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Sample records for aldrin

  1. Solar photocatalytic degradation of Aldrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala, Erick R.; Gelover, Silvia; Leal, Maria Teresa [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Morelos 62550 Jiutepec (Mexico); Arancibia-Bulnes, Camilo; Jimenez, Antonio; Estrada, Claudio A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, Privada Xochicalco S.N. A.P. 34, Morelos 62580 Temixco (Mexico)

    2002-11-15

    Photocatalytic degradation of the pesticide Aldrin dissolved in water was carried out, in one case, using concentrated solar radiation and, in another case, using non-concentrated solar radiation. In these experiments, the effects of catalyst concentration, oxidant agent concentration, and solar irradiation were tested. In experiments without irradiation, strong adsorption of the pesticide over titanium dioxide was observed in the first few minutes of contact in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These results can be explained by means of Coulombic interactions between the catalyst surface and the pesticide molecules. During the photodegradation process, results show a residual degradation (photolysis) in both the cases, when no catalyst was added. In the case of the non-concentrated solar system, the achieved results suggest that the use of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased the degradation rate. For concentrated sunlight, an increase of the Aldrin concentration was observed during the first few minutes of irradiation. This can be explained as a desorption process that is triggered by a change in surface charge of the catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) during irradiation. When photocatalysis was performed with TiO{sub 2} alone, no Aldrin was detected in the water solutions throughout the entire experiment. This result was unexpected; however, it might be explained by the adsorption of the pesticide on the catalyst surface and by the absence of the oxidant's effect. Three transformation products (TPs) of the degradation process were identified: dieldrin, chlordene and 12-hydroxy-dieldrin. The results presented here are in agreement with previously reported results for photocatalytic degradation of other chlorinated pesticides using lamps as radiation sources.

  2. Official Portrait of Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    This is the official NASA portrait of astronaut Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin. Prior to joining NASA, Aldrin flew 66 combat missions in F-86s while on duty in Korea. At Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, he served as an aerial gunnery instructor. Following his assignment as aide to the dean of faculty at the Air Force Academy, Aldrin flew F-100s as a flight commander at Bitburg, Germany. Aldrin was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and has logged 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which, 7 hours and 52 minutes were spent in Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). On November 11, 1966, he launched into space aboard the Gemini 12 spacecraft on a 4-day flight, which brought the Gemini program to a successful close. During that mission, Aldrin established a new record for EVA, spending 5-1/2 hours outside the spacecraft. July 16-24, 1969, Aldrin served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission. Aldrin followed Neil Armstrong onto the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, completing a 2-hour and 15 minute lunar EVA. Aldrin resigned from NASA in July 1971.

  3. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Meanwhile, astronaut Michael Collins piloted the command module in a parking orbit around the moon. This photo is of Edwin Aldrin walking on the lunar surface. Neil Armstrong, who took the photograph, can be seen reflected in Aldrin's helmet visor. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle, and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Egresses From Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Shown here is Aldrin Jr. making his exit from the LM to the lunar surface. Armstrong, who was already on the surface, took this photograph. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. During a 2½ hour surface exploration the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  5. Aldrin, Edwin Eugene, Jr [`Buzz'] (1930-)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronaut, born in Montclair, NJ, trained as a fighter pilot (Korean War), he space-walked during the Gemini 12 mission, and was pilot of the lunar module of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing. Aldrin followed NEIL ARMSTRONG as the second man to walk on the Moon....

  6. Around the Globe with Buzz Aldrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Buzz Aldrin! The news caused a sensation: his arrival was imminent. The man who, 40 years ago, first step foot on the moon, was to do the same at CERN.   Buzz Aldrin dumps the pilot beams from the LHC. Visiting the Globe on 1 March to endorse General Motors’ (GM) new ecological programme, Buzz Aldrin took advantage of the occasion to take a whistle-stop tour of the Organisation. “CERN is dealing with things going very fast underground; I’m dealing with things going fast – not that fast though! – up in orbit,” he said. Accompanied by his wife Lois and singer Katie Melua - also invited by GM to perform at the private event - Buzz began his visit with a short introduction to CERN at the Universe of Particles exhibit. He then met with Andrzej Siemko, group leader of the LHC machine protection, at the SM-18 super conducting magnet test facility. The astronaut’s last stop was at the CCC, where the LHC team had somethi...

  7. Aldrin at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. and his wife, Lois, stand before a painting of an Apollo/Saturn V launch vehicle at the pad in the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft component displays and multimedia presentations. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  8. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin takes photos during training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Flying in a KC-135 aircraft, Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. takes pictures during training for the upcoming first manned lunar landing with astronauts Neil A. Armstrong Jr. and Michael Collins.

  9. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin appears relaxed before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. appears to be relaxed during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  10. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (in center) commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on right), lunar module pilot, are seen standing near their Lunar Module in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California. President Richard M. Nixon had just spoken to the two astronauts by radio and Aldrin, a colonel in the U.S. Air Force, is saluting the president.

  11. Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Prepares for Weightless Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, donned in his space suit, gets in more time under weightless conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft from the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Speaks With Wife Joan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. On arrival at Ellington Air Force base near the MSC, the crew, still under a 21 day quarantine in the MQF, were greeted by their wives. Pictured here is Joan Aldrin, wife of Buzz Aldrin, speaking with her husband via telephone patch.

  13. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

  14. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  15. Aldrin and U.S. Flag on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin Aldrin poses beside the deployed U.S. flag on the moon's surface. The first manned lunar mission, the Apollo 11 launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, mission commander; Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. Astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  16. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Arrives For Launch Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. This photograph of Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin was taken upon his arrival at the Flight Crew Training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) a few days prior to launch.

  17. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, Lunar Module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. does a final check of his communications system before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Aldrin; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Neil Armstrong, mission commander. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Next to Lunar Module (LM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting CM. Aldrin is pictured here next to the LM on the lunar surface.

  19. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment which would have been too heavy to carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRR).

  20. Theoretical Study of the Diastereofacial Isomers of Aldrin and Dieldrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zdravkovski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with norbornadiene givesaldrin but theoretically three other diastereofacial isomers are possible. On oxidation theseisomers can generate eight adducts one of which is known as dieldrin. All these, as well asthe corresponding reactions with hexafluorocyclopenadiene were studied by semiempirical(AM1 and PM3 and hybrid density functional (B3LYP methods. Besides the energy levels,the transition states were calculated for the reactions leading to the diastereofacial isomers ofaldrin, which indicate that aldrin is the favored product of the reaction both fromthermodynamic and kinetic point of view.

  1. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin deploying the EASEP on surface of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed deploying the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. Here, he is deploying the Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP). Already deployed is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3), which can be seen to the left and further in the background. In the center background is the Lunar Module (LM). A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera.

  2. Comparative effects of DDT, allethrin, dieldrin and aldrin-transdiol on sense organs of Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, L.M.A.; Bercken, J. van den; Versluijs-Helder, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of DDT, allethrin, dieldrin and aldrin-transdiol were studied in two different sense organs of Xenopus laevis; the lateral-line organ and the cutaneous touch receptors. DDT and allethrin produced pronounced repetitive firing in both preparations. Dieldrin and aldrin-transdiol, on the

  3. Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin suits up for Countdown Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. relaxes after suiting up to participate in a space vehicle Countdown Demonstration Test with Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins. They will be launched on a lunar landing mission.

  4. Some effects of aldrin-treated rice on Gulf Coast wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flickinger, Edward L.; King, K.A.

    1972-01-01

    Wildlife casualties from aldrin-dieldrin poisoning are associated with the planting of aldrin-treated rice seed along the Texas Gulf Coast. The fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), which depends on the rice field habitats and is highly susceptible to aldrin-dieldrin poisoning, is suffering a serious population decline in that area. Dead waterfowl, shorebirds, and passerines were collected on study areas in Wharton, Brazoria, and Chambers counties, Texas, from 1967 through 1971. Residues of aldrin or dieldrin were found in all samples of bird casualties and in all eggs, scavengers, predators, fish, frogs, invertebrates, and soils. Fulvous tree ducks appeared to be less resistant to aldrin than other ducks. Dieldrin residues in brains of dead fulvous tree ducks were low, but whole-body residues were as high as 16 ppm. Brains of other dead ducks and geese averaged 10 ppm dieldrin. Some dead birds were exposed by eating treated rice seed, but many dead birds with high dieldrin residues were species that feed largely on invertebrates. Although soil residues were low, snails and crayfish contained enough aldrin and dieldrin (average 9.5 ppm) to account for deaths in birds that fed heavily on these invertebrates over a period of time. When fulvous tree ducks were penned for 3 days in fields aerially planted with treated seed, 3 of 10 birds died with brain residues of 2.5, 2.9, and 6.8 ppm dieldrin, and others were intoxicated. None of eight died, and some gained weight, when penned in fields planted with untreated seed. This study adds further evidence for the suspected lethal effects of aldrin-treated rice seed on wild birds and other wildlife in rice field habitats.

  5. Degradation of aldrin and endosulfan in rotary drum and windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muntjeer; Gani, Khalid M; Kazmi, Absar A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Removal efficiencies, kinetics and degradation pathways of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in vegetable waste were evaluated during rotary drum and conventional windrow composting. The highest percentage removal of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in rotary drum composting was 86.8, 83.3 and 85.3% respectively, whereas in windrow composting, it was 66.6%, 77.7% and 67.2% respectively. The rate constant of degradation of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β during rotary drum composting ranged from 0.410-0.778, 0.057-0.076 and 0.009-0.061 day(-1) respectively. The pathways of degradation of these pesticides in composting process were proposed. Metabolites dieldrin and 1 hydroxychlorodene formed during composting of aldrin in the vegetable waste indicated the occurrence of epoxidation reaction and oxidation of bridge carbon of aldrin containing the methylene group. Formation of chloroendic acid and chloroendic anhydride during composting of endosulfan containing vegetable waste support the occurrence of endosulfan sulfate and dehydration reaction respectively.

  6. Aldrin, Schweickart, Cernan, and Stafford at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts and their family members and friends tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Observing one of the displays inside the ASVC are (from left): Lois Aldrin, wife of Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr.; Aldrin; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweickart; Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/ Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  7. Photochemical processing of aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions under arctic field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Glenn A.; Bausch, Alexandra R. [Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Grannas, Amanda M., E-mail: amanda.grannas@villanova.edu [Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are transported to the Polar Regions, where they have the potential to bioaccumulate, presenting a threat to the health of wildlife and indigenous communities. They deposit onto snowpack during winter, and accumulate until spring, when they experience prolonged solar irradiation until snowmelt occurs. Photochemical degradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin, in frozen aqueous solution made from MilliQ water, 500 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide solution or locally-collected melted snow were measured in a field campaign near Barrow, AK, during spring-summer 2008. Significant photoprocessing of both pesticides occurs; the reactions depend on temperature, depth within the snowpack and whether the predominant phase is ice or liquid water. The effect of species present in natural snowpack is comparable to 500 {mu}M hydrogen peroxide, pointing to the potential significance of snowpack-mediated reactions. Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 deg. C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples, implying that the microenvironments experienced on frozen ice surfaces are an important consideration. - Highlights: > Photodegradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions made from MilliQ water, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or melted snow are reported. > Photoprocessing depends on temperature, depth beneath the snowpack surface and dominant phase. > Species present in natural snowpack have a photosensitizing effect comparable to 500 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. > Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 deg. C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples. > Collectively we find that frozen aqueous surfaces play a unique role in aldrin and dieldrin photochemistry. - A field study finds that frozen aqueous solutions of aldrin and dieldrin undergo photochemical degradation under arctic snowpack conditions. The reactions are enhanced in frozen systems and by natural snowpack constituents.

  8. GEMINI 12 [GT-12] ASTRONAUTS LOVELL AND ALDRIN RETURN FROM SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, FLA.--Astronauts James A. Lovell, left, and Edwin ''Buzz'' Aldrin shake hands in front of scoreboard sign listing flights in the successful Gemini series. The two were greeted at the Cape Kennedy Skid Strip Wednesday november 16, 1966 upon their return from space by hundreds of NASA, Air Force and contractors who worked on the program.

  9. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  10. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin descends steps of Lunar Module ladder to walk on moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, descends the steps of the Lunar Module (LM) ladder as he prepares to walk on the Moon. He had just egressed the LM. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  11. Toxic impact of aldrin on acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros: In vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.S.; Jayaprada, P.; Rao, K.V.R. (Sri Venkateswara Univ. Post Graduate Center, Kavali (India))

    1991-03-01

    The increasing contamination of the aquatic environment by the indiscriminate and widespread use of different kinds of pesticides is a serious problem for environmental biologists. Organochlorine insecticides are more hazardous since they are not only more toxic but also leave residues in nature. The deleterious effects of aldrin on several crustaceans have been studied. But studies concerning the impact of aldrin on biochemical aspects of crustaceans are very much limited. The present study is aimed at probing the in vitro effects of aldrin on the acid and alkaline phosphatase activity levels in selected tissues of penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius).

  12. Degradation of aldrin by bacillus licheniformis, isolated from water and sediment from the Cienaga Grande, Santa Marta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Diazgranados, Jose Gregorio; Henry Lopez, Carlos Andres

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium bacillus licheniformis was isolated from sediment and water samples from estuary lagoon Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM), Colombian Caribbean. The aim of the work was to use this microorganism as an alternative in the degradation of organic persistent pollutants. b. licheniformis was able to tolerate aerobic conditions and concentrations of the pesticide organochlorine, aldrin. The test was made during 30 days with 60 ng/l of aldrin in order to evaluate the degradation capacity of this bacterium. Identification and isolation of b. licheniformis was made through morphological (gram test), as well as biochemical characterization (bbl crystal system). Aldrin concentration was determined by gas chromatography. Results show that b. licheniformis had a degradation capacity of 24% from total concentration. Factors like solar light exposition and volatilization had an extra influence of 31% on aldrin degradation.

  13. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, moves toward a position to deploy two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. The Passive Seismic Experiments Package (PSEP) is in his left hand; and in his right hand is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR3). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  14. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California.

  15. Cancer dose-response modeling of epidemiological data on worker exposures to aldrin and dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielken, R L; Bretzlaff, R S; Valdez-Flores, C; Stevenson, D E; de Jong, G

    1999-12-01

    The paper applies classical statistical principles to yield new tools for risk assessment and makes new use of epidemiological data for human risk assessment. An extensive clinical and epidemiological study of workers engaged in the manufacturing and formulation of aldrin and dieldrin provides occupational hygiene and biological monitoring data on individual exposures over the years of employment and provides unusually accurate measures of individual lifetime average daily doses. In the cancer dose-response modeling, each worker is treated as a separate experimental unit with his own unique dose. Maximum likelihood estimates of added cancer risk are calculated for multistage, multistage-Weibull, and proportional hazards models. Distributional characterizations of added cancer risk are based on bootstrap and relative likelihood techniques. The cancer mortality data on these male workers suggest that low-dose exposures to aldrin and dieldrin do not significantly increase human cancer risk and may even decrease the human hazard rate for all types of cancer combined at low doses (e.g., 1 microgram/kg/day). The apparent hormetic effect in the best fitting dose-response models for this data set is statistically significant. The decrease in cancer risk at low doses of aldrin and dieldrin is in sharp contrast to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's upper bound on cancer potency based on mouse liver tumors. The EPA's upper bound implies that lifetime average daily doses of 0.0000625 and 0.00625 microgram/kg body weight/day would correspond to increased cancer risks of 0.000001 and 0.0001, respectively. However, the best estimate from the Pernis epidemiological data is that there is no increase in cancer risk in these workers at these doses or even at doses as large as 2 micrograms/kg/day.

  16. Aldrin, with wife and Schweickart, near Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. and his wife, Lois, stand near an Apollo Lunar Module suspended from the ceiling of the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. Several Apollo astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft compo- nents, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/ Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  17. Adsorption of aldrin and its metabolites by soil fungi, in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Cainelli, V.C.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The ability of fungi isolated from Brazilian soils to adsorb and degrade 14 C-aldrin and its metabolites was assayed in culture growth medium after 76 days of incubation. All the 14 isolates incorporated the radiocarbon as demonstrated by wet combustion of the mycelium. Eight of them adsorbed 20 to 40% of the total radioactivity added to the medium. Four of the fungi were able to further metabolize one of the compounds added to the medium, as shown by chloroform extraction of the mycelia. (Author) [pt

  18. Astronaut Edwin Aldrin after deployment of EASEP on surface of moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, is photographed during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity on the Moon. He has just deployed the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP). In the foreground is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); beyond it is the Laser Ranging RetroReflector (LR-3); in the center background is the United States flag; in the left background is the black and white lunar surface television camera; in the far right background is the Lunar Module. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera.

  19. Persistence, leaching and volatilization of 14C-aldrin in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The persistence, leaching and volatilization of aldrin in two Brazilian soils, one rich (soil 1) the other poor (soil 2) in organic matter, was studied under field and laboratory conditions, by gas chromatography and radioisotope techniques. In the field, soils were packed into PVC tubes 30 cm long and 5.0 cm diameter, sunk in a bed of sand. After 1 year radioactivity was found in soil 1 only in the top 10 cm from which 36% of unchanged pesticide was extracted, in contrast with soil 2 where only 8% radioactivity remained and this was distributed to a depth of at least 20 cm. Laboratory tests were made in closed jars with plastic caps lined with a circle of polyurethane foam to absorb volatile materials. After 120 days 30,9% of radioactivity from soil 1 was found in the foam and 61,7% from soil 2. Increased soil moisture content increased the radioactivity found in foam above soil 2. Thin layer chromatography of soil extracts showed the presence of aldrin, dieldrin and a third non identified radioactive material. (Author) [pt

  20. Multicriteria decision analysis in ranking of analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Orłowski, Aleksander

    2015-03-27

    The study presents the possibility of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) application when choosing analytical procedures with low environmental impact. A type of MCDA, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE), was chosen as versatile tool that meets all the analytical chemists--decision makers requirements. Twenty five analytical procedures for aldrin determination in water samples (as an example) were selected as input alternatives to MCDA analysis. Nine different criteria describing the alternatives were chosen from different groups--metrological, economical and the most importantly--environmental impact. The weights for each criterion were obtained from questionnaires that were sent to experts, giving three different scenarios for MCDA results. The results of analysis show that PROMETHEE is very promising tool to choose the analytical procedure with respect to its greenness. The rankings for all three scenarios placed solid phase microextraction and liquid phase microextraction--based procedures high, while liquid-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and stir bar sorptive extraction--based procedures were placed low in the ranking. The results show that although some of the experts do not intentionally choose green analytical chemistry procedures, their MCDA choice is in accordance with green chemistry principles. The PROMETHEE ranking results were compared with more widely accepted green analytical chemistry tools--NEMI and Eco-Scale. As PROMETHEE involved more different factors than NEMI, the assessment results were only weakly correlated. Oppositely, the results of Eco-Scale assessment were well-correlated as both methodologies involved similar criteria of assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Intoxicação aguda por aldrin: relação dos níveis séricos com efeitos tóxicos no homem Acute intoxication by aldrin: relationship between clinical signs and serum levels in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrade Carvalho

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Para correlacionar o quadro clínico com níveis séricos de aldrin e dieldrin, foram acompanhados 16 pacientes com intoxicação aguda por formulação de aldrin. Oito deles, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 1 a 37 anos, apresentaram apenas sintomas leves como náusea e desconforto, e alguns permaneceram assintomáticos. No soro de um deles foi encontrado 16,6 ppb de aldrin e em outro 1,41 ppb de dieldrin. Grupo de cinco pacientes apresentou sintomas de moderada severidade, incluindo náusea, vômitos, sonolência, dispnéia, sudorese, abalos musculares, elevação da tensão arterial e episódios isolados de convulsão, a maioria com restabelecimento do estado de saúde em 24 h. A idade deste grupo variou de 2 a 30 anos e os níveis séricos de aldrin se situaram entre 6,98 ppb e 26,3 ppb, enquanto o dieldrin variou entre 82,00 ppb e 314,18 ppb. Os três outros pacientes desenvolveram um quadro grave de intoxicação, correspondendo a duas tentativas de suicídio e um de origem ocupacional, com idades de 21 a 35 anos; dois deles foram a óbito, um apresentando dor abdominal, arreflexia, sudorese, dispnéia, hipertermia, leucocitose no início do internamente que evoluiu para leucopenia severa, convulsões generalizadas, coma, insuficiência renal aguda, edema agudo de pulmão e morte no sétimo dia de decorrida a intoxicação; outro apresentou níveis séricos de aldrin de 30,00 ppb e 720 ppb de dieldrin; e outro, com intoxicação mais severa, com êxito letal no terceiro dia de internação, apresentou níveis séricos de 747,3 ppb de aldrin e 1.314,00 ppb de dieldrin. O último paciente, com quadro de alteração do ritmo de sono, desorientação e convulsões, tinha um teor de aldrin sérico de 31,05 ppb e 147,11 ppb de dieldrin. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que não ocorre grande correlação entre os níveis séricos de aldrin ou de seu metabolito dieldrin com os sinais e sintomas clínicos em intoxicações agudas por este

  2. Å kome vekk til seg sjølv : Identitetsskaping i Johan Harstads Buzz Aldrin, hvor ble det av deg i alt mylderet?

    OpenAIRE

    Orheim, Bente Lothe

    2012-01-01

    I denne oppgåva har eg søkt å utforske kva det er ved vår samtid Buzz Aldrin, hvor ble det av deg i alt mylderet? (2005) set seg opp i mot, med vekt på identitet i det moderne samfunnet. Hovedpersonen i Johan Harstads roman, Mattias, vil vere anonym og minst muleg synleg. Mattias favoriserer det å vere nummer to framføre det å vere først, og har Buzz Aldrin, den andre mannen på månen, som sitt store forbilde. I oppgåva har eg utforska korleis identitet blir skildra og tematisert i Buzz Al...

  3. The adverse effects of aldrin and dieldrin on both myometrial contractions and the secretory functions of bovine ovaries and uterus in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, Michał H., E-mail: m.wrobel@pan.olsztyn.pl; Grzeszczyk, Marlena; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-05-15

    Aldrin and dieldrin are chloroorganic insecticides which are recognised as endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to investigate their effect on the secretory functions of the uterus and ovary and on myometrial contractions. Myometrial strips and uterine and ovarian cells from nonpregnant cows were incubated with the xenobiotics (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 24 or 72 h. Next, their effect on viability of myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells, myometrial strip contractions, the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from uterine cells, the secretion of oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells were determined. Neither of the xenobiotics (10 ng/ml) affected (P > 0.05) the viability of the ovarian and uterine cells, while both (0.1–10 ng/ml) decreased (P < 0.05) the basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions. In spite of these effects, neither of the insecticides affected (P > 0.05) the synthesis and the secretion of PGs from the myometrial cells. Although they also did not impair the secretion of the PGs from the endometrial cells, they abolished (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of OT (P < 0.05) on the secretion of the PGs and stimulated (P < 0.05) the secretion of OT from the granulosa and luteal cells. Moreover, aldrin and dieldrin stimulated secretion of E2 and T from the granulosa cells, while only dieldrin increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of P4 from luteal cells. The data show that aldrin and dieldrin stimulated the secretory function of the cultured granulosa and luteal cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions of cows in vitro, which may affect on natural parturition. - Highlights: • Aldrin and dieldrin inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • The studied xenobiotics stimulated steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the xenobiotics on

  4. Study on effects of temperature, moisture and pH in degradation and degradation kinetics of aldrin, endosulfan, lindane pesticides during full-scale continuous rotary drum composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muntjeer; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2014-05-01

    Study focused on effects of temperature, moisture and pH on degradation and degradation kinetics of aldrin, endosulfan (α), endosulfan (β) and lindane during vegetable waste composting using full-scale continuous rotary drum composter (FSCRDC). Extraction, concentration and quantification of pesticides were made from waste material at different stages by ultra-sonification, silica gel column and GC-MS analysis. Removal efficiency of aldrin, endosulfan α, endosulfan β and lindane was found 85.67%, 84.95%, 83.20% and 81.36% respectively due to optimum temperature, moisture, pH and enhanced microbial activity. Maximum temperature in inlet zone was found 60-65°C which is most suitable for complex microbial population. After feeding and turning in inlet zone, temperature reduced to 38°C from 60 to 65°C and regained it within 7-8h, and pH reduced to 5.3±0.2 from 7.5±0.3 in 4h and regained it in 10h. Heterotrophic bacteria Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Lactobacillus sp. also decreased from 4.4×10(3) to 7.80×10(2)CFU g(-1) in 2 h due to gradual variation in temperature and pH. No significant temperature change was found in middle and outlet zones during feeding and turning. Degradation of pesticides was observed as first order kinetics and half-life of aldrin, endosulfan α, endosulfan β and lindane was reduced to 25.54, 18.43, 18.43 and 27.43 d from 1095, 60, 270 and 160 d respectively. Thus, the observations in contrast of removal and degradation kinetics of organochlorine pesticides residues in vegetable waste though full-scale rotary drum composting proved it the best suited technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation and identification of dieldrin-degrading Pseudonocardia sp. strain KSF27 using a soil-charcoal perfusion method with aldrin trans-diol as a structural analog of dieldrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Futa; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Ryota; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Sato, Yuuki; Okada, Sanae

    2011-07-22

    We isolated a novel aerobic dieldrin-degrading bacterium from an enrichment culture in a soil-charcoal perfusion system. Enrichment culture using a soil-charcoal perfusion system was an effective way to obtain microorganisms that degrade recalcitrant compounds. The soil-charcoal perfusion was performed using aldrin trans-diol, which was a metabolite of dieldrin. Aldrin trans-diol had higher bioavailability (2.5 mg/l) than dieldrin (0.1-0.25 mg/l), therefore it is possible for microorganisms to utilize it as a substrate in soil. After 100 days of circulation and three exchanges of the medium, the enriched charcoal was harvested and a bacterium isolated. The isolate was designated as strain KSF27 and was found to be closely related to Pseudonocardia spp. as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Strain KSF27 degraded aldrin trans-diol by 0.05 μmol/l from an initial concentration of 25.5 μmol/l. The metabolite of aldrin trans-diol was detected by HPLC/MS and determined to be aldrindicarboxylic acid based on retention time and the MS fragment. Moreover, strain KSF27 degraded dieldrin from 14.06 μmol/l to 2.01 μmol/l over a 10-day incubation at 30°C. This strain degraded dieldrin and other persistent organochlorine pesticides, such as α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and chlordecone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relação entre a freqüência de consumo de carne e pescado e os níveis de hexaclorobenzeno, lindano, aldrin e 4,4' - diclorodifenil - 1,1' dicloroetileno, em tecido adiposo de glândulas mamárias de mulheres espanholas Relationship between the frequency of meat and fish intake and the levels of hexaclorobenzene, lindane, aldrin e 4,4' dichloro diphenil 1,1' dichloroethylene, present in mamary adipose tissue samples from spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijoni Costabeber

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Níveis de resíduos dos pesticidas organoclorados, hexaclorobenzeno (HCB, lindano gama-HCH, aldrin e 4,4'-diclorodifenil-1,1'dicloroetileno (p,p'-DDE foram determinados em tecido adiposo mamário de mulheres residentes em Córdoba, Espanha. A maior concentração média foi detectada para o p,p'-DDE (1,869 mig/g de tecido adiposo, que estava presente em 100% das amostras. As concentrações médias de HCB, gama-HCH e aldrin encontrados foram 0,236, 0,003 e 0,006mig/g de tecido adiposo, respectivamente. Os níveis dos resíduos detectados nas amostras foram relacionados ao consumo semanal de carne e pescado pelas doadoras. O único composto cujos níveis variaram significativamente (p£0,05 em função da freqüência de consumo de carne foi o p,p'-DDE, tendo apresentado concentração média de 2,833 mig/g de tecido adiposo quando as doadoras relataram uma freqüência de consumo de carne superior a quatro vezes por semana.The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues ¾ hexaclorobenzene (HCB, lindane (gamma-HCH, aldrin and 4,4'dichloro diphenil 1,1'dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE - present in mammary adipose tissue samples from women living in Cordoba (Spain were evaluated. The compound found at the highest concentration was p,p´-DDE (1.869(mug/g of adipose tissue, which was present in 100% of the analyzed samples. The average levels of HCB, gamma-HCH and aldrin were 0.236, 0.003 and 0.006mug/g of adipose tissue, respectively. The tissue levels of organochlorine residues were correlated with the weekly intake of meat and fish by donors. Only the tissue levels of p-p´-DDE were significantly (p£0.05 affected by the frequency of meat intake. Donors with a meat intake higher than four times a week presented an average level of 2.833mug/g of adipose tissue.

  7. Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Date: Aug 6, 1996 Photographer: Maria Garcia 1996 'STELLAR' program commencement activities. Special guest Astronaut Buzz Aldrin drops by to tour and chat. Aldrin was attending his book signing at US Space Camp earlier in the day.

  8. Introduction to the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Buzz ” Aldrin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Lt Col Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom...The first Titan intercontinental ballsitic missile launch on 6 February 1959. 67 Edwin “ Buzz ” Aldrin was an American astronaut born in Montclair...mission in 1969. Lt Col Edwin “ Buzz ” Aldrin Lt Col Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom Gus Grissom was an American astronaut who was born on 3 April1926 in Indiana

  9. Replacement Capability Options for the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Neil Armstrong was the first human to step onto the moon. Edwin ( Buzz ) Aldrin stepped on the moon just after him while Michael Collins remained in...of landing at a preselected point on land, which was cancelled in 1964. The last Gemini mission was Gemini XII. James Lovell, Jr. and Edwin Aldrin ...Jr. rendezvoused and docked with a target Agena and kept station with it during an EVA. Aldrin set an EVA record at the time of 5 hours, 30 minutes

  10. Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Commission Vice-Chairman Partner, Williams & Connolly LLP Dr. Buzz Aldrin President Starcraft Enterprises Sharespace Starbooster & Starcycler Mr. Edward M...proved illusory.” Commissioner Buzz Aldrin 3 - 4 FINAL REPORT OF THE COMMISSION ON THE FUTURE OF THE UNITED STATES AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Aerospace...building market share, largely at the expense of U.S. companies. Former Apollo astronaut and Commissioner Buzz Aldrin signs Yuri Gagarin’s Tribute Book at

  11. The US Response to China’s ASAT Test: An International Security Space Alliance for the Future (Drew Paper Number 8, August 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    landed US astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “ Buzz ” Aldrin on the moon a little over a decade later. The moon landing marked the pinnacle of the...to land Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the moon are present in today’s geopolitical climate. First, China and the United States are not bitter

  12. The Use of Tactile Cues to Modify the Perception of Self-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    for the apparent motion with disastrous results. In a debrief following the first moon landing by Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin , the astronauts...control input. During the final 100 feet Buzz Aldrin frequently called “left drift” from instrumentation readings while Neil Armstrong did his best to

  13. Casting Footprints for Eternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Apollo 11 Astronaut Buzz Aldrin has his footprints casted during the dedication ceremony of the rocket fountain at Building 4200 at Marshall Space Flight Center. The casts of Aldrin's footprints will be placed in the newly constructed Von Braun courtyard representing the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 lunar landing.

  14. The Criticality of Defense-Focused Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Leader Perspective astronaut Edwin “ Buzz ” Aldrin Jr.), gradu- ated in 1920. Since that time, AFIT has pro- duced a string of senior leaders whose tech...knows nothing.”1 The school’s first class, led by Lt Edwin Aldrin (father of http://www.airpower.au.af.mil Let Us Know What You Think! Leave Comment

  15. A History of the Committee on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Buzz Aldrin , lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, and the U.S. flag on the Moon. (Photo courtesy of NASA) 9 Table of...fulfilled President Kennedy’s call to land a man on the moon. On July 20, 1969, Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed in the Sea

  16. Whither Space Power? Forging a Strategy for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    first man to step on the Moon rather than the military offi­ cer, Air Force colonel Buzz Aldrin . Precisely because there was nothing of direct value...Synthetic Aperture Radar, 95 Warning and Control System, 94 AIRSAR, 95 Aldridge, Edward C. “Pete”, 8 Aldrin , Buzz , 112 Antiballistic Missile, 132

  17. National Reconnaissance Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    signing of the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. July 20, 1969 U.S. astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first to walk on the moon...the first Soviet Elint satellite, but it failed to orbit. 1969 Jul. 20: U.S. astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first to walk

  18. Scoping Aerospace: Tracking Federal Procurement and R&D Spending in the Aerospace Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1 Commission members were F. Whitten Peters, Buzz Aldrin , Edward M. Bolen, R. Thomas Buffenbarger, John W. Douglass, Tillie K. Fowler, John J...fire,6 the project achieved its primary goal when Apollo 11 successfully landed astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the lunar surface in

  19. Into the Unknown Together. The DOD, NASA, and Early Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    sense, the final U.S. response to the Sputnik challenge was not complete until Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked upon the Sea of Tranquillity on 20...until Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin took their historic steps in July 1969.”1 The lunar landing, which took place just months after Johnson left office...CONTINUITY 414 Chapter 8 11/23/05 10:06 AM Page 414 months after he left the White House. Neil Armstrong and Edwin “ Buzz ” Aldrin planted the American

  20. The Soviet side of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2015-12-01

    When the Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin visited the Cosmonauts exhibition at the Science Museum in London, he was characteristically blunt, describing it as the story of a “competitor that lost”.

  1. Levels of organochlorine insecticide residues in cowpea grains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ife, Nigeria were analysed for their organochlorine insecticides (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Endrin, Chlordane and Endosulfan) content. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption safety status of these food items. Qualitative and ...

  2. Organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen in vetweefsel van Nederlandse ingezetenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve PA; van der Hoff R

    1987-01-01

    45 Monsters humaan vetweefsel, afkomstig van autopsieen in 1985 uitgevoerd bij het AZU, werden onderzocht op de organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen hexachloorbenzeen (HCB), alfa-, beta- en gamma-hexachloorcyclohexaan (HCH), heptachloor en beta-heptachloorepoxide (HEPO), aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE,

  3. On chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    The data available on the distribution of organochlorine compounds such as DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isomers of HCH and the PCBs in the sediments, water, zooplankton, fish and seals from the Indian Ocean is reviewed. High...

  4. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author) [pt

  5. The impact of outer space on inner space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Weiszbeck, Tara

    2004-07-01

    Thematic content analysis for 11 seminal values was applied to the published memoirs of 4 early U.S. astronauts (John Glenn, Gordon Cooper, "Buzz" Aldrin, and Michael Collins). Premission values did not show the expected conventional pattern; some regularities were observed across the pre-, during-, and postflight profiles. Aldrin's post-NASA adjustment problems were possibly related to his highly (and uniquely) skewed focus on Achievement to the exclusion of other values. Because of the small and unrepresentative sample of both subjects and measures, this paper is best considered an illustration of the potential usefulness of thematic content analysis in studying the history of human spaceflight and the understanding of astronauts' lives.

  6. An astronaut footprint on the surface of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    View of Astronaut footprint in lunar soil. Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. were launched to the Moon by a Saturn V launch vehicle 9:32 a.m. EDT, July 16, 1969, from Complex 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the Moon July 20, 1969, and, after take-off from the Moon July 21, joined Collins in the Command Module circling the Moon. The astronauts splashed down in the Pacific Ocean and recovery was made by the U.S.S. Hornet at 12:50 p.m. EDT, July 24, 1969.

  7. 30th Arniversary Press Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Marking the occasion of the Apollo 11 30th Anniversary, members of the Apollo and Saturn astronaut programs attended festivities at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. A press conference was held at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center for the visiting astronauts. Pictured are (L/R): Edgar Mitchell, Walt Cunningham, Charlie Duke, Buzz Aldrin, Dick Gordon and Owen Garriott.

  8. Catalog of Audiovisual Productions. Volume 3. Air Force and Miscellaneous DoD Productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    4 INCH, VIDEO TAPE. FOLLOWED IN THEIR ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR, PERSONNEL. ASTRONAUT COL. EDWIN E. * BUZZ " SHOING AN ISLAND REBUILT BUT ALSO EVOKING... ALDRIN COMMENTS ON THE OPPORTUNITIES IN THE 20165-DF AIR FORCE NOW 024 VISUALLY THE SCL.RS AND IEMORIALS OF THE AIR FORCE TODAY AND PROBLEMS OF DEALING

  9. Base Closure and Realignment Act (BRAC) Cleanup Plan, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    deal.BeetStaffWirtier one point, Sacrampnto developer The Sacramento Army Depot is "I came and said This is thlMarvin " Buzz " Oafea talked to a a...class of persistent, board-spectrum insecticides, that linger in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Among them are DDT, aldrin , dieldrin

  10. Apollo 11: 20th anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neal Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission are shown.

  11. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of Other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-Sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    of convenience. The surfaces of planetary bodies such as Mars, Venus, and Titan § Quoted from Buzz ... Aldrin , Apollo 11, with reference to observing the lunar surface prior to setting foot on the surface, as the second man in history to do so

  12. One Hundred Years of Flight: USAF Chronology of Significant Air and Space Events, 1903-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    War 1I, attacking a Japanese convoy as it landed troops on the northern coast of Luzon. December 16: Lt. Boyd D. " Buzz " Wagner became the first U.S... Aldrin , Jr., USAF, became the first men to walk on the Moon. At the same time, Lt. Col. Michael Collins, USAF, orbited the Moon in the mis- sion’s command

  13. Space Exploration: Issues Concerning the Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-04

    The first successful Apollo mission was launched in 1968, and the first Americans landed on the Moon on July 20, 1969 (Neil Armstrong and Buzz ... Aldrin , while pilot Michael Collins orbited above in the Apollo 11 spacecraft). A total of six two-man crews walked on the Moon from 1969-1972. Another

  14. Military Planning in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    were used successfully against V-1 buzz bombs in England, none saw service against German fighters over Europe.20 In Germany, meanwhile, at least...Cong, 1st sess, pp 608-9; FY 1940, 76th Cong, 1st sess, p 323; Colonel E. E. Aldrin , Sr., USAF Oral History No 573, 1967, pp 9, 13; Lieutenant General

  15. Mars Summit Explores Options for Human Missions to the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-05-01

    The United States "needs to begin the homesteading and settlement of Mars," Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin told participants at the Humans to Mars Summit on 8 May in Washington, D. C. "It is within reach technically and budgetarily. Even in a period of fiscal challenges, the United States needs to consider this program with long-term planning."

  16. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report, Sacramento Army Depot, Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    REFER TO NAP #) Map Number: 48197R EPA ID Number: CAD983592080 Facility: BUZZ OATES ENTERPRIZES Address: 8615 ELDER CREEK RD City: SACRAMENTO Zip...pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin -Dieldrin, and the herbicide 2,4,5-T. 2. Request Office of Legal Counsel verify the exemption from CERCLA for routine

  17. 76 FR 10906 - Proposed Substances To Be Evaluated for Set 25 Toxicological Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...-chloropropane (CAS Nos. 000096-12-8, 067708-83- 2). 61. 1,2-Dibromoethane (CAS No. 000106-93-4). 62. 2-Hexanone... inventory of literature, research, and studies on the health effects of toxic substances'' under CERCLA...-2). 18. Aldrin/Dieldrin (CAS Nos. 000309-00-2, 000060-57-1). 19. Beryllium (CAS No. 007440-41-7). 20...

  18. Health and Environmental Effects of Pesticides (Part 2) | Bsshir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) are described in details in this paper. In the first part the following categories were mentioned: (1) DDT & Its Derivatives, (2) Aldrin & dieldrin, (3) Chlordane, and (4) Heptachlor. In this last part we continue. Sud J Dermatol Vol.3(1) 2005: 6-17 ...

  19. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  20. M K Jayaraj

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. M K Jayaraj. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 25 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 227-230 Thin Films. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering · M K Jayaraj Aldrin Antony Manoj Ramachandran · More Details Abstract ...

  1. Tracking the spring migration of a bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) across the Himalaya with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Kanai, Yutaka; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Choudhury, Binod C.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  2. Extraction of Pesticides from Plants using Solid Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No pesticides were detected in the leaves and stems of all the plants studied. Aldrin and endosulfan were detected in the Nymphaea nouchali roots at concentrations of 3–21 μg kg–1 and 5–3 μg kg–1, respectively. Pentachlorobenzene (PCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also detected but were not quantified.

  3. Chlorinated pesticide residues in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    of pesticide in contaminated river water into the Bay of Bengal. Con centration ranges of all these pesticide residues detected were, aldrine: 0.02-0.53, gamma BHC: 0.01-0.21, dieldrine: 0.05-0.51, and total DDT: 0.02-0.78, all in mu g g sup(-1) (wet wt)....

  4. Apollo 11 astronauts are recovered from their capsule after returning from the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. Navy pararescueman Lt. Clancey Hatleberg disinfects Apollo 11 Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. after getting into the life raft during recovery operations today at the completion of their successful lunar landing mission. The space pilots donned biological isolation garments in their spacecraft.

  5. Armstrong Retrieves Equipment From Apollo 11 Storage Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong is removing scientific equipment from a storage bay of the LM. The brilliant sunlight emphasizes the U. S. Flag to the left. The object near the flag is the Solar Wind Composition Experiment deployed by Aldrin earlier.

  6. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  7. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. M K Jayaraj. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 25 Issue 3 June 2002 pp 227-230 Thin Films. Transparent conducting zinc oxide thin film prepared by off-axis rf magnetron sputtering · M K Jayaraj Aldrin Antony Manoj Ramachandran · More Details Abstract ...

  8. PESTICIDES USE AND HEALTH IN NIGERIA Ojo, Joshua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    In 2001, under the auspices of the United. Nations Environment Programme, nine highly- persistent pesticides (viz aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene, and hexachlorobenzene) were officially proscribed for use in agriculture. Unfortunately, several of these are still openly sold in Nigeria.

  9. Moon Rock Presented to Smithsonian Institute by Apollo 11 Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronauts, (left to right) Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, commander, are showing a two-pound Moon rock to Frank Taylor, director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. The rock was picked up from the Moon's surface during the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) of Aldrin and Armstrong following man's first Moon landing and was was presented to the Institute for display in the Art and Industries Building. The Apollo 11 mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Lunar Landing Re-enactment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The re-enactment of astronaut Neil Armstrong's first steps off the lunar lander provided quite the occasion for many of the on-lookers at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL, during the celebration of the 30th arniversary of the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The celebration in Huntsville lasted over the weekend with visitors including Buzz Aldrin and other Apollo astronauts.

  11. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted by helicopter and taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Shown here are the Apollo 11 crew members (L to R) Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin inside the MQF as U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon speaks to them via intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronauts Share Laughs With U.S. President Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Here the quarantined Apollo 11 crew members (l to r) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin, and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon share laughs over a comment made by fellow astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 commander. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. 7 CFR 29.427 - Pesticide residue standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEXACHLOROBENZENE (HCB) 0.1 METHOXYCHLOR 0.1 TOXAPHENE 0.3 2,4-D (Temporary) 5.0 2,4,5-T 0.1 Sum of ALDRIN and DIELDRIN 0.1 Sum of CYPERMETHRIN and PERMETHRIN (Temporary) 3.0 Sum of DDT, TDE (DDD), and DDE 0.4 Sum of... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pesticide residue standards. 29.427 Section 29.427...

  14. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  15. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  16. Determination of organochlorine pesticides in Indian coastal water using a moored in situ sampler

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    of the DDT family. Y-BHC ranged from 0.26 to 9.4 ng1-1 whereas Aldrin and Diedrin were from 1.4 to 9.8 and k2.1 to 50.9 ng1-1, respectively. Among the compounds of the DDT family, Pp-DDT was found to be more abundant than the others in the southern part...

  17. Comparison between GC-MS-SIM and GC-ECD for the determination of residues of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in Brazilian citrus essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Andréa A. R.; Rezende, Michelle J. C.; Hovell, Ana M. C.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Oliveira, Ana Carolina L.; Rodrigues, Silvana V.; Rezende, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian citrus essential oils (mandarin, orange, lemon, bergamot and tangerine) were analyzed for the determination of pesticides residues of organochlorine (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin and dicofol) and organophosphorus (methyl chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methidathion and methyl parathion) . A comparative study between gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) and gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was performed using solid phase extr...

  18. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedia, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bedia@idaea.csic.es; Dalmau, Núria, E-mail: nuria.dalmau@idaea.csic.es; Jaumot, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es; Tauler, Romà, E-mail: roma.tauler@idaea.csic.es

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  19. NASA Administrator Paine and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Await Apollo 11 Splashdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA administrator (left) and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon wait aboard the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, for splashdown of the Apollo 11 in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Solar radiation non-concentrated for the photovoltaic degradation of the pesticide; Aplicacion de la radiacion solar no concentrada para la degradacion fotocatalitica de plaguicidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Alejandra; Gomez, Isela; Leal, Ma.Teresa; Gelover, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A study on the degradation of the pesticide Aldrin in the presence of titanium dioxide as a catalyst using non-concentrated solar light was carried out. The results show that the pesticide destruction follows a two phases kinetics, a fast one in the first four hours after the beginning of the solar light exposure, and a slow phase at longer periods of exposition. The final degradation rate is similar for any of the conditions tested in this study. Under the tested work conditions, the reduction on the concentration was always between 87 and 92%. The Aldrin degradation generated an increase on chloride ions concentration and a decrement of the pH of the solution. [Spanish] Se realizo el estudio de la degradacion del plaguicida Aldrin en presencia de dioxido de titanio utilizando luz solar no concentrada. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la cinetica de desaparicion del plaguicida tiene dos fases, una rapida en las primeras 4 horas de exposicion a la luz solar y una mas lenta a tiempos mayores. El porcentaje final de degradacion es similar para todas las condiciones utilizadas en este estudio. Bajo las condiciones de trabajo probadas se observo una reduccion del nivel del plaguicida entre 87 y 92%. El seguimiento de la degradacion del plaguicida mostro un incremento en.

  2. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  4. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  5. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  8. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  9. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of organochlorine pesticides in the US Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Offenberg, John H.; Gigliotti, Cari L.; Totten, Lisa A.; Du, Songyan; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in the atmosphere over the period January 2000-May 2001 at six locations as part of New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN). Gas phase, particle phase and precipitation concentrations of 22 OCP species, including chlordanes, DDTs, HCHs, endosulfan I and II, aldrin and diedrin, were measured. OCPs are found predominantly in the gas phase in all seasons, representing over 95% of the total air concentrations. Most of the pesticides measured display highest concentrations at urban sites (Camden and New Brunswick), although in many cases the differences in geometric mean concentrations are not statistically significant. The relationship of gas-phase partial pressure with temperature was examined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation; significant temperature dependencies were found for all OCPs, except aldrin. Atmospheric depositional fluxes (gas absorption into water+dry particle deposition+wet deposition) to the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary of selected OCPs were estimated at NJADN sites. Atmospheric concentrations of dieldrin, aldrin and the HCHs are similar to those measured by the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) in the Great Lake Region. In contrast, concentrations of DDTs, chlordanes and heptachlor are higher in the Mid-Atlantic compared to the Great Lakes, suggesting that the New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary receives higher fluxes of these chemicals than the Great Lakes.

  10. Níveis de organoclorados em queijos produzidos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Organochlorine levels in the cheese produced in Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Sifuentes dos Santos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos organoclorados são pesticidas que foram usados na agricultura, no controle de vetores biológicos e de ectoparasitas do gado. Atualmente seu uso está proibido no Brasil, exceto para o controle de vetores biológicos em casos de epidemia. No entanto, resíduos desses compostos ainda são encontrados no meio ambiente e nos alimentos. Por esse motivo, avaliou-se a presença de organoclorados em queijos produzidos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, bem como os níveis desses compostos em queijos dos tipos "colonial" e industrializado. A gordura das amostras foi extraída pela adição de sulfato de sódio seguida por uma lavagem com éter de petróleo. Os pesticidas foram purificados a partir da gordura em uma coluna contendo florisil e eluída com hexano. O extrato obtido foi utilizado para as análises cromatográficas (cromatografia gasosa com captura de elétrons. Os compostos alfa-HCH, HCB, lindano, aldrin, o,p-DDD e p,p-DDD foram identificados em 100% das amostras; o,p-DDE em 88,9% e o,p-DDT em 94,4%. p,p-DDD foi o pesticida detectado na maior concentração (11,5ng g-1 de gordura, seguido pelo aldrin (8,7ng g-1 de gordura. Os níveis de alfa-HCH, aldrin e DDT total foram maiores que o limite máximo de resíduos em 2, 8 e 1 amostra de queijo, respectivamente. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nos níveis de organoclorados entre as amostras de queijo "colonial" e industrializado, ou entre amostras de queijos produzidos em três regiões do Estado.Organochlorine compounds are pesticides used in agriculture, for the control of biological vectors of diseases and of livestock ectoparasites. Their use in Brazil is now prohibited, except for control of biological vectors in epidemics. However, residues of such compounds can still be found in the environment and in foodstuffs. For this reason, the presence of organochlorine compounds in cheese produced in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, as well as the differences

  11. Pesticide residues in water, sediment and fish from Tono Reservoir and their health risk implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoto, Osei; Azuure, Augustine Asore; Adotey, K D

    2016-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in fish, sediments and water and their health risk associated with the consumption of the fish from the Tono Reservoir, Ghana were evaluated. The analytical methods included solvent extraction of the pesticide residues using ultrasound sonication and soxhlet extraction and their subsequent quantification using GC equipped with electron capture detector and pulse flame photometric detector after clean-up on activated silica gel/anhydrous sodium sulphate. A total of 29 pesticides comprising 16 OCs and 13 OPs were analyzed, out of which aldrin, p , p '-DDE and p , p '-DDD were detected in fish and sediment samples. The results showed that all the residues in water had their concentrations below the detection limit. Mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in fish ranged from 0.017 to 0.17, 0.043 to 0.30, 0.027 to 0.243 and 0.097 to 0.263 µg/g in Sarotherodon galilaeus , Clarias anguillaris , Schilbe intermedius and Marcusenius senegalensis respectively. Mean concentrations of organophosphates pesticides ranged from 0.080 to 0.090, 0.080 to 0.087 and 0.050 to 0.063 µg/g in C. anguillaris , S. intermedius and M. senegalensis respectively. The level of chlorpyrifos in S. galilaeus was 0.160 µg/g. Mean concentrations of OCP residue in sediments ranged from 0.047 to 0.090 µg/g. Aldrin recorded the highest level while p , p '-DDD recorded the lowest level. The mean concentrations for all the detected residues were below the WHO/FAO maximum residue limits. Health risk estimation revealed that aldrin in M. senegalensis had great potential for systemic toxicity to consumers.

  12. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  13. Reductions in fish-community contamination following lowhead dam removal linked more to shifts in food-web structure than sediment pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert P; Sullivan, S Mažeika P; Stefanik, Kay C

    2017-12-01

    Recent increases in dam removals have prompted research on ecological and geomorphic river responses, yet contaminant dynamics following dam removals are poorly understood. We investigated changes in sediment concentrations and fish-community body burdens of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and chlorinated pesticides before and after two lowhead dam removals in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers (Columbus, Ohio). These changes were then related to documented shifts in fish food-web structure. Seven study reaches were surveyed from 2011 to 2015, including controls, upstream and downstream of the previous dams, and upstream restored vs. unrestored. For most contaminants, fish-community body burdens declined following dam removal and converged across study reaches by the last year of the study in both rivers. Aldrin and dieldrin body burdens in the Olentangy River declined more rapidly in the upstream-restored vs. the upstream-unrestored reach, but were indistinguishable by year three post dam removal. No upstream-downstream differences were observed in body burdens in the Olentangy River, but aldrin and dieldrin body burdens were 138 and 148% higher, respectively, in downstream reaches than in upstream reaches of the Scioto River following dam removal. The strongest relationships between trophic position and body burdens were observed with PCBs and Se in the Scioto River, and with dieldrin in the Olentangy River. Food-chain length - a key measure of trophic structure - was only weakly related to aldrin body burdens, and unrelated to other contaminants. Overall, we demonstrate that lowhead dam removal may effectively reduce ecosystem contamination, largely via shifts in fish food-web dynamics versus sediment contaminant concentrations. This study presents some of the first findings documenting ecosystem contamination following dam removal and will be useful in informing future dam removals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Center Director Bridges speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, Center Director Roy D. Bridges offers remarks. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  15. Apollo 11 – Die bildliche Rezeption und Verbreitung eines massenmedialen Ereignisses

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Die Geschichte des Mondes und seiner wissenschaftliche Erschließung ist in einem wechselseitigen Verhältnis eng an die Entdeckung neuer Technologien sowie die Geschichte der Medien geknüpft. Ausgehend von der Entwicklung des Teleskops über die Entdeckung der Fotografie Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts, bis hin zu den Sonden ab Mitte der 1950er Jahre kulminiert diese Entwicklung in der ersten bemannten Raumfahrt. Als Höhepunkt dieser Entwicklung setzen die Astronauten Neil Armstrong und Buzz Aldrin ...

  16. Gene Cernan talks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan makes a point during a presentation at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Cernan appeared with other former astronauts Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon; Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin; Walt Cunningham; and others.

  17. Lunar surface photography - A study of Apollo 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, H. J. P.

    1987-10-01

    Attention is drawn to the perplexing oversight of mission planners to ensure the taking of a photograph of Neil Armstrong by Buzz Aldrin, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The ramifications of this oversight for NASA public relations efforts are explored, together with the reasons for its occurrence that have been unearthed during subsequent investigations of both lunar walk planning and communications from earth controllers during the lunar walk activity. From Apollo 12 onwards, both lunar landing module crewmen wore Hasselblad cameras to ensure the appearance of both in numerous operational photographs.

  18. Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan entertain the audience during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  19. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, identifies a reporter to pose a question to one of the former Apollo astronauts seated next to her. From left, they are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  20. Dedication Ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Alabama Governor Don Seigleman cuts the ribbon marking the dedication of the Saturn V rocket replica that was constructed at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in honor of the 30th arniversary of the lunar landing. Accompanying the Governor are (L/R): Mike Wing, CEO US Space Rocket Center; Mike Gillespie, Madison County Commissioner, Dist. Seven; Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 Astronaut; Governor Seigleman; Walt Cunningham, Apollo 7 Astronaut; Dick Gordon, Apollo 12 Astronaut; Ed Mitchell, Apollo 14 Astronaut; Charlie Duke, Apollo 16 Astronaut; and Owen Garriott, Skylab 3 Astronaut.

  1. USSR Report, Life Sciences, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-22

    34 1.14 9󈧮" 0.46 13 󈧇" 0.54 Methylnitro- phos 3󈧝" 1.16 21󈧾" 1.04 25󈧛" 1.06 Methylethylthio- phos 3󈧣" 1.20 22󈧤" 1.07 26*03" 1.09 Aldrin ...Foods and Feeds," ed. M. Friedman, New York, 1975, Pt 2, pp 13-78. 25. Buzz , H. K., Ibid, pp 119-134. 26. McWhirter, K. S., MAIRE GENET. NEWSLETT

  2. Dannelsesreise eller virkelighetsflukt?

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Ida Corneliussen

    2016-01-01

    Temaet for denne oppgaven er hvordan skjønnlitterære verk med reise som motiv kan leses som reiselitteratur. For å kunne svare på dette har jeg gjort en analyse av reisemotivet i romanene Parissyndromet av Heidi Furre og Buzz Aldrin, hvor ble det av deg i alt mylderet? av Johan Harstad. Oppgaven består av fire deler. I første del innledes oppgavens tema, problemstilling og struktur. Andre del består av en teorigjennomgang der jeg undersøker ulike definisjoner av reiselitteratur. Her tre...

  3. 40 CFR 268.48 - Universal treatment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-chloropropane 96-12-8 0.11 15 1,2-Dibromoethane/Ethylene dibromide 106-93-4 0.028 15 Dibromomethane 74-95-3 0.11....056 0.28 Aldrin 309-00-2 0.021 0.066 4-Aminobiphenyl 92-67-1 0.13 NA Aniline 62-53-3 0.81 14 o...-89-9 0.0017 0.066 Barban 6 101-27-9 0.056 1.4 Bendiocarb 6 22781-23-3 0.056 1.4 Benomyl 6 17804-35-2...

  4. Simultaneous separation and determination of hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds by using a two-step microcolumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, O M; Desideri, P G; Lepri, L; Checchini, L

    1991-08-30

    The simultaneous separation and determination of a mixture of hydrocarbons and organochlorine compounds was successfully carried out by using sorption chromatography on a two-step microcolumn of silica and aluminium oxide for their fractionation, and a dual detector system. In addition to the separation and identification of hydrocarbons and heterocompounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur atoms, separation and identification of chlorinated hydrocarbons (dichlorobenzenes, p-chlorotoluene, hexachlorobutadiene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and 2-chloronaphthalene), pesticides (chlorpicrin, aldrin, lindane, alpha- and beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), endrin, dieldrin, endosulphan, methoxychlor) and herbicides (propanil, dichlobenil, trifluralin, difolatan) were achieved in mixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyl, strobane and chlordane.

  5. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en Rhizophora mangle y Avicennia germinans en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Luisa F.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues of the organochlorine compounds lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, pp'DDE, pp'DDD y pp'DDT were determined in leaves of two species of mangrove (Rhízophora mangle and Avícennía germínans from the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta. Samples were made quarterly (between March and December 1993, at tour stations at the Ciénaga and at one station in Bahía de Chengue (Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona. Measurements were made usinq gas-liquid chromatography. In both ecosystems the two species are accumulating all the six cornpounds analyzed, as well as other indeterminate organochlorines. The greatest concentrations were found for lindane with maximum values of 15,9 ng/g (dry weight. For lindane, heptachlor and aldrin the concentrations were significantly different only between climatic periods. The highest concentrations were obtained for the dry season. The concentration factor by species was calculated and it was determined that the mangroves are accumulating organochlorine compounds in greatest proportion from sedimento.Se determinaron los contenidos de residuos de los plaguicidas organoclorados lindano, heptacloro, aldrin, pp'DDE, pp'DDD Y pp'DDT en hojas de dos especies de mangle (Rhízophora mangle y Avícennía germínans de la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta. Se recolectaron muestras trimestralmente (entre marzo y diciembre de 1993 en cuatro estaciones en la Ciénaga y en una estación de la Bahía de Chengue, Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona. Las determinaciones se hicieron por cromatografía gas-líquido. Se encontró que en los dos ecosistemas las dos especies de mangle están acumulando los seis compuestos analizados, además de otros compuestos organoclorados indeterminados. Las mayores concentraciones fueron las de lindano, con valores máximos de 15.9 ng/g (peso seco. Solo se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las épocas climáticas para las concentraciones de lindano, heptacloro y aldrin. Las mayores concentraciones se

  6. PEMERIKSAAN CEMARAN PESTISIDA DALAM KOMODITI CABAl MERAH BESAR DAN CABAI MERAH KERITING DI BEBERAPA KOTA DALAM UPAYA PENETAPAN BMR (BATAS MAKSIMUM RESIDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutiatikum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap residu pestisida dalam komoditi cabai merah besar dan cabai merah keriting yang berasal dari pasar di kota Cianjur, Semarang dan Surabaya. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan alat KCKT (Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi. Hasil pengujian terhadap beberapa golongan pestisida kemudian dikaji kembali berdasarkan pola konsumsi cabai orang Indonesia dan dihitung BMR-nya dan dibandingkan terhadap BMR pustaka. Dari hasil pemeriksaan terdeteksi pestisida golongan organoklorin seperti lindon, aldrin, heptaklor, endosulfon. Golongan organofosfat yang terdeteksi adalah paration, klorpirifos, dimethoat, profenofos, protiofos. Golongan karbamat yang terdeteksi adalah karbofuran, sedangkan golongan piretrin tidak terdeteksi, hasil perhitungan lebih kecil dari BMR pustaka.   Kata kunci : Pestisida, cabai

  7. Human Health Exposure Assessment for Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 3-A. Toxicity Assessment. Version 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    observed a 5-fold increase of hepatic citrate and a 50-90% reduction in hepatic glycolysis and glycogenolysis in I the perfused livers of fluoroacetate...reported in the types of symptoms which precede death. Dogs usually die of convulsions or respiratory failure; however, in man, monkeys, horses and...oral toxicity ofI aldrin and dieldrin in rats and dogs . Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 2:551-562. I Georgacakis, E., S.R. Chandran, and M.A.Q Khan. 1971

  8. Occurrence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mean concentrations of the contaminants in feeds and eggs were as follows, respectively: aldrin 0.62 and 2 mg/kg, dieldrin 0.71 and 1.3 mg/kg, total DDT 6.68 and 8.14 mg/kg, total endosulfan 3.53 and 3.74 mg/kg, total HCHs 0.91 and 1.21 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 12.2 and 0.59 mg/kg, fenitrothion 4.9 and 0.64 ...

  9. Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) in coastal environments of Southeast Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Botello, A.; Diaz-Gonzalez, G.; Rueda-Quintana, L.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses to determine the presence and concentrations of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP's) were carried out in sediments and estuarine organisms (Crassostrea virginica) from five coastal lagoons of the Southeast Gulf of Mexico. The results of this study show high levels of POP's in sediments with high concentration of Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin and ppDDT, either in sediments or biological tissues. According to national regulations, the use and dispersion of these chemical have been severely restricted or totally prohibited in developed countries, however their presence in coastal areas indicate an extensive use and recent application of them. (author)

  10. Former Apollo astronaut Al Worden speaks at anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 15 astronaut Alfred M. Worden relates his experiences in the Apollo Program during a banquet honoring the people who made it all possible. Held on the anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission, which was launched July 16, 1969, and landed on the moon July 20, 1969, the banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. Worden served as command module pilot on the Apollo 15 mission. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  11. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  12. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  13. Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

  14. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  15. Apollo 10 - 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This video gives overviews of the Apollo 10 and Apollo 11 missions to the moon, including footage from the launches and landings of the Command Module Columbia, which is used for both flights. The Apollo 10 crewmembers, Commander Thomas Stafford, Command Module Pilot John Young, and Lunar Module Pilot Eugene Cernan, are seen as they suit-up in preparation for launch and then as they experiment with the microgravity environment on their way to the moon. The moon's surface is seen in detail as the Command Module orbits at an altitude of 69 miles. The Apollo 11 crewmembers, Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin, are seen during various training activities, including simulated lunar gravity training, practicing collecting lunar material, and using the moonquake detector. Footage shows the approach and landing of the Lunar Module Eagle on the moon. Armstrong and Aldrin descend to the moon's surface, collect a sample of lunar dust, and erect the American flag. Eagle's liftoff from the moon is seen.

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in raft mussels coming from Galician rías.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2017-09-01

    This survey gives an overview of the range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) α and γ-HCH (lindane), HCB, pp´-DDE, pp´-DDD, op´-DDT, pp´-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin and trans-nonachlor in raft mussels cultivated in several polygons of the Galician Rías (Ares-Betanzos, Muros-Noia, Arousa, Pontevedra and Vigo) during the period 1998-2014. A significant number of OCPs were detected, but the levels found were generally low, mainly in the recent samplings (2010-2014). The levels of ∑DDs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites, pp´-DDE and pp´-DDD) ranged between 0.22 ng/g dry weight (dw) in samples from the Ría of Pontevedra and 46.4 ng/g dw in mussels from the Ría of Arousa. Both aldrin and endrin were not detected or were below the analytical limits of detection. With regard to other pesticides, dieldrin is the major compound, followed by γ-HCH, isodrin, α-HCH and transnonachlor. Significant ANOVA regressions indicated variations in levels of some OCPs with the biological parameters (lipid, condition index and shell length). Univariate and multivariate analysis of OCP levels revealed no significant differences between Rías. Temporal trends showed an important decline of OCPs in the studied samples during the period 1998-2014.

  17. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). In this photograph, the U.S.S. Hornet crew looks on as the quarantined Apollo 11 crew is addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon via microphone and intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Comparative behaviour of organochlorine insecticides and related chemical residues in model ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, W.; Anagnostopoulos, M.; Begum, S.; Elsner, E.; Freitag, D.; Gaeb, W.; Greb, W.; Haque, A.; Hustert, K.; Kilzer, L.; Kohli, J.; Korte, F.; Kotzias, D.; Lay, J.P.; Moza, P.N.; Mueller, H.; Mueller, Werner; Mueller, Wolfgang; Nohynek, G.; Parlar, A.; Prestel, D.; Sandrock, K.; Sotiriou, N.; Viswanathan, P.; Viswanathan, S.; Vockel, D.; Weisgerber, I.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive series of isotopictracer-aided studies of the behaviour of organochlorine residues in model ecosystems is reported. Studies of the fate of 14 C-labelled aldrin or dieldrin in soil supporting carrots and potatoes under simulated conditions of agricultural practice have been extended. The formation of the polar metabolite dihydrochlordene dicarboxylic acid was confirmed. The metabolism of these compounds, and of 14 C-heptachlor and 14 C-lindane by green algae were also studied. Aldrin and heptachlor underwent epoxidation and lindane dehydrochlorination. Comparative studies were made of the metabolism of 14 C-PCBs in rat, monkey, microorganisms, higher plants and of their movement from contaminated soil into crops. Experiments on abiotic transformation of organochlorine residues by ultraviolet radiation are reported. The significance of some of the ratios observed in the context of environmental behaviour is discussed. The fate of dieldrin in soil-plant-food-animal systems is discussed as a model ''trace contaminant'' in view of the relative wealth of data now available, some as a result of experiments initiated 20 years ago. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in catfish, Tachysurus thalassinus (Ruppell, 1835), from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Biplob; Khan, Y.S.A.; Das, Pranab; Shaheen, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide concentrations in fish were lower than recommended for human consumption. - Organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, lindane, and heptachlor) were measured in muscle tissue of catfish (Tachysurus thalassinus) during the dry and wet season. Catfish were collected from the South Patches of the Bay of Bengal during October-December 1997 and May-July 1998. Tissue residues were analyzed by using gas-chromatography (GC) in electron capture detector (ECD) mode and were verified by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The pesticide residues levels were found in order of Σ DDT>Heptachlor>Lindane>Aldrin. Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in all samples during dry season, as compared with the wet season, primarily due to elevated lipid content in fishes. A positive correlation and linear relationship was observed between the pesticide residues (ΣDDT and ΣOCs) and lipid content of fishes. However, the concentrations of pesticide residues in the muscle were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO [(1993) Food standards programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission, vol. 9 (4) pp. 149-158] recommended permissible limit for human consumption

  1. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  2. Plaguicidas y cáncer de mama en mujeres cordobesas Pesticides and breast cancer in women from Cordoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Jodral Villarejo

    2001-06-01

    pesticides in breast cancer development among women living in the province of Cordoba.We conducted a case-control study including women subjected to surgical interference because of breast lesions in Reina Sofia University Hospital. All women were subjected to interview questionnaire, histopathological study of the lump and determinations of four pesticides (HCB, HCH, p, p’DDE and Aldrin in breast fat using gas chromatography.The histopathological study identified 69 women with malignant lesions (cases and 65 women with benign lesions (controls. Analytic determination of the 4 pesticides detected high levels of p, p’DDE in all samples, followed by HCB and Aldrin and less levels and frequency of HCH.The univariate analysis identified the age, lactation period, and levels of Aldrin as risk factors for malignant lesions, meanwhile the multivariate analysis identified the levels of Aldrin as the most significant risk factor (p Causal relation was found between Aldrin and breast cancer, suggesting the need for future studies taking in consideration possible confusion factors.

  3. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Ghim, Young-Sung; Grados, Amélie; Gao, Huiwang; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lohmann, Rainer

    The occurrence of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in China and possibly their regional transport in the Yellow and East China Seas region was studied. Organochlorines in atmospheric gas-phase and particulate matter were collected by high-volume sampling (filters and polyurethane foams) during 2 weeks in June 2003 (dry season) simultaneously at a Yellow Sea coastal site in an urban area, Qingdao, China, and a rural island site, Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea. Using GC methods, the samples were analysed for 9 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated under the global POP convention, namely aldrin, chlordane ( cis- and trans-isomers CC and TC), DDT and metabolites ( o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and PCB (congeners number 28, 52, 101, 153 and 180), and for hexachlorocyclohexane ( α-, β- and γ-isomers), a PTS and now considered for regulation under the convention, too. At the coastal site additionally o, p'-DDE and -DDD, β-endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlorepoxide and δ-HCH, and at the island site additionally p, p'-DDT and 12 additional PCB congeners were analysed. 9 samples were collected at the coastal and 15 (for PCBs 5) at the island site. Long-range advection pathways were determined based on analysed back-trajectory calculations. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCB, HCH, and PCB at the coast were in the 100-1000 pg m -3 range. Higher concentrations prevailed during nighttime. The levels were in general lower at the island site, but not for DDT. Local sources are likely. PCBs were even 2 orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that PCBs are not subject to regional transport but elevated concentrations in air are limited to the source areas. Organochlorine pesticide levels on the other hand were seemingly determined by regional transport over Mainland China rather than by emissions in the coastal area. The currently used pesticides mirex and chlordane were found at elevated

  4. KSC-03PD-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) greets former astronaut Story Musgrave (standing right) at his induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also seated on the dais are, from left, former astronaut and Senator John H. Glenn, astronaut and Associate Director (Technical) of the Johnson Space Center John W. Young, and former astronaut Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Musgrave are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  5. KSC-03PD-2021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (standing right) congratulates former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, Buzz Aldrin, Walter Cunningham, Edgar B. Mitchell, and Fred W. Haise, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  6. KSC-03PD-2019

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut Robert L. Crippen (right) presents former astronaut Sally K. Ride (standing center) at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Also standing is former astronaut James A. Lovell. Seated on the dais are, from left, former astronauts John H. Glenn, Gordon Cooper, Buzz Aldrin, and Walter Cunningham, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  7. KSC-03PD-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (holding scissors) cuts the ribbon at a ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as former astronauts Edgar D. Mitchell on Bridges' left and James Lovell (hand up) and Buzz Aldrin on his right. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  8. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  9. Gene Cernan speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan relates a humorous comment while Wally Schirra (background) gestures behind him. Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17, was the last man to walk on the moon; Schirra flew on Apollo 7. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing, and Walt Cunningham, who also flew on Apollo 7.

  10. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Hamish

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published. Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era.In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished.As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students. Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  11. The Moonlandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnill, Reginald; Buzz Aldrin, Foreword by

    2007-01-01

    Foreword Buzz Aldrin; Growing up with space - sources and acknowledgments; 1. The context: a twentieth-century Faust; 2. Preparing for manned spaceflight; 3. Gagarin puts Russia ahead; 4. The Moon and how to get there; 5. The seven story begins; 6. Glenn gets there first; 7. Sequels to the seven story; 8. Space travel: learning the rules; 9. Overtaking the Russians; 10. Apollo's bad start; 11. Lassoing the moon; 12. What makes an astronaut?; 13. Final rehearsals; 14. The eagle soars; 15. The eagle swoops; 16. First steps - and where they led; 17. The moonrocks - and Mars!; 18. Second steps on the moon; 19. The thirteen story; 20. Last men on the moon; 21. Apollo's inconclusive findings; 22. Epilogues to Apollo; 23. John Glenn's Apollo postscript; Bibliography; Appendices; Index.

  12. KSC-03PD-2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the KSC Visitor Complex, former astronaut James A. Lovell (standing left) applauds former astronaut Sally K. Ride at her induction ceremony into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame. Seated on the dais, from left, are former astronauts Gordon Cooper, Scott Carpenter, and Buzz Aldrin, all previously inducted into the Hall of Fame. Being inducted with Ride are Space Shuttle astronauts Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, and Story Musgrave. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  13. Pesticide survey in water and suspended solids from the Uruguay River Basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williman, Celia; Munitz, Martín S; Montti, María I T; Medina, María B; Navarro, Agustín F; Ronco, Alicia E

    2017-06-01

    The Uruguay River is receptor of pollutants, such as pesticides, from agriculture activities along its course. The present study reports concentration levels of organochlorinate, organophosphorus, and other pesticides in water and suspended solids in nine sampling sites of the Uruguay River. Data analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) to assess differences between sampling sites contamination. Most of the tested pesticides were ubiquitous due to the widely use in the chemical control of pests implemented in the region. Detected concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, 4,4'-DDT, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methyl-parathion, and malathion were found to be over regional and international concentration level guidelines, according to the European Union, the US Environmental Protection Agency, or the Argentinean Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. For this reason, future studies in Uruguay River Basin are needed.

  14. Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Human Breast Milk from the Middle Governorates in Jordan in 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Antary, Tawfiq M; Alawi, Mahmoud A; Estityah, Hussein; Haddad, Nizar

    2017-07-01

    One hundred samples of mother breast milk were gathered from six middle governorates and districts in Jordan in 2013/2014 to monitor Organochlorine pesticides pollutants. The results showed clearly that banned organochlorine pesticides are still detected in the monitored samples in low concentration despite banning of these persistent pollutants in Jordan since 36 years ago. However, the results indicated that 1% of the contaminated samples contained β-HCH, 5% γ-HCH, 3% p,p'-DDD, 2% heptachlor, 45% p,p'-DDE and 3% p,p'-DDT. In addition, these monitored samples had no residues of aldrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, HCB, o,p'-DD, o,p'-DDT and o,p'-DDE. In conclusion, there was a decline in the residues of Organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT group members.

  15. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide residues have been determined in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues from a total of 45 grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat samples obtained from the Gomoa district, a vegetable farming area in the Central Region of Ghana. All samples were analyzed for their residue content of the following organochlorine pesticides; DDT, DDE, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, lindane (γ-HCH) and δ-HCH, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, alpha endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlordane, heptachlor and methoxychlor. The results indicated that all the analyzed samples were contaminated with the studied organochlorine pesticides. Aldrin and heptachlor were the principal contaminants in all the samples. The muscle had the highest pollutant load. All organochlorine pesticides investigated were detected in the muscle tissues of the grasscutter at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.833μg /kg, heptachlor 0.695μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.283μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.108μg /kg, dieldrin 0.040 μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.019μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.014μg /kg, endrin 0.018μg /kg, endrin aldehyde 0.090μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.340μg /kg, α-endosulfan 0.162μg /kg, endosulfan sulfate 0.183μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.174μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.101μg /kg wet weight. The organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in the liver tissues at the following mean concentrations; aldrin 1.315μg /kg, heptachlor 0.530μg /kg, dieldrin 0.050μg /kg, γ-HCH 0.233μg /kg, δ-HCH 0.070μg /kg, p,p'-DDT 0.123μg /kg. p,p'-DDE 0.043μg /kg endrin aldehyde 0.110μg /kg, endrin ketone 0.115μg /kg, gamma-chlordane 0.093μg /kg and methoxychlor 0.128μg /kg wet weight. No endrin was however detected in the liver. The highest concentrations of γ-HCH, δ-HCH, endrin ketone and endrin aldehyde were measured in the kidney. The mean concentrations of γ-HCH and δ-HCH in the kidney were 0.435μg /kg and 0.107μg /kg respectively. Endrin aldehyde was detected at 0.135μg /kg in

  16. Concentration of Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Different Molluscs from Tighra Reservoir, Gwalior, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    Concentration of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites were determined in whole body homogenate of L. acuminata, I. exustus, V. dissimilis, V. bengalensis, from Tighra Reservoir during summer and post monsoon season using GC-MS technique. The different types of pesticides viz., HCB, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, p,p-DDT, choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, parathion were found in resident molluscs studied. Concentration of these pesticides varied independently during the summer and the post monsoon season at monitored sites. The study concluded that presence of pesticides in Tighra Reservoir is a major concern on public and ecosystem health and use of biopesticides in the adjacent area of Reservoir is highly recommended.

  17. Toxicological Screening of Forage Used in Cattle Feed in Order to Determine the Degree of Contamination by Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amfim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides enter the body via the respiratory, cutaneous and oral. The oral route is predominant. Feeding animals with forage treated with pesticides that can be processed as a result of surface treatment during the vegetation, can be a potential cause of occurrence of severe toxicosis in animals. The purpose was to assess the quality of CFF feed type used in large and small ruminants raised on an intensive type farm, using toxicological  exams in order to determine pesticide pollution degree. There were collected and examined eight samples from four different categories of feed (sunflower shrot, CF 0-2 T2-steers, corn, soybean grist. From the total organochlorine insecticides nine chemicals were selected for toxicological examination: Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Chlordane, Endosulfan. From laboratory analysis it was found that in none of the eight feed samples were detected organochlorine compounds

  18. PIMS(trademark): Remediation of Soil and Groundwater Contaminated With Metals. PIMS Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Lead at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    ESTCP CU-200020 EXTRACTION Bioremediation /Phytoremediation - Of all the bioremediation methods, phytoremediation is the only one applicable to...Dieldrin 0.44 µg/L 0.035 mg/kg Endosulfan I 0.30 µg/L 0.021 mg/kg Endosulfan II 0.40 µg/L 0.024 mg/kg Endosulfan Sulfate 0.35 µg/L 0.036 mg/kg...DDT 34–143 ≤ 30 25–153 ≤ 50 Aldrin 47–125 ≤ 30 37–126 ≤ 50 Dieldrin 42–132 ≤ 30 32–142 ≤ 50 Endosulfan I 49–143 ≤ 30 39–153 ≤ 50 Endosulfan II

  19. Intrinsic Remediation Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for UST Site 870. Hill Air Force Base, Ogden, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Bioremediation of Subsurface Contaminants, In R. Mitchell, editor, Environmental Microbiology, Wiley...Aldrin ɘ.10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 Heptachlor Epoxide ɘ.10 ɘ.10 ɘ.104 Endosulfan I ɘ.10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 Dieldrin ɘ. 10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 p,p*.DDE ɘ. 10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10...Endrin ɘ.10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 * Endosulfan 11 ɘ. 10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 p,p*-DDD ɘ. 10 ɘ.10 ɘ.10 Endosulfan Sulfate ɘ. 10 ɘ.10 ɘ. 10 p,p’-DDT ɘ.10 ɘ.10 ɘ.

  20. Toxic deposition monitoring network data listing for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and precipitation 1989 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Ontario environment ministry established a toxics deposition network in 1987 to monitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs), trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and furans in air and precipitation. Monitoring sites are located along each Canadian shoreline of the Great Lakes. Data are presented from the 1989 and 1990 air and precipitation monitoring results for PCBs and OCs. The sampling and analytical methods, data screening methods, and codes used in the data tables are explained. Each data listing is identified by station name, and individual sample records are listed consecutively by sample collection date. Each sample record includes a heading consisting of several field sample collection information data fields and a number of analytical results. PCBs are listed by congener group (up to nonachlorobiphenyl) and as a congener group sum. The OCs measured include Heptachlor, Aldrin, Mirex, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane. 3 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  1. Reduction of haloforms by UV-irradiation and simultaneous addition of hydrogenperoxide in waterworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachel, B.; Cetinkaya, M.; von Dueszeln, J.; Lahl, U.; Thiemann, W.; Gabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Podbielski, A.

    1982-04-01

    One method of water treatment which is still under discussion today is UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ desinfection and oxidation. This paper is a study of the reduction of ..gamma..-hexachlorocyclohexane (..gamma..-BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, aldrin polychlorinated biphenyl (2-PCB) and two dichlorobenzenes in water by UV-irradiation and simultaneous H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ addition. The reduction of these compounds under various H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentrations and water flux rates were measured. There were obtained reductions between 0 and 89% of the organo-chlorine compounds which were added. The method's reliability was examined by error analysis. Problems in the use of UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and capabilities of the method for the purpose of water treatment are discussed.

  2. Integrated use of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in two fish species to assess pollution in man-made hydroelectric reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragui, M M; Paulino, M G; Pereira, C D S; Carvalho, C S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H; Fernandes, M N

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between contaminant body burden and the oxidative stress status of the gills and livers of two wild fish species in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station (HPS) reservoir (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Gills and livers presented similar pathways of metals and organochlorine bioaccumulation. During June, organochlorines were associated with lipid peroxidation (LPO), indicating oxidative stress due to the inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the most polluted areas, metal concentrations in the liver were associated with metallothionein. During December, contaminants in the gills and liver were associated with catalase activity and LPO. Aldrin/dieldrin was the contaminant most associated with oxidative damage in the livers of both species. This integrated approach shed light on the relationship between adverse biological effects and bioaccumulation of contaminants inputted by intensive agricultural practices and proved to be a suitable tool for assessing the environmental quality of man-made reservoirs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Monitoring organo chlorine pesticides in surface and ground water in San Juan (Argentina); Determinacion de pesticiddas organoclorados en aguas superficiales y subterraneas de la provincia de San Juan (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, B.; Suero, E.; Augusto, M.; Gimenez, M.; Flores, N.

    2003-07-01

    The level of contamination with organo chlorine pesticides and the occurrence of their degradation products in the basins of the two main rivers. San Juan and Jackal, of the Province of San Juan, Argentina, were determined. Surface and groundwater samples from both river basins were evaluated by capillary GC and results confirmed with Mass Spectrometry. Chemicals investigated were 16 organo chlorine pesticides. For a total number of 314 samples, the percentage of positive samples ranged from 68.6% for Heptachlor to 16% for Aldrin. concentration values and the percentage of positive samples in groundwater were significantly lower than those found in surface water. Samples taken in different seasons did not show significant differences. (Author) 18 refs.

  4. Radiation pollution control - - destruction of chlorinated pesticides in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastri, L.V.; Rao, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    Pesticides are being used on an increasing scale in agriculture and in insect control programmes, with the result that both the muncipal as well as industrial waste waters are showing the persistent presence of pesticides. These pesticides have extreme chemical resistance and therefore cannot be removed by conventional water treatment. Use of radiation for destruction of some organochloride pesticides, namely, BHC, DDT, aldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in water has been investigated at different doses of 60 Co gamma radiation. Saturated solutions of pesticides in water were air-saturated and used in the studies. Their contents in the solutions were estimated by GLC. Studies show that all the chlorinated pesticides are destroyed by gamma radiation in aqueous medium. The observed chemical reactivity is ascribed to the generation of highly free reactive radicals in water due to gamma radiation. (M.G.B.)

  5. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  6. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  7. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Hamish

    2001-01-01

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  8. Organoklorlu pestisitlerin GC-ECD ile tayininde clean up yöntemleri

    OpenAIRE

    BURAN, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Bu tez çalışmasında sedimanlarda organoklorlu pestisit analizlerine matriks etkisiincelenmiştir. Bunun için Mersin’in Akkuyu bölgesinden 6 farklı istasyondan sedimanalınmıştır. Alınan sedimanlara bilinen miktarda α-BHC, Hekzaklorobenzen, β-BHC, γ-BHC, δ-BHC, Heptaklor, Aldrin, Heptaklorepoksit, Endosülfan I, Dieldrin, 4,4’-DDE,Endrin, Endosülfan II, 4,4’-DDD, Endrin Aldehit, 4,4’-DDT ilave edilmiştir.Sedimandan organoklorlu pestisitler, ultrasonik banyo kullanarak katı-sıvıekstraksiy...

  9. Sorption and movement of pesticides on thin layer plates of Brazilain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, K.A.; Helene, C.G.; Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution, and movement in water on thin layers plates of 7 soils of 3 organochlorine, 2 organophosphorus and 1 carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory. Generally, all substances were sorbed most and moved least on soils richest in organic matter. However, sorption was not a function of organic matter content alone. Aldrin and DDT were most strongly sorbed and did not move from the point of application on the thin layer plates of any soil. On all 7 soils, carbaryl was the least strongly sorbed insecticide. On 5 soils, lindane, parathion and malathion were increasingly strongly sorbed, but on the other 2 soils lindane was mostly strongly sorbed. The apparent greater mobility of 14 C-labelled malathion on thin layers of soils repeatedly leached could be explained by the formation of more polar substances. (author) [pt

  10. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  11. The use of gamma radiation for removal of pesticides from waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Aly, H.F.; Sokker, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, a try was made to explain the degradation kinetics due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some active ingredient pesticides. These pesticides are as follows: one type of triazine herbicide Ametryn and one type of carbamate insecticide (Applaud) and two types of chlorinated organic pesticides, Aldrin and Chlorothalonil. Factors affecting the radiolysis of these pesticides such as the pesticide concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions were studied. Ametryn, Applaud, Chlorothalonil and Aldrin insecticides were degraded by gamma radiation and in the case of the chlorinated pesticides hydrochloric acid was detected. The pH effect has proved to vary according to the type of the pesticide and little degradation was observed in alkaline medium, while more degradation of the pesticides in the neutral medium was observed depending on the type of pesticide and on its chemical structure. However, the degradation in the acid medium was even higher. A drop in pH was observed and may be attributed to the degradation of the pesticide molecules to lower molecular weight compounds, such as organic acids. A combined treatment of gamma irradiation and conventional methods was applied and the effect of different additives such as nitrogen and oxygen showed that nitrogen did not enhance the degradation, while an enhancement in the degradation process was observed when oxygen was added. Experiments on the adsorption of these pesticides on certain polymeric materials and on Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), showed that GAC has the highest adsorption capacity. It may be concluded that the radiation degradation followed by adsorption of the toxic pesticide pollutants and their removal from wastewater down to concentrations not exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (MPC), according to international standards, proved to be better than the conventional methods of purification. (author)

  12. A biological loss of endosulfan and related chlorinated organic compounds from aqueous systems in the presence and absence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, T F

    2001-01-01

    Endosulfan is a cyclodiene organochlorine currently widely used as an insecticide throughout the world. This study reports that the endosulfan isomers can be readily dissipated from aqueous systems at neutral pH in the absence of biological material or chemical catalysts, in the presence or absence of oxygen. The study showed that aldrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan exhibit bi-phasic loss from water in unsealed and butyl rubber sealed vessels. Half-lives are substantially increased for endosulfan I when oxygen is removed from the incubation vessel. The study conditions, where PTFE was used, were such that loss due to volatilization and alkaline chemical hydrolysis was eliminated. Half-lives determined from these data indicate that the parent isomers are much less persistent than the related cyclodienes, aldrin and dieldrin, confirming the findings of previous studies. The major oxidation product of endosulfans I and II, endosulfan sulfate, is less volatile and can persist longer than either of the parent isomers. Endosulfan sulfate was not formed in any of the treatments suggesting that it would not be formed in aerated waters in the absence of microbial activity or strong chemical oxidants. Since endosulfan sulfate is formed in many environments through biological oxidation, and is only slowly degraded (both chemically in sterile media and biologically), it represents a predominant residue of technical grade endosulfan, which finds its way into aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments. The data obtained contributes to and confirms the existing body of half-life data on endosulfan I and II and its major oxidation product, endosulfan sulfate. The half-life data generated from the current study can be used in models for predicting the loss of chlorinated cyclodiene compounds from aqueous systems. The findings also highlight the importance of critically reviewing half-life data, to determine what the predominant processes are that are acting on the compounds under

  13. Pesticide exposure in the local community of Vehari District in Pakistan: An assessment of knowledge and residues in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Farhan; Shaheen, Mussarat; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Zakir, Ali; Nadeem, Muhammad; Chishti, Arif Ali; Shahid, Muhammad; Bakhsh, Khuda; Damalas, Christos A

    2017-06-01

    The present study is based on cross-sectional data collected from rural and market areas of Vehari District in Pakistan to assess public awareness of pesticide risks and determine the levels of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the local community. Blood samples were collected from 56 volunteer donors (VDs) including children, female workers, farm workers involved in pesticide business, farm workers involved in pesticide spraying activities, and people who were living away from agricultural fields. Blood analysis showed that VDs who were involved in spraying activities had significantly higher levels of OCP residues in their blood samples than VDs from the other groups, with mean concentrations of 1.13, 0.92, 0.68 and 1.96ngmL -1 for pp-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan, respectively. However, VDs who were living away from agricultural fields had significantly lower levels of pesticide residues in their blood samples, with mean concentrations of 0.30, 0.19, 0.14 and 0.41ngmL -1 for pp-DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and endosulfan, respectively. A survey of 179 volunteer respondents (VRs) showed that a significant proportion of the VRs had little knowledge of using the recommended amounts of pesticides (65.9%). Furthermore, the majority of the VRs was found using limited protective measures during pesticide use (62.6%) and was practising unsafe storage of pesticides (87.7%). In addition, most farm workers (88.8%) reported an increasing trend in pesticide use in their farms each year. Knowledge of pesticide risks on human health increased with formal education and training. Poor knowledge regarding pesticide risks and handling among inhabitants of Vehari District contribute to high exposure levels to OCPs, particularly among farm workers. Findings are useful for policy formulation aimed at reduction of pesticide exposure in Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources, atmospheric transport and deposition mechanism of organochlorine pesticides in soils of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Feng, Qianhua; He, Qiusheng; Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Guo; Zhao, Wei; Gao, Bo; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng

    2017-01-15

    Because of mountain cold-trapping, the soil in the Tibetan Plateau may be an important global sink of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, there are limited data on OCPs in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the atmospheric transport and deposition mechanisms of OCPs also need to be further studied. In this study, the sampling area covered most regions of the Tibetan Plateau. The detection frequencies of ΣChlordane (sum of trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane and oxychlordane), HCB, ΣNonachlor (sum of trans- and cis-nonachlor), DDTs, ΣEndo (sum of endosulfan-I, endosulfan-II and endosulfate), aldrin, HCHs, ΣHeptachlor (sum of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide), mirex and dieldrin were 100%, 98.3%, 96.6%, 94.8%, 89.7%, 87.9%, 62.1%, 55.2%, 32.8% and 6.9%, respectively. DDTs (with arithmetic mean values of 1050ngkg -1 dw) and HCHs (393ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in cultivated soils, whereas ΣEndo (192ngkg -1 ) and ΣChlordane (152ngkg -1 ) were the principal OCPs in non-cultivated soils. Local use of DDTs, dicofol and HCHs may be an important source of OCP accumulation in the soil of the Tibetan Plateau. Aldrin and endosulfan are considered to be good indicators for studying atmospheric transport and deposition of OCPs from South Asia and Southeast Asia. Two zones with high OCP levels were found in the southeast and northwest of the Tibetan Plateau. The zones have dissimilar pollution sources of OCPs and are influenced by different factors that affect their precipitation scavenging efficiency. The amount of precipitation was the dominant factor in the southeast, whereas large differences in temperature and wind speed were the dominant factors in the northwest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-02

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California.

  17. Soil concentrations and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides along the Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qi, Shihua; Yang, Dan; Hu, Ying; Li, Feng; Liu, Jia; Xing, Xinli

    2013-12-01

    Mianzhu—Aba profile, east of the Tibetan Plateau, was selected to study the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) along an altitudinal gradient. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin (Drins) in surface soils were detected in winter (March) and summer (July). Soil concentrations (ng·g-1, dw) in winter and summer ranged as follws: DDTs, 0.37-179.16 and 0.32-42.57; HCHs, 0.14-10.76 and 0.55-32.71; Drins, N.D-3.99 and 0.02-6.93, respectively. Main soil OCPs were p, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDE, β-HCH and Drins, among which Drins were rarely reported in current literature of the Tibetan Plateau. Higher OCP concentrations in the profile were attributed close to the agricultural fields of the Sichuan Basin, current lindane and nondicofol DDTs inputs, and also long-range atmospheric transport from abroad. Soil OCP concentrations underwent obvious seasonal variation, with higher DDTs in winter and higher HCHs and Drins in summer. It may be caused by climatic conditions, summer monsoon type, and physico-chemical properties of such contaminants. Though "rest" phenomenon occurred in some sampling sites, HCHs and Drins showed an increasing trend with increasing altitude, while DDTs showed an evident decrease with increasing altitude. The altitudinal distributions of OCPs were all consistent with previous findings in other mountainous regions. A primary fugacity analysis on OCPs soil-air exchange indicated that the profile may be secondary sources for HCHs and Endrin. As with Aldrin, Dieldrin, and DDTs, the profile may be both secondary sources and sinks.

  18. Accumulation of chlorinated and brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) and their relationship to testosterone suppression in Norway rats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc. (Japan); Ishizuka, M.; Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ. (Japan); Tanikawa, R. [Inst. of Tech., Ikari Corp. (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Contamination of chlorinated/brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) such as polychlorinated, -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), - organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) {l_brace}e.g., aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane compounds [cis/transchlordane, cis/trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide], hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolities [o,p/p,p'-DDD and DDE] and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs){r_brace} and -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are considered to important class of chemicals due to persistence in nature, bioaccumulation potential and adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Among South East Asian countries, Japan reported to contaminated with aforesaid chemicals with considerable amounts. There is no document reports contamination of PTS in wild animals, which in-habit near humans. Norway rat (NR) inhabits not only near human environment but also distributed worldwide. Especially, NR feeds on human waste and shelter in and around human environment and thus exposure of toxic contaminants in this animal considered to similar with those in humans. In addition, rats have unique physiology that match with humans (e.g., they have similar pathogens as humans have). Therefore, analysis of toxic contaminants in NR considered as indirect measure in humans. Considering those facts, in this study, we analyzed NR collected from urban area, rural area, waste dumping or land fill site and isolated remote island from Japan. Particularly several chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, chlordane compounds, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and PBDEs were analyzed in rat livers by isotope dilution technique using HRGC-HRMS. In addition, laboratory Wistar rats (WR) were used as control.

  19. [Characterization of free and bound organochlorine pesticides in four soil/sediments of the Pearl River Delta, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lu-lu; Song, Jian-zhong; Yu, Chi-ling; Peng, Ping-an

    2008-12-01

    Free and bound residues are the main form of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils/sediments. Four surface soil/sediments from the Pearl River Delta, China, were selected to characterize free and bound OCPs in different fractions of organic matters in the samples through alka-extraction, HCl/HF demineralization and organic solvent extraction. Total OCPs concentrations of samples were 20.96-134.22 microg x kg(-1), total HCHs concentrations were 5.66-22.87 microg x kg(-1), and total DDTs concentrations were 1.51-11.70 microg x kg(-1). beta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endrin, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor were the dominate compounds which took 53.56%-77.26% of total OCPs. Concentrations of free OCPs were 8.46-88.45 microg x kg(-1) and took 40.37%-65.90% of total OCPs while concentrations of bound OCPs were 11.46-45.77 microg x kg(-1) and took 34.10%-59.63% of total OCPs. Most of bound OCPs were in the humic acid and humin fractions of the samples which shows the significantly occurrence of bound OCPs in environment. Distributions of free DDTs and HCHs showed that there were no fresh HCHs poured into these samples but there were fresh DDTs poured into some of the samples. The distribution of OCPs in these two fractions were associated with the organic C content of the fractions, and 94.78%-97.48% of bound OCPs were in humin fraction which took 57.71%-80.55% of total organic C in the samples. Environmental risk estimate showed that some free OCPs such as gamma-HCH, aldrin, endrin and DDTs may have risk to environment and total of free and bound concentration of each compound were 1-30 times higher than free concentration of each compound. Therefore bound OCPs should be considered while making the environmental risk estimate and establishing environmental criteria.

  20. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  1. Pattern Recognition of the Presence and Distribution of Organo chlorine Pesticides in Sediment of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Pauzi Abdullah; Naghmeh Saadati; Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd Khalik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the environmental situation of 18 organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs), of which some are members of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the sediment of an intensive agriculture area as well as popular tourism destination of Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A total of 56 surface sediment samples were collected at eight selected sampling points along the two main rivers in the area namely Telom and Bertam Rivers during the dry and wet seasons in 2011. The OCPs levels detected were between 0.41 - 82.16 (mean of 21.33 ± 18.54) ng/ g of dry weight. A total of 15 OCPs namely 4,4' DDT, 4,4' DDD, 4,4' DDE, γ-HCH, β- HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were detected in all sediment samples. Multivariate analysis of the 15 detected OCPs with respect to the type of land-use shows that endosulfan I was found around the tea plantation areas; γ-HCH was found near vegetable plantation areas; 4,4 ' DDE and aldrin were found near Blue Valley station; and endrin, heptachlor, 4,4 ' DDD, 4,4 ' DDT, and heptachlor epoxide were found in the nearby villages. Four clusters (C1; 1, C2; 1, C3; 2 and C4; 4 stations) were generated using a cluster analysis method. Four latent factors (74.36 % of total variance) were identified by principle component and factor analysis method. Three classifications namely tea plantations, vegetable plantations, and villages provide 83.90 % of the composition pattern of 15 OCPs, whereas 3 OCPs are significant components in discriminating organo chlorine pesticides contamination detected in sediment samples. Pollutants seemed to enter the river through the run-off from agricultural areas and villages. HCH isomer (β-HCH) was mostly found in the downstream stations of the rivers. (author)

  2. Historical trends of organochlorine pesticides in a sediment core from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernández, C M; Tolosa, I; Mesa-Albernas, M; Díaz-Asencio, M; Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Sánchez-Cabeza, J A

    2015-10-01

    Sediments can be natural archives to reconstruct the history of pollutant inputs into coastal areas. This is important to improve management strategies and evaluate the success of pollution control measurements. In this work, the vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex) was determined in a sediment core collected from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, which was dated by using the (210)Pb dating method and validated with the (239,240)Pu fallout peak. Results showed significant changes in sediment accumulation during the last 40 years: recent mass accumulation rates (0.321 g cm(-2) yr(-1)) double those estimated before 1970 (0.15 g cm(-2) yr(-1)). This change matches closely land use change in the region (intense deforestation and regulation of the Colon River in the late 1970s). Among pesticides, only DDTs isomers, Lindane and HCB were detected, and ranged from 0.029 to 0.374 ng g(-1) dw for DDTs, from<0.006 to 0.05 ng g(-1) dw for Lindane and from<0.04 to 0.134 ng g(-1) dw for HCB. Heptachlor, Aldrin and Mirex were below the detection limits (∼0.003 ng g(-1)), indicating that these compounds had a limited application in the Coloma watershed. Pesticide contamination was evident since the 1970s. DDTs and HCB records showed that management strategies, namely the banning the use of organochlorine contaminants, led to a concentration decline. However, Lindane, which was restricted in 1990, can still be found in the watershed. According to NOAA guidelines, pesticides concentrations encountered in these sediments are low and probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial communities in pesticide-contaminated soils in Kyrgyzstan and bioremediation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolotkeldieva, Tinatin; Konurbaeva, Maxabat; Bobusheva, Saykal

    2017-09-07

    In Kyrgyzstan, many former storehouses and dump sites for obsolete pesticides exist. In 2009/2010, an inventory and assessment of these sites including risks of environmental hazard has been conducted by FAO and the World Bank. Monitoring revealed high concentration of pesticides listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The purpose of this research was to study the microbial structural complexes of the pesticide-contaminated soils in these dumping zones, and to search for and select microorganism's destructors with cytochrome P450 genes for pesticide degradation. Culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to determine the taxonomic composition of these bacterial communities. The universal primer set for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the specific primer set P450R were used to amplify the cytochrome P450 hydroxylase gene. In soils from Suzak A and B and soils from Balykchy dumping sites, the bacteria from the Actinobacteria phylum (Micrococcus genus) were dominant. These bacteria made up 32-47% of the indigenous local microflora; bacteria species from the Pseudomonas genus (Gammaproteobacteria phylum) made up 23% in Suzak, 12% in Balykchy soils. Bacillus species from the Firmicutes phylum were found only in Suzak soils. The 16S rRNA analyses and the specific primer set P450R have revealed bacteria with cytochrome genes which are directly involved in the degradation process of organic carbon compounds. Experiments were carried out to help select active degraders from the bacterial populations isolated and used to degrade Aldrin in laboratory. Active bacterial strains from the Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus polymyxa population were selected which demonstrated high rates of degradation activity on Aldrin.

  4. Studies on organochlorine pesticide residues in human breast milk of primparae mothers from selected areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei Tutu, A.

    2009-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the types and levels of organochlorine pesticide residuals in the human milk samples of 42 nursing mothers from Ada and Accra. The milk samples were analyzed for 14 different organochlorine pesticides residue (Aldrin, Dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, Endrin, Endrin Aldehyde, Endrin Ketone, Endosulphan sulfate,' Alpha Endosulphan, Gamma-HCH, Delta-HCH, Gamma Chlordane, Heptachlor and Methoxychlor) using Gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The mean concentrations for the organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Accra are; Gamma-HCH (4.207µg/kg fat), Delta-HCH (13.855µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (11.791µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.962µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.839µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (4.740µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (23.367µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.407µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.085µg/kg fat), Endrin (7.669µg/kg fat), Endrin Aldehyde (7.769µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (99.052µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (63.846µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (20.116µg/kg fat). The mean concentrations of the various organochlorine pesticide residues detected in the human milk samples from Ada are; Gamma-HCH (5.438µg/kg fat), DeIta-HCH (6.728µg/kg fat), Heptachlor (0.682µg/kg fat), Aldrin (2.38µg/kg fat), Gamma- Chlordane (1.304µg/kg fat), Alpha-Endosulfan (2.588µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDE (24.165µg/kg fat), Dieldrin (2.222µg/kg fat), p,p'-DDT (3.468µg/kg fat), Endrin (6.339 µg/kg fat), Endosulfan-Sulphate (63.803)µg/kg fat), Endrin Ketone (11.167)µg/kg fat), and Methoxychlor (0.703µg/kg fat). The mean concentration of Endosulfan Sulfate was (99.052Iµ g/kg fat) was highest for the milk samples from Accra. Gamma chlordane recorded the least mean concentration (1.839 µg/kg fat) in the milk samples from Accra. The mean concentration of Endosulfan sulfate (63.803 µg/kg fat) was still the highest as compared to the other organochlorines analyzed for in the milk samples from Ada. Endrin Aldehyde was not

  5. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aube, Michel; Larochelle, Christian; Ayotte, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10 3 and 50x10 3 dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10 3 and 5x10 3 dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p 3 dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The proliferative effect of the mixture on CAMA-1

  6. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  7. Determination of pesticide residues (> 0.5 microg/L) in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 19 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The pesticide residues determined were 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (2,4'-DDD); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4'-DDE); 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT); 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4'-DDD); alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; dieldrin; aldrin; ethion; chlorpyrifos; beta-endosulfan; malathion; methyl-parathion; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH); beta-HCH; delta-HCH; and gamma-HCH. Blind fortification solutions containing 4 different levels of pesticide residues (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microg/L) were provided to 8 collaborating laboratories who used them to create test samples in 6 matrixes (also provided): 2 colas, a diet cola, a clear lemon-lime soft drink, an orange soft drink, and a sports drink. Reproducibility (RSDR) for all 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 7 to 151% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 11 to 121% at 0.5 microg/L, and 14 to 67% at 1.0 microg/L. Repeatability (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and the sports drink, ranged from 1 to 76% for the 19 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level, 9 to 38% at 0.5 microg/L, and 9 to 38% at 1.0 microg/L. Recoveries for the 19 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 77 to 645% at the 0.1 microg/L level, 60 to 231% at 0.5 microg/L, and 61 to 146% at 1.0 microg/L. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action with a limit of quantification (LOQ) equal to 0.5 microg/L for 4,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDT; 2,4'-DDD; 4,4'-DDE; 4,4'-DDD; 2,4'-DDE; aldrin; dieldrin; alpha-endosulfan; endosulfan-sulfate; chlorpyrifos; and ethion, and an LOQ equal to 1.0 microg/L for beta-endosulfan; alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; delta-HCH; gamma-HCH; methyl-parathion; and

  8. Residuos de insecticidas organoclorados presentes en leche cruda comercializada en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia Organochlorine insecticide residues present in raw milk sold in the Department Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinaron residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche cruda proveniente de hatos lecheros del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Durante el procedimiento de extracción se utilizó una columna de tierra de diatomeas y como sistema eluyente una mezcla de n-hexano-acetonaacetato de etilo (4:2:1, seguida de metanol al 5% en hexano. Para la determinación se usó un cromatógrafo de gases Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones, en modo de inyección ‘splitless', una columna capilar Rtx-5 30 m, 0.25 mm di y 0.25 µm de espesor de película. El porcentaje de recuperación para los plaguicidas determinados se encontró entre 88.5 y 96%, los límites de detección se definieron entre 0.01 y 0.04 ng/g con desviaciones estándar In this investigation organochlorine pesticide residues in raw milk from Dairy herds in the Cordoba department were determined. During the extraction procedure using a column of diatomaceous earth as eluting system a mixture of n-hexane-acetone-ethyl acetate (4:2:1, followed by 5% methanol in hexane. For the determination we used a gas Chromatograph Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL with electron capture detector, split less injection mode, a capillary column Rtx-5 30m, 0.25 mm id and 0.25 um film thickness. The recovery rate for certain pesticides were between 88.5 and 96%, the detection limits were defined between 0.01 and 0.04 ng/g, relative standard deviations less than 6%. In the 63 samples tested p, p'-DDT, a-HCH, d-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and g-chlordane were determined, establishing concentrations between 27.1 and 469.6 ng/g. The frequencies of occurrence ranged between 1.6 and 65.1% for heptachlor and p, p'-DDT, respectively. The older population that lives in the sub-regions: Middle Sinú, San Jorge and Savannas were exposed to high health risk associated with the concentration a-HCH, aldrin and dieldrin in raw milk.

  9. Short-term variation in ambient concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of organochlorine pesticides in Izmir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Aysun; Cetin, Eylem; Bozacioglu, Sevde Seza; Sener, Gaye Devrim; Odabasi, Mustafa

    Twenty successive daytime and nighttime air samples were collected and analyzed for 23 currently used and/banned organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between 14 and 23 May 2003 in Izmir, Turkey. Average individual OCP concentrations ranged from 5±4 pg m -3 (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) to 391±306 pg m -3 (chlorpyrifos) and they were within the ranges previously measured at different sites. Most of the OCPs did not exhibit strong diurnal cycling. The temperature dependence of gas-phase atmospheric concentrations of OCPs investigated using Clausius-Clapeyron plots was statistically significant for β-HCH and endosulfan sulfate ( pgas-phase concentrations). In addition to temperature, the effect of wind speed and direction was also investigated using multiple linear regression analysis and these three parameters together explained the 2% (aldrin) to 72% (endosulfan II) of the variability in gas-phase OCP concentrations. Results of the multiple regression analysis indicated that wind speed was a statistically significant factor for most of the OCPs and wind direction was important for some compounds. The temperature-dependent diurnal cycling of most OCPs was probably masked by the higher wind speeds observed during daytime periods with high temperatures, different source sectors and ongoing sources. The lack of correlation for heptachlor, aldrin, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p-p'-DDT) with temperature, wind speed and direction suggested that their concentrations were affected by long-range transport. The partitioning of OCPs between particle and gas phases was investigated and compared to KOA (octanol/air partition coefficient) absorption model. The overall agreement between experimental and modeled log K p (gas/particle partition coefficient) values was good ( p<0.01, slope=0.94). Prediction of absorption model for particulate percentages was excellent for β-HCH, endosulfan I, and p-p'-DDT. However

  10. Pesticide residues in sediments and aquatic species in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon in the Republic of Bénin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehouenou A Pazou, Elisabeth; Aléodjrodo, Patrick Edorh; Azehoun, Judicaël P; van Straalen, Nico M; van Hattum, Bert; Swart, Kees; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2014-01-01

    Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon are the most important and most productive continental freshwaters in Bénin, with an estimated fish production of over 2 tonnes per hectare in Lake Nokoué. Organochlorine pesticides are used in agriculture and to repel tsetse flies, malaria mosquitoes and other diseases raised. Sediment, fish, shrimp and oyster species were collected in Lake Nokoué and Cotonou Lagoon for pesticide residues analysis. The main pesticides identified in sediment were pp'-DDT and its metabolites pp-DDE and pp'-DDD, with residue levels between the detection limit and 24.4 μg/kg dry weight. Fish species commonly consumed such as Elops lacerta, Podamasys jubelini, Gobbienellus occidentalis, Ethmalosa fimbriata, Mugil cephalus and Hemichromis fasciatus were contaminated with residues of seven to nine pesticides, including pp-DDE, op'-DDD, pp'-DDD, op'-DDT, pp'-DDT, α-endosulfan, aldrin, dieldrin and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane. The levels ranged from detection limit to 289 ng/g lipid. The same pesticides were also detected in other aquatic species, such as shrimp and oysters. A summed risk assessment, comparing pesticide intake levels through fish consumption with tolerable daily intake levels proposed by the World Health Organization, showed in all cases a low risk for human health.

  11. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in aquatic system--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Shikha

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, various environmental issues have aroused a concern on the pollution of pesticides in rivers and in their various intercompartments. Multiple residues of pesticides discharged from industries or as a result of extensive use of agrochemicals in agriculture have been monitored. These pesticide residues contaminate the river ecosystem and its intercompartments such as sediments, and aquatic biota, and make it harmful to humans when they contaminate food and drinking water. The pesticide contamination in water, sediments, and aquatic biota has been reported to be beyond the acceptable range. The most commonly found pesticides are organochlorine, namely, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan, heptachlor, lindane, dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and others. The paper discusses the general description, classification, and toxicity of pesticides; it also aims to create public awareness among people and appraise them with various alternate methods to combat the problem of pesticide contamination. An attempt has also been made to elucidate the findings of various works on pesticides in aquatic system and to highlight the challenging aspects of pesticide contamination, which have not attracted the attention of investigators yet.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A strategy to enhance the thermal stability of a nanostructured polypyrrole-based coating for solid phase microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdinia, A.; Bashour, F.; Roohi, F.; Jabbari, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a nanostructured self-doped polypyrrole (SPPy) film that was prepared by an electrochemical technique in an electrolyte containing fluorosulfonic acid as the sulfonation reagent. The film was applied as a new fiber material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of the pesticides lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfans I and II prior to their quantitation by GC with electron capture detection. The SPPy nanoparticles have a diameter of 0 C) and satisfactory extraction efficiency. The thermal stability of the SPPy fiber is superior to common polypyrrole fibers. Extraction was optimized by means of the Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design with an OA 16 (4 5 ) matrix including extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring rate, and headspace volume. The method displays good repeatability (RSD -1 ; with an R 2 of >0. 998. The detection limits are -1 . The method was successfully applied to the analysis of the pesticides in skimmed milk and fruit juice samples, and recoveries are from 84 ± 1 to 105 ± 1%. (author)

  14. Apollo 11 voice transcript pertaining to the geology of the landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, N.G.; Ulrich, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, America's Eagle touched down in southwestern Mare Tranquillitatis beginning man's firsthand exploration of the moon. This document is an edited record of the conversations between astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., at Tranquility Base, and Bruce McCandless at Mission Control in Houston during the approximately 22 hours spent on the lunar surface. It includes additional commentary during their return to Earth. It is a condensation hopefully of all the verbal data having geological significance. All discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected, and the photographic record are retained along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission. We have deleted the words of mechanical housekeeping and engineering data, attempting not to lose the personal and philosophical aspects of this intensely human experience. The sources of this verbal transcript are the complete audio tapes recorded during the mission and the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription published by NASA. The voice record is listed chronologically given in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. These are the Ground Elapsed Times (GET) after launch from Kennedy Space Center which was 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16, 1969. Figure 1 shows the vicinity of the landing site that was described, sampled, and photographed by the Apollo 11 crewmen.

  15. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  16. KSC-03PD-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Center Director and former astronaut Roy D. Bridges, Jr., (left) shakes hands with former astronaut James Lovell following a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. Invited guests and dignitaries look on, such as, from left, former astronauts Edward G. Gibson, Edgar D. Mitchell, Jack R. Lousma, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and Buzz Aldrin (far right). The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  17. KSC-03PD-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A group of current and former U.S. astronauts are introduced to the audience at a ribbon cutting ceremony officially opening the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame as part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. In the front row, from left, are Owen K. Garriott, Walter Cunningham, Jack R. Lousma, Alfred M. Worden, and Buzz Aldrin. In the back row, from left, are Edgar D. Mitchell, Edward G. Gibson, Fred W. Haise, Frederick H. (Rick) Hauck, and John W. Young. The ceremony was held in conjunction with the induction of four Space Shuttle astronauts into the Hall of Fame including Daniel Brandenstein, Robert 'Hoot' Gibson, Story Musgrave, and Sally Ride. Conceived by six of the Mercury Program astronauts, the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame opened in 1990 to provide a place where space travelers could be remembered for their participation and accomplishments in the U.S. space program. The four new inductees join 48 previously honored astronauts from the ranks of the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz, and Space Shuttle programs.

  18. Occurrence and Biological Fate of Persistent Organic Contaminants in Yellow Sea Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, namely, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlors, mirex and chlordane compounds were investigated in muscle and liver tissues of Yellow Sea croakers (Collichthys niveatus and Pseudosciaena crocea from 16 stations on the off shore waters of South Korea within the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME. The sum concentration (minimum-maximum - ng/g lipid wt. was: PCBs: non-detectable to 21; Pesticides non-detectable to 63. Among the 26 individual pesticide compounds measured in fishes, except 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene (TCBZ, all the other compounds were determined in almost in all samples. The levels in Yellow Sea croakers were similar to levels reported in the Baltic fish. The differential ratios of isomers/congeners in biota in comparison to the original commercial mixtures suggest possible metabolism by cytochrome P450 isozymes. The induction of such drug metabolizing enzymes suggests an ecotoxicological stress. Principle Component Analysis identifies ‘hot spots’ within the sampled area including the Korean off shore sewage dumpsite.

  19. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake.

  20. Residues, Distributions, Sources, and Ecological Risks of OCPs in the Water from Lake Chaohu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the water from Lake Chaohu were measured by a solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer detector. The spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and potential ecological risks of the OCPs were analyzed. The annual mean concentration for the OCPs in Lake Chaohu was 6.99 ng/L. Aldrin, HCHs, and DDTs accounted for large proportions of the OCPs. The spatial pollution followed the order of Central Lakes > Western Lakes > Eastern Lakes and water area. The sources of the HCHs were mainly from the historical usage of lindane. DDTs were degraded under aerobic conditions, and the main sources were from the use of technical DDTs. The ecological risks of 5 OCPs were assessed by the species sensitivity distribution (SSD method in the order of heptachlor > γ-HCH > p,p′-DDT > aldrin > endrin. The combining risks of all sampling sites were MS > JC > ZM > TX, and those of different species were crustaceans > fish > insects and spiders. Overall, the ecological risks of OCP contaminants on aquatic animals were very low.

  1. Pesticide residue profile and nutrient characteristics of the Densu River Basin in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fianko, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Densu River Basin is one of the largest agricultural areas in Ghana. About 80% of people living in this area rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. The practice of using pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids and several others in agriculture and public health programs have raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment. Assessment of human health implications of non-point sources within a river basin include pesticide residues analysis of water, sediment and fish and monitoring of physico-chemical parameters in waters that serve as source of drinking water for the entire community within the basin. In this study, a field survey was conducted to assess farmers' knowledge of safe handling and use of pesticides. Nutrient chemistry and surface water characteristics of the Densu River and its tributaries, type and levels of pesticide residues and their trends in water, sediment and fish in the basin were also evaluated. The study also assessed the health risk associated with pesticide contamination of fish from the Basin as well as the relationship between land use and groundwater contamination. Generally surface and ground water bodies in the Densu River basin were found to be polluted with respect to nutrients and pesticides. Waters from the basin were found to be fresh, slightly acidic, and weakly mineralized with low chemical constituents. Nitrate (NO 3- N) levels in surface water ranged between 0.12 - 31.07 mgL -1 while ammonia was between 0.01 - 2.10 mgL -1 and that of phosphate was 0.012 - 2.45 mgL -1 . Pesticide residues and metabolites detected in water, sediment and fish samples from the Densu River Basin were organochlorines. In an average 96% of fish samples, 13.69% of sediment and 3.30% of water samples, at least one pesticide residue was detected per sample. Of the numerous pesticides evaluated, γ -HCH, DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, DDE, endosulfan sulphate,

  2. Nanosensing of Pesticides by Zinc Oxide Quantum Dot: An Optical and Electrochemical Approach for the Detection of Pesticides in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Dibakar; Mandal, Abhishek; Mitra, Tapas; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bardhan, Munmun; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar

    2018-01-17

    Present study reveals the low concentrations (∼4 ppm) of pesticide sensing vis-à-vis degradation of pesticides with the help of nontoxic zinc oxide quantum dots (QD). In our study, we have taken four different pesticides viz., aldrin, tetradifon, glyphosate, and atrazine, which are widely used in agriculture and have structural dissimilarities/diversity. By using optical sensing techniques such as steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, we have analyzed the detailed exciton dynamics of QD in the presence of different pesticides. It has been found that the pesticide containing good leaving groups (-Cl) can interact with QD promptly and has high binding affinity (∼10 7 M -1 ). The different binding signatures of QD with different pesticides enable us to differentiate between the pesticides. Time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy provides significant variance (∼150-300 ns) for different pesticides. Furthermore, a large variation (10 5 Ω to 7 × 10 4 Ω) in the resistance of QD in the presence of different pesticides was revealed by electrochemical sensing technique. Moreover, during the interaction with pesticides, QD can also act as a photocatalyst to degrade pesticides. Present investigation explored the fact that the rate of degradation is positively affected by the binding affinity, i.e., the greater the binding, the greater is the degradation. What is more, both optical and electrochemical measurements of QD, in tandem, as described in our study could be utilized as the pattern recognition sensor for detection of several pesticides.

  3. Vol. 4 in the series: Site profiles of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons - cause-oriented monitoring in aquatic media; Pestizide aus der Reihe der persistenten chlorierten Kohlenwasserstoffe in Gewaessern der Rhein-Region - Ergebnisse nachhaltiger Steuerungen von Wirtschaft und Politik. Bd. 4 der Reihe: Standortprofile persistenter chlorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe - ursachenorientiertes Monitoring in aquatischen Medien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, E.; Kettrup, A.; Bergheim, W.; Wenzel, S.

    2003-07-01

    Evaluating the analytical data of DDT and its metabolites, the isomers of HCH as well as (sometimes) of aldrin and dieldrin in surface water, suspended matter, eels, breams and roaches from the rivers Rhine, Neckar, Kocher, Enz, Main (upto km 360), Weschnitz, Modau, Schwarzbach, Hengstbach, Grundbach, Nidda, Rodau, Kinzig, Werra, Diemel, Lahn, Nahe, Mosel, Sauer, Saar, Ahr, Kyll, Sieg and Laacher See distance profiles (partly from Konstanz till Markermeer) and time series (partly from 1984-2001) were elaborated. The primary data come from about 15 mainly regional investigation departments, the IKSR and the Environmental Specimen Bank. The chemical enterprises in Rheinfelden, Grenzach, Ludwigshafen, Lampertheim, Gernsheim, Darmstadt, Hoechst, Kelsterbach, Offenbach, Ingelheim, Loelsdorf, Leverkusen, Elberfeld, Krefeld-Uerdingen and Huels could partly be made transparent by the course of the sDDT and sHCH values and the profiles of the constituents and isomers, resp., in the distance profiles (especially from the river Rhine) mainly from 1990/92. The corresponding graph for the year 2000 shows that there is no longer a human and ecotoxicological relevance of the compounds to be expected. (orig.)

  4. Organochlorine and heavy metal contamination in the eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila (heliaca) adalberti) and accompanying changes in eggshell morphology and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L M; Hiraldo, F

    1988-01-01

    Eggs of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila (heliaca) adalberti) contained small amounts of heavy metals and organochlorine contaminants, including DDE, aldrin, dieldrin and HCHs, PCBs. Levels of organochlorine, except DDE, have decreased from 1972 to 1984. This paper reports how the structural and chemical characteristics of modern shells differ from those of older shells, unaffected by pesticides. Also, fertile and infertile recent eggs are compared. A 12.6% decrease in eggshell thickness has occurred in conjunction with a slight decrease in degree of crystallisation, but no significant changes have been found in other structural variables. The difference in chemical composition of the shell between modern and old eggs is both qualitative (presence of chlorine, potassium, magnesium and copper in recent shells) and quantitative (increase in the percentage of phosphorus and sulphur). The only clear differences between fertile and infertile eggs were a greater increase of phosphorus content and altered crystallisation in the latter. No clear relation between the amount of the mineral constituents of the shell and morphological alterations was established. The levels of contaminants in the contents seemed to be independent of the chemical alterations of the eggshell. The breeding parameters of the overall population showed no significant changes after the introduction of pesticides. However, eggshell changes have occurred in this species, which is one of the rarest birds of prey of the world, and some breeding individuals have sufficiently thin shells to suspect reduced reproductive success.

  5. Occurrence, sources, and risk assessment of OCPs in surface sediments from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers of the Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Junhong; Xi, Min; Zhao, Qingqing; Zhang, Guangliang; Wen, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247.21, 232.91, and 114.92 μg/kg, respectively, and the predominant OCPs were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, aldrin, endrin, and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Source diagnostics illustrated that there might be recent input of HCHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and endosulfan in some sampling sites. Based on the soil quality thresholds of China, both HCHs and DDTs fell within the range of class II criteria except for some sediment samples in urban rivers with lower levels (below class I criteria). According to sediment quality guidelines, 92.86 % of samples were predicted to be toxic. The health risk assessment showed that OCPs would not pose a threat to people via dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation, and the followed order of incremental lifetime cancer risks for OCPs in sediment samples was reclamation-affected river > urban river > rural river.

  6. Drosophila melanogaster CYP6A8, an insect P450 that catalyzes lauric acid (omega-1)-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvig, Christian; Tijet, Nathalie; Feyereisen, René; Walker, F Ann; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-12-24

    Only a handful of P450 genes have been functionally characterized from the approximately 90 recently identified in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Cyp6a8 encodes a 506-amino acid protein with 53.6% amino acid identity with CYP6A2. CYP6A2 has been shown to catalyze the metabolism of several insecticides including aldrin and heptachlor. CYP6A8 is expressed at many developmental stages as well as in adult life. CYP6A8 was produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and enzymatically characterized after catalytic activity was reconstituted with D. melanogaster P450 reductase and NADPH. Although several saturated or non-saturated fatty acids were not metabolized by CYP6A8, lauric acid (C12:0), a short-chain unsaturated fatty acid, was oxidized by CYP6A8 to produce 11-hydroxylauric acid with an apparent V(max) of 25 nmol/min/nmol P450. This is the first report showing that a member of the CYP6 family catalyzes the hydroxylation of lauric acid. Our data open new prospects for the CYP6 P450 enzymes, which could be involved in important physiological functions through fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soil of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucarević Mira M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with several groups of compounds that represent the most frequent pollutants of soil in the world. The paper also reviews results of long-term studies conducted at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad on the residues of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the soil of the Vojvodina Province. The analyzed samples have been found to contain residues of persistent pesticides and their metabolites lindane and its metabolites 6,20 μg/kg, alachlor 3,56 μg/kg, aldrin 2,3 μg/kg, heptachlor epoxide 0,99 μg/kg, chlordane 3,82 μg/kg, DDT and its metabolites 10,77 μg/kg, dieldrin 2,04 μg/kg, endrin 3,57 μg/kg and endrin aldehyde 1,36 μg/kg. Soil samples from Novi Sad municipality contained 53,69 μg/kg of DDT and its metabolites. The values of atrazine ranged from 0,0005 to 0,8 mg/kg. The values of PAHs were 6,64 mg/kg in industrial soil, 4,93 mg/kg in agricultural soil, and 4,55 mg/kg and 5,48 mg/kg in the Novi Sad municipality. The lowest value, 0.83 mg/kg, was found for nonagricultural/nonindustrial soils.

  9. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 4): North Hollywood Dump, TN. (First remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-13

    The 70-acre North Hollywood Dump site is an inactive, privately owned landfill in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee, in the Wolf River floodplain. Directly beneath the site is a contaminated aquifer from which ground water discharges directly to the Wolf River. From the mid-1930s until its closure in 1967, municipal and industrial refuse were disposed of at the site, which was operated by the city of Memphis. A precise description of the materials disposed of is unknown. In 1979 and 1980, EPA and State studies revealed various contaminants both onsite and offsite in soil, sediments, ground water, surface water, and fish. Commercial fishing activities in the Wolf River ceased, and EPA required removal of contaminated soil, capping of the landfill, and fencing of the site. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses all of the contaminated media by containing the source areas. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, ground water, and surface water are organics including aldrin, endrin, chlordane, and pesticides; and metals including arsenic and lead.

  10. Organochlorines in the Vaccares Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.f [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vollaire, Y.; Persic, A.; Buet, A. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Oliveira-Ribeiro, C. [Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, CEP: 81.531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Coulet, E. [Nature Reserve of Camargue, La Capeliere, F13200 Arles (France); Banas, D.; Ramade, F. [Ecologie, Systematique et Evolution, UMR8079 CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, AgroParisTech, F91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccares Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas. - The Vaccares Lagoon trophic web biomagnifies organochlorine pollutants.

  11. The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinou, Ioannis K.; Hela, Dimitra G.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.

    2006-01-01

    This review evaluates and summarizes the results of long-term research projects, monitoring programs and published papers concerning the pollution of surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece by pesticides. Pesticide classes mostly detected involve herbicides used extensively in corn, cotton and rice production, organophosphorus insecticides as well as the banned organochlorines insecticides due to their persistence in the aquatic environment. The compounds most frequently detected were atrazine, simazine, alachlor, metolachlor and trifluralin of the herbicides, diazinon, parathion methyl of the insecticides and lindane, endosulfan and aldrin of the organochlorine pesticides. Rivers were found to be more polluted than lakes. The detected concentrations of most pesticides follow a seasonal variation, with maximum values occurring during the late spring and summer period followed by a decrease during winter. Nationwide, in many cases the reported concentrations ranged in low ppb levels. However, elevated concentrations were recorded in areas of high pesticide use and intense agricultural practices. Generally, similar trends and levels of pesticides were found in Greek rivers compared to pesticide contamination in other European rivers. Monitoring of the Greek water resources for pesticide residues must continue, especially in agricultural regions, because the nationwide patterns of pesticide use are constantly changing. Moreover, emphasis should be placed on degradation products not sufficiently studied so far. - Information on pesticide pollution of surface waters in Greece is reviewed

  12. Determination of endocrine disruptors in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from Kafue lechwe in the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction followed by an analysis using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). The following endocrine disruptors were analyzed: deltamethrin, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-DDD, heptachlor, d-t-allethrin, pp-DDE, endrin and pp-DDT. For all the samples, dieldrin showed the highest concentration ranging from 1.7 to 44.4 microg/ml in serum and whole blood sample extracts and 0.10-5.1 microg/g wet weight in liver sample extracts. The most frequently detected was deltamethrin in 62% of the samples. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60% and 100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 microg/ml for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. Where endocrine disruptors were detected, the concentrations of most of them far exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and the extraneous maximum residue limits (EMRLs) set by the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations (UN), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

  13. Radiotracer studies on the fate and transformation of pesticide residues in the environment and food chains. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of chemical residues in cotton seed, feed, oil and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.

    1980-10-01

    The magnitude and fate of some pesticide chemicals in Korean foods were studied with particular reference to oil-bearing crops and related products. Application of the chemicals was made under conditions of actual agricultural practice. Analytical methodologies included nuclear activation, gas chromatographic, spectrophotometric and radiotracer techniques. Residues of benzene hexachloride, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and DDT found in refined vegetable oil samples were below or within the tolerance limits set by international organizations and as such, these are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. Also, residues of the herbicides nitrogen, alachlor and butachlor applied to oil-bearing crops were not detected in the seeds. Studies on 14 C-BHC residues in rice revealed that polishing and washing play an important role in removing a considerable portion of the residue. Data on the arsenic-containing neoasozine residues suggest that the products consumed by the human (grain and oil) contained residues below the tolerance limit and are unlikely to present any toxicological hazard to the consumer. On the other hand, relatively high arsenic concentrations (2.2 mg/kg) were found in the cake (serving as animal feed) and should be carefully evaluated in the light of toxicological data

  14. Biodegradation of dieldrin by a soil fungus isolated from a soil with annual endosulfan applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryota; Takagi, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Ichiro; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Sato, Yuuki

    2010-08-15

    An aerobic dieldrin-degrading fungus, Mucor racemosus strain DDF, was isolated from a soil to which endosulfan had been annually applied for more than 10 years until 2008. Strain DDF degraded dieldrin to 1.01 microM from 14.3 microM during a 10-day incubation at 25 degrees C. Approximately 0.15 microM (9%) of aldrin trans-diol was generated from the dieldrin degradation after a 1-day incubation. The degradation of dieldrin by strain DDF was detected over a broad range of pH and concentrations of glucose and nitrogen sources. Extracellular fluid without mycelia also degraded dieldrin. Strain DDF degraded not only dieldrin but also heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, DDT, and DDE. Endosulfan sulfate and heptachlor were degraded by 0.64 microM (95%) and 0.75 microM (94%), respectively, whereas endosulfan and DDE were degraded by 2.42 microM (80%) and 3.29 microM (79%), respectively, and DDT and heptachlor epoxide were degraded by 6.95 microM (49.3%) and 5.36 microM (67.5%), respectively, compared with the control, which had a concentration of approximately 14 microM. These results suggest that strain DDF could be a candidate for the bioremediation of sites contaminated with various persistent organochlorine pesticides including POPs.

  15. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  16. Organochlorine contaminants in complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ted H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6160 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, PO Box 764, Jefferson, TX 75657 (United States); Platt, Steven G. [Department of Math and Science, Oglala Lakota College, 490 Piya Wiconi Road, Kyle, SD, 57752 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    Seven complete clutches of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs were collected in northern Belize and examined for organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues. The primary OC detected, p,p-DDE, was found in every egg analyzed (n = 175). Other OCs detected included p,p-DDT, p,p-DDD, methoxychlor, aldrin, and endosulfan I. Concentrations of individual OCs ranged from 4 ppb (ng chemical/g egg wet weight) to greater than 500 ppb. A statistical evaluation of p,p-DDE levels in three complete clutches was used to derive the minimum number of eggs needed from a clutch to precisely determine the mean p,p-DDE concentration representative of that clutch. Sample sizes of 8 (80% confidence level) and 11 (90% confidence level) were determined to yield an accurate estimate of contaminant levels in a full clutch of eggs. The statistically recommended sample size of 11 eggs (at 90% confidence level) was successfully tested on the four additional clutches. -- Sampling the non-viable eggs of a clutch can provide a statistically reasonable estimation of both the organochlorine contaminant distribution and concentrations in that clutch.

  17. Organochlorine pesticide level in patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology and its association with renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rishila; Siddarth, Manushi; Singh, Neeru; Tyagi, Vipin; Kare, Pawan Kumar; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Kalra, Om Prakash; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2017-05-26

    Involvement of agrochemicals have been suggested in the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). The association between CKDu and blood level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in CKDu patients has been examined in the present study. All the recruited study subjects (n = 300) were divided in three groups, namely, healthy control (n = 100), patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (n = 100), and patients with chronic kidney disease of known etiology (CKDk) (n = 100). Blood OCP levels of all three study groups were analyzed by gas chromatography. Increased level of OCPs, namely α-HCH, aldrin, and β-endosulfan, were observed in CKDu patients as compared to healthy control and CKD patients of known etiology. The levels of these pesticides significantly correlated negatively with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and positively with urinary albumin of CKD patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed association of γ-HCH, p, p'-DDE, and β-endosulfan with CKDu on adjustment of age, sex, BMI, and total lipid content. Increased blood level of certain organochlorine pesticides is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology.

  18. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  19. Studies on metals and pesticide content in some Ayurvedic formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K; Tiwari, Om Prakash; Jha, Shivesh

    2016-01-01

    Ayurvedic formulations are preferred over other formulations as well as commercialized on broad level to treat various ailments. The World Health Organization has established certain guidelines for quality control of heavy metals and pesticide residues. Bacopa monnieri, a popular herb with immunomodulator and memory-enhancing properties is the chief constituent of several Ayurvedic formulations, which include Brahmi Vati (BV), Brahmi Ghrita (BG) and Saraswat Churna (SC), etc. In view of the World Health Organization guidelines, two products of each formulation from six different manufacturers were purchased from Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Bulanala-Varanasi, India for testing heavy metal and pesticide residue. In the present study, all the formulations--BV, BG and SC--were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) by a plasma emission spectrophotometer. Organochlorine pesticidal residues were estimated for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and α-endosulfan, etc. in total 12 samples of test formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L. using gas chromatography technique. Out of 12 samples, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were present in all samples but below the permissible limit. Although atrazine, aldrin, dialdrin were in below detection limit, but other pesticides were detected in some samples as oxamyl, hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. The presence of heavy metals in the formulations was low to cause toxicity. However evaluation of heavy metals and pesticide residue in every batch is necessary.

  20. Multiresidue Analysis of Pesticides in Soil by Liquid-Solid Extraction Procedure

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    Rada Đurović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of four pesticides (diazinon,acetochlor, aldrine and carbofuran belonging to different pesticide groups, extractedfrom soil samples, is described. The method presented is based on liquid-solid extraction(LSE and determination of pesticides, i.e. the pesticides were extracted by methanol-acetone mixture, purified on florisil column and eluted by ethyl acetate-acetone mixture.Optimization of the main parameters affecting the LSE procedure, such as the choiceof purification sorbent, as well as the elution solvent and its volume, were investigated indetails and optimized. Also, validation of the proposed method was done.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantificationof the pesticides studied. Relative standard deviation (RSD and recovery values formultiple analysis of soil samples fortified with 30 μg/kg of each pesticide were below 8%and higher than 89%, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD for all the compounds studiedwere less than 4 μg/kg.

  1. Application of acid modified polyurethane foam surface for detection and removing of organochlorine pesticides from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawed, E A; Radwan, A M

    2017-02-15

    The commercial polyurethane foam was acid modified to get an inexpensive adsorbent (AM-PUF) has highly surface polarity and sorption capacity. The elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, ultraviolet/visible/infrared spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction were used for characterization of AM-PUF. The surface of AM-PUF has amorphous character (broadband at 2θ, 21.75°) and contains several active sites e.g. NH, OH, CO, CC and COC groups. The electrical conductivity (σ), iodine value and methylene blue index of AM-PUF are 1.7×10 -5 Ω -1 m -1 , 208mg/g and 107mg/g. The AM-PUF has a high efficiency for completely removing (99-100%) of Aldrin, DDT, Endrin, Heptachlor, Heptachlor epoxide and Lindane pesticides in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The removing rates of the organochlorine pesticides from wastewater are very rapid (t 1/2 =22s). The negative value of ΔG (-10.9kJ/mol) for removing of OCPs using AM-PUF showed that the feasibility of the removing process and its spontaneous nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) from the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Duan; Yu, Riqing; He, Xuan; Tu, Qin; Chen, Laiguo; Wu, Yuping

    2014-11-01

    Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) are apex predators in the Pearl River Estuary waters (PRE) of China. PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (e.g., HCHs, HCB, mirex and dieldrin) were analysed in blubber samples of 45 dolphins and 10 prey fishes of S. chinensis collected from 2004 to 2013 in the PRE region to investigate the bioaccumulation and potential biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDTs were the most abundant residue in the dolphins, with an average of 6,2700 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (average: 1,790 ng g(-1) ww) and other OCPs including ∑HCHs, mirex, endrin, ∑chlordanes, HCB, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, and pentachlorobenzene. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in male dolphins significantly increased with age and length. In contrast, female dolphins did not show obvious bioaccumulation trends with age and body length, possibly due to the lactational and parturitional transfer of these compounds. Compared with the POP residues in the prey fishes, the concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs in the dolphin blubber increased by factors of 99, 212, and 5, respectively, whereas the residue levels of the other OCPs increased 2-185 times, indicating a potentially significant biomagnification in the top predators. The potential biomagnification factors calculated for most POPs were significantly higher than those in the cetacean species from other regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Organochlorinated pesticides in sediments from the Lake Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, E; Requena, S; de la Guardia, M; Pastor, A; Carrasco, J M

    2005-09-01

    Bottom sediment samples from 121 sites of the Lake Albufera of Valencia were analyzed. Dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and op'-DDT were not detected (<0.01 ng g(-1)) in 88-93% of the sites. Aldrin and HCB concentration ranges were between <0.01 and 0.1 ng g(-1) in 86% and 94% of the sites, respectively. Heptachlor-epoxide and lindane 95% confidence intervals were 0.2-0.5 and 0.06-0.12, respectively. The greatest average concentration corresponds to pp'-DDE, pp'-DDD and pp'-DDT. The sum of six isomers and derivatives of the DDT average concentration reaches 2.1 ng g(-1), as opposed to 2.7 ng g(-1) for the sum of 13 pesticides considered. In the site with a major contamination, 27.0 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDD and 12.8 ng g(-1) of pp'-DDT were accumulated. The DDE:DDT proportion average was 0.37, indicating an aged DDT contamination. Concentrations of pesticides in sediments were compared to three sediment quality guidelines, and indicated that a low biological effects level can be expected in either sediments or aquatic organisms.

  4. Anthropogenic nexus on organochlorine pesticide pollution: a case study with Tamiraparani river basin, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, P; Govindaraj, S; Vignesh, S; Rajendran, R Babu; James, R Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The levels of 17 organochlorine pesticides residues (OCPs) in surface water and sediments from Tamiraparani river basin, South India were investigated to evaluate their potential pollution and risk impacts. A total of 96 surface water and sediment samples at 12 sampling stations were collected along the river in four seasons during 2008-2009. The ΣOCP concentrations in surface water and sediments were in the range of 0.1 to 79.9 ng l(-1) and 0.12 to 3,938.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), aldrin, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, and mirex were dominant in the sediments. The dominant OCPs in water samples are heptachlor, o,p'-DDE, dieldrin, o,p'-DDD, and mirex, which show different source of contamination pattern among sampling seasons. The distribution pattern of DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane, and other OCPs in the present study shows heterogenic nature of nonpoint source of pollution. Notable contamination of water and sediment sample that was observed in upstream (S2) 58 ng l(-1) and downstream (S11) 1,693 ng g(-1) dw explains agricultural and municipal outfalls, whereas frequent damming effect reduces the concentration level in the midstream. The overall spatial-temporal distribution pattern of ΣOCP residues are illustrated by GIS package.

  5. Application of isolated hepatocytes to studies of drug metabolism in large food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, L R; Kirsch, D G; Lohse, C L; Wisniewski, J A

    1987-03-01

    A definitive hazard assessment of xenobiotics translocated through food animals into edible products such as meat or milk requires a complete analysis of metabolism in food animals. However, large animal metabolism studies present many experimental difficulties. None of several in vitro alternatives such as subcellular fractions has been established as an acceptable predictor of in vivo metabolism. The feasibility of using isolated hepatocytes to predict the metabolism of xenobiotics, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in large ruminant animals (e.g. cattle) is being studied in our laboratory. A procedure was developed for isolating hepatocytes aseptically from the caudate process of the liver which was obtained surgically from 100-125 kg calves. A modified two-step vascular perfusion procedure provides hepatocyte suspensions that are typically greater than or equal to 85% viable and greater than or equal to 1 X 10(7) viable hepatocytes/g of liver (wet wt). Xenobiotic metabolism has been evaluated in suspensions and primary cultures using aldrin epoxidation, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronidation and sulfation. Metabolic activities are relatively short-lived in suspensions less than or equal to 4 h, but quite stable up to 10 h when cultured on collagen-coated plates in chemically defined medium. Bovine hepatocytes behave similarly in culture to rodent hepatocytes. Although primary culturing of hepatocytes is more difficult than suspensions, primarily due to the asepsis requirements, it is the method of choice for xenobiotic metabolism determinations in isolated hepatocytes of cattle.

  6. Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Electron Ionization and Negative-Ion Chemical Ionization for Analyses of Pesticides at Trace Levels in Atmospheric Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Raina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM mode with both electron ionization (EI and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs, organophosphorus pesticides (OPs and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin. The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations <100 pg µL−1 (<100 pg m−3 in air. No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.5–10 pg µL−1 along with best confirmation (<25% RSD of ion ratio, while GC-NCI/SRM is recommended for use where added selectivity or confirmation is required (such as parathion-ethyl, tokuthion, carbofenothion. GC-EI/SRM at concentration <100 pg µL−1 was not suitable for most pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 1–10 pg µL−1 for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT.

  7. Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electron ionization and negative-ion chemical ionization for analyses of pesticides at trace levels in atmospheric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Renata; Hall, Patricia

    2008-09-09

    A comparison of detection limits of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode with both electron ionization (EI) and negative-ion chemical ionization (NCI) are presented for over 50 pesticides ranging from organochlorines (OCs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and pre-emergent herbicides used in the Canadian prairies (triallate, trifluralin, ethalfluralin). The developed GC-EI/SIM, GC-NCI/SIM, and GC-NCI/SRM are suitable for the determination of pesticides in air sample extracts at concentrations air). No one method could be used to analyze the range of pre-emergent herbicides, OPs, and OCs investigated. In general GC-NCI/SIM provided the lowest method detection limits (MDLs commonly 2.5-10 pg microL(-1)) along with best confirmation (pesticides. GC-EI/SIM was more prone to interference issues than NCI methods, but gave good sensitivity (MDLs 1-10 pg microL(-1)) for pesticides with poor NCI response (OPs: sulfotep, phorate, aspon, ethion, and OCs: alachlor, aldrin, perthane, and DDE, DDD, DDT).

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in placenta in Kyrgyzstan and the effect on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichuev, Rakhmanbek Mamatkadyrovich; Zhilova, Liudmila Victorovna; Paizildaev, Timur Rashidinovich; Khametova, Madina Shavkatovna; Rakhmatillaev, Abdygapar; Sakibaev, Kyialbek Sherikbaevich; Madykova, Zhanyl Akhmedovna; Toichueva, Asel Uezbekovna; Schlumpf, Margret; Weber, Roland; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2017-12-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined by gas chromatography in 241 placentas from cotton-growing regions, 121 placentas from an urban area (city of Osh), and 146 placentas from unpolluted mountain regions of Kyrgyzstan. Manifestations of disease were recorded in the mothers during pregnancy and parturition and in their newborns during the first 6 days of life. OCPs were detected in 240 out of 508 placentas (47.2%), with increased incidence in the two polluted regions (65%), particularly in placentas from women living near former pesticide storehouses and agro air-strips (99%), but only in 2.7% of placentas from the unpolluted region. α-, β-, and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH); DDT; DDE; aldrin; and heptachlor were detected. The sum of concentrations of all OCPs (total OCPs) was calculated for each of the 240 placentas with detectable OCPs (median 9.5 μg/kg placenta, mean 88.3 μg/kg, range 0.1-3070 μg/kg). The incidence of health problems in four subgroups of this data set, with increasing levels of total OCPs, was compared with the incidence of health problems in the group of 268 placentas, where OCPs were undetectable. Relative risk of health problems in both, mothers and newborns, increased significantly, in a concentration-dependent manner, with increasing levels of total OCPs (p pesticide storehouses and agro airstrips should be considered as being at risk. Reduction of exposure is urgently needed.

  9. DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN DRINKING WATERS SAMPLED FROM CLUJ AND HUNEDOARA COUNTIES

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    MARIA-ELISABETA LOVÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of organochlorine pesticides in drinking waterssampled from Cluj and Hunedoara counties. Pesticides are found scattered indifferent environmental factors (water, air, soil wherefrom they are drawn off byvegetal and animal organisms. Water pollution by pesticides results from the plantprotection products industry and also from massive application of these resourcesin agriculture and other branches of economy. Pesticides can reach surface wateralong with dripping waters and by infiltration may reach the groundwater layers,organochlorine pesticides are most often found in the water sources (dieldrin,endrin, DDT, aldrin, lindane, heptachlor, etc. due to their increased persistence inthe external environment. This study followed up the determination oforganochlorine pesticides in 14 drinking water samples collected from the outputof water treatment plants in Cluj and Hunedoara counties that process surfacewater and deep-water sources. For identification of organochlorine pesticides, thegas chromatographic method after liquid-liquid extraction was used, by a gascromatograph Shimadzu GC 2010 with detector ECD (Electron CaptureDetection. There were not detected higher values than the method detection limit(0.01 μg/l in the drinking water samples collected and analyzed for both totalorganochlorine pesticides and components, which were well below the maximumconcentration admitted by Law 452/2002 regarding drinking water quality. Resultsare correlated with the sanitary protection areas for water sources and with the useof agricultural lands in the area. The solution to reduce risk of pesticides use isecological agriculture , which gains increasingly more ground in Romania too.

  10. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  11. Assessment of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) pollution in suburban soil in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhaohong; Feng, Jimin; Zhao, Meng

    2010-08-01

    Soil contamination with organochlorine pesticides has aroused worldwide concerns considering their high toxicities and long-term persistence. In this study, 87 representative soil samples from suburban areas (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) of Tianjin, the third biggest city in China, were collected to evaluate the pollution of 20 organochlorine pesticides. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Ultrasonic extraction was used for organochlorine pesticides preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. It was revealed that p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, hexachlorobenzene, dicofol and beta-HCH were seven pesticides detected most frequently. DDTs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene were the predominant pesticide pollutants in soil. Spatial variation of these organochlorine pesticides in soil was illustrated; Pollution levels, characteristics and possible sources were also investigated. Most of other 13 kinds of pesticides were detected and the frequencies of detection were calculated to reveal the pollution status, which ranged from 0.0% (aldrin, dieldrin and endrin) to 34.5% (p,p'-DDT). These data were helpful to figure out the pollution of organochlorine pesticides and could be further used to evaluate the health risk associated with soil pollution.

  12. Integrative assessment of marine pollution in Galician estuaries using sediment chemistry, mussel bioaccumulation, and embryo-larval toxicity bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiras, R; Fernández, N; Bellas, J; Besada, V; González-Quijano, A; Nunes, T

    2003-08-01

    An integrative assessment of environmental quality was carried out in selected sites along the Galician coast (NW Iberian Peninsula) combining analytical chemistry of seawater and sediments, bioaccumulation in the marine mussel, and embryo-larval sediment toxicity bioassays, in order to link biological and chemical criteria for the assessment of coastal pollution. Maximum values of Hg and Cu in seawater, sediment and mussels, were found in the inner part of Ria of Pontevedra, while maximum levels of organics (polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene and aldrin) were found in mussels from A Coruña. Outstanding values of Cu, Pb and Zn have been found in seawater and sediment from a single site, P3, which also was the most toxic in the embryo-larval bioassays performed with four different phyla of marine organisms: mollusks, echinoderms, arthropods and chordates. Sediment quality effects range-median values provided a valuable reference to predict biological effects from sediment chemistry data, while effects range-low values were too conservative. Sediment toxicity could also be predicted by using a toxic-unit model based on published EC50 values for trace metals and mobilization factors independently obtained from measurements of metal contents in sediments and their elutriates. When chemical and toxicological data are independently used to arrange sampling sites by using non-metric multidimensional scaling, a remarkable degree of concordance between both types of configurations could be observed.

  13. Atmospheric contamination by pesticides: Determination in the liquid, gaseous and particulate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, M; Wortham, H; Sanusi, A; Mirabel, P

    1997-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 18 fogwater samples, 31 rainwater samples and 17 atmosphere (gas and particles) samples were analysed for 13 pesticides (pp'DDT,pp'DDD,pp'DDE, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, fenpropathrin, mecoprop, methyl-parathion, atrazine, isoproturon and aldicarb). The samples were collected in a rural area where some of the compounds are in use (experimental INRA farm, "Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique" in Colmar, Eastern France, 80,000 inhabitants). This paper briefly presents the analytical methodology used and, in detail, the contamination level of the different atmospheric phases. The contamination levels are roughly constant throughout the year in all the atmospheric phases and the most abundant pesticides are those commonly used on the experimental INRA farm and other surrounding farms. Nevertheless, some pesticides not used since the 1970s such as 1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (pp'DDT) and 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (pp 'DDD) are also detected in the atmosphere of Colmar. A small increase in the pesticide concentrations in the atmosphere (gas and particles) was observed during treatments.

  14. Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs in Taiwan

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    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs. The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years.

  15. Purification of waters and elimination of organochloric insecticides by means of active coal

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    DRAGAN MARINOVIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of water and the determination of the degree of its pollution with numerous physical, chemical and biological polluters have become general, ever increasing social and health related problems. Within this study, the concentrations of some most frequently used organochloric insecticides (OCI: a-hexachlorocyclohexane (a-HCH, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyl trichlorethane (DDT were investigated. OCI are highly toxic substances for the human population and their effective elimination from the environment is of paramount interest. To determine the OCI concentration in water samples, the EPA–608 method and the liquid–liquid extraction principle were applied. A procedure for OCI elimination was realized by passing the water over four columns filled with various active coals: KRF, K-81/B, NORIT ROW-0.8 and AQUA SORB CS. These active coals are carbonized coconut shells activated by different procedures. The obtained results indicated that best purification of potable and waste water achieved using a column with Norit Row-0.8 filling. Research proved that small quantities of OCI can also be effectively removed using a Norit Row-0.8 active coal filled column, without altering the organoleptic properties of the water, which meets the requirements of water purification processes.

  16. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  17. Grau de exposição a praguicidas organoclorados em moradores de aterro a céu aberto Levels of exposure to organochlorine pesticides in open-air dump dwellers

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    Eladio Santos Filho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o grau de exposição interna aos praguicidas organoclorados (POP dos moradores de um atêrro a céu aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de aferição simultânea e controlado, cujo fator de estudo foi residir em área contaminada por POP e o efeito foi a concentração sanguínea dessas substâncias. A população de estudo foi de 238 pessoas residentes em um aterro a céu aberto (Pilões, no município de Cubatão, SP; e a população de controle ficou dimensionada em 258 pessoas, também residentes no mesmo município (Cota 200. Foram analisados os praguicidas HCB, p-p'DDT, p-p'DDE, p-p'DDD, o-p'DDT, a HCH; b HCH; g HCH; Aldrin; Dieldrin; Endrin; Heptaclor; Heptaclor-epoxi e Mirex. RESULTADOS: Os teores médios sangüíneos de HCB em Pilões foram de 4,66 µg/L, 155 vezes maior que a média na Cota 200 (0,03 µg/L. Em Pilões, os teores médios de DDT total foram de 3,71 µg/L, duas vezes maior do que na Cota 200 (1,85 µg/L e o HCH total apresentou concentrações sangüíneas seis vezes maiores em Pilões, 0,84 µg/L, contra 0,13 µg/L. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se associação positiva entre residir em Pilões e apresentar teores sangüíneos de POP, com risco muitas vezes maior quando comparado a localidades sem a presença desses contaminantes.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the degree of internal exposure to organochlorine pesticides (persistent organic pollutants, POP among inhabitants of an open-air dump. METHODS: This was an observational study with simultaneous measurement and control, in which the criterion for subjects was that they dwelled in an area contaminated by POP and the effect of such contamination was the concentration of such substances into the blood. The study population consisted of 238 people living on an open-air dump in Pilões, in the municipality of Cubatão, SP, Brazil, and the control population was formed by 258 people, also resident in that municipality, in the Cota 200 district. The following

  18. Persistent organochlorine residues in foodstuffs from Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands: contamination levels and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Tanabe, S; Williams, R J; Tatsukawa, R

    1994-08-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and HCB were determined in a wide variety of foodstuffs collected from different locations in Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Elevated levels of PCBs, CHLs, DDTs and dieldrin were detected in most of the foodstuffs of animal origin. Fish samples collected near the coast of Sydney recorded noticeable concentrations of PCBs, CHLs and DDTs. PCB contamination was generally prominent in samples collected in urban areas, whereas organochlorine pesticides were distributed uniformly throughout Australia. The widespread usage of CHLs was evident from the composition of its compounds in various foods while HCHs and DDTs were found to have been used sporadically in space and time. For the most part, residue levels of organochlorines in foodstuffs were below the tolerance limits established by national and international health organizations. The exception was CHLs in some fish samples, which exceeded the maximum residue limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of the Australian government. Although the number of samples analysed in each class of foods is small for the purpose of estimating human dietary exposure, we tentatively conclude that the dietary intake of PCBs in Australia was higher than those observed in most developed and developing nations, whereas the intake of organochlorine pesticides was higher than in developed nations but lower than in developing countries. Meat products contributed to the higher dietary intakes of most of the organochlorines. The contamination pattern and the residual concentrations of organochlorines in foodstuffs of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands resembled those observed in Australia.

  19. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-07-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS / MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  20. Human health risk from hexachlorocyclohexane and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane pesticides, through consumption of vegetables: estimation of daily intake and hazard quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available People are encouraged to consume more fresh vegetables due to the high nutritional value and fibre contents in vegetables. At the same time, due to pesticidal residue in vegetables, vegetable consumption is considered as an important route of pesticides uptake by human beings. Pesticides, particularly organochlorines such as Aldrin, heptachlor and isomers of dichlorodiphe - nyltrichloroethane (DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH are a major concern because of their persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and long-range environmental transport ability. Hence information on such toxic contaminants in vegetables is very essential, due to human health concern. In order to assess the potential health risks associated with vegetable consumption due to pesticidal residues of DDT and HCH, sixty four samples of commonly available vegetables were collected from a local market in West Bengal, India and analysed for DDT and HCH. In this study, estimated average daily intake of HCHs and DDTs through vegetables was ranged between 5.0x10–8–9.1x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1 with an average value of 2.0x10–6 mg kg–1 day–1. Human health risk was assessed in terms of incremental lifetime cancer risk and health hazard index was between 1.7x10–8–8.8x10–6 and 1.5x10–7– 1.7x10–2, respectively. Generated results were compared with maximum residual levels and reference values, were within acceptable limits and suggested no health risk to the human populations. Therefore, an extensive study on vegetables with the inclusion of other persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals should be carried out to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetables.

  1. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha F. A. Jallow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  2. Finalization of the feasibility study for Rocky Mountain arsenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, D.M.; Amdurer, M.

    1994-01-01

    The environmental remediation program at the Army's premier cleanup site, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, is fast approaching the climax of the study phase and will be moving into the cleanup phase. Selecting the cleanup approach for this extremely complex site involves addressing a number of precedent-setting issues. The Remedial Investigation (RI) for this 27-sq. mile former Army chemical munitions and commercial pesticide manufacturing facility, completed in January 1992, included the collection of over 50,000 samples from soil, surface water, groundwater, structures, air and plants and animals. Samples were analyzed for over 60 specific chemical analytes and screened for hundreds of others. The RI found a number of contaminated groundwater plumes, hundreds of contaminated structures, high concentrations of contaminants in soils in former disposal basins and manufacturing areas and buried munitions. Some of the major contaminants targeted for remediation include benzene, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, dibromochloropropane, diisopropylmethyl phosphonate, aldrin, adieldrin, isodrin, chlordane, lead, arsenic and mercury. The Feasibility Study (FS) has reviewed potential remediation alternatives. The first phase of the FS, the Development and Screening of Alternatives (DSA) presented a range of alternatives. An equally complex and parallel study, the Integrated Endangerment Assessment, is in final stages. The goal of the second phase of the FS, the Detailed Analysis of Alternatives (DAA), is to analyze the soils, water and structures alternatives retained in the DSA in greater technical detail. The Army's draft version of the DAA, released in the Fall of 1993, has proposed a wide range of alternatives to remediate 27 different contamination groups and is included in the presentation

  3. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  4. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doulia, Danae S.; Anagnos, Efstathios K.; Liapis, Konstantinos S.; Klimentzos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  5. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  6. Impacts of chemicals on waterfowl reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Stickel, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, PCB's, heavy metals, and other toxic chemicals are ubiquitous in the biosphere and are commonly found in tissues and eggs of wild birds. This paper reviews research on the effects of these chemicals, with particular reference to waterfowl. Extensive mortality of waterfowl has occurred in the Gulf Coast region as a result of ingestion of aldrin-treated rice seed. Populations of fulvous tree ducks (Dendrocygna bicolor) have declined in recent years in that area. DDE impaired reproduction of both mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Arias rubripes) in experimental studies, resulting in thin shells, cracked eggs, and poor hatching success. Eggs incubated by the hens broke and cracked more frequently than those in incubators. In the field, residues are higher in ducks that feed on animal material than in vegetarians; differences are pronounced both geographically and among species. Mercury at levels that occur in certain heavily polluted areas in the United States and Canada has, in experimental studies, lowered the reproductive success of mallards and black ducks and reduced the survival of ducklings. Oil spills have killed many waterfowl as a result of oiled feathers and the intake of oil and more indirect physiological effects have been shown experimentally. Pollutants may affect waterfowl indirectly by changing the habitat and directly as a result of intake of toxic substances. They are unlikely to have been directly limiting factors in populations of such species as mallards. Their involvement with problem of other species, including canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) and mergansers has still to be explored.

  7. Composition, distribution, and characterization of suspected endocrine-disrupting pesticides in Beijing GuanTing Reservoir (GTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Nandong; Xu, Xiaobai

    2006-05-01

    GuanTing Reservoir (GTR) is one of two main water resources for the agriculture, industry, and living uses of Beijing (China). As a result of extensive pollution over the last few decades (particularly the 1980s), the reservoir has not supplied potable water to Beijing city since 1997. Composition, distribution, and characterization of 31 suspected endocrine-disrupting pesticides in surface water, pore water, and surface sediments from the reservoir are reported in this study. An analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) technology and capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the 31 suspected endocrine-disrupting pesticides including the compounds hexachlorocyclohexane, cyclodiene, diphenyl aliphatic, chlordane, and other selected pesticides (hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, endrin aldehyde, hepachlor epoxide, dicofol, acetochlor, alachlor, metolachlor, chlorpyriphos, nitrofen, trifluralin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin). The result shows that the pesticide pollution is moderate in GTR and its tributaries, although pesticide residue values in a few sites are quite high when considering their endocrine-disrupting effects and chronic health effects. Among the analyzed pesticides, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, endosulfan sulfate, and aldrin were the most abundant pesticides in water while o,p'-DOT, delta-HCH, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and endosulfan sulfate were the most abundant in sediment. The variation in concentration of pesticides among sites can be expected to be caused by several factors such as contaminants in the rivers and drainage of contaminated water from the surrounding agricultural fields. To reduce exposure to these endocrine-disrupting compounds, the abundant current use of pesticides in the area should be minimized. Regular monitoring is needed to manage the environmental hazards due to these pesticides.

  8. Soil Chemical Characteristics of Organic and Conventional Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on intensive land of both lowland and upland food crops have been shown to increase agricultural productivity significantly. Research aimed to study soil chemical characteristics and soil pesticide residues at some crops of organic and conventional farms. The research was carried out in Laboratory of Soil Chemistry, Indonesian Soil Research Institute and in Laboratory of Agrochemical Residue, Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute, Bogor from February to July 2015. Soil samples at 0-10 cm depth were taken compositely from broccoli (Brassica oleracea, carrots (Daucus carota, maize (Zea mays, and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum farms in Bogor Regency as well as from rice field in Tasikmalaya Regency at both organic and conventional farms. Soil chemical characteristics were analyzed include: soil organic-C (Walkey and Black, total-N (Kjeldahl, potential-P (HCl 25%, available-P (Olsen, potential-K (HCl 25%, available-K (NH4OAc 1 N pH 7, CEC (NH4OAc 1 N pH 7, and pH (soil : water = 1: 5, while pesticide residues included levels of organochlorine (lindane, aldrin, heptaklor, dieldrin, DDT, endosulfan; organophosphates (diazinon, fenitrotin, metidation, paration, profenofos; and carbamates (carbofuran, MIPC, BPMC in the soil by using Gas Chromatography method. Results showed that levels of soil organic-C, total-N, potential and available-P, potential and available-K, CEC, pH at organic farms were higher than those at conventional farms. Some pesticide residues compound (organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates were detected at conventional farm, while those at organic farm were not detected (trace.

  9. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  10. Genotoxicity of agricultural soils in the vicinity of industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Malik, Abdul

    2009-03-17

    Soil samples from agricultural fields (cultivated) in the vicinity of industrial area of Ghaziabad City (India) were collected. In this city, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the food crops. This practice has been polluting the soil and pollutants might reach the food chain. Gas chromatographic analysis show the presence of certain organochlorine (DDE, DDT, dieldrin, aldrin and endosulfan) and organophosphorus (dimethoate, malathion, methylparathion and chlorpyrifos) pesticides in soil samples. Samples were extracted using different solvents, i.e. methanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, hexane and acetone (all were HPLC-grade, SRL, India), and the extracts were assayed for genotoxic potential using Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair defective mutants and bacteriophage lambda systems. TA98 and TA100 were found to be the most sensitive strains to all the soil extracts tested. Methanol extracts exhibited a maximum mutagenicity with TA98 strain {540 (-S9) and 638 (+S9) revertants/g of soil} and 938 (-S9) and 1008 (+S9) revertants/g of soil with TA100 strain. The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants was found maximum with methanolic extract followed by acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone at the dose level of 40 microl/ml culture after 6h of treatment. The survival was 25, 30, 32, 33 and 35% in polA strain after 6h of treatment when tested with wastewater irrigated soil extracts of methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone, respectively. A significant decrease in the plaque forming units of bacteriophage lambda was also observed when treated with 40 microl of test samples. Present results showed that methanolic extracts of soil were more toxic than other soil extracts. The soil is accumulating a large number of pollutants due to wastewater irrigation and this practice of accumulation has an impact on soil health.

  11. Perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticide contamination in composite food samples from Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357-362]. In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants.

  12. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  13. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish.

  14. Incidence of organochlorine pesticides and the health condition of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) at Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    We identified and quantified organochlorine (OC) pesticide residues in the plasma of 28 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nestlings from a dense population in Laguna San Ignacio, a pristine area of Baja California Sur, Mexico, during the 2001 breeding season. Sixteen OC pesticides were identified and quantified. α-, β-, δ- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptaclor, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I and II, endosulfan-sulfate, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone were the OCs found in the plasma of nestlings, ranging from 0.002 to 6.856 pg/μl (parts per billion). No differences were found in the concentration of pesticides between genders (P > 0.05). In our work, the concentrations detected in the plasma were lower than those reported to be a threat for the species and that affect the survival and reproduction of birds. The presence of OC pesticides in the remote Laguna San Ignacio osprey population is an indication of the ubiquitous nature of these contaminants. OCs are apparently able to travel long distances from their source to the study area. A significant relationship between hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations and OC concentrations were found suggesting that a potential effect on the health of chicks may exist in this osprey population caused by the OC, e.g. anemia. The total proteins were positively correlated with α-BHC, endosulfan I, and p,p'-DDD. It has been suggested that OC also affects competitive interactions and population status over the long term in vertebrate species, and our results could be used as reference information for comparison with other more exposed osprey populations.

  15. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kyle E.; Thomas, Sheeba M.; Bodour, Adria A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, βE2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  16. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Ana [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Cerrillo, Isabel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Granada, Alicia [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Olea-Serrano, Fatima [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: folea@ugr.es

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p < 0.045) and red meat (p < 0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p < 0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p < 0.038) and poultry (p < 0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p < 0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p < 0.001), red meat (p < 0.001) and white and oily fish (p < 0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p < 0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health.

  17. Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaalan, Mona F; Abdelraouf, Sahar M; Mohamed, Waleed A; Hassanein, Fetouh S

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides (CP) are environmentally persistent pollutants that (prenatally through the placenta and post-natally via breastfeeding) are transferred from mother to child. Considering the significant bleeding tendency noted in infants of CP-intoxicated mothers in Egypt, this study aimed to investigate any correlation between levels of these xenobiotics in mothers' milk and bleeding tendencies of their infants, as well as a possible role of any related immunosuppression in this phenomenon. This study examined 180 newborns presenting with altered bleeding tendencies and their mothers, and 180 normal newborns and their mothers (serving as a controls), selected from the Breastfeeding Unit, Center for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital. Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, hepta-chloroepoxide, α- and β-endosulfan, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) levels and their derivatives were measured in mothers' milk as well as in serum of neonates using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. To link bleeding tendency with lactational intoxication of neonates by CP, newborns' blood was assessed for: platelet count, bleeding and prothrombin time, liver enzymes, Vitamin K, TNFα, and IL-10. Breast milk CP levels were associated with a higher incidence of bleeding in infants. Interference with the coagulation cascade was supported by changes in prothrombin time (prolonged), platelet counts (decreased), liver enzymes (increased), and serum vitamin K concentrations (decreased). Moreover, the significant decrease in WBC count and lymphocytes added to depressed cytokine secretion, i.e., TNFα and IL-10, suggested an organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to the agents. We conclude that maternal transfer of CP, via breastfeeding or across the placenta, was sufficient to achieve similar CP levels in the serum of their infants; this correlated with a manifesting of altered

  18. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  19. Organochlorine Pesticides Exposure and Bladder Cancer: Evaluation from a Gene-Environment Perspective in a Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, L D; Henríquez-Hernández, L A; Zumbado, M; Almeida-González, M; Álvarez-León, E E; Navarro, P; Luzardo, O P

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has increased significantly since the 1950s. Pesticide exposure has been linked with increasing bladder cancer incidence, although the evidence is inconclusive. However, most epidemiological studies did not evaluate the potential role played by the organochlorine pesticides, the most widely used pesticides in Western countries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Organochlorine pesticides were banned in the late 1970s because of their persistence in the environment and their carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. Organochlorine pesticides were employed in huge amounts in the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands; the authors, therefore, evaluated the role played by organochlorine pesticides exposure on bladder cancer. Serum levels of the most prevalent organochlorine pesticides used in the agriculture of these Islands (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [p,p'-DDT], and its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE] and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, α- and β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, methoxychlor, and mirex) were measured in 140 bladder cancer cases and 206 controls. GST-M1 and GST-T1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. These results showed that serum levels of organochlorine pesticides did not increase bladder cancer risk. On the contrary, total burden of hexachlorocyclohexanes was found to be negatively associated to bladder cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.929, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.865-0.997; P = .041). This effect disappeared when the distribution of the gluthathione S-transferase polymorphisms was introduced in the statistical model. These results indicate that organochlorine pesticides are not a risk factor for bladder cancer. However, these findings provide additional evidence of gene-environment interactions for organochlorine

  20. Organochlorines in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Liza grandisquamis from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and mullet (Liza grandisquamis were sampled from Lagos Lagoon and Agboyi Creek and analysed for alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane, delta-BHC, heptachlor, heptachlor-epoxide (B, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endrin aldehyde, endrin ketone, cis-chlordane, trans-chlordane, endosulfan 1, endosulfan 11, endosulfan sulphate, methoxychlor, p,p´-DDE, p,p´-DDD and p,p´-DDT. Sampling was conducted four times at the designated sites during the dry season months of December 2008 and February 2009 and the wet season months of May and September 2009. The muscle tissues and organs of the finfishes were subjected to cold extraction with petroleum ether/acetone (1:1 v/v mixture and clean-up on silica gel adsorbents. A gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD was used to detect and determine the organochlorines. The residue levels of the fishes were higher in the Lagos Lagoon than in Agboyi Creek while a higher concentration of the residues was observed during the dry season. The female fishes accumulated higher organochlorines than the male fishes. The order of residue accumulation in the organs of the fishes was gills > livers > large intestines > small intestines > kidneys > muscles. The dietary surveys indicated that the amount of fishes consumed ranged from 20 to 200 g/day, with a mean value of 40 g/day. The estimated daily intakes of the organochlorines were within the acceptable daily intakes while the levels of residues in the fishes were within the permissible residue limits.

  1. Risk ranking of multiple-POPs in detritivorous fish from the Río de la Plata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, J C; Cappelletti, N; Williamson, M; Migoya, M C; Speranza, E; Sericano, J; Muir, D C G

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the bioaccumulation and the risk associated to consumption of lipid-rich detritivorous fish, a comprehensive set of organic pollutants (n=213) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin like PCBs (dlPCBs), chlorinated pesticides (CHLPs), chlorobenzenes (CBzs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), resolved (ALI) and unresolved aliphatic hydrocarbons (UCM) and linear alkyl benzenes (LABs) were analyzed in Sábalo fish (Prochilodus lineatus) collected in the polluted Metropolitan Buenos Aires coast and in migrating specimens. Fatty fish muscles (lipids: 74±9.3% dry weight) contained homogeneous (24-51% variability) and very high-concentrations of organic pollutants ranging from 60 to 1,300 μg g(-1) fresh weight (fw) ALI+UCM; 10-40 μg g(-1) fw LABs and PCBs; 0.1-1 μg g(-1) fw dlPCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, CBzs and PBDEs; 0.01-0.1 μg g(-1) fw mirex, endosulfans, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and 0.07-0.2 ng g(-1) PCDD/F. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQs) ranged from 60 to 395 pg g(-1) fw (34±17 and 213±124 pg g(-1) TEQs for PCDD/F and dlPCBs respectively). These are among the highest concentrations reported for fish and point out the remarkable ability of Sábalo to feed on anthropogenic organic-enriched particles and tolerate a high pollutant load. Contaminant signatures show partial alteration with still abundant lower molecular weight components indicating that fish feeds directly in the outfalls. Consumption limits based on reference doses ranged from 0.1 (PCBs) to >1,2000 g d(-1) (endosulfan) allowing a comprehensive risk-based ranking of contaminants in this long-range migrating, detritivorous fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Moonlandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnill, Reginald

    2002-12-01

    The Soviet-American race to land the first man on the Moon was a technical challenge unlike anything in modern human history. BBC Aerospace Correspondent Reginald Turnill covered the story, and his reports were heard and seen by millions worldwide. With unparalleled access to the politicians, scientists, and technicians involved in the race to the Moon, Turnill knew all the early astronauts--Alan Shepard, John Glenn, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin--as they pioneered the techniques that made the Moon landings possible. He became a friend of Dr. Wernher von Braun, the German rocket pioneer and mastermind behind the technology. Turnill's unique eyewitness account of one of the most thrilling adventures of the twentieth century is clearly written and is packed with action and drama, making this a fascinating read for all those interested in the story of the race to the Moon. Reginald Turnill started work in Fleet Street at the age of 15, and by 19 he was covering the national news as a Press Association staff reporter. After joining the BBC in 1956 he covered the launch of Sputnik 1 and found it so exciting that he made space reporting his speciality. As the BBC Aerospace Correspondent, Turnill spent the rest of his career covering all the manned space missions as well as planetary missions like Mariner, Pioneer, Viking, and Voyager. Since leaving the BBC staff, Turnill has continued to broadcast and write on space, and he created the first spaceflight directory. Turnill is the only non-American to have been presented with NASA's Chroniclers Award for contributions to public understanding of the space program.

  3. A comparison of two techniques for studying sediment desorption kinetics of hydrophobic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfield, Samantha L; Wnuk, Joshua D; Murray, Megan M; Dunnivant, Frank M

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of two techniques (gaseous purge and vial desorption) for studying the kinetics of desorption of hydrophobic pollutants from natural sediments was conducted using identical, pre-equilibrated pollutant-sediment suspensions. Desorption profiles for the two techniques [for Lindane, Aldrin, 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl (2,2'-DCB), 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4'-DCB), and 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB)] were then compared, based on the distribution of pollutant mass between the labile (fast) and non-labile (slow) desorption phases and the release rate constants for each phase of release. The vial desorption technique shows many practical advantages over the gaseous purge technique, including its more realistic mixing conditions, the use of an independent sample for each data point (as opposed to a calculation of a cumulative mass purged at each time point), the fact that the vials constitute a closed system and are therefore less subject to ambient contamination, and the relatively low demands of time and money for the vial technique. No consistent trends in labile rate constants or in pollutant distribution between the labile and non-labile phase were observed between the two techniques. A comparison of kinetic parameters shows much faster non-labile rate constants for the gaseous purge technique, attributed to the violent, continuous agitation employed, which likely disrupted sediment aggregates and oxidized the natural organic matter associated with the sediment. Non-labile rate constants have implications for the long-term fate of compounds adsorbed to repetitively disturbed sediments. This study suggests that the traditionally less popular vial desorption technique may yield more realistic non-labile desorption rate constants.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; characterization of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas; McMahon, Gerard; Spruill, T.B.; Woodside, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The 28,000-square-mile Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin includes the Roanoke, Dan, Chowan Tar, and Neuse Rivers. The basin extends through four physiographic provinces in North Carolina and Virginia-Valley and Ridge, Blue Ridge, Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The spatial and temporal trends in ground-water and riverine water quality in the study area were characterized by using readily available data sources The primary data sources that were used included the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE) database, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System (STORET) database, and results of a few investigations of pesticide occurrence. The principal water-quality constituents examined were suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides. The data examined generally spanned the period from 1950 to 1993. The only significant trends in suspended sediment were detected at three Chowan River tributary sites which showed long-term decreases. Suspended- and total-solids concentrations have decreased throughout the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin. The decreases are probably a result of (1) construction of new lakes and ponds in the basin, which trap solids, (2) improved agricultural soil management, and (3) improved wastewater treatment. Nutrient point sources are much less than nonpoint nutrient sources at the eight NASQAN basins examined for nutrient loads. The greatest nitrogen inputs are associated with crop fertilizer and biological nitrogen fixation by soybeans and peanuts, whereas atmospheric and animal-related nitrogen inputs are comparable in magnitude. The largest phosphorus inputs are associated with animal wastes. The most commonly detected pesticides in surface water in the STORET database were atrazine and aldrin.Intensive organonitrogen herbicide sampling of Chicod Creek in 1992 showed seasonal variations in pesticide concentration. The most commonly detected herbicides were atrazine, alachlor

  5. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  6. Existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Puji Bs; Syahrani, Lepa; Rozi, Ismail Ep; Pratama, Nandha R; Marantina, Sylvia S; Arsyad, Dian S; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo; Hawley, William; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shinta; Sukowati, Supratman; Lobo, Neil F; Syafruddin, Din

    2012-02-25

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. GABA-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, A302S/G in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan. A total of 154 mosquito samples from 10 provinces of malaria-endemic areas across Indonesia (Aceh, North Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, Molucca and North Molucca) were obtained and identified by species, using morphological characteristic. The DNA was individually extracted using chelex-ion exchanger and the DNA obtained was used for analyses using sequencing method. Molecular analysis indicated 11% of the total 154 Anopheles samples examined, carried Rdl mutant alleles. All of the alleles were found in homozygous form. Rdl 302S allele was observed in Anopheles vagus (from Central Java, Lampung, and West Nusa Tenggara), Anopheles aconitus (from Central Java), Anopheles barbirostris (from Central Java and Lampung), Anopheles sundaicus (from North Sumatra and Lampung), Anopheles nigerrimus (from North Sumatra), whereas the 302 G allele was only found in Anopheles farauti from Molucca. The existence of the Rdl mutant allele indicates that, either insecticide pressure on the Anopheles population in these areas might still be ongoing (though not directly associated with the malaria control programme) or that the mutant form of the Rdl allele is relatively stable in the absence of insecticide. Nonetheless, the finding suggests that integrated pest management is warranted in malaria-endemic areas where insecticides are widely used for other purposes.

  7. Existence of the rdl mutant alleles among the anopheles malaria vector in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Puji BS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptor-chloride channel complex is known to be the target site of dieldrin, a cyclodiene insecticide. GABA-receptors, with a naturally occurring amino acid substitution, A302S/G in the putative ion-channel lining region, confer resistance to cyclodiene insecticides that includes aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, endrin and endosulphan. Methods A total of 154 mosquito samples from 10 provinces of malaria-endemic areas across Indonesia (Aceh, North Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Central Java, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara, West Sulawesi, Molucca and North Molucca were obtained and identified by species, using morphological characteristic. The DNA was individually extracted using chelex-ion exchanger and the DNA obtained was used for analyses using sequencing method. Results Molecular analysis indicated 11% of the total 154 Anopheles samples examined, carried Rdl mutant alleles. All of the alleles were found in homozygous form. Rdl 302S allele was observed in Anopheles vagus (from Central Java, Lampung, and West Nusa Tenggara, Anopheles aconitus (from Central Java, Anopheles barbirostris (from Central Java and Lampung, Anopheles sundaicus (from North Sumatra and Lampung, Anopheles nigerrimus (from North Sumatra, whereas the 302 G allele was only found in Anopheles farauti from Molucca. Conclusion The existence of the Rdl mutant allele indicates that, either insecticide pressure on the Anopheles population in these areas might still be ongoing (though not directly associated with the malaria control programme or that the mutant form of the Rdl allele is relatively stable in the absence of insecticide. Nonetheless, the finding suggests that integrated pest management is warranted in malaria-endemic areas where insecticides are widely used for other purposes.

  8. Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

  9. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p < 0.045) and red meat (p < 0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p < 0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p < 0.038) and poultry (p < 0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p < 0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p < 0.001), red meat (p < 0.001) and white and oily fish (p < 0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p < 0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health

  10. Analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sediments by GC/ECD generated by nuclide 63Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Katia A.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Bustillos, José O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation. Besides, POPs bioaccumulation with potential significant impacts on human health and the environment. The Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) under the Stockholm Convention on POPs is a program that enables collection of comparable monitoring data from all regions of the world to assess the effectiveness in minimizing human and environmental exposure to POPs. The scope of this work is to develop and validate a method for the extraction and determination of POPs in sediments collected at Billings dam locate in São Paulo Metropolitan City. The compounds studied in this work are: Aldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 ), DDD (C 14 H 10 C l4 ), DDE (C 14 H 8 Cl l4) , DDT (C 14 H 9 C l5 ), Dieldrin (C 12 H 8 C l6 O), Endrin (C 12 H 8 Cl 6 O) and Heptachlor (C 10 H 5 C l7 ). This work use the QuEChERS extraction method (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) for sediment samples and the analysis of the compounds were carried out by gas chromatography with the electron capture detector (GC/ECD). The ECD detector ionizes the analytes by the beta particles from the nuclide sources 63 Ni within carrier gas N 2 . The electrons produced in this process are collected, create an amplified current, and generating the chromatographic peak. The recovery of this method obtained values between 57% and 65% and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values are between 1 and 4%. Details of the analytical method beside quantitative analyses data are presented in this work. (author)

  11. Pollution of Persistent Organic Pollutants Compound at Several Rivers in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi-Ratnaningsih; Netty-Widayati; Heni-P; Yusfeni-S

    2001-01-01

    In June-August 2001, the environment pollution of Persistent Organic Pollutant (hereafter Pops) were surveyed at five locations in Indonesia. Water and sediments were collected from the River at Jakarta-Bogor, Lampung, Padang, Bali and Medan. In additional soil sample were also collected. Pops in those samples were extracted by organic solvent, cleaned-up by florisil and analyzed by Gcms. The target compounds for analysis are γ-BHC (Lindane), Aldrin, Heptachlor, o,p-Dde, p,p-Dde, Endrin, o,p-Ddd, p,p-Ddd, o,p-DDT, p,p-DDT and Metoxichlor. The objective the survey is to identify the current level of Pops pollutant in several rivers and soil in Indonesia. The result indicates that several Pop compounds were detected in river water, sediment and soil with the value respectively around nd ∼ 97 ppt ; nd ∼ 180 ppb and nd ∼ 179 ppb. The highest concentration of Pop compound in the sediment sample was detected in Medan (metoxichlor : 180 ppb) followed by o,p-Ddd (100 ppb) and for soil sample was o,p-Dde (179 ppb). In river water the highest concentration was detected in Bali ((metoxichlor : 97 ppt) followed by o,p-Ddd (82 ppt) and p,p-Dde (77 ppt). Both o,p-Ddd and p,p-Dde were detected in Medan. Medan is seem to be more polluted compared with other locations. This result is make out necessity for continuously monitoring on Pops pollution in Indonesia. (author)

  12. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M. [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A. [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  13. Protective role of antioxidants capacity of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract against mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs)-induced hepatic toxicity in mice liver: biomarkers and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Moneam, Nehad M; Shreadah, Mohamed A; El-Assar, Samy A; Nabil-Adam, Asmaa

    2017-09-01

    The current study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract against POPs intoxication on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in mice liver tissue. In the present study, the mice BALB/C were assigned into four groups: group I: received saline subcutaneously for 7 days and served as negative control; group II: received subcutaneously for 7 days, 130.6 mg/100 g/b. w/day POPs mixture(mixture of PCB 28, PCB 52,, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180, alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-Hexachloro-cyclohexane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, Aldrin, O,P'-DDE, Dieldrin, P,p DDE, O,P DDD, Endrin, P,p DDD and P,pDDT were extracted from sediments collected from Lake Mariout), and served as induced group; group III: pretreated with Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract for 7 days, as a protection dose and then treated with POPs as group II and served as protective group; and group IV: received i.p Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract of dose 0.7 mg/100 g b.wt/day for 7 days and served as positive control. After 7 days (experimental period), mice were scarified and the liver was harvested for biochemical estimation. Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (p antioxidant biomarkers levels were significantly increase as the hepatic GSH and GST increased by 69.9 and 89.9%, respectively. Such increase was accompanied by a decrease in tyrosine kinase activity by 59.82%, additionally remarkable histopathological changes in liver tissue indicate the protective effect of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract. The results of this study revealed that the Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract has the potential to diminish the destructive effect of POPs intoxication through enhancement of the endogenous antioxidant status. The hepatoprotective activity of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract is mediated, by the antioxidant effect of its active constituents. The active constituents of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract were

  14. Determination of levels of organochlorine pesticides in plastic resin pellets on selected beaches in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoatey, A. E.

    2012-07-01

    The levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in beached plastic resin pellets were determined with the objective of assessing the status of OCP pollution in the marine ecosystem in selected beaches in Ghana. Samples of plastic resin pellets were collected at seven beaches in Accra (namely Art centre, Sakumono, Osu castle, Labadi, Korle-Gonno, Independence Square and Tema Mighty beaches) and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, total chlorine and extractable chlorine. The plastic pellets were subjected to Soxhlet extraction and the extracts analyzed using Gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture detector. The detected compounds were alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, hexachlorobenzene, o, p' -DDE, p, p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, heptachlor, trans-heptachlor epoxy, trans-chlordane, trans-nanochlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, alpha-endosulphan, beta-endosulphan, endosulphan sulphate and methoxychlor. Analysis of the virgin pellets recorded no organochlorine pesticides present. However, plastics pellets collected from all seven beaches were found to contain OCPs with the highest recorded on the Art Centre beach with a total concentration of 106.26 ng/g. Plastic pellets collected on the Labadi beach recorded the lowest OCPs with a concentration of 20.2 ng/g. Total chlorine and extractable organochlorine (EOCI) were also determined in the plastic resin pellets by using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The concentrations of total chlorine analyzed by INAA were between 2.82 and 50.25 mg/kg whereas the EOCR concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 30.90 mg/kg. EOCR accounted for 48.05% of the total chlorine in plastic pellets, suggesting that chlorine in the beached pellet relatively existed as organic and are extractable. The relative proportion of known or identified organochlorines (such as HCHs, DDT s, chlordane compounds, endosulphans, HCB and methoxychlor) to the total extractable organochlorine(EOCI) was averagely 7.4% which suggested

  15. World economics for mankind's frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Edward R.

    2007-04-01

    In Acta Astronautica, Vol. 56, No. 5, March 2006, at ISSN0094-5765 there appears the article entitled “Will space actually be the Final Frontier of humankind?” written by Giancarlo Genta, and Michael Rycroft. This Acta Astronautica article requires amplification on the economic side. The writer of this article was personally present at the Apollo 11th launchings for the first landing on the Moon, by Buzz Aldrin and others. The Apollo 11 take off to the Moon, from Cape Carnival, did not leave the situation “so humankind seems forever to be bound to its own planet!” There was nothing pessimistic about the launch of Apollo 11. It is written that there was a lack of vision at that time, which is also not correct. The ‘Final Frontier’ myth was never mentioned on that occasion. At Apollo 11 we did take planet earth's “first faltering step for mankind” on the path towards a space faring civilization, exactly as these two authors later correctly mention. Now with the US Presidential initiatives “Moon, Mars and Beyond,” the authors suggested that it “will depend on social, political and economic issues rather than technological and scientific ones.” This Academy Note respectfully submits that all of these factors social, political and economic issues, plus psychological and scientific ones, instead of, “rather than technical and scientific ones” are going to be the determining factors of the speed of progress of the exploration of the entire universe, and particularly the sun in our Milky Way Galaxy. Russia and Ukraine are now on same, deep-space policy directions. The attention of the readers of this Academy Note is called to the current “Cosmic Collision” excellent presentation at the Hayden Planetarium, located at the Museum of National History in the City of New York. It shows the past, the present and the future of international humankind in exploring space and the creation of the universe, with particular reference to the protons of our

  16. Water-quality study of Tulpehocken Creek, Berks County, Pennsylvania, prior to impoundment of Blue Marsh Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Blue Marsh Lake is planned as a multipurpose impoundment to be constructed on Tulpehocken Creek near Bernville, Berks County, Pennsylvania. Prior to construction, samples of water, bed material, and soil were collected throughout the impoundment site to determine concentrations of nutrients, insecticides, trace metals, suspended sediment, and bacteria. Analyses of water suggest the Tulpehocken Creek basin to be a highly fertile environment. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations near the proposed dam site had median values of 4.5 and 0.13 mg/L, respectively. Suspended sediment discharges average between 100 and 200 tons (90.7 to 181.4 metric tons) per day during normal flows but may exceed 10,000 tons (9,070 metric tons) per day during storm runoff. Highest yields were measured during winter and early spring. Concentrations range from 3 mg/L to more than 500 mg/L. Bed material samples contain trace quantities of aldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, dieldrin, and chlordane. Polychlorinated biphyenyls (PCB's) ranged from 10 to 100 μg/kg. Soils at the impoundment site are of average fertility. However, the silt loam texture is ideal for attachment and growth of aquatic plants. Bacteria populations indicative of recent fecal contamination are prevalent in the major inflows to the proposed lake. Fecal Coliform exceeded the standards recommended by the Federal Water Pollution Administration Committee on Water Quality Criteria for public water supply in 29 percent of the monthly samples, and exceeded the recommended public bathing waters standard in 83 percent of the samples collected from June to September. Arsenic from an industrial waste was found in the water, suspended sediment, and bed material of Tulpehocken Creek in concentrations of 0 to 30 μg/l, 2 to 879 μg/l, and 1 to 79 μg/g, respectively. It represents a potential environmental hazard; however, the measured concentrations are less than that known to be harmful to man, fish, or wildlife, according to published water

  17. Chlorinated organic compounds in aquatic biological resources of the Baltic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubova O. L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying dependencies of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in the liver and muscles of the main commercial fish species of the Baltic Sea (sprat, herring, cod, flounder, the Vistula and the Curonian Bay (pike-perch, bream, roach on the fishing area, season and fish species have been considered. Determination of PCBs and pesticides has been carried out in accordance with MVI MN 2352–2005 "Method for simultaneous determination of residual amounts of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in fish and fish products by gas-liquid chromatography". Separation, identification and quantification have been performed by the gas chromatography Varian 3400 on the DB-1701 column, 30 m  0.25 mm  0.25 m, the column temperature 150–250 °C, the detector one – 300 °C. Identification and quantification have been performed by retention time of individual PCB congeners by the internal standard. The content of PCBs in liver of the Curonian and Vistula Bays fish is much lower than in liver of aquatic biological resources (ABR of the Baltic Sea. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are accumulated more intensively in liver of fish caught in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. β-HCH and γ-HCH prevail in the liver and muscle tissue of ABR samples as individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The all three isomers of HCH are present in cod liver. Accumulation ratio in cod liver compared to that in the muscle tissue content reaches 7-8 units HCH for isomers, and for DDT and metabolites – 10-12 units. It has been proposed that the secondary admission of HCH in the aquatic environment and in ABG (delivery from sediments takes place. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor and aldrin are present in the Baltic Sea ABR in quantities below the detection limit used in the analysis methods. In spring and summer, there is an increased level of HCH and DDT in

  18. PENETAPAN RESIDU DAN PERKIRAAN PENETAPAN BATAS MAKSIMUM RESIDU (BMR ORGANOKLORIN PADA SIMPLISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Isnawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaaan bahan obat tradisional (simplisia untuk skala industri dan peningkatan produksi tanaman obat dalam skala besar menjadi tidak ekonomis tanpa pestisida. Disatu sisi penggunaan pestisida dapat menguntungkan yaitu menyebabkan toksis pada hama namun disisi lain toksisitas dapat terjadi juga pada manusia, sehingga residu pestisida dalam tanaman obat yang dikonsumsi dalam jangka panjang akan merugikan kesehatan. Batas maksimum Residu (BMR pestisida dalam simplisia baik di Indonesia maupun di negara lain belum ditetapkan. Sehingga untuk itu untuk mengetahui adanya residu pestisida jenis organoklorin yang telah dilarang penggunaannya melalui Permentan No.434.1/kpts/TP.270/7/2001 dan untuk mengetahui batas keamanannya, maka perlu dilakukan penetapan residu organoklorin dalam simplisia dan menetapkan batas keamanan berdasarkan perhitungan secara teoritis. Pengujian residu dilakukan terhadap golongan pestisida organoklorin pada 4 jenis simplisia (daun wungu (Graptophyllum pictum (L Grifl, daun sambiloto Andrographis paniculata Ness, herba pegagan (Centella  asiatica (L Urban, daun tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis (L yang berasal dari 3 lokasi penanaman, yaitu : perkebunan Tanaman Obat Manako (Jawa Barat, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat Tawangmangu (BPTO di Jawa Tengah dan Perkebunan Tanaman Obat Purwodadi (Jawa Timur. Pemeriksaan residu pestisida organoklorin menggunakan kromatografi gas dan perhitungan batas keamanan dihitung dengan adanya nilai ADI (Acceptable daily intake yang telah ditetapkan bersama antara JAO dan WHO serta perkiraan banyaknya konsumsi simplisia. Hasil Pengujian residu pestisida organoklorin diperoleh bahwa simplisia daun Wungu (Tawangmangu mengandung residu lindan dengan kadar 0,24 mg/kg, pegagan (Purwodadi, mengandung lindan 0,36 mg/kg dan aldrin 0,31 mg/kg serta pegagan (Manako mengandung heptaklor 0,15 mg/kg dan op-DDE 0,11 mg/kg. Adapun penghitungan BMR heptaklor dan lindan secara teoritis dengan asumsi rata

  19. Multiresidue levels of pesticides in selected fruits in Ghana; a preliminary study in the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krokroko, W.

    2011-01-01

    Locally produced fruits (mango, pineapple and banana) were sampled and purchased from farms and markets with the Yilo and Lower Manya Krobo districts and analyzed for pesticide residues by gas chromatography equipped with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). In all, 80 samples made up of 40 mango samples and 20 samples each of pineapples and bananas were extracted and analyzed for mainly organochlorine residues (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, dieldein, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, endosulfan s, p, p'-DDE etc.) and synthetic pyrethroid residues (allethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin, etc.). Analysis indicates that about 88% of the mangoes sampled from the farms contained one or more of these pesticide residues. 75% and 65% of the pineapples and bananas respectively from farms and markets had one or more of the analyzed pesticide residues. The data revealed that about 6.2% of the fruit samples analyzed contained organochlorine pesticide residues of γ-HCH (0.013mg/kg and 0.038mg/kg respectively in mangoes and pineapples); δ-HCH [0.014mg/kg (mango) and 0.024mg/kg (pineapple)]; methoxychlor [0.027 mg/kg (mango) and 0.048mg/kg (pineapple)]. Synthetic pyrethoid residues of cyfluthrin [0.078mg/kg (mango) and 0.059 mg/kg (pineapple) and fenvalerate [0.025 mg/kg and 0.028 mg/kg respectively for mango and pineapple] were also found above their respective maximum residue limits (Table 4.8) whereas 78.2% of detected pesticide residues were below the MRLs. Nonetheless, the continuous consumption of these fruits with even the modest pesticide levels can result in accumulation that could result in deadly chronic effects. In assessing the consumers' perception of pesticide residues in fruits, about 69% of the respondents were aware of pesticide residues in fruits and the corresponding adverse effect on human health. Some have experienced pesticide poising after fruit consumption. Thus many wish pesticide usage in fruit and crop cultivation in general is curbed or

  20. Una deuda del pasado: efectos de los organoclorados en trabajadores del programa de control de vectores - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeadran N. Malagón-Rojas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En Colombia se supone no se usan organoclorados debido a la ratificación de la Convención de Estocolmo y el Convenio de Rotterdam, que prohíben el uso de este tipo de sustancias. Objetivo: Evaluar la exposición a plaguicidas organoclorados empleados en salud publica en la población trabajadora del programa de control de vectores en Colombia en 2013. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en el grupo de trabajadores del programa de control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores. A todos los participantes se aplicó un cuestionario estandarizado para recolectar variables sociodemográficas, ocupacionales, clínicas y toxicológicas. Se determinaron los niveles de 13 organoclorados en suero mediante cromatografía de gases en el Instituto Nacional de Salud de Colombia. Resultados: El reporte de manipulación de insecticidas organoclorados fue del 39,1%. El 100% de los trabajadores que usaron organoclorados refirieron el uso DDT. El 7,5% refirieron el uso de Aldrin. El 100% de los trabajadores refirió ausencia de elementos de protección individual durante la manipulación de clorados. Los organoclorados con niveles más altos fueron 4,4- DDT y α -HCH. Los síntomas de mayor presentación fueron: cefalea 28,7%, mareo 29,9%, disminución de fuerza en miembros superiores 17,2% y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos 24%. Se encontró una asociación entre la exposición laboral a DDT y síntomas neuropsiquiátricos. Conclusiones: El promedio de DDT en sangre de los trabajadores en Colombia son superiores a los reportados en la literatura. Los hallazgos de síntomas neuropsiquiátricos y la exposición laboral a organoclorados concuerdan con los reportes de la literatura.

  1. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  2. Water-gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides at Lake Chaohu, a large Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hui-Ling; He, Wei; Qin, Ning; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; He, Qi-Shuang; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Wang, Qing-Mei; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2013-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a potential threat to ecosystems and human health, are still widely residual in the environment. The residual levels of OCPs in the water and gas phase were monitored in Lake Chaohu, a large Chinese lake, from March 2010 to February 2011. Nineteen types of OCPs were detected in the water with a total concentration of 7.27 ± 3.32 ng/l. Aldrin, DDTs and HCHs were the major OCPs in the water, accounting for 38.3%, 28.9% and 23.6% of the total, respectively. The highest mean concentration (12.32 ng/l) in the water was found in September, while the lowest (1.74 ng/l) was found in November. Twenty types of gaseous OCPs were detected in the atmosphere with a total concentration of 542.0 ± 636.5 pg/m(3). Endosulfan, DDTs and chlordane were the major gaseous OCPs in the atmosphere, accounting for 48.9%, 22.5% and 14.4% of the total, respectively. The mean concentration of gaseous OCPs was significantly higher in summer than in winter. o,p'-DDE was the main metabolite of DDT in both the water and gas phase. Of the HCHs, 52.3% existed as β-HCH in the water, while α-HCH (37.9%) and γ-HCH (30.9%) were dominant isomers in the gas phase. The average fluxes were -21.11, -3.30, -152.41, -35.50 and -1314.15 ng/(m(2) day) for α-HCH, γ-HCH, HCB, DDT and DDE, respectively. The water-gas exchanges of the five types of OCPs indicate that water was the main potential source of gaseous OCPs in the atmosphere. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the water-gas flux of α-HCH, γ-HCH and DDT is more vulnerable than that of HCB and DDE to the variation of the parameters. The possible source of the HCHs in the water was from the historical usage of lindane; however, that in the air was mainly from the recent usage of lindane. The technical DDT and dicofol might be the source of DDTs in the water and air.

  3. Grau de exposição a praguicidas organoclorados em moradores de aterro a céu aberto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Santos Filho

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o grau de exposição interna aos praguicidas organoclorados (POP dos moradores de um atêrro a céu aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de aferição simultânea e controlado, cujo fator de estudo foi residir em área contaminada por POP e o efeito foi a concentração sanguínea dessas substâncias. A população de estudo foi de 238 pessoas residentes em um aterro a céu aberto (Pilões, no município de Cubatão, SP; e a população de controle ficou dimensionada em 258 pessoas, também residentes no mesmo município (Cota 200. Foram analisados os praguicidas HCB, p-p'DDT, p-p'DDE, p-p'DDD, o-p'DDT, a HCH; b HCH; g HCH; Aldrin; Dieldrin; Endrin; Heptaclor; Heptaclor-epoxi e Mirex. RESULTADOS: Os teores médios sangüíneos de HCB em Pilões foram de 4,66 µg/L, 155 vezes maior que a média na Cota 200 (0,03 µg/L. Em Pilões, os teores médios de DDT total foram de 3,71 µg/L, duas vezes maior do que na Cota 200 (1,85 µg/L e o HCH total apresentou concentrações sangüíneas seis vezes maiores em Pilões, 0,84 µg/L, contra 0,13 µg/L. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se associação positiva entre residir em Pilões e apresentar teores sangüíneos de POP, com risco muitas vezes maior quando comparado a localidades sem a presença desses contaminantes.

  4. Grau de exposição a praguicidas organoclorados em moradores de aterro a céu aberto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Filho Eladio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o grau de exposição interna aos praguicidas organoclorados (POP dos moradores de um atêrro a céu aberto. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de aferição simultânea e controlado, cujo fator de estudo foi residir em área contaminada por POP e o efeito foi a concentração sanguínea dessas substâncias. A população de estudo foi de 238 pessoas residentes em um aterro a céu aberto (Pilões, no município de Cubatão, SP; e a população de controle ficou dimensionada em 258 pessoas, também residentes no mesmo município (Cota 200. Foram analisados os praguicidas HCB, p-p'DDT, p-p'DDE, p-p'DDD, o-p'DDT, a HCH; b HCH; g HCH; Aldrin; Dieldrin; Endrin; Heptaclor; Heptaclor-epoxi e Mirex. RESULTADOS: Os teores médios sangüíneos de HCB em Pilões foram de 4,66 µg/L, 155 vezes maior que a média na Cota 200 (0,03 µg/L. Em Pilões, os teores médios de DDT total foram de 3,71 µg/L, duas vezes maior do que na Cota 200 (1,85 µg/L e o HCH total apresentou concentrações sangüíneas seis vezes maiores em Pilões, 0,84 µg/L, contra 0,13 µg/L. CONCLUSÕES: Evidenciou-se associação positiva entre residir em Pilões e apresentar teores sangüíneos de POP, com risco muitas vezes maior quando comparado a localidades sem a presença desses contaminantes.

  5. Desarrollo de un método analítico para la determinación de plaguicidas organoclorados como modificación de la NOM-021-ZOO-1995 Desarrollo de un método analítico para la determinación de plaguicidas organoclorados como modificación de la NOM-021-ZOO-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sánchez López

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed with a GC/PTV/EI/MSMS system designed for the detection and quantification of 21 organochlorine pesticides in bovine fat: α-BHC, γ-BHC (lindane, β-BHC, δ-BHC, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Heptachlor epoxide, γ-chlordane, α-chlordane, Endosulfan I, p,p’- DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, Endosulfan II, p,p’-DDD, Endrin aldehyde, p,p’-DDT, Endosulfan sulfate, Methoxychlor and Mirex, as a proposal for technological improvement in complying with the Mexican Official Norm NOM-004-ZOO-1994 based on the extraction methodology specified in the Mexican Official Norm NOM-021-ZOO-1995. A Gas Chromatography system was used with an ion trap analyzer and an automatic flow controller in the MS system’s hardware. Increasing the pressure inside the ion trap with high helium flows to optimize the selection of the precursor ion for each pesticide, and amplifying the signals of the product ions, achieved measurements of MSMS with sensitivity values superior to those of electronic capture detectors (ECD, provided correlation coefficient values of ≥0,990, and recovery values in bovine fat of between 60 % and 120 %, thus satisfying the requirements demanded by the Mexican Official Norm. Se desarrolló un nuevo método con un sistema GC/PTV/EI/MSMS, orientado a la detección y cuantificación de 21 plaguicidas organoclorados en grasa de ganado bovino: α-BHC, γ-BHC (lindano, β-BHC, δ-BHC, Heptacloro, Aldrín, Heptacloro epóxido, γ-clordano, α-clordano, Endosulfan I, p,p’-DDE, Diedrín, Endrín, Endosulfan II, p,p’-DDD, Endrín aldehído, p,p’-DDT, Endosulfan sulfato, Metoxicloro y Mirex, como una propuesta de mejora tecnológica, para el cumplimiento de la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-004-ZOO-1994 basándose en la metodología de extracción según la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-021-ZOO-1995. Se utilizó un sistema de cromatografía gaseosa con analizador de trampa de iones, con un controlador automático de flujo en el espectrómetro de

  6. Some of the ball lightning observations could be phosphenes induced by energetic radiation from thunderstorms and lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. K.; Cooray, G. V.; Dwyer, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Ball Lightning was seen and described since antiquity and recorded in many places. However, so far no one has managed to generate them in the laboratory. It is possible that many different phenomena are grouped together and categorized simply as ball lightning. One such phenomenon could be the phosphenes induced in humans by energetic radiation and particles from lightning and thunderstorms. A phosphene is a visual sensation that is characterized by perceiving luminous phenomena without light entering the eye. Phosphenes are generated when electrical signals are created in the retina or the optical nerve by other means in the absence of light stimuli. The fact that energetic radiation produced by radium can give rise to phosphenes was first noted by Giesel in 1899 [1]. A resurge of studies related to the creation of phosphenes by energetic radiation took place after the reports of phosphenes observed in space by Apollo astronauts and first reported by Buzz Aldrin after the Apollo 11 flight to the moon in 1969 [2]. The shapes of the phosphenes observed by astronauts were either rods, comet shaped, or comprised of a single dot, several dots or blobs. The colors were mostly white, but some had been colored yellow, orange, blue, green or red. The majority of the astronauts had perceived some kind of motion in association with the phosphenes. Most of the time, they were moving horizontally (from the periphery of the vision to the center) and sometimes diagonally, but never vertically. Subsequent studies conducted in space and ground confirmed the creation of phosphenes by energetic radiation. From these studies the threshold energy dissipation in the eye tissue necessary for phosphenes induction was estimated to be 10 MeV/cm. In the present study a quantitative analysis of the energetic radiation generated in the form of X-rays, Gamma rays and relativistic electrons by thunderstorms and lightning was made to investigate whether this radiation is strong enough to induce

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on some materials used in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokker, H. H. El-Sayed.

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of wastewaters containing toxic pesticides poses a serious environmental problem. Many of the pesticides are not readily biodegradable and complete removal in many cases is a relatively expensive provess. On the other hand incomplete removal is a serious health hazard. Ionizing radiations proved to be more effective for the treatment of these wastewater than ordinary conventional methods. In the present study a try was made to explain the degradation kineti s due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some active ingredient pesticides in the absence of other specific pollutants. These pesticides are: two organophosphorous pesticides; dimethoate and sunithion; two organochlorine pesticides: Aldrin and DDT, one carbamate pesticide; applaud. Also, a chlorimated fungicide: Chlorothalonil; and triazing herbicide: Ametryn. A combined treatment of gamma irradiationand conventional methods will be applied to some concentrated waste solutions in manageable volumes. Factors affecting the radiolysis of pesticides such as pesticide concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions will be studied. The effect of different additives such as nitrogen and oxygen on the degradation process were investigated. Experiments on the adsorption of pesticides on some polymeric materials and on activated carbon were carried out. The results may be summarized as follows: 1- The effect of irradiation dose in Gy on the different pesticide solutions all an initial concentration 5 mg/1 showed that chlorothalonil was almost completely destroyed at dose of 10kGy, while dimethoate, sunithion, DDT and applaud insecticides were degraded to lesser extent. 2- The pH influence has proved to vary according to the type of the pesticide. 3-Synergistic treatment of the pesticide solutions by irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of the pesticide solutions with nitrogen enhanced the radiation degradation of these pesticides to a better extent than when

  8. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Kennedy, S W; Lorenzen, A

    1997-05-01

    porphyrins in kestrels. APND and aldrin epoxidase (AE) were induced; EROD was not induced, although a hepatic CYP1A-like protein was detected in 1 kestrel dosed for 12 wk. Chronic exposure of quail to Aroclor 1254 caused highly significant increases in mean hepatic porphyrin levels and in activity of EROD, APND, and 4-chlorobiphenyl hydroxylase; a CYP1A-like protein was also induced about 200-fold. In both studies, Aroclor 1254 residues accumulated in tissues of both species, but there was no significant relationship between residue levels and effects. In conclusion, adult American kestrels were relatively insensitive to the effects of PCBs, from both acute and chronic exposure, on hepatic and renal porphyrin levels. Although concentrations of a CYP1A-like protein were increased in some kestrels given PCBs, EROD activity was only marginally increased, suggesting that catalytic activity of this protein differed among the two species.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides in fish, water and sediments in the middle Volta Basin: a case study of Kpando Torkor lake, Volta Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gbeddy, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    The levels of contamination with selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water, sediment, and two commonly harvested fish species namely Tilapia zilli and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Kpando Torkor Lake were determined. This was to give the general picture of the extent of contamination of these matrices with OCPs and also assess the suitability of the water and fish catch for human consumption. Organochlorine pesticides residues in water samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction whilst Soxhlet was used in the case of fish and sediment samples. All extracts were cleaned-up using packed columns and then analyzed using Gas chromatography equipped with 63 Ni electron-capture detector (ECD). Fifteen organochlorine pesticide residues namely β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, Heptachlor, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, γ-Chlordane, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Endosulfan sulphate and Methoxychlor were investigated in this study. Thirteen of them excluding γ-HCH and Endrin were detected in sediment and fish samples at concentrations ranging from below the level of quantification (LOQ) to 37.75ng/g wet weight, and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 100%. Twelve of them excluding p,p'-DDT, -HCH and Endrin were however, measured in water samples with concentrations ranging from below LOQ to 0.669μg/L and occurrence frequencies ranging from 14 to 29%. γ-HCH and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected residues in all samples analyzed with an average percentage frequency of 85.8, followed by Endosulfan sulphate (83.0%) and β-HCH (80.0%) among others. In consonance with their properties, organochlorine pesticide residues measured in fish samples were higher than those of sediment samples. Even though, the fat content of catfish muscle (10.24%) was higher than tilapia muscle (2.80%), the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in tilapia tissues were however, higher than that of catfish. For instance, the levels of β-HCH in

  10. Substances toxiques persistantes (PTS dans les corps gras : État des lieux d’après le rapport du programme des Nations-Unies pour l’environnement (PNUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbonne Jean François

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plus de trente ans, une attention croissante a été portée sur les risques pour la santé humaine posés par la contamination de l’environnement par les substances toxiques persistantes (PTS. Ces composés persistent pendant de longues périodes dans les compartiments abiotiques et biotiques, sont transportés sur de longues distances depuis leurs points sources et s’accumulent chez l’homme et les organismes via les chaînes alimentaires. En 1997, le PNUE propose une liste initiale de 12 substances appelées polluants organiques persistants (POPs : aldrine, endrine, dieldrine, chordane, DDT, heptachlore, toxaphène, mirex, hexachlorobenzène, PCBs, dioxines (PCDDs, furanes (PCDFs. En 2001, de nouveaux composés sont ajoutés sur la liste des PTS en fonction de leurs caractéristiques comme la liposolubilité, leur résistance à la dégradation, leur forte toxicité ou la constance des apports : hexachlorohexane, PAHs, endosulfan, pentachlorophénol, formes organiques des métaux lourds : mercure, étain et plomb, phtalates, PBDEs\\\\PBBs, chlordécone, alkyl phénols, atrazine. Les sources de PTS sont diverses : (1 Utilisation de produits chimiques industriels comme les pesticides ou les emballages, (2 Réservoirs historiques déjà présents dans l’environnement essentiellement dans les sols et les sédiments ou sous forme de stocks périmés, (3 Sous-produits de process, en particulier comme contaminants indésirables de procédés industriels et de combustion. La France a été associée au rapport de la région IV méditerranéenne. Les niveaux dans les compartiments de l’environnement sont rapportés et l’exposition de l’homme via l’alimentation (vecteur essentiel est estimée en fonction des données collectées. Une évaluation des risques associés a été faite quand les données étaient suffisantes (PAHs, PCBs, PCDD\\\\F, Me Hg. Les lipides apparaissent comme vecteurs majeurs des PTS à travers la cha

  11. Bafa Gölü'nde biyotik ve abiyotik ortamda pestisit ve pcb dağılımı.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İdil Pazı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Çalışma kapsamında Bafa Gölü’nden alınan sediment ve kefal balığı (Mugil cephalus, Linnaeus 1758 örneklerinde tarımsal pestisit ve endüstriyel kaynaklı PCB gibi organik kirleticilerin kalıntıları ölçülmüş ve bu bileşiklerin dağılımları, muhtemel kaynakları ve potansiyel biyolojik riskleri incelenmiştir. DDT ve türevleri açısından dünyanın farklı bölgelerindeki göllerin yüzey sedimentleri ile kıyaslandığında Bafa Gölü sedimentlerinde DDT kirlilik seviyesinin oldukça düşük olduğu bulunmuştur. Sedimentte Endrin baskın kirletici olarak belirlenmiştir. Sediment örneklerinde ölçülen DDT ve metabolitleri, Dieldrin, Lindan ve Heptaklor konsantrasyonları sediment kalite indekslerine göre değerlendirildiğinde, kirleticilerin göldeki canlı yaşamına olumsuz bir etkisinin olmadığı belirlenmiştir. ∑PCB konsantrasyonlarının ise göl kıyısında bulunan endüstriyel kuruluşlara yakın istasyonlarda sadece düşük değerli etki sevisini aşıp, diğer tüm istasyonlarda canlılar için risk yaratmayacağı belirlenmiştir. Mugil cephalus karaciğer dokusu için hesaplanan biyota sediment akümülasyon faktörü (BSAF 0.44-3.16 arasında değişmektedir. Bafa Gölü Mugil cephalus örneklerinde ölçülen kirletici konsantrasyonları dikkate alındığında Gıda ve Tarım Kurumu (FAO ve Dünya Sağlık Örgütüne (WHO göre Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptaklor ve DDT türevleri için hesaplanan Günlük Alım Miktarı değerlerinin (EDI Kabul Edilebilir Günlük Alım miktarlarının (ADI oldukça altında kaldığı belirlenmiştir. Ancak, balık örneklerindeki PCB seviyelerinin WHO tarafından belirlenen ADI değerini aştığı saptanmıştır

  12. Breve Estudio Biológico del Predator Coleomejilla Maculata de Geer (Coleoptera -Coccinellidae en el Valle de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo V. Gilberto

    1958-09-01

    argillacea, Sacadodes pyralis, etc. Respecto a la población de insectos podemos establecer dos épocas: Una de menor abundancia del insecto que abarca los meses de Junio, Julio y Agosto; y otra de mayor abundancia comprendida en los restantes meses del año, correspondiendo a las épocas de verano y tiempo lluvioso respectivamente. Así hemos estimado por 13 recolecciones efectuadas: Durante los meses de Marzo a Diciembre de 1956; en la época de menor abundancia una población de 2.857 especímenes adultos por hectárea y en 25.000 adultos por hectárea para la época de mayor abundancia. En cuanto al comportamiento del C. maculata a los insecticidas, Campbell y Hutchins (1952 realizaron experimentos en el laboratorio y en el campo con los siguientes insecticidas: Aldrin, Chlordano, Compounds 269, 711, 923, DDT, Dieldrin, EPN, Heptachlor, Parathion, Toxafeno y Arseniato de Calcio. Todos los insecticidas redujeron los predatores; sin embargo el Compound 711 causó una baja mortalidad; el EPN y el Parathion causaron una considerable eliminación. En el campo el Dieldrin, el DDT y el Toxafeno ocasionaron bajas reducciones. El "Systox" ensayado por Ahmed y otros (1954 no destruyó los predatores que se alimentaron con áfidos envenenados por el producto.

  13. Sediment deposition and occurrence of selected nutrients and other chemical constituents in bottom sediment, Tuttle Creek Lake, Northeast Kansas, 1962-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K.E.; Mau, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    -effects levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Sediment concentrations of metals and trace elements were relatively uniform over time. Organochlorine compounds either were not detected or were detected at concentrations generally less than the threshold-effects levels. Following an initial positive trend, a statistically significant negative depositional trend was indicated for DDE (degradation product of DDT), which was consistent with the history of DDT use. Other organochlorine compounds detected included aldrin, DDD, and dieldrin. Notable changes in human activity within the basin included a substantial increase in the production of grain corn and soybeans from the 1960s to the 1990s. This increase in production was accompanied by a pronounced increase in the number of irrigated acres. Also, during the same time period, there was an overall increase in hog production. These changes in human activity have not had a discernible effect on the deposition of chemical constituents in the bottom sediment of Tuttle Creek Lake.

  14. Maternal transfer of emerging brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in European eels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sühring, Roxana, E-mail: roxana.suehring@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Freese, Marko [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, Mandy [Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Schubert, Sophia; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Alaee, Mehran [Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, L7R4A6 Canada (Canada); Wolschke, Hendrik [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Scharnhorststraße 1, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Hanel, Reinhold [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Marohn, Lasse [Thünen Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    biotransformation processes. Dechloranes seem to be of increasing relevance as contaminants in eels and are transferred to eggs. A change of the isomer pattern in comparison to the technical product of Dechlorane Plus (DP) was observed indicating a redistribution of DP from muscle tissue to gonads during silvering with a preference of the syn-isomer. The highly bioaccumulative DDC-DBF was the most abundant Dechlorane in all fish of the comparison group even though it is not produced or imported in the EU. The aldrin related “experimental flame retardant” dibromoaldrin (DBALD) was detected for the first time in the environment in similar or higher concentrations than DP. - Highlights: • Investigation of maternal transfer of halogenated flame retardants (HFR) in eels • Indication for metabolism or biotransformation of HFRs during maturation of eels • The syn Dechloran Plus isomer is preferably transferred into gonads and eggs • First detection of the experimental HFR dibromoaldrin in the environment.

  15. Obituary: Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Jr., 1909-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2003-12-01

    lunar photography from unmanned space vehicles. All the ground-based photographs in his book came from Lick Observatory, most of them taken by Moore and Fred Chappell, with whom he had worked. About 1979 he retired from Hood College and he and his wife moved to San Jose, near the home of their surviving son, Robert N. Cherrington. Ernest was always a good family man, devoted to his wife and children. I met Ernest at his home in San Jose and interviewed him several times in preparation for the Lick centennial in 1988; he had warm memories of Lick and the Berkeley Astronomical Department. In 1984 he had updated his book to "Exploring the Moon through Binoculars and Small Telescopes", with additional photographs from lunar orbiting vehicles and one taken by Neil Armstrong of Buzz Aldrin on the moon's surface. Ernest's wife Ann died in 1988 and he followed her eight years later. There are about one hundred letters to, from, or about Ernest, written in the years 1931 to 1948, in the Mary Lea Shane Archives of the Lick Observatory, McHenry Library, University of California. These letters, his published papers and book, and Perkins Observatory annual reports, together with information provided by Robert N. Cherrington and my own notes and memories of conversations with Ernest and Ann formed the basis of this obituary article.

  16. Contribución al Estudio de las Moscas Anastrephas en Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mendoza Rafael

    1952-11-01

    estado dañino (larva o en el estado perfecto (mosca, por estos simples detalles: a Los huevos y las larvas se encuentran dentro del fruto parasitado. b Los frutos parasitados no presentan orificios de entrada de las larvas. c Los frutos no se deforman, ni sufren daño alguno en su semilla. 20. La influencia de los distintos factores que, actúan sobre la vida del insecto a través de los distintos estados de su ciclo, pueden resumirse así: a Los niveles intermedios de humedad y temperatura son óptimos para la vida y desarrollo del insecto. b Los niveles fuertes de acidez son limitantes para la vida del huevo, la larva y la pupa. c La textura del suelo en asocio de la humedad determina la profundidad del empupamiento y la rapidez con que se efectúa el proceso. 21. Para controlar el insecto es preciso recurrir a la combinación de diversas prácticas de control artificial, cultural y biológico asesoradas por inteligente legislación al respecto. En forma aislada, cualquiera de los sistemas de control conocidos, parece inefectivo y puede rendir escasos beneficios. Esto se debe al carácter mismo de la plaga, particularmente en cuanto se refiere a su amplitud poligráfica, hábitos, y ocurrencia nacional. 22. Entre las prácticas de control artificial, el uso de insecticidas moderno, parece la más efectiva si bien, encierra algunos peligros, sobre todo en cuanto a la conservación de los recursos biológicos y el equilibrio faunístico de la población entomológica. Los experimentos conducidos revelan que los siguientes insecticidas : Chlordano al ½%, DDT al ½%" Metoxychlor al 0,01 %, Toxapheno al ½% , Aldrin al 0,0002%, Dieldrin al 0,0003%, y Pyrenone (Butóxido de piperonil y piretrinas al 0,25 % son altamente tóxicos para las moscas aplicados en forma de aspersión sobre el vegetal o adicionados al suelo en el momento del empupamiento, para impedir la formación de la pupa y la emersión normal de las moscas. 23. En cuanto a defensa