document type, population, theoretic approach and publication type. Results suggested that: 1 the electronic databases are currently important sources for accessing the Brazilian brief psychotherapy production, but not for the other Latin America countries; 2 despite the quantitative difference of both productions, a similar profile may be verified respecting many of the variables under study.

  6. Câncer na população feminina brasileira Cancer among women in Brazil

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    Guinar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se mostrar a importância do câncer enquanto causa de morte e morbidade para a população feminina brasileira. Foram analisados os dados das estatísticas de mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde e os disponíveis nos registros de câncer de base populacional existentes nos municípios em Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, Goiânia, São Paulo e Porto Alegre (Brasil. Em 1986 o câncer foi responsável por 15,5% dos óbitos em mulheres acima de quinze anos no Brasil. Os cânceres de mama e útero representaram quase um terço desses óbitos. A comparação internacional mostrou que os coeficientes de incidência de câncer de colo de útero em Recife e Belém foram os mais altos do mundo e os de mama em Fortaleza e São Paulo são próximos dos encontrados nas regiões de mais altas cifras como nos Estados Unidos e alguns países da Europa. São discutidos os principais fatores de risco para os cânceres mais prevalentes entre as mulheres brasileiras, guardando as diferenças culturais, sociais e geográficas, bem como os programas de controle existentes. Conclui-se que os programas, de "screening" e de diagnóstico precoce para o câncer de colo uterino tiveram coberturas muito baixas. Considerou-se que o estabelecimento de uma política assistêncial e de controle que inclua a prevenção e o diagnóstico precoce para os cânceres de colo uterino e de mama nos programas de assistência à mulher deveria ser uma das prioridades de saúde pública, no Brasil.This study seeks to show the importance of cancer as a cause of morbidity and mortality among Brazilian women. Mortality data from the Health Ministry and incidence data from the six Brazilian Population Based Cancer Registries (Belém, Fortaleza, Recife, S. Paulo, Porto Alegre e Goiânia were used. Cancer accounted for 15.5% of all deaths in women above fifteen years of age, in 1986. Breast and uterine cancer were responsible for some 30% of these deaths. International comparisons show

  7. Estudo exploratório sobre a dispensação de fitoterápicos e plantas medicinais em Porto Alegre/RS

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Heckler, Ana Paula; Andreazza Dall Agnol, Roberta Simone; Heineck, Isabela; Kuze Rates, Stela Maris

    2005-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo exploratório sobre o uso e dispensação de fitoterápicos e plantas medicinais em farmácias e drogarias de Porto Alegre (Brasil). Foram contatadas 20 farmácias e em todas foi relatada a procura por fitoterápicos e plantas medicinais. A maioria dos produtos dispensados é aprovada pela legislação brasileira e internacional; o acompanhamento de receita médica é eventual e a solicitação de orientação farmacêutica não é freqüente. No entanto, vário...

  8. Hereditary haemoglobin disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, M A; Costa, F F

    1985-01-01

    The data on the incidence and variability of hereditary haemoglobin (Hb) disorders in Brazil are reviewed. The most common abnormalities are HbS, HbC and beta-thalassaemias. Both homozygotes and compound heterozygotes for these genes (i.e., HbS/HbC disease, S/beta-thalassaemia, C/beta-thalassaemia) are common, owing to the free miscegenation of populations of Mediterranean and African ancestry. The diversity of beta-thalassaemias is similar to that observed in other regions. beta(0)-Thalassaemia is more frequent than the beta(+) variant among affected individuals. Most patients are descendants of Italian immigrants but occasional cases have other racial origins. Patients with thalassaemia major are mostly beta (0) homozygotes, while thalassaemia intermedia is more heterogeneous, including a variety of genotypes. alpha-Thalassaemias are not common although cases of HbH disease have been reported. Isolated examples of several Hb variants have been described, and two abnormal Hb were first found in Brazil: Hb Porto Alegre and Hb Niteroi. PMID:3898485

  9. Entre Aldeia Kaingang ou Parque Natural: o processo de configuração de um conflito socioambiental na disputa pelo Morro do Osso, Porto Alegre, RS

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    Guilherme Fuhr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the socio-environmental conflicts around the logics of occupation at Morro do Osso (Bone’s Hill in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Disputes involving different types of appropriation, use and significance of this area have been motivating actions of quite heterogeneous institutions and social organizations. Since the late 70’s, environmentalists who were concerned about the growing urbanization mobilized to ensure the hill’s preservation, a process that culminated on the creation of Morro do Osso Natural Park. Ten years later, in 2004, Kaingang indigenous people began to claim the demarcation of an indigenous land at Morro do Osso on an area that overlaps the Park. Thus, two territorialities emerged and began to polarize the conflict: on the one hand, those who favor maintaining the Morro do Osso Natural Park institutionalization; on the other hand, efforts for the Topë pën Kaingang’s land recognition and demarcation. Therefore, precisely the resulting tensions and implications of this polarization will be discussed here in order to bring out part of the discursive arena and the consequences of this territorial dispute, that, to date, has been demonstrating nothing dialogical and no prospect of consensus agreement between the parties involved, following a logic of “winners and losers” to the outcome of the dispute.

  10. Politics representation scenarios and elec toral behavior - study case: Porto Alegre's municipal elections in 2004

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    Fernanda Barth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to reflect about the influence of the political surveys in the definition of the electoral behavior analyzing the scenarios of political representation, the mechanism of public opinion formation and the specificities of the behavior of the gaucho electorate. We believe the publicity built upon the surveys had a great impact in the Porto Alegre mayor election results in 2004. The methodology we chose was the qualitative approach, that is, content analysis. In the end, we confirm the behavior of the gaucho electorate shows a receptive predisposing to the appeal to the useful vote.

  11. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias: um estudo piloto em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Este estudo, tem como o objetivo determinar a freqüência das hemoglobinopatias em neonatos, que realizaram a coleta para o Teste de Triagem Neonatal para Distúrbios Metabólicos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O método utilizado para a determinação das variantes da hemoglobina, foi eletroforese por focalização isoelétrica em amostra de sangue total, coletadas em papel filtro por punção do calcanhar. Para confirmação diagnóstica dos casos alterados, foram realizadas eletroforeses das h...

  12. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Mello dos Santos; Renato Jose De Marchi; Aline Blaya Martins; Fernando Neves Hugo; Dalva Maria Pereira Padilha; Juliana Balbinot Hilgert

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the ...

  13. Apoyo en la implementación del programa Portais da Cidade de Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Rebollo

    2009-01-01

    Presentación expuesta durante el seminario "Desarrollo de Infraestructura para un Crecimiento Económico Sostenible. Lecciones Aprendidas de la Experiencia Española", llevado a cabo en Madrid, España, octubre, 2009. Uno de los principales componentes en la estrategia sectorial de la administración de Porto Alegre, Brasil, consiste en la renovación y ampliación de los corredores troncales de transporte público colectivo, a fin de resolver los problemas de degradación ambiental y urbana del cent...

  14. Mapeamento ambiental integrado: município de Porto Alegre, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, Heloise; Verdum, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    O estudo ambiental requer a busca de instrumentos capazes de integrar os diversos elementos físicos e biológicos de determinada área com os seus aspectos sociais e econômicos, visto que os problemas ambientais são cada vez mais complexos e, portanto, não podem ser analisados separadamente das forças que os produzem. Nessa perspectiva, o presente artigo objetiva apresentar o processo de construção do mapeamento integrado de dados ambientais referentes ao município de Porto Alegre (RS). A metod...

  15. Fauna reptiliana do norte da grande Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Thales de Lema; Marisa Ibarra Vieira; Moema Leitão de Araújo

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results of two years of herpetogeographic studies in the region called «Grande Porto Alegre» at its northern portion. The physiognomy shows, at North, slopes of the Brazilian Southern Plateau, more or less forested in a general view; these elevations graãuálly decrease to the South until the levei of the sea to Atlantic littoral by the eastern border, and to Rio Grande do Sul savanah, which extends to Uruguay and Argentina. The biota is transitio...

  16. Uurban Forestry Evaluations: Quantitative Surveys on Vegetation of Green Tunnels in Porto Alegre, RS

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    Luciane Teresa Salvi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os túneis verdes, objetos de estudo deste trabalho, constituem estruturas paisagísticas recorrentes na paisagem de Porto Alegre. Formados pela densa arborização viária, integram a floresta urbana da capital gaúcha e representam uma alternativa aos projetos dedicados ao fomento da vegetação em ambientes urbanizados. As propostas que objetivam a implantação desses túneis devem considerar o aumento da densidade e diversidade da flora, sendo necessária a realização de diagnósticos da vegetação existente como subsídio para a formulação de tais projetos. Esta pesquisa avalia aspectos referentes à diversidade e à composição das espécies vegetais formadoras de alguns túneis verdes da cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, estabelecendo um comparativo entre as espécies existentes, tendo em vista que o manejo dessa vegetação linear representa uma das ferramentas que pode ser empregada visando ao aumento da densidade e diversidade das florestas urbanas.

  17. Feng shui pa-kua / Ann Tenno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tenno, Ann, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Pa-kua sümbol, kolmikmärkide Varane Taevane Järjestus - yin pa-kua ja Hilisem Taevane Järjestus - yang pa-kua. Inimeste kodude - majade ja aedade kujundamiseks kasutatakse Hilisema Taevase Järjestuse pa-kua'd. Pa-kua kolmikmärgid yang pa-kua järjestuses, soovitusi aia kujundamiseks. 8 ill

  18. Perfil da utilização da sedação com óxido nitroso por cirurgiões-dentistas na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS

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    Ana Carla de Lima Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to know the profi le of the usage of nitrous oxide by dentists of the city of Porto Alegre/RS. Based on the data of the CRO/RS, we identifi ed 21 qualified professionals in Porto Alegre/RS. A structuralized questionnaire with open and closed questions was sent to the surgeon dentists with 76% of return (16. The results evidenced that 70% (11 of the interviewed professionals use the technique routinely, being that 40% are specialized in Odontopediatrics. Regarding the professional experience, it was noticed that six (6 graduated in the 70's and 80's and four (4 graduated in the 90's. The positive points mentioned were the effectiveness in reducing the anxiety and fear and the low risk. The negative points mentioned were the high cost of the technique and the need of patient's cooperation. Although this technique is used by few dentists, the conscious sedation with nitrous oxide has a great potential for its usage, specially in Odontopediatrics.

  19. Comida e Direitos Humanos no Presídio Central de Porto Alegre Food and Human Rights in the Central Prison in Porto Alegre

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    Dani Rudnicki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca determinar a realidade da preparação, distribuição e quantidade da comida oferecida no Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, RS, aos detentos. Ele foi elaborado utilizando-se metodologia qualitativa, a partir de observações in loco, e entrevistas realizadas no mês de fevereiro de 2010 com presos, policiais e técnicos que atuam na cozinha dessa prisão. Percebeu-se que os presos gostam da comida recebida e não reclamam de questões relativas à higiene ou qualidade. Assim, ainda que a comida não seja produzida em obediência a padrões mínimos de higiene, as críticas nesse sentido provêm apenas por parte de visitantes (políticos, juízes, promotores, defensores de Direitos Humanos, que pertencem a outra classe social e que, portanto, possuem um gosto diverso (Bourdieu. Logo, ainda que os Direitos Humanos não sejam atendidos nessa unidade prisional (em especial no que tange à Superlotação, pode-se afirmar que, no referente à alimentaçâo, o atendimento é satisfatório.This paper seeks to determine the reality of the preparation, distribution and quantity of food offered in the Central Prison of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, to the detainees. It was developed using qualitative methodology, from on-site observations and interviews conducted in february 2010 with prisoners, officers and technicians who work in thekitchen of this prison. It was noted that prisoners like the food received and did not complain of issues relating to hygiene or quality. So even though the food is not produced in compliance to minimum standards of hygiene, the criticism in this sense comes only by guests (politicians, judges, prosecutors, and defenders of human rights that belong to another class and therefore have a different taste (Bourdieu. So, although human rights are not met in this prison unit (especially with regard to over crowding, one can say that, with regard to food, the service is satisfactory.

  20. Perfil de puérperas adolescentes atendidas em um hospital ensino do sul do país - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8946 The profile of teenage mothers attending in a teaching hospital at Southern Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.8946

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    Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A gravidez na adolescência acarreta consequências sociais, emocionais e de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi traçar o perfil de puérperas adolescentes atendidas em um Hospital Ensino do Sul do país. Trata-se de uma pesquisa observacional, retrospectiva, transversal. A amostra foi composta por puérperas adolescentes, atendidas na Maternidade do Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP, em outubro de 2008. Foi evidenciado alto número de partos em adolescentes (26,22%. A maior parte residia na zona urbana, apresentava Ensino Médio incompleto, início precoce da vida sexual, união consensual, renda familiar baixa, não exercia atividade remunerada, iniciou tardiamente o pré-natal e era primigesta. Os resultados encontrados são semelhantes aos de outros estudos com adolescentes grávidas no Brasil. Os programas voltados para a prevenção das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis e consequentemente a gravidez indesejada na adolescência, não estão apresentando os resultados esperados. São necessárias atividades de educação em saúde para que as estratégias sejam incorporadas ao dia-a-dia. Um trabalho educacional realizado em parceria com as escolas e com os pais é uma alternativa. Durante o pré-natal e após o nascimento da criança, é necessário um trabalho que vai além da assistência voltada à saúde física da mãe e do bebê.   The adolescent pregnancy brings social, emotional and health consequences. The aim of this study was to delineate the profile of teenage mothers attended in a Teaching Hospital in Southern Brazil. This is an observational, retrospective, and transversal research. The sample was composed by adolescents, attended at the Maternity from the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná (HUOP, during October 2008. A high number of births among adolescents (26.22% was evidenced. Most of them lived in urban areas, with incomplete secondary education, early sexual activity, consensual union, low

  1. Síndrome de Gianotti-Crosti: aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e perfis sorológicos observados em 10 casos procedentes de Belém-PA (Brasil Gianotti-Crosti syndrome: clinical, laboratorial features, and serologic profiles of 10 cases from Belém, State of Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Lima

    2004-12-01

    as well as to investigate the role of viral pathogens in the etiology of GCS cases from Belem (PA, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 1996 to December 2002, ten children with a clinical diagnosis of GCS were investigated through routine laboratory exams and serologically screened for several virus specific antibodies. A diagnosis of GCS was considered for cases that presented clinical aspects considered suggestive, together with one or more of the following criteria: elevated titers of hepatic enzymes, lymphocytosis, positive viral serology or history of a prior vaccination. RESULTS: Six out of 10 children (60% showed evidence of HHV6 primary infection, as demonstrated through specific IgM-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Anti-HHV6-IgM antibody positivity in 6/10 patients suggests that the pathogen can play a role in the etiology of GCS. Consequently, the authors recommend that this virus is added to the routine serological tests when exanthematous processes are concerned, especially those with a morphology suggestive of GCS.

  2. Photos in the city, urban imaginaries: an experience with family albums in Porto Alegre Imaginada Fotografias na cidade, imaginários urbanos: uma experiência com álbuns de família em Porto Alegre Imaginada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Magalhães

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the process of research conducted in a study with family albums of black citizens from Porto Alegre. In the context of the research Porto Alegre Imaginada (Imagined Porto Alegre, we interviewed and photographed people that defined themselves as black, while they browsed their albums. Hearing their accounts, we sought to give visibility to a trajectory of citizens and a city that, most of the times, is unknown in official history as well as in traditional media spaces. In this text we want to contribute to the discussion about the use of photos in social research and its implications in the process of thinking identities and racial aspects of the metropolis. Este artigo traz reflexões sobre a processualidade de um estudo realizado a partir de álbuns de famílias de cidadãos negros em Porto Alegre. No contexto da pesquisa Porto Alegre Imaginada, entrevistamos e fotografamos pessoas que se autodefinem como negras, enquanto folheavam seus álbuns. Ao ouvir seus relatos e histórias, procuramos dar visibilidade a uma trajetória de cidadãos e a uma cidade que, na maioria das vezes, permanece desconhecida, tanto na história oficial como nos espaços midiáticos tradicionais. Neste texto, queremos contribuir para a discussão sobre a utilização de fotografias na pesquisa social, bem como sobre as implicações para pensar identidades e racializações na metrópole.

  3. Excited levels of Pa-233; Niveles excitados del Pa-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vara Cuadrado, J. M.

    1969-07-01

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T{sub 1}) detectors. (Author) 54 refs.

  4. Impacto ambiental de diferentes tipologías de viviendas de interés social en la ciudad de Porto Alegre/Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Cavalheiro, Camila

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo general: La tesina tiene como objetivo evaluar el impacto ambiental de diferentes tipologías arquitectónicas de viviendas de interés social en la ciudad de Porto Alegre/Brasil con el fin de proponer la reducción de este impacto en los próximos años. Objetivos específicos: 1- Comprender la política vigente para viviendas de interés social en la ciudad de Porto Alegre. 2- Comprender el territorio de Porto Alegre: la expansión territorial, las tendencias del modelo residenci...

  5. Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in a developing country Fatores de risco para síndrome da morte súbita do lactente em um país em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silveira Pinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether previously identified risk factors for sudden death syndrome have a significant impact in a developing country. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal case-control study carried out in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Cases (N=39 were infants born between 1996 and 2000 who died suddenly and unexpectedly at home during sleep and were diagnosed with sudden death syndrome. Controls (N=117 were infants matched by age and sex who died in hospitals due to other conditions. Data were collected from postmortem examination records and questionnaires answers. A conditional logistic model was used to identify factors associated with the outcome. RESULTS: Mean age at death of cases was 3.2 months. The frequencies of infants regarding gestational age, breastfeeding and regular medical visits were similar in both groups. Sleeping position for most cases and controls was the lateral one. Supine sleeping position was found for few infants in both groups. Maternal variables, age below 20 years (OR=2, 95% CI: 1.1; 5.1 and smoking of more than 10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy (OR=3, 95% CI: 1.3; 6.4, significantly increased the risk for the syndrome. Socioeconomic characteristics were similar in both groups and did not affect risk. CONCLUSIONS: Infant-maternal and socioeconomic profiles of cases in a developing country closely resembled the profile described in the literature, and risk factors were similar as well. However, individual characteristics were identified as risks in the population studied, such as smoking during pregnancy and maternal age below 20 years.OBJETIVO: Analisar se fatores de risco previamente identificados para a síndrome da morte súbita do lactente têm impacto significativo em um país em desenvolvimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, longitudinal, de caso-controle pareado realizado em Porto Alegre, RS. Os casos (N=39 foram lactentes nascidos entre 1996 e 2000 que morreram subitamente e inesperadamente em

  6. Noise in large cities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerges, Samir N. Y.

    2001-05-01

    Large cities' noise is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous pollution, preceded by air and water pollution. In urban centers, in general, and especially in developing countries such as Brazil, large populations are affected by excessive noise due mainly to traffic flow. The Brazilian Federal Government specifies noise limits, but each state can enforce its own set of noise limits, providing they are lower. The rapid economic growth, together with large migration of northern Brazilians to the developing southern urban areas in search of more lucrative jobs in construction and industrial sectors, resulted in a fast increase in activities such as vehicle and bus traffic, home construction, and development of all necessary infrastructures to support this growth. Urban noise in Brazil has been receiving the attention of national authorities only since 1990, when the Federal Government approved the first ``Program of Community Silence,'' based on ISO R 1996-1971. This paper highlights the noise situation in the five largest and most populated cities in Brazil: Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre and Curitiba [Zannin et al., Appl. Acoust. 63, 351-358 (2002)].

  7. Excited levels of Pa-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of Pa-233 excited levels from the alpha decay of Np-237 and from beta decay of Th-233 has been performed. The alpha decay spectrum was measured with a semiconductor spectrometer of 18 keV effective resolution (FWHM). Over 13 new lines were identified. The gamma ray spectra of Np-237 and Th-233 were obtained with a Ge-Li detector low and medium range energy lines, and with Si-Li detector for the low energy region. A continuous purification method of Np-237 from its comparatively short-lived daughter Pa-233 was applied. A high number of new lines were identified in both spectra. The gamma-gamma coincidence spectra were obtained with INa(T1) detectors. (Author) 54 refs

  8. Manual del espectrógrafo multifunción de Bosque Alegre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R.; Paolantonio, S.; Carranza, G.; Goldes, G.

    Este manual consta de 120 páginas y resume las características del Espectrógrafo Multifunción instalado en el telescopio de 1.54 m de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre. En este trabajo se describen, además, las técnicas a emplear para su puesta a punto y la secuencia de operaciones para la obtención de datos en cada uno de los modos que ya se encuentran en funcionamiento. Parte de este trabajo se realizó con el apoyo de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, a través de becas otorgadas a R.D. y S.P..

  9. [Stressing events in socially vulnerable children and adolescents in Porto Alegre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Michele; Koller, Sílvia Helena; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigated the occurrence and impact of stressing events for 297 low- income children/adolescents (both sexes; 7-16 years, M =11.22; SD = 2.13) in the city of Porto Alegre. Group 1 (G1) consisted of 142 participants (living with their families) and Group 2 (G2) of 155 institutionalized individuals. All were individually interviewed and answered the Stressing Events Inventory for Children/Adolescents. The most frequent stressing events for the sample were: follow orders given by the parents (85.2%); quarrels with friends (72.9%); death of relatives (71.8%); failure at school (69.2%); and rivalry of siblings (68%). Student's t-test revealed significant difference between groups (p 0.05). The high frequency and strong impact of stressing events reveal the situation of social and familiar vulnerability, presence of violence and lack of resources in the whole group. PMID:19197420

  10. Porta-enxertos para o cultivar Máximo IAC 138-22 de uvas de vinho em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP Rootstocks for wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilo Monteiro Terra

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, efetuou-se um experimento de longa duração para observar o comportamento do cultivar IAC 138-22 (Máximo de uvas para vinho, sobre cinco porta-enxertos: RR 101-14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 572 e IAC 313. Em oito colheitas sucessivas anuais, de 1974 a 1981, analisaram-se as produções médias de uvas por planta. Os resultados indicaram que o IAC 572' foi o melhor porta-enxerto para o IAC 138-22 'Máximo'. O IAC 313 superou o IAC 572 em um dos anos estudados. Todos os outros porta-enxertos apresentaram desempenho inferior.A long term experiment was conducted at Monte Alegre do Sul, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study the behaviour of wine grape cultivar IAC 138-22 Máximo on five rootstocks: RR 101 14, 'Golia', "Ripária do Traviú', IAC 313 and IAC 572 The yields of eight consecutive annual harvests (from 1974 to 1981 were analysed. The results indicated that IAC 572 was the best rootstock. IAC 313 can also be used but with fair results. "Ripária do Traviú', RR 101-14 and 'Golia' are not recommended as rootstocks for IAC 138-22. Considering the row spacing (2 x 1m which allows 5,000 plants/ha, the difference between average yields of the best and the worst rootstock was 8,475kg/ha of grapes, a considerable figure for the grape grower.

  11. Recepção dos meios, hibridações e identidades culturais na periferia de Porto Alegre. Um ensaio etnográfico

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    Fabrício Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The text try to present a series of empirical registers (notations of field, interviews, questionnaires and photographs gotten during the visits to a devoid community of Porto Alegre-RS. We expected that the collected materials contemplated the debate on the national identity, on our sincretic cultural ways and, especially, on the reception of the V Centenário constructed by the media.

  12. Estudo comparativo entre o manejo da asma em uma unidade de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS e as proposições do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma Asthma management in a public referral center in Porto Alegre in comparison with the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma estão sendo aplicadas em uma população de asmáticos em um hospital de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes adultos que iniciaram tratamento entre 1999 e 2002 foram avaliados. O tratamento recebido foi classificado em concordante ou discordante do Consenso. As características clínicas da asma e a freqüência do tratamento por especialista foram comparadas entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados os prontuários de 357 pacientes, com média de idade de 41 anos, sendo 106 homens (29,7% e 251 mulheres (70,3%, 33 tabagistas (9,2%. O tratamento foi considerado discordante em 246 pacientes (70%, sendo que, neste grupo, houve ausência de tratamento com corticóide inalatório em pacientes com asma persistente em 174 deles (71%. Volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo normal, idade entre doze e dezoito anos e asma intermitente foram observados com maior freqüência entre os pacientes com tratamento concordante (p OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the guidelines put forth in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management are being applied in a population of asthma patients treated at a public hospital that is a referral center for asthma in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: All adult asthma patients who began their treatment between 1999 and 2002 were evaluated. The treatment given was classified as consistent or inconsistent with the Consensus guidelines. The clinical features of asthma and the frequency of treatment provided by a specialist were compared between the two groups (those receiving guideline-consistent treatment and those receiving guideline-inconsistent treatment. RESULTS: The charts of 357 patients were evaluated. The study sample consisted of 106 males (29.9% and 251 females (70.3%. The mean age was 41 years, and 33 (9.2% of the patients were smokers. The treatment was considered

  13. Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, CP 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre RS, Brazil: Replica theory of granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenzon, Jeferson J.

    1999-03-01

    An infinite range spin-glass-like model for granular systems is introduced and studied through the replica mean-field formalism. Equilibrium, density-dependent properties under vibration and gravity are obtained that qualitatively resemble the results from real and numerical experiments.

  14. The Body Donation Program at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre: A Successful Experience in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Andrea Oxley; Tormes, Diane Alícia; Lehmann, Natassia; Schwab, Rafael Santos; Canto, Raphael Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    The use of dissection to study human anatomy is the foundation for educational excellence among future health professionals, as it offers an ideal opportunity to learn the body's morphology in three dimensions while also providing students with a more humanistic education. The shortage of bodies for dissection, combined with the Brazilian…

  15. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli; Geraldo Attilio de Carli; Alexandre José Macedo; Tiana Tasca

    2012-01-01

    Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old), and 85% amon...

  16. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old, and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  17. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old), and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population. PMID:22634881

  18. Geophysical Character and Geochemical Evolution of the Mesoproterozoic Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite, SW Amazon Craton (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louro, Vinicius; Cawood, Peter; Mantovani, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The Jauru Terrain hosts the Figueira Branca Intrusive Suite (FBS) in the SW of the Amazon Craton (Brazil). The FBS is a series of 1425 Ma layered mafic intrusions, previously interpreted as anorogenic. The FBS area is located in foreland to the Santa Helena orogen, formed by the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain under the Jauru Terrain. Potential field methods (magnetic and gravity), gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical and isotope data were used to characterize and to model the extent of FBS magmatism, the distribution of faults and shear zones in the area, to evaluate affinities of the magmatic activity, and the relation between the FBS and the Santa Helena orogen. The geophysical methods identified three anomalies corresponding with FBS outcrops. A fourth anomaly with significantly higher amplitude was observed to the north of the three anomalies. From south to north, the anomalies were named Indiavaí, Azteca, Figueira Branca and Jauru. These anomalies were modeled and indicated a northwest-southeast trend, parallel to regional shear zones. The gamma-ray data enabled the collection of 50 samples from the FBS rocks, the Alto Jauru group that hosts the FBS, from nearby intrusive suites, and the Rio Alegre Terrain. The 30 freshest samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for oxides and some trace elements, 20 by ICP-MS for Rare-Earth Elements and 10 for Nd-Sr isotope analyses. The FBS samples were gabbros and gabbro-norites with Nb/Yb-Th/Yb and TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb ratios indicating varying degrees of crustal interaction. The TiO2/Yb-Nb/Yb data suggested a subduction related component and the ɛNd-ɛSr indicated a juvenile source. Samples from coeval adjacent intermediate magma suites displayed similar characteristics, which suggest derivation from a bimodal source probably related with the subduction of the Rio Alegre Terrain. We interpreted the tectonic setting of the FBS as a result of a roll-back of the subducted slab, which resulted in rejuvenation of the

  19. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  20. Oralidad y representación. La otra voz en la narrativa de Ciro Alegría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Larrú

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone estudiar la funcionalidad de los relatos de tradiciónoral que narran los personajes populares de las novelas de CiroAlegría. Se considera que la intercalación de estos textos, más allá degenerar el suspenso (como propone Tomás Escajadillo, o poner en evidenciala intensa verosimilitud del universo representado —al ser untipo de cuentística típica del referente que Alegría representa literariamente(como señala Antonio Cornejo Polar— tienen como función laconstrucción de un sujeto heterogéneo y popular distinto al narradormonológico y grafocentrista. En tal sentido, siguiendo a Huaytán Martínez,se propone que la incorporación en estas novelas de relatos deraíz oral establecen vasos comunicantes entre la narrativa indigenista deCiro Alegría y el género testimonial.

  1. Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors Incidência de câncer de estômago no Brasil: estudo ecológico com fatores de risco selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Koifman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-based cancer registries in Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém, and Goiânia; and data from a Brazilian national survey on family expenditures (several diet consumption items and availability of home refrigerators carried out in 1974-75. The results suggested that past availability of a home refrigerator, i.e. food preservation, may have played an important role in currently observed differences in stomach cancer incidence among the various populations studied in Brazil. Differences in living standards among populations in these cities also appear to have played an important role in the observed incidence differences.De forma distinta daquela verificada em muitos países industrializados onde se vem observando um marcado declínio das taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago, o Brasil ainda apresenta taxas consideradas intermediárias ou elevadas desta doença. Visando realizar um estudo exploratório das possíveis razões para estas diferenças, se realizou um estudo ecológico através de análise de agrupamento (cluster, análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial. Foram incluídos nestas análises as taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago no início da década de 90 - determinadas pelos registros de câncer de base populacional no país (Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém e Goiânia -, bem como aqueles obtidos através de inquérito nacional de despesas familiares (ENDEF realizado em 1974-75. Este levantou dados

  2. Is Brazil really a catholic country? What opinions about abortion, sex between individuals who are not married to each other, and homosexuality say about the meaning of catholicism in three Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene A. F de B. Longo; Paula Miranda-Ribeiro; Potter, Joseph E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    The idea of being a Catholic country is quite widespread throughout the nation. What does it mean to be Catholic in Brazil? Do Catholics follow the Catholic Doctrine? The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between religion and religious involvement (measured by religious affiliation and service attendance) and opinions about abortion, sex between individuals who are not married to each other, and homosexuality in São Paulo, Porto Alegre, and Recife. Data come from the ...

  3. Six sigma: program characteristics in eleven companies located in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Terezinha Martins Correa Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma combines managerial factors with statistical tools and is deployed in many enterprises today. Rio Grande do Sul is a Brazilian state that has a great industrialization, especially in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre. Some of these industries have deployed the Six Sigma program. The aim of this paper is to present characteristics of the Six Sigma program in companies located in this region, through an exploratory study. A literature review subsidized the development of the questionnaire. Eleven companies participated of research in July and August 2008. It used statistical tools and qualitative analysis to analyze the results. Most of the companies that participated is classified as large and uses the DMAIC method to implement Six Sigma. The principal cause of program implementation was process improvement. In only one company the Six Sigma is implemented in all sectors, including administrative areas. Another result is the lack of clearly criteria for defining the career of Belts and the discrepancy of academic formation of these specialists.

  4. 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consistency of neutron-induced fission cross section data of 231Pa and 233Pa and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. Present estimate of 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section is supported by smooth level density parameter systematic, validated in case of 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En=20 MeV. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer reaction data

  5. Violência sexual e sua prevalência em adolescentes de Porto Alegre, Brasil

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    Polanczyk Guilherme Vanoni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência da exposição à violência sexual entre adolescentes estudantes de escolas estaduais. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 52 escolas estaduais de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, com ensino fundamental completo, por meio de um processo de amostragem aleatória, estratificada de acordo com o tamanho das escolas. Foi selecionada, em cada escola, uma turma de oitava série por sorteio aleatório e foram incluídos todos os adolescentes presentes nas salas de aula que consentiram em participar do estudo. Foi utilizado o instrumento Triagem da Exposição de Crianças à Violência na Comunidade para identificar jovens que foram vítimas, testemunhas ou que conheciam vítimas de atos de violência sexual. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 1.193 adolescentes, representando 10,3% dos alunos matriculados na oitava série da rede estadual da cidade. Vinte e sete (2,3% adolescentes relataram ter sido vítimas de violência sexual, 54 (4,5% ter sido testemunhas de algum tipo de violência sexual e 332 (27,9% relataram conhecer alguém que tenha sido vítima de violência sexual. CONCLUSÕES: A exposição à violência sexual pelas três formas de contato relatadas mostrou-se freqüente entre os adolescentes estudados. São necessários estudos que abordem a violência sexual como um fenômeno social amplo, com múltiplos fatores associados, amparando estratégias comunitárias de prevenção e de tratamento.

  6. Petrochemical characteristics of Serra do Meio alkaline granite (Campo Alegre de Lourdes - Bahia State)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Serra do Meio granite outcrops near the town of Campo Alegre de Lourdes, north-northeast of Bahia State. The granite is intrusive into micachists, which are correlatives of the Salgueiro-Cachoeirinha Group (Early Proterozoic), during early to the syn-tectonic shear phase. The geological setting also comprises a phosphatic rock-bearing carbonatitic complex and gabbroid complexes with one of the main world resources of Fe-Ti-V. The granite mineralogical composition grades from Aegerine-augite alkali-feldspar granite/syenites to Leuco alcali-feldspar granite. The geochemical analysis shows SiO2-enrichment (67 to 76%), in alkalis (Na2+K2O, 7,5 to 12,5%), Nb (up to 680ppm), Zr (up to 2,390ppm), Y (up to 250ppm) e REE (up to 796ppm). The geochemical behaviour is peculiar to alkaline series, denoting a silica-oversaturated, potassium-rich, magma. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns display a first group with smooth slopes from the La to Lu, and a second one with negative slopes. Negative Eu anomalies are displayed in all the patterns. The first group is HREE-enriched, with low fractionation ratios. Samples with milonytic fabrics and higher fractionation ratios are related to the second group, suggesting the interaction of metassomatic fluids and the alkaline magma. Discriminant diagrams for Nb, Y and Rb, coupled with geophysical data, point to an intrusive granite in an extensional within a plate tectonic setting of attenuated continental crust. (author)

  7. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias: um estudo piloto em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Esteves Daudt

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, tem como o objetivo determinar a freqüência das hemoglobinopatias em neonatos, que realizaram a coleta para o Teste de Triagem Neonatal para Distúrbios Metabólicos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O método utilizado para a determinação das variantes da hemoglobina, foi eletroforese por focalização isoelétrica em amostra de sangue total, coletadas em papel filtro por punção do calcanhar. Para confirmação diagnóstica dos casos alterados, foram realizadas eletroforeses das hemoglobinas em acetato de celulose com pH 8,6 e em citrato de ágar com pH 6,2, em amostra de sangue total dos neonatos e dos seus progenitores. Foram analisados, 1.615 indivíduos, e identificada a presença da hemoglobina S em 20 amostras e da hemoglobina C em seis amostras. Esses valores, correspondem a uma freqüência de 1,2% para o gene da anemia falciforme e 0,4% para o gene da doença de hemoglobina C, independente da raça ou ascendência. Esses dados, sugerem que a inclusão da triagem neonatal universal para hemoglobinopatias nos projetos já implementados para fenilcetonúria e hipotireoidismo congênito, apresenta vantagens e deve ser considerada pelos programas de saúde.

  8. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias: um estudo piloto em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daudt Liane Esteves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, tem como o objetivo determinar a freqüência das hemoglobinopatias em neonatos, que realizaram a coleta para o Teste de Triagem Neonatal para Distúrbios Metabólicos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. O método utilizado para a determinação das variantes da hemoglobina, foi eletroforese por focalização isoelétrica em amostra de sangue total, coletadas em papel filtro por punção do calcanhar. Para confirmação diagnóstica dos casos alterados, foram realizadas eletroforeses das hemoglobinas em acetato de celulose com pH 8,6 e em citrato de ágar com pH 6,2, em amostra de sangue total dos neonatos e dos seus progenitores. Foram analisados, 1.615 indivíduos, e identificada a presença da hemoglobina S em 20 amostras e da hemoglobina C em seis amostras. Esses valores, correspondem a uma freqüência de 1,2% para o gene da anemia falciforme e 0,4% para o gene da doença de hemoglobina C, independente da raça ou ascendência. Esses dados, sugerem que a inclusão da triagem neonatal universal para hemoglobinopatias nos projetos já implementados para fenilcetonúria e hipotireoidismo congênito, apresenta vantagens e deve ser considerada pelos programas de saúde.

  9. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Camila Mello dos; De Marchi, Renato Jose; Martins, Aline Blaya; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs. PMID:23657487

  10. The prevalence of elder abuse in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mello dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of the elderly is a form of violence to come to the public's attention. Dental professionals are in an ideal position to identify physical abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of elderly abuse and analyze the database of injury reports that can be identified by dental teams. A documentary analysis study developed by the Elderly Protection Police Station of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, was carried out. The information used came from 2,304 complaints filed at the aforementioned institution between the years of 2004 and 2006. The records of abuse are categorized as injury, neglect, mistreatment, theft, financial abuse, threat, disturbing the peace, atypical fact, and others. The injuries that could be identified by the dental team were classified according to the injury's location in the area of the head, face, mouth and neck. Descriptive analysis was performed, and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the distributions of the types of elder abuse in relation to sex and age. The most frequent of the different types of abuse was theft, with a prevalence of 17.8%, followed by disturbing the peace at 11.8%. Disturbing the peace, threat, and bodily injury were significantly associated with women. Elder abuse among women and men declines with age. The prevalence of head injury was 25% of the total injuries, most often in females, and in those aged < 70 years. Based on these results, it is necessary that the dental team observe the elderly person's appearance for suspicious physical signs.

  11. Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and

  12. Fission cross section calculations for Pa isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the recently measured cross-section values for the neutron-induced fission of 231Pa and our experience gained with other isotopes, new self consistent neutron cross section calculations for n+231Pa have been performed up to 30 MeV. The results are quite different to the existing evaluations, especially above the first chance fission threshold. (authors)

  13. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  14. Uma investigação aplicada da identidade da marca : o caso das porcelanas Vista Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Ruão, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    O presente artigo descreve uma investigação empírica conduzida no sentido de proceder ao diagnóstico de identidade de uma marca portuguesa, quase bi-centenária. Constituiu objectivo da pesquisa descortinar os traços caracterizadores da identidade da marca de produto Vista Alegre, e analisar a sua forma de relacionamento com o mercado. O método usado foi o estudo de casos simples, complementado pela técnica da análise de conteúdo. O modelo de diagnóstico de identidade aplicado resultou da comb...

  15. Feupa: uma revista produzida pela Federação dos Estudantes Universitários de Porto Alegre (RS, 1945/46 - Feupa: a magazine produced by the Federation of University Students of Porto Alegre (RS, 1945/46

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilza Porto Gonçalves

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo divulga parte de uma investigação, ainda em andamento, sobre o impresso estudantil Feupa, revista produzida pelos integrantes da Federação dos Estudantes de Porto Alegre - Feupa -, durante a década de 1940. A pesquisa indica que a produção de impressos por estudantes estava relacionada à cultura da época. Os temas abordados pelos estudantes, presentes nas páginas de Feupa, são variados: política, literatura, filosofia, ciências, teatro, assuntos estudantis e problemas relacionados à Universidade de Porto Alegre, que começa a se encaminhar para constituir a atual Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. por meio dessas escritas ordinárias, podemos perceber idéias e posicionamentos políticos implícitos nas escolhas dos assuntos, das ilustrações, da distribuição dos textos e imagens no corpo do periódico e explícitos em debates políticos e ideológicos. A análise deste impresso estudantil possibilita o estudo do próprio impresso e da cultura escolar que o envolvia, assim como pode ser norteador de estudos sobre a juventude universitária e o movimento estudantil.Palavras-chave: impresso estudantil, cultura escolar, movimento estudantil, ensino superior. FEUPA: A MAGAZINE PRODUCED BY THE FEDERATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS OF PORTO ALEGRE (RS, 1945/46  AbstractThis article presents part of a still ongoing research about the student publication Feupa. It was produced by the members of Student Federation From Porto Alegre - Feupa - during the 1940’s. This research indicates that the print production of students was culturally related at that time. The topics discussed by this group in the publication are diverse, among them politics, literature, philosophy, science, theater, and problems related to the university of Porto Alegre, which became later the federal university of Rio Grande do Sul. Trough Feupa, it is possible to perceive implicit political idead and positions when choosing the topics, the

  16. tPA-binding RNA Aptamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Nils

    2015-01-01

    -density lipoprotein receptor Related Protein-1 (LRP-1). Here, we describe the selection and characterisation of structured RNA ligands (“RNA aptamers”) to tPA, K18 and K32. Both aptamers were truncated to minimal 32-nucleotide constructs (v2) with improved or unchanged activities, and were shown to bind tPA with low...... nanomolar affinities and efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 binding and LRP-1 mediated cellular endocytosis. Both aptamers minimally affected the fibrinolytic properties of tPA despite efficiently inhibiting plasminogen activation stimulated by a soluble fibrin fragment. K18v2 additionally inhibited plasminogen......, and upon conjugation to serum albumin. K18v2 was able to inhibit tPA-induced fibrinogen depletion in vitro, which may provide additional benefits in stroke treatment. A conjugate of both aptamers separated by a linker encompassed the activities of both constituent sequences, and additionally possessed...

  17. [Cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer screening program in Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Caleffi, Maira; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an organized breast cancer mammographic screening program implemented in Porto Alegre (Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA), Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A Markov model was constructed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of NMPOA compared to current BC diagnosis and care in the Brazilian public health system, in a hypothetical cohort of women aged 40-69 years at risk of developing breast cancer. Model parameters were collected from NMPOA and the national literature. In the NMPOA strategy, effectiveness was modeled taking into account the actual observed screening adherence. Effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case was R$ 13,426 per QALY. This result was not sensitive to variation in the main model parameters in sensitivity analyses. Considering the threshold usually suggested as highly attractive in Brazil, breast cancer screening as performed in NMPOA is cost-effective in cities with high incidence of breast cancer. PMID:25402242

  18. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda W. Wirth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in two hospitals located in the Southern part of Brazil and compare the performance of two different phenotypic tests. Thirty-one non-repetitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from various clinical samples from patients admitted to two hospitals located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (twenty-three from a hospital in Porto Alegre City and eight isolates from a hospital in Vale dos Sinos Region. All strains suggestive of possessing MBLs by phenotypic methods were included in this study. Phenotypic detection of MBLs was carried out simultaneously by using both the MBL Etest® and disk approximation test using 2-mercaptopropionic acid close to a ceftazidime disk. Strains positive were further confirmed using molecular techniques for blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM-1. The prevalence of MBLs from samplesof inpatients from the hospital located in Porto Alegre was 30.4% and that of inpatients from Vale dos Sinos hospital was only 3.1%. Only MBL type SPM-1 was detected in these samples by molecular analysis and all were detected by the Etest® MBL strips. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa that produce MBLs can be markedly different in distinct geographical areas, even among different hospitals in the same area. In our study, the EDTA-based method was the only method able to detect all strains harboring the SPM-1 enzyme.

  19. De las voces pasivas al sonido activo: actividades musicales en el circuito superior marginal e inferior en las ciudades brasileñas de San Pablo, Río de Janeiro, Puerto Alegre, Goiania y Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villy Creuz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1990 algunas empresas de producción, distribución y consumo de música son reorganizadas. La disposición de nuevos sistemas técnicos transforma los factores de producción y la división del trabajo en las grandes ciudades. La banalización de equipamientos de trabajo ocurre concomitante a la informatización del país. Ese proceso amplió el espesor de la división de tareas entre actores sociales que trabajan con música en los dos circuitos de la economía: circuito inferior y superior. Por medio de algunas situaciones concretas en los trabajos de campo en San Pablo (SP, Río de Janeiro (RJ, Goiania (GO, Puerto Alegre (RS y Recife (PE, se buscará demostrar la coexistencia entre estudios de grabación y ensayo musical, micro y pequeñas grabadoras y comerciantes callejeros.

  20. Consumer buying motives and attitudes towards organic food in two emerging markets: China and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Investigate if consumer buying motives regarding organic food in emerging economies China and Brazil are culture bound or determined by key characteristics of the product. Methodology: A survey was collected in Guangzhou, China, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Data were analyzed by means...... about its healthiness, taste and environmental friendliness. Also, consumer attitudes towards buying organic food are positively related to what Schwartz’s “Universalism” values in all studied cultures. Research limitations: Correlational (survey) data do not allow conclusions about causality...... and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...

  1. Prospection for natural 231Pa in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protactinium-231 (231Pa) occurs in nature as a member of the decay chain of naturally occuring 235U of the 4n+ 3 radioactive series. The expected protactinium concentration in the Jaduguda ore body (with uranium concentration of 0.03-0.06 %) is around 0.2 parts per billion (ppb) and that in monazite ore (uranium concentration 0.3%) is 0.9 ppb. The process at uranium ore processing plant at Jaduguda was studied. 231Pa content in samples from the process streams of the plant was determined. The gamma ray spectrometry method was chosen and standardised in our laboratory to detect and measure 231Pa in parts per billion levels in these samples. A concentrated source of protactinium could not be found among the assessed streams of Jaduguda uranium plant. The Monazite processing plant at IRE, Aluva was then studied. From the known chemistry of protactinium, the possible distribution of the 231Pa was guessed at. Accordingly, the process streams of IRE process plant were selected to prospect for 231Pa and determine the fractionation of protactinium. For analysis of 231Pa, the thorium bearing samples were chemically treated to remove the thorium daughter products, which interfere in gamma spectrometry. This report describes the planning for prospecting, sample selection, the standardisation of the analysis procedure for determination of 231Pa content, and the analysis results. The 231Pa content in various streams of Indian Rare Earths plant was found in the range 0.2 -6.5 ppb. Some of the streams did not carry any protactinium. The fractionation of 231Pa in the various streams of the plant and the selection of source for recovery of protactinium are discussed in detail. (author)

  2. A cidade e a Copa do Mundo: projetos e transformações urbanas em Porto Alegre - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Leal-Lahorgue

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A cidade de Porto Alegre será uma das sedes dos jogos da Copa do Mundo FIFA 2014 no Brasil. Por causa disso, estão previstas várias obras de adequação da infraestrutura urbana para que a cidade esteja preparada para o momento dos jogos. Este texto apresenta quais são as obras acordadas entre os órgãos públicos brasileiros e a FIFA, sua localização no território da cidade e quais os impactos previstos no espaço urbano. Também contextualiza brevemente a forma como se tem produzido o espaço na cidade nas últimas décadas, com o intuito de demonstrar que algumas formas que pareciam superadas reaparecem no momento atual. Por fim, discute as conseqüências destas transformações para a cidade como um todo e seus cidadãos, questionando o tipo de legado que Porto Alegre pode ter com a Copa do Mundo.

  3. Mapas imaginários sobre Porto Alegre: as representações da cidade no cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam de Souza Rossini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os procedimentos de pesquisa e os resultados obtidos no subgrupo Cinema da pesquisa Porto Alegre imaginada: representações dos cidadãos sobre a cidade. Ao longo de 2007 e 2008, foram mapeados os filmes produzidos e exibidos em Porto Alegre, em diferentes formatos e suportes, e após foi feita a análise do corpus conforme as categorias propostas no projeto geral da pesquisa. O objetivo era compreender como a cidade era percebida e representada nas imagens audiovisuais cinematográficas. Na análise, observamos a estética visual e sonora, a estrutura narrativa e as principais temáticas. A cidade que surge nas telas de cinema com certeza é muito diferente do imaginário que existe sobre a cidade real. Ao invés de uma grande metrópole moderna, o que se percebe é uma cidade que mal consegue sair dos seus limites oitocentistas.

  4. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Piana de Andrade, Victor; Lucas, Maria da Conceição; Fung, Liang; Gagliardi, Sandra Maria B.; Santos, Sandra Rosalem P.; Mendes, Caio Marcio Figueiredo; Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Dick, Terry

    2005-01-01

    Cases of human diphyllobothriasis have been reported worldwide. Only 1 case in Brazil was diagnosed by our institution from January 1998 to December 2003. By comparison, 18 cases were diagnosed from March 2004 to January 2005. All patients who became infected ate raw fish in sushi or sashimi.

  5. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida) ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae) from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida) ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae) da região sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José F. R. Amato; Suzana B. Amato

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans), Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown), mimetizi...

  6. Identification and molecular characterization of the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from an outbreak in a broiler flock in midwestern Brazil Identificação e caracterização molecular do vírus da doença infecciosa da bolsa cloacal de um surto em lotes de frangos no centro-oeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de Paula; Jonny Yokosawa; Márcio Danilo Botrel Coutinho; Paulo Lourenço Silva; Rogério Avelar Ferraz; Thelma Fátima de Mattos Oliveira; Divina Aparecida Oliveira Queiróz

    2004-01-01

    In order to identify and characterize the agent of a suggestive clinical case of Gumboro disease (GD) that affected a 34-day-old broiler flock in Buriti Alegre (Goias State, Midwestern Brazil) in the year 2001, we carried out a combination of classic and modern virological methods. Histopathological analysis of the bursa revealed necrosis, presence of depleted follicles, some infiltration of heterophils, edema and formation of cystic cavities that are compatible with lesions observed in GD. I...

  7. The nuclear structure of 229Pa from the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level structure of the 229Pa nucleus has been investigated by means of the 231Pa(p,t)229Pa and 230Th(p,2nγ)229Pa reactions. Triton angular-distribution measurements were subjected to a CCBA analysis and combined with the results of in-beam conversion electron and γ-ray spectroscopy to establish a level scheme. Two low-lying bands of opposite parity were observed up to spins (23/2)- and (17/2)+, respectively. Rotational bands built on some 0+ excitations of the even-even core can be assigned. The lowest states of three further low-lying bands are observed. The level scheme is interpreted in terms of an octupole-deformed core with an unpaired proton. From the E1/E2 branching ratio the electric dipole moment can be deduced vertical stroke D0vertical stroke =(0.09 ±0.04) e .fm. ((orig.))

  8. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Pittsburgh, PA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  9. Leucemia mielóide aguda: o olhar dos anos 2000 no Serviço de Hematologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS Acute myeloid leukemia from the year 2000 point of view Hematology Service - Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane I. Bittencourt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia mielóide aguda (LMA representa uma preocupação para os especialistas, porque perfaz um percentual alto das leucemias no adulto e o sucesso terapêutico ainda é insatisfatório. A partir do ano 2000, o Serviço de Hematologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre definiu estratégias para diagnóstico, tratamento e seguimento das LMAs, de acordo com o subtipo FAB, idade, citogenética e performance status (ECOG. Todos os casos de LMA "de novo"não promielocítica, em adultos (15 a 65 anos foram acompanhados prospectivamente, desde outubro de 2001, data da implantação do protocolo c,ompreendendo três fases de tratamento: indução com o tradicional "7+3", citarabina 100 mg/m²/dia em infusão contínua em 7d, e daunorrubicina 60 mg/m²/dia em 3d e citarabina intratecal no D1 nas LMA M4 e M5. Após a recuperação medular, segue a consolidação idêntica à indução e posteriormente a intensificação com dois ou três ciclos de altas doses de citarabina 6 g/m²/dia por três dias. Foram diagnosticados, entre outubro/01 e dezembro/05, 69 pacientes portadores de LMA e destes, 39 com LMA "de novo"e idade entre 15 e 65 anos. Neste grupo foram analisadas a taxa de remissão, a taxa de recaída, a refratariedade e o tempo de sobrevida global. No final da observação foram encontrados: a taxa de indução de remissão 75%; aconteceram 12 (40% recaídas, 7 (19% foram refratários ao tratamento. A sobrevida global foi 37% em 56 meses, representando um incremento aos resultados obtidos no Serviço na década passada.Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is still a concern for hematologists as it represents a significant percentage of adult leukemias and the therapeutic success rates are unsatisfactory. In 2000, the Hematology Department of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre defined strategies for the diagnosis, treatment and follow up of AML patients according to the FAB subtype classification, age, cytogenetic tests and performance status

  10. Escola de Engenharia de Porto Alegre (1896-1934: hegemonia política na construção da universidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Costa Morosini, Maria Estela Dal Pai Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O texto resgata a trajetória da Escola de Engenharia de Porto Alegre (EE em seus primórdios - 1896-1922 - e como Universidade Técnica (UT - 1922-1934. A análise qualifica a E.E. como uma instituição científica ímpar para a época pela sua hegemonia com o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e pela sua face universitária com aproximações à idéia de universidade moderna, cujas funções privilegiam a pesquisa. Foram utilizados princípios de análise de conteúdo sobre fontes de informação normativas, de ocorrências, livros, revistas e jornais. Palavras-chave: Escola de Engenharia de Porto Alegre; história da educação.   Abstract The paper presents the historical path of the Porto Alegre School of Engineering (E.E. in its early times - 1896- 1922 – and as Technical University (TU 1922-1934. The analysis characterizes the School of Engineering as a peculiar scientific institution, to its time, for its political hegemony with the State of Rio Grande do Sul and for its university feature, connected to the idea of modern university, whose functions focuses on research. Various documents were analyzed: legislative, factual, books, periodicals and newspapers. Keywords: Porto Alegre School of Engineering; history of education.

  11. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV

  12. Variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre estudantes do ensino médio de escola pública e particular na cidade de Belém - PA Variables related to smoking initiation among students in public and private high schools in the city of Belém, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Denise da Silva Pinto; Sandra Aparecida Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre adolescentes estudantes de nível médio de uma escola particular e outra pública, na cidade de Belém-PA, em 2005. MÉTODOS: Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado um questionário não identificado, de autopreenchimento, com 27 questões fechadas, sobre experimentação de cigarro, fumo habitual, acesso à compra de cigarros, motivo para a experimentação do fumo, autopercepção sobre o seu rendimento escolar, diálogo sobre taba...

  13. Instrumento de avaliação para melhorias em processos organizacionais: caso do transporte coletivo rodoviário urbano de Porto Alegre Assessment instrument for organizational process improvement: the case of urban passengers transportation in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borchardt

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os dados obtidos a partir de estudos de casos em três empresas de transporte coletivo rodoviário urbano de Porto Alegre, estudos estes realizados no segundo semestre de 2004. O objetivo da pesquisa foi desenvolver um instrumento gerencial para a avaliação do potencial de melhoria dos processos destas organizações. Para desenvolver o instrumento de diagnóstico foi considerada a realidade do setor de transporte por ônibus nesta capital e a base teórica referente aos sistemas de gestão baseados na melhoria dos processos, tais como os critérios de excelência do prêmio ANTP de Qualidade, os princípios da Mentalidade Enxuta e do Lean Management. A definição do valor a ser oferecido pelo serviço de transporte, com base na percepção dos usuários, é um ponto que aparece como de grande potencial de melhoria, bem como o equilíbrio entre demanda e capacidade instalada.This paper presents data and information collected in the second semester of 2004, in a multiple case study developed in three city public bus transportation companies, operating in Porto Alegre. The goal of the research was to develop an instrument for assessing the potential for streamlining processes in companies. To do so, it was considered the business scenario of companies and industry, and the theoretical framework presented in Lean Thinking, ean Management, Award Excellence Criteria of industry. Issues related to perceived value present the major gaps between the degree of importance and degree of application attributed by these companies. Secondary gaps refer to balancing service capacity and demand.

  14. Japan's nuclear PA activity in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation emphasises some points of PA activities, based on the experience of 'cooperation projects for local governments'. Local governments distribute the public information directly to the residents. This is very important because officers of the local government can be the opinion leaders of the region. Local government exist very close to the residents, while the central government is a distant and faceless existence for the local people. It is believed that the local governments play an imperative role in PA activities. In other words, we must further utilize the organizations and functions of the local governments to implement PA activities. In conclusion, three recommendations are offered. Firstly, enough budget and authority should be given to the local governments as far as PA activities in their areas are concerned, and most of such activities should be entrusted to the local governments. Local governments should place more public relations officers, and continue the manpower development. Second, with regard to highly technical or specialized issues which a local governments cannot treat alone, related organizations like JAERO should support their PA activities. Third, such related organizations should also cooperate with local government including assistance in providing know-how, when their public information activities focus on educators, journalists, or the women. These three points should be given due consideration in our cooperation projects for the local governments, and JAERO is doing its best every day

  15. Variações no comprimento dos indivíduos de uma população do mexilhão dourado, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae), ao longo do ano, na Praia do Veludo, Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Length variation over a one-year period in specimens of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from Veludo Beach, Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia P. dos Santos; Maria Cristina D. Mansur; Norma L. Würdig

    2008-01-01

    The individual size of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) was evaluated twice a month, for a year, based on samples from Veludo Beach (30º12'35"S, 51º11'68"W) in Guaiba Lake, southern Porto Alegre, Brazil. Physical and chemical data on water quality, such as temperature, transparency, depth, pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, chlorophyll "a", and conductivity were also recorded. Adult samples were collected from underwater "sarandi" branches, Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng) K. Schum ...

  16. [The (in)salubrity of prison life and other causes of death in Porto Alegre Prison, 1855-1888].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Tiago da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the flow of penal sensitivities in relation to medical and health care provided to prisoners in Porto Alegre Prison between 1855 and 1888. The internalization and the instrumentalization of concepts such as "humanity" and "civilization," especially by those individuals involved directly or with strong chances of influencing changes pertaining to penal issues, are observed. Indeed, in addition to generating favorable public opinion, the concerns of governing authorities and leading lights led to the development of concrete measures and practices that increased the minimum subsistence offered to the imprisoned class. This process, however, was far from linear and harmonic as witnessed by the diseases and the precariousness of prison life. PMID:26331647

  17. drogas injetáveis no projeto de redução de danos de Porto Alegre - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gregis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es discutir las intervenciones de enfermería en los espacios de actuación de un programa de reducción de daños (PRD, centrado en el cuidado de enfermería transcultural. El trabajo de campo fue desarrollado en el ámbito del Programa de Reducción de Daños de Porto Alegre, en el período de 1998 al 2000, a partir del cuidado de enfermería a los usuarios abordados por el equipo del PRD. Concluímos que, más allá del cambio de jeringas, la práctica de cuidados de enfermería con competencia cultural permite la comprensión de la complejidad implicada con la aproximación de las cuestiones relacionadas al uso de drogas en la sociedad.

  18. In-beam spectroscopy of 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on energy levels and on E2 and M1 matrix elements in 231Pa has been obtained using conversion-electron and gamma-ray spectroscopy following the 232Th(p, 2p)231Pa reaction and Coulomb excitation of the radioactive target 231Pa by 4He and 32S ions. The results are analyzed in the framework of the rotational model, applied to the rotational band built on the 1/2-[530] Nilsson state whose 3/2- member forms the ground state of this nucleus. The deviations of the level energies from the rigidrotor values can be described by Coriolis couplings. The analysis of the Coulomb-excitation process shows that a constant set of rotational parameters Q0, gR, gK, and b can fairly well account for the measured line intensities. (orig.)

  19. Presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta e como introduzi-los nas práticas de gestão das empresas de transporte coletivo de Porto Alegre Presence of Lean Thinking principles and how to introduce them in the management of urban transport firms in Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto; Miriam Borchardt; Giancarlo Medeiros Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma pesquisa que investigou a presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta na indústria do transporte coletivo de Porto Alegre. Os procedimentos foram: mensuração do grau de presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta na gestão das quinze empresas de transporte coletivo por ônibus de Porto Alegre; teste da confiabilidade das respostas e separação das empresas em aglomerados, segundo a intensidade da presença; e estudos de caso com os aglomerados extremos, a associação...

  20. Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA alone in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Goyal, Mayank; Bonafe, Alain;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, less than 40% regain functional independence when treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone. Thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever, in addit......BACKGROUND: Among patients with acute ischemic stroke due to occlusions in the proximal anterior intracranial circulation, less than 40% regain functional independence when treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone. Thrombectomy with the use of a stent retriever......, in addition to intravenous t-PA, increases reperfusion rates and may improve long-term functional outcome. METHODS: We randomly assigned eligible patients with stroke who were receiving or had received intravenous t-PA to continue with t-PA alone (control group) or to undergo endovascular thrombectomy...

  1. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  2. 78 FR 62000 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement... of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  3. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  4. Os efeitos da carga tributária indireta e das políticas públicas agrícolas sobre os preços dos alimentos em Porto Alegre (RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Vasconcelos de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a vasta experiência e aptidão para os agronegócios geram reflexões sobre as implicações das políticas agrícolas e fiscais sobre a formação de preços dos alimentos e, por conseguinte, sobre a segurança alimentar. Destarte, o presente estudo visa avaliar o impacto da Política de Garantia de Preço Mínimos Agrícolas, do crédito rural e da carga tributária indireta sobre os preços dos principais alimentos da cesta básica de Porto Alegre (RS, Brasil. Para tanto, as estatísticas descritiva e inferencial foram empregadas na identificação de relações de causalidade entre as variáveis no período de janeiro/2005 a abril/2011. Observou-se que as regressões lineares múltiplas demonstraram significância estatística, com exceção das estimadas para os preços do café e farinha de trigo. Ainda, a oferta dos produtos amostrados tende a ser elástica, considerando-se o relacionamento positivo entre preços dos alimentos e as proxies dos subsídios públicos agrícolas. Percebeu-se que variações na carga tributária indireta implicam em variações no mesmo sentido no preço do arroz, feijão, leite, óleo e pão. Por fim, considerando-se o grau moderado de associação linear entre as variáveis explanatórias e os preços dos alimentos, sugere-se que variações nestes podem ser também explicadas por fatores relacionados ao processo produtivo e concorrencial.In Brazil, the vast experience and ability for agribusiness generate reflections regarding implications of fiscal and agricultural policies on the food pricing and, consequently, on food security. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the impact of the Minimum Price Policy for Agriculture, rural credit and indirect taxes on prices of some of the more important food from the Food Basket of Porto Alegre (RS, Brazil. To this end, descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify causal relationships between variables in the period from January/2005 to April

  5. Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to

  6. Gaps, goals and conditions for expanding graduate programs in psychology in Brazil / Lacunas, metas e condições para a expansão da pós-graduação em psicologia no país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Féres-Carneiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss gaps, goals and conditions for the expansion of graduate studies in psychology in Brazil. To this end, based on the assumption that it is necessary to consider the objectives to be achieved, the conditions for predicted or supposed feasibility must be taken into account. It is initially approached the need for expanding graduate studies in psychology. Affirmatively concluding it, different goals and conditions necessary to achieve such expansion are drawn: (a to proceed in the direction that every State in the country offers graduate programs in the area and that in five years, there are five States with new programs; (b that the States which already have masters' programs start to have doctorate ones; (c that the States that only have programs in private higher education institutions may also offer programs in public institutions; (d that in some States with large territory more micro-regions might be contemplated. To better equip the existing programs with qualified human resources, it is proposed an annual growth of awarded degrees around 10%. Analyzing data from surveys, difficulties of proposing goals based on some gaps in subareas were discussed, one of them is the lack of consensus about what should be a Concentration Area or Line of Research. The goals of Graduate Programs to be met with the types of expansion proposed and the issue of professional master's degrees were discussed and it was proposed the induction of professional master's in existing consolidated programs, up to a limit of 10% of the system (area in an interval of two years. It is suggested to prioritize the qualification / training of managers and professionals in the field of social policies (health care. Some goals have also been proposed considering the relation between graduate and undergraduate education and the needs indentified in the process of training such professionals. New studies and surveys are needed to update the available data

  7. Inclusões fluidas crepitadas, fluidos hipersalinos e aquo-carbônicos em quartzo associado a rochas micáceas no Granito Xinguara - Terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, PA Decrepitated fluid inclusions, aqueous-carbonic and hypersaline fluids in quartz associated to micaceous rocks in the Xinguara Granite - Rio Maria Granite - Greenstone terrain, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Leopoldo Weber

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As rochas micáceas encontradas no Granito Xinguara, terreno Granito-Greenstone de Rio Maria, Pará, são compostas por muscovita e clorita com níveis de quartzo intercalados, que formam uma xistosidade bem desenvolvida. Essa xistosidade é cortada por veios de quartzo. Ambas as gerações de quartzo apresentam os mesmos tipos de inclusões fluidas em halos ou trilhas secundárias de composições variadas entre aquosas, aquo-carbônicas e saturadas em torno de grandes inclusões primárias crepitadas ou em trilhas transgranulares secundárias. A grande variação de temperaturas de homogeneização, a alta salinidade, as evidências de estrangulamento e a existência das inclusões crepitadas permitem supor forte influência de alterações pós-formacionais e reequilíbrio relacionados à intrusão do granito. Essas rochas foliadas são, portanto, enclaves metassedimentares afetados por fluidos graníticos hipersalinos aquo-carbônicos.The micaceous rocks occurring in the Xinguara Granite, Rio Maria Granite-Greenstone terrain, Pará State, Brazil, are composed of muscovite and chlorite with quartz levels intercalated forming a well developed schistosity. This schistosity is cut by quartz veins. Both quartz generations show the same aqueous, aqueous-carbonic and halite-bearing fluid inclusions either in secondary inclusions halos and trails surrounding decrepitated primary fluid inclusions or in transgranular secondary trails. A wide variation of homogenization temperatures, high salinity, necking down and the decrepitated inclusions existence indicates strong influence of post-formational alteration and reequilibration linked to the granite intrusion. These foliated rocks are metasedimentary enclaves affected by late hypersaline aqueous-carbonic granitic fluids.

  8. Brazil; Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2015-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines infrastructure investment in Brazil. Brazil has inferior overall infrastructure quality relative to almost all its export competitors. Brazil’s infrastructure endowment ranks low by international standards, and its low quality affects productivity, market efficiency, and competitiveness. Areas in which Brazil’s competitiveness has lagged include, but are not limited to, education, innovation, governance, and justice. Brazil’s infrastructure gap has be...

  9. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    OpenAIRE

    L.M. Santa Anna; Sebastian, G.V.; E.P. Menezes; ALVES T. L. M.; Santos, A.S.(LAFEX, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); N. Pereira Jr.; D.M.G. Freire

    2002-01-01

    The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil) and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and CH4N2O) was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio ...

  10. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  11. La recepción crítica de la novelística de Ciro Alegría: una aproximación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La obra de todo escritor de relieve requiere ser estudiada desde la perspectivade su recepción y, por cierto, es Ciro Alegría una figura fundamentalde nuestro canon literario. Sin duda merece ser considerado unclásico peruano, y es pertinente calificar a sus tres novelas iniciales yesenciales como textos canónicos de la literatura peruana, por tanto“clásicos” en el sentido más elemental de la palabra. El atributo de clásicoresulta especialmente apropiado para el caso de El mundo es ancho yajeno. En este artículo nos proponemos hacer un análisis de la recepciónde la crítica académica y de la forma en que esta ha consolidado a lanovelística de Alegría como una obra capital en nuestra literatura.

  12. Cotidiano violento: oficinas de promoção em saúde mental em Porto Alegre Daily violence: a study of mental health promotion in Porto Alegre (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Meneghel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS e estudou famílias de baixa renda procedentes do bairro Partenon. A amostra de famílias foi selecionada pelo Conselho Tutelar da região, levando em conta tipos de infração perpetrada por algum integrante da família: pais abusivos, fuga de casa, uso de drogas, estupro e absenteísmo escolar de adolescentes. As famílias freqüentaram um grupo que se reuniu em nove encontros quinzenais, em horário noturno, durante os meses de agosto a dezembro de 1997. Nas oficinas usaram-se técnicas de pintura, música, fotografias e dramatização. Os pesquisadores reforçaram os aspectos sadios dessas famílias; colocaram limites nos comportamentos agressivos e ajudaram as pessoas a melhorar a auto-estima. Foram acompanhadas 11 famílias (33 pessoas. Destas, três participaram apenas do primeiro encontro, cinco famílias mostraram melhoras no final do processo e três famílias não puderam ser ajudadas. Acredita-se que grupos como esses podem ser úteis no manejo da violência doméstica.This work was carried out in the city of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul and studied low-income families from Partenon district. The families sample was selected by a local Children and Teenager Council, taking into account some kind of offense they have committed such as: intra-family violence, adolescents' runaway, drug addiction, school absenteeism and rape. The families attended a group during nine fortnight evening meetings, from August to September 1997. Paintings, music, photos and drama were used in the workshops. Researches improved families' healthy aspects; introduced limits on violent behavior and helped people to improve their self-esteem. Eleven families were followed (33 people. Three families attended only the first meeting; five families felt better at the end of the process and three could not be helped. Researchers believe that groups like this could be helpful to cope with domestic violence.

  13. Eventos estressores em crianças e adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social de Porto Alegre Stressing events in socially vulnerable children and adolescents in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Poletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo investigou a ocorrência e o impacto de eventos estressores para 297 crianças/adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade social de Porto Alegre (ambos os sexos; 7-16 anos, M = 11,22; SD = 2,13. O grupo 1 (G1 consistiu em 142 participantes, que viviam com suas famílias e o grupo 2 (G2, em 155 institucionalizados. Todos foram entrevistados e responderam individualmente ao Inventário de Eventos Estressores na Infância/Adolescência. Os eventos estressores mais freqüentes para amostra total foram: cumprir ordens dos pais (85,2%; discussão com amigos (72,9%; morte de familiares (71,8%; reprovação escolar (69,2%; e brigas com irmãos (68%. Um teste t de Student revelou diferença significativa entre G1 e G2 (p0,05. A alta ocorrência e impacto de eventos estressores expõem a situação de vulnerabilidade social e familiar, presença de violência e privação de recursos em ambos os grupos.This paper investigated the occurrence and impact of stressing events for 297 low- income children/adolescents (both sexes; 7-16 years, M =11.22; SD = 2.13 in the city of Porto Alegre. Group 1 (G1 consisted of 142 participants (living with their families and Group 2 (G2 of 155 institutionalized individuals. All were individually interviewed and answered the Stressing Events Inventory for Children/Adolescents. The most frequent stressing events for the sample were: follow orders given by the parents (85.2%; quarrels with friends (72.9%; death of relatives (71.8%; failure at school (69.2%; and rivalry of siblings (68%. Student's t-test revealed significant difference between groups (p 0.05. The high frequency and strong impact of stressing events reveal the situation of social and familiar vulnerability, presence of violence and lack of resources in the whole group.

  14. Melhoramento do cafeeiro. XXXIII - Produtividade e outras características de vários cultivares em Monte Alegre do Sul Coffee breeding yield of coffee cultivars in Monte Alegre do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade e outras características de vários cultivares de Coffea arabica foram estudadas em um experimento plantado em 1949 na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul, do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Analisaram-se, além dos dados de 20 anos de produções sucessivas, as características das sementes e o aspecto vegetativo. O café 'Mundo Novo' e o 'Bourbon Amarelo' confirmaram as informações já anteriormente obtidas sobre a sua capacidade produtiva. A análise das produções anuais indicou que o café mais produtivo, isto é, o Mundo Novo, apresentou uma oscilação maior de produção. Todos os cultivares apresentaram tendência de decréscimo de produção após o décimo quarto ano de colheitas sucessivas . Verificou-se uma correlação positiva significativa entre as produções acumuladas de quatro e 20 anos, o que confirma resultados anteriores sobre a eficiência da seleção precoce no cafeeiro.The performance of ten cultivars of Coffea arabica is reported. The trial was established in 1949 in the Experimental Station of Monte Alegre do Sul and the yields recorded during 20 years. The 'Mundo Novo' and 'Bourbon Amarelo' confirmed previous reports about their high yielding capacity. The analysis of annual yields indicated that the better yielding cultivar showed a more intense cycle of bearing. Yield increased until the fourth crop when the biennial cycle of bearing started. The top yield was reached after 14 years. From this time on there was a tendency of decreasing the yield. A significant correlation was found between the cumulative yields of the four and 20 years of sucessive crops. This positive correlation confirms previous results about the efficiency of early selection in coffee.

  15. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  16. o marca país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra I. Fuentes Martínez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available De manera creciente en las últimas décadas, la gestión de marca se ha convertido en uno de los temas obligados para los gobiernos y las organizaciones privadas y públicas de las ciudades y de los países. Este nuevo frente de gestión cobra gran importancia, ya que gracias a su planificación se puede evidenciar logros importantes en el fortalecimiento de la competitividad y la imagen de las ciudades y de los países. Por este motivo, el objetivo de esta ponencia es retomar el concepto de marca integral a partir de la propuesta de un sistema comunicacional de gestión, donde se desarrollan 3 subsistemas: Entorno de gestión, estructura de marca, construcción de vínculos.

  17. Simplified operation manual PA-720 particle counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draper, V.F.

    1980-09-08

    The model PA-720 Automatic Particle Size Analyzer is a simple, relatively high speed device designed to provide accurate size distributions in both tabular and graphic forms. This model has two dynamic ranges; 50 to 2500 microns and 200 to 1600 microns. This is an abbreviated version of the manufacturer's operating manual. It provides all the necessary information for the novice and experienced user. For more detailed explanations and servicing procedures one should reference the full manual.

  18. Simplified operation manual PA-720 particle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model PA-720 Automatic Particle Size Analyzer is a simple, relatively high speed device designed to provide accurate size distributions in both tabular and graphic forms. This model has two dynamic ranges; 50 to 2500 microns and 200 to 1600 microns. This is an abbreviated version of the manufacturer's operating manual. It provides all the necessary information for the novice and experienced user. For more detailed explanations and servicing procedures one should reference the full manual

  19. The Pa-233 fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependent neutron-induced fission cross section of 233Pa has for the first time been measured directly with mono-energetic neutrons. This isotope is produced in the thorium fuel cycle and serves as an intermediate step between the 232Th source material and the 233U fuel material. Four neutron energies between 1.0 and 3.0 MeV have been measured in a first campaign. Some preliminary results are presented and compared to literature. (author)

  20. “Ninguém manda no que a rua diz”: etnografia da paisagem humana na cidade de Porto Alegre (RS a partir do graffiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Andrade do Nascimento Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A investigação trata de uma reflexão sobre como a prática do graffiti vem interferindo na paisagem da cidade de Porto Alegre (RS. Os graffitis são tomados como marcas que sinalizam e grafam os estímulos dos indivíduos que atravessam a cidade, sendo que a própria trajetória desses indivíduos, suas formas de sociabilidade e expressões são rastros, a serem seguidos posteriormente, que podem nos dar acesso à construção de um olhar denso sobre a prática sem no entanto cristalizá-la, dada a sua efemeridade. O foco inicial foi como as intervenções urbanas na cidade passaram por uma legitimação do poder público a partir da indicação de onde essas intervenções aconteceriam e do patrocínio de eventos de pintura da paisagem do Túnel da Conceição pela Prefeitura de Porto Alegre. Problematizamos esse processo a partir de três eventos que consideramos essenciais para compreender o graffiti em Porto Alegre.

  1. Prevalência de Streptococcus pyogenes em orofaringe de crianças que freqüentam creches: estudo comparativo entre diferentes regiões do país Prevalence of Streptococcus pyogenes as an oropharynx colonizer in children attending daycare: a comparative study of different regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mirage Jardim Vieira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Trinta por cento das faringotonsilites agudas são de etiologia estreptocócica com potencial de complicações como a glomerulonefrite difusa aguda e febre reumática. Crianças de creches apresentam maior incidência destas infecções. OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar a prevalência do Streptococcus pyogenes na orofaringe entre crianças que freqüentam creches e crianças não-institucionalizadas, em duas regiões do Brasil. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 200 crianças, provenientes da cidade de Porto Velho/RO e São Paulo/SP, em quatro grupos, freqüentadoras ou não de creches. Realizou-se swab de orofaringe e cultura para identificação do Streptococcus pyogenes. RESULTADOS: Prevalência de 8% e 2% entre as crianças de São Paulo que atendem a creches e do grupo controle, respectivamente, apresentando valor estatístico (p=0,02. Prevalência de 24% e 16% nos grupos de Porto Velho/RO que freqüentam creche e controle respectivamente, não caracterizando diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,18. Observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos creche e controle de São Paulo/SP aos seus correspondentes de Porto Velho/RO (p Thirty percent of acute pharyngotonsillitis is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, which increased the risk of glomerulonephritis and rheumatic fever. Children attending daycare centers have a higher incidence of these infections. AIM: to identify and compare the prevalence of Streptococcus pyogenes in the oropharynx of children who are enrolled and who are not enrolled in daycare centers in different regions of Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of two hundred children from Sao Paulo/SP and Porto Velho/RO. Children from each city were divided into two groups: those attending, and those not attending daycare centers. Swabs of the oropharynx were taken for bacteriological culture and identification. RESULTS: The prevalence of Streptococcus pyogenes in the Sao Paulo

  2. Utilização dos métodos de biossegurança nos consultórios odontológicos da cidade de Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. Galvani

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The infection control in dental offices became a big challenge to clinicians that act in dentistry. During clinical procedure, clinicians should use methods to avoid the risk of infection and cross-transmission. The purpose of this study was to verify in 445 dental-surgeons, randomly chosen, in the city of Porto Alegre (RS, whether they use the following methods of prevention: gloves, mask, protection glasses, apron, beret, or none of these. The obtained results were: 331 CDs are clinicians (70,33% and 132 are specialists (29,67%. From this, 433 use apron (97,30%, 387 use gloves (86,96%, 297 use mask (66,74%, 153 use protection glasses (34,38%, 12 did not use any kind of protection (2,7%, being 11 clinicians and 1 specialist. With such results, it´s important make up clinicians mind about the usage of methods that control the infection risks and cross-transmission mainly those graduated more than 10 years ago

  3. Práticas terapêuticas entre idosos de Porto Alegre: uma abordagem qualitativa Prácticas terapéuticas entre ancianos de Puerto Alegre: una abordaje cualitativa Therapeutic practices among elders in Porto Alegre: a qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Corrêa de Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou conhecer e compreender o uso de práticas terapêuticas entre idosos residentes em área urbana. Trata-se de uma pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa, realizada no município de Porto Alegre. Processou-se a caracterização sociodemográfica, dos 24 idosos selecionados aleatoriamente e entrevistados, e a análise temática das informações coletadas sobre o uso de práticas terapêuticas. Eram na maioria do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 68 anos e com quatro anos completos de estudo. A principal prática terapêutica referida foi a automedicação. Outra prática terapêutica referida foi a busca por um profissional médico. Considera-se que, por meio da análise e discussão crítica da temática, pode-se subsidiar a capacitação de profissionais no campo da Educação em saúde e do trabalho de Enfermagem em particular, favorecendo os processos de cuidado, autocuidado dos problemas da população idosa.En este se tuvo como objetivo conocer y comprender el uso de prácticas terapéuticas entre ancianos residentes en área urbana. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa realizada en el municipio de Puerto Alegre. Se procesó la caracterización socio-demográfica, de los 24 ancianos seleccionados aleatoriamente y entrevistados, y el análisis temático de las informaciones recolectadas sobre el uso de prácticas terapéuticas. Eran en su mayoría del sexo femenino, con promedio de edad de 68 años y con 4 años completos de estudio. La principal práctica terapéutica referida fue la automedicación. Otra práctica terapéutica referida fue la búsqueda de un profesional médico. Se considera que por medio del análisis y discusión crítica de la temática, se puede subsidiar la capacitación de profesionales en el campo de la Educación en salud y del trabajo de Enfermería en particular, favoreciendo, los procesos de cuidado, autocuidado de los problemas de la población anciana.This study had as its main

  4. Agravos clínicos atendidos pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU de Porto Alegre - RS Agravios clínicos atendidos por el Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia (SAMU de Porto Alegre - RS Conditions treated in the Mobile Medical Emergency Services in Porto Alegre - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Quintana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar os agravos clínicos atendidos pelo Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU, de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro a junho de 2008. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descritivo, exploratório. Utilizaram-se dados do sistema de informações do SAMU que foram transportados para o Programa Excel. O tratamento e análise dos dados foram descritivos. RESULTADOS: Os agravos neurológicos, cardiovasculares, respiratórios, digestivos e metabólicos foram os mais prevalentes, e a maioria ocorreu na faixa etária de 41-60 anos. Os hospitais públicos e unidades de pronto-atendimento foram as principais portas de entrada dos pacientes atendidos pelo SAMU. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados podem contribuir para uma melhor organização do serviço e apontam necessidades de qualificação do atendimento de enfermagem que tem participação decisiva no cuidado ao paciente.OBJETIVO: Caracterizar los agravios clínicos atendidos por el Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia (SAMU, de Porto Alegre, en el período de enero a junio del 2008. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, descriptivo, exploratorio. Se utilizaron datos del sistema de informaciones del SAMU que fueron pasados al Programa Excel. El tratamiento y análisis de los datos fueron descriptivos. RESULTADOS: Los agravios neurológicos, cardiovasculares, respiratorios, digestivos y metabólicos fueron los más prevalentes, y la mayoría ocurrió en el grupo etáreo de 41-60 años. Los hospitales públicos y unidades de pronta-atención fueron las principales puertas de entrada de los pacientes atendidos por el SAMU. CONCLUSION: Los resultados pueden contribuir para una mejor organización del servicio y señalan necesidades de calificación de la atención de enfermería que tiene participación decisiva en el cuidado al paciente.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the conditions treated in the Mobile Medical Emergency Services (SAMU in Porto Alegre, from January to June 2008. METHODS: A

  5. Revista do Globo: as mulheres porto-alegrenses nas práticas equestres Revista do Globo Magazine: Porto Alegre's women in equestrian practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Liberato Pereira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O turfe e o hipismo são assuntos veiculados pela Revista do Globo, editada em Porto Alegre, capital do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, de 1929 até 1967. O objetivo deste estudo histórico foi identificar que representações das mulheres nas práticas equestres em Porto Alegre foram produzidas pela Revista do Globo no período de sua publicação. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo das reportagens da revista acerca destas práticas. As reportagens sugerem duas imagens sobre as mulheres no contexto das práticas equestres: no turfe, a presença feminina é limitada à assistência, associada à elegância, à fragilidade; no hipismo, as mulheres competem com igualdade com os homens, alcançando vitórias. Este olhar remete à análise do contexto sociocultural e político-econômico porto-alegrense que sustentou tais práticas equestres, cada qual reservando à mulher distintas possibilidades de atuação. Tais representações construídas pela revista podem resultar das distintas origens históricas e étnico-culturais do turfe e do hipismo.Turf and show jumping are topics diffused by Revista do Globo magazine, edited in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul's capital state, from 1929 until 1967. The aim of this study was to identify which women's representations in equestrian practices in Porto Alegre were produced by Revista do Globo magazine in its publication period. A content analysis of the magazine´s reports about these practices was carried out. The reports suggest two images about women in equestrian practices context: in turf, feminine presence limited to assistance and to elegance and frailty. In show jumping, women, competing with equality with men, reaching victories. This magazine's look remits to social cultural and political economical Porto Alegre´s context analysis which sustained both equestrian practices, each one reserving different possibilities of actuation to the woman. These representations constructed for women by the

  6. Assessment of Participatory Budgeting in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to assess the extent to which participatory budgeting (OP) is fostering the efficient and democratic allocation of resources and citizen involvement in the planning and management of their localities. The report draws upon extensive field research undertaken by the Center for Urban Development Studies in: Porto Alegre, the initiator of the OP in 1989; Gravatai, an industrial city in the Porto Alegre metropolitan area; Caxias do Sul an urban center in a predo...

  7. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  8. Main: 1PA2 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1PA2 シロイヌナズナ Arabido psis Arabido psis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Pero xidase A2 Name=Hrpa2; Armo r ... acia Rusticana Mo lecule: Pero xidase; Chain: A; Syno nym: Atp A2; Engi ... neered: Yes O xido reductase 1.11.1.7 (Pero xidase) A.Henriksen L.O ... stergaard, K.Teilum, O .Mirza, O .Mattsso n, M.Petersen, K.G.Welinder, J.Mun ... dy, M.Gajhede, A.Henriksen Arabido psis Atp A2 Pero xidase. Expressio n And High-Reso lut ...

  9. Neutron data evaluation of 233Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consistent evaluation of 233 Pa measured data base is performed. Hauser-Feshbach-Moldauer theory, coupled channel model and double-humped fission barrier model are employed. Total, differential scattering, fission and (n,xn) data are calculated, using fission cross section data description as a major constraint. The direct excitation of ground state band levels is calculated within rigid rotator model. Average resonance parameters are provided, which reproduce evaluated cross sections in the range of 16.5-70.9 keV. This work is performed under the Project Agreement B-404 with the International Science and Technology Center (Moscow). The Financing Party for the Project is Japan. (author)

  10. Trends in drug use among students in Brazil: analysis of four surveys in 1987, 1989, 1993 and 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galduróz J.C.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of psychotropic drugs among Brazilian secondary school students was examined by comparing data from four surveys using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO's Program on Research and Reporting on the Epidemiology of Drug Dependence. Students filled out the form in their classrooms without the presence of teachers. The target population consisted of 10-18-year-old students (on average, 15,000 students responded to each survey in Brazil's ten largest state capitals: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and São Paulo. Among the legal drugs, lifetime use (use at least once during life of tobacco was increased in seven cities (the exceptions were Brasília, Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro. There was also a significant increase in frequent use of alcohol (six times or more per month in 6 of the cities, from an average of 9.2% in 1987 to 15.0% in 1997. With respect to illegal drugs, there was a significant increase in lifetime use of marijuana (a 3-fold increase from 2.8% in 1987 to 7.6% in 1997. Cocaine use increased 4-fold over the survey period (0.5% in 1987 to 2.0% in 1997. Lifetime use of cocaine significantly increased in eight capitals (except Recife and Rio de Janeiro. However, frequent cocaine use increased in only three capitals (Belém, Fortaleza and Porto Alegre, from an average of 1.0% in 1987 to 3.6% in 1997. Lifetime use of medications such as anxiolytics and amphetamines increased 2-fold on average over the survey period. Comparing the four studies, the main conclusion is that there were significant increases in the frequencies for lifetime use, frequent use and heavy use of many drugs.

  11. Genetic counseling and presymptomatic testing programs for Machado-Joseph disease: lessons from Brazil and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavínia Schuler-Faccini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Machado-Joseph disease (MJD is an autosomal dominant, late-onset neurological disorder and the most common form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA worldwide. Diagnostic genetic testing is available to detect the disease-causing mutation by direct sizing of the CAG repeat tract in the ataxin 3 gene. Presymptomatic testing (PST can be used to identify persons at risk of developing the disease. Genetic counseling provides patients with information about the disease, genetic risks, PST, and the decision-making process. In this study, we present the protocol used in PST for MJD and the relevant observations from two centers: Brazil (Porto Alegre and Portugal (Porto. We provide a case report that illustrates the significant ethical and psychological issues related to PST in late-onset neurological disorders. In both centers, counseling and PST are performed by a multidisciplinary team, and genetic testing is conducted at the same institutions. From 1999 to 2012, 343 individuals sought PST in Porto Alegre; 263 (77% of these individuals were from families with MJD. In Porto, 1,530 individuals sought PST between 1996 and 2013, but only 66 (4% individuals were from families with MJD. In Brazil, approximately 50% of the people seeking PST eventually took the test and received their results, whereas 77% took the test in Portugal. In this case report, we highlight several issues that might be raised by the consultand and how the team can extract significant information. Literature about PST testing for MJD and other SCAs is scarce, and we hope this report will encourage similar studies and enable the implementation of PST protocols in other populations, mainly in Latin America.

  12. Absence of occult hepatitis B among blood donors in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Herz Wolff

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is characterized by the detection of HBV DNA in serum and/or in liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. The reported prevalence of occult hepatitis B varies markedly among populations and according to the sensitivity of the HBV DNA assay. The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of occult hepatitis B among HCV-infected and non-infected blood donors in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, using a highly sensitive real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. METHODOLOGY: Between 1995 and 1997 a sample of 178 blood donors with two positive anti-HCV ELISA tests were consecutively selected as cases, and 356 anti-HCV negative donors were selected as controls. Blood donors were randomly selected from eight blood centers in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, representative of the whole blood donor population. Blood samples were kept at 70ºC and defrosted for the first time for the analysis of this report. Tests previously performed in the laboratory using the same real time PCR for HBV DNA had sensitivity for detecting as low as 9 copies/mL. Among 158 blood samples from HBsAg-negative blood donors, five were anti-HBc positive, 53 tested positive for anti-HCV and 105 had anti-HCV negative. The samples analysis was performed in duplicate and all blood samples tested negative for HBV DNA. CONCLUSION: The result reflects a very low prevalence of occult hepatitis B in our setting.

  13. Experiência-piloto de assistência domiciliar: idosos acamados de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde, Porto Alegre, Brasil Experiencia piloto de asistencia a domicilio: ancianos encamados en una Unidad Básica de Salud, en Porto Alegre, Brasil Pilot-experience in home care: bedridden aged patients of a Basic Health Unit, Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Quintana Marques

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivos: descrever o processo de desenvolvimento do projeto-piloto de assistência a idosos acamados, da Unidade Básica de Saúde IAPI; e identificar aspectos demográficos, sociais e de saúde desses idosos, bem como aspectos relevantes relatados pela equipe, na implantação da assistência domiciliar. A pesquisa teve características descritivas e avaliativas. Foram revisadas as fichas cadastrais e os prontuários dos pacientes atendidos, assim como os registros de avaliação do projeto. A experiência-piloto permitiu o desenvolvimento de habilidades na equipe, foi enriquecedora e de grande responsabilidade para profissionais e cuidadores. Apontou para a continuidade da assistência domiciliar, fazendo-se necessários ajustes na sua organização, com a finalidade de ampliar os espaços de assistência e a qualidade do que vinha sendo ofertado à população.El estudio tuvo por objetivos describir: el proceso de desarrollo del proyecto piloto de asistencia a ancianos encamados, de la Unidad Básica de Salud IAPI; identificar aspectos demográficos, sociales y de salud de esos ancianos; y, identificar los aspectos relevantes relatados por el equipo, en la implantación de la asistencia a domicilio. La investigación tuvo características descriptivas y de evaluación. Fueron revisadas las fichas de inscripción de los pacientes atendidos, así como los registros de evaluación del proyecto. La experiencia piloto permitió el desarrollo de habilidades en el equipo, fue enriquecedora y de gran responsabilidad para los profesionales y cuidadores. El resultado apuntó para la continuidad de la asistencia a domicilio, siendo necesario realizar ajustes en su organización, con la finalidad de ampliar los espacios de asistencia y la calidad de lo que estaba siendo ofrecido a la población.The objectives of this study were to describe the development of a pilot-project in home care to bedridden aged patients at a Basic Health Unit, and identify demographic, social and health aspects of these patients, as well as relevant aspects reported by the health team that implemented the home care. The study had descriptive and evaluative characteristics. The patients' enrollment forms and health records and the project's records were analyzed. The pilot-experience permitted to develop the team's skills, in addition to being enriching and of great responsibility for the professionals and caregivers involved. The results indicated the need for continuous home care and adjustments in its organization with the purpose of increasing the areas for health care and improving the population's quality of life.

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. Imagen país de Colombia desde la perspectiva extranjera

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    Echeverri Cañas, Lina María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is a country with a negative historical positioning in international markets. Despite efforts by governments and influencers to improve its image, the perception of foreigners remains polarized, being associated with coffee and drug trafficking. This article is the result of a qualitative research conducted on foreign visitors from eight countries in the Americas with the largest number of visitors to Colombia in 2013: The United States, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Peru, Brazil, Mexico and Chile. The study found that the image of Colombia is not one-dimensional, but multidimensional. It identifies five dimensions that influence country image: knowledge of the country, the industrial orientation, visitor attitudes, perceptions of prospects and preferences and finally interests associated with its image.Colombia es un país con un posicionamiento histórico negativo en mercados internacionales. Si bien los gobiernos y los prescriptores han dedicado esfuerzos por mejorarla, la percepción del extranjero se mantiene polarizada, es decir, todavía el país es asociado con el café y con el narcotráfico. El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación cualitativa realizada a extranjeros procedentes de ocho países que registran el mayor número de visitantes en Colombia en el 2013 desde el continente americano: Estados Unidos, Venezuela, Ecuador, Argentina, Perú, Brasil, México y Chile. Como resultado del estudio se encontró que la imagen de Colombia no es unidimensional, es multidimensional. Se logran identificar cinco dimensiones que influyen en la imagen país: el conocimiento del país, la orientación industrial, las actitudes de los visitantes, las percepciones de los prospectos y las preferencias e intereses asociado a su imagen.

  16. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ezequiel Pedó; Ana C. Tomazzoni; Sandra M. Hartz; Alexandre U. Christoff

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  17. The rotational bands in the nuclei 229Pa and 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental evidence is presented for the similarity between the rotational spectra built on the 1/2-[530] state in 231Pa, where the 3/2- member of the band forms the ground state, and in 229Pa, where this state lies within 20 keV of the ground state. Our findings are in contrast with earlier work invoking octupole deformations in the ground state to account for the different positions of low-lying Nilsson states in the two isotopes. (author)

  18. Cultura e afrodescendência: organizações negras e suas estratégias educacionais em Porto Alegre (1872-2002 / Culture and afrodescendência: black organizations and their strategies education in Porto Alegre (1872-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Regina Brito Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa investigou e interpretou a construção de estratégias educacionais por afrodescendentes implementadas por várias organizações negras em Porto Alegre, RS, a partir dos finais do século XIX, ao longo da Primeira República, Estado Novo e respectivas redemocratizações, até o ano de 2002. A saber, foram investigadas as organizações: Irmandade do Rosário, Sociedade Recreativa Beneficente Floresta Aurora, Sociedade Satélite Prontidão, o Clube Náutico Marcílio Dias e MARIA MULHER – Organização de Mulheres Negras. Ao longo desse período, as organizações negras tiveram diferentes configurações, de acordo com seus contextos, suas formas de composição e suas reivindicações que surgem a partir das condições, ou falta delas, advindas da sociedade mais abrangente. Essas organizações ı de cunho religioso, de ajuda mútua, cultural ou, na perspectiva atual, de organizações não-governamentais ı encerraram em si uma característica comum que se traduz na preservação da identidade e nas reivindicações para o estabelecimento de condições dignas de sobrevivência ao afrodescendentes. Devido à ausência de documentação da trajetória histórico-educacional da população negra, nos meios oficiais de divulgação, estatísticas, historiografia tradicional, esta investigação se valeu de registros em publicações específicas e de relatos de pessoas de referência, os quais permitem recuperar um perfil da atuação dessas organizações e fixar a memória daquilo que diz respeito a suas construções e reivindicações históricas e educacionais.Asbtract This research investigates and interprets the construction of educational strategies by afrodescendents implemented by several afro organizations in Porto Alegre, RS, from the end of the XIX century, over the First Republic, the New State and the respective re-democratizing processes until the year 2002. Over this period, the afro organizations had

  19. Users' satisfaction with Porto Alegre's Primary Care Network Satisfação dos usuários da rede de Atenção Primária de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erno Harzheim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Users' satisfaction is an important end-point to evaluate health services. This study has to do with an assessment of the level of user's satisfaction with relation to the last visit held in the primary health care network of Porto Alegre — RS, whose objective is to compare satisfaction of the users that assess the quality of the care process received as being of high APS score with that of the users who evaluate it as low APS score. A cross-sectional study based on the population, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool - PCATool, which enables the classification of the health services at the level of guidance to APS by means of the general score of primary care, defining it as high or low, in accordance with the users' experience. The satisfaction of the user was measured by a questionnaire consisting of twelve questions relative to the last visit, being measured by a 5-item Likert scale: "very good", "good", "regular", "bad" and "very bad". For the analysis, the results were grouped into two classifications, i.e. "satisfied", when referred as "veg good" or "good", and "dissatisfied" when referred to any of the other items. A significant difference was noticed in the 12 variables reflecting satisfaction in several aspects of the visit, showing higher satisfaction in users that classified the service as being of high score. The .general evaluation of the service presented 95.6% and 73.5% of "satisfied" in the services with high and low APS score, respectively (p<0.001. Users of services with high level of guidance to primary care obtain higher satisfaction in their visits. This higher satisfaction can benefit the decision-making process of the patient in face of the medical recommendations made.

    A satisfação dos usuários é um importante desfecho para avaliar serviços de saúde. Este estudo trata-se de uma avaliação do grau de satisfação dos usuários em relação à última consulta realizada na rede de atenção primária A

  20. Análise descritiva dos pacientes com fibrose cística em acompanhamento na Unidade de Pneumologia Pediátrica de um hospital universitário em Porto Alegre-RS =Descriptive analysis of cystic fibrosis patients followed by the Pediatric Pulmonology Unit of a university hospital in Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakr, Valentina Coutinho Baldoto Gava et al.

    2006-01-01

    worse values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1. The pancreatic insufficiency group (84 versus 112%; p = 0,005 and the patients colonized by P. aeruginosa (75 versus 85%; p = 0,006 had lower pulmonary function parameters. Conclusions: The data from our study show that this group of patients presents in accordance with data available from literature, considering the analysed features of the disease. However, there is a marked exception in the time of diagnosis, which is still very late in Brazil.

  1. The detection of thoracic abnormalities using posterior-anterior (PA) vs PA and oblique roentgenograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reading trial was conducted as part of the 1978 Bay Area Asbestos Screening Project to evaluate the utility of adding oblique-view roentgenograms to standard posterior-anterior (PA) views. Chest films from a sample of 555 workers with histories of long-term asbestos exposure were read twice as PA and twice as PA + oblique sets, providing a basis for assessing reliability through intrareader, interreader, and intermethod agreement. The ancillary use of oblique view films resulted in higher rates of detection of asbestos-related abnormalities than with PA films alone, but the increased rates were gained at the expense of reliability in the interpretation process. Depending on the source of this unreliability, which requires further study, different remedial actions might be indicated. A reader's lack of experience could indicate the need for additional training, the use of several readers, an average over several reader judgements, or the development of standards for evaluating obliques. If, on the other hand, no way is found to reduce the unreliability, the use of oblique films in routine screening programs ought to be discouraged on the basis of measurement theory, since reliability is a prerequisite to validity

  2. The detection of thoracic abnormalities using posterior-anterior (PA) vs PA and oblique roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reger, R.B.; Ames, R.G.; Merchant, J.A.; Polakoff, P.P.; Sargent, E.N.; Silbiger, M.; Whittlesey, P.

    1982-03-01

    A reading trial was conducted as part of the 1978 Bay Area Asbestos Screening Project to evaluate the utility of adding oblique-view roentgenograms to standard posterior-anterior (PA) views. Chest films from a sample of 555 workers with histories of long-term asbestos exposure were read twice as PA and twice as PA + oblique sets, providing a basis for assessing reliability through intrareader, interreader, and intermethod agreement. The ancillary use of oblique view films resulted in higher rates of detection of asbestos-related abnormalities than with PA films alone, but the increased rates were gained at the expense of reliability in the interpretation process. Depending on the source of this unreliability, which requires further study, different remedial actions might be indicated. A reader's lack of experience could indicate the need for additional training, the use of several readers, an average over several reader judgements, or the development of standards for evaluating obliques. If, on the other hand, no way is found to reduce the unreliability, the use of oblique films in routine screening programs ought to be discouraged on the basis of measurement theory, since reliability is a prerequisite to validity.

  3. Nuclear data evaluation for Pa-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the evaluation of main neutron nuclear data for 233Pa, namely neutron cross sections (total, elastic, inelastic, radiative capture, fission, (n,2n), (n,3n)), as well as the elastic and inelastic angular distributions, and energy distributions of secondary neutrons from inelastic scattering, (n,2n), (n,3n) and fission reactions, is described. In the same time, radioactive decay data and average number of neutrons per fission are given. For the resolved and unresolved resonance energy range, the Breit-Wigner single level parameters have been estimated. The data cover the energy range between 10-5eV and 20MeV. The final set of evaluated data is given in ENDF/B format and have been checked against physical consistency and format correctness. Many of the data have been calculated using theoretical models. (author)

  4. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  5. Participatory Budget in Porto Alegre of Brazil:Its Democratic Implication%巴西阿雷格里参与式预算的民主意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 巴西阿雷格里市是参与式预算的发源地.最近十多年来,该市的名声伴随着"参与式预算"的影响不断扩大而蜚声世界.从20世纪80年代末开始,巴西最大的左翼政党劳工党在阿雷格里上开始实施参与式预算--让普通居民直接对城市财政预算进行管理和决策,一直持续至今日,取得了举世公认的成效.这一做法既是财政政策上的重大变革,同时也是政治上具有"革命性"的实践,因而它又被称为"预算民主"、"直接民主"和"本地民主"[1].近年来,随着参与式预算在中国浙江温岭和江苏无锡等地的试点和推广,国内学术界越来越多地关注这一问题.国内学者们多从财政管理体制或技术角度来探讨阿雷格里参与式预算,而对其民主方面的内涵关注不多.本文尝试从政治-民主这一维度对阿雷格里参与式预算进行解读.

  6. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  7. Early life stages of fish and the relationships with zooplankton in a tropical Brazilian reservoir: Lake Monte Alegre Fases jovens de peixes e a predação sobre o zooplâncton em um reservatório tropical brasileiro: Lago Monte Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Meschiatti, A.J.; Arcifa, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    For evaluating the trophic relationship between early life stages of fish and zooplankton in Lake Monte Alegre, fish distribution and feeding habits have been studied in areas with and without macrophytes. In the first of these areas, 356 specimens belonging to 8 species, mostly juveniles, were caught by a sieve. Another 35 specimens, belonging to 4 species, were caught by gill nets and seine in areas lacking macrophytes. Their diets were composed of aquatic insects, microcrustaceans, rotifer...

  8. A autogestão ensinando e encenando: um estudo etnográfico em uma organização cultural de Porto Alegre. The self-management teaching and performing: an ethnographic study in a cultural organization in Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Flach

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the forms of cultural and autonomous social movements, based on an ethnographic study in a theater group in Porto Alegre. The study emphasizes the importance of some manage actions in cultural organizations in order to maintain cultural identity and regional development, in a new form of relationship with the private and state sphere. The theoretical effort is the search of the sociological origins of the concept, from the perspectives of Marx and Proudhon, coveri...

  9. Presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta e como introduzi-los nas práticas de gestão das empresas de transporte coletivo de Porto Alegre Presence of Lean Thinking principles and how to introduce them in the management of urban transport firms in Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma pesquisa que investigou a presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta na indústria do transporte coletivo de Porto Alegre. Os procedimentos foram: mensuração do grau de presença dos princípios da mentalidade enxuta na gestão das quinze empresas de transporte coletivo por ônibus de Porto Alegre; teste da confiabilidade das respostas e separação das empresas em aglomerados, segundo a intensidade da presença; e estudos de caso com os aglomerados extremos, a associação de classe e a operadora pública influente na indústria. Um achado dos casos é que a indústria tem capacidade de aprendizagem e aceitaria uma abordagem indutiva e prática, baseada em Benchmarking, com operações de fabricação de classe mundial, para modificação de seus modelos de gestão. Também emergiu que a indústria teria dificuldades com abordagens dedutivas formalizadas, que incluam atividades acadêmicas.This paper presents a research into the presence of Lean Thinking principles in the management of urban transport firms in Porto Alegre. The procedures were: measurement of presence of Lean Thinking principles in management of urban transportation firms in Porto Alegre; reliability checks and clustering of firms according to the degree of presence; and case studies with clusters, class association and a public operator who influences the industry. The research discovered that the industry has learning capacity and would welcome an inductive approach based on Benchmarking with world-class manufacturing operations, in order to enhance management. Also, the industry was less inclined to accept deductive approaches and academic activities in such a program.

  10. 32 CFR 701.120 - Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA/FOIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Processing requests that cite or imply PA... Privacy Program § 701.120 Processing requests that cite or imply PA, Freedom of Information (FOIA), or PA/FOIA. Individuals do not always know what Act(s) to cite when requesting information. Nonetheless,...

  11. Studies on EB radiation effect on PA610

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Kebin; Zhang Huaming; Li Xiurong; Xiong Ruilin [Sichuan Forever Group Co. Ltd., China Academy of Engineering Physics, Miangany (China)

    2000-03-01

    Radiation effect of PA610 with polyfunctional monomer trially isocyanurate (TAIC) was studied, the results show that crosslinking effect of EB radiation on PA610 is obvious. After the PA610 samples were radiated by EB with dosage 75KGY, the physical characters of PA610 materials were greatly improved, especially their tensile strength being increased about 18% and their impact strength about 50%, but their water and oil absorption were decreased. So, EB radiation can enhance PA610 materials physical strength, resistance to solvents and water and increase their thermal-deformation temperature. (author)

  12. A Mediação das cartas dos leitores na mídia: mapas imaginários sobre Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Jose Morigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo é parte da pesquisa Porto Alegre imaginada: representações dos cidadãos sobre a cidade, cujo objetivo é compreender como é construído o imaginário dos cidadãos porto-alegrenses a partir do cruzamento das representações sobre a cidade que circulam nos meios de comunicação e os dados oficiais, identificando as diferentes dimensões na construção dos imaginários urbanos. Mostra as representações dos leitores do jornal Zero Hora de Porto Alegre sobre a cidade, por meio das suas narrativas. O corpus da análise foi constituído pelas cartas dos leitores enviadas a Zero Hora por ocasião de um concurso promovido pela TIM (Telecom Itália Móbile, intitulado A Minha Capital, em comemoração aos 235 anos da capital gaúcha no ano de 2007. Conclui-se que o jornal impresso, ao veicular os conteúdos informativos das narrativas, faz circular imagens sobre Porto Alegre e dos seus habitantes, permeadas por símbolos que tem como referência o imaginário instituído sobre a cidade, baseado em uma relação dos cidadãos que reforça os laços de pertencimento com o lugar e com a sua identidade cultural.

  13. Práticas em saúde mental no Brasil: reflexões a partir da experiência de Porto Alegre/RS-Brasil /

    OpenAIRE

    Dulce María Bedin; Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo. El contexto brasileño de la implementación de las políticas de salud mental, se caracteriza por significativos cambios. La municipalidad de Porto Alegre, capital de la provincia de Rio Grande do Sul, ha protagonizado experiencias de acciones de salud mental que resultan en transformaciones paradigmáticas. Asimismo, encontramos formas de pensar y de proceder que resisten, manteniendo prácticas centradas en el modelo biomédico de atendimiento de la población. Este artículo problematiz...

  14. Comportamento histórico dos incêndios florestais na Fazenda Monte Alegre no período de 1965 a 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Tetto, Alexandre França

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os incêndios florestais têm causado muitos impactos sociais, ambientais e econômicos. O entendimento do seu comportamento é uma ferramenta importante para as ações de prevenção e combate. Para isso, é necessário que sejam registrados esses eventos ao longo do tempo de forma organizada e confiável, fato raro sobretudo considerando um maior período de tempo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo traçar o perfil dos incêndios florestais na Fazenda Monte Alegre (FaMA), de propriedade da ...

  15. Cuerpos modificados: un estudio antropológico de las cirugías plásticas y de sus tratamientos postoperatorios en Porto Alegre (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Masiero, Luciana María

    2014-01-01

    [ES]Las cirugías plásticas crecen cada vez más en el mundo. Por otro lado, los tratamientos postoperatorios aún necesitan de popularización y reconocimiento. Por ser un tema actual que puede contribuir con estrategias de salud, esta investigación objetiva pretende entender por qué los pacientes realizan cirugías plásticas y tratamientos postoperatorios en Porto Alegre. Además, busca conocer los pacientes, los principales procedimientos, concepto de belleza, salud, etnocirugías y los cambios g...

  16. Narrowing inequalities in infant mortality in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldani Marcelo Zubaran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the trends of infant mortality from 1995 to 1999 according to a geographic area-based measure of maternal education in Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: A registry-based study was carried out and a municipal database created in 1994 was used. All live births (n=119,170 and infant deaths (n=1,934 were considered. Five different geographic areas were defined according to quintiles of the percentage of low maternal educational level (<6 years of schooling: high, medium high, medium, medium low, and low. The chi-square test for trend was used to compare rates between years. Incidence rate ratio was calculated using Poisson regression to identify excess infant mortality in poorer areas compared to higher schooling areas. RESULTS: The infant mortality rate (IMR decreased steadily from 18.38 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1995 to 12.21 in 1999 (chi-square for trend p<0.001. Both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates decreased although the drop seemed to be steeper for the post-neonatal component. The higher decline was seen in poorer areas. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in IMR seem to have decreased due to a steeper reduction in both neonatal and post-neonatal components of infant mortality in lower maternal schooling area.

  17. Characterization of water quality parameters of the reservoir Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanilda Magalhães Martins Vasconcelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the characterization of physical, chemical and biological water quality of the Fountain of Utinga, which includes the river Guamá, Água Preta Lake and Bolonha Lake, located in the State Water Complex called Utinga. The study area comprises the Lakes Água Preta and Bolonha that have natural springs, but 90% of the water of these lakes are up-taken from the river Guamá to the Água Preta Lake and then through a pipeline to Bolonha Lake, where it is treated in the Bolonha station. Results showed a relationship between the increase in population and the production of untreated sewage released into bodies of water, and as a consequence, significant deterioration in physical variables such as: color and turbidity, and in the biological variable coliform and chemical variables including N-ammonia and nitrate as compared with the CONAMA resolution 357 standards. The results showed that the population that lives in the vicinity of the reservoir Utinga nearby Bolonha lacks adequate sanitation systems (garbage collection and sewage treatment.

  18. Kinetic study of formation of sodalite from a kaolin waste of Jari river - PA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolites are materials with a wide industrial application, which has motivated the development of a large number of scientific papers on this topic. This work presents a kinetic study of the formation process of sodalite produced from the reaction of the kaolin waste in the presence of sodium hydroxide solution (5M) performed at temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 150 ° C. The process was conducted in batch, static, and autoclaves lined with Teflon, and monitoring the kinetics was performed by ex situ XRD analysis of the materials obtained in the time interval from 2 to 24 hours. The kinetic model that best describes this transformation is zero-order homogeneous reaction. Finally, we conclude that the technique of X-ray diffraction is a powerful tool to study the kinetics of phase transformation ex situ. (author)

  19. Disposição dos consumidores porto-alegrenses à compra de carne bovina com certificação Willingness of consumers from Porto Alegre county, Rio Grande do Sul state, for purchasing beef meat with certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o perfil de consumidores de carne bovina e determinou-se o consumo de carne com certificação visando obter dados sobre a importância e o valor da certificação da carne na hora da compra. Avaliou-se ainda o conhecimento do consumidor de carne bovina quanto à certificação da carne e quanto esse consumidor paga por este processo. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma rede de supermercados, mediante a aplicação de questionários dirigidos às pessoas próximas aos balcões com carne, independentemente da espécie animal. Os consumidores exigem alimentos com qualidade e certificados confiáveis que demonstrem e garantam a qualidade dos alimentos, porém, estão dispostos a pagar somente um pouco a mais pela certificação, em comparação ao valor atual de mercado, provavelmente pelo fato de sua renda mensal não permitir maior valorização desse atributo.The profile of beef meat consumers was analyzed, as well as the consumption of certificated meat, with the objective of obtaining data on the importance the of certification value at the purchasing occasion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beef meat consumers awareness regarding the meat certification and how much they are willing to pay for this process. The data survey was carried out in only one supermarket chain from the city of Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil, which authorized the research interviewing people through questionnaires, close to refrigerator counters of any meat species. It was observed that consumers are demanding for food with quality attributes, with trustful certifications that testify these quality attributes. However, the data obtained from interviews with consumers showed that they are willing to pay only little more for certification than the current price, probably due to the fact that their average monthly income ranges from one to six minimum wages.

  20. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have explored the associations of reported PA (RPA) with the processes underlying the development of disability. The present study was performed to explore RPA among older persons and its association with onset of functional dependence and mortality. Among a probability sample of 1782...... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1.......42-2.19) and men (HR=1.65, 95%CI=1.27-2.14) over long time intervals. The effect of RPA persisted among permanently disabled older women, after adjusting for age, baseline vulnerability and grade of disability. Low RPA was independently associated with risk of incident disability (HR=1.56, 95%CI=1.10-2.23) in...

  1. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase deficiency and its correlation with other risk factors in jaundiced newborns in Southern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clarissa Gutirrez Carvalho; Simone Martins Castro; Ana Paula Santin; Carina Zaleski; Felipe Gutirrez Carvalho; Roberto Giugliani

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the correlation between glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and neonatal jaundice.Methods: Prospective, observational case-control study was conducted on490 newborns admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre for phototherapy, who all experienced35 or more weeks of gestation, from March to December2007. Enzymatic screening ofG6PD activity was performed, followed byPCR.Results:There was prevalence of4.6% and a boy-girl ratio of3:1 in jaundiced newborns. No jaundiced neonate withABO incompatibility presented G6PD deficiency, and no Mediterranean mutation was found. A higher proportion of deficiency was observed in Afro-descendants. There was no association withUGT1A1 variants. Conclusions:G6PD deficiency is not related to severe hyperbilirubinemia and considering the high miscegenation in this area of Brazil, other gene interactions should be investigated.

  3. Construir redes: serviços de apoio em educação especial no município de Porto Alegre / creating networks: Special education support services in the city of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Lúcia Tezzari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo a análise de serviços especializados de educação especial, com ênfase na sala de recursos e na sua função na Rede Municipal de Ensino de PortoAlegre. A análise tem como base estudos desenvolvidos na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, os quais discutem a existência de um projeto político-pedagógico para a referida rede de ensino que apresenta sintonia com a perspectiva da inclusão escolar. Essa tendência, predominante ao longo dos últimos anos, tem exigido dos espaços de atendimento escolar uma intensa ressignificação, favorecendo a ampliação do espectro de alunos atendidos pelo ensino comum e redefinindo a própria ação docente. São apresentadas as mudanças introduzidas na rede de ensino em questão em termos de uma reorganização curricular que tem como eixos: a flexibilidade, a participação coletiva, o trabalho coletivo de planejamento e avaliação, a necessidade de valorização de espaços de assessoria como espaços de formação. As salas de integração e recursos, como são designadas na rede investigada, são 14 para o atendimento de alunos com necessidades educativas especiais, envolvendo 28 educadores especiais e atendendo um conjunto de aproximadamente 600 alunos. Além do atendimento direto ao aluno, discute-se a função de assessoria e responsabilidade quanto à formação dos docentes em geral atribuída aos professores dessas salas. O principal aspecto analisado nessa relação serviço/formação diz respeito à necessária compreensão de diretrizes dos serviços que estejam em sintonia com as diretrizes gerais do projeto político-pedagógico da rede, assim como o reconhecimento de que a viabilidade e o efeito dessa proposta de formação tenham como bases: a pluralidade de vivência, as articulações entre os diferentes saberes e a capacidade reflexiva que contempla a prática docente.Abstract The objective of this paper is to analyze services

  4. Factors associated with the successful aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre Fatores associados ao envelhecimento bem-sucedido de idosos socialmente ativos da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feliz Duarte de Moraes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with aging of the socially-active elderly in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 400 elderly subjects. Through a conglomerate analysis using the combined results of the Flanagan Scale and the quality of life assessment instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-100, the subjects classified as presenting a higher quality of life were considered to have aged successfully. RESULTS: After having been adjusted for the variables gender, age, level of depression, despair, perceived health status, meaning that personal beliefs give to life, satisfaction with social activities and relations, the following factors maintained their independent and meaningful effect on successful aging: family relations and friendships (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 2.83-8.60, health and perceived well being (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.59, functional capacity (OR = 23.70; 95% CI: 10.98-51.06 and psychosocial support (OR = 7.36; 95% CI: 4.00-13.54. CONCLUSIONS: Independence in performing daily life activities and autonomy, as well as satisfaction with family relations and friendships, were independent predictive factors of successful aging for both men and women. For women in particular, there were various predictive factors: material comfort; feeling physically well; body image and appearance; self-esteem; positive feelings; interpersonal relationships; social support; participation in recreational activities; sexuality; spirituality; and beliefs. The elderly maintain a relationship with themselves, with others and with their beliefs. Family is the main social support system.OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados ao envelhecimento bem-sucedido de idosos socialmente ativos da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 400 idosos. Pela análise de conglomerados, utilizando os resultados simultâneos da escala de Flanagan

  5. Fenótipos de betalactamases em Klebsiella pneumoniae de hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre Phenotypes of beta-lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae from emergency hospital of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Meyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Mundialmente, o crescente aumento de infecções hospitalares gera a necessidade de estudos na área de resistência bacteriana. Uma das bactérias Gram-negativas de maior prevalência no ambiente nosocomial é a Klebsiella pneumoniae, capaz de expressar uma diversidade de enzimas de resistência, justificando seu monitoramento constante. OBJETIVO: Analisar a frequência fenotípica das enzimas betalactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, cromossômicas (AmpC plasmidial, metalobetalactamase (MBL e Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC oriundas de hospital de emergência em Porto Alegre (RS. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo 58 isolados bacterianos com sensibilidade diminuída a cefalosporinas de terceira geração e/ou a cefoxitina. Nestas, foram aplicados os testes de disco-difusão compatíveis para as respectivas betalactamases. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se elevada frequência de ESBL (48,3%, seguida por ESBL simultânea à AmpC plasmidial (15,5%, além de duas cepas com carbapenemases. DISCUSSÃO: O elevado índice de ESBL e ESBL/AmpC conduz à necessidade de uso terapêutico de carbapenens. Consequentemente, o uso massivo desses fármacos gera pressão seletiva que favorece o aparecimento de cepas mais resistentes, como as produtoras de carbapenemases (KPC e/ou MBL. As carbapenemases são muito relevantes devido à limitação terapêutica inerente e por seu potencial de disseminação. A resistência a todos os fármacos betalactâmicos usados no screening por disco-difusão pode ser um "sinalizador" laboratorial para a presença desses relevantes mecanismos de resistência. CONCLUSÃO: A pesquisa de fenótipos de resistência em Klebsiella é ferramenta fácil e exequível nos laboratórios de microbiologia, além de ser fundamental para o conhecimento da epidemiologia local das betalactamases, possibilitando a adequação da terapia antimicrobiana mais conveniente.INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, the incidence of

  6. Prevalência e determinantes de anemia em crianças de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Loraine Storch Meyer da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de anemia e seus possíveis determinantes em crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade que freqüentam escolas municipais infantis. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal pelo qual foram estudadas 557 crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade de todas as escolas municipais infantis de Porto Alegre, RS. Foi feita antropometria e dosagem de hemoglobina pelo fotômetro portátil HemoCue, considerando-se anemia níveis inferiores a 11 g/dl. As informações sobre as crianças foram obtidas por questionário aplicado às mães. A associação das variáveis estudadas com a anemia foi analisada pela técnica de regressão log-binomial aplicada ao modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma prevalência de anemia de 47,8% entre toda a população estudada, cujos determinantes foram: famílias com renda per capita igual ou inferior a um salário-mínimo (razão de prevalência [RP] = 1,6, faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses (RP=1,4 e presença de dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos (RP=1,4. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de anemia na população estudada é bastante elevada, especialmente nas crianças de nível socioeconômico mais baixo, na faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses, e nas crianças com dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos, indicando a necessidade urgente de medidas efetivas visando o seu combate e a sua prevenção.

  7. Prevalência e determinantes de anemia em crianças de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraine Storch Meyer da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência de anemia e seus possíveis determinantes em crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade que freqüentam escolas municipais infantis. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal pelo qual foram estudadas 557 crianças de 0 a 36 meses de idade de todas as escolas municipais infantis de Porto Alegre, RS. Foi feita antropometria e dosagem de hemoglobina pelo fotômetro portátil HemoCue, considerando-se anemia níveis inferiores a 11 g/dl. As informações sobre as crianças foram obtidas por questionário aplicado às mães. A associação das variáveis estudadas com a anemia foi analisada pela técnica de regressão log-binomial aplicada ao modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: Encontrou-se uma prevalência de anemia de 47,8% entre toda a população estudada, cujos determinantes foram: famílias com renda per capita igual ou inferior a um salário-mínimo (razão de prevalência [RP] = 1,6, faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses (RP=1,4 e presença de dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos (RP=1,4. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de anemia na população estudada é bastante elevada, especialmente nas crianças de nível socioeconômico mais baixo, na faixa etária de 12 a 23 meses, e nas crianças com dois ou mais irmãos com menos de cinco anos, indicando a necessidade urgente de medidas efetivas visando o seu combate e a sua prevenção.

  8. uPA deficiency exacerbates muscular dystrophy in MDX mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suelves, Mònica; Vidal, Berta; Serrano, Antonio L.; Tjwa, Marc; Roma, Josep; López-Alemany, Roser; Luttun, Aernout; de Lagrán, María Martínez; Díaz, Maria Àngels; Jardí, Mercè; Roig, Manuel; Dierssen, Mara; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2007-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal and incurable muscle degenerative disorder. We identify a function of the protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in mdx mice, a mouse model of DMD. The expression of uPA is induced in mdx dystrophic muscle, and the genetic loss of uPA in mdx mice exacerbated muscle dystrophy and reduced muscular function. Bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments revealed a critical function for BM-derived uPA in mdx muscle repair via three mechanisms: (...

  9. Ocorrência do Grilo Endecous em Quatro Cavernas no Município de Uruará - PA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cajaiba

    2012-06-01

    Abstract. The genus Endecous (Ensifera: Phalangopsidae can be found in the entire neotropical region. Five species of this genus occur in Brazil: Endecous arachnopis Saussure, Endecous cavernicolus Costa Lima, Endecous itatibensis Rehn, Endecous abbreviatus Piza and Endecous betariensis de Mello & Pellegatti-Franco. The present study was aimed to analyze the abundance of crickets of the genus Endecous in four caves in the city of Uruará-PA. The collections were performed from August to November 2011, using pitfall without bait. 832 specimens were collected. Significant values were obtained for the low temperature (R² = 0.9.

  10. A Study of Gelug pa sect with comparison to Nyingma pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vijay Kumsr

    2002-01-01

    Short synopsis and layout of Chapters of the thesis entitled, “A study of Gelugpa sect with comparison to Nyingma Pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet”Around 2500 years ago, a prince of Sākya clan rose against the anguish of life & death and determined to find out the way through which these torments end. That prince was Siddhartha; and whole world came to know him by his enlightened name; Buddha; his path became famous after his name Buddhism. Centuries gone, millennium changed its numbers; still th...

  11. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the results of studies conducted in the municipality of Eldorado do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in July and October 2007 and January and May 2008 to measure the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) concentrations of S. madagascariensis plant material (including leaves, flow...

  12. Identification of thermotectonics events by 40Ar/39Ar methodology, in Jauru, Pontes e Lacerda and Rio Alegre Terrane - southwest portion of Amazon Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The southwest portion of Amazon Craton, subject of these work, correspond to the southwest region of Mato Grosso State and is inserted on Rio Negro-Juruena, Rondoniana-San Ignacio and Sunsas-Aguapei geochronologic Provinces. This region is surrounded by three big terranes: Jauru, Pontes e Lacerda and Rio Alegre. The main aim of this study is to use the ages of termochronologic events obtained by 40Ar/39Ar methodology, including data of literature, to contribute with the study of the geotectonic evolution on this region. Twenty samples were analyzed and 40Ar/39Ar ages found for the Jauru Terrane vary of 1539 ± 3 Ma to 1338 ± 3 Ma, for the Pontes e Lacerda Terrane the interval obtained was of 946,1 ± 0,8 Ma to 890 ± 2 Ma and for Rio Alegre Terrane the ages are between 1407 ± 3 Ma to 1321 ± 2 Ma. U/Pb, Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd data from previous works, together with 40Ar/39Ar results allowed to obtain cooling average rates to each terrane. The Jauru Terrane units cooling age is equivalent to 1,52 Ga. The cooling average rates found to Alto Jauru Greenstone belt rocks is 2,4 deg C - 1,0 Ma and to Magmatic Arc Cachoeirinha is 10,8 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Stabilization age obtained for Pontes and Lacerda Terrane is about 900 Ma coherent with the cooling age of the Sunsas Aguapei Event (1,0 - 0,9 Ga) and cooling average rates calculate were the lower, equivalent to 1,0 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Cooling age found in Rio Alegre Terrane was 1,35 Ga, possibility correspond to collision age these terrane with Amazonian protoCraton and cooling average rates of 5,0 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Finally, younger age found of 900 Ma, coherent to the Sunsas - Aguapei Event, probably represent the last regional event that affected these rocks, characterizing the stabilization period of the southwest portion of Amazon Craton. (author)

  13. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre Knowledge, perceptions, behaviors and representations of oral health of teenagers of public schools of two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite Flores; Tania Maria Drehmer

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é...

  14. Brazil : Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The report reviews evidence of child labor in Brazil, and the Government's efforts to eradicate its worst forms, by examining background assessments of ongoing programs for its prevention. It seeks to identify promising strategies, addressing the needs of highly vulnerable children in urban areas, engaged in activities such as drug commerce, prostitution, or other dangerous activities. One...

  15. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  16. Dirección de flujo y clasificación del agua subterránea, en Monte Alegre, sierra del Ajusco, México

    OpenAIRE

    René Morales Luis; Oscar L. Palacios Vélez; Luis Marín Stillman; Juan J. Peña Cabriales; Salvador Peña Díaz; Jorge D. Etchevers Barra; David J. Palma López; Marcos R. Soto Hernández

    2000-01-01

    La captación de los flujos subterráneos que afloran en las zonas montañosas aledañas a la Ciudad de México representan alternativas de abastecimiento de agua potable a bajo costo y ayudan a la solución de este problema, por lo que su caracterización geoquímica y de dirección de flujo es necesaria para su mejor aprovechamiento y cuidado. Por lo tanto, en este estudio se hizo un análisis geológico estructural y geoquímico del agua. Se encontró que en el valle de Monte Alegre la dirección del fl...

  17. Evolução do sistema construtivo de adobe na Fábrica de Porcelanas da Vista Alegre (1937-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruano, A.; A. Costa; Varum, H.

    2010-01-01

    O núcleo urbano da Fábrica de Porcelanas da Vista Alegre revela um especial interesse em termos da evolução da construção tradicional de adobe na cidade de Ílhavo, no distrito de Aveiro. Apresentando uma filosofia global de intervenção no território desde a sua génese, possui um património construído caracterizador de uma das fases da nossa história da construção e da Arquitectura. Aí se podem observar as medidas implementadas na segunda etapa de crescimento, com início nos finais dos anos 30...

  18. 232 Th - 233 Pa separation by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium and protactinium behavior in extraction chromatography systems is presented, aiming its separation by selective retention of the micro constituent on the column. TBP/alumina, TBP/voltalef UF 300, TOA/alumina and TOA/voltalef UF 300 systems were verified. Column preparation as well the 233 Pa removal conditions were settled. The best 232 Th separation from its irradiation product, 233 Pa, has been achieved by using TBP/voltalef UF 300 system. 233 Pa was selectively retained on column from 10 M HCl solutions and eluted with 3 M HCl. (author)

  19. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  20. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  1. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  2. Allelopathic research in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Reigosa; Anabele Stefânia Gomes; Alfredo Gui Ferreira; Fabian Borghetti

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review allelopathy studies conducted in Brazil or involving plant species that occur in the country. Conceptions and misconceptions associated with allelopathy, as well as some international criteria to be applied in allelopathic research, are presented and discussed. We observed a sharp increase in the number of papers on this subject conducted in Brazil between 1991 and 2010. However, most studies are conducted under laboratory conditions, lack a clear hypothesis or a so...

  3. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country's nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country's economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U3O8 (100 thousand pounds). Brazil's state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U3O8 (600 million pounds U3O8) in reserves

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T.; J.A.S. Rezende; J. A. de Oliveira; Basso, L.; Tani, G.; A. Prista; Maia, J.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers...

  5. Undecidability of Weak Bisimilarity for PA-Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    We prove that the problem whether two PA-processes are weakly bisimilar is undecidable. We combine several proof techniques to provide a reduction from Post's correspondence problem to our problem: existential quantification technique, masking technique and deadlock elimination technique....

  6. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECNAVINST 5210.8D). These reports shall be made available to PA program officials and to CNO (DNS-36)/CMC... until the next self-assessment is completed. Make these reports available, upon request, to CNO...

  7. Copper/PA66 nanofibers by bubbfil-spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper/PA66 nanofibers are fabricated by the bubbfil spinning, and their thermal stability is studied by calcination treatment. It reveals that the addition of copper nanoparticles can greatly improve the thermal stability of nanofibers.

  8. Copper/PA66 nanofibers by bubbfil-spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ya; Si Na; He Ji-Huan; Wang Ping

    2015-01-01

    Copper/PA66 nanofibers are fabricated by the bubbfil spinning, and their thermal stability is studied by calcination treatment. It reveals that the addition of copper nanoparticles can greatly improve the thermal stability of nanofibers.

  9. Un mosaico de narraciones situadas en la posguerra española: Inés y la alegría (2006 de Almudena Grandes / A mosaic of narratives situated in postwar Spain: Inés y la alegría (2010 by Almudena Grandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lindström Leo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Inés y la alegría, de Almudena Grandes (2010, es la primera novela de una planificada serie titulada Episodios de una guerra interminable. En esta novela las “dos Españas” se configuran en los personajes, algunos ficticios, otros históricos, sobre todo en las dos figuras femeninas principales que vienen a manifestar una búsqueda de libertad personal en la época de la posguerra española. A través de diferentes focalizaciones y narraciones se presentan unos paradigmas éticos o morales frente a la alteridad, al otro, que sirven para distinguir entre el bien y el mal, los buenos y los malos.Summary: Inés y la alegría, by Almudena Grandes (2010 is the first of a series of novels entitled Episodios de una Guerra interminable [Episodes of an endless War]. In this novel, the image of the “two Spains” is made up by the characters, some fictitious, others historical, and particularly by the two female protagonists who represent a quest for personal liberty in the years following the Spanish Civil War. Different focal points and narratives serve to present ethical or moral paradigms regarding "the other" that are used to distinguish between good and evil, good and bad people.

  10. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)μM (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)μM (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex. PMID:24857756

  11. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231 Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside the importance of 231 Pa for basic fission studies it is also of interest in the field of future reactor design based on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The 232 Th/233 U breeder cycle, where the natural resources of the main fuel thorium are estimated to last for hundred thousands of years, is contemplated to provide 'clean' and almost inexhaustible nuclear energy. Among the first priority isotopes the IAEA had pointed out 231 Pa and 233 Pa. Both are of special interest being intermediate nuclei in the formation of the fissile 233 U from the fertile 232 Th. The latter has been investigated in the recent past in great detail. In particular, 231 Pa carry a similar risk as 239 Pu does in the standard uranium-plutonium cycle due to its comparable half-life and radio-toxicity. Despite the wealth of existing experimental data important discrepancies exist, a scenario, which holds for the existing evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.3, too. Presently, the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231 Pa is under investigation at the VdG neutron source at IRMM for incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV. The obtained cross-sections, representing the 3rd and higher chance fission in 233 Pa(n,f) will serve as precise input for the validation of the reaction cross-section calculations performed on 233 Pa up to 20 MeV and the envisaged extension up to 50 MeV. (authors)

  12. Functional materials based on PA6/PVP blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnatowski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The results of investigations of properties of PA6 mixed in state the viscoelasticity from polymer aboutability of creating of physical bonds was introduced. The polyvinylpyrrolidone about small molecular weight inthis aim was applied (10 ± 2,5 thousand.Design/methodology/approach: Within the work some results of chosen properties of PA with differentpercentage composition with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP have been presented. In chance ofmixing PA6 with PVP forms solution PVP in PA6, to which proper are large intermolecular influence, in thiscase hydrogen bond.Findings: The functionalactive material was prepared about sharp tuning sorption ability across physicalmodification polycapramide mixed from bipolar polyvinylpyrrolidone in batch – free state, which becharacterizes high ability complex. The properties of the polymer blends depend significantly on the type of thecomponents. That kind of influence manifests especially in the change of the physical properties.Research limitations/implications: The basis condition for reaching the homogeneity, specific structure andthe properties of a polymer material is its mutual miscibility of the polymers. Additional agents that makemixing easier are usually applied; they have reactive effect which results in a chemical modification of outputpolymer along with the change in its chemical structure and the structure of macrochains. In order to achievethis, the polyvinylpyrrolidone has been used.Practical implications: It is possible to foresee, that under the influences large tangent stresses andintermolecular interaction colloidal solution PVP in PA forms about sure homogeneity, after cooling which doesnot the inversion of winding phases. Large intermolecular influence among PVP and PA6 are unquestionablewith regard on their chemical building. The probability of influence of intermolecular influences with this reasonresults, the leaders to creation of new centres of

  13. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  14. 231Pa systematics in postglacial volcanic rocks from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Kokfelt, Thomas; Hoernle, Kaj; Lundstrom, Craig; Hauff, Folkmar

    2016-07-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of combined 238U-230Th and 235U-231Pa systematics to constrain upwelling rates and the role of recycled mafic lithologies in mantle plume-derived basalts. Accordingly, we present measurements of the 231Pa concentrations from 26 mafic volcanic rocks from Iceland, including off-axis basalts from the Snaefellsnes Peninsula, to complement previously published 238U-230Th-226Ra data. 231Pa concentrations vary from 27 to 624 fg/g and (231Pa/235U) ratios from 1.12 to 2.11 with the exception of one anomalous sample from the Southeast Rift which has a 231Pa deficit with (231Pa/235U) = 0.86. An important new result is that basalts from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula define a trend at relatively low (231Pa/235U) for a given (230Th/238U) ratio. Many of the remaining samples fall in or around the global field for ocean island basalts but those from the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift/Reykjanes Peninsula extend to higher (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), similar to mid-ocean ridge basalts. In principle, these lavas could result from melting of peridotite at lower pressures. However, there is no reason to suspect that the Mid-Iceland Belt and the Southwest Rift lavas reflect shallower melting than elsewhere in Iceland. In our preferred model, these lavas reflect melting of garnet peridotite whereas those from the Southeast Rift and the Snaefellsnes Peninsula contain a significant contribution (up to 20%) of melt from garnet pyroxenite. This is consistent with incompatible trace element and radiogenic isotope evidence for recycled oceanic crust in these lavas. There is increasing agreement that the displacement of ocean island basalts to lower (231Pa/235U) ratios at a given (230Th/238U), compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflects the role of recycled mafic lithologies such as garnet pyroxenite as well as higher average pressures of melting. It now seems likely that this interpretation may

  15. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D.; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-07-01

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7–20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  16. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  17. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  18. Ocorrência de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hym.: Eulophidae em broca-das-cucurbitáceas, no Brasil Occurrence of the parasitoid Trichospilus diatraeae (Hym.: Eulophidae in melonworm, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo L de Melo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo registrar a primeira ocorrência, no Brasil, do parasitóide de pupas Trichospilus diatraeae (Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae na broca-das-cucurbitáceas, Diaphania hyalinata (L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. A espécie T. diatraeae já foi relatada no Brasil em pragas da gravioleira no Distrito Federal e eucalipto nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo. No sistema produtivo da abóbora D. hyalinata é reconhecidamente uma praga importante por causar sérios prejuízos em função das injúrias provocadas em diferentes partes da planta. A ocorrência do parasitóide foi registrada em pupas coletadas no campo, localizado no campus experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, no município de Alegre-ES.This study aims to record the first occurrence in Brazil of the parasitoid pupae Trichospilus diatraeae (Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae on the melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata (L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The specie T. diatraeae has been reported in pests of the soursop in the Distrito Federal, Brazil and eucalyptus in the Brazilian States of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. In the production system of pumpkin D. hyalinata is recognized as a significant pest which causes serious losses as a result of injuries caused in different parts of the plant. The occurrence of the parasitoid was recorded in pupae collected in the field, located on the campus of the Center of Agrarian Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Alegre Espirito Santo State, Brazil.

  19. Water-absorptivity and mechanical behaviors of PTFE/PA6 and PTFE/PA66 blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Rong-guo; LUO Wen-bo; XIAO Hua-ming; WU Guo-zhong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content on water-absorptivity,tensile strength,flexural strength,and notched impact strength of polytetrafluoroethylene/polyamide 6 (PTFE/PA6) and polytetrafluoroethylene/polyamide 66 (PTFE/PA66) blends were investigated by water immersion test,uniaxial tensile test,three-point test,and Charpy impact fracture test. The water-absorptivity in the blend decreases with increasing PTFE content,which indicates that the PTFE phase restrains the polyamide phase from water absorption. For water-free blends,the addition of PTFE causes a reduction in tensile strength,while for water-absorbed PTFE/PA6 blends,the tensile strength increases with increasing PTFE. Simultaneously,the absorbed water improves the elongation,but results in a notable reduction in flexural strength of the blends. Although the addition of PTFE causes a reduction in notched impact strength of the blends,as compared to pure polyamide,the absorbed water has little effects on the notched impact strength of the blends. Finally,the effects of temperature and loading frequency on complex viscosity parameters of PTFE/PA6 and PTFE/PA66 melts were tested. It is found that the complex viscosity of PTFE/PA6 melt is reversed with increasing temperature and shear velocity,but that of PTFE/PA66 melt increases approximately in exponential form with increasing temperature. To fill polyamide with suitable mass percentage of PTFE can effectively reduce the viscosity of blend,and as a result,the molding and processing properties are improved.

  20. Identification of thermotectonics events by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methodology, in Jauru, Pontes e Lacerda and Rio Alegre Terrane - southwest portion of Amazon Craton; Identificacao dos eventos termotectonicos atraves do metodo {sup 40} Ar/{sup 39} Ar, nos terrenos Jauru, Pontes e Lacerda e Rio Alegre - SW do Craton Amazonico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulo, Valeria Guimaraes de

    2005-07-01

    The southwest portion of Amazon Craton, subject of these work, correspond to the southwest region of Mato Grosso State and is inserted on Rio Negro-Juruena, Rondoniana-San Ignacio and Sunsas-Aguapei geochronologic Provinces. This region is surrounded by three big terranes: Jauru, Pontes e Lacerda and Rio Alegre. The main aim of this study is to use the ages of termochronologic events obtained by {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methodology, including data of literature, to contribute with the study of the geotectonic evolution on this region. Twenty samples were analyzed and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages found for the Jauru Terrane vary of 1539 {+-} 3 Ma to 1338 {+-} 3 Ma, for the Pontes e Lacerda Terrane the interval obtained was of 946,1 {+-} 0,8 Ma to 890 {+-} 2 Ma and for Rio Alegre Terrane the ages are between 1407 {+-} 3 Ma to 1321 {+-} 2 Ma. U/Pb, Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd data from previous works, together with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results allowed to obtain cooling average rates to each terrane. The Jauru Terrane units cooling age is equivalent to 1,52 Ga. The cooling average rates found to Alto Jauru Greenstone belt rocks is 2,4 deg C - 1,0 Ma and to Magmatic Arc Cachoeirinha is 10,8 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Stabilization age obtained for Pontes and Lacerda Terrane is about 900 Ma coherent with the cooling age of the Sunsas Aguapei Event (1,0 - 0,9 Ga) and cooling average rates calculate were the lower, equivalent to 1,0 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Cooling age found in Rio Alegre Terrane was 1,35 Ga, possibility correspond to collision age these terrane with Amazonian protoCraton and cooling average rates of 5,0 deg C - 1,0 Ma. Finally, younger age found of 900 Ma, coherent to the Sunsas - Aguapei Event, probably represent the last regional event that affected these rocks, characterizing the stabilization period of the southwest portion of Amazon Craton. (author)

  1. Pirate Bay pa° vej mod virtuel statsdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Saugmann

    2010-01-01

    Twitter og andre digitale platforme spillede en essentiel rolle i konflikten i Iran ved at informer eomverdenen om de store demonstrationer og den iranske regerings ha°rdhændede metoder for at stoppe dem. Derved gav de befolkningen i den vestlige verden en plads pa° første række i konflikten......, hvilket fik den britiske premierminister Gordon Brown til at udtale, at ’udenrigspolitik aldrig bliver det samme igen’. Fildelingssitet The Pirate Bay gik samtidig ind som en aktiv del af konflikten og kæmpede pa° demonstranternes side; dermed tog sitet første skridt pa° vejen mod at blive en virtuel stat....

  2. SKB's approach to treatment of spatial variability in PA modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach applied by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) concerning spatial variability in rock properties are discussed, with special emphasis to Performance Assessment (PA) applications. In an ongoing safety assessment exercise (SR 97), SKB is for the first time applying three different conceptual models of the spatially variable geosphere. The models are a stochastic continuum model (HYDRASTAR), a discrete feature network model (FracMan/MAFIC), a channel network model (CHAN3D). A regulatory recommendation states that the effect of different conceptualizations should be studied in the ongoing PA exercise. The way the three models are used in SR 97 is discussed, and specific aspects are investigated using these models. The issue of spatial variability is put into perspective relative to other issues with possibly high priority for future PA development. (R.P.)

  3. Brasil, um país do futuro: projeções religiosas e leituras sobre um mote de Stefan Zweig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a fazer uma leitura da obra Brasil, um país do futuro, do escritor vienense Stefan Zweig, ressaltando o quanto o discurso empregado pelo autor está revestido de certo aspecto profético quando fala do Brasil. Seu desejo de querer ver no Brasil da década de 1940 uma terra livre das intolerâncias e violências que assolavam a Europa de então, fustigada pela 2ª Guerra Mundial, fez com que Zweig revivesse a imagem mitológica de que o Brasil era uma terra paradisíaca, um éden reencontrado. A descrição que faz do Brasil, mais que otimista, adquire um aspecto profético quando o autor reforça que a harmonia e paz reinantes no país faziam deste o locus para o acontecimento de um futuro utópico, messiânico. Curiosamente o escritor/profeta, muitas vezes, trai suas profecias, projetando no Brasil valores de sua Europa e às vezes chega mesmo a se contradizer no que tange à questão da tolerância e harmonia que via no Brasil.Palavras-chave: Stefan Zweig; Literatura de viagem; Profetismo; Intolerância; Messianismo.ABSTRACTThis article makes a reading of Viennese writer Stefan Zweig’s book Brasil, um país do futuro (Brazil, a country of the future, pointing out how far the author’s discourse is endowed with certain prophetical aspects when it refers to Brazil. His desire to see Brazil, in the 40’s, as a land free from the intolerance and violence that devastated Europe during World War II made Zweig revive the mythological image of the country as a paradisiacal land, a rediscovered Eden. His description of Brazil, rather than optimistic, acquires a prophetical aspect when he emphasizes the fact that the prevailing harmony and peace of the country made it a locus for the advent of a messianic and utopian future. Curiously, the writer/prophet often betrayed his prophecies, projecting in Brazil old European values, and sometimes contradicting himself as to the issue of tolerance and harmony that he witnessed in

  4. Avaliação inicial do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência na Cidade de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Semensato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os Serviços de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência (SAMU no Brasil têm resultados imediatos pouco conhecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os preditores clínicos de sobrevida dos pacientes em parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR no ambiente não hospitalar atendidos pelo SAMU de Porto Alegre. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional e prospectivo. Os desfechos avaliados foram sobrevida em 30 dias e até a alta hospitalar, além de escore do Cerebral Performance Category (CPC I-II. RESULTADOS: De janeiro a outubro de 2008, foram atendidos 593 pacientes em PCR não traumática e foram realizadas 260 tentativas de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP. Houve sucesso inicial em 52 (20,0% casos, estando 16 pacientes vivos no 30º (6,0% dia, 10 tendo recebido alta hospitalar (3,9%, sendo que 6 (2,3% com escore CPC I-II. A PCR no domicílio associou-se inversamente com a sobrevida no 30º dia (p = 0,001 e na alta hospitalar (p = 0,02. Um ritmo inicial "chocável" (p = 0,008 associou-se à sobrevida aos 30 dias. O intervalo tempo-resposta e tempo colapso até início da RCP foram significativamente menores em sobreviventes aos 30 dias. Em análise multivariada, foram preditores independentes de mortalidade aos 30 dias um ritmo inicial chocável (razão de chance [RC] = 0,28 e intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95,0% = 0,10 - 0,81; p = 0,02 e PCR no domicílio (RC = 3,0 e IC 95,0% = 1,04 - 8,7; p = 0,04. CONCLUSÃO: O atendimento pré-hospitalar da PCR em Porto Alegre tem resultados limitados, porém equiparáveis a outras localidades internacionais. É necessário o reforço de cada elo da corrente da sobrevivência para aperfeiçoar o atendimento pré-hospitalar, visando melhora de resultados clinicamente relevantes.

  5. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma (PMA) Shows Significant Differences in Gene Expression vs. Pilocytic Astrocytoma (PA) and Variable Tendency Toward Maturation to PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Donson, Andrew M; Vogel, Hannes; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2015-07-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs) manifest a more aggressive clinical course than pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Development of effective therapies demands a better biological understanding of PMA. We first conducted gene expression microarray analysis of 9 PMA and 13 PA from infra- and supratentorial sites. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that tumors are grouped according to anatomic site, not diagnosis. Gene expression profiles were then contrasted between eight PMAs and six PAs, all supratentorial/hypothalamic/chiasmal. Clinical outcome of PMAs varied, with four out of four patients with diencephalic syndrome succumbing to disease, one of whom showed bulky metastatic leptomeningeal spread at autopsy, with bimodal maturation to PA in some areas and de-differentiation to glioblastoma in others. A surviving child has undergone multiple surgical debulking, with progressive maturation to PA over time. Ontology-enrichment analysis identified overexpression in PMAs of extracellular matrix and mitosis-related genes. Genes overexpressed in PMA vs. PA, ranked according to fold-change, included developmental genes H19, DACT2, extracellular matrix collagens (COL2A1; COL1A1) and IGF2BP3 (IMP3), the latter previously identified as an adverse prognostic factor in PMA and PA. PMID:25521223

  6. Accreditation and implications of clinical postgraduate PA training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Sobia S; Bushardt, Reamer L; Gonsalves, Wanda C; Hilton, Virginia O; Hornberger, Brad J; Labagnara, Frank A; OʼHara, Kevin M; Sasek, Cody; Smith, Benjamin J; Williams, Jennifer S

    2016-05-01

    No consensus definition exists for postgraduate physician assistant (PA) training. This report from the AAPA Task Force on Accreditation of Postgraduate PA Training Programs describes the types of clinical training programs and their effects on hiring and compensation of PAs. Although completing a postgraduate program appears to have no effect on compensation, PAs who complete these programs may be favored in the hiring process and frequently report greater confidence in their skills. More research is needed and program accreditation is key to monitoring the effectiveness of these programs. PMID:27124222

  7. Primjena HACCP sustava u proizvodnji Paškog sira

    OpenAIRE

    Gligora, Šime; Antunac, Neven

    2007-01-01

    Sustav analize opasnosti i kontrole kritičnih točaka (HACCP) u Republici Hrvatskoj od 31. srpnja 2006. godine zakonski je obvezan u svim subjektima koji posluju hranom. S time u skladu proizvođači mliječnih proizvoda, pa tako i registrirani proizvođači Paškog sira, moraju u svoje pogone implementirati HACCP sustav. Svrha ovog rada je prikazati uvođenje i primjenu HACCP sustava u relativno malom proizvodnom pogonu, u «Sireni - maloj sirani» u Kolanu na otoku Pagu. Stoga je najprije obrađena za...

  8. Modelling cerebral blood oxygenation using Monte Carlo XYZ-PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Jacques, Steven L.; Alexandrov, Sergey; Li, Youzhi; Leahy, Martin J.

    2013-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for the management of many lifethreatening conditions. Non-invasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation with a photoacoustic technique offers advantages over current invasive and non-invasive methods. We introduce a Monte Carlo XYZ-PA to model the energy deposition in 3D and the time-resolved pressures and velocity potential based on the energy absorbed by the biological tissue. This paper outlines the benefits of using Monte Carlo XYZ-PA for optimization of photoacoustic measurement and imaging. To the best of our knowledge this is the first fully integrated tool for photoacoustic modelling.

  9. Study on PTFE/Kevlar49/PA6 Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ni; HAN Xi-en; WANG Shan-yuan

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties and material volume fractions of PTFE/Kevlar49/PA6 composite are studied. The focus of this paper is to get the relationship between the volume fraction of three constituents and the mechanical properties of the composite by doing tensile, hardness and wear test.The effect of the constituent volume fractions was evaluated. Short Kevlar49 fibers reinforced PA6(Polyamide 6) with PTFE filler were studied in five different combinations. The results of the experiments show that the mechanical properties increase with Kevlar fibers increase,then they decrease after the Kevlar fiber volume reaches one number.

  10. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  11. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Carlos A; Lima, Evandro F; Nardi, Lauro V S; Liz, Joaquim D; Waichel, Breno L

    2006-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources. PMID:16936944

  12. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  13. Prevalência de depressão e fatores associados em comunidade de baixa renda de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul Prevalence of depression and associated factors in a low income community of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vivian da Cunha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência e os fatores demográficos e socioeconômicos associados à depressão em adultos e idosos em uma comunidade de baixa renda de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com adultos com >20 anos de idade residentes nos distritos sanitários da Restinga e Extremo Sul, na cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, de julho a dezembro de 2009. A variável dependente do estudo foi a depressão, avaliada pela Escala de Depressão Pós-Natal de Edimburgo. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade, situação conjugal atual, escolaridade e nível econômico. Empregou-se teste qui-quadrado de Pearson na análise bruta e regressão de Poisson com variância robusta na análise ajustada. RESULTADOS: Dentre os entrevistados, a prevalência de depressão encontrada foi de 16,1% (IC95%: 14,9%; 17,4%. Após análise ajustada, observou-se que a depressão esteve associada ao sexo feminino (RP = 2,38. Além disso, observou-se tendência de maiores ocorrência de depressão conforme o aumento da faixa etária e diminuição dos níveis de escolaridade e renda. CONCLUSÕES: Os valores de depressão encontrados foram semelhantes a outros estudos populacionais. Atenção específica deve ser destinada a mulheres e indivíduos de baixa escolaridade, que apresentaram maiores ocorrências de depressão.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with depression in adults and in the elderly in a low income community of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of adults with > 20 years of age living in the Health Districts of Restinga/Extremo Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, between July and December 2009. The dependent variable was depression measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Independent variables were sex, age, current marital status, educational level and economic level. The Chi-square test was used for the

  14. Brazil: anchoring the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of Brazil's state-run petroleum company, Petrobras, in providing a national supply of oil and natural gas and their products to Brazil was discussed. Petrobras is the sole state-run enterprise which carries out research, exploration, production, refining, imports, exports and the transportation of oil and gas in Brazil. Petrobras has built a complete and modern infrastructure made up of refineries, distribution bases, terminals and oil and gas pipelines. Recently (1995) the Brazilian National Assembly approved legislation that while confirming the state monopoly, also provides private contractors and other state-owned companies ways to participate in the petroleum sector. There exists a great potential for oil and gas in many of Brazil's 29 sedimentary basins. The regulatory legislation also created two new organs to deal with the partial deregulation of the petroleum sector, the National Board for Energy Policy and the National Petroleum Agency. The first of these will deal with policy issues, measures and guidelines regarding regional energy supply and demand and specific programs such as those affecting natural gas, fuel alcohol, coal and nuclear energy. The National Petroleum Agency will manage the hydrocarbon sector on behalf of the government. Its functions will include regulation and monitoring of the sector, managing the bidding process for concessions for exploration and production, and other related activities. The new legislation opens up new horizons for the Brazilian oil sector, providing opportunities for private investment, both domestic and foreign, as well as for new technological capabilities associated with these investments. 1 tab., 6 figs

  15. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  16. Movilidad Educativa en Latinoamérica : un Estudio para seis países

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mediavilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se calcula y compara el grado de movilidad intergeneracional educativa existente en seis países latinoamericanos, con el objeto de conocer y cuantificar para esta región uno de los mecanismos a través de los cuales se reproducen las desigualdades educativas. Los datos con los que se ha realizado la estimación corresponden a las encuestas de hogares de seis países: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, México, Perú y Venezuela, para el año 1998-1999. En el análisis hemos empleado tres metodologías complementarias: el análisis de correlación, las matrices de transición mediante un análisis multivariante y la estimación lineal utilizando mínimos cuadrados ordinarios. Los resultados permiten establecer una clara relación positiva entre la educación de los padres y madres y el nivel educativo logrado por sus hijos. Esta relación es más acusada que la existente en otras regiones más desarrolladas (Europa, por ejemplo, siendo comparativamente más reducida la movilidad educativa intergeneracional observada en los países de Latinoamérica analizados.The main objective of this work is to estimate and compare the degree of intergenerational educational mobility in six Latin American countries, in order to understand and quantify one of the mechanisms causing persistence of educational inequalities.We use data from house hold surveys for six countries: Argentina,Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela for the years 1998-1999. The empirical estimates are performed with three complementary methodologies: correlation analysis, transition matricesthrough a multivariate analysis, and a linear estimation using ordinary leastsquares. Results show that there is a positive relationship between parents’education and the educational level attained by their children. Thisrelationship is stronger in Latin American countries than in other more developed areas (Europe, for example, therefore indicating lower educational mobility

  17. Initial Application of the MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ System for Simulating Air Quality in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, L. S.; Adelman, Z.; Moraes, N. O.; Da Silva, R. M.; Landau, L.; Pimentel, L. G.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the recent air quality modeling studies in Brazil have been focused on the main Metropolitan Areas (MAs) located in the south-central region of the country. Studies over Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are the most frequent and are usually focused on ozone and its precursors. Other MAs that have been the subject of air quality studies include Porto Alegre and Curitiba in the south and Belo Horizonte and Vitoria in the southeast. According to the last official figures from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE - www.ibge.gov.br), Brazil has 36 metropolitan areas with more than 250,000 inhabitants and less than 30% of them have publically-accessible air quality management programs. In this study we examine ozone and its precursors on a national level using a modeling system composed of MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ. The goal of this study is to identify areas with emissions and ozone concentrations that may require air quality management programs. MM5 provided hourly meteorological estimates. SMOKE was used to process global emission data from EDGAR version 3.2 for anthropogenic sources and GFED for biomass burning sources. MEGAN was used to estimate biogenic emissions. The modeling system was run on a 37x37 km grid with 32 vertical levels for august 2005 for a domain that covers all of Brazil. The model period was selected to identify air pollution over the Amazonian area during one of the most intense dry seasons of the past 40 years. Analysis was conducted on the air quality predictions over Amazonia and in the northeast of Brazil to study the influence of different inventory sectors in MAs in these regions. The global emission inventories were assimilated to provide a national emission profile that was able to reproduce important air quality trends, such as peak concentrations in Sao Paulo for almost all pollutants and high ozone for Rio de Janeiro. In northern Brazil, both emissions and ozone peaks were simulated in the region known as the "arch

  18. Impactos dos acordos de liberalização comercial Alca e Mercoeuro sobre os países membros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Costa Gurgel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar os impactos da formação da Alca e de um possível bloco de comércio do Mercosul com a União Européia, para o Brasil em particular e para os demais países envolvidos em tais blocos, enfatizando os efeitos sobre o setor agrícola. O modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado do Projeto de Análise de Comércio Global (Gtap é usado para implementar as simulações. Os resultados sugerem que a Alca traz aumentos na produção agrícola e superávits comerciais nos países do Mercosul; no entanto, para os produtos manufaturados tais efeitos são negativos. Os EUA e o Canadá apresentam uma pequena redução na balança comercial. O Brasil é o único país do Mercosul com ganhos de bem-estar. Os efeitos do Mercoeuro sobre os países membros são similares aos da Alca, porém em maior magnitude. Os ganhos de bem-estar estão presentes para todos os países do Mercoeuro, sendo este acordo mais favorável para os países do Mercosul do que a Alca.The objective of this paper is to determine the impacts on the international agricultural market of potential trade liberalization agreements such as Americas Free Trade Area (Afta and Mercosul and European Union Free Trade Area (Mercoeuro. The general equilibrium model from the Global Trade Analysis Project (Gtap is applied to run the simulations. The results suggest that Afta increases agricultural production and trade balance for the Mercosul countries, but for manufactures the effects are negative on both production and trade balance. The U.S. and Canada show a small reduction on trade balance. Brazil is the only Mercosul country to obtain welfare gains with Afta. The impacts of Mercoeuro on its member country are similar to those of Afta, but they are greater in magnitude. Also, all countries have welfare gains in the Mercoeuro, which presents greater benefits than Afta to their respective.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida PA14H7, Three Biocontrol Bacteria against Dickeya Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Cigna, Jérémy; Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Mondy, Samuel; Hélias, Valérie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains PA4C2 and PA3G8 and Pseudomonas putida strain PA14H7 were isolated from potato rhizosphere and show an ability to inhibit the growth of Dickeya phytopathogens. Here, we report their draft genome sequences, which provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in antibiosis against Dickeya.

  20. From PA(X) to RPAM(X)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    How can we use the well-established Public Awareness of some phenomenon X, i.e. PA(X), to Raise the Public Awareness of the Mathematics of—or within—this X, i.e. RPAM(X)? There are several examples illustrating particular assets for mathematics in this way within such phenomena X. Here we will...

  1. Venous Port Salvage Utilizing Low Dose tPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of low dose tPA for catheter salvage in cases of fibrin sheath formation in patients with venous access ports. Prospective evaluation was accomplished in patients who had venous ports with catheter malfunction. There were a total of 50 patients and 56 occlusive events.Each patient had a catheter injection documenting a fibrin sheath.Patient population included 45 for chemotherapy and 5 for antibiotics.A low dose tPA regimen was instilled into the port and upon successful return of function, a completion venogram was accomplished. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study with the average time between placement and dysfunction of 99 days. Five patients had a second occlusive event (38.5 days) and one had a third event (27 days). All patients had a venogram confirming a fibrin sheath as the cause of catheter malfunction. The average dose of tPA was 2.29 mg (range 1 mg-4 mg). Success was achieved in 52 of the 56 occlusive events(92.9%). There were no bleeding complications. Catheter occlusion is a common complication of long-term venous access ports. Aggressive therapy with low-dose tPA can salvage function. It provides safe and effective therapy for venous port malfunction secondary to fibrin sheath

  2. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes.

  3. 78 FR 12806 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  4. 78 FR 73580 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  5. 78 FR 7848 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  6. Use of rt-PA (Alteplase) for acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among those patients with cerebral infarction who were brought to our emergency department from December 2005 through June 2007, 28 satisfied the criteria for indication for alteplase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), and served as the subjects of this study. According to the treatment protocol that our group, led by neurologists, had prepared, 0.6 mg/kg of rt-PA was administered following a CT of the head region that negated the presence of a brain hemorrhage. The time that elapsed between onset and rt-PA administration was 41-167 minutes (median 95). For 24 hours after medication, the patients were placed under respiratory and circulatory care and their neurological performances were observed in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a neurological ward. On a modified ranking scale, which indicates the possibility for social rehabilitation, 9 patients (32%) were rated to be between 0 to 1. Four (14%) succumbed during this period. By formulating a treatment protocol, rapid administration of rt-PA and monitoring to prevent complications became possible. (author)

  7. Estado actual del país y sus necesidades

    OpenAIRE

    Boletín de, Matemáticas

    2012-01-01

    a) NUMERO DE PROFESORES LICENCIADOS Son relativamente pocos, teniendo en cuenta la demanda educativa que el país tiene en la actualidad, así mismo, dentro del grupo de profesores licenciados hay un porcentaje apreciable que necesita actualizarse.

  8. Contra la textolatría: las motivaciones creativas en los testimonios de Arguedas, Alegría, Churata e Izquierdo Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Espezúa Salmón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto y octubre de 1966, Godofredo Morote Gamboa organizó unaserie de conferencias en las que poetas, dramaturgos y novelistas dierontestimonio personal sobre aquello que los motivaba a escribir sus textos. Deesa serie de conferencias que se dieron en la Universidad Nacional FedericoVillarreal, el profesor Morote seleccionó y publicó cuatro que correspondena cuatro autores clásicos de la narrativa peruana. En efecto, las cuatro conferenciasversan sobre las “motivaciones” que llevaron a José María Arguedas,Ciro Alegría, Gamaliel Churata (Arturo Peralta y Francisco Izquierdo Ríos aescribir sus imprescindibles y respectivos textos. Estas cuatro conferenciasespontáneas tienen un alto valor documental, ya que sirven para cotejar losmodos de “contar” una misma experiencia o vivencia en diferentes escenariosy ante distintos públicos. Una consecuencia inevitable que se desprendede lo anterior es que también estas conferencias sirven para corregiropiniones críticas que carecieron de esta fuente testimonial.

  9. La educación ambiental y la calidad de vida en la escuela. La experiencia del Fe y Alegría 43-La Salle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zeballos Velarde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestión de un colegio es siempre un quehacer con múltiples implicancias sociales, especialmente si está ubicado en una zona popular. Es a partir de ella que se puede formar ciudadanos mediante el desarrollo capacidades y valores que enriquezcan su propia vida, la de sus familias y de su medio. Se trata, entonces, de una gestión esencialmente social porque tiene que contribuir a mejorar la calidad de vida de una comunidad.En las siguientes páginas presentamos una sistematización de una experiencia que ha vinculado la educación ambiental y la protección de los espacios verdes con la calidad de vida de alumnos, padres de familia, profesores y vecinos del Colegio Fe y Alegría 43-La Salle. Este colegio está ubicado en la zona desértica de las afueras de Lima, en un asentamiento humano llamado Zapallal, cuyos habitantes son migrantes de zonas selváticas. Es allí donde se fortalece el impacto de este proyecto de educación ambiental.

  10. Cidades inteligentes como nova prática para o gerenciamento dos serviços e infraestruturas urbanos: a experiência da cidade de Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cesar Weiss

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir a experiência da cidade de Porto Alegre relativamente à materialização do conceito de cidade inteligente. Para tanto, utilizou-se uma abordagem metodológica de caráter qualitativo e exploratório, baseada em estudo de caso, com coleta de dados em fontes primárias e secundárias realizada em 2013. Os resultados mostram que a implementação de inovações em tecnologias da informação e comunicação (TICs na prestação dos serviços públicos proporcionou maior eficiência nas atividades que envolvem a gestão da cidade, com importantes resultados em favor dos atores que ali se inserem. Pretendeu-se com este trabalho contribuir com a agenda de pesquisas e discussões sobre a gestão dos espaços urbanos, trazendo o conceito de cidade inteligente como uma prática viabilizadora do desenvolvimento sustentável das cidades brasileiras.

  11. Production of biosurfactants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA 1 isolated in oil environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Anna L.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential production of rhamnolipid-type biosurfactants is assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, which was isolated from oil production wastewater in the Northeast of Brazil. These production of molecules using different carbon (n-hexadecane, paraffinic oil, glycerol and babassu oil and nitrogen sources (NaNO3, (NH42SO4 and CH4N2O was studied. The best results were obtained when using glycerol as substrate. A C/N ratio of 60/1 and use of sodium nitrate as nitrogen source resulted in higher production of the rhamnolipid, expressed by rhamnose (3.16 g/L and by the yield in relation to biomass (Yp/x = 0.70 g/g. Additionally, physical-chemical characteristics of the spent broth with and without cells were studied, providing a low critical micelle concentration of 19 mg/L and toxicity values of 13 and 13.8 mg/L using two test organisms, the micro crustacean Daphnia similis and the bacterium Vibrio fisheri (Microtox, respectively.

  12. Hur påverkar Gerillamarknadsföring Generation Y? : En studie av Gerillamarknadsföringens påverkan på Generation Y.

    OpenAIRE

    Gimdal, Gabriel; Johnson, Max

    2013-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: Hur påverkar Gerillamarknadsföring Generation Y?  Ämne/Kurs:  Företagsekonomi - Kandidatuppsats Handledare:  Lars Haglund Nyckelord: Marknadsföring, Gerillamarknadsföring, Generation Y, Annonsering, Word-of-mouth, Buzz- marknadsföring, varumärkesattityd, varumärkesengagemang, engagemang online, kommunikation. Bakgrund: Marknadsföring handlar om att skapa och utveckla lönsamma kundrelationer. I dagens samhälle så sker marknadsföring runtom omkring oss hela t...

  13. Alterações histológicas em placas ósseas do peixe cascudo Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel (Teleostei, Loricariidae e sua freqüência no lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Description of histological abnormalities in the bony plates of the loricariid catfish Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel (Teleostei, Loricariidae and analysis of its frequency in the lake Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Flores-Lopes

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about natural populations of fishes exposed to polluted waters in Brazil. Contaminants may be lethal or predispose fishes to sickness, being the analysis of aquatic organisms a good indicator of environmental quality. The violinha, Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel, 1868, is a common loricariid catfish in the Guaíba lake basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and has been selected as a bioindicator for being resident, occurring in more than 50% of the samples, and by showing externally detectable neoplasies. These are characterized by its dark pigmentation, bony plates hypertrophy, and hypertrophy and irregular arrangement of the odontodes. Histology showed hypertrophied epitelial tissues, with an increased number of secretory cells, blood cells, and melanina pigments, giving the dark appearance to the neoplasm. Observed frequencies of neoplasm were higher in lake Guaíba than in comparativo samples. Inside lake Guaíba, a pattern of distribution of neoplasm was observed, with the absence of neoplasm in fishes at the collected site that receives water from rio Jacuí, and frequencies of 3.04 to 16.81% in the collection localities in front of Porto Alegre and downstream localities, that receive water from rio Jacuí, rio dos Sinos and rio Gravataí, that drain urban and industrial area of Porto Alegre and neighborhood cities.

  14. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba spp. from thermal swimming pools and spas in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes

    2016-06-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health. PMID:27078644

  15. Post-diagnosis abortion in women living with HIV/Aids in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Bulegon Pilecco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand how the HIV diagnosis combines with other factors that influence the decision to abort.Methodology: Data were collected during a crossover study of women aged between 18 and 49 years old and seen in public health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The life stories of 18 interviewees who had post-diagnosis abortion were reconstructed on a timeline, using information collected quantitatively.Results: The time between the diagnosis and abortion was 2 years or less for more than half of the women. For some, post-diagnosis abortion did not mean the end of reproductive life. The most frequent reason for terminating pregnancy was to be living with HIV; however, only some of the women who stated having this motivation did not have post-diagnosis children. Changing partners between pregnancies was a recurring finding; however, in most pregnancies that ended in abortion, the women lived with their partners.Discussion: The analysis of the reproductive trajectory of the women studied showed that there is no specific profile of the woman who aborts after receiving the HIV diagnosis. Although this diagnosis may be involved in the decision to terminate a pregnancy, it does not necessarily result in the end of a woman's reproductive trajectory. Thus, abortion should be understood within a diversity of decision-making processes and the specific moment of a woman's life story.

  16. The Mirror: Advice on Presence and Awareness (dran pa dang shes bzhin gyi gdams pa me long ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chögyal Namkhai Norbu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available “The Mirror: Advice on the Presence of Awareness” (dran pa dang shes bzhin gyi gdams pa me long ma is a short text that describes the essence of the Dzogchen teaching (rdzogs chen, total perfection. Concerning the way to establish this point of view (lta ba, the main point is to have a direct understanding through the experience of our primordial state of pure presence, beyond any mental or intellectual construction. With regard to meditation (sgom pa, this involves practicing in order to be sure to understand our own true nature, the non-dual condition of the calm state (the essence of the mind and movement (its natural energy. Behavior (spyod pa is the integration of meditation in all our daily activities, continuing in the state of pure presence in every circumstance of life. This is the total realization.

  17. Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in a Random Sample of the Urban Population of Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalencia de la incontinencia urinaria en muestra aleatoria de la población urbana de Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais, Brasil Prevalência da incontinência urinária em amostra randomizada da população urbana de Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina de Souza Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study determines and analyzes the prevalence of Urinary Incontinence (UI and its demographic and clinical predictors. This epidemiological and cross-sectional study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the University of São Paulo, Nursing School. The sample was randomly selected by cluster technique and included 519 individuals aged ≥18 years, living in 341 houses in urban areas. Data were analyzed through Chi-Square, Hosmer Lemeshow’s test and multivariate logistic regression (stepwise. Prevalence rates were standardized by gender and age. Of the 519 people composing the sample: 20.1% had UI, 32.9% were women and 6.2% were men. Longer duration of losses (OR = 29.3; pEl estudio tiene por objetivo conocer la prevalencia de la incontinencia urinaria (IU, de los factores de predicción demográficos y clínicos de la presencia de IU. Se trata de un estudio epidemiológico de corte transversal, aprobado por el Comité de Ética de la Escuela de Enfermería de la Universidad de Sao Paulo. Muestreo estratificado por conglomerado compuesto de 519 individuos con edad ≥18 años, residentes en 341 domicilios del área urbana, sorteados aleatoriamente. Las pruebas utilizadas fueron Chi-cuadrado, Hosmer Lemeshow y regresión logística multivariante (stepwise. Las prevalencias de IU fueron estandarizadas por sexo y edad, en una muestra de 519 personas, siendo 20,1 % en la población general - 32,9% eran mujeres y 6,2% hombres. Los factores más fuertemente asociados a la IU fueron: mayor tiempo de pérdidas (OR=29,3; pOs objetivos deste trabalho foram conhecer a prevalência da incontinência urinária (IU, dos fatores demográficos e clínicos preditores da presença de IU. Estudo epidemiológico, corte transversal, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo. A amostragem, estratificada por conglomerado, foi composta por 519 indivíduos com idade ≥18 anos, residentes em 341 domicílios da área urbana, sorteados aleatoriamente. Os testes utilizados foram qui-quadrado, Hosmer Lemeshow e regressão logística multivariada (stepwise. As prevalências foram padronizadas por sexo e idade, portanto, das 519 pessoas que compuseram a amostra, 20,1% dessas tinha IU numa população total; 32,9% eram mulheres e 6,2% homens. Maior tempo de perdas (OR=29,3; p<0,001, diabetes mellitus (OR=17,7; p<0,001, acidente vascular encefálico (OR=15,9; p<0,001 e cistocele (OR=12,5; p<0,001 foram os fatores mais fortemente associados à IU. O estudo permitiu conhecer a epidemiologia da IU e pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas para a sua prevenção primária e secundária, seu tratamento, ainda que inicialmente em nível municipal.

  18. Limitação de suporte de vida em três unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica do sul do Brasil Life support limitation at three pediatric intensive care units in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Lago

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os modos de morte e fatores associados à limitação de suporte de vida em três unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica do sul do Brasil. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo em que foram revisados todos os óbitos ocorridos em 2002 em três unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica de referência de Porto Alegre por uma equipe de pesquisadores treinados para esse fim. Foram avaliadas as características gerais, o modo de morte (ressuscitação cardiopulmonar, morte encefálica, ordem de não reanimar, não oferta e retirada de suporte vital - esses três últimos agrupados em limitação de suporte de vida, o tempo de internação - hospitalar e na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica -, o plano de final de vida e a participação da família nessa decisão. Para as comparações, foram utilizados o teste t de Student, Mann Whitney, qui-quadrado, odds ratio e análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Aproximadamente 53,3% dos óbitos receberam ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. A incidência de limitação de suporte de vida foi de 36,1%, havendo diferença significativa (p = 0,014 entre os hospitais (25 versus 54,3 e 45,5%. A forma de limitação de suporte de vida mais freqüente foi "ordem de não reanimar" (70%. Observou-se associação entre limitação de suporte de vida com presença de doença crônica (odds ratio = 8,2; IC95% = 3,2-21,3 e tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica > 24h (odds ratio = 4,4; IC95% = 1,6-11,8. A participação da família e dos comitês de ética no plano de final de vida foi inferior a 10%. CONCLUSÕES: A ressuscitação cardiopulmonar ainda é oferecida em uma freqüência maior do que a descrita nos países do hemisfério norte, enquanto que a limitação de suporte vital é realizada preferentemente através da ordem de não reanimar. Esses achados e a pequena participação da família refletem dificuldades em relação às decisões de final de vida

  19. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  20. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; Oliveira, L.

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  1. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  2. Drought Preparedness in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ana Paula A.; Engle, Nathan L.; De Nys, Erwin; Molejón, Carmen; Sávio Martins, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Large portions of Brazil's Northeast have experienced an intense and prolonged drought for the majority of 2010–2013. This drought, along with other droughts that have hit the South in recent years, has sparked a new round of discussions to improve drought policy and management at the federal and state levels. To assist with these efforts, the World Bank recently conducted a series of evaluations on national and sub-national drought preparedness measures and approaches across five country cas...

  3. Brazil: Selected Issues Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This Selected Issues Paper discusses the macroeconomic implications of pension reforms in Brazil. It assesses empirically the relationship between fiscal policy and the real effective exchange rate in emerging markets and draws policy implications. It reviews the current status of local capital markets in the country, the key challenges, and policy options for further development. The paper also provides a detailed description of consumer credit developments and analyzes recent indicators of ...

  4. The search for gluon saturation in pA collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk, I reviewed the recent theoretical progress towards the exploration of gluon saturation phenomenon in pA collisions at both RHIC and the LHC. Two important pillars of this exploration are the single inclusive forward hadron productions and forward dihadron correlations, which have both been computed up to one-loop order within the small-x factorization formalism. Furthermore, detailed numerical study for the single inclusive hadron production at next-to-leading order provides us good description of the low transverse momentum data measured in dAu collisions at RHIC with significantly reduced uncertainty. In addition, the one-loop calculation for dihadron productions in pA collisions shows that there is a new type of large logarithm, which is known as the Sudakov factor, arising in the back-to-back correlation limit

  5. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA

  6. Functionalization of PET and PA6.6 woven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work as received woven fabrics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyamide 6.6 (PA6.6) were exposed to a continuous dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), in air at atmospheric pressure, at selected discharge power values and conveyor speeds. The chemical modification of the fabric surface was studied by contact angle analysis, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that the treatment changed the fabric surface chemistry, increasing its wettability by polar liquids and its oxygen content. Contact angle results showed different behaviour of the two polymer fabrics toward ageing effects; while PET showed a contact angle increase along the subsequent days of treatment, the PA6.6 fabric maintained its hydrophilicity even 15 days after treatment. The surface morphology analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), did not show any significant difference before and after treatment.

  7. Functionalization of PET and PA6.6 woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessada, R.; Silva, G.; Paiva, M. C.; Machado, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    In the present work as received woven fabrics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyamide 6.6 (PA6.6) were exposed to a continuous dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), in air at atmospheric pressure, at selected discharge power values and conveyor speeds. The chemical modification of the fabric surface was studied by contact angle analysis, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirmed that the treatment changed the fabric surface chemistry, increasing its wettability by polar liquids and its oxygen content. Contact angle results showed different behaviour of the two polymer fabrics toward ageing effects; while PET showed a contact angle increase along the subsequent days of treatment, the PA6.6 fabric maintained its hydrophilicity even 15 days after treatment. The surface morphology analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), did not show any significant difference before and after treatment.

  8. Faktorer som påverkar sponsorering av musikevenemang

    OpenAIRE

    Lundmark, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med lärdomsprovet var att utforska om hur man söker och får sponsorer till ett musikevenemang och att hitta de faktorer som påverkar företag när de gör sina beslut om sponsorstöden. Avsikten var att få fram effektiva metoder för små organisationer att få sponsorer. Samtidigt var det intressant att se om det finns något som kunde göras bättre i letande efter av samarbete från både företagens och arrangörernas synvinkel. Den teoretiska referensramen baserade sig pa...

  9. μPA2600等:功率MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    瑞萨电子株式会社推出八款低功耗P通道和N通道功率金属氧化半导体场效晶体管(MOSFET)产品,适用于包括智能手机和笔记本在内的便携式电子产品。具有低功耗(低导通电阻),器件包括20V(VDSS)μPA2600和30VμPA2601,配置了超紧凑型2mm×2mm封装。

  10. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  11. The burrows of Parastacus defossus (Decapoda: Parastacidae, a fossorial freshwater crayfish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa K. Noro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004 and 23°C (spring 2003. The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l (18.2% saturation. The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².

  12. The 233Pa fission cross-section measurement and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    233Pa is a conspicuous example of strongly discrepant data in the accepted nuclear data evaluations. The precise knowledge of the neutron-induced reaction cross-section of this highly β-active nuclide (T1/2 = 27.0 d) is essential for the successful implementation of the thorium-based fuel cycle in advanced nuclear applications. The reactions involving 233Pa are responsible for the balance of nuclei as well as the average number of prompt fission neutrons in a contemplated reactor scenario. In an IAEA report, it is stated that there is a need to know the 233Pa(n, f) cross-section with an accuracy of 20%. The different evaluated neutron data libraries show, however, a difference of a factor of two for this cross-section. It has previously been deemed not feasible to measure this reaction directly due to its short half-life, high radioactivity and the in-growth of the daughter product 233U. Hence, the entries in the neutron libraries are based on theoretical predictions, which explains the large discrepancies. As reported recently the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 233Pa has been measured for the first time directly with mono-energetic neutrons from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV at the Van-de-Graaff facility of the IRMM. In the meantime, during two further measurement campaigns, the energy range has been extended up to 8.5 MeV. The experimental results will be presented together with recent model calculations of the fission cross-section applying the statistical model code STATIS, which improve the cross-section evaluation up to the second chance fission threshold. (authors)

  13. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    For this demonstration assessment, 10 different groups of LED luminaires were installed at three sites in Philadelphia, PA. Each of the three sites represented a different set of conditions, most importantly with regard to the incumbent HPS luminaires, which were nominally 100 W, 150 W, and 250 W. The performance of each product was evaluated based on manufacturer data, illuminance calculations, field measurements of illuminance, and the subjective impressions of both regular and expert observers.

  14. PA3297 Counteracts Antimicrobial Effects of Azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Zhang, Lu; Weng, Yuding; Chen, Ronghao; Zhu, Feng; Jin, Yongxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Jin, Shouguang; Wu, Weihui

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in human. Its increasing resistance to antibiotics requires alternative treatments that are more effective than available strategies. Among the alternatives is the unconventional usage of conventional antibiotics, of which the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) provides a paradigmatic example. AZM therapy is associated with a small but consistent improvement in respiratory function of cystic fibrosis patients suffering from chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Besides immunomodulating activities, AZM represses bacterial genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and motility, all of which are due to stalling of ribosome and depletion of cellular tRNA pool. However, how P. aeruginosa responds to and counteracts the effects of AZM remain elusive. Here, we found that deficiency of PA3297, a gene encoding a DEAH-box helicase, intensified AZM-mediated bacterial killing, suppression of pyocyanin production and swarming motility, and hypersusceptibility to hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrated that expression of PA3297 is induced by the interaction between AZM and ribosome. Importantly, mutation of PA3297 resulted in elevated levels of unprocessed 23S-5S rRNA in the presence of AZM, which might lead to increased susceptibility to AZM-mediated effects. Our results revealed one of the bacterial responses in counteracting the detrimental effects of AZM. PMID:27014238

  15. PA3297 Counteracts Antimicrobial Effects of Azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao eTan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in human. Its increasing resistance to antibiotics requires alternative treatments that are more effective than available strategies. Among the alternatives is the unconventional usage of conventional antibiotics, of which the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM provides a paradigmatic example. AZM therapy is associated with a small but consistent improvement in respiratory function of cystic fibrosis (CF patients suffering from chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Besides immunomodulating activities, AZM represses bacterial genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and motility, all of which are due to stalling of ribosome and depletion of cellular tRNA pool. However, how P. aeruginosa responds to and counteracts the effects of AZM remain elusive. Here we found that deficiency of PA3297, a gene encoding a DEAH-box helicase, intensified AZM-mediated bacterial killing, suppression of pyocyanin production and swarming motility, and hypersusceptibility to hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrated that expression of PA3297 is induced by the interaction between AZM and ribosome. Importantly, mutation of PA3297 resulted in elevated levels of unprocessed 23S-5S rRNA in the presence of AZM, which might lead to increased susceptibility to AZM-mediated effects. Our results revealed one of the bacterial responses in counteracting the detrimental effects of AZM.

  16. Occurrence of limnic molluscs and crustaceous on clusters of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, formed on “sarandi” at Guaíba Lake (rs, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria de Fraga Alberto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the occurrence of invetebrates associated with macro clusters of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 formed on branches of “sarandi” (Chephalanthus glabratus (Spreng. K. Schum, quantitative samplings (N=28 were conducted for two years (2002 to 2004 at Veludo Beach on Guaíba Lake (municipality of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. From the results, the gastropod Heleobia piscium (Orbigny, 1835 was identified as a constant (78.57% species, while Potamolithus jacuyensis Pilsbry 1899 (35.71% and the crustaceous Hyalella curvispina Shoemaker 1942 (26% were indicated as accessory species. The other taxa were accidental (<25%: Ampullariidae (young individuals, Heleobia davisi (Silva & Thomé, 1985, Chilina parva (Martens, 1868 and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. Currently, the interspecific relationships among these taxa are poorly known.

  17. La marca país como estrategia competitiva en el desarrollo del posicionamiento de un país a nivel nacional e internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Se pensó como objetivo general de este estudio, el poder plantear estrategias que apoyen la óptima gestión competitiva en el desarrollo de del posicionamiento de un país tanto a nivel nacional e internacional, conscientemente para cada país se dan casos diferentes pero se pensó en la generación de pasos para identificar la ruta hacia lo que puede ser más que una Marca País o Imagen País, lo que llamare la Estrategia Marca País. Para poder proponer estrategias que contribuyeran en el desarroll...

  18. Pilot-project of implantation of pharmaceutical care close to the program of bipolar mood disorder of the Hospital of Clinics of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Maria Mendes Ceresér

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bipolar Mood Disorder is characterized by the alternation of depressive crises with episodes of mania or euphoria, having these patients 15 to 35 times more chances of suicide, as compared with people without this disorder. The pharmacotherapy is fundamental for this disease, aiming to decrease the frequency of episodes and disease severity. In these patients, the polypharmacy has recently increased and one of the main difficulties is the adherence to treatment. The objective of this study was to contribute for the improvement of bipolar patients health conditions, developing their respective pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. Twenty eight adult bipolar patients who were participants of a specialized clinic within a tertiary hospital in Porto Alegre have been randomly selected, and the Dader Method of pharmacotherapeutic follow-up has been applied. The more common clinical comorbidities were: hypertension (50%, obesity (46.43%, and hypothyroidism (36.29%. The bipolar patients are more susceptible to clinical comorbidities, and many of them could be due to pharmacotherapy. Only 1.43% of patients presented Drug Related Problems, being all of them resolved along the study. It was also observed that 32.14% of evaluated patients presented low adherence to treatment, and between these patients, 55.56% passed to have good adherence after pharmacotherapeutic follow-up. The pharmacotherapeutic follow-up is fundamental for the improvement of patient's health. New studies, with higher number of patients and longer duration, are necessary to evaluate the percentage of patients that could be beneficiary of Pharmaceutical Care.O Transtorno do Humor Bipolar é caracterizando pela alternância de crises depressivas com episódios de mania ou euforia, tendo estes pacientes 15-35 vezes mais chances de suicídio em comparação com pessoas sem este transtorno. A farmacoterapia é fundamental, visando diminuir a freqüência dos episódios e a gravidade da doen

  19. Maternidade na adolescência: indicadores emocionais negativos e fatores associados em mães de 14 a 16 anos em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Scolari Rossetto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a prevalência de indicadores emocionais negativos e fatores associados em 430 mães adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos de Porto Alegre, RS. Foram estudadas variáveis sociodemográficas, relações sociais e familiares, aspectos reprodutivos, abuso e violência. As razões de prevalência (RP foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson mediante análise hierarquizada. A prevalência de sofrimento psíquico intenso foi 32,6%, estando associado à baixa classe social, à não repetência escolar, ao relacionamento ruim com a mãe, à não aceitação da gestação pelo parceiro e à falta de apoio da família frente à gestação. A prevalência de autovalorização negativa foi 15,4%, permanecendo associada ao relacionamento ruim com a mãe e a não possuir uma pessoa confidente. Pouca ou nenhuma expectativa em relação ao futuro foi encontrada em 7,5% das adolescentes, estando associada à repetência escolar, à criação pela mãe biológica, à idade precoce da primeira relação sexual e à ocorrência de abuso físico. A alta prevalência de sofrimento psíquico, encontrada nas mães adolescentes, merece atenção especial das políticas públicas de saúde para a inclusão de profissionais habilitados ao manejo dos aspectos emocionais no atendimento da maternidade precoce.

  20. “Guarda-Livros” ou “Parceiros de Negócios”? Uma Análise do Perfil Profissional Requerido pelo Mercado de Trabalho para Contadores na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Damacena; Ernani Ott; Charline Barbosa Pires

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo analisa o perfil do profissional contábil requerido pelo mercado de trabalho daRegião Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA). Técnicas de Estatística Descritiva Bivariadae Multivariada são utilizadas na análise de 939 ofertas de emprego coletadas no período dejaneiro a setembro de 2007 no jornal Zero Hora e no site de recolocação profissionalManager. A análise dos dados revela a procura por profissionais com um amplo conjuntode competências, mas aponta que a demanda por candidatos q...

  1. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite; Drehmer Tania Maria

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é...

  2. Enseñanza de los procesos que conllevan al calentamiento global en estudiantes de grado octavo de la I.E. Fe y Alegría Santo Domingo Savio

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata López, Juan Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen: en este trabajo se presenta el diseño y la aplicación de una unidad de enseñanza potencialmente significativa basada en la teoría del aprendizaje significativo de David Ausubel con el fin de promover el aprendizaje del calentamiento global y las prácticas humanas que lo generan. Esta unidad se realiza en la Institución Educativa Fe y Alegría Santo Domingo Savio, ubicada en el barrio Santo Domingo Savio con 11 estudiantes del grado octavo. Dicha unidad consta de siete actividade...

  3. Der Partizipative Haushalt und der Wandel, der ihn trägt: Hintergründe, Akteure, theoretische Konzepte. Der Erfolg der partizipativen Kommunalpolitik von Porto Alegre, Brasilien, im Kontext neuer Vorstellungen von Entwicklung und Demokratie

    OpenAIRE

    Theuer Linke, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Der Partizipative Haushalt von Porto Alegre stellte eine politische Innovation dar, die von vielen Wissenschaftler/-innen als Erweiterung der Demokratie betrachtet wurde. Mit seinem partizipativ-deliberativem Charakter war er eine Institution, die die Beteiligung der Bevölkerung an den lokalen politischen Entscheidungen zu Investitionen innerhalb der Stadt ermöglichte. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den Fragen: 1) welche die Hintergründe der Einführung (und Weiterführung) des Par...

  4. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  5. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  6. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  7. Os grupos na atenção básica de saúde de Porto Alegre: usos e modos de intervenção terapêutica Groups in basic health attention in Porto Alegre: uses and forms of therapeutic intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Maffacciolli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo trata dos grupos como modalidade assistencial utilizada pelos serviços de atenção básica de saúde. Oficinas, grupos de educação em saúde e palestras constituem atividades diferenciadas em relação aos demais atendimentos tradicionais. O estudo que subsidia essa discussão teve como objetivo conhecer o perfil da assistência, sob a forma de grupos, prestada nas unidades que compõem a rede básica de saúde de Porto Alegre. Foram abordados 116 profissionais, de um total de 124 serviços de saúde, entre os quais 96 desenvolviam grupos. Evidenciou-se que os mesmos têm relevância terapêutica por favorecerem a troca de informações e o aprendizado sobre aspectos relacionados à saúde/doença. Constituem práticas inclusivas, capazes de vincular os usuários aos serviços e de reformular o modelo assistencial vigente. Assim, constatou-se que a compreensão dessas práticas remete a sua dimensão de qualificação da assistência coletiva e também a uma dimensão estratégica de compensação de atendimento às crescentes demandas de saúde.This article deals with groups as an assistential modality used by the services of basic health attention. Workshops, health education groups, as well as, lectures are different activities done in relation to other traditional attendances. The study that is behind this discussion had as its main aim to know the profile of assistance, under groups' organization, offered in the Units which make part of the Basic Health Network in Porto Alegre. Within a total of 124 health services, 116 professionals were approached, among them, 96 developed groups. We could verify that the groups have therapeutic relevance because they favor the sharing of information and the learning about aspects which are related to the topic health-sickness. They constitute inclusive practices, which are able to create a link with the users and the service, as well as, to reformulate the existing assistential model

  8. Conhecimentos, percepções, comportamentos e representações de saúde e doença bucal dos adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre Knowledge, perceptions, behaviors and representations of oral health of teenagers of public schools of two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Teixeira Leite Flores

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os conhecimentos, as percepções, os comportamentos e as representações relacionados à saúde bucal de adolescentes de escolas públicas de dois bairros de Porto Alegre, como também averiguar a possibilidade de participação destes como multiplicadores de saúde. Dois instrumentos de pesquisa foram utilizados: um questionário e a técnica dos grupos focais. Cinqüenta e três adolescentes constituíram uma amostra intencional. Para os adolescentes a doença cárie é representada pela dor de dente, e eles não consideram a cárie como doença, porque é comum, assim como a gengivite, que é percebida como um desequilíbrio. A negligência pessoal é considerada a principal causa da cárie e da gengivite, e a motivação para realizar a higiene bucal está vinculada à sociabilização. O dentista foi indicado como responsável pelo ensinamento do uso do fio dental e pelo reforço e aperfeiçoamento da técnica de escovação. Os adolescentes demonstram disposição em transferir os conhecimentos sobre saúde que receberam para seus colegas mais jovens.The objective of this research was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, behavior and representations related to oral health of teenager students of public schools in two neighborhoods of Porto Alegre to verify the possibility of the participation of these youths as multipliers in the health assistance program. Two research instruments were used: a questionnaire and focal groups. The teenagers who participated in this research were volunteers and constituted a selected and intentional sample. The results showed that to the teenagers the tooth pain represents the illness but decay is not seen as such because it is very common as well as gingivitis, which is unevenly recognized. The personal negligence is the main cause of decay and gingivitis and the motivation to perform hygiene habits is connected to socialization. They are aware of the importance of

  9. Astronomy in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  10. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  11. Dealing with a Pa-231 contaminated ventilation duct - 59248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambridge University had worked in the 1960's and 1970's with Pa-231, a decay product of U-235. The fume cupboards discharged into ventilation ducting made from asbestos cement. The university wished to refurbish the laboratory and the RPA had negotiated over many years with the Environment Agency to set up a project to remove the ducting both to reduce the radiological hazards and as part of a programme to remove unwanted circuits and upgrade the ventilation system to modern standards. Contamination levels were significant and low dose rates were measurable on the external surface. The aim was to be able to remove the ducting and treat it as asbestos waste, rather than to have to treat the debris as asbestos contaminated radioactive waste. The age of the contaminant was such that a large fraction of the decay chain had grown in, giving a mixture of alpha, beta and gamma emissions. The most useful nuclides for surface monitoring were Pb-211 and Tl-207, both of which are energetic beta emitters. A wide energy range beta detector was used, but it was fitted with a filter to absorb any alpha radiation which otherwise would have contributed to the signal for good surfaces but not for dusty, damp or rough surfaces and would have contributed to the uncertainty in the activity assessment. Samples were checked using gamma spectrometry to confirm that only Pa-231 and its progeny were present in significant quantities. The gamma spectrum is complicated and this paper describes the difficulties in confirming that the spectrum only contained the Pa-231 decay chain. The vast majority of the contaminated ducting was successfully consigned as asbestos, rather than radioactive, waste. The other problem was dealing with the soft waste produced during the dismantling process. This was monitored using simple equipment and it was possible to demonstrate that it could be disposed of with the rest of the waste under the relevant UK legislation. (authors)

  12. Experimental Results on Jets in pA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelt, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The experimentally observed reduction of jet yields in ultrarelativistic heavy ion (AA) collisions relative to proton-proton (pp) collisions is widely interpreted in terms of energy loss of a hard scattered parton traversing a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) before fragmenting into a jet of hadrons. In order to constrain proposed mechanisms of energy loss, a variety of measurements are needed that quantify both how the jet yields and jet structure are modified in the medium. However, jets may also be modified by differences in the initial state of the nucleus relative to that of the proton. The precise determination of the QGP properties relies on disentangling these additional modifications, collectively termed ``cold nuclear matter'' effects, from energy loss in the QGP. Collisions between heavy ions and protons (pA) provide a potential control environment where cold nuclear matter effects should be present, but QGP formation is generally not expected to occur. In this talk, an overview of recent jet results from proton-lead collisions produced at the LHC will be given. The yield of inclusive jets and distributions of dijet pairs are shown to be compatible with generally accepted theoretical expectations, although significant modification is observed when yields are measured from specific centrality classes of pA collision events. Some measurements of high-pT charged hadron yields suggest a larger modification in pA collisions relative to pp collisions than for inclusive jet yields. The potential implications of this difference along with other measurements relating to jet structure will be discussed.

  13. Los estudios de posgrado en nuestro país

    OpenAIRE

    Chicote, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    Intentaré trazar el estado de los estudios de posgrado en nuestro país a partir de un análisis de su historia reciente. Llamo historia reciente a la última década, la década que va desde mediados de los 90 hasta el presente. Y en función de esa historia reciente propongo hacer una evaluación de cómo y en qué estamos, para concluir con proyecciones y posibles lineamientos hacia el futuro. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  14. Neutron-induced fission cross-section of 231Pa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first series of fission cross-section measurements for incident neutron energies between 0.6 and 3.4 MeV has confirmed a first chance threshold value around 1b. In contrast to our findings for the fission cross-section in 233Pa, both the direct and the surrogate cross-section data lead to the same result. This seems to support the assumption, that only in cases, where ingoing and outgoing particle are similar, particle-transfer reactions give results that are in agreement with those obtained from direct compound nuclear reactions

  15. Metanálise de Relações Interpessoais no Método de Rorschach em Países Ocidentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rubens de Queiroz Balbi Neto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to do a metanalysis of variables indicative interpersonal relationships result (HVI, Hypervigilance Index, CDI, Coping Deficit Index, SumT, Sum of the Texture’s answers, COP, Cooperative Movement, AG, Aggressive Movement, p, Active Movement and, a, Passive Movement in 14 western countries (Italy, Argentina, Greece, Finland, Denmark, Belgium, Australia, United States, Spain, Romania, Portugal, Peru, Holland and Brazil. For that, 16 Normative’s papers of the Rorschach Comprehensive System were analyzed, comparing eleven different measures among the 14 countries (HVI positive, CDI=5, CDI=4, CDI positive, SumT=0, SumT>1, COP=0, COP>2, AG=0, AG>2 e p>a+1. The results are pointing that the Brazilian sample is above 01 standard deviation for the following measures: CDI=5, CDI=4, CDI positive, AG=0 e p>a+1. Brazil also presents the largest measure for: CDI=5, CDI=4, CDI positive e AG=0. The data indicate that the Brazilian sample have more difficulty contending with the natural demands of a social world than the samples of the other countries.

  16. Traduzindo o Brazil : o país mestiço de Jorge Amado

    OpenAIRE

    D’ Amaro Blasques Tooge, Marly

    2014-01-01

    Jorge Amado, who entered the Guinness Book of Records as “the world's most translated author” in 1996, was also the first Brazilian to have his/her name in The New York Times best seller list. His first book translated into English was published in the USA by Alfred Knopf Publishers in 1945 under the auspices of the U.S. State Department, who sponsored a cultural interchange program as part of president Roosevelt’s the Good Neighbor Policy. Translated literature was seen, at the time, as a me...

  17. Seasonal Variations Affect the Physicochemical Composition of Bufallo Milk and Artisanal Cheeses Produced in Marajó Island (Pa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G., Simões

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the influence of seasonal variation in physicochemical composition and microbiological profile of buffalo milk and of the artisanal cream and butter types cheeses produced on Marajó Island. Eighteen farms located of the island were involved in the study. Milk and cheese quality were evaluated in two typical seasons. The rainy, from January to June and dry, from July to December. Samples were submitted to a detailed set of laboratorial analyses. Physicochemical composition of buffalo milk was influenced by the seasons. Compared to rainy, the dry period showed an increase in fat (5.53±0.71 to 6.74±1.19 and lactose (4.77±0.20 to 5.20±0.20 concentrations and reduction in total solids (16.89±0.92 to 15.77±1.54, nonfat dry matter (9.94±0.36 to 8.99±1.23 and minerals (0.84±0.12 to 0.62±0.09 concentrations (p<0.05. The season influence was observed in physicochemical composition of both cheese-types. Compared to rainy season, in the cream cheese type, higher values (p<0.05 were found for titratable acidity (0.63±0.02 to 0.78±0.15, fat (32.38±3.22 to 36.89±4.59, fat in the dry matter (55.06±3.26 to 63.92±2.49 but lower values for water activity (0.99±0.02 to 0.49±0.03, minerals (2.37±0.55 to 1.40±0.02 and calcium (0.28±0.08 to 0.18±0.07. For the butter cheese type, in the dry season, higher values were found only for titratable acidity (0.49±0.02 to 0.38±0.0 and lower values for water activity (0.18±0.07 to 0.45±0.08. The study have shown that some components of the buffalo milk and artisanal cheeses produced on Marajó Island are influenced by the dry and rainy typical seasons and therefore, some sensory variations are expected around the year.

  18. "O Brasil em 1889": um país para consumo externo "Brazil in 1889": a country for foreign consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Nunes Ferreira; Maria Fernanda Lombardi Fernandes; Rossana Rocha Reis

    2010-01-01

    Em 1889, patrocinada pelo governo do Império e organizada por Francisco J. de Santa-Anna Nery para a Exposição Universal de Paris, era publicada a obra Le Brésil en 1889. O livro tinha como objetivo exaltar o Império do Brasil, fazendo um balanço dos "progressos" vividos pela monarquia nas últimas décadas - dentre os quais se destacava a abolição da escravidão. Entre seus autores estão alguns nomes importantes da elite política e intelectual brasileira desse período, como Rio Branco, André Re...

  19. Fuelwood utilization in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual consumption of fuelwood in Brazil is approximately equal to 180 million oil barrels, or 13.3% of all Brazilian primary energy use. Fuelwood consumption in the country is greater than the use of wood for industrial use. Fuelwood taken from existing forest has been a very common activity in Brazil. Forest plantations to support the Brazilian fuelwood consumption have not been important. As fuelwood consumption in the country is expected to increase in the future, it is important to increase the supply of wood by sustainable use of the existing natural forests. Even if they are far from the centers of consumption, these are only available reserves capable of supporting the Brazilian future fuelwood requirements. For this reason it is necessary to use advanced technology to convert the energy of wood efficiently into a form (such as electricity) to carry it to the centers of consumption. In addition, forest plantations would be established in the available areas, mainly for specific uses, as for charcoal production for the pig-iron and steel industries. In all the above plans, at least, the US3/2 billion/year that represents the current Brazilian fuelwood consumption should be returned to rehabilitate the forest growing stock. In addition, it would be used to stimulate the development and use of the most suitable systems of fuelwood conversion, improving the efficiency of energy production. (author)

  20. Waste management in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management policies set up in developed countries have in general been used by other countries with less experience in the nuclear field as the basis for developing waste disposal rules or guidelines according to their particular political, social and economic conditions. The waste management question became a main concern in Brazil during the licensing period of the Angra I nuclear power plant and the other fuel cycle facilities envisaged under the Agreement between Brazil and the Federal Republic of Germany. Before the Angra I licensing period, all final waste products arising from nuclear activities were released into the environment because their radioactive levels were below the standard limits. The Research, Development and Demonstration (RDD) Project initiated by the National Nuclear Energy Commission has the purpose to provide information that may contribute to the formulation of recommendations for a waste disposal policy, as well as to demonstrate the feasibility of the Brazilian waste disposal concept. The paper briefly describes the waste management policy in some countries, their contributions to the studies carried out in the RDD Project, and the recommendations and mechanisms for implementing the waste management proposal, and presents general information concerning the Brazilian repository concept. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  1. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Negative gauge pressure comparison: range -95 kPa to +95 kPa (EURAMET Project 1131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Markku; Saxholm, Sari; Altintas, Aykurt; Pavis, Richard; Peterson, Guliko

    2010-01-01

    A pressure comparison in the negative gauge pressure range was arranged in 2009. The participating laboratories were CMI/Czech Republic, FORCE Technology/Denmark, AS Metrosert/Estonia and MIKES/Finland. Negative gauge pressures are a common range for pressure calibrations although uncertainty requirements are generally not very high. The results from the four participating laboratories suggest that calibrations in the negative gauge pressure range are not as easy as expected. Some of the claimed uncertainties were perhaps too optimistic, and the large variation in the results made it difficult to generate consistent reference values. The agreement of the results at positive gauge pressures on the same transfer standard was much better. Obviously there is a need for further comparisons in the negative gauge pressure range. The transfer standard was a multifunction calibrator Beamex MC5 equipped with an internal pressure module for the range -100 kPa to 104 kPa in the gauge mode. The resolution of the display was 0.001 kPa. The stability of the transfer standard was good. The comparison was registered as EURAMET Project No. 1131 and as the supplementary comparison EURAMET.M.P-S8 in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. Ammonia Sensing Behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 Composite Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO2 had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

  3. Ammonia sensing behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Dong, Xianjun; Pang, Zengyuan; Du, Yuanzhi; Xia, Xin; Wei, Qufu; Huang, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO(2)-PANI/PA6) composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO(2) had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. PMID:23235446

  4. Mucosal immunization with attenuated Salmonella Typhi expressing anthrax PA83 primes monkeys for accelerated serum antibody responses to parenteral PA83 vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Galen, James E.; Chinchilla, Magaly; Marcela F. Pasetti; Wang, Jin Yuan; Zhao, LiCheng; Arciniega-Martinez, Ivonne; Silverman, David J.; Levine, Myron M.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA was genetically engineered for stable plasmid-based expression of protective antigen of anthrax toxin (PA83) fused with the export protein ClyA (ClyA-PA83). The priming potential of CVD 908-htrA expressing ClyA-PA83 was assessed in 12 rhesus and 20 cynomolgus macaques immunized mucosally (intranasally) on days 0 and 14. A parenteral boost with purified PA83 plus alum was given to rhesus macaques on days 42 and 225; cynomolgus monke...

  5. Measurement of average cross section for Pa-233 (n, 2n) Pa-232 reaction to neutrons with fission-type reactor spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among some nuclides concerning thorium fuel cycle, the reaction cross sections of Pa-233 should be thoroughly investigated because of its relatively long life of 27 days half life. In the present works, the average cross section for Pa-233(n,2n)Pa-232 reaction, which has been considered to contribute to the production of troublesome concomitant U-232, was initially measured using the Pa-233 specimen as pure as possible followed by the re-irradiation in a fission-type neutron spectrum. The purest Pa-233 was produced from the first thermal neutron irradiation of Th-oxide, which was selected from the viewpoint of low Th-230 content to avoid the production of bothering Pa-231 having a large cross section for thermal neutron capture reaction. The chemically isolated Pa-233 was immediately re-irradiated with reactor neutrons having fission-type reactor spectrum in KUR, along with some flux monitors for fast neutrons. After completely decaying out Pa-233 to U-233, the chemical purification of uranium was performed and the resultant uranium isotopes were analysed with an alpha-spectrometry. By using the activity ratios of U-232/U-233, the objective cross section was evaluated to be 52.1 mbarn with an estimated overall experimental error of 10 % after correcting the inevitable bypath reaction by small amount of Pa-231 content. (author)

  6. Labelling and Packaging in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcante, Tania M; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Brazil is the largest country in South America, with an area of 8 547 403.5 square kilometres and a population of 169 799 170 (IBGE, 2000). Its geopolitical structure com-prises 26 states and one Federal District, the capital of Brazil, Brasilia. Each state is divided into municipalities, of which there are a total of 5 507. The primary causes of death in Brazil are cardiovascular diseases and cancer and their major risk factor is tobacco use. Lung cancer is the...

  7. HIV rapid testing as a key strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Brazil Prueba rápida para el HIV como una estrategia para la prevención de la transmisión vertical en Brasil Teste rápido para o HIV como estratégia de prevenção da transmissão vertical no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiléa G Veloso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of HIV rapid testing for pregnant women at maternity hospital admission and of subsequent interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission. METHODS: Study based on a convenience sample of women unaware of their HIV serostatus when they were admitted to delivery in public maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre, Brazil, between March 2000 and April 2002. Women were counseled and tested using the Determine HIV1/2 Rapid Test. HIV infection was confirmed using the Brazilian algorithm for HIV infection diagnosis. In utero transmission of HIV was determined using HIV-DNA-PCR. There were performed descriptive analyses of sociodemographic data, number of previous pregnancies and abortions, number of prenatal care visits, timing of HIV testing, HIV rapid test result, neonatal and mother-to-child transmission interventions, by city studied. RESULTS: HIV prevalence in women was 6.5% (N=1,439 in Porto Alegre and 1.3% (N=3.778 in Rio de Janeiro. In Porto Alegre most of women were tested during labor (88.7%, while in Rio de Janeiro most were tested in the postpartum (67.5%. One hundred and forty-four infants were born to 143 HIV-infected women. All newborns but one in each city received at least prophylaxis with oral zidovudine. It was possible to completely avoid newborn exposure to breast milk in 96.8% and 51.1% of the cases in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Injectable intravenous zidovudine was administered during labor to 68.8% and 27.7% newborns in Porto Alegre and Rio de Janeiro, respectively. Among those from whom blood samples were collected within 48 hours of birth, in utero transmission of HIV was confirmed in 4 cases in Rio de Janeiro (4/47 and 6 cases in Porto Alegre (6/79. CONCLUSIONS: The strategy proved feasible in maternity hospitals in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre. Efforts must be taken to maximize HIV testing during labor. There is a need of strong social support to

  8. CosPA 2015 and the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchy Hwang, W.-Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this keynote speech, I describe briefly “The Universe”, a journal/newsletter launched by APCosPA Organization, and my lifetime research on the Standard Model of particle physics. In this 21st Century, we should declare that we live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time with the force-fields gauge-group structure SUc(3) × SUL(2) × U(1) × SUf(3) built-in from the very beginning. This background can see the lepton world, of atomic sizes, and offers us the eyes to see other things. It also can see the quark world, of the Fermi sizes, and this fact makes this entire world much more interesting.

  9. Study on the adsorption of 233Pa in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is intended to examine the adsorption of protactinium on glass in relation to pH, presence of complexing agents concentration and type of electrolytes. The study was made by using carrier-free 233Pa solution and Pyrex glass tube was selected as adsorbent glass material surface. The adsorption curve of protactinium on glass surface as a function of the pH of the tracer solution showed the existence of two pronounced adsorption regions. It was found that this adsorption can be reduced by using electrolytes or complexing agents. Desorption of protactinium previously adsorbed on the Pyrex glass tube was also studied. Hidrochloric, oxalic and hydrofluoric acid solutions were used for the desorption experiments. (Author)

  10. In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

    2012-06-01

    The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

  11. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  12. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  13. Familial hypercholesterolemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, J E; Zago, M A

    2003-11-01

    The Brazilian population has heterogeneous ethnic origins and is unevenly distributed in a country of continental dimensions. In addition to the Portuguese colonists until the end of the World War II Brazil received almost 5 million immigrants who settled mainly in the south and southeast. This features of the Brazilian population have two important consequences for the inherited diseases that are associated with an ethnic background: their frequencies are different in various regions of the country reflecting a variety of ethnic origins and variable degrees of admixtures. There was no report about the molecular basis of hypercholesterolemia in Brazil until our report in 1996 that the Lebanese allele is the most common cause of the disease in our country: 10 out of the 30 families were of Arab origin, and the Lebanese allele was detected in 9 of the 10 unrelated families of Arab origin. In addition, the abnormal gene is associated with the same haplotype at the LDL-R locus in all but one family, suggesting single origin for this mutation. Recently we described seven mutations in exons 4, 7, 12 and 14 and a new mutation in exon 15. In another region of our state, eight mutation already described and seven new mutations were described and interesting no common mutations were find. We can conclude that the complex history and structure of the Brazilian population, which was formed by the contribution of a large number of ethnic components that are in a state of increasing miscegenation, is reflected in the frequency and regional distribution of the more common hereditary diseases. PMID:14615271

  14. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  15. Quality and effectiveness of different approaches to primary care delivery in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade Thiago G

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brazil has developed a primary care system based on multidisciplinary teams which include not only a physician and a nurse, but also 4–6 lay community health workers. This system now consists of 26,650 teams, covering 46% of the Brazilian population. Yet relatively few investigations have examined its effectiveness, especially in contrast with that of the traditional multi-specialty physician team approach it is replacing, or that of other existing family medicine approaches placing less emphasis on lay community health workers. Primary health care can be defined through its domains of access to first contact, continuity, coordination, comprehensiveness, community orientation and family orientation. These attributes can be ascertained via instruments such as the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool, and correlated with the effectiveness of care. The objectives of our study are to validate the adult version of this instrument in Portuguese, identify the extent (quality of primary care present in different models of primary care services, and correlate this extent with measures of process and outcomes in patients with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods/Design We are conducting a population-based cross-sectional study of primary care in the municipality of Porto Alegre. We will interview a random sample totaling 3000 adults residing in geographic areas covered by four distinct models of primary care of the Brazilian national health system or, alternatively, by one nationally prominent complementary health care service, as well as the physicians and nurses of the health teams of these services. Interviews query perceived quality of care (PCATool-Adult Version, patient satisfaction, and process indicators of management of diabetes, hypertension and known CHD. We are measuring blood pressure, anthropometrics and, in adults with known diabetes, glycated hemoglobin. Discussion We hope to

  16. PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS FOR HEPATITIS C AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Timm KVITKO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The hepatitis C is a severe public health problem worldwide because its consequences. Studies which aim at determining the prevalence of risk factors are really important to understand the problem. Objective To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with some risk factors for the disease in a community, called Restinga, located in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Method This paper is based on a population-based cross-sectional study, with systematic sampling and proportional to the size of census tracts in which 3,391 adults answered a standardized questionnaire. Results The prevalence of blood transfusion among the people who were interviewed was 14.98%, 60.83% of those had it before 1993. A total of 16.16% of the people had a tattoo, 7.23% wore a piercing, 1.09% said they had already injected illicit drugs and 12.39% reported previous hospitalization. Prevalence ratios showed that tattoos were more common among young people, piercings among women and illicit drugs among men. Conclusions To summarize, the recognition of risk factors for hepatitis C enables proper screening of possible carriers of the hepatitis C virus, thus enabling a reduction in virus shedding. However, being only possible if health services are prepared to deal with hepatitis C virus, through education and public awareness.

  17. Colonization of artificial substrate by freshwater macroinvertebrates, in the Jacuí River Delta, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments to evaluate the limnic macroinvertebrates that colonize artificial substrates were performed at two experimental stations located in Jacui Channel (CJ and Cais do Porto (PO, both part of the Jacui Delta in Porto Alegre, RS, southern Brazil. Substrates were built in PET bottles containing an internal nylon screen. In CJ, L. fortunei (8229.0 ind.m-2, Chironomidae (188.9 ind.m-2, and Heleobia piscium (39.6 ind.m-2 presented the highest values of average density. In PO, L. fortunei (3233.0 ind.m-2, Chironomidae (288.9 ind.m-2, and Oligochaeta (211.1 ind.m-2 presented the highest values of average density. The freshwater sponge, Trochospongilla paulula, presented an incrustation area of 0.016m2, that corresponded to 31% of the total external substrate surface (PET bottles. Trochospongilla paulula also grew over the golden mussel valves (epizoism. Significant differences between average densities of Oligochaeta verified in the sustrates from CJ (lowest value and PO (highest value were found using the statistics Mann-Whitney Test (p=0.01. Other significant differences (p<0.0001 between the bioincrustation areas of T. paulula in the substrates from CJ (highest value and PO (lowest value were found. The average densities of other taxa in substrates from both CJ and PO did not differ statistically. The substrate was adequate for the sampling of macroinvertebrates, especially Porifera, a group that is difficult to sample.

  18. Dental pain, use of dental services and oral health-related quality of life in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54]. PMID:27556550

  19. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  20. Automobile Pollution Control in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Ferraz; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. In the presence of this negative externality, environmental regulation is required. Car emission control policies in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, car sale taxes, differentiated by vehicles’ size and fuel, h...