Sample records for aldicarb

  1. A New Hapten for Immunoassay of Aldicarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Feng ZHANG; Zhi Xian GAO; Qing Min ZHANG; Shu Gui DAI


    A new hapten, aldicarb oxime succinic ester (AOSE), was synthesized for immunoassay of aldicarb. It was conjugated to proteins by active ester method. Polyclonal antibody was raised against AOSE-BSA (bovine serum albumin) conjugate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that this antiserum had high affinity to aldicarb and can be used for sensitive and selective immunoassay of aldicarb.

  2. 77 FR 45535 - Aldicarb; Proposed Tolerance Actions (United States)


    ...; FRL-9355-8] RIN 2070-ZA16 Aldicarb; Proposed Tolerance Actions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to revoke certain tolerances for the... specific tolerances and make minor revisions to the tolerance expression for aldicarb. DATES: Comments...

  3. Nonlethal method for forensic evaluation of aldicarb exposure in wildlife. (United States)

    Cobb, G P; Harper, F D; Weisskopf, C P


    Forensic evaluation of aldicarb exposure is difficult due to the rapid hydrolysis and oxidation of the parent compound. Oxidation products-aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone-are commonly analyzed, but hydrolytic products-aldicarb nitrile, aldicarb nitrile sulfoxide, aldicarb nitrile sulfone-are infrequently analyzed even though they are the primary stable products of aldicarb degradation. Nitrile analyses provide an important avenue to verify aldicarb exposure or aldicarb-induced mortality. Our aproach allows lethal and sublethal exposure assessment. Extraction of samples with acetonitrile:water is followed by chromatographic determination. Sublethal exposure assessment utilizes excreta samples, which is nonlethal and requires holding animals in captivity for 12 h or less. Sublethal exposures of northern bobwhite Colinus virginianus to aldicarb can be identified with greater than 80% confidence for 6 h after dosing. By analyzing GI tracts, lethal exposures of bobwhite to aldicarb can be identified with greater than 90% confidence for 4 days post mortem and with 75% confidence for 8 days post mortem. Sublethal exposures to aldicarb was identified in greater than 80% of Peromyscus maniculatis for 6 h after dosing. Aldicarb and its transformation products were detected for 8 days post mortem in all mice that received aldicarb doses at or above the LD50.

  4. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin in the treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats : short communication

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    R.S. Verster


    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins are ring-shaped oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic exterior and a hydrophobic interior. The interior cavity is capable of complexing fat-soluble molecules small enough to fit inside. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the efficacy of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as treatment of aldicarb poisoning in rats. Survival times in the majority of rats dosed with aldicarb and receiving intravenous cyclodextrin were longer compared with the control rats only dosed with aldicarb per os.

  5. Poisoning of cats and dogs by the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran. (United States)

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; Yoshida, Alberto Soiti; Gonçalves-Junior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César


    The intentional and accidental poisoning of animals and people is a threat to public health and safety worldwide. Necropsies and histopathological examinations of 26 cats and 10 dogs poisoned by the carbamates aldicarb and carbofuran, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) were analysed, with variable post mortem interval and conservation of the carcass. Biological matrices were collected for toxicological and histopathological analyses. High performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) was utilized to detect aldicarb and its metabolites, aldicarb sulphoxide and aldicarb sulphone, and carbofuran. The variable post mortem interval and the method of conservation of the carcass may be harmful to toxicological, necroscopic and histopathological analyses, that should be performed in order to provide reliable evidences to investigate possible poisoning of animals, which is cruel crime, and are usually linked to domestic or social conflict.

  6. Effects of aldicarb and neonicotinoid seed treatments on twospotted spider mite on cotton. (United States)

    Smith, J F; Catchot, A L; Musser, F R; Gore, J


    Twelve field experiments and one laboratory experiment were conducted to determine the effects of furrow applied aldicarb and seed treatments of thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin), Aeris (imidacloprid + thiodicarb), and acephate on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L. For the field experiments, data were pooled across all experiments for analysis. Aeris, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid treatments resulted in twospotted spider mite densities greater than those in the untreated check, aldicarb, and acephate treatments. However, cotton treated with Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin) had 34% fewer mites than other neonicotinoid seed treatments when infestations occurred near cotyledon stage. Untreated check and aldicarb treatments had the lowest mite densities. Only aldicarb reduced mite densities below that in the untreated check. In a laboratory trial, the fecundity of twospotted spider mite was measured. While neonicotinoid seed treatments increased mite densities in the field, they did not increase fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Foliar applied thiamethoxam slightly elevated average fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Increased use of neonicotinoid seed treatments instead of furrow applied aldicarb is likely at least partly responsible for recent increased twospotted spider mite infestations in seedling cotton across the mid-south.

  7. Photochemical-chemiluminometric determination of aldicarb in a fully automated multicommutation based flow-assembly

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    Palomeque, M.; Garcia Bautista, J.A.; Catala Icardo, M.; Garcia Mateo, J.V.; Martinez Calatayud, J


    A sensitive and fully automated method for determination of aldicarb in technical formulations (Temik) and mineral waters is proposed. The automation of the flow-assembly is based on the multicommutation approach, which uses a set of solenoid valves acting as independent switchers. The operating cycle for obtaining a typical analytical transient signal can be easily programmed by means of a home-made software running in the Windows environment. The manifold is provided with a photoreactor consisting of a 150 cm long x 0.8 mm i.d. piece of PTFE tubing coiled around a 20 W low-pressure mercury lamp. The determination of aldicarb is performed on the basis of the iron(III) catalytic mineralization of the pesticide by UV irradiation (150 s), and the chemiluminescent (CL) behavior of the photodegradated pesticide in presence of potassium permanganate and quinine sulphate as sensitizer. UV irradiation of aldicarb turns the very week chemiluminescent pesticide into a strongly chemiluminescent photoproduct. The method is linear over the range 2.2-100.0 {mu}g l{sup -1} of aldicarb; the limit of detection is 0.069 {mu}g l{sup -1}; the reproducibility (as the R.S.D. of 20 peaks of a 24 {mu}g l{sup -1} solution) is 3.7% and the sample throughput is 17 h{sup -1}.

  8. 77 FR 27226 - Aldicarb; Cancellation Order for Amendments To Terminate Uses (United States)


    ..., TEMIK Brand 15G, containing aldicarb on citrus and potatoes effective immediately. The registrant also... interest to a wide range of stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates... Uses EPA Registration number Product name Uses deleted 264-333 TEMIK Brand 15G Citrus, Potatoes,...

  9. Comparison of 'Fayette' Soybean, Aldicarb, and Experimental Nematicides for Management of Heterodera glycines on Soybean. (United States)

    Noel, G R


    The efficacies of Heterodera glycines-resistant 'Fayene' soybean and aldicarb for managing H. glycines were compared to the experimental nematicides DS-47187 10F, DS-47357 10F, DS-48145 10F, DS-48165 10F, DS-46995 10F and 5G, and DS-38697 5G during 1981-83. Yield of Fayette was greater than yield of the H. glycines-susceptible cultivar treated with nematicide in 1981 and 1983. Yield of aldicarb-treated soybean was greater than yield of soybean treated with experimental nematicides in 1983. There were no yield differences in 1982. Fewer white females were recovered from Fayette 5 weeks after planting than from soybean treated with nematicides in 1981 and 1982, but not in 1983. Fewer white females were recovered from aldicarb-treated soybean than from experimental nematicide-treated soybean in 1983 but not in 1981 and 1982. In 1983 numbers of first generation white females at 5 weeks and the ratio of those white females to gravid cysts at planting were negatively correlated with soybean yield when soybean was severely damaged by the nematode, but the ratio of final eggs and second-stage juveniles to initial eggs and second-stage juveniles was not correlated with yield.

  10. Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density. (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B


    Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty.

  11. Cromatografia em camada delgada para o diagnóstico da intoxicação por aldicarb ("chumbinho" em cães e gatos Thin-layer chromatography for aldicarb poisoning diagnosis in dogs and cats

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    F.G. Xavier


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD como método de diagnóstico toxicológico para os casos de intoxicação por aldicarb em cães e gatos, utilizando-se 50 amostras de conteúdo gástrico obtidas durante a necropsia e 50 amostras de alimentos utilizados como iscas para intoxicar criminalmente os animais. Todas as amostras resultaram positivas para o aldicarb, mostrando ser a CCD uma técnica qualitativa eficiente, rápida e de baixo custo, com uso potencial na toxicologia veterinária forense.The present study concerns about the identification of aldicarb residues using thin-layer chromatography (TLC in 50 samples of gastric content obtained from the necropsy of dogs and cats and 50 samples of foods suspected of being used as baits. All samples resulted positive for aldicarb showing that the TLC is an efficient, fast and not expensive qualitative method for the detection of aldicarb, being useful for this purpose in the forensic veterinary toxicology.

  12. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho": aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos Aldicarb toxicology: general, clinic and therapeutic features in dogs and cats

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    Fabiana Galtarossa Xavier


    Full Text Available O aldicarb (Temik®, um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodinâmica, o diagnóstico e os aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos da intoxicação em cães e gatos.Aldicarb (Temik®, an anticholinesterase inhibitor of the carbamate group known as ‘chumbinho’, is one of the most toxic of registered pesticides, and has its use restricted to agriculture in Brazil. In spite of it, aldicarb is being very often involved in severe intoxication in humans and animals. It is largely and illegally sold as rodenticide and often used in baits for intentional poisoning of companion animals. Because of this the aldicarb toxicology was reviewed empathizing its chemical properties, toxicokinetic, toxicodynamic, diagnostic and the clinical and therapeutics aspects in dogs and cats.

  13. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay. (United States)

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J


    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (Pcarbofuran was detected at least 0.10 m deeper (Pcarbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This study illustrates the deeper transport of pesticides and their increased persistence when

  14. Death by chumbinho: aldicarb intoxication-regarding a corpse in decomposition. (United States)

    Durão, Carlos; Machado, Marcos P


    Chumbinho is the popular name given to carbamate aldicarb (Temik), an insecticide commonly used in agriculture and highly toxic (LD50 = 0.9 mg/kg oral in rats) that has been sold clandestinely in several regions of Brazil. Chumbinho is sold illegally as raticide and is available in a formulation of small black granules which are easily mixed with food for criminal purposes, its use often being attributed to accidents and suicides, hence the importance of its inclusion in the toxicology studies of suspicious deaths. With the corpse putrefaction, many pathological and toxicological anatomical parameters are damaged or lost. This study emphasizes the importance of the gastric content observation, which in this case has, despite the advanced putrefaction, recognized the presence of chumbinho and guide its toxicological confirmation.

  15. Mutagenic studies on the effect of Aldicarb "Temik" and vitamin C as antioxidant agent on the white rat:(Chromosomal aberrations and Micronucleus tests

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    Fatma M. Hamam* and Ihab H. Foda


    Full Text Available Widespread contamination of the environment due to increased and frequently indiscriminate usage of insecticides during the last two decades has aroused much concern over the possibility of their radiominetic effect. Evidence accumulating over the years emphasized the indisputable link between certain insecticides, chromosomal damage and possibility of gene mutation. There is a wide variety of insecticides, among which the carbamates. Their chemical relationship to ethyl carbamate makes them worthy of study for their possible deleterious effect on biological system. The main object of the present study is to evaluate the mutagenic effect of a carbamate insecticide" Aldicarb" alone and in combination of vitamin C as an antioxidant agent to decrease their mutagenicity. Male albino rats were tested orally for 48 hours , two doses of aldicarb were used in absence and in the presence of viamin C (1/4 and 1/10 LD50. The obtained data showed highly significant increase in the micronucleus (PCEM and in chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells at the two doses of aldicarb compared to control group. (P< 0.0001. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus decreased in rats treated with aldicarb and vitamin C than in aldicarb treated group. From these results we concluded that cytogenetic effect of aldicarb might be decreased by the usage of vitamin as an antioxidant agent.

  16. Effects of aldicarb and propoxur on cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in CHO-K1 cells. (United States)

    Maran, E; Fernández-Franzón, M; Font, G; Ruiz, M J


    Cytotoxic effects of aldicarb, its sulfone and sulfoxide, and propoxur, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells were determined. D,L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) was assayed to determine the role of GSH in the protection against carbamate cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment with 60 microM BSO, induced a significant decrease in the glutathione reductase (GR; 64-141%), the glutathione peroxidase (GPx; 10-30%) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST; 59-93%) activities, and its GSH levels (79-85%), while the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels significantly increased (64-78%) respect to experiment non-BSO-pretreated. Carbamates BSO pre-treated vs. non-BSO pre-treated showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production (from 13% to 52% vs. 25% to 93%). These data suggest that carbamates could injure CHO-K1 cells via oxidative stress by the increase of MDA production; moreover, BSO enhance the oxidative damage caused by carbamates. However, the glutathione system protects cells from carbamates damage.

  17. Intoxicación letal con aldicarb: análisis de sangre post mortem mediante LC-ESI-MS/MS

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    Diana Jazmín Mariño-Gaviria


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El aldicarb es un plaguicida carbamato de alta toxicidad asociado a intoxicaciones agudas fatales en el ser humano. Su mecanismo de acción consiste en la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa (AChE que ocasiona la acumulación del neurotransmisor acetilcolina en la hendidura sináptica. Esta acumulación provoca síntomas colinérgicos y, dependiendo de la dosis de exposición, puede paralizar los sistemas respiratorio y nervioso hasta llegar a la muerte. Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de aldicarb en sangre post mortem en casos de intoxicación aguda. Materiales y métodos. Investigación de tipo experimental empleando un cromatógrafo líquido con espectrometría de masas, con ionización electrospray y análisis en modo tándem (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Los estándares de aldicarb y el aldicarb-d3 fueron comprados de Dr. Ehrenstorfer GmbH. El método consiste en una precipitación de proteínas de la sangre y su posterior análisis por LC-ESI-MS/MS, utilizando el aldicarb-d3 como estándar interno. El método fue aplicado a siete casos de intoxicación letal por presunta acción del aldicarb. Resultados. El aldicarb se encontró en la sangre de seis de los casos estudiados, en niveles desde 0.12 a 1.90 µg/mL. Solo en uno de los casos no se detectó aldicarb. En cuanto la presunta manera de muerte, en seis de los casos analizados fue el suicidio y en un caso se clasificó como muerte en estudio. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos con la metodología analítica y la técnica LC-ESI-MS/MS son satisfactorios en términos de la determinación cuantitativa de aldicarb en sangre total post mortem. La aplicación de la metodología descrita en toxicología forense evidencia el empleo de este plaguicida en actos suicidas.

  18. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho"): aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos Aldicarb toxicology: general, clinic and therapeutic features in dogs and cats


    Fabiana Galtarossa Xavier; Dario Abbud Righi; Helenice Souza Spinosa


    O aldicarb (Temik®), um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodi...

  19. Toxicologia do praguicida aldicarb ("chumbinho"): aspectos gerais, clínicos e terapêuticos em cães e gatos


    Xavier, Fabiana Galtarossa; Righi,Dario Abbud; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza


    O aldicarb (Temik®), um agente anticolinesterásico carbamato vulgarmente conhecido como "chumbinho", é considerado um dos praguicidas mais tóxicos disponíveis comercialmente. No Brasil, embora seja registrado para uso agrícola exclusivo, tem sido freqüentemente apontado como o responsável por diversos casos de intoxicação em seres humanos e em animais. Desta forma, o presente estudo faz uma abordagem da toxicologia deste agente, enfocando as propriedades químicas, a toxicocinética, a toxicodi...

  20. Continued implication of the banned pesticides carbofuran and aldicarb in the poisoning of domestic and wild animals of the Canary Islands (Spain). (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; González-Moreo, Federico; Suárez-Pérez, Alejandro; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Del Mar Travieso-Aja, María; Luzardo, Octavio P


    Although nowadays the intentional poisoning of domestic and wild animals is a crime in EU, in the past the poison was used in rural areas of a number of European countries to kill animals that were considered harmful for human activities. In Spain evidences indicate that intentional poisonings continue to occur throughout the entire country nowadays. This situation seems to be of particular concern in the Canary Islands (Spain), where this study was performed. Our results confirmed that 225 animals were poisoned by pesticides over the study period (32 months; 2010-2013). The intentionality of the poisoning was confirmed in 117 cases. It has to be highlighted that the other 108 animals also died by pesticide poisoning, although the intentionality was only suspected. This incidence is currently the highest reported in any region from European Union. The pesticides carbofuran, bromadiolone, brodifacoum and aldicarb were the most frequently detected involved. Among the affected species, it has to be highlighted that endangered species are frequently affected in poisoning incidents. Notably, chemicals banned in the EU (carbofuran and aldicarb) were identified in approximately 75% of cases, and in almost 100% of baits, which suggests that these pesticides are still available to the population. Several circumstances may explain these results. Firstly, little control over the sale and possession of pesticide products, and the potential existence of an illegal market of pesticides banned in the European Union in the neighbouring African continent. In addition, the limited awareness of the population about the dangerousness of these compounds, for the environment, animals, or even people, make the situation very worrying in these islands. Stronger regulations, control of legal and illegal pesticide use, development of educational programs and legal action in poisoning incidents are needed to decrease the impact of pesticide misuse on wildlife and domestic animals.

  1. Avaliação de dois simuladores para predição da lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Evaluation of two simulators to predict the leaching of aldoxycarb in a red-yellow latossol

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    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo o estudo da lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, na região de Lavras, MG, para posterior comparação com os resultados obtidos pelos simuladores CALF e PESTLA. Os resultados mostraram alta lixiviação de sulfona de aldicarbe no solo em estudo. Aos 44 dias após a aplicação do inseticida e com uma lâmina de água acumulada de 241,4 mm, a quantidade média de sulfona de aldicarbe remanescente nas colunas de solo de 45 cm de profundidade foi equivalente a 17,92% (±5,88 da dose aplicada, enquanto os simuladores CALF e PESTLA estimaram 20,52% e 37,82%, respectivamente. O simulador CALF gerou melhores estimativas da quantidade média de sulfona de aldicarbe no perfil do solo nas diferentes datas de amostragem, enquanto o simulador PESTLA gerou melhores estimativas da distribuição do inseticida ao longo do perfil do solo, nas diferentes datas de amostragem.This work was carried out to study the leaching of aldoxycarb in a Red Yellow Latossol in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to compare the observed results with those obtained by the simulators CALF and PESTLA. The results showed a high leaching of aldoxycarb in the soil. After 44 days of the insecticide application and with 241.4 mm of accumulated water applied in each column, the remained quantity of aldoxycarb in the soil columns (45 cm long was 17.92% (±5.88 of the initial applied rate. However, the simulators CALF and PESTLA predicted 20.52% and 37.82%, respectively. CALF simulator gave better predictions of the overall mean residue concentrations of aldoxycarb, and PESTLA simulator gave better prediction of residues distribution.

  2. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for aldicarb and its metabolites in rats and human using exposure-related dose Estimating Model (ERDEM)%应用ERDEM模型为涕灭威及其代谢物构建大鼠和人的PBPK/PD模型研究

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    巢迎妍; 张辉; 张晓菲


    Objective To construct the PBPK/PD models for aldicarb in rats and humans to help understandits disposition in both species in order to use the models for risk assessment purposes due to aldicarb exposure. MethodsThe PBPK/PD models were constructed using the ERDEM ( Exposure-related dose estimating model ) platform. Themodel structures for both species included a full gastrointestinal compartment, liver metabolism, urinary excretion, fecalelimination,and bimolecular acetylcholinesterase ( AChE ) inhibition by aldicarb and its two oxidized metabolites, aldi-carb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone. Experimentally reported values or estimation of physiological, biochemical, and physicochemical parameters were obtained from the open literature or optimized by fitting to the experimental data. Results The rat model simulation of oral exposure of 0. 4 mg/kg aldicarb indicated that aldicarb had an overall half-life of 1. 35 h,and 96. 6% of the dose was excreted in urine compared to the measured 91. 6% at 144 h after oral exposure. AChE activity in blood was inhibited to 31 % of the control level at 0. 35 h in the rat model compared to the measured 42. 5% at 0. 5 h after oral exposure of 0. 33 mg/kg aldicarb. In the human model,the simulation showed that the minimum blood AChE activity was 76. 9% at 1 h compared to the measured 75. 3% after a 0. 05 mg/kg dose of aldicarb. Conclusion The ERDEM model simulations for both species were consistent with the experimental data. Therefore, the models constructed in the ERDEM platform may be helpful in evaluating human health risk due to aldicarb exposure.%目的 为构建涕灭威在大鼠和人的生理药代动力学/药效学(PBPK/PD)模型,以进一步了解涕灭威在两物种体内的转化过程,从而用于其风险评估.方法 采用暴露相关的剂量估算模型(Exposure-related dose estimating model,ERDEM)的构建平台进行模型构建.两个物种的模型结构均包括完整的胃肠道、肝脏代谢、尿排泄

  3. Verification of contamination by dimetoato and aldicarb in liver of Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus collected in two cold-storages in the State of Paraná / Verificação da contaminação por dimetoato e aldicarb em fígado de tilápias do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus coletados em dois frigoríficos do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nabuhiro Tajiri


    Full Text Available The importance of fish as a protein source in food is unquestionable, but its role as an indicator of environmental contamination is also very important. This study aimed to analysis the livers of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, collected from commercial cold-storages in two municipal districts in the State of Parana, for investigation of contamination by organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. It was collected 30 samples of Nile tilapias (O. niloticus liver in the cold-storage A and 45 samples in the cold-storage B, totaling 75 samples. At each location were three visits, and at random, collected the samples from July 2006 to May 2007. For extraction and analysis of samples it was used the qualitative methodology of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Patterns of organophosphate and carbamate used in the analysis of the TLC were respectively Dimethoate and Aldicarb. Of the samples tested were found cabarmate in seven samples, one of the samples collected in the cold-storage A and six collected in the cold-storage B. The organophosphate compound was found in fifteen samples from 75 samples, seven of the cold-storage A and eight samples from the cold-storage B. The results infer the possibility of contamination of the tanks in the creation of farms and the need for constant monitoring for the presence of residues of pesticides in this important food matrix.A importância dos peixes como fonte protéica na alimentação humana é indiscutível, porém seu papel como indicador de contaminação ambiental também é muito relevante. O presente trabalho objetivou a análise de fígados de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, coletados em frigoríficos comerciais de dois municípios do Estado do Paraná para averiguação de contaminação pelos compostos organofosforados e carbamatos. Coletou-se 30 amostras de fígado de Tilápia do Nilo (O. niloticus no frigorífico A e 45 amostras no frigorífico B, totalizando 75 amostras analisadas. Em

  4. 40 CFR 180.269 - Aldicarb; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Bean, dry, seed 0.1 Beet, sugar, roots 0.05 Beet, sugar, tops 1 Citrus, dried pulp 0.6 Coffee, bean, green 0.1 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.1 Cotton, hulls 0.3 Grapefruit...

  5. 75 FR 62129 - Aldicarb; Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel a Pesticide Registration (United States)


    ... or on citrus, cotton, dry beans, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sugar potatoes, sugar beets, and sweet... range of stakeholders including environmental, human health, and agricultural advocates; the chemical... agricultural crops: citrus, cotton, dry beans, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sugar beets, and sweet...


    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for a mixture of N-methyl carbamate pesticides was developed based on single chemical models. The model was used to compare urinary metabolite concentrations to levels from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHA...

  7. Controle da cochonilha (Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891 em laranjeira, com inseticidas granulados Chemical control of coccid (Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891 for orange-trees, with insecticide granulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Mariconi


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se avaliar a eficiência de inseticidas granulados no controle da Orthezia praelonga em laranjeiras, foram empregados o aldicarbe 15% e o imidaclopride 5%, aplicados ao solo. Os tratamentos foram seis, com quatro repetições: A testemunha; B aldicarbe, 100g/pl; C aldicarbe, 65g/pl; D imidaclopride, 100g/pl; E aldicarbe, 130g/pl; F imidaclopride, 75g/pl. Foram feitas seis avaliações: uma prévia e outras cinco após 07, 20, 34, 49 e 70 dias da aplicação. Os melhores tratamentos foram: aldicarbe 100g/pl e aldicarbe, 130g/pl, aos 49 e 70 dias, respectivamente.The experiment was carried out on adult orange-trees in the county of Limeira, SP, Brazil. The objective was to evaluate the efficiency of insecticide granules with 15% aldicarb and 5% imidadoprid, applied to the soil, to control the citrus coccid Orthezia praelonga Douglas, 1891. Treatments were six: A check; B aldicarb, 100g/pl; C aldicarb, 65g/pl; D imidacloprid 100g/pl; E aldicarb, 130g/pl; F imidacloprid, 75g/pl of commercial insecticide granules. Six evaluations were made, one previous and other five 07, 20, 34, 49 and 70 days after application. The most efficient treatments were E and B at 49 and 70 days, respectively.

  8. Effects of Selected Nematicides on Hatching of Heterodera schachtii. (United States)

    Steele, A E


    Aldicarb, carbofuran, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos were tested in concentrations of 1-100 mug/ml for their effects on hatching of Heterodera schachtii. Exposure of cysts to 1 mug aldicarb or carbofuran/ml stimulated hatch whereas phenamiphos and, to a lesser degree, fensulfothion inhibited hatch. Addition of aldicarb to sugarbeet root diffusate or 4 mM zinc chloride suppressed activities of these hatching agents. Transfer of cysts previously treated with aldicarb or carbofuran to zinc chloride or water rapidly initiated hatch which finally exceeded the hatch from cysts not treated with the nematicides.

  9. BDML Metadata: 503 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm4_ald Measurement C

  10. BDML Metadata: 501 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm3_ald Measurement C

  11. BDML Metadata: 505 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm5_ald Measurement C

  12. BDML Metadata: 498 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm1_ald Measurement C

  13. BDML Metadata: 507 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm6_ald Measurement C

  14. BDML Metadata: 499 [SSBD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ce_CJC BDML file for quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy192) worm i...n the presence of increasing cocentrations of aldicarb quantitative information about behavior of goa-1(sy19...2) worm in the presence of increasing concentrations of aldicarb C. elegans behavior worm2_ald Measurement C

  15. 77 FR 40048 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment and Other Actions (United States)


    ... agree or disagree; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. iv. Describe...-HQ-OPP-2011-0 Julia Stokes, (703) 911. 347-8966, . Aldicarb, 0140...

  16. Florida Men Sentenced for Poisoning Wildlife and Hunting Dogs in Bullock County (United States)

    ATLANTA - Daryl Fischer of Seminole, Florida and Russell Taylor of Loxahatchee, Florida were sentenced on Tuesday, April 28, 2015, to terms of probation for improper use of the pesticide Aldicarb, which is marketed as Temik, announced the United Sta

  17. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation on Soybean in a Field Infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and Heterodera glycines


    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.


    Previous cropping sequence (corn-soybean vs. soybean-soybean) and aldicarb effects on soybean yield and nematode numbers at harvest for soybean cultivars with various combinations of nematode resistance were determined in 1988 in a sandy loam soil infested with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and Heterodera glycines races 3 and 4 at Elberta, Alabama. Yield and nematode numbers differed among cultivars with 'Leflore' having the highest yield. Aldicarb treatment resulted in increased soybean yield ...

  18. Differential Sensitivity of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines to Selected Nematicides. (United States)

    Gourd, T R; Schmitt, D P; Barker, K R


    Differential sensitivity of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 to the nonfumigant nematicides aldicarb, ethoprop, and fenamiphos was evaluated using a 48-hour root-penetration bioassay. Generally, H. glycines was more tolerant of the nematicides, especially ethoprop, than were the Meloidogyne species. Among Meloidogyne species, M. incognita was most sensitive to aldicarb and fenamiphos, but its reaction to ethoprop was similar to the other three Meloidogyne species.

  19. Evaluation of Several Approaches to Manage Meloidogyne incognita and Cotton Seedling Disease Complexes in the High Plains of Texas. (United States)

    Fichtner, S M; Isakeit, T; Wheeler, T A; Kaufman, H W; Gannaway, J R


    Field experiments were conducted for control of the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and cotton seedling disease fungi (primarily Thielaviopsis basicola) in one naturally infested field during 1999 and 2000 and in three additional fields in 2000. Treatments included: seed-applied fungicides (triadimenol + mefenoxam + thiram and carboxin + PCNB + mefenoxam), cultivars (Paymaster [PM] 2326 RR and PM 2200 RR), and a nematicide (aldicarb at 0.83 kg a.i/ha). Plant stands were higher (P = 0.02) in the presence of aldicarb (77% emergence) than in its absence (74% emergence). Hypocotyl disease symptom ratings were lower (P = 0.0001) following triadimenol + mefenoxam + thiram seed treatment (0.53) as compared with carboxin + PCNB + mefenoxam (0.93). Root necrosis was lower (P = 0.002) following triadimenol + mefenoxam + thiram seed treatment (27%) as compared with carboxin + PCNB + mefenoxam (34%). In one field, in both years, aldicarb was associated with more root necrosis (58%) than in its absence (46%) (P = 0.004). At three other sites aldicarb did not affect root necrosis. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita eggs and juveniles at midseason were greater (P = 0.005, P = 0.003, respectively) on PM 2200 RR (less resistant) than on PM 2326 RR (more resistant). Yield was affected by the plant genotype by aldicarb interaction (P = 0.02) but not by seed treatments. Aldicarb effect on yield was dependent on cultivar, whereas affect of seed treatment on root health was consistent and independent of cultivar and aldicarb. No conditions were identified when use of triadimenol + mefenoxam was detrimental.

  20. The relationship between environmental variables and response of cotton to nematicides. (United States)

    Wheeler, T A; Lawrence, K S; Porter, D O; Keeling, W; Mullinix, B G


    Nematicide/irrigation rate trials were conducted in Texas (TX) in 2009 and 2010 in cotton grown at three irrigation rates, where irrigation rate (base (B), B - 33%, B + 33%) was the main plot and treatment (untreated check, aldicarb, and nematicide seed treatment (NST) and NST + aldicarb) were the subplots. Aldicarb improved cotton lint yield with the base (medium) irrigation rate over the untreated check, but not at the B - 33% and B + 33% irrigation rates. In a second evaluation, 20 tests conducted over 7 yr at the same field in TX and 12 tests conducted over 6 yr at the same field in Alabama (AL) were examined for impact of environmental variables (EV) on the response to NST (containing thiodicarb or abamectin), aldicarb, a nontreated check (CK), insecticide seed treatment (TX only), and a combination of NST + aldicarb + oxamyl (NST/A/O, AL only) on root galls (TX only), early season nematode eggs (AL only), and yield (both sites). Galls/root system were lower with aldicarb-treated plots, than for the CK- or NST-treated plots. As water (irrigation plus rain) in May increased, galls/root system increased for CK or insecticide-only-treated plots, and decreased for NST- and aldicarb-treated plots, suggesting efficacy of nematicides was strongly improved by adequate soil moisture. Nematode reproduction was not affected by EV in either location, though yield was negatively affected by root-knot nematode eggs in AL at 60 d. Yield in both AL and TX was negatively related to temperature parameters and positively related to water parameters. With the addition of EV in TX, chemical treatments went from not significantly different in the absence of EV to aldicarb-treated plots having higher yields than nonnematicide-treated plots in the presence of EV. In AL, NST/A/O-treated plots yielded similar to aldicarb and better than CK or NST in the absence of EV and had significantly higher yields than all other treatments in the presence of most EV.

  1. Comparison of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides for control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato. (United States)

    Griffin, G D


    The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) effectively controlled Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank potato, Solanum tuberosum. There was a maximum of 4% infected and galled tubers from the 1,3-D treatment after 2,028 degree-days with a base temperature of 5 C (DD5). This compared to 66% infected and galled tubers in aldicarb at-plant treated plots. Soil temperature, as determined by DD5, and timing of chemical applications affected the nematicidal activity on M. chitwoodi (P < 0.05). Aldicarb was most effective when applied postplant (PP) during the nematode reproductive cycle. After 1,684 DD5 of growth, there were 59, 26, 22, and 6% infected and galled tubers from untreated control plots and aldicarb treatments of 2.1 g/m row at 600 DD5, 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, and 1.3 g/m row at 600 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, respectively. No aldicarb treatments were effective over a growing period of 2,028 DD5; 34% of the tubers were infected and galled following the most effective aldicarb treatment (1.3 g/m row at 504 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 996 DD5).

  2. Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Soybean Response in Soils Treated with Selected Nematicides and Herbicides. (United States)

    Schmitt, D P; Corbin, F T; Nelson, L A


    Two field experiments were conducted in two locations to determine the effects of the nematicides aldicarb, phenamiphos, and ethoprop and/or the herbicides alachlor, linuron, or metribuzin on the population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean growth and yield. Population densities of H. glycines were greater, at some time during the growing season, in several treatments with alachlor alone and in combination with nematicides. Numbers of H. glycines at harvest were greater in plots treated with aldicarb than in those treated with ethoprop or phenamiphos. The numbers in aldicarb treated plots were generally reduced when plots also received a herbicide. Soybean yields were negatively correlated with numbers of H. glycines eggs and juveniles in early to mid season but positively correlated with late season population densities.

  3. Efeito do controle de nematóides na qualidade da fibra do algodoeiro Effect of nematode control on fiber properties of upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento com torta de mamona e com nematicidas sistêmicos (aldicarb, carbofurã, oxamil e sulfona de aldicarb, na qualidade das fibras do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 cultivado em área infestada por Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides e Xiphinema sp., no nunicípio de Paranapanema, no Estado de São Paulo. As características afetadas foram: o comprimento das fibras, no qual só o carbofurã produziu aumento significativo; a resistência das fibras, que aumentou com os tratamentos torta de mamona e aldicarb; e a maturidade das fibras, onde, com exceção do oxamil, todos os tratamentos foram superiores à testemunha. As características de uniformidade e índice de finura das fibras não diferiram da testemunha em nenhum dos tratamentos.The effect of nematode control using castor bean cake and systemic nematicide treatments (Aldicarb, Carbofuran, Oxamyl and Sulfon Aldicarb, on the fiber properties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. IAC 17 was evaluated. The crop was grown in Paranapanema - SP, Brazil, in a field infested with Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihysteroides and Xiphinema sp. The properties affected were: fiber length, which improved only with Carbofuran; fiber strength, that improved with the treatments castor bean calce and Aldicarb; and fiber maturity, in which all treatments showed superior results than the check, except Oxamyl. No treatment effects on fiber fineness and uniformity were observed.

  4. Pesticides and nitrate in groundwater underlying citrus croplands, Lake Wales Ridge, central Florida, 1999-2005. (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.


    This report summarizes pesticide and nitrate (as nitrogen) results from quarterly sampling of 31 surficial-aquifer wells in the Lake Wales Ridge Monitoring Network during April 1999 through January 2005. The wells, located adjacent to citrus orchards and used for monitoring only, were generally screened (sampled) within 5 to 40 feet of the water table. Of the 44 citrus pesticides and pesticide degradates analyzed, 17 were detected in groundwater samples. Parent pesticides and degradates detected in quarterly groundwater samples, ordered by frequency of detection, included norflurazon, demethyl norflurazon, simazine, diuron, bromacil, aldicarb sulfone, aldicarb sulfoxide, deisopropylatrazine (DIA), imidacloprid, metalaxyl, thiazopyr monoacid, oxamyl, and aldicarb. Reconnaissance sampling of five Network wells yielded detection of four additional pesticide degradates (hydroxysimazine, didealkylatrazine, deisopropylhydroxyatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine). The highest median concentration values per well, based on samples collected during the 1999–2005 period (n=14 to 24 samples per well), included 3.05 µg/L (micrograms per liter) (simazine), 3.90 µg/L (diuron), 6.30 µg/L (aldicarb sulfone), 6.85 µg/L (aldicarb sulfoxide), 22.0 µg/L (demethyl norflurazon), 25.0 µg/ (norflurazon), 89 µg/ (bromacil), and 25.5 mg/L (milligrams per liter) (nitrate). Nitrate concentrations exceeded the 10 mg/L (as nitrogen) drinking water standard in one or more groundwater samples from 28 of the wells, and the median nitrate concentration among these wells was 14 mg/L. Sampled groundwater pesticide concentrations exceeded Florida’s health-guidance benchmarks for aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone (4 wells), the sum of aldicarb and its degradates (6 wells), simazine (2 wells), the sum of simazine and DIA (3 wells), diuron (2 wells), bromacil (1 well), and the sum of norflurazon and demethyl norflurazon (1 well). The magnitude of fluctuations in groundwater pesticide

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans intersectin: a synaptic protein regulating neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Simon; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Krag, Claudia


    phenotype, under physiological conditions. However, they display aldicarb-hypersensitivity, compatible with a negative regulatory role of ITSN-1 on neurotransmission. ITSN-1 physically interacts with dynamin and EHS-1, two proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling. We have previously shown that EHS-1...... is a positive modulator of synaptic vesicle recycling in the nematode, likely through modulation of dynamin or dynamin-controlled pathways. Here, we show that ITSN-1 and EHS-1 have opposite effects on aldicarb sensitivity, and on dynamin-dependent phenotypes. Thus, the sum of our results identifies dynamin......, or a dynamin-controlled pathway, as a potential target for the negative regulatory role of ITSN-1....

  6. Temporal efficacy of selected nematicides on meloidogyne species on tobacco. (United States)

    Melton, T A; Barker, K R; Koenning, S R; Powell, N T


    Aldicarb, ethoprop, and fenamiphos were evaluated for their efficacy in controlling various species of root-knot nematodes on flue-cured tobacco and for their residual activity, as determined through periodic sampling and bioassays of soil taken from field plots. Field experiments were conducted at five locations over 2 years with flue-cured tobacco. Soil in plots treated with nematicides were formed into high, wide beds before transplanting with 'Coker 371-Gold' or 'K 326' tobacco. Residual control of Meloidogyne spp. was greatest (P nematicidal efficacy of all compounds varied with site and season, fenamiphos and aldicarb generally produced the highest yields.

  7. Effects of granular nematicides on the infection of potatoes by Rhizoctonia solani.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, T.W.


    The granular nematicides aldicarb, oxamyl and ethoprophos often are applied to control plant parasitic nematodes. However, the use of these pesticides may have some disadvantages. In field trials, they increased stem infection of potatoes caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and incidence of bla

  8. Simulation and model comparison of unsaturated movement of pesticides from a large clay lysimeter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.; Gottesbüren, B.; Diekkrüger, B.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.


    A long-term (>10 months) leaching experiment was conducted with a large clay soil column and a rain simulator to study unsaturated transport of the nematicide aldicarb and the herbicide simazine in a cracked clay soil. Water retention and soil conductivity were derived from experimental outflow data


    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  10. Effect of Carbamate, Organophosphate, and Avermectin Nematicides on Oxygen Consumption by Three Meloidogyne spp. (United States)

    Nordmeyer, D; Dickson, D W


    Second-stage juveniles (I2) of Meloidogyne arenaria consumed more oxygen (P nematicide used. Except for aldicarb, there was no differential sensitivity among the three nematode species. Meloidogyne javanica had a greater percentage decrease (P nematicides were positively correlated (P

  11. Development and duration of accelerated degradation of nematicides in different soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, J.H.; Peppel-Groen, van de A.E.; Pas, van der L.J.T.; Dijksterhuis, A.


    The development and duration of accelerated degradation of nematicides were studied in incubation experiments with soils from three experimental fields that had been treated annually for three to ten years with aldicarb, oxamyl, ethoprophos, fenamiphos or 1,3-dichloropropene. Highly accelerated degr

  12. Granular Nematicides for Control of the Yam Nematode, Scutellonema bradys, and Relevant Residues in Raw Tubers. (United States)

    Adesiyan, S O; Badra, T


    Four granular nentaticides were evaluated for control of the yam nematode, Scutellonema bradys (Steiner &LeHew) Andrassy, on Guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, under field conditions prevelant in the tropics. A single application of nematicides (sidedressing) at the rate of 2 kg ai/ha as postplanting treatment at the onset of the rainy season depressed numbers of S. bradys attacking yams during the growing season and significantly increased tuber yields over untreated. The efficacy, based on the regression coefficient values of evaluated nematicides, was in the order of miral, carbofuran, aldicarb, and oxamyl (b = -75.9, -75.5, -72.1, and -65.9, respectively). Yam tuber yields increased by 136.9, 90.6, 87.9, and 85.3% over untreated (P = 0.05) in aldicarb, carbofuran, oxamyl, and miral treated plots, respectively. Residues in raw tubers pretreated with aldicarb, carbofuran, or miral were negligible (front less than 0.02 to 0.3 ppm) and far below the established tolerance levels (l.0 and 1.3 ppm for aldicarb and carbofuran, respectively) of a related crop in the United States. This is the first report on residues of systemic pesticides in yams.

  13. Postcolumn photolysis of pesticides for fluorometric determination by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, C.J.; Moye, H.A.


    A high-performance liquid chromatography postcolumn reaction detector that employs UV photolysis with an optional reaction by using o-phthalaldehyde-2-mercaptoethanol (OPA-MERC) followed by fluorescence detection was found to be useful for several classes of pesticides. In the presence of the OPA-MERC reagent, most carbamates, carbamoyl oximes, carbamothioic acids, and substituted ureas gave a sensitive response while the response of dithiocarbamates, phenylamides, and phenylcarbamates varied. The response of most of the pesticides tested was significantly affected by the solvent used. Method detection limits for aldicarb sulfoxide, aldicarb, propoxur, thiram, and neburon in ground water were 2.5, 2.3, 3.3, 3.8, and 2.0, respectively. In the absence of OPA-MERC reagent, several of the substituted aromatic compounds also gave strong fluorescence after photolysis. This detector is applicable to a broad range of nitrogenous pesticides.

  14. Effect of three nematicides on the growth of some phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi. (United States)

    El-Khadem, M; Mehiar, F; Embabi, M S


    The effect of three nematicides, aldicarb, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos at four concentrations (1, 5, 25, and 125 ppm) was tested on the growth of five bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Corynebacterium fascians, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Streptomyces scabies and four fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium bataticola. Of the bacteria, P. solanacearum was most affected by the chemicals at all concentrations, while E. carotovora was least affected. Fensulfothion was generally the most effective nematicide on the bacteria tested, while phenamiphos was the least effective. Similarly, the effect of the chemicals on the fungi tested varied greatly. F. solani and R. solani were generally most affected, followed by F. oxysporum, while S. bataticola was least affected. Of the chemicals tested, phenamiphos was generally the most effective, followed by fensulfothion, while aldicarb was the least effective.

  15. Distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes on sugarcane in louisiana and efficacy of nematicides. (United States)

    Bond, J P; McGawley, E C; Hoy, J W


    A survey conducted from May 1995 through August 1998 revealed diverse nematode communities in Louisiana sugarcane fields. High populations of Mesocriconema, Paratrichodorus, Pratylenchus, and Tylenchorhynchus were widespread in nine sugarcane production parishes. Comparisons of plant cane and ratoon sugarcane crops indicated that nematode community levels increase significantly in successive ratoon crops. Nematicide trials evaluated the efficacy of aldicarb, ethoprop, and phorate against indigenous nematode populations. Aldicarb consistently increased the number of millable stalks, cane tonnage, and yield of sucrose in soils with a high sand content. Yield increases were concomitant with reductions in the density of the nematode community shortly after planting and at harvest. In soils with a higher clay content, the chemicals were less effective in controlling nematode populations and, as a result, yield increases were minimal.

  16. Effect of intercropping on nematodes in two small-scale sugarcane farming systems in South Africa



    Two trials were planted on sandy soils on small-scale grower farms to study the effect of intercropping on the nematode fauna, soil and plant fertility and sugarcane yield. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and sugar bean (Phaseolus limensis) were intercropped between the sugarcane rows in the first trial; velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were intercropped in the second trial. These practices were compared to a standard aldicarb (nematicide) treatment and an untreat...

  17. Interação entre nematicidas e herbicidas aplicados no plantio da cana-de-açúcar Interaction between nematicides and herbicides applied on sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Dinardo-Miranda


    Full Text Available O efeito do sinergismo entre os nematicidas aldicarb, carbofuran e terbufós, aplicados no sulco de plantio, e os herbicidas clomazone, metribuzin e tebuthiuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, oito dias após o plantio da cana-de-açúcar foi avaliado em experimento conduzido em solo arenoso. Os sintomas mais acentuados de fitointoxicação foram observados nas parcelas que receberam metribuzin + terbufós ou tebuthiuron + terbufós. Metribuzin e tebuthiuron foram os herbicidas que provocaram sintomas mais acentuados de fitointoxicação, e o tebuthiuron prejudicou o desenvolvimento inicial da cultura, representado pelo número de perfilhos por metro. Apesar disso, não se observou redução significativa de produtividade em função da aplicação conjunta de nematicidas e herbicidas. Na média, aldicarb e carbofuran incrementaram a produtividade de colmos em 12 t ha-1. Parcelas tratadas com clomazone produziram, em média, significativamente mais que as tratadas com metribuzin.The interaction between the nematicides aldicarb, carbofuran and terbufos and the herbicides clomazone, metribuzin and tebuthiuron, applied on sugarcane plantations, was evaluated in an experiment conducted in sandy soil. Plots treated with metribuzin + terbufos or tebuthiuron + terbufos presented the most severe phytotoxicity symptoms. The herbicides metribuzin and tebuthiuron caused high phytotoxicity and tebuthiuron reduced the number of stalks in the plots, five months after planting. In spite of this, yield reduction due to nematicide and herbicide application was not observed. Aldicarb and carbofuran increased sugarcane yield at 12 ton ha-1. Plots treated with clomazone produced significantly more than plots treated with metribuzin.

  18. Control of Pratylenchus brachyurus with Selected Nonfumigant Nematicides on a Tolerant and a Sensitive Soybean Cultivar. (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Schmitt, D P


    A field study was conducted to evaluate soybean cultivar sensitivity to Pratylenchus brachyurus and selected nonfumigant nematicides for control of this nematode. 'Essex', a tolerant cultivar, yielded more than 'Forrest' , a sensitive cultivar, in an infested field. Plots treated with aldicarb, carbofuran, and fenamiphos had fewer nematodes 40 days after planting than nontreated plots. Plots planted with Forrest and treated with carbofuran had a greater yield than the untreated controls.

  19. Evaluation of Alternatives to Carbamate and Organophosphate Insecticides Against Thrips and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut Production. (United States)

    Marasigan, K; Toews, M; Kemerait, R; Abney, M R; Culbreath, A; Srinivasan, R


    Thrips are important pests of peanut. They cause severe feeding injuries on peanut foliage in the early season. They also transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), which causes spotted wilt disease. At-plant insecticides and cultivars that exhibit field resistance to TSWV are often used to manage thrips and spotted wilt disease. Historically, peanut growers used the broad-spectrum insecticides aldicarb (IRAC class 1A; Temik) and phorate (IRAC class 1B; Thimet) for managing thrips and thereby reducing TSWV transmission. Aldicarb has not been produced since 2011 and its usage in peanut will be legally phased out in 2018; therefore, identification of alternative chemistries is critical for thrips and spotted wilt management. Here, eight alternative insecticides, with known thrips activity, were evaluated in field trials conducted from 2011 through 2013. In addition, different application methods of alternatives were also evaluated. Imidacloprid (Admire Pro), thiamethoxam (Actara), spinetoram (Radiant), and cyantraniliprole (Exirel) were as effective as aldicarb and phorate in suppressing thrips, but none of the insecticides significantly suppressed spotted wilt incidence. Nevertheless, greenhouse assays demonstrated that the same alternative insecticides were effective in suppressing thrips feeding and reducing TSWV transmission. Spotted wilt incidence in the greenhouse was more severe (∼80%) than in the field (5–25%). In general, field resistance to TSWV in cultivars only marginally influenced spotted wilt incidence. Results suggest that effective management of thrips using alternative insecticides and subsequent feeding reduction could improve yields under low to moderate virus pressure.

  20. A lab-on-chip cell-based biosensor for label-free sensing of water toxicants. (United States)

    Liu, F; Nordin, A N; Li, F; Voiculescu, I


    This paper presents a lab-on-chip biosensor containing an enclosed fluidic cell culturing well seeded with live cells for rapid screening of toxicants in drinking water. The sensor is based on the innovative placement of the working electrode for the electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technique as the top electrode of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) resonator. Cell damage induced by toxic water will cause a decrease in impedance, as well as an increase in the resonant frequency. For water toxicity tests, the biosensor's unique capabilities of performing two complementary measurements simultaneously (impedance and mass-sensing) will increase the accuracy of detection while decreasing the false-positive rate. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were used as toxicity sensing cells. The effects of the toxicants, ammonia, nicotine and aldicarb, on cells were monitored with both the QCM and the ECIS technique. The lab-on-chip was demonstrated to be sensitive to low concentrations of toxicants. The responses of BAECs to toxic samples occurred during the initial 5 to 20 minutes depending on the type of chemical and concentrations. Testing the multiparameter biosensor with aldicarb also demonstrated the hypothesis that using two different sensors to monitor the same cell monolayer provides cross validation and increases the accuracy of detection. For low concentrations of aldicarb, the variations in impedance measurements are insignificant in comparison with the shifts of resonant frequency monitored using the QCM resonator. A highly linear correlation between signal shifts and chemical concentrations was demonstrated for each toxicant.

  1. Relative Efficacy of Selected Volatile and Nonvolatile Nematicides for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tobacco. (United States)

    Brodie, B B; Good, J M


    Root-knot nematode control and tobacco yields in plots infested with Meloidogyne incognita and treated with the nonvolatile nematicides, aldicarb, Mocap (R), or Nemacur (R) were greater than those on similar plots treated with volatile nematicides such as DD, DD + MENCS, SD14647 or tetrachlorothiophene. Root-knot control and tobacco yields in plots treated with carbofuran or Dasanit (R) were eqtual to that obtained with DD + MENCS, but less than that obtained with the other volatile soil nematicides. The most efficient dosage was 3.4 kg/hectare active ingredient for aldicarb and Mocap (R) and 10.0 kg/hectare for Dasanit (R). Carbofuran and Nemacur (R) were equally as effective at 4.2 kg/hectare as they were at higher dosages. The most efficient dosage of DD and SD14647 was 84 liters/hectare. Aldicarb and Dasanit (R) resulted in better nematode control and tobacco yields when incorporated into the top 15-20 cm of soil than when incorporated into the top 5-10 cm of soil. Nemacur (R) and Mocap (R) performed better when incorporated into the top 5-10 cm of soil, and carbofuran performed better when applied in the seed furrow (placed 15-20 cm deep in a 5-cm band and bedded).

  2. Effects of Dosage Sequence on the Efficacy of Nonfumigant Nematicides, Plantain Yields, and Nematode Seasonal Fluctuations as influenced by Rainfall. (United States)

    Badra, T; Caveness, F E


    Four nonfumigant nematicides applied three times during the wet season were used to study dosage sequence and nematicide effectiveness. Control of Helicotylenchus multicinctus (Cobb) Thorne and Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) Chitwood increased plantain (Musa AAB) yields. The nematicide (aldicarb, carbofuran, oxamyl, and miral) performance and yield response varied with dosage sequences. Applications of 2, 3, and 2 g ai/tree in March, July, and October (sequence I), respectively, gave greater control of M. javanica than did applications of 3, 2, and 2 g ai/tree in March, June, and September (sequence II), respectively. However, the high initial dose sequence was effective against H. multicinctus. Persistence of the different nematicides differed over the 14-month experimental period. Miral, aldicarb, and carbofuran were the most effective treatments against either species by the end of the wet and dry seasons. Dry season residual nematode populations were significantly lower in nematicide treated than in control plots. Yield increases over controls were 96.9, 90.1, 78.4, and 70.1% for carbofuran applied by sequence II, aldicarb by II and I, and oxantyl by II, respectively. Nematode populations directly fluctuated with rainfall and dropped to low (H. multicinctus) or to undetectable (M. javanica juveniles) levels during the dry season. Of the two nematodes studied, the more serious pest to plantain was H. multicinctus; it was tolerant to drought and survived the dry season in untreated soils.

  3. Variable rate application of nematicides on cotton fields: a promising site-specific management strategy. (United States)

    Ortiz, Brenda V; Perry, Calvin; Sullivan, Dana; Lu, Ping; Kemerait, Robert; Davis, Richard F; Smith, Amanda; Vellidis, George; Nichols, Robert


    Field tests were conducted to determine if differences in response to nematicide application (i.e., root-knot nematode (RKN) populations, cotton yield, and profitability) occurred among RKN management zones (MZ). The MZ were delineated using fuzzy clustering of five terrain (TR) and edaphic (ED) field features related to soil texture: apparent soil electrical conductivity shallow (ECa-shallow) and deep (ECa-deep), elevation (EL), slope (SL), and changes in bare soil reflectance. Zones with lowest mean values of ECa- shallow, ECa- deep, NDVI, and SL were designated as at greater risk for high RKN levels. Nematicide-treated plots (4 rows wide and 30 m long) were established in a randomized complete block design within each zone, but the number of replications in each zone varied from four to six depending on the size of the zone.The nematicides aldicarb (Temik 15 G) and 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D,Telone II) were applied at two rates (0.51 and 1.0 kg a.i./ha for aldicarb, and 33.1 and 66.2 kg a.i./ha for 1,3-D) to RKN MZ in commercial fields between 2007 and 2009. A consolidated analysis over the entire season showed that regardless of the zone, there were not differences between aldicarb rates and 1,3-D rates. The result across zones showed that 1,3-D provided better RKN control than did aldicarb in zones with low ECa values (high RKN risk zones exhibiting more coarse-textured sandy soils). In contrast, in low risk zones with relatively higher ECa values (heavier textured soil), the effects of 1,3-D and aldicarb were equal and application of any of the treatments provided sufficient control. In low RKN risk zones, a farmer would often have lost money if a high rate of 1,3-D was applied. This study showed that the effect of nematicide type and rate on RKN control and cotton yield varied across management zones (MZ) with the most expensive treatment likely to provide economic benefit only in zones with coarser soil texture. This study demonstrates the value of site

  4. Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja = Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Teixeira Nunes


    Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium, de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duastestemunhas e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja.Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium, a commercial product based on Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post

  5. A homolog of FHM2 is involved in modulation of excitatory neurotransmission by serotonin in C. elegans.

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    Elena G Govorunova

    Full Text Available The C. elegans eat-6 gene encodes a Na(+, K(+-ATPase alpha subunit and is a homolog of the familial hemiplegic migraine candidate gene FHM2. Migraine is the most common neurological disorder linked to serotonergic dysfunction. We sought to study the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine and their relation to serotonin (5-HT signaling using C. elegans as a genetic model. In C. elegans, exogenous 5-HT inhibits paralysis induced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. We found that the eat-6(ad467 mutation or RNAi of eat-6 increases aldicarb sensitivity and causes complete resistance to 5-HT treatment, indicating that EAT-6 is a component of the pathway that couples 5-HT signaling and ACh neurotransmission. While a postsynaptic role of EAT-6 at the bodywall NMJs has been well established, we found that EAT-6 may in addition regulate presynaptic ACh neurotransmission. We show that eat-6 is expressed in ventral cord ACh motor neurons, and that cell-specific RNAi of eat-6 in the ACh neurons leads to hypersensitivity to aldicarb. Electron microscopy showed an increased number of synaptic vesicles in the ACh neurons in the eat-6(ad467 mutant. Genetic analyses suggest that EAT-6 interacts with EGL-30 Galphaq, EGL-8 phospholipase C and SLO-1 BK channel signaling to modulate ACh neurotransmission and that either reduced or excessive EAT-6 function may lead to increased ACh neurotransmission. Study of the interaction between eat-6 and 5-HT receptors revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory 5-HT inputs to the NMJs. We show that the inhibitory and stimulatory 5-HT signals arise from distinct 5-HT neurons. The role of eat-6 in modulation of excitatory neurotransmission by 5-HT may provide a genetic explanation for the therapeutic effects of the drugs targeting 5-HT receptors in the treatment of migraine patients.

  6. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  7. Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v32i3.2166


    Henrique Teixeira Nunes; Antonio Carlos Monteiro; Alan William Vilela Pomela


    Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium), de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix) e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, ...

  8. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil. (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M


    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  9. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Goulart, Simone; Domingos Alves, Renata; Neves, Antonio Augusto; Queiroz, Jose Humberto de; Conde de Assis, Tamires [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eliana L.R. de, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil)


    Using a 2{sup 3} experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and 17.0 and 33.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  10. Structure-function study of mammalian Munc18-1 and C. elegans UNC-18 implicates domain 3b in the regulation of exocytosis.

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    Margaret E Graham

    Full Text Available Munc18-1 is an essential synaptic protein functioning during multiple stages of the exocytotic process including vesicle recruitment, docking and fusion. These functions require a number of distinct syntaxin-dependent interactions; however, Munc18-1 also regulates vesicle fusion via syntaxin-independent interactions with other exocytotic proteins. Although the structural regions of the Munc18-1 protein involved in closed-conformation syntaxin binding have been thoroughly examined, regions of the protein involved in other interactions are poorly characterised. To investigate this we performed a random transposon mutagenesis, identifying domain 3b of Munc18-1 as a functionally important region of the protein. Transposon insertion in an exposed loop within this domain specifically disrupted Mint1 binding despite leaving affinity for closed conformation syntaxin and binding to the SNARE complex unaffected. The insertion mutation significantly reduced total amounts of exocytosis as measured by carbon fiber amperometry in chromaffin cells. Introduction of the equivalent mutation in UNC-18 in Caenorhabditis elegans also reduced neurotransmitter release as assessed by aldicarb sensitivity. Correlation between the two experimental methods for recording changes in the number of exocytotic events was verified using a previously identified gain of function Munc18-1 mutation E466K (increased exocytosis in chromaffin cells and aldicarb hypersensitivity of C. elegans. These data implicate a novel role for an exposed loop in domain 3b of Munc18-1 in transducing regulation of vesicle fusion independent of closed-conformation syntaxin binding.

  11. Carbamate and Pyrethroid Resistance in the Akron Strain of Anopheles gambiae (United States)

    Mutunga, James M.; Anderson, Troy D.; Craft, Derek T.; Gross, Aaron D.; Swale, Daniel R.; Tong, Fan; Wong, Dawn M.; Carlier, Paul R.; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R.


    Insecticide resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae is a serious problem, epitomized by the multi-resistant Akron strain, originally isolated in the country of Benin. Here we report resistance in this strain to pyrethroids and DDT (13-fold to 35-fold compared to the susceptible G3 strain), but surprisingly little resistance to etofenprox, a compound sometimes described as a “pseudo-pyrethroid.” There was also strong resistance to topically-applied commercial carbamates (45-fold to 81-fold), except for the oximes aldicarb and methomyl. Biochemical assays showed enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and carboxylesterase activity, but not that of glutathione-S-transferase. A series of substituted α,α,α,-trifluoroacetophenone oxime methylcarbamates were evaluated for enzyme inhibition potency and toxicity against G3 and Akron mosquitoes. The compound bearing an unsubstituted phenyl ring showed the greatest toxicity to mosquitoes of both strains. Low cross resistance in Akron was retained by all analogs in the series. Kinetic analysis of acetylcholinesterase activity and its inhibition by insecticides in the G3 strain showed inactivation rate constants greater than that of propoxur, and against Akron enzyme inactivation rate constants similar to that of aldicarb. However, inactivation rate constants against recombinant human AChE were essentially identical to that of the G3 strain. Thus, the acetophenone oxime carbamates described here, though potent insecticides that control resistant Akron mosquitoes, require further structural modification to attain acceptable selectivity and human safety. PMID:26047119

  12. Study on the Highly Sensitive AChE Electrode Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

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    Shuping Zhang


    Full Text Available Using chitosan (CS as carrier, the method named layer-by-layer (LBL self-assembly modification to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and acetylcholine esterase (AChE was proposed to prepare the acetylcholine esterase electrode with high sensitivity and stability. The modified electrode was used to detect pesticide of aldicarb, and the enzyme inhibition rate of the electrode showed good linearity with pesticide concentrations in the range of 10−10 g·L−1 to 10−3 g·L−1. The detection limit was 10−11 g·L−1. The modified electrode was also used to detect the actual sample, and the recovery rate range was from 97.72% to 107.15%, which could meet the rapid testing need of the aldicarb residue. After being stored in the phosphate buffer solution (PBS in 4°C for 30 days, the modified electrode showed good stability with the response current that was 80% of the original current.

  13. Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: effects of combinations of cropping systems and nematicides. (United States)

    Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B; Good, J M


    The population density of Meloidogyne incognita was significantly reduced in land that was fallowed or cropped to crotalaria, marigold, bermudagrass, or bahiagrass. The rate of population decline caused by different cropping systems was influenced by initial population densities. Crotalaria, marigold, and bare fallow were about equally effective in reducing the density of M. incognita below dctectable lcvels, usually requiring 1-3 yr. Bahiagrass and bcrmudagrass required 4-5 yr or longer to reduce M. incognita below a detectable level. A high population density of Trichodorus christiei developed in land cropped 5 yr to bermudagrass, bahiagrass, okra, and marigold. Population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Xiphinema americanum increased in land cropped to crotalaria or bermudagrass. Belonolabnus Iongicaudatus was detected only in land cropped to bermudagrass, The effectiveness of nematicides in reducing M. incognita infection was rclatcd to nematode population density resulting from 5 yr of different cropping systems. Treatment with aldicarb reduced M. incognita below detectable levels following all cropping systems; treatment with ethoprop following all cropping systems except okra, treatment wflh ethylene dibromide following bahiagrass or fallow; and treatment with DBCP only after 5 yr of fallow. Tomato transplant growth was affected .by both cropping systems and nematicide treatment. Transplants grown after crotalaria and bahiagrass were significantly larger than those grown after other crops. Also, treatment with aldicarb and ethoprop significantly increased transplant size.

  14. Nematicides enhance growth and yield of rotylenchulus reniformis resistant cotton genotypes. (United States)

    Schrimsher, Drew W; Lawrence, Kathy S; Sikkens, Roelof B; Weaver, David B


    Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant LONREN-1×FM966 breeding lines developed at Auburn University have demonstrated that the nematode resistance is accompanied by severe stunting, limited growth, and low yields. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of applying nematicides to selected LONREN breeding lines on R. reniformis nematode populations, plant stunting, and yield. Four resistant breeding lines from the LONREN-1×FM966 cross, one susceptible line from the LONREN-1×FM966 cross, as well as LONREN-1, BARBREN-713, and the susceptible cultivar DP393 were evaluated with and without nematicides in the presence of R. reniformis. In the greenhouse, nematicides increased plant height across all genotypes compared with no nematicide. Rotylenchulus reniformis populations were 50% lower in the resistant lines compared with the susceptible lines at 45 days after planting (DAP). In microplot and field trials, the phenotypic stunting of all genotypes was reduced by aldicarb with increases in plant heights at 30 and 75 DAP. Increases in yields were evident across all genotypes treated with aldicarb. In all three trial environments, BARBREN-713 outperformed the LONREN-derived lines as well as 'DP393' in seed cotton yields, while having significantly lower R. reniformis egg densities than the susceptible genotypes.

  15. Action of Systemic Nematicides in Control of Xiphinema iindex on Grape. (United States)

    Hafez, S L; Raski, D J; Lear, B


    In greenhouse tests using potted grape plants three nematicides, aldicarb 10 G at 4.5 ai/ha, phenamiphos 15 G at 22 kg ai/ha, and oxamyl liquid at 4.5 kg ai/ha, were tested against Xiphinema index on 'Thompson Seedless' grape. Different timings for chemical treatments and X. index inoculations were used to determine some of the aspects of the mode of action. When nematodes and nematicides were applied simultaneously, nematodes were reduced from the initial 500 to the averages 5, 1, and 4, respectively, for aldicarb, phenamiphos, and oxamyl. Similar counts (respectively, 3, 1, and 2) were obtained when the nematicides were added first and the nematodes 14 d later. Nematode counts were 83, 112, and 1,346 when nematicides were applied first, and 14 days later plants were washed free of soil, repotted in untreated soil, and then inoculated. In untreated controls the population increased to an average of 2,703. Plant growth was inversely related to the level of nematode population resulting from the treatment.

  16. Differential vertical movement of nonvolatile nematicides in soil. (United States)

    Brodie, B B


    When incorporated in the top 5-cm of Tifton sandy loam at 11.2 kg/ha in the field, B-68138 [ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropyl phosphoramidate] prevented galling of tomato roots by Meloidogyne sp. down to 20 cm. A similar application of 16.8 kg/ha of V-C 9-104 [0-ethyl S,S-dipropyl phosphorodithioate] was 99% effective down to 20 cm. Aldicarb [2-methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde 0-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime], B-25141 [0,0-diethyl 0-{p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl}phosphorothioate], and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate] prevented galling only in the zone of incorporation (top 5-cm of soil). When aldicarb (11.2 kg/ha) was applied to the surface of Ontario fine sandy loam contained in clay pots in the greenhouse, it prevented galling of tomato roots down to 20 cm deep. V-C 9-104 and B-68138, applied similarly, were 100% effective to a depth of 5 cm. B-25141 was 100% effective in the zone of incorporation only. D-1410 [S-methyl-l-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-N-l(methylcarbamoyl)oxy] thioformimidatel did not control 100% of the root-knot nematodes at any depth.

  17. Effects and carry-over benefits of nematicides in soil planted to a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system. (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Leonard, R A


    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a.i./ha) at planting for nematode control. Supplemental sprinkler irrigation (1.52-4.45 cm), applied in addition to natural rainfall (4.60-10.80 cm) within l0 days after application of nematicides, did not affect nematicide efficacy against M. incognita or yield of sweet corn. Soil treatment with fenamiphos, EDB, and aldicarb increased the number and total weight of sweet corn ears and the weight per ear each year over untreated controls (P nematicides provided some control of M. incognita on squash planted after sweet corn, but yields were consistently greater and root-gall indices lower on squash following sweet corn treated with fenamiphos than other nematicides.

  18. 防治花生线虫病药剂筛选试验%Screening test of pesticides to prevent and control peanut nematode disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      试验结果表明:涕灭威防治花生线虫病效果最好;淡紫拟青霉效果略低于涕灭威,初步认为此药有推广前景,由于此药是生物制剂,还可扩大到蔬菜等作物上进一步试验;搏乐丹效果最差,产量结果仅显著高于CK,此药不宜作为防治线虫病的药剂使用。%  The screening test of pesticides to prevent and control peanut nematode disease was conducted. The effect of aldicarb to prevent and control peanut nematodes disease is thebest the effect of Paecilomyceslilacinus is slightly lower than aldicarb, and has a good development foreground.It can alsobe applied to vegetables crops for further test because it is a biological agent.The effect of chlorpyrifosis the worst.The yield onlysignificantly is higher than CK, so the drug should not be used to control nematodes disease.

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of pesticides in groundwater. Ecotoxicologische evaluatie van bestrijdingsmiddelen in grondwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notenboom, J.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Linders, J.B.H.J.


    A preliminary ecotoxicological risk assessment of pesticides in ground water has been performed. Predictable environmental concentrations in shallow ground water, based on both calculations of pesticide leaching and detected levels during monitoring programs, have been compared with aquatic ecotoxicity data. Among pesticides detected in ground water only the levels of aldicarb (including metabolites), 1,3-dichloropropene, and ethoprophos exceed risk boundaries. Among pesticides of which calculations show that they can be expected in concentrations of 0.1 microgram/l or higher a much large number of substances exceed risk boundaries. In particular, cypermethrin, 1,3-dichloropropene, fenpropathrin, pendimethalin, pirimicarb, pirimiphos-methyl, propoxur, terbufos, thiram, and trichlorphon have a large potential risk for groundwater ecosystems.

  20. Botanical nematicides: a review. (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Caboni, Pierluigi


    Despite the uselfuness of nematicidal compounds in agricultural practices, some serious concerns are raised today about their excessive use leading to enhancement of biodegradation mechanisms in soil expressed as lack of efficacy under field conditions and resistance development. Moreover, the phase-out of methyl bromide has led to the need for a valid alternative to organophosporous and carbamate compounds, such us fosthiazate, fenamiphos, oxamyl, and aldicarb. In the past years, intregated pest management strategies have been practised worldwide to maximize crop production while maintaining and contributing to agriculture sustainability. Biopesticides and specifically bionematicides constitute a desirable component of pest management technology and practices. Particularly, in the frame of our ongoing research on natural nematicides of botanical origin, we have reviewed the international bibliography for candidate nematicidal compounds. We report herein the nematicidal activity of plant metabolites on the basis of their chemical characteristics and structure.

  1. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes. (United States)

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V


    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  2. Root-knot Nematode Management and Yield of Soybean as Affected by Winter Cover Crops, Tillage Systems, and Nematicides. (United States)

    Minton, N A; Parker, M B


    Management of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean as affected by winter small grain crops or fallow, two tillage systems, and nematicides was studied. Numbers of M. incognita did not differ in plots planted to wheat and rye. Yields of soybean planted after these crops also did not differ. Numbers of M. incognita were greater in fallow than in rye plots, but soybean yield was not affected by the two treatments. Soybean yields were greater in subsoil-plant than in moldboard plowed plots. Ethylene dibromide reduced nematode population densities more consistently than aldicarb and phenamiphos. Also, ethylene dibromide increased yields the most and phenamiphos the least. There was a positive correlation (P = 0.001) of seed size (weight of 100 seeds) with yield (r = 0.79), indicating that factors affecting yield also affected seed size.

  3. Effects of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides on Pratylenchus penetrans and Yield of Potato. (United States)

    Olthof, T H


    In 1984-85 metham-sodium and the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb decreased (P = 0.05) soil population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans at planting, midseason, and at harvest relative to the untreated control. These treatments increased (P = 0.05) marketable potato tuber yield from 27% to 46% in 1984 and from 23% to 37% in 1985, as compared with the control. In 1984 oxamyl (10% granular and 24% liquid) applied immediately after planting increased (P = 0.05) only the total yield; oxamyl applied 2 weeks after planting failed to control P. penetrans and to increase total or marketable yields. Oxamyl (10 G) applied 2 weeks after planting decreased (P = 0.05) Pf. In 1985 oxamyl (10 G) reduced (P = 0.05) P. penetrans population densities at midseason and harvest, whereas oxamyl (24 L) reduced only harvest population densities. In 1985 neither formulation of oxamyl increased tuber yield.

  4. Nematicides induced changes in the chemical constituents of potato tubers. (United States)

    Marwaha, R S


    Changes in the chemical constitutents of potato tubers grown under different concentrations of 3 synthetic organic nematicides (carbofuran, aldicarb and phorate) and a natural plant product (sawdust) were investigated. There were no significant differences in the specific gravity, dry matter and starch content of tubers from different treatments. A significant increase in the content of non-reducing and total sugars was observed in all the treatments. Nematicidal treatments had significant effects on reducing sugars, true protein, free amino acids, orthodihydroxy phenols, beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. Application of nematicides reduced the content of total phenolic compounds which is a desirable change from a processing viewpoint. Potatoes grown under different nematicidal treatments can be processed into chips and French fries as they contain permissible levels of reducing sugars required for these forms of processing.

  5. Efficacy of Fumigant and Nonfurmigant Nematicides for Control of Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut. (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E


    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides for control of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 on peanut. Methyl bromide, 1,3-D, methyl isothiocyanate, and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures were applied 7 or 8 days preplant either broadcast or in-the-row. Aldicarb, ethoprop, fenamiphos, and F5145 were applied at different rates and by different methods at-plant or at early flowering. Of the 32 treatments evaluated, only seven resulted in yield increases (P = 0.05), although early season vigor was high in all treated plots. During the latter one-third of the growing season, however, nematode control was not adequate in most treatments resulting in heavy peg, pod, and root infection by M. arenaria.

  6. Nonfumigant Nematicides for Control of Root-knot Nematode to Protect Carrot Root Growth in Organic Soils. (United States)

    Vrain, T C; Belair, G; Martel, P


    Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the effects of two kinds of Meloidogyne hapla inoculum on the growth and quality of carrot roots, and the protection afforded in each case by nonfumigant nematicides in organic soils. For all treatments the percentage of carrots damaged was greater with larvae alone as inoculum than with larvae and eggs, indicating that most of the damage occurs early during formation of the taproot. Fosthietan, aldicarb, and oxamyl at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha protected the roots during formation and gave a lasting control of root-knot nematode. There was some nematode damage to the roots with phenamiphos and carbofuran at 4 and 6 kg ai/ha. Isazophos, diflubenzuron, and fenvalerate gave little protection to carrot roots and did not control root-knot nematode effectively.

  7. Inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on monoamine oxidase A and B activity in different parts of rat brain. (United States)

    Osman, Mohamed Y; Osman, Hassan M Y


    Acetylcholine (CAS 60-31-1, ACh), which is similar in its chemical structure to the carbamate aldicarb, was found to inhibit brain monoamine oxidase isoenzymes, namely MAO-A and B. The effect of ACh on both isoenzymes extracted from the whole brain of male albino rats and its different parts (frontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons and medulla oblongata) was studied. The results indicated that ACh inhibited MAO-A from the cerebellum and MAO-B from the basal ganglia more than MAO iso-enzymes from other brain parts. The inhibition was of the competitive type. It was also found that the enzyme inhibitor dissociation constants (Ki) and the affinity constants (Ki/Km) of MAO-A were higher than those of MAO-B.

  8. Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut. (United States)

    Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D


    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory.

  9. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota. (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P


    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  10. Susceptibilities of Cereal Cyst Nematode from Different Regions to Different Types of Nematicides%不同地区禾谷孢囊线虫对不同类型杀线剂的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德良; 苗建强; 刘峰


    为明确不同地区禾谷孢囊线虫对不同类型杀线剂的敏感性,采用浸渍法分别测定了灭线磷、噻唑膦、涕灭威、丁硫克百威、阿维菌素及甲维盐六种药剂对河南清丰、河北保定、安徽颍上、山东泰安和青岛五个地区的禾谷孢囊线虫二龄幼虫的室内毒力。结果表明,六种杀线剂对五个地区线虫的毒力表现为:甲维盐〉阿维菌素〉灭线磷〉涕灭威〉噻唑膦〉丁硫克百威。灭线磷、噻唑膦、涕灭威和丁硫克百威对各地区线虫的LC50值都在582.7mg.L^-1以上,不同地区线虫对同一药剂的敏感性存在一定差异,但相对毒力指数均在1.31以下;阿维菌素对各地区线虫的LC50值为26.0~66.3mg.L^-1,甲维盐对各地区线虫的LC50值为20.1~35.3mg.L^-1,不同地区线虫对这两种药剂的敏感性存在较大差异,相对毒力指数最高达2.55。%In order to realize the susceptibilities of cereal cyst nematode to different types of nematicides, the toxicities of ethoprophos, fosthiazate, aldicarb, carbosulfan, abamectin and emamectin benzoate against the second-stage juveniles (J2) of cereal cyst nematodes from five wheat-growing regions were determined by contact assay in the laboratory. The results indicated that the toxicity of six nematieides to cereal cyst nematode J2 was ranked as that emamectin benzoate 〉 abamectin 〉 ethoprophos 〉 aldicarb 〉 fosthiazate 〉 earbosulfan. The susceptibilities of cereal cyst nematode to ethoprophos, fosthiazate, aldicarb and carbosulfan were relatively low and there were some difference among those cereal cyst nematode from different regions. The values of LC50 were all above 582.7 mg.L^-1, but the relative toxicity indexes were all below 1.31. The LC50 values of abamectin to cereal cyst nematode were between 26.0 and 66.3 mg.L^-1 , and the LC50values of emamectin benzoate were between 20.1 and 35.3 mg.L^-1, in addition, there were greater differences among those

  11. Sensibilidade de fungos entomopatogênicos a agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Aparecida Alves Botelho


    Full Text Available Os agroquímicos empregados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar podem afetar a ação de fungos entomopatogênicos usados no controle biológico de pragas da cultura. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar se os inseticidas, herbicidas e maturadores utilizados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar têm efeito tóxico sobre os fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram utilizados os inseticidas thiametoxan, aldicarbe e fipronil, os herbicidas imazapir, diuron, metribuzin, hexazinone+diuron, clomazone+ametrina, 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético e glifosato, e os maturadores etil-trinexapac, sulfometurom-metílico e glifosato também. Os fungos foram cultivados em meio de cultura batata-dextrose-ágar contendo os agroquímicos. Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial, a produção e viabilidade dos conídios, e fez-se a avaliação da toxicidade dos agroquímicos. O inseticida à base de thiametoxan foi considerado compatível, pois não afetou o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos dois fungos. O inseticida formulado com fipronil se mostrou parcialmente tóxico para os fungos, sendo considerado moderadamente compatível, enquanto o aldicarbe foi considerado tóxico. Os herbicidas avaliados afetaram o crescimento micelial, a produção e a viabilidade dos conídios dos entomopatógenos e foram classificados como tóxicos, mas aqueles formulados com imazapir, glifosato e metribuzim foram considerados compatíveis. Entre os agroquímicos usados como maturadores apenas o glifosato foi classificado como compatível. Os agroquímicos usados no manejo da cana-de-açúcar, e que foram testados neste estudo, têm majoritariamente efeito tóxico sobre B. bassiana e M. anisopliae podendo comprometer sua ação como bioagentes de controle de pragas da cultura.

  12. Detecting recalcitrant organic chemicals in water with microbial fuel cells and artificial neural networks. (United States)

    King, Scott T; Sylvander, Marc; Kheperu, Mekhakhem; Racz, LeeAnn; Harper, Willie F


    This study integrates artificial neural network (ANN) processing with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based biosensing in the detection of three organic pollutants: aldicarb, dimethyl-methylphosphonate (DMMP), and bisphenol-A (BPA). Overall, the use of the ANN proved to be more reliable than direct correlations for the determination of both chemical concentration and type. The ANN output matched the appropriate chemical concentration and type for three different concentrations and throughout a wide range of stepwise tests. Additionally, chemicals dissolved in the acetate-based feed medium (FM) were accurately identified by the ANN even though the acetate masked the pollutants' effects on electrical current. The ANN also accurately revealed the identity of chemical mixtures. This study is the first to incorporate ANN modeling with MFC-based biosensing for the detection and quantification of organic pollutants that are not readily biodegradable. Furthermore, this work provides insight into the flexibility of MFC-based biosensing as it pertains to limits of detection and its applicability to scenarios where mixtures of pollutants and unique solvents are involved. This research effort is expected to serve as a guide for future MFC-based biosensing efforts.

  13. Suscetibilidade de genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Leandro Borges


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade de diversos genótipos de feijão ao vírus-do-mosaico-dourado (VMDF, transmitido pela mosca branca (Bemisia tabaci. A semeadura foi realizada na época da seca e das águas, com e sem aplicação do inseticida granulado Aldicarb (3,0 kg ha-1 do i.a. no sulco de semeadura. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados disposto em esquema fatorial 14x2, representado por genótipos e inseticida, respectivamente, com quatro repetições. A maior infestação de mosca-branca e incidência do vírus ocorreu na época da seca, causando prejuízos à produção do feijoeiro. Os genótipos apresentaram diferentes graus de suscetibilidade ao vírus e ao inseto vetor. Os genótipos mais tolerantes foram IAPAR 57, IAPAR 65, IAPAR 72, Ônix, Aporé e 606 (5(214-17. A aplicação do inseticida sistêmico controla o vetor em ambas as épocas de cultivo, proporcionando aumentos da produtividade.

  14. Dopamine modulates acetylcholine release via octopamine and CREB signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suo

    Full Text Available Animals change their behavior and metabolism in response to external stimuli. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB is a signal-activated transcription factor that enables the coupling of extracellular signals and gene expression to induce adaptive changes. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters regulate CREB and such regulation is important for long-term changes in various nervous system functions, including learning and drug addiction. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the amine neurotransmitter octopamine activates a CREB homolog, CRH-1, in cholinergic SIA neurons, whereas dopamine suppresses CREB activation by inhibiting octopamine signaling in response to food stimuli. However, the physiological role of this activation is unknown. In this study, the effect of dopamine, octopamine, and CREB on acetylcholine signaling was analyzed using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. Mutants with decreased dopamine signaling exhibited reduced acetylcholine signaling, and octopamine and CREB functioned downstream of dopamine in this regulation. This study demonstrates that the regulation of CREB by amine neurotransmitters modulates acetylcholine release from the neurons of C. elegans.

  15. Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides: Validation of Semi-Volatile Analysis by HPLC-MS/MS by EPA Method MS666

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, J; Koester, C


    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Region 5 Chicago Regional Laboratory (CRL) developed a method for analysis of aldicarb, bromadiolone, carbofuran, oxamyl, and methomyl in water by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), titled Method EPA MS666. This draft standard operating procedure (SOP) was distributed to multiple EPA laboratories and to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which was tasked to serve as a reference laboratory for EPA's Environmental Reference Laboratory Network (ERLN) and to develop and validate analytical procedures. The primary objective of this study was to validate and verify the analytical procedures described in MS666 for analysis of carbamate pesticides in aqueous samples. The gathered data from this validation study will be used to: (1) demonstrate analytical method performance; (2) generate quality control acceptance criteria; and (3) revise the SOP to provide a validated method that would be available for use during a homeland security event. The data contained in this report will be compiled, by EPA CRL, with data generated by other EPA Regional laboratories so that performance metrics of Method EPA MS666 can be determined.

  16. Confirmed organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in South African wildlife (2009–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo J. Botha


    Full Text Available During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014, specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI for analysis. A positive diagnosis was made in 135 (39% of these cases. The majority of cases were from birds, which included Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres and African white-backed vultures (Gyps africanus and bateleur eagles (Terathopius ecaudatus. In one incident 49 vultures were killed when a farmer intentionally laced carcasses with carbofuran in an attempt to control jackal predation. There were 22 incidents of poisoning in helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris. On nine different occasions blue cranes (Anthropoides paradiseus were poisoned, in one incident 14 birds were reported to have been killed. Over the period of investigation, there were 20 cases of poisoning involving mammalian species, the majority being vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus. The carbamate pesticides were responsible for 57 incidents of poisoning. Aldicarb, carbofuran and methomyl were detected in 26, 18 and 12 cases respectively. The majority of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings were caused by diazinon (n = 19, monocrotophos (n = 13 and methamidophos (n = 10.

  17. The Use and Effect of Carbamate Insecticide on Animal Health and Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of carbamate in Indonesia is relatively new, in particular after prohibition on the use of most organochlorines (OC. Carbamates that commonly used for agricultural activities are carbofuran (Furadan, aldicarb (Temik and carbaryl (Sevin. When properly used, they will provide benefit, but misuse of insecticides would affect productivity, poisoning, public health problems, environmental contamination and residues in foods. A monitoring result of carbamate used in Java indicates that carbofurans were detected in soils (0,8 – 56,3 ppb; water (0,1 – 5,0 ppb; rice (nd – 5,0 ppb; soybeans (1,2 – 610 ppb; animal feed (12 – 102 ppb; beef (110 – 269 ppb; and sera of beef cattle (167 – 721 ppb. The residue level was above the maximum residue limits (MRL released by Indonesian Standardization Agency (Badan Standardisasi Nasional in some samples. The presence of carbofuran in foods should be taken into account since the carbofuran is regarded highly toxic for public and animal health. This paper describes the toxicity of carbamate, clinical signs of poisoning, residue in foods and environment, handling of poisoning and residue control.

  18. A new role for laminins as modulators of protein toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Jensen, Louise T; Møller, Tine H; Larsen, Simon A; Jakobsen, Helle; Olsen, Anders


    Protein misfolding is a common theme in aging and several age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The processes involved in the development of these diseases are many and complex. Here, we show that components of the basement membrane (BM), particularly laminin, affect protein integrity of the muscle cells they support. We knocked down gene expression of epi-1, a laminin α-chain, and found that this resulted in increased proteotoxicity in different Caenorhabditis elegans transgenic models, expressing aggregating proteins in the body wall muscle. The effect could partially be rescued by decreased insulin-like signaling, known to slow the aging process and the onset of various age-related diseases. Our data points to an underlying molecular mechanism involving proteasomal degradation and HSP-16 chaperone activity. Furthermore, epi-1-depleted animals had altered synaptic function and displayed hypersensitivity to both levamisole and aldicarb, an acetylcholine receptor agonist and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, respectively. Our results implicate the BM as an extracellular modulator of protein homeostasis in the adjacent muscle cells. This is in agreement with previous research showing that imbalance in neuromuscular signaling disturbs protein homeostasis in the postsynaptic cell. In our study, proteotoxicity may indeed be mediated by the neuromuscular junction which is part of the BM, where laminins are present in high concentration, ensuring the proper microenvironment for neuromuscular signaling. Laminins are evolutionarily conserved, and thus the BM may play a much more causal role in protein misfolding diseases than currently recognized.

  19. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M


    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  20. The Parallel Worm Tracker: a platform for measuring average speed and drug-induced paralysis in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion is a simple behavior that has been widely used to dissect genetic components of behavior, synaptic transmission, and muscle function. Many of the paradigms that have been created to study C. elegans locomotion rely on qualitative experimenter observation. Here we report the implementation of an automated tracking system developed to quantify the locomotion of multiple individual worms in parallel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our tracking system generates a consistent measurement of locomotion that allows direct comparison of results across experiments and experimenters and provides a standard method to share data between laboratories. The tracker utilizes a video camera attached to a zoom lens and a software package implemented in MATLAB. We demonstrate several proof-of-principle applications for the tracker including measuring speed in the absence and presence of food and in the presence of serotonin. We further use the tracker to automatically quantify the time course of paralysis of worms exposed to aldicarb and levamisole and show that tracker performance compares favorably to data generated using a hand-scored metric. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this is not the first automated tracking system developed to measure C. elegans locomotion, our tracking software package is freely available and provides a simple interface that includes tools for rapid data collection and analysis. By contrast with other tools, it is not dependent on a specific set of hardware. We propose that the tracker may be used for a broad range of additional worm locomotion applications including genetic and chemical screening.

  1. Behavioral analysis of the huntingtin-associated protein 1 ortholog trak-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Norflus, Fran; Bu, Jingnan; Guyton, Evon; Gutekunst, Claire-Anne


    The precise role of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (HAP1) is not known, but studies have shown that it is important for early development and survival. A Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of HAP1, T27A3.1 (also called trak-1), has been found and is expressed in a subset of neurons. Potential behavioral functions of three knockout lines of T27A3.1 were examined. From its suspected role in mice we hypothesize that T27A3.1 might be involved in egg hatching and early growth, mechanosensation, chemosensation, sensitivity to osmolarity, and synaptic transmission. Our studies show that the knockout worms are significantly different from the wild-type (WT) worms only in the synaptic transmission test, which was measured by adding aldicarb, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. The change in function was determined by measuring the number of worms paralyzed. However, when the T27A3.1 worms were tested for egg hatching and early growth, mechanosensation, chemosensation, and sensitivity to osmolarity, there were no significant differences between the knockout and WT worms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An ALS-linked mutant SOD1 produces a locomotor defect associated with aggregation and synaptic dysfunction when expressed in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Jiou Wang


    Full Text Available The nature of toxic effects exerted on neurons by misfolded proteins, occurring in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, is poorly understood. One approach to this problem is to measure effects when such proteins are expressed in heterologous neurons. We report on effects of an ALS-associated, misfolding-prone mutant human SOD1, G85R, when expressed in the neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Stable mutant transgenic animals, but not wild-type human SOD1 transgenics, exhibited a strong locomotor defect associated with the presence, specifically in mutant animals, of both soluble oligomers and insoluble aggregates of G85R protein. A whole-genome RNAi screen identified chaperones and other components whose deficiency increased aggregation and further diminished locomotion. The nature of the locomotor defect was investigated. Mutant animals were resistant to paralysis by the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb, while exhibiting normal sensitivity to the cholinergic agonist levamisole and normal muscle morphology. When fluorescently labeled presynaptic components were examined in the dorsal nerve cord, decreased numbers of puncta corresponding to neuromuscular junctions were observed in mutant animals and brightness was also diminished. At the EM level, mutant animals exhibited a reduced number of synaptic vesicles. Neurotoxicity in this system thus appears to be mediated by misfolded SOD1 and is exerted on synaptic vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking.

  3. Preparation of graphene/TiO{sub 2} composites by nonionic surfactant strategy and their simulated sunlight and visible light photocatalytic activity towards representative aqueous POPs degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kexin; Xiong, Jingjing; Chen, Tong [Provincial Key Laboratory of Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Blocking Technology, Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong Uuniversity, Nanchang 330063 (China); Yan, Liushui, E-mail: [Provincial Key Laboratory of Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Blocking Technology, Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong Uuniversity, Nanchang 330063 (China); Dai, Yuhua; Song, Dongyang; Lv, Ying; Zeng, Zhenxing [Provincial Key Laboratory of Ecological Diagnosis-Remediation and Pollution Blocking Technology, Department of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong Uuniversity, Nanchang 330063 (China)


    Highlights: ► A series of graphene/TiO{sub 2} composites were developed by nonionic surfactant strategy. ► The textural property, optical property, and composition were well characterized. ► Aqueous POPs were degraded under simulated sunlight and visible light irradiation. ► The degradation mechanism and kinetics of aqueous POPs were studied in detail. ► Mineralization of aqueous POPs and recyclability of the composites were also tested. -- Abstract: A series of graphene/TiO{sub 2} composites were fabricated using a single-step nonionic surfactant strategy combined with the solvothermal treatment technique. Their phase structure, morphology, porosity, optical absorption property, as well as composition and structure, were characterized. The as-prepared composites were successfully applied to degrade aqueous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as rhodamine B, aldicarb, and norfloxacin in simulated sunlight (λ > 320 nm) and visible light (λ > 400 nm) irradiation. The degradation mechanism and kinetics of aqueous POPs were studied in detail. The mineralization of aqueous POPs and the recyclability of the composites were also tested in the same condition.

  4. Influence of Cultural and Pest Management Practices on Performance of Runner, Spanish, and Virginia Market Types in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget R. Lassiter


    Full Text Available Virginia market type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars are grown primarily in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in the US, although growers in these states often plant other market types if marketing opportunities are available. Information on yield potential and management strategies comparing these market types is limited in North Carolina. In separate experiments, research was conducted to determine response of runner, Spanish, and Virginia market types to calcium sulfate and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium at planting, planting and digging dates, planting patterns, and seeding rates. In other experiments, control of thrips (Frankliniella spp. using aldicarb, southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Howardi using chlorpyrifos, eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L. using threshold-based postemergence herbicides, and leaf spot disease (caused by the fungi Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum fungicide programs was compared in these market types. Results showed that management practice and market types interacted for peanut pod yield in only the planting date experiment. Yield of runner and Virginia market types was similar and exceeded yield of the Spanish market type in most experiments.

  5. Altered Function of the DnaJ Family Cochaperone DNJ-17 Modulates Locomotor Circuit Activity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Seizure Model (United States)

    Takayanagi-Kiya, Seika; Jin, Yishi


    The highly conserved cochaperone DnaJ/Hsp40 family proteins are known to interact with molecular chaperone Hsp70, and can regulate many cellular processes including protein folding, translocation, and degradation. In studies of Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion mutants, we identified a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in dnj-17 closely linked to the widely used e156 null allele of C. elegans GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) unc-25. dnj-17 encodes a DnaJ protein orthologous to human DNAJA5. In C. elegans DNJ-17 is a cytosolic protein and is broadly expressed in many tissues. dnj-17(gf) causes a single amino acid substitution in a conserved domain, and behaves as a hypermorphic mutation. The effect of this dnj-17(gf) is most prominent in mutants lacking GABA synaptic transmission. In a seizure model caused by a mutation in the ionotropic acetylcholine receptor acr-2(gf), dnj-17(gf) exacerbates the convulsion phenotype in conjunction with absence of GABA. Null mutants of dnj-17 show mild resistance to aldicarb, while dnj-17(gf) is hypersensitive. These results highlight the importance of DnaJ proteins in regulation of C. elegans locomotor circuit, and provide insights into the in vivo roles of DnaJ proteins in humans. PMID:27185401

  6. Fluensulfone is a nematicide with a mode of action distinct from anticholinesterases and macrocyclic lactones. (United States)

    Kearn, James; Ludlow, Elizabeth; Dillon, James; O'Connor, Vincent; Holden-Dye, Lindy


    Plant parasitic nematodes infest crops and present a threat to food security worldwide. Currently available chemical controls e.g. methyl bromide, organophosphates and carbamates have an unacceptable level of toxicity to non-target organisms and are being withdrawn from use. Fluensulfone is a new nematicide of the fluoroalkenyl thioether group that has significantly reduced environmental impact with low toxicity to non-target insects and mammals. Here, we show that the model genetic organism Caenorhabditis elegans is susceptible to the irreversible nematicidal effects of fluensulfone. Whilst the dose required is higher than that which has nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne spp. the profile of effects on motility, egg-hatching and survival is similar to that reported for plant parasitic nematodes. C. elegans thus provides a tractable experimental paradigm to analyse the effects of fluensulfone on nematode behaviour. We find that fluensulfone has pleiotropic actions and inhibits development, egg-laying, egg-hatching, feeding and locomotion. In the case of feeding and locomotion, an early excitation precedes the gross inhibition. The profile of these effects is notably distinct from other classes of anthelmintic and nematicide: the inhibition of motility caused by fluensulfone is not accompanied by the hypercontraction which is characteristic of organophosphates and carbamates and C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the carbamate aldicarb and the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin retain susceptibility to fluensulfone. These data indicate fluensulfone's mode of action is distinct from currently available nematicides and it therefore presents a promising new chemical entity for crop protection.

  7. Use of an ionic liquid-based surfactant as pseudostationary phase in the analysis of carbamates by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud


    The applicability of an ionic liquid-based cationic surfactant 1-dodecyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (C12 MImBF4 ) as pseudostationary phase in MEKC has been evaluated for the analysis of 11 carbamate pesticides (promecarb, carbofuran, metolcarb, fenobucarb, aldicarb, propoxur, asulam, benomyl, carbendazim, ethiofencarb, isoprocarb) in juice samples. Under optimum conditions (separation buffer, 35 mM NaHCO3 and 20 mM C12 MImBF4 , pH 9.0; capillary temperature 25°C; voltage -22 kV) the analysis was carried out in less than 12 min, using hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar for 7.5 s) and detection at 200 nm. For the extraction of these CRBs from juice samples, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure has been proposed, by optimization of variables affecting the efficiency of the extraction. Following this treatment, sample throughput was approximately 12 samples per hour, obtaining a preconcentration factor of 20. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established using tomato juice as representative matrix (from 5 to 250 μg/L for CBZ, BY, PX, CF, FEN, ETH, ISP, and 25-250 μg/L for ASL, ALD, PRC, MTL), obtaining quantification limits ranging from 1 to 18 μg/L and recoveries from 70 to 96%, with RSDs lower than 9%.

  8. Goalpha regulates volatile anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    van Swinderen, B; Metz, L B; Shebester, L D; Mendel, J E; Sternberg, P W; Crowder, C M


    To identify genes controlling volatile anesthetic (VA) action, we have screened through existing Caenorhabditis elegans mutants and found that strains with a reduction in Go signaling are VA resistant. Loss-of-function mutants of the gene goa-1, which codes for the alpha-subunit of Go, have EC(50)s for the VA isoflurane of 1.7- to 2.4-fold that of wild type. Strains overexpressing egl-10, which codes for an RGS protein negatively regulating goa-1, are also isoflurane resistant. However, sensitivity to halothane, a structurally distinct VA, is differentially affected by Go pathway mutants. The RGS overexpressing strains, a goa-1 missense mutant found to carry a novel mutation near the GTP-binding domain, and eat-16(rf) mutants, which suppress goa-1(gf) mutations, are all halothane resistant; goa-1(null) mutants have wild-type sensitivities. Double mutant strains carrying mutations in both goa-1 and unc-64, which codes for a neuronal syntaxin previously found to regulate VA sensitivity, show that the syntaxin mutant phenotypes depend in part on goa-1 expression. Pharmacological assays using the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb suggest that VAs and GOA-1 similarly downregulate cholinergic neurotransmitter release in C. elegans. Thus, the mechanism of action of VAs in C. elegans is regulated by Goalpha, and presynaptic Goalpha-effectors are candidate VA molecular targets.

  9. Extração por fluido supercrítico de alguns inseticidas carbamatos em amostras de batata, com determinação por HPLC/fluorescência e confirmação por HPLC/espectrometria de massas

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    Nunes Gilvanda Silva


    Full Text Available Six supercritical fluid extraction (SFE methods were tested, by varying the following operational parameters: CO2 pressure, time and temperature of extraction, type and proportion of static modifier, and Hydromatrix®/sample rate into cell. Firstly, insecticide carbamates were extracted from spiked potatoes samples (fortification level of 0,5 mg.Kg-1 by using SPE procedures, and then final extracts were analyzed HPLC/fluorescence. Good performance was observed with SFE methods that operated with values of temperature and CO2 pressure of 50 ºC and 350 bar, respectively. Best efficiency was obtained when it was used acetonitrile as a modifier (3% on the cell volume, and Hydromatrix®/sample rate of 2:1. Static time was of 1 min; total extraction time was of 35 min; dynamic extraction was performed with 15 mL of CO2, and it was used methanol (2 mL for the dissolution of the final residue. In such conditions, pesticide recoveries varied from 72 to 94%, depending on the analyzed compound. In higher extraction temperatures, a rapid degradation was observed for some compounds, such as aldicarb and carbaryl; presence of their metabolites was further confirmed by HPLC-APCI/MS in positive mode. Detection limits for chromatographic analysis varied from 0,2 to 1,3 ng.

  10. Intoxicação em cães e gatos: diagnóstico toxicológico empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia líquida de alta pressão com detecção ultravioleta em amostras estomacais Intoxication in dogs and cats: toxicological diagnosis using thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection in stomach samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Picada Bulcão


    Full Text Available Agrotóxicos e raticidas são responsáveis por inúmeras intoxicações humanas e animais. Dados preliminares sugerem que o uso ilegal desses compostos com a finalidade de intoxicação fatal em pequenos animais é uma prática comum na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O Laboratório de Toxicologia (LATOX recebe amostras de casos em que a principal suspeita é a intoxicação por agrotóxicos ou raticidas (lícitos e ilícitos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo apresentar um levantamento das intoxicações de pequenos animais, analisadas pelo LATOX no período de 2004 a 2008, sendo identificados os xenobióticos por meio de métodos analíticos otimizados pelo laboratório, incluindo screening por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e possível confirmação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE-UV. No período, foram analisadas 68 amostras oriundas de intoxicações em cães e gatos. As amostras biológicas analisadas foram o estômago e o conteúdo estomacal, das quais a CCD permitiu a identificação de carbamatos, warfarina e estricnina. Esta mostrou ser uma técnica qualitativa eficiente e adequada para esse propósito, além de ser relativamente rápida, de baixo custo e de sofrer pouca interferência de componentes da matriz. Também foi realizado um screening toxicológico por CLAE-UV para os carbamatos n-metilados: aldicarb, carbaril, carbofuran e propoxur. O resultado das análises indicou que o principal agente tóxico encontrado foi o aldicarb (chumbinho, responsável por 39,7% das intoxicações (27 casos, seguido por estricnina (seis casos, warfarina (três casos e monofluoracetato de sódio (um caso. Sendo assim, o "chumbinho" foi o principal agente envolvido em intoxicações de cães e gatos na região central do Estado no período avaliado, e os métodos analíticos CCD e CLAE-UV podem ser utilizados de forma eficiente na rotina laboratorial para identificação e confirmação dos xenobi

  11. Pesticide contamination of the coastline of Martinique. (United States)

    Bocquené, Gilles; Franco, Alain


    In January and February 2002, the presence of certain agricultural pesticides throughout the coastline of the Caribbean island of Martinique was investigated. The tropical climate of the French West Indies is suitable for banana production, which requires intensive use of pesticides. An inventory of all pesticides used on the island (compounds and tonnage) was compiled. Surveys and analyses revealed the presence of pesticides in the plumes of seven rivers. The organochlorine chlordecone and metabolites of aldicarb were detected at nearly all of the monitored sites, even though the use of chlordecone has been prohibited since 1993. Two triazines (ametryn and simazine) were also identified. The concentrations of carbamates and triazines detected in the water and sediment samples from Martinique are comparable to those reported for mainland France. Chlordecone concentrations in the sediment and particulate matter samples were, however, particularly high in the samples from Martinique. Toxicological implications are discussed. Of particular concern are the high levels of chlordecone (which is bioaccumulating and carcinogenic) and further monitoring of this compound is recommended, especially in fish and other sea-food products.

  12. Isolation of oxamyl-degrading bacteria and identification of cehA as a novel oxamyl hydrolase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina eRousidou


    Full Text Available Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety

  13. Management of Pratylenchus penetrans on Oriental Lilies with Drip and Foliar-applied Nematicides. (United States)

    Westerdahl, B B; Giraud, D; Radewald, J D; Anderson, C A; Darso, J


    Pratylenchus penetrans is a pest for producers of oriental lilies in northern California. Concern over groundwater contamination from 1,2-dichloropropane following shank injections of 1,3-dichloropropene-l,2-dichloropropane mixture and granular applications of aldicarb prompted testing for alternative methods of controlling P. penetrans. In field trials, nematicides applied by drip irrigation (ethoprop, fenamiphos, oxamyl, sodium tetrathiocarbonate, water extracts of marigold and vetch, and 1,3-D plus emulsifier) were tested with and without foliar applications of oxamyl. Nematode populations were reduced (P = 0.05) relative to controls in soil or roots on one or more sampling dates by all drip-applied nematicides except the plant extracts. On some sampling dates, additional reductions (P = 0.05) occurred as a result of three foliar applications of oxamyl. Foliar-applied oxamyl alone also reduced (P = 0.05) nematodes in soil or roots. Lily bulb weight was not affected (P = 0.05) by chemical treatments.

  14. Effects of Bahiagrass and Nematicides on Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut. (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E


    A field infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and with a history of peanut yield losses was divided into two equal parts. One-half of the field (bahia site) was planted to bahiagrass in 1986 and maintained through 1987. The other half (peanut site) was planted to soybean in 1986 and peanut in 1987 with hairy vetch planted each fall as a cover crop. In 1988 identical nematicide treatments including 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), aldicarb, and ethoprop were applied to the two sites, and the sites were planted with the peanut cultivar Florunner. At mid-season, population levels of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles in the bahia site were relatively low, compared with those in the peanut site. At harvest, however, population levels were high in both sites. No nematicide treatment increased yields over the untreated control in either site (P

  15. Isolation of Oxamyl-degrading Bacteria and Identification of cehA as a Novel Oxamyl Hydrolase Gene (United States)

    Rousidou, Konstantina; Chanika, Eleni; Georgiadou, Dafne; Soueref, Eftychia; Katsarou, Demetra; Kolovos, Panagiotis; Ntougias, Spyridon; Tourna, Maria; Tzortzakakis, Emmanuel A.; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G.


    Microbial degradation is the main process controlling the environmental dissipation of the nematicide oxamyl. Despite that, little is known regarding the microorganisms involved in its biotransformation. We report the isolation of four oxamyl-degrading bacterial strains from an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of oxamyl. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) assigned the isolated bacteria to different subgroups of the genus Pseudomonas. The isolated bacteria hydrolyzed oxamyl to oxamyl oxime, which was not further transformed, and utilized methylamine as a C and N source. This was further supported by the detection of methylamine dehydrogenase in three of the four isolates. All oxamyl-degrading strains carried a gene highly homologous to a carbamate-hydrolase gene cehA previously identified in carbaryl- and carbofuran-degrading strains. Transcription analysis verified its direct involvement in the hydrolysis of oxamyl. Selected isolates exhibited relaxed degrading specificity and transformed all carbamates tested including the oximino carbamates aldicarb and methomyl (structurally related to oxamyl) and the aryl-methyl carbamates carbofuran and carbaryl which share with oxamyl only the carbamate moiety. PMID:27199945

  16. Control of Heterodera carotae, Ditylenchus dipsaci, and Meloidogyne javanica with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides. (United States)

    Greco, N; Elia, F; Brandonisio, A


    Five field trials were conducted in Italy in 1983 and 1984 to test the efficacy of isazofos and benfuracarb in controlling Heterodera carotae on carrot, Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion, and Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) was tested against H. carotae and M. javanica. Single (10 kg a.i./ha) and split (5 + 5 kg a.i./ha) applications of isazofos gave yield increases of carrot and onion similar to those obtained with DD (300 liters/ha) and aldicarb (10 kg a.i./ha). Population densities of H. carotae in carrot roots at harvest and of M. javanica in tomato roots 2 months after transplanting were also suppressed by isazofos. Benfuracarb (10 kg a.i./ha increased onion yields in a field infested with D. dipsaci, but it was not effective against H. carotae or M. javanica. The efficacy of MIT at 400 and 600 liters/ha was similar to that of MIT + DD (Di-Trapex) at 300 liters/ha. Both nematicides inhibited hatch of H. carotae eggs and decreased the soil population density of M. javanica.

  17. Control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in Infected Garlic Seed Cloves by Nonfumigant Nematicides. (United States)

    Roberts, P A; Greathead, A S


    Different rates of granular formulations ofaldicarb, carbofuran, ethoprop, fensulfothion, and phenamiphos were applied directly onto garlic seed cloves in the seed furrow in sandy clay loam, clay loam, and loam soils at planting to assess efficacy for control of Ditylenchus dipsaci in infected seed cloves. All treatments were compared to hotwater-formalin clove dip disinfection treatment and to nontreated infected controls. Aldicarb and phenamiphos at 2.52 and 5.04 kg a.i./ ha, but not at lower rates, effectively suppressed infection by D. dipsaci and increased yields. Although both nematicides slightly slowed the rate of plant emergence, normal stands were established. Trace levels of infection occurred in all treatments, including the hotwater-formalin dip. Carbofuran at 5.04 kg a.i./ha controlled the nematode but was phytotoxic. Ethoprop was phytotoxic. Fensulfothion did not control D. dipsaci even at the highest application rate, 8.90 kg a.i./ha. Single and multiple applications of oxamyl at 1.12-8.96 kg a.i./ha, applied as a surface spray or in furrow irrigation water, slowed the early progression of disease symptoms but failed to provide season-long nematode control.

  18. Effects of crop rotation and nonfumigant nematicides on peanut and corn yields in fields infested with criconemella species. (United States)

    Ayers, A R; Duncan, H E; Barker, K R; Beute, M K


    The effects of nematicide treatments and corn-peanut cropping sequences on the population development of Criconemella ornata, and C. sphaerocephala and the related impact on crop yields were investigated at two North Carolina locations. Criconemella ornata and C. sphaerocephala were present at the Norman Perry farm, Bertie County (BERTIE); however, only C. ornata was found at the Central Crops Research Station, Johnston County (CCRS). An untreated control was compared to aldicarb 15G, carbofuran 15G, ethoprop 10G, and terbufos 15G granular formulations applied at a rate of 2.2 kg a.i./ha. The cropping sequences were monocuhured corn (C-C-C); monocultured peanut (P-P-P); and two corn-peanut (C-P-C; P-C-P) rotations. Nematicides were inconsistent in controlling C. sphaerocephala and C. ornata. Nematicide treatments enhanced corn yields in the monoculture-cropping cycle in the final year of the experiment at CCRS. Peanut yields were greater in the rotated cropping sequence than under monoculture at BERTIE, but rotation had less effect on peanut yields at CCRS. Declining yields were correlated with an increase in numbers of nematodes. Corn was an intermediate host for C. sphaerocephala and a moderate to poor host for C. ornata. Peanut was an excellent host for C. ornata and a poor host for C. sphaerocephala.

  19. [Chlorination byproducts formation potentials of typical nitrogenous organic compounds in water]. (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Bin; Qin, Cao; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Li, Da-Peng


    Twelve typical nitrogenous organic compounds including herbicides, pesticides, amino acids, industrial products etc in polluted raw water were selected to investigate formation of typical carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs during chlorination and chloramination. To indentify the formation mechanism of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts from nitrogenous chemicals, chlorination and chloroamination of urea herbicides, triazine herbicides, amino acid, and other compounds were investigated. As a result, the potential precursors for different DBPs were defined as well. It has been identified that widely used urea herbicides could produce as many as 9 specific DBPs. The chlorotoluron shows highest reactivity and yields chloroform (CF), monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), 1,1-dichloro-acetone (1,1-DCP), 1,1,1-trichloro-acetone (1,1,1-TCP), chloropicrin (NTCM), dichloro-acetonitrile (DCAN), dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA). The results indicated that aldicarb and dinoseb are important precursors of CF, DCAA, MCAA, NTCM as well. High concentrations of CF and DCAA were found during L-tryptophan chlorination. Furthermore, DBPs formation pathways and mechanisms were suggested during chlorination and chloramination of chlorotoluron, ametryn, dinoseb L-tryptophan.

  20. 徐州市葡萄主产区表层土壤和葡萄中农药残留特征与评价%Characteristics and evaluation of pesticide residues in surface soils and grapes from main grape-producing areas of Xuzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    强承魁; 凤舞剑; 胡长效; 王胜永; 周保亚; 王松松; 秦越华


    The characteristics of pesticide residues in soils and grapes from 3 areas (TSMC, FXSL and SNGZ) of Xuzhou city were studied. The pesticide residues were detected, and the security indexes were analyzed. The results showed that cypermethrin, carbofuran, flusilazole and metalaxyl were detected in TSMC and SNGZ surface soils, but carbofuran was not found in FXSL surface soil. The average detection rates of cypermthrin, metalaxyl, flusilzaole and carbofuran were 100% , 95. 83% , 62. 63% and 45. 70%. Cypermethrin, aldicarb sulfone and carbofurn were detected in TSMC grape, but carbofuran was not found in grapes from the other two areas. The average detection rates of cypermthrin, aldicarb sulfone and carbofurn from different producing areas were 100% , 50% and 20% . IFS andIFS of pesticide residues in grapes from 3 producing areas were less than 1. It was suggested that there were some differences in the detection rates of pesticide residues in surface soils and grapes from 3 grape-producing areas, and the levels of pesticide residues in surface soils could meet the first grade standard of GB 15618 - 1995. Pesticide residues in grapes from 3 producing areas all exceeded the requirement of the standard.%为了解徐州市葡萄主产区土壤和葡萄中农药残留特征,采集3个产区TSMC,FXSL和SNGZ表层土壤和葡萄进行305种农药残留检测,并分析其安全指数.结果表明,TSMC和SNGZ产区表层土壤中均检出氯氰菊酯、克百威、氟硅唑和甲霜灵,而FXSL未检出克百威,3个产区农药残留平均检出率依次为氯氰菊酯(100%)、甲霜灵(95.83%)、氟硅唑(62.63%)和克百威(45.70%);TSMC产区葡萄中检出氯氰菊酯、涕灭威砜和克百威,而另2个产区均未检出克百威,3个产区葡萄中农药残留平均检出率以氯氰菊酯最高(100%),其后分别为涕灭威砜(50%)和克百威(20%);各产区葡萄中农药残留的IFS和均小于1.由此可见,徐州市不同葡萄产区表层土壤

  1. An automated system for measuring parameters of nematode sinusoidal movement

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    Stirbl Robert C


    of the goa-1 gene, which encodes Go-alpha. We also demonstrate the use of this system for analyzing the effects of toxic agents. Concentration-response curves for the toxicants arsenite and aldicarb, both of which affect motility, were determined for wild-type and several mutant strains, identifying P-glycoprotein mutants as not significantly more sensitive to either compound, while cat-4 mutants are more sensitive to arsenite but not aldicarb. Conclusions Automated analysis of nematode movement facilitates a broad spectrum of experiments. Detailed genetic analysis of multiple alleles and of distinct genes in a regulatory network is now possible. These studies will facilitate quantitative modeling of C. elegans movement, as well as a comparison of gene function. Concentration-response curves will allow rigorous analysis of toxic agents as well as of pharmacological agents. This type of system thus represents a powerful analytical tool that can be readily coupled with the molecular genetics of nematodes.

  2. Influência da época de aplicação de nematicidas em soqueiras sobre as populações de nematóides e a produtividade da cana-de-açúcar Application period effect of nematicides in sugarcane ratoon on nematodes populations and sugarcane yield

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    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda


    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de definir a melhor época para aplicação de nematicidas em soqueiras, desenvolveram-se seis experimentos, em canaviais colhidos entre julho e novembro, fazendo aplicação de nematicidas aos 5, 20, 40 ou 60 dias depois da colheita. A aplicação de nematicidas contribuiu para incrementos significativos de produtividade em cinco dos seis experimentos instalados. No experimento em que não se observou incremento significativo de produtividade, as populações de nematóides na área estavam baixas. Nos três tratamentos nematicidas estudados (aldicarb 150G a 8 kg ha-1 ou a 10 kg ha-1 e carbofuran 100G 21 kg ha-1 observou-se desempenho semelhante quanto à redução populacional de nematóides e incrementos de produtividade. Para os experimentos colhidos na época seca, observaram-se os maiores incrementos quando os nematicidas foram aplicados aos 40 ou 60 dias depois do corte. Para o experimento colhido na época chuvosa, os maiores incrementos foram verificados em aplicações feitas aos 20 ou 60 dias depois do corte. Pelos resultados, sugere-se que o período após colheita que se deve aguardar para aplicar o nematicida, a fim de obter os melhores incrementos de produtividade, varia em função da época de colheita do canavial, sendo maior (40 a 60 dias em canaviais colhidos em época seca e menor (20 dias em canaviais colhidos na época chuvosa.The objective of this work was to define the best period of nematicides application in sugarcane ratoon, Six experiments were carried out in the sugarcane field harvested from July through November during which nematicides were applied at 5, 20, 40 or 60 days after harvesting. Nematicides contributed to increase yield in five of the six experiments. In the experiment in which yield increase was not observed, nematode population was low. The three nematicide treatments (aldicarb 150G at doses 8 kg.ha-1 or 10 kg.ha-1 and carbofuran 100G 21 kg.ha-1 promoted similar reductions in the

  3. Seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência da cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515 tratada com nematicidas Selectivity of herbicides applied on pre-emergence of nematicide-treated sugarcane crop (RB 867515

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    J.F. Barela


    Full Text Available A aplicação simultânea de duas ou mais classes de defensivos sobre uma cultura agrícola pode provocar toxicidade às plantas. Assim, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade de herbicidas à cultura da cana-de-açúcar (RB 867515, quando aplicados em condição de pré-emergência, em áreas previamente tratadas com nematicidas no sulco de plantio. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área comercial de produção de cana-de-açúcar, no município de Piracicaba - SP, entre abril de 2003 e julho de 2004. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre nove fatores herbicidas e quatro fatores nematicidas. Os herbicidas usados no experimento foram: sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron, metribuzin, ametrina, diuron, clomazone, pendimethalin e diuron + hexazinone, além de uma testemunha capinada. Os nematicidas utilizados foram: carbofuran, terbufós, aldicarb e uma testemunha sem nematicida. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade das diferentes combinações aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a brotação, o rendimento (t ha-1 e os parâmetros tecnológicos qualitativos. Observou-se que a seletividade inicial dos herbicidas foi prejudicada em função da interação das diferentes classes de defensivos utilizadas. Os sintomas de fitotoxicidade foram agudos, e os casos mais evidentes se originaram da associação dos nematicidas com clomazone, pendimethalin e tebuthiuron. Contudo, os danos fitotóxicos não se refletiram em perdas significativas de rendimento ou de qualidade de colmos, fato esse que pode ter sido influenciado pela capacidade de recuperação de injúrias apresentada pela variedade RB 867515, pela ocorrência de altas infestações de nematóides ou pela elevada variabilidade experimental.Simultaneous applications of two or more classes of herbicides on a crop may promote ,totoxicity in the plants. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide selectivity in sugarcane, when applied under pre-emergence condition, in

  4. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

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    Jean-Claude Assad


    Full Text Available Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also been associated with several cases of pesticide poisoning. In this research, we conducted a field survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the farmer’s community regarding the safe use of pesticides. We also evaluated the residual concentrations of selected pesticides in water, soil, milk, fish, and orange samples, and estimated the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that more than 95% of farm workers do not practice safety precautions during pesticide formulation and application; leading to a considerable prevalence of pesticide-related illnesses in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in various environmental samples varied greatly; from below detection levels (3-5 ng to as high as 325 ppb depending on the matrix of interest, and the specific pesticide of concern. The analysis of health risk estimates indicated that chlorpyrifos, DDT, dimethoate, methomyl, and larvin did not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in water, milk, orange, and/or fish. However, aldicarb, and carbosulfan levels exceeded the reference doses, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. The upper-bound values of cancer risk from DDT exposure were estimated to be about 8 (adults, and 55 (children excess cancers in a population of one million.

  5. Select small core structure carbamates exhibit high contact toxicity to "carbamate-resistant" strain malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae (Akron.

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    Dawn M Wong

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a proven target for control of the malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae. Unfortunately, a single amino acid mutation (G119S in An. gambiae AChE-1 (AgAChE confers resistance to the AChE inhibitors currently approved by the World Health Organization for indoor residual spraying. In this report, we describe several carbamate inhibitors that potently inhibit G119S AgAChE and that are contact-toxic to carbamate-resistant An. gambiae. PCR-RFLP analysis was used to confirm that carbamate-susceptible G3 and carbamate-resistant Akron strains of An. gambiae carry wild-type (WT and G119S AChE, respectively. G119S AgAChE was expressed and purified for the first time, and was shown to have only 3% of the turnover number (k(cat of the WT enzyme. Twelve carbamates were then assayed for inhibition of these enzymes. High resistance ratios (>2,500-fold were observed for carbamates bearing a benzene ring core, consistent with the carbamate-resistant phenotype of the G119S enzyme. Interestingly, resistance ratios for two oxime methylcarbamates, and for five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates were found to be much lower (4- to 65-fold. The toxicities of these carbamates to live G3 and Akron strain An. gambiae were determined. As expected from the enzyme resistance ratios, carbamates bearing a benzene ring core showed low toxicity to Akron strain An. gambiae (LC(50>5,000 μg/mL. However, one oxime methylcarbamate (aldicarb and five pyrazol-4-yl methylcarbamates (4a-e showed good to excellent toxicity to the Akron strain (LC(50 = 32-650 μg/mL. These results suggest that appropriately functionalized "small-core" carbamates could function as a resistance-breaking anticholinesterase insecticides against the malaria mosquito.

  6. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals. (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A


    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log Kow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models.

  7. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides. (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca


    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  8. High levels of miticides and agrochemicals in North American apiaries: implications for honey bee health.

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    Christopher A Mullin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent declines in honey bees for crop pollination threaten fruit, nut, vegetable and seed production in the United States. A broad survey of pesticide residues was conducted on samples from migratory and other beekeepers across 23 states, one Canadian province and several agricultural cropping systems during the 2007-08 growing seasons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used LC/MS-MS and GC/MS to analyze bees and hive matrices for pesticide residues utilizing a modified QuEChERS method. We have found 121 different pesticides and metabolites within 887 wax, pollen, bee and associated hive samples. Almost 60% of the 259 wax and 350 pollen samples contained at least one systemic pesticide, and over 47% had both in-hive acaricides fluvalinate and coumaphos, and chlorothalonil, a widely-used fungicide. In bee pollen were found chlorothalonil at levels up to 99 ppm and the insecticides aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, fungicides boscalid, captan and myclobutanil, and herbicide pendimethalin at 1 ppm levels. Almost all comb and foundation wax samples (98% were contaminated with up to 204 and 94 ppm, respectively, of fluvalinate and coumaphos, and lower amounts of amitraz degradates and chlorothalonil, with an average of 6 pesticide detections per sample and a high of 39. There were fewer pesticides found in adults and brood except for those linked with bee kills by permethrin (20 ppm and fipronil (3.1 ppm. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 98 pesticides and metabolites detected in mixtures up to 214 ppm in bee pollen alone represents a remarkably high level for toxicants in the brood and adult food of this primary pollinator. This represents over half of the maximum individual pesticide incidences ever reported for apiaries. While exposure to many of these neurotoxicants elicits acute and sublethal reductions in honey bee fitness, the effects of these materials in combinations and their direct association with CCD or

  9. Exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors alters the physiology and motor function of honeybees

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    Sally M Williamson


    Full Text Available Cholinergic signalling is fundamental to neuro-muscular function in most organisms. Sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic pesticides that target cholinergic signalling can alter the behaviour of insects in subtle ways; their influence on non-target organisms may not be readily apparent in simple mortality studies. Beneficial arthropods such as honeybees perform sophisticated behavioural sequences during foraging that, if influenced by pesticides, could impair foraging success and reduce colony health. Here, we investigate the behavioural effects on honeybees of exposure to a selection of pesticides that target cholinergic signalling by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE. To examine how continued exposure to AChE inhibitors affected motor function, we fed adult foraging worker honeybees sub-lethal concentrations of these compounds in sucrose solution for 24 h. Using an assay for locomotion in bees, we scored walking, stopped, grooming, and upside down behaviour continuously for 15 min. At a 10nM concentration, all the AChE inhibitors caused similar effects on behaviour, notably increased grooming activity and changes in the frequency of bouts of behaviour such as head grooming. Coumaphos caused dose-dependent effects on locomotion as well as grooming behaviour, and a 1µM concentration of coumaphos induced symptoms of malaise such as abdomen grooming and defecation. Biochemical assays confirmed that the 4 compounds we assayed (coumaphos, aldicarb, chlorpyrifos, and donepezil or their metabolites acted as AChE inhibitors in bees. Furthermore, we show that transcript expression levels of two honeybee acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were selectively upregulated in the brain and in gut tissues in response to AChE inhibitor exposure. The results of our study imply that the effects of pesticides that rely on this mode of action have subtle yet profound effects on physiological effects on behaviour that could lead to reduced survival.

  10. Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material. (United States)

    Hatamie, Amir; Khan, Azam; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio; Mak, Wing Cheung; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Alnoor, Hatim; Zargar, Behrooz; Bano, Sumaira; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus


    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles.

  11. Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application. (United States)

    Hall, M R; Johnson, A W; Smittle, D A


    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil and increased marketable yield in 1982, but not in 1983 and 1984. When DD, fenamiphos, and aldicarb were applied just before planting either sweet potato or onion, nematode population densities at harvest were lower in treated than in untreated plots. No additional benefits resulted when the nematicides were applied immediately before planting both sweet potato and onion. Correlation coefficients (P

  12. Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Shank-injected Metam Sodium and other Nematicides. (United States)

    Ingham, R E; Hamm, P B; Baune, M; David, N L; Wade, N M


    Metam sodium (MS) is often applied to potato fields via sprinkler irrigation systems (water-run, WR) to reduce propagules of soil-borne pathogenic fungi, particularly Verticillium dahliae, to prevent yield loss from potato early dying disease. However, this procedure has not been effective for controlling quality defects in tubers caused by Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi). In five trials from 1996 to 2001, application of MS by soil shank injection (SH) provided better control and tuber quality than that generally obtained by WR MS, in three of five trials. Results were similar when SH MS was injected at one (41-45 cm), two (15 and 30 cm) or three (15, 30 and 45 cm) depths. In the two trials where SH metam potassium was tested, culls were reduced to 3% and 0% and were equivalent to those resulting from a similar rate in kg a.i./ha of SH MS. A shank-injected tank mix of MS plus ethoprop EC and SH MS plus in-season chemigation applications of oxamyl provided acceptable control in trials where SH MS alone was inadequate. In-furrow application of aldicarb at planting following SH MS did not appear to increase performance. Most consistent control (0-2% culled tubers in five trials) occurred when SH MS at 280 liters/ha was used together with 1,3- dichloropropene (140 liters/ha), applied simultaneously or sequentially. This was similar to combinations of 1,3-D and WR MS, but SH MS may be preferred under certain conditions.

  13. Regulation of neuronal APL-1 expression by cholesterol starvation.

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    Mary Wiese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the deposition of β-amyloid plaques composed primarily of the amyloid-β peptide, a cleavage product of amyloid precursor protein (APP. While mutations in APP lead to the development of Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD, sporadic AD has only one clear genetic modifier: the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE gene. Cholesterol starvation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to molting and arrest phenotypes similar to loss-of-function mutants of the APP ortholog, apl-1 (amyloid precursor-like protein 1, and lrp-1 (lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, suggesting a potential interaction between apl-1 and cholesterol metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previously, we found that RNAi knock-down of apl-1 leads to aldicarb hypersensitivity, indicating a defect in synaptic function. Here we find the same defect is recapitulated during lrp-1 knock-down and by cholesterol starvation. A cholesterol-free diet or loss of lrp-1 directly affects APL-1 levels as both lead to loss of APL-1::GFP fluorescence in neurons. However, loss of cholesterol does not affect global transcription or protein levels as seen by qPCR and Western blot. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that cholesterol and lrp-1 are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission, similar to apl-1. Both are able to modulate APL-1 protein levels in neurons, however cholesterol changes do not affect global apl-1 transcription or APL-1 protein indicating the changes are specific to neurons. Thus, regulation of synaptic transmission and molting by LRP-1 and cholesterol may be mediated by their ability to control APL-1 neuronal protein expression.

  14. Fluorescence biosensing strategy based on mercury ion-mediated DNA conformational switch and nicking enzyme-assisted cycling amplification for highly sensitive detection of carbamate pesticide. (United States)

    Wang, Xiuzhong; Hou, Ting; Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Feng


    Pesticides are of great importance in agricultural and biological fields, but pesticide residues may harm the environment and human health. A highly sensitive fluorescent biosensor for the detection of carbamate pesticide has been developed based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product triggered Hg(2+) release coupled with subsequent nicking enzyme-induced cleavage of a duplex DNA for cycling amplification. In this protocol, two DNA probes, an unmodified single-stranded helper DNA probe 1 (HP1) and a quencher-fluorophore probe (QFP) are ingeniously designed. HP1 can be folded into hairpin configuration through T-Hg(2+)-T base pair formation. QFP, labeled with FAM and BHQ1 at its two terminals, contains the recognition sequence and the cleavage site of the nicking enzyme. In the presence of carbamate pesticide, the activity of AChE is inhibited, and the amount of the product containing the thiol group generated by the hydrolysis reaction of acetylthiocholine chloride (ACh) decreases, resulting in the release of a low concentration of Hg(2+). The number of HP1 that can be selectively unfolded would be reduced and the subsequent nicking enzyme-assisted cleavage processes would be affected, resulting in decreased fluorescence signals. The fluorescence intensity further decreases with the increase of the pesticide concentration. Therefore, the pesticide content can be easily obtained by monitoring the fluorescence signal change, which is inversely proportional to the logarithm of the pesticide concentration. The detection limit of aldicarb, the model analyte, is 3.3 μgL(-1), which is much lower than the Chinese National Standards or those previously reported. The as-proposed method has also been applied to detect carbamate pesticide residues in fresh ginger and artificial lake water samples with satisfactory results, which demonstrates that the method has great potential for practical application in biological or food safety field.

  15. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

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    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado


    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  16. Macoilin, a conserved nervous system-specific ER membrane protein that regulates neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Arellano-Carbajal


    Full Text Available Genome sequence comparisons have highlighted many novel gene families that are conserved across animal phyla but whose biological function is unknown. Here, we functionally characterize a member of one such family, the macoilins. Macoilins are characterized by several highly conserved predicted transmembrane domains towards the N-terminus and by coiled-coil regions C-terminally. They are found throughout Eumetazoa but not in other organisms. Mutants for the single Caenorhabditis elegans macoilin, maco-1, exhibit a constellation of behavioral phenotypes, including defects in aggregation, O₂ responses, and swimming. MACO-1 protein is expressed broadly and specifically in the nervous system and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is excluded from dendrites and axons. Apart from subtle synapse defects, nervous system development appears wild-type in maco-1 mutants. However, maco-1 animals are resistant to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb and sensitive to levamisole, suggesting pre-synaptic defects. Using in vivo imaging, we show that macoilin is required to evoke Ca²(+ transients, at least in some neurons: in maco-1 mutants the O₂-sensing neuron PQR is unable to generate a Ca²(+ response to a rise in O₂. By genetically disrupting neurotransmission, we show that pre-synaptic input is not necessary for PQR to respond to O₂, indicating that the response is mediated by cell-intrinsic sensory transduction and amplification. Disrupting the sodium leak channels NCA-1/NCA-2, or the N-,P/Q,R-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channels, also fails to disrupt Ca²(+ responses in the PQR cell body to O₂ stimuli. By contrast, mutations in egl-19, which encodes the only Caenorhabditis elegans L-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channel α1 subunit, recapitulate the Ca²(+ response defect we see in maco-1 mutants, although we do not see defects in localization of EGL-19. Together, our data suggest that macoilin acts in the ER to regulate assembly or

  17. 线虫中影响活动区形成遗传位点的遗传筛选%Screening for genetic loci affecting the active zone formation in C. elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大勇; 汪洋


    Objective To screen and identify genetic loci affecting the active zone formation in C. elegans. Methods A SYD-2::GFP reporter was constructed and used as an active zone marker for forward genetic screen to identify genetic loci affecting the active zone formation. Results Eight isolated mutant alleles were characterized from 15,000 haploid genomes.The SYD-2::GFP phenotypes of these mutants are mainly reflected as the changes of number, morphology, distribution of puncta and the gaps appearance. Some mutants also exhibit visible behavioral or physical phenotypes, and aldicarb resistant or sensitive phenotypes. Conclusion These mutants provide the opportunity for further systematic research on the active zone formation and the neurotransmission.%目的 筛选与鉴定线虫中影响神经突触活动区形成的遗传位点.方法 我们通过构建SYD-2∷GFP转基因动物作为活动区的标记进行正向遗传筛选,以鉴定影响活动区形成的系列遗传位点.结果 从15 000筛选群体中,我们分离出8个感兴趣的遗传位点.其突变体的表现型主要反映在SYD-2∷GFP荧光标记数目、形态与分布的改变以及大缺口的出现.一些突变体还表现出明显的行为缺陷以及针对涕灭威(aldicarb)的抗性或者敏感性.结论 这些突变体为我们进一步系统研究活动区的形成与神经递质释放的机制提供了重要前提.

  18. Intoxicación con rodenticidas: casos reportados al Centro de Información, Gestión e Investigación en Toxicología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario David Galofre-Ruiz


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los rodenticidas son sustancias químicas destinadas al control de roedores, provocándoles la muerte por diferentes mecanismos: inhibiendo sus sistemas de coagulación sanguínea, bloqueando la enzima acetil colinesterasa, alterando el ciclo de Krebs y por inhibición de sistemas enzimáticos con desplazamiento celular de iones. Objetivo. Identificar los rodenticidas involucrados de manera más frecuente en casos de intoxicaciones agudas en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Investigación descriptiva retrospectiva, donde se revisaron casos de intoxicaciones por rodenticidas reportados al Centro de Información, Gestión e Investigación en Toxicología (CIGITOX en 2012, ocurridos en Colombia y algunos países de Suramérica. Resultados. Se reportaron 177 casos de exposiciones a rodenticidas, más de un 80% de los casos en población joven, 53% de ellos en el sexo femenino y 69% por intentos de suicidio. Los departamentos de Valle del Cauca, Antioquia y Cundinamarca fueron los que más reportaron casos, mientras que un 45% de los eventos ocurrieron en el hogar de la víctima. El rodenticida más usado fue el carbamato aldicarb con 55% de los eventos, seguido por rodenticidas anticoagulantes con 29% y fluoroacetato de sodio con 12%; en la intoxicación con anticoagulantes predominaron los pacientes asintomáticos con 45% de los eventos, en la intoxicación con carbamatos fueron las crisis colinérgicas con 60% y en la intoxicación con fluoroacetato de sodio fueron más frecuentes los síntomas gastrointestinales y del sistema nervioso periférico con 45%. El 64% de los pacientes fue dado de alta después de observación y tratamiento básico, 26% de ellos fue remitido a nivel superior de atención y 5% no se pudo determinar su evolución. Conclusiones. Las intoxicaciones por rodenticidas traen consigo una alta morbilidad y sin intervenciones médicas precisas y oportunas pueden llegar a ser letales.

  19. 水中典型含氮有机物氯化生成消毒副产物的潜能研究%Chlorination Byproducts Formation Potentials of Typical Nitrogenous Organic Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐倩; 徐斌; 覃操; 夏圣骥; 高乃云; 田富箱; 李大鹏


    选取了受污染原水中广泛存在的12种含氮有机物(除草剂、杀虫剂、氨基酸、工业品等),开展了氯化和氯胺化培养生成典型消毒副产物的实验,目的是通过对水中脲类除草剂、嗪类除草剂和其他含氮化合物培养生成不同消毒副产物的生成量,讨论不同种类含氮化合物生成含碳和含氮消毒副产物规律以及考察不同消毒副产物的可能前体物.研究发现,脲类除草剂经过量氯化和氯胺化可产生多达9种消毒副产物,反应活性最高的绿麦隆可生成三氯甲烷(CF)、一氯乙酸(MCAA)、二氯乙酸(DCAA)、1,1-二氯丙酮(1,1-DCP)、1,1,1-三氯丙酮%Twelve typical nitrogenous organic compounds including herbicides,pesticides,amino acids,industrial products etc in polluted raw water were selected to investigate formation of typical carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs during chlorination and chloramination.To indentify the formation mechanism of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts from nitrogenous chemicals,chlorination and chloroamination of urea herbicides,triazine herbicides,amino acid,and other compounds were investigated.As a result,the potential precursors for different DBPs were defined as well.It has been identified that widely used urea herbicides could produce as many as 9 specific DBPs.The chlorotoluron shows highest reactivity and yields chloroform(CF),monochloroacetic acid(MCAA),dichloroacetic acid(DCAA),1,1-dichloro-acetone(1,1-DCP),1,1,1-trichloro-acetone(1,1,1-TCP),chloropicrin(NTCM),dichloro-acetonitrile(DCAN),dimethylnitrosamine(NDMA).The results indicated that aldicarb and dinoseb are important precursors of CF,DCAA,MCAA,NTCM as well.High concentrations of CF and DCAA were found during L-tryptophan chlorination.Furthermore,DBPs formation pathways and mechanisms were suggested during chlorination and chloramination of chlorotoluron,ametryn,dinoseb L-tryptophan.

  20. Biotransformation of pesticides in saturated-zone materials (United States)

    Hoyle, Blythe L.; Arthur, Ellen L.

    Many studies have been conducted to evaluate pesticide contamination of groundwater in the United States, but investigations of pesticide biotransformation in saturated zones are much less numerous than in surface soils. Because results of studies using soils are not directly applicable to the subsurface, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate examples of pesticide biotransformation in saturated-zone materials. Although it must be considered with caution, the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) "Pesticides in Ground Water Database" was used to focus the discussion on the biotransformation potential of dibromoethane (EDB), atrazine, acetanilide herbicides, and aldicarb, all of which have been detected in groundwater in the United States. Results of more than two dozen studies indicate that a biotransformation potential for these pesticides exists in saturated-zone materials, although for any given pesticide substantial differences in biotransformation occurred. These variations were due both to differences in experimental methods and to heterogeneities in the subsurface materials under investigation. However, because biotransformation mechanisms were not well investigated, it is generally not possible to extrapolate predictions of biotransformation potential beyond the specific sites investigated. These results highlight the need to better understand microbial genetic regulation of biotransformation processes so that genetic information may be effectively incorporated into future investigations of biotransformation potential in the subsurface. Résumé De nombreuses études ont été réalisées pour évaluer le degré de pollution des aquifères par les pesticides aux États-Unis, mais les recherches concernant la biotransformation des pesticides dans les eaux souterraines sont beaucoup moins nombreuses que dans les sols. Du fait que les résultats des études concernant les sols ne sont pas directement applicables au milieu souterrain, le propos de cet

  1. Effects of different nematicides on cereal cyst nematode of wheat%不同杀线剂对小麦孢囊线虫病的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴世安; 王暄; 耿立新; 迟元凯; 刘炳良; 孙成刚; 乐秀虎; 李红梅


    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN) has been widely distributed in wheat growing areas of 13 provinces in China. The fast spread of the disease can threaten the food production and economic security of China. Therefore, the systematic control studies are urgently needed. The control efficacy of 3 different usages from 5 granular nematicides (GR) with efficient components of aldicarb, carbofuran, cadusafos. Fenamiphos and abamectin were evaluated on CCN in wheat fields at regreening stage. The results showed that the numbers of cysts in soils collected from different treatments were clearly dropped after nematicide application. However, there was no significant difference in the adjusted cyst reduction rates between different nematicide treatments. Significant differences were demonstrated in wheat height, root weight and fresh plant weight between different treatments, and their yields were increased compared with the control. The adjusted cyst reduction rate from the treatment with 30 kg/hm2 of 0.5% abamectin GR was the highest at 55.13%, and wheat yield was increased by 18.54% compared with the control. The treatment with 60 kg/hm2 of 0.5% abamectin GR achieved the highest wheat growth at 59.32 cm compared with those from other treatments. Due to the inhibitory effects of 0.5% abamectin GR on nematode reproduction and promotive effects on wheat growth, the usage of 30 kg/hm2 was suggested for regreening fields heavily infested with CCN, which might decrease the yield loss caused by CCN to some extent.%小麦孢囊线虫病目前已在中国13个省(市区)的小麦种植区有发生与分布,其扩散与蔓延将直接威胁我国的粮食生产和经济安全,系统开展小麦孢囊线虫病的防治研究迫在眉睫.本文在大田条件下研究了5%涕灭威颗粒剂(aldicarb)、3%克百威颗粒剂(carbofuran)、5%硫线磷颗粒剂(cadusafos)、10%苯线磷颗粒剂(fenamiphos)和0.5%阿维菌素颗粒剂(abamectin)等5种杀线剂各3个不同剂

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a 2-cysteine Peroxiredoxin Gene from Ditylenchus destructor and the Effects of Low-dose Nematicides on Its Expression%马铃薯腐烂茎线虫2-Cys型过氧化物还原酶基因的克隆及低剂量杀线虫剂对其表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭峰; 彭焕; 彭德良; 黄文坤; 贺文婷; 丁中


    emanectin benzoate and aldicarb were monitored using Real-time PCR after 24 h.The results showed that the full-length cDNA was 784 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 591 bp encoding 196 amino acids residues,named Dd-prx-1(GenBank accession No.JQ609353).The protein had a predicted molecular weight of 21 850.09 D and a hypothetical pI of 6.83.The structure of Dd-Prx-1 genomic DNA include 6 extons and 5 introns.The N-terminal of predicted protein had no apparent signal peptide,but there was one transmembrane domain containing of 23 hydrophilic amino acids.Homology analysis showed that the deduced Dd-PRX-1 protein was highly homologous to the 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin in other nematodes.After treated by low dose emanectin benzoate and aldicarb,the expression levels of Dd-Prx-1 had no significant difference compared with control (P<0.05).The results provide the useful information for further research mechanisms of nematodes response to low dose of nematicides.

  3. 固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留%Determination of twelve carbamate residues in drinking water by HPLC after solid-phase membrane extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓松; 余辉菊; 马子元


    目的:建立固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中灭多威、涕灭威、速灭威、残灭威、呋喃丹、甲萘威、抗杀虫威、异丙威、硫双威、仲丁威、猛杀威、杀虫威等12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的方法.方法:水样经C18固相萃取膜真空抽滤,滤膜用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱液经氮吹、甲醇溶解,高效液相色谱法测定.结果:12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的线性范围为0.05 mg/L~25.0 mg/L,线性相关系数大于0.999,检出限为0.31 mg/L~1.25 mg/L,水样中氨基甲酸酯类农残最低检测浓度范围为0.005 mg/L~0.019 mg/L,加标回收率为59.3%~97.3%,RSD<7.5%.结论:本方法样品前处理方便、快捷,有机试剂用量少.%Objective:To establish a method for determination of 12 carbamate residues including methomyl, al-dicarb, metolcarb, profluoralin, furadan, methyl carbamate, pirimicarb, isoprocarb, thiodicarb, fenobucarb, promecarb and tetrachlorvinphose in drinking - water by high performance liquid chromatography after solid - phase membrane extraction. Methods: The water sample was filtered through the conditioned solid - phase membrane under vacuum. The carbamales absorbed on the membrane were eluted using ethyl acetate and the eluted solution was blown to dryness under nitrogen gas. The residue was reconstituted with methanol and analyzed by HPLC. Results: The linear range of 12 carbamates residues were between 0. 05 mg/L to 25. 0 mg/L with r >0. 999. The detection limits were 0. 31 mg/L to 1.25 mg/L. The lowest detection limits of carbamate residues in the sample water were between 0.005 mg/L and 0.019 mg/L. The recoveries ranged from 59. 3% to 97. 3% with RSD <7.5% . Conclusion: The method can be used for the multi -residue analysis of carbamate residues in drinking water.

  4. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.


    most frequently detected above the 0.06-ug/L level were aldicarb sulfoxide, diuron, simazine degradates hydroxysimazine and didealkylatrazine (DDA), bromacil, norflurazon, and demethyl norflurazon which occurred at detection rates ranging from 25 to 86 percent of samples, respectively. Typically, pesticide concentrations in the lake samples were less than 1 microgram per liter. The number of targeted pesticide compounds detected per lake in the citrus areas ranged from 9 to 14 compared to 3 compounds detected at trace levels in the undeveloped lake. Consistent detections of parents and degradates in quarterly samples indicated the presence of pesticide compounds in the lakes many months or years (for example, bromacil) after their application, signaling the persistence of some pesticide compounds in the lakes and/or ground-water systems. Pesticide degradate concentrations frequently exceeded parent concentrations in the lakes. This study was the first in the Ridge citrus region to analyze for glyphosate - widely used in citrus - and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), neither of which were detected, as well as a number of triazine degradates, including hydroxysimazine, which were detected. The lake pesticide concentrations did not exceed current Federal aquatic-life benchmarks, available for 10 of the 20 detected pesticide compounds. Limited occurrences of bromacil, diuron, or norflurazon concentrations were within about 10 to 90 percent of benchmark guidelines for acute effects on nonvascular aquatic plants in one or two of the lakes. The lake pesticide concentrations for several targeted pesticides were relatively high compared to corresponding national stream-water percentiles, which is consistent with this region's vulnerability for pesticide leaching into water resources. Several factors were evaluated to gain insight into the processes controlling pesticide transport and fate, and to assess their utility for estimating th