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Sample records for aldehyde dehydrogenase genes

  1. aldB, an RpoS-dependent gene in Escherichia coli encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is repressed by Fis and activated by Crp.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, J; Johnson, R C

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli aldB was identified as a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis but positively regulated by RpoS. The complete DNA sequence determined in this study indicates that aldB encodes a 56.3-kDa protein which shares a high degree of homology with an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by acoD of Alcaligenes eutrophus and an aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by aldA of Vibrio cholerae and significant homology with a group of other aldehyde dehydrogenases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes...

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana: Biochemical Requirements, Metabolic Pathways, and Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiti, Naim; Missihoun, Tagnon D; Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Here we summarize molecular genetic and biochemical analyses of selected ArabidopsisALDH genes. Aldehyde molecules are very reactive and are involved in many metabolic processes but when they accumulate in excess they become toxic. Thus activity of aldehyde dehydrogenases is important in regulating the homeostasis of aldehydes. Overexpression of some ALDH genes demonstrated an improved abiotic stress tolerance. Despite the fact that several reports are available describing a role for specific ALDHs, their precise physiological roles are often still unclear. Therefore a number of genetic and biochemical tools have been generated to address the function with an emphasis on stress-related ALDHs. ALDHs exert their functions in different cellular compartments and often in a developmental and tissue specific manner. To investigate substrate specificity, catalytic efficiencies have been determined using a range of substrates varying in carbon chain length and degree of carbon oxidation. Mutational approaches identified amino acid residues critical for coenzyme usage and enzyme activities.

  3. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from thes...

  4. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  5. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. Objective This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Method Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. Results The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. Limitations of the study This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. Conclusions The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further

  6. AAV Gene Therapy for Alcoholism: Inhibition of Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzyme Expression in Hepatoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anamaria C; Li, Chengwen; Andrews, Barbara; Asenjo, Juan A; Samulski, R Jude

    2017-09-01

    Most ethanol is broken down in the liver in two steps by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzymes, which metabolize down ethanol into acetaldehyde and then acetate. Some individuals from the Asian population who carry a mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2*2) cannot metabolize acetaldehyde as efficiently, producing strong effects, including facial flushing, dizziness, hypotension, and palpitations. This results in an aversion to alcohol intake and protection against alcoholism. The large prevalence of this mutation in the human population strongly suggests that modulation of ALDH2 expression by genetic technologies could result in a similar phenotype. scAAV2 vectors encoding ALDH2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) were utilized to validate this hypothesis by silencing ALDH2 gene expression in human cell lines. Human cell lines HEK-293 and HepG2 were transduced with scAAV2/shRNA, showing a reduction in ALDH2 RNA and protein expression with the two viral concentration assayed (1 × 10 4 and 1 × 10 5 vg/cell) at two different time points. In both cell lines, ALDH2 RNA levels were reduced by 90% and protein expression was inhibited by 90% and 52%, respectively, 5 days post infection. Transduced HepG2 VL17A cells (ADH+) exposed to ethanol resulted in a 50% increase in acetaldehyde levels. These results suggest that gene therapy could be a useful tool for the treatment of alcoholism by knocking down ALDH2 expression using shRNA technology delivered by AAV vectors.

  7. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  8. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENCE1 gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ferulic acid and sinapic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramesh B; Bastress, Kristen L; Ruegger, Max O; Denault, Jeff W; Chapple, Clint

    2004-02-01

    Recent research has significantly advanced our understanding of the phenylpropanoid pathway but has left in doubt the pathway by which sinapic acid is synthesized in plants. The reduced epidermal fluorescence1 (ref1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana accumulates only 10 to 30% of the sinapate esters found in wild-type plants. Positional cloning of the REF1 gene revealed that it encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase, a member of a large class of NADP(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Consistent with this finding, extracts of ref1 leaves exhibit low sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These data indicate that REF1 encodes a sinapaldehyde dehydrogenase required for sinapic acid and sinapate ester biosynthesis. When expressed in Escherichia coli, REF1 was found to exhibit both sinapaldehyde and coniferaldehyde dehydrogenase activity, and further phenotypic analysis of ref1 mutant plants showed that they contain less cell wall-esterified ferulic acid. These findings suggest that both ferulic acid and sinapic acid are derived, at least in part, through oxidation of coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. This route is directly opposite to the traditional representation of phenylpropanoid metabolism in which hydroxycinnamic acids are instead precursors of their corresponding aldehydes.

  10. Characterisation of recombinant human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase: implications for Sjögren-Larsson syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, Matthew D.; Boardman, Kieren D. E.; Smith, Andrew; van den Brink, Daan M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Threadgill, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) is an NAD+-dependent oxidoreductase involved in the metabolism of fatty alcohols. Enzyme activity has been implicated in the pathology of diabetes and cancer. Mutations in the human gene inactivate the enzyme and cause accumulation of fatty alcohols in

  11. Effects of sh-reagents on rat hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoplitskaya, K.L.; Kuz' mina, G.I.; Grigor' yeva, M.V.; Poznyakova, T.N.

    The liver serves as the primary organ for the oxidation of ingested ethanol via a pathway involving alcohol- and aldehyde dehydrogenase. In view of the problem of alcoholism, three enzymes are of particular interest in understanding the biochemical mechanism that may be involved in alcohol addiction and in the formulation of therapeutic approaches. While alcohol dehydrogenase has been studied in considerable detail, current attention is centered on aldehyde dehydrogenase. A comparative analysis of the effects of a series of SH-active reagents - tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TETD), 5,5-dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), p-chloromercurybenzoate (PCMB), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) - were tested for their effects on the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase of the hepatic mitochondrial (isozymes I and II) and microsomal (isozyme II) fractions of outbred albino rats. DTNB was found to be inhibited by 100 and 50% mitochondrial isozymes I and II, respectively, and by 20%, the microsomal enzyme under the conditions employed. DTNB and NEM inhibited by 30 and 50% isozymes I and II of the mitochondria, but had no effect on the microsomal isozyme. 24 references, 3 figures.

  12. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  13. aldB, an RpoS-dependent gene in Escherichia coli encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is repressed by Fis and activated by Crp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Johnson, R C

    1995-06-01

    Escherichia coli aldB was identified as a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis but positively regulated by RpoS. The complete DNA sequence determined in this study indicates that aldB encodes a 56.3-kDa protein which shares a high degree of homology with an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by acoD of Alcaligenes eutrophus and an aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by aldA of Vibrio cholerae and significant homology with a group of other aldehyde dehydrogenases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Expression of aldB is maximally induced during the transition from exponential phase to stationary phase. Its message levels are elevated three- to fourfold by a fis mutation and abolished by an rpoS mutation. In addition, the expression of an aldB-lacZ fusion was decreased about 20-fold in the absence of crp. DNase I footprinting analysis showed that five Fis binding sites and one Crp binding site are located within the aldB promoter region, suggesting that Fis and Crp are acting directly to control aldB transcription. AldB expression is induced by ethanol, but in contrast to that of most of the RpoS-dependent genes, the expression of aldB is not altered by an increase in medium osmolarity.

  14. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati...

  15. Monitoring of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase by formation of pyrenedecanoic acid from pyrenedecanal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Golderer, Georg; Maglione, Manuel; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert H.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.48) converts long-chain fatty aldehydes to the corresponding acids. Deficiency in this enzyme causes the Sjogren Larsson Syndrome, a rare inherited disorder characterized by ichthyosis, spasticity, and mental retardation. Using a fluorescent aldehyde,

  16. The ORF slr0091 of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 encodes a high-light induced aldehyde dehydrogenase converting apocarotenals and alkanals

    KAUST Repository

    Trautmann, Danika

    2013-07-05

    Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids and peroxidation of lipids lead to apocarotenals and aliphatic aldehydes called alkanals, which react with vitally important compounds, promoting cytotoxicity. Although many enzymes have been reported to deactivate alkanals by converting them into fatty acids, little is known about the mechanisms used to detoxify apocarotenals or the enzymes acting on them. Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic organisms must cope with both classes of aldehydes. Here we report that the Synechocystis enzyme SynAlh1, encoded by the ORF slr0091, is an aldehyde dehydrogenase that mediates oxidation of both apocarotenals and alkanals into the corresponding acids. Using a crude lysate of SynAlh1-expressing Escherichia coli cells, we show that SynAlh1 converts a wide range of apocarotenals and alkanals, with a preference for apocarotenals with defined chain lengths. As suggested by in vitro incubations and using engineered retinal-forming E. coli cells, we found that retinal is not a substrate for SynAlh1, making involvement in Synechocystis retinoid metabolism unlikely. The transcript level of SynAlh1 is induced by high light and cold treatment, indicating a role in the stress response, and the corresponding gene is a constituent of a stress-related operon. The assumptions regarding the function of SynAlh are further supported by the surprisingly high homology to human and plant aldehyde dehydrogenase that have been assigned to aldehyde detoxification. SynAlh1 is the first aldehyde dehydrogenase that has been shown to form both apocarotenoic and fatty acids. This dual function suggests that its eukaryotic homologs may also be involved in apocarotenal metabolism, a function that has not been considered so far. Aldehyde dehydrogenases play an important role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes. Here, we report on a cyanbacterial enzyme capable in converting two classes of lipid-derived aldehydes, apocaotenals and alkanals. The corresponding gene is a

  17. Glu504Lys Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene and the Risk of Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 2 is a mitochondrial enzyme that is known for its important role in oxidation and detoxification of ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. ALDH2 also metabolizes other reactive aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and acrolein. The Glu504Lys single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of ALDH2 gene, which is found in approximately 40% of the East Asian populations, causes defect in the enzyme activity of ALDH2, leading to alterations in acetaldehyde metabolism and alcohol-induced “flushing” syndrome. Evidence suggests that ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP is a potential candidate genetic risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the association between ALDH2 Glu504Lys SNP and the development of these chronic diseases appears to be affected by the interaction between the SNP and lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption as well as by the presence of other genetic variations.

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms of the Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase ALDH2 Gene in a Large Ethnic Hakka Population in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhixiong; Hou, Jingyuan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Qifeng; Li, Cunren; Liu, Zhidong; Yang, Min; Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Pingsen

    2018-04-06

    BACKGROUND Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a critical role in the detoxification of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*2 (rs671) gene variant is mainly absent among Europeans but is prevalent in populations in East Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate ALDH2*2 mutant alleles and genotype frequencies in the Hakka population of China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Between January 2016 and June 2017, 7,966 unrelated individuals were recruited into the study from the Hakka ethnic population residing in the Meizhou area of Guangdong Province, China, who provided venous blood samples. Genotyping of ALDH2 genotypes were determined using a gene chip platform and confirmed by DNA sequencing. RESULTS In the 7,966 individuals from the Hakka population of China in this study, the frequencies of the ALDH2 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2 and *2/*2 were 52.03%, 39.67%, and 8.30%, respectively; 47.97% of the individuals were found to carry the ALDH2*2 genotype, which was associated with a deficiency in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme activity. The frequency of the ALDH2*2 allele was lower than that previously reported in the Japanese population but higher than that reported in other Oriental populations. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study have provided new information on the ALDH2 gene polymorphisms in the Hakka ethnic population residing in the Meizhou area of Guangdong Province, China, including an understanding of the origin of the atypical ALDH2*2 allele. Also, the study findings may be relevant to the primary care of patients in China.

  19. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končitíková, R.; Vigouroux, A.; Kopečná, M.; Andree, T.; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, M.; Moréra, S.; Kopečný, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 468, Part: 1 (2015), s. 109-123 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) * aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 (ALDH7) * benzaldehyde Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2015

  20. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Different specificities of two aldehyde dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Suprama; Annapure, Uday S; Timson, David J

    2017-04-30

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases play crucial roles in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to carboxylic acid counterparts. The present study reports characterization of two such isoenzymes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (NCYC 3264), one mitochondrial (Ald4p) and one cytosolic (Ald6p). Both Ald4p and Ald6p were oligomeric in solution and demonstrated positive kinetic cooperativity towards aldehyde substrates. Wild-type Ald6p showed activity only with aliphatic aldehydes. Ald4p, on the contrary, showed activity with benzaldehyde along with a limited range of aliphatic aldehydes. Inspection of modelled structure of Ald6p revealed that a bulky amino acid residue (Met 177 , compared with the equivalent residue Leu 196 in Ald4p) might cause steric hindrance of cyclic substrates. Therefore, we hypothesized that specificities of the two isoenzymes towards aldehyde substrates were partly driven by steric hindrance in the active site. A variant of wild-type Ald6p with the Met 177 residue replaced by a valine was also characterized to address to the hypothesis. It showed an increased specificity range and a gain of activity towards cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde. It also demonstrated an increased thermal stability when compared with both the wild-types. These data suggest that steric bulk in the active site of yeast aldehyde dehydrogenases is partially responsible for controlling specificity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein Expression Defines the Proliferative Nature of Cervical Cancer Stem Cells. ... of cervical cancer stem cells and also to validate them in initial and advanced stages of cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, ALDH1, BALB/c-nu/nu, HeLa cells, RKIP, Sox2 ...

  3. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing

  4. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Chen, Xue-ping; Ma, You-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P) +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli) was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing the functional

  5. Heat-stable, FE-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for aldehyde detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, James G.; Clarkson, Sonya

    2018-04-24

    The present invention relates to microorganisms and polypeptides for detoxifying aldehydes associated with industrial fermentations. In particular, a heat-stable, NADPH- and iron-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was cloned from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E and displayed activity against a number of aldehydes including inhibitory compounds that are produced during the dilute-acid pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass before fermentation to biofuels. Methods to use the microorganisms and polypeptides of the invention for improved conversion of bio mass to biofuel are provided as well as use of the enzyme in metabolic engineering strategies for producing longer-chain alcohols from sugars using thermophilic, fermentative microorganisms.

  6. Heterologous Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase in Lactococcus lactis for Acetaldehyde Detoxification at Low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yunbin; LaPointe, Gisèle; Zhong, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2018-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.1.x) can catalyze detoxification of acetaldehydes. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (istALDH) from the non-Saccharomyces yeast Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2 has been previously characterized. In this work, Lactococcus lactis with the NIsin Controlled Expression (NICE) System was applied to express the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (istALDH) in order to catalyze oxidation of acetaldehyde at low pH. A recombinant L. lactis NZ3900 was obtained and applied for the detoxification of acetaldehyde as whole-cell biocatalysts. The activity of IstALDH in L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) reached 36.4 U mL -1 when the recombinant cells were induced with 50 ng mL -1 nisin at 20 °C for 2 h. The IstALDH activity of recombinant L. lactis cells showed higher stability at 37 °C and pH 4.0 compared with the crude enzyme. L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) could convert acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 while the crude enzyme could not. Moreover, the resting cells of L. lactis NZ3900 (pNZ8148-istALDH) showed a 2.5-fold higher activity and better stability in catalyzing oxidation of acetaldehyde at pH 2.0 compared with that of Escherichia coli expressing the IstALDH. Taken together, the L. lactis cells expressing recombinant IstALDH are potential whole-cell biocatalysts that can be applied in the detoxification of aldehydes.

  7. Five Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes from Marinobacter and Acinetobacter spp. and Structural Insights into the Aldehyde Binding Pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Jonathan H.; Mulliner, Kalene M.; Shi, Ke; Plunkett, Mary H.; Nixon, Peter; Serratore, Nicholas A.; Douglas, Christopher J.; Aihara, Hideki; Barney, Brett M.; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2017-04-07

    ABSTRACT

    Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism play an important role in energy conversion and storage and in the function of structural components such as cell membranes. The fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAldDH) plays a central function in the metabolism of lipid intermediates, oxidizing fatty aldehydes to the corresponding fatty acid and competing with pathways that would further reduce the fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols or require the fatty aldehydes to produce alkanes. In this report, the genes for four putative FAldDH enzymes fromMarinobacter aquaeoleiVT8 and an additional enzyme fromAcinetobacter baylyiwere heterologously expressed inEscherichia coliand shown to display FAldDH activity. Five enzymes (Maqu_0438, Maqu_3316, Maqu_3410, Maqu_3572, and the enzyme reported under RefSeq accession no.WP_004927398) were found to act on aldehydes ranging from acetaldehyde to hexadecanal and also acted on the unsaturated long-chain palmitoleyl and oleyl aldehydes. A comparison of the specificities of these enzymes with various aldehydes is presented. Crystallization trials yielded diffraction-quality crystals of one particular FAldDH (Maqu_3316) fromM. aquaeoleiVT8. Crystals were independently treated with both the NAD+cofactor and the aldehyde substrate decanal, revealing specific details of the likely substrate binding pocket for this class of enzymes. A likely model for how catalysis by the enzyme is accomplished is also provided.

    IMPORTANCEThis study provides a comparison of multiple enzymes with the ability

  8. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-06-20

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production.

  9. Insight into Coenzyme A cofactor binding and the mechanism of acyl-transfer in an acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase from Clostridium phytofermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Laura R; Altenbach, Kirsten; Ang, Thiau Fu; Crawshaw, Adam D; Campopiano, Dominic J; Clarke, David J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2016-02-22

    The breakdown of fucose and rhamnose released from plant cell walls by the cellulolytic soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans produces toxic aldehyde intermediates. To enable growth on these carbon sources, the pathway for the breakdown of fucose and rhamnose is encapsulated within a bacterial microcompartment (BMC). These proteinaceous organelles sequester the toxic aldehyde intermediates and allow the efficient action of acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes to produce an acyl-CoA that is ultimately used in substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. Here we analyse the kinetics of the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme from the fucose/rhamnose utilisation BMC with different short-chain fatty aldehydes and show that it has activity against substrates with up to six carbon atoms, with optimal activity against propionaldehyde. We have also determined the X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme in complex with CoA and show that the adenine nucleotide of this cofactor is bound in a distinct pocket to the same group in NAD(+). This work is the first report of the structure of CoA bound to an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and our crystallographic model provides important insight into the differences within the active site that distinguish the acylating from non-acylating aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes.

  10. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  11. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes.

  12. Structural and Kinetic Properties of the Aldehyde Dehydrogenase NahF, a Broad Substrate Specificity Enzyme for Aldehyde Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Pereira, Mozart S; Costa, Débora M A; Guimarães, Samuel L; Araújo, Simara S; Hengge, Alvan C; Brandão, Tiago A S; Nagem, Ronaldo A P

    2016-09-27

    The salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (NahF) catalyzes the oxidation of salicylaldehyde to salicylate using NAD(+) as a cofactor, the last reaction of the upper degradation pathway of naphthalene in Pseudomonas putida G7. The naphthalene is an abundant and toxic compound in oil and has been used as a model for bioremediation studies. The steady-state kinetic parameters for oxidation of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by 6xHis-NahF are presented. The 6xHis-NahF catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes with large kcat/Km values close to 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The active site of NahF is highly hydrophobic, and the enzyme shows higher specificity for less polar substrates than for polar substrates, e.g., acetaldehyde. The enzyme shows α/β folding with three well-defined domains: the oligomerization domain, which is responsible for the interlacement between the two monomers; the Rossmann-like fold domain, essential for nucleotide binding; and the catalytic domain. A salicylaldehyde molecule was observed in a deep pocket in the crystal structure of NahF where the catalytic C284 and E250 are present. Moreover, the residues G150, R157, W96, F99, F274, F279, and Y446 were thought to be important for catalysis and specificity for aromatic aldehydes. Understanding the molecular features responsible for NahF activity allows for comparisons with other aldehyde dehydrogenases and, together with structural information, provides the information needed for future mutational studies aimed to enhance its stability and specificity and further its use in biotechnological processes.

  13. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Ameliorates Chronic Alcohol Ingestion-Induced Myocardial Insulin Resistance and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shi-Yan; Gilbert, Sara A.B.; Li, Qun; Ren, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intake leads to insulin resistance and alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which appears to be a result of the complex interaction between genes and environment. This study was designed to examine the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) transgenic overexpression on alcohol-induced insulin resistance and myocardial injury. ALDH2 transgenic mice were produced using chicken β-actin promoter. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 mice were fed a 4% alcohol or control diet for 12 wks. Cell shorteni...

  14. The use of tomato aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 for the detection of aldehydes in fruit distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek

    2016-09-25

    Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 1.2.1.19) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequence of the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and phylogenetic origin of the gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habenicht, A; Quesada, A; Cerff, R

    1997-10-01

    A cDNA-library has been constructed from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia seedlings, and the non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN, EC 1.2.1.9) was isolated by plaque hybridization using the cDNA from pea as a heterologous probe. The cDNA comprises the entire GapN coding region. A putative polyadenylation signal is identified. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the GapN gene family represents a separate ancient branch within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. It can be shown that the GapN gene family and other distinct branches of the superfamily have its phylogenetic origin before the separation of primary life-forms. This further demonstrates that already very early in evolution, a broad diversification of the aldehyde dehydrogenases led to the formation of the superfamily.

  16. Cardiac-specific overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 exacerbates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Dassanayaka

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2. An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC for 12 weeks developed myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, which were associated with diminished ALDH2 expression and activity. Cardiac-specific expression of the human ALDH2 gene in mice augmented myocardial ALDH2 activity but did not improve cardiac function in response to pressure overload. After 12 weeks of TAC, ALDH2 transgenic mice had larger hearts than their wild-type littermates and lower capillary density. These findings show that overexpression of ALDH2 augments the hypertrophic response to pressure overload and imply that downregulation of ALDH2 may be an adaptive response to certain forms of cardiac pathology. Keywords: Heart failure, Hypertrophy, Oxidative stress, Aldehydes, Cardiac remodeling, Hormesis

  17. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  18. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD + -binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  19. Comparative genomics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase and accumulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate associated with its deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaspina Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 [ALDH5A1]; locus 6p22 occupies a central position in central nervous system (CNS neurotransmitter metabolism as one of two enzymes necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA recycling from the synaptic cleft. Its importance is highlighted by the neurometabolic disease associated with its inherited deficiency in humans, as well as the severe epileptic phenotype observed in Aldh5a1-/- knockout mice. Expanding evidence now suggests, however, that even subtle decreases in human SSADH activity, associated with rare and common single nucleotide polymorphisms, may produce subclinical pathological effects. SSADH, in conjunction with aldo-keto reductase 7A2 (AKR7A2, represent two neural enzymes responsible for further catabolism of succinic semialdehyde, producing either succinate (SSADH or γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB; AKR7A2. A GABA analogue, GHB is a short-chain fatty alcohol with unusual properties in the CNS and a long pharmacological history. Moreover, SSADH occupies a further role in the CNS as the enzyme responsible for further metabolism of the lipid peroxidation aldehyde 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, an intermediate known to induce oxidant stress. Accordingly, subtle decreases in SSADH activity may have the capacity to lead to regional accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates (GHB, 4-HNE. Polymorphisms in SSADH gene structure may also associate with quantitative traits, including intelligence quotient and life expectancy. Further population-based studies of human SSADH activity promise to reveal additional properties of its function and additional roles in CNS tissue.

  20. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Higuchi, S; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    2001-03-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) gene polymorphisms play roles in ethanol metabolism, drinking behavior and esophageal carcinogenesis in Japanese; however, the combined influence of ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes on other aerodigestive tract cancers have not been investigated. ADH2/ALDH2 genotyping was performed on lymphocyte DNA samples from Japanese alcoholic men (526 cancer-free; 159 with solitary or multiple aerodigestive tract cancers, including 33 oropharyngolaryngeal, 112 esophageal, 38 stomach and 22 multiple primary cancers in two or three organs). After adjustment for age, drinking and smoking habits, and ADH2/ALDH2 genotypes, the presence of either ADH2*1/2*1 or ALDH2*1/2*2 significantly increased the risk for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer [odds ratios (ORs), 6.68 with ADH2*1/2*1 and 18.52 with ALDH2*1/2*2] and esophageal cancer (ORs, 2.64 and 13.50, respectively). For patients with both ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancers were enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 121.77 and 40.40, respectively). A positive association with ALDH2*1/2*2 alone was observed for stomach cancer patients who also had oropharyngolaryngeal and/or esophageal cancer (OR = 110.58), but it was not observed for those with stomach cancer alone. Furthermore, in the presence of ALDH2*1/2*2, the risks for multiple intra-esophageal cancers (OR = 3.43) and for esophageal cancer with oropharyngolaryngeal and/or stomach cancer (OR = 3.95) were higher than the risks for solitary intra-esophageal cancer and for esophageal cancer alone, but these tendencies were not observed for ADH2*1/2*1 genotype. Alcoholics' population attributable risks due to ADH2/ALDH2 polymorphisms were estimated to be 82.0% for oropharyngolaryngeal cancer and 63.9% for esophageal cancer.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  2. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  3. NADP-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Archaeon Pyrobaculum sp.1860: Structural and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Bezsudnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the functional and structural characterization of the first archaeal thermostable NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase AlDHPyr1147. In vitro, AlDHPyr1147 catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of short aliphatic aldehydes at 60–85°С, and the affinity of AlDHPyr1147 to the NADP+ at 60°С is comparable to that for mesophilic analogues at 25°С. We determined the structures of the apo form of AlDHPyr1147 (3.04 Å resolution, three binary complexes with the coenzyme (1.90, 2.06, and 2.19 Å, and the ternary complex with the coenzyme and isobutyraldehyde as a substrate (2.66 Å. The nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme is disordered in two binary complexes, while it is ordered in the ternary complex, as well as in the binary complex obtained after additional soaking with the substrate. AlDHPyr1147 structures demonstrate the strengthening of the dimeric contact (as compared with the analogues and the concerted conformational flexibility of catalytic Cys287 and Glu253, as well as Leu254 and the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme. A comparison of the active sites of AlDHPyr1147 and dehydrogenases characterized earlier suggests that proton relay systems, which were previously proposed for dehydrogenases of this family, are blocked in AlDHPyr1147, and the proton release in the latter can occur through the substrate channel.

  4. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms influence susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Omori, T; Matsushita, S; Yoshimizu, H; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Maruyama, K; Ishii, H

    1999-11-01

    Studies have consistently demonstrated that inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by ALDH2*1/2*2, is closely associated with alcohol-related carcinogenesis. Recently, the contributions of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) polymorphism to alcoholism, esophageal cancer, and the flushing response have also been described. To determine the effects of ALDH2 and ADH2 genotypes in genetically based cancer susceptibility, lymphocyte DNA samples from 668 Japanese alcoholic men more than 40 years of age (91 with and 577 without esophageal cancer) were genotyped and the results were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). This study also tested 82 of the alcoholics with esophageal cancer to determine whether cancer susceptibility is associated with patients' responses to simple questions about current or former flushing after drinking a glass of beer. The frequencies of ADH2*1/2*1 and ALDH2*1/2*2 were significantly higher in alcoholics with, than in those without, esophageal cancer (0.473 vs. 0.289 and 0.560 vs. 0.099, respectively). After adjustment for drinking and smoking, the analysis showed significantly increased cancer risk for alcoholics with either ADH2*1/2*I (OR = 2.03) or ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 12.76). For those having ADH2*1/2*1 combined with ALDH2*1/2*2, the esophageal cancer risk was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 27.66). Responses to flushing questions showed that only 47.8% of the ALDH2*1/2*2 heterozygotes with ADH2*1/ 2*1, compared with 92.3% of those with ALDH2*1/2*2 and the ADH2*2 allele, reported current or former flushing. Genotyping showed that for alcoholics who reported ever flushing, the questionnaire was 71.4% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*2 and 87.9% correct in identifying ALDH2*1/2*1. Japanese alcoholics can be divided into cancer susceptibility groups on the basis of their combined ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes. The flushing questionnaire can predict high risk ALDH2*1/2*2 fairly accurately in persons with ADH2*2 allele, but a reliable

  5. The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed. Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients. The diagnostic sensitivity for total ADH activity was 81.5%, specificity 98.1%, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 97.4% and 92.3% respectively. Area under ROC curve for total ADH activity was 0.848. A potential role of total ADH activity as a marker for bladder cancer, is herein proposed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH Isozymes in Human Cancer Samples - Comparison of Kinetic and Immunochemical Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Borecka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluorimetric assay of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes, based on naphthaldehyde oxidation, is compared with Western Blotting analysis on several clinical samples obtained from surgery. The comparison reveals qualitatively good correlation of ALDH1A1 isozyme detection with two methods and somewhat worse on ALDH3A1 assay.

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment depends on the ability to metabolize exogenously and endogenously generated toxins, and to repair cellular damage caused by such toxins. Reactive aldehydes have been demonstrated to cause specific genotoxic injury, namely DNA interstrand cross-links. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of a 19 isoenzyme ALDH family with different substrate specificities, subcellular localization, and patterns of expression. ALDH2 is localized in mitochondria and is essential for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby placing it directly downstream of ethanol metabolism. Deficiency in ALDH2 expression and function are caused by a single nucleotide substitution and resulting amino acid change, called ALDH2*2. This genetic polymorphism affects 35-45% of East Asians (about ~560 million people), and causes the well-known Asian flushing syndrome, which results in disulfiram-like reactions after ethanol consumption. Recently, the ALDH2*2 genotype has been found to be associated with marrow failure, with both an increased risk of sporadic aplastic anemia and more rapid progression of Fanconi anemia. This review discusses the unexpected interrelationship between aldehydes, ALDH2 and hematopoietic stem cell biology, and in particular its relationship to Fanconi anemia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Deciphering the Origin, Evolution, and Physiological Function of the Subtelomeric Aryl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong-Dong; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Rosenzweig, Frank; Francois, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Homology searches indicate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4741 contains seven redundant genes that encode putative aryl-alcohol dehydrogenases (AAD). Yeast AAD genes are located in subtelomeric regions of different chromosomes, and their functional role(s) remain enigmatic. Here, we show that two of these genes, AAD4 and AAD14 , encode functional enzymes that reduce aliphatic and aryl-aldehydes concomitant with the oxidation of cofactor NADPH, and that Aad4p and Aad14p exhibit different substrate preference patterns. Other yeast AAD genes are undergoing pseudogenization. The 5' sequence of AAD15 has been deleted from the genome. Repair of an AAD3 missense mutation at the catalytically essential Tyr 73 residue did not result in a functional enzyme. However, ancestral-state reconstruction by fusing Aad6 with Aad16 and by N-terminal repair of Aad10 restores NADPH-dependent aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that AAD genes are narrowly distributed in wood-saprophyte fungi and in yeast that occupy lignocellulosic niches. Because yeast AAD genes exhibit activity on veratraldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, and vanillin, they could serve to detoxify aryl-aldehydes released during lignin degradation. However, none of these compounds induce yeast AAD gene expression, and Aad activities do not relieve aryl-aldehyde growth inhibition. Our data suggest an ancestral role for AAD genes in lignin degradation that is degenerating as a result of yeast's domestication and use in brewing, baking, and other industrial applications. IMPORTANCE Functional characterization of hypothetical genes remains one of the chief tasks of the postgenomic era. Although the first Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence was published over 20 years ago, 22% of its estimated 6,603 open reading frames (ORFs) remain unverified. One outstanding example of this category of genes is the enigmatic seven-member AAD family. Here, we demonstrate that proteins encoded by two

  9. Identification and characterisation of Aedes aegypti aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in pyrethroid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Lumjuan

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism.Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald, to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid.ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies.

  10. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-01-01

    The binding of [U- 14 C] NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of [U- 14 C] NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction

  11. The Oxidative Fermentation of Ethanol in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Is a Two-Step Pathway Catalyzed by a Single Enzyme: Alcohol-Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ADHa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a N2-fixing bacterium endophyte from sugar cane. The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid of this organism takes place in the periplasmic space, and this reaction is catalyzed by two membrane-bound enzymes complexes: the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH. We present strong evidence showing that the well-known membrane-bound Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHa of Ga. diazotrophicus is indeed a double function enzyme, which is able to use primary alcohols (C2–C6 and its respective aldehydes as alternate substrates. Moreover, the enzyme utilizes ethanol as a substrate in a reaction mechanism where this is subjected to a two-step oxidation process to produce acetic acid without releasing the acetaldehyde intermediary to the media. Moreover, we propose a mechanism that, under physiological conditions, might permit a massive conversion of ethanol to acetic acid, as usually occurs in the acetic acid bacteria, but without the transient accumulation of the highly toxic acetaldehyde.

  12. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in ovarian carcinomas and its clinicopathological associations: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoran; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is widely used as a specific cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, and may become a promising target for cancer therapy. However, the role of its expression in tumor cells and the microenvironment in different cancers is still controversial. Methods To clarify the clinicopathological effect of ALDH1 expression in ovarian carcinoma, a series of 248...

  13. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1998-03-01

    The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions. In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours. The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and GST activities increased (p < 0.05) in group III. These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

  14. Interaction of the SPG21 protein ACP33/maspardin with the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH16A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mast syndrome (SPG21) is an autosomal-recessive complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by dementia, thin corpus callosum, white matter abnormalities, and cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs in addition to spastic paraparesis. A nucleotide insertion resulting in premature truncation of the SPG21 gene product acidic cluster protein 33 (ACP33)/maspardin underlies this disorder, likely causing loss of protein function. However, little is known about the function of maspardin. Here, we report that maspardin localizes prominently to cytoplasm as well as to membranes, possibly at trans-Golgi network/late endosomal compartments. Immunoprecipitation of maspardin with identification of coprecipitating proteins by mass spectrometry revealed the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH16A1 as an interacting protein. This interaction was confirmed using overexpressed proteins as well as by fusion protein pull down experiments, and these proteins colocalized in cells. Further studies of the function of ALDH16A1 and the role of the maspardin–ALDH16A1 interaction in neuronal cells may clarify the cellular pathogenesis of Mast syndrome. PMID:19184135

  15. Identification of aldehyde oxidase 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 as dioxin-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Steven P.; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chapman, Brett; Whitekus, Michael J.; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Hankinson, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases are a family of highly related molybdo-flavoenzymes acting upon a variety of compounds of industrial and medical importance. We have identified aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) inducible gene in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1. AOX1 mRNA levels were not increased by dioxin in mutant derivatives of the Hepa-1 cell line lacking either functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, thus demonstrating that transcriptional induction of AOX1 in response to dioxin occurs through the AHR pathway. Dioxin induction of AOX1 mRNA was also observed in mouse liver. In addition, levels of AOX1 protein as well as those of aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 (AOH1), a recently identified homolog of AOX1, were elevated in mouse liver in response to dioxin. Employing an aldehyde oxidase specific substrate, AOX1/AOH1 activity was shown to be induced by dioxin in mouse liver. This activity was inhibited by a known inhibitor of aldehyde oxidases, and eliminated by including tungstate in the mouse diet, which is known to lead to inactivation of molybdoflavoenzymes, thus confirming that the enzymatic activity was attributable to AOX1/AOH1. Our observations thus identify two additional xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes induced by dioxin

  16. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  17. The retinoid X receptor response element in the human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter is antagonized by the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter family of orphan receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinaire, J; Hasanadka, R; Fang, M; Chou, WY; Stewart, MJ; Kruijer, W; Crabb, D

    2000-01-01

    Two tandem sites in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter (designated FP330-5' and FP330-3') that bind members of the nuclear receptor superfamily mere recently identified. Antibodies against apolipoprotein regulatory protein (ARP-1) altered DNA-protein interactions in electrophoretic mobility shift

  18. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  19. HEPATOCYTE EXPRESION OF TUMOR ASSOCIATED ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE (ALDH-3) AND P21 RAS FOLLOWING DIETHYLNITROSAMINE (DEN) INITIATION AND CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE (DHEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters such as di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)either promote or inhibit rat liver tumorigenesis depending on the carcinogenesis protocol. In this study, we examined the expression of two histochemical markers, the tumor associated isozyme of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD...

  20. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol......TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehydrogenase; and/or (ii) up-regulating a native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase; and (b) obtaining the recombinant bacterium. Preferred Bacterium: In the recombinant bacterium above, the inserted heterologous gene and/or the up-regulated native gene is encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase...

  1. Plastid-expressed betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in carrot cultured cells, roots, and leaves confers enhanced salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shashi; Dhingra, Amit; Daniell, Henry

    2004-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors that limits geographical distribution of plants and adversely affects crop productivity and quality. We report here high-level expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) in cultured cells, roots, and leaves of carrot (Daucus carota) via plastid genetic engineering. Homoplasmic transgenic plants exhibiting high levels of salt tolerance were regenerated from bombarded cell cultures via somatic embryogenesis. Transformation efficiency of carrot somatic embryos was very high, with one transgenic event per approximately seven bombarded plates under optimal conditions. In vitro transgenic carrot cells transformed with the badh transgene were visually green in color when compared to untransformed carrot cells, and this offered a visual selection for transgenic lines. BADH enzyme activity was enhanced 8-fold in transgenic carrot cell cultures, grew 7-fold more, and accumulated 50- to 54-fold more betaine (93-101 micromol g(-1) dry weight of beta-Ala betaine and Gly betaine) than untransformed cells grown in liquid medium containing 100 mm NaCl. Transgenic carrot plants expressing BADH grew in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl (up to 400 mm), the highest level of salt tolerance reported so far among genetically modified crop plants. BADH expression was 74.8% in non-green edible parts (carrots) containing chromoplasts, and 53% in proplastids of cultured cells when compared to chloroplasts (100%) in leaves. Demonstration of plastid transformation via somatic embryogenesis utilizing non-green tissues as recipients of foreign DNA for the first time overcomes two of the major obstacles in extending this technology to important crop plants.

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  3. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

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    Stefano Varrella

    Full Text Available Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure.

  4. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jaewoong; Liu, Z Lewis

    2015-04-01

    The aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of an intermediate subfamily within the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily that clarified mechanisms of in situ detoxification of 2-furaldehyde and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) are common among tolerant candidate genes identified for lignocellulose-to-advanced biofuels conversion. This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde-inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co-factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a characteristic catalytic triad, Ser, Tyr and Lys; a conserved catalytic motif of Tyr-X-X-X-Lys; and a cofactor-binding sequence motif, Gly-X-X-Gly-X-X-Ala, near the N-terminus that are shared by Ydr541cp, Ygl039wp, Yol151wp/GRE2 and Ari1p. Findings of aldehyde reductase genes contribute to the yeast gene annotation and aids development of the next-generation biocatalyst for advanced biofuels production. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Studying fatty aldehyde metabolism in living cells with pyrene-labeled compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Markus A.; Watschinger, Katrin; Lange, Karsten; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hermetter, Albin; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase function in Sjogren Larsson Syndrome (SLS) patient cells not only impairs the conversion of fatty aldehydes into their corresponding fatty acid but also has an effect on connected pathways. Alteration of the lipid profile in these cells is thought to be

  6. Improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses in transgenic sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas expressing spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Fan

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait

  7. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high ovarian cancer cells: Towards targeted stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, Allison C; Perkins, Brandy; Collector, Michael I; Yu, Wayne; Simons, Brian W; Jones, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm hypothesizes that successful clinical eradication of CSCs may lead to durable remission for patients with ovarian cancer. Despite mounting evidence in support of ovarian CSCs, their phenotype and clinical relevance remain unclear. We and others have found high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH(high)) expression in a variety of normal and malignant stem cells, and sought to better characterize ALDH(high) cells in ovarian cancer. We compared ALDH(high) to ALDH(low) cells in two ovarian cancer models representing distinct subtypes: FNAR-C1 cells, derived from a spontaneous rat endometrioid carcinoma, and the human SKOV3 cell line (described as both serous and clear cell subtypes). We assessed these populations for stem cell features then analyzed expression by microarray and qPCR. ALDH(high) cells displayed CSC properties, including: smaller size, quiescence, regenerating the phenotypic diversity of the cell lines in vitro, lack of contact inhibition, nonadherent growth, multi-drug resistance, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the expression of markers reported by others to enrich for ovarian CSCs revealed that ALDH(high) cells of both models showed downregulation of CD24, but inconsistent expression of CD44, KIT and CD133. However, the following druggable targets were consistently expressed in the ALDH(high) cells from both models: mTOR signaling, her-2/neu, CD47 and FGF18/FGFR3. Based on functional characterization, ALDH(high) ovarian cancer cells represent an ovarian CSC population. Differential gene expression identified druggable targets that have the potential for therapeutic efficacy against ovarian CSCs from multiple subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Yu-Ting; Thompson, David; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Berkowitz, Ross S; Ng, Shu-Wing; Yang, Junzheng; Ng, Shu-Kay; Liu, Shubai; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Margit; Welch, William R; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated with specific cell types in ovarian tumor tissues and vary according to

  9. Overexpression of ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 Genes Provides Insight into Their Role in Glycine Betaine Synthesis and Affects Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Willée, Eva; Guegan, Jean-Paul; Berardocco, Solenne; Shafiq, Muhammad R; Bouchereau, Alain; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine in species that accumulate glycine betaine as a compatible solute under stress conditions. In contrast, the physiological function of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is at present unclear in species that do not accumulate glycine betaine, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this question, we overexpressed the Arabidopsis ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 genes, which were identified to code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, in wild-type A. thaliana. We analysed changes in metabolite contents of transgenic plants in comparison with the wild type. Using exogenous or endogenous choline, our results indicated that ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 are involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine in Arabidopsis. Choline availability seems to be a factor limiting glycine betaine synthesis. Moreover, the contents of diverse metabolites including sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids were altered in fully developed transgenic plants compared with the wild type. The plant metabolic response to salt and the salt stress tolerance were impaired only in young transgenic plants, which exhibited a delayed growth of the seedlings early after germination. Our results suggest that a balanced expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is important for early growth of A. thaliana seedlings and for salt stress mitigation in young seedlings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A novel type of pathogen defense-related cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, E; Reinold, S; Somssich, I E; Hahlbrock, K

    1997-08-01

    We describe an aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase with properties indicating a novel type of function in the defense response of plants to pathogens. To obtain the enzyme free of contamination with possible isoforms, a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) cDNA comprising the entire coding region of the elicitor-responsive gene, ELI3, was expressed in Escherichia coli. In accord with large amino acid sequence similarities with established cinnamyl and benzyl alcohol dehydrogenases from other plants, the enzyme efficiently reduced various cinnamyl and benzyl aldehydes using NADPH as a co-substrate. Highest substrate affinities were observed for cinnamaldehyde, 4-coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde, whereas sinapaldehyde, one of the most efficient substrates of several previously analyzed cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and a characteristic precursor molecule of angiosperm lignin, was not converted. A single form of ELI3 mRNA was strongly and rapidly induced in fungal elicitor-treated parsley cells. These results, together with earlier findings that the ELI3 gene is strongly activated both in elicitor-treated parsley cells and at fungal infection sites in parsley leaves, but not in lignifying tissue, suggest a specific role of this enzyme in pathogen defense-related phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  11. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene from Synechocystis sp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  12. Direct electron transfer-based bioanodes for ethanol biofuel cells using PQQ-dependent alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Neto, Sidney; Suda, Emily L.; Xu, Shuai; Meredith, Matthew T.; De Andrade, Adalgisa R.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of a DET (direct electron transfer) bioanode containing both PQQ-ADH (pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase) and PQQ-AldDH (PQQ-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase) immobilized onto different modified electrode surfaces employing either a tetrabutylammonium (TBAB)-modified Nafion ® membrane polymer or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers for the enzyme immobilization. The electrochemical characterization showed that the prepared bioelectrodes were able to undergo DET onto glassy carbon surface in the presence as well as the absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs); also, in the latter case a relevant shift in the oxidation peak of about 180 mV vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was observed. A very similar redox potential was achieved with the self-assembled bioelectrode prepared onto modified-gold surfaces with dendrimers, indicating that both methodologies provide an environment that enables the PQQ-enzymes to undergo DET. The biofuel cell tests confirmed the ease of the DET process and the enhanced performance in the presence of the carbon nanotubes. Considering the bioanodes prepared with PAMAM dendrimers, the power density values vary from 19.4 μW cm −2 without MWCNTs to 25.7 μW cm −2 in the presence of MWCNTs. Similarly, with the bioanodes prepared with the TBAB-modified-Nafion ® polymer, the results indicate power densities of 27.9 and 38.4 μW cm −2 respectively. These electrode modifications represent effective methods for immobilization and direct electrical connection of quinohemoproteins to electrode surfaces.

  13. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Yu-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated

  14. Interaction of Aldehyde dehydrogenase with acetaminophen as examined by spectroscopies and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acetaminophen, a non-substrate anionic ligand, with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase was studied by fluorescence, UV–Vis absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra and data generated showed that acetaminophen binding to ALDH is purely dynamic quenching mechanism. The acetaminophen-ALDH is kinetically rapid reversible interaction with a binding constant, Ka, of 4.91×103 L mol−1. There was an existence of second binding site of ALDH for acetaminophen at saturating acetaminophen concentration. The binding sites were non-cooperative. The thermodynamic parameters obtained suggest that Van der Waal force and hydrogen bonding played a major role in the binding of acetaminophen to ALDH. The interaction caused perturbation of the ALDH structures with an obvious reduction in the α-helix. The binding distance of 4.43 nm was obtained between Acetaminophen and ALDH. Using Ficoll 400 as macro-viscosogen and glycerol as micro-viscosogen, Stoke-Einstein empirical plot demonstrated that acetaminophen-ALDH binding was diffusion controlled. Molecular docking showed the participation of some amino acids in the complex formation with −5.3 kcal binding energy. With these, ALDH might not an excipient detoxifier of acetaminophen but could be involved in its pegylation/encapsulation.

  15. Kinetic and biophysical investigation of the inhibitory effect of caffeine on human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase: Implications in oral health and chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Amaj Ahmed; Alam, Md Fazle; Ahmad, Mohammad; Younus, Hina

    2018-04-01

    Human salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (hsALDH) is primarily a class 3 ALDH (ALDH3A1), and is an important antioxidant enzyme present in the saliva which maintains healthy oral cavity. It detoxifies toxic aldehydes into non-toxic carboxylic acids in the oral cavity. Reduced level of hsALDH activity is a risk factor for oral cancer development. It is involved in the resistance of certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Coffee has been reported to affect the activity of salivary ALDH. In this study, the effect of caffeine on the activity (dehydrogenase and esterase) of hsALDH was investigated. The binding of caffeine to hsALDH was studied using different biophysical methods and molecular docking analysis. Caffeine was found to inhibit both crude and purified hsALDH. The Km increased and the Vmax decreased showing a mixed type of inhibition. Caffeine decreased the nucleophilicity of the catalytic cysteine residue. It binds to the active site of ALDH3A1 by forming a complex through non-covalent interactions with some highly conserved amino acid residues. It partially alters the secondary structure of the enzyme. Therefore, it is very likely that caffeine binds and inhibits the activity of hsALDH by decreasing substrate binding affinity and the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The study indicates that oral intake of caffeine may have a harmful effect on the oral health and may increase the risk of carcinogenesis through the inhibition of this important enzyme. Further, the inactivation of oxazaphosphorine based chemotherapeutic drugs by ALDH3A1 may be prevented by using caffeine as an adjuvant during medication which is expected to increase the sensitivity of these drugs through its inhibitory effect on the enzyme.

  16. Ultraviolet Radiation: Cellular Antioxidant Response and the Role of Ocular Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchitti, Satori A.; Chen, Ying; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposes the human eye to near constant oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that UVR is the most important environmental insult leading to the development of a variety of ophthalmoheliosis disorders. UVR-induced reactive oxygen species are highly reactive with DNA, proteins and cellular membranes, resulting in cellular and tissue damage. Antioxidant defense systems present in ocular tissues function to combat reactive oxygen species and protect the eye from oxidative damage. Important enzymatic antioxidants are the superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase and members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. Glutathione, ascorbic and uric acids, α-tocopherol, NADPH and ferritin serve as small molecule, nonenzymatic antioxidants. Ocular tissues have high levels of these antioxidants which are essential for the maintenance of redox homeostasis in the eye and protection against oxidative damage. ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1, present abundantly in the cornea and lens, have been shown to have unique roles in the defense against UVR and the downstream effects of oxidative stress. This review presents the properties and functions of ocular antioxidants that play critical roles in the cellular response to UVR exposure, including a focused discussion of the unique roles that the ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 enzymes have as multi-functional ocular antioxidants. PMID:21670692

  17. Aldehyded Dextran and ε-Poly(L-lysine Hydrogel as Nonviral Gene Carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Togo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The expression term of the gene transfected in cells needs to belong enough inorder to make a gene therapy clinically effective. The controlled release of the transfected gene can be utilized. The new biodegradable hydrogel material created by 20 w/w% aldehyded dextran and 10 w/w% ε-poly(L-lysine (ald-dex/PLL was developed. We examined whether it could be as a nonviral carrier of the gene transfer. Methods. A plasmid (Lac-Z was mixed with ald-dex/PLL. An in vitro study was performed to assess the expression of Lac-Z with X-gal stain after gene transfer into the cultured 293 cells and bone marrow cells. As a control group, PLL was used as a cationic polymer. Results. We confirmed that the transfection efficiency of the ald-dex/PLL had a higher transfection efficiency than PLL in 293 cells (plasmid of 2 μg: ald-dex/PLL 1.1%, PLL 0.23%, plasmid of 16 μg: ald-dex/PLL 1.23%, PLL 0.48%. In bone marrow cells, we confirmed the expression of Lac-Z by changing the quantity of aldehyded dextran. In the groups using ald-dextran of the quantity of 1/4 and 1/12 of PLL, their transfection efficiency was 0.43% and 0.41%, respectively. Conclusions. This study suggested a potential of using ald-dex/PLL as a non-carrier for gene transfer.

  18. Pharmacological activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promotes osteoblast differentiation via bone morphogenetic protein-2 and induces bone anabolic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Monika; Pal, Subhashis; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Dev, Kapil [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Raju, Kanumuri Siva Rama; Rashid, Mamunur [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Biochemistry Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmaceutics Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Bhaduria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Maurya, Rakesh [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Centre for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Targets in Health and Illness (ASTHI), CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226031 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a family of enzymes involved in detoxifying aldehydes. Previously, we reported that an ALDH inhibitor, disulfiram caused bone loss in rats and among ALDHs, osteoblast expressed only ALDH2. Loss-of-function mutation in ALDH2 gene is reported to cause bone loss in humans which suggested its importance in skeletal homeostasis. We thus studied whether activating ALDH2 by N-(1, 3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)-2, 6-dichlorobenzamide (alda-1) had osteogenic effect. We found that alda-1 increased and acetaldehyde decreased the differentiation of rat primary osteoblasts and expressions of ALDH2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Silencing ALDH2 in osteoblasts abolished the alda-1 effects. Further, alda-1 attenuated the acetaldehyde-induced lipid-peroxidation and oxidative stress. BMP-2 is essential for bone regeneration and alda-1 increased its expression in osteoblasts. We then showed that alda-1 (40 mg/kg dose) augmented bone regeneration at the fracture site with concomitant increase in BMP-2 protein compared with control. The osteogenic dose (40 mg/kg) of alda-1 attained a bone marrow concentration that was stimulatory for osteoblast differentiation, suggesting that the tissue concentration of alda-1 matched its pharmacologic effect. In addition, alda-1 promoted modeling-directed bone growth and peak bone mass achievement, and increased bone mass in adult rats which reiterated its osteogenic effect. In osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats, alda-1 reversed trabecular osteopenia with attendant increase in serum osteogenic marker (procollagen type I N-terminal peptide) and decrease in oxidative stress. Alda-1 has no effect on liver and kidney function. We conclude that activating ALDH2 by alda-1 had an osteoanabolic effect involving increased osteoblastic BMP-2 production and decreased OVX-induced oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Alda-1 induced osteoblast differentiation that involved upregulation of ALDH2 and BMP-2 • Alda-1

  19. Interference of aldehyde metabolizing enzyme with diamine oxidase/histaminase/activity as determined by 14C putrescine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, W.A.; Bieganski, T.; Wozniak, J.; Maslinski, C.

    1978-01-01

    The Δ 1 pyrroline formation, as an indicator of diamine oxidase activity according to Okuyama and Kobayashi 14 C putrescine test (1961, Archs Biochem. Biophys., vol.95, 242), has been investigated in several tissue homogenates. When guinea pig liver homogenate was used as a source of enzyme in the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors chlorate hydrate and acetaldehyde the level of formation Δ 1 pyrroline was strongly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also inhibition of aldehyde reductase by phenobarbital enhanced Δ 1 pyrroline formation, but to a lesser degree. In other tissues, with very high initial diamine oxidase activity (rat intestine, dog kidney) or with very low diamine oxidase activity (guinea pig skin, dog liver) the influence of these inhibitors was only slight. Pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase exerted only a small effect on Δ 1 pyrroline formation. All aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors, except pyrazole, were without effect on purified pea seddling and hog kidney diamine oxidases. The use of aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors may help to reveal the real values of diamine oxidase activity, when tissues homogenates are used as a source of enzyme. (author)

  20. The ALDH21 gene found in lower plants and some vascular plants codes for a NADP+ -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopečná, Martina; Vigouroux, Armelle; Vilím, Jan; Končitíková, Radka; Briozzo, Pierre; Hájková, Eva; Jašková, Lenka; von Schwartzenberg, Klaus; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2017-10-01

    Lower plant species including some green algae, non-vascular plants (bryophytes) as well as the oldest vascular plants (lycopods) and ferns (monilophytes) possess a unique aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene named ALDH21, which is upregulated during dehydration. However, the gene is absent in flowering plants. Here, we show that ALDH21 from the moss Physcomitrella patens codes for a tetrameric NADP + -dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSALDH), which converts succinic semialdehyde, an intermediate of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt pathway, into succinate in the cytosol. NAD + is a very poor coenzyme for ALDH21 unlike for mitochondrial SSALDHs (ALDH5), which are the closest related ALDH members. Structural comparison between the apoform and the coenzyme complex reveal that NADP + binding induces a conformational change of the loop carrying Arg-228, which seals the NADP + in the coenzyme cavity via its 2'-phosphate and α-phosphate groups. The crystal structure with the bound product succinate shows that its carboxylate group establishes salt bridges with both Arg-121 and Arg-457, and a hydrogen bond with Tyr-296. While both arginine residues are pre-formed for substrate/product binding, Tyr-296 moves by more than 1 Å. Both R121A and R457A variants are almost inactive, demonstrating a key role of each arginine in catalysis. Our study implies that bryophytes but presumably also some green algae, lycopods and ferns, which carry both ALDH21 and ALDH5 genes, can oxidize SSAL to succinate in both cytosol and mitochondria, indicating a more diverse GABA shunt pathway compared with higher plants carrying only the mitochondrial ALDH5. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Overexpression of Lactobacillus casei D-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase in cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jeffery R; Gummalla, Sanjay; Hughes, Joanne E; Johnson, Mark E; Rankin, Scott A; Drake, Mary Anne

    2004-08-01

    Metabolism of aromatic amino acids by lactic acid bacteria is an important source of off-flavor compounds in Cheddar cheese. Previous work has shown that alpha-keto acids produced from Trp, Tyr, and Phe by aminotransferase enzymes are chemically labile and may degrade spontaneously into a variety of off-flavor compounds. However, dairy lactobacilli can convert unstable alpha-keto acids to more-stable alpha-hydroxy acids via the action of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases such as d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase. To further characterize the role of this enzyme in cheese flavor, the Lactobacillus casei d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase gene was cloned into the high-copy-number vector pTRKH2 and transformed into L. casei ATCC 334. Enzyme assays confirmed that alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher in pTRKH2:dhic transformants than in wild-type cells. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheeses were made with Lactococcus lactis starter only, starter plus L. casei ATCC 334, and starter plus L. casei ATCC 334 transformed with pTRKH2:dhic. After 3 months of aging, the cheese chemistry and flavor attributes were evaluated instrumentally by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by descriptive sensory analysis. The culture system used significantly affected the concentrations of various ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and esters and one sulfur compound in cheese. Results further indicated that enhanced expression of d-hydroxyisocaproic acid dehydrogenase suppressed spontaneous degradation of alpha-keto acids, but sensory work indicated that this effect retarded cheese flavor development.

  2. Interference of aldehyde metabolizing enzyme with diamine oxidase/histaminase/activity as determined by /sup 14/C putrescine method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogel, W A [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Inst. of Pharmacology; Bieganski, T; Wozniak, J; Maslinski, C

    1978-01-01

    The ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation, as an indicator of diamine oxidase activity according to Okuyama and Kobayashi /sup 14/C putrescine test (1961, Archs Biochem. Biophys., vol.95, 242), has been investigated in several tissue homogenates. When guinea pig liver homogenate was used as a source of enzyme in the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors chlorate hydrate and acetaldehyde the level of formation ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline was strongly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Also inhibition of aldehyde reductase by phenobarbital enhanced ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation, but to a lesser degree. In other tissues, with very high initial diamine oxidase activity (rat intestine, dog kidney) or with very low diamine oxidase activity (guinea pig skin, dog liver) the influence of these inhibitors was only slight. Pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase exerted only a small effect on ..delta../sup 1/ pyrroline formation. All aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors, except pyrazole, were without effect on purified pea seddling and hog kidney diamine oxidases. The use of aldehyde-metabolizing enzymes inhibitors may help to reveal the real values of diamine oxidase activity, when tissues homogenates are used as a source of enzyme.

  3. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarich, DawnKylee S; Penprase, Jerrold; Cintora, Patricia; Medrano, Octavio; Erwin, Danielle; Brasser, Susan M; Hong, Mee Young

    2017-06-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a risk factor associated with colorectal cancer; however, some studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption may not contribute additional risk for developing colorectal cancer while others suggest that moderate alcohol consumption provides a protective effect that reduces colorectal cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of moderate voluntary alcohol (20% ethanol) intake on alternate days for 3 months in outbred Wistar rats on risk factors associated with colorectal cancer development. Colonic gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2, RelA, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase M1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were determined. Blood alcohol content, liver function enzyme activities, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine DNA adducts were also assessed. Alcohol-treated rats were found to have significantly lower 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in blood, a marker of DNA damage. Alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were both significantly lower in the alcohol group. Moderate alcohol significantly decreased cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, an inflammatory marker associated with colorectal cancer risk. The alcohol group had significantly increased glutathione-S-transferase M1 expression, an antioxidant enzyme that helps detoxify carcinogens, such as acetaldehyde, and significantly increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression, which allows for greater acetaldehyde clearance. Increased expression of glutathione-S-transferase M1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 likely contributed to reduce mucosal damage that is caused by acetaldehyde accumulation. These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuaprasert, Buabarn; Silprasit, Kun; Horata, Natharinee; Khunrae, Pongsak; Wongpanya, Ratree; Boonyalai, Nonlawat; Vanavichit, Apichart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 from rice (O. sativa L.) belonged to a C-centred orthorhombic space group and diffraceted X-rays to 2.6 Å resolution. Fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of OsBADH2 in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is believed to be crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) in many scented plants, including fragrant rice. Recombinant fragrant rice OsBADH2 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal hexahistidine fusion protein, purified using Ni Sepharose affinity chromatography and crystallized using the microbatch method. Initial crystals were obtained within 24 h using 0.1 M Tris pH 8.5 with 30%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M magnesium chloride as the precipitating agent at 291 K. Crystal quality was improved when the enzyme was cocrystallized with NAD + . Improved crystals were grown in 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.4, 24%(w/v) PEG 4000 and 0.2 M ammonium chloride and diffracted to beyond 2.95 Å resolution after being cooled in a stream of N 2 immediately prior to X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 66.03, b = 183.94, c = 172.28 Å. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained and refinement is in progress

  5. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance in bipolar II disorder with or without comorbid anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Band; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs), the most common comorbid illnesses with bipolar disorder (BP) has been reported to associate with dopamine system. Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and the distribution of the ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 alleles in the Han Chinese general population is relatively equal. The association between dopamine metabolic enzymes and cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II disorder (BP-II) comorbid with AD is unclear. This study proposed to explore the role of ALDH2 polymorphisms on neuropsychological performance between BP-II comorbid with or without AD. One hundred ninety-seven BP-II patients with and without a comorbid AD were recruited and compared with 130 healthy controls (HCs). A polymerase chain reaction and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and study participants underwent neuropsychological tests. An interaction between AD comorbidity and the ALDH2 polymorphisms was found in different domain of cognitive dysfunction in the BP-II patients. The ALDH2 polymorphisms might have different effects on the neuropsychological performance of BP-II patients with and without comorbid AD.

  6. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inho, E-mail: inhochoi@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • AOX1 contributes to the formation of myotube. • Silencing of AOX1 reduces myotube formation. • AOX1 regulates MyoG gene expression. • AOX1 contributes to myogenesis via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1{sub kd} cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1{sub kd} cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} among AOX1{sub kd} cells confirmed production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding IMP dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, F R; Osipiuk, J; Trent, J; Olsen, G J; Huberman, E

    1996-10-03

    We have cloned and characterized the gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Arabidopsis thaliana (At). The transcription unit of the At gene spans approximately 1900 bp and specifies a protein of 503 amino acids with a calculated relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 54,190. The gene is comprised of a minimum of four introns and five exons with all donor and acceptor splice sequences conforming to previously proposed consensus sequences. The deduced IMPDH amino-acid sequence from At shows a remarkable similarity to other eukaryotic IMPDH sequences, with a 48% identity to human Type II enzyme. Allowing for conservative substitutions, the enzyme is 69% similar to human Type II IMPDH. The putative active-site sequence of At IMPDH conforms to the IMP dehydrogenase/guanosine monophosphate reductase motif and contains an essential active-site cysteine residue.

  8. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L.; Sisley, K.; Cross, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isolated ALDH Hi PC3 cells preferentially form primitive holoclone-type colonies. ► Primitive holoclone colonies are predominantly ALDH Lo but contain rare ALDH Hi cells. ► Holoclone-forming cells are not restricted to the ALDH Hi population. ► ALDH phenotypic plasticity occurs in PC3 cells (ALDH Lo to ALDH Hi and vice versa). ► ALDH Hi cells are observed but very rare in PC3 spheroids grown in stem cell medium. -- Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH) activity is considered to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many tumour models, since these cells are more proliferative and tumourigenic than ALDH Lo cells in experimental models. However it is unclear whether all CSC-like cells are within the ALDH Hi population, or whether all ALDH Hi cells are highly proliferative and tumourigenic. The ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in vitro, whereby sub-populations of cells have differing proliferative and differentiation capacities, is an alternate indication of the presence of stem cell-like populations within cell lines. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ALDH status and the ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in PC3 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PC3 cells contain a stem cell hierarchy, and isolation of ALDH Hi cells enriches for the most primitive holoclone population, however holoclone formation is not restricted to ALDH Hi cells. In addition, we show that ALDH activity undergoes phenotypic plasticity, since the ALDH Lo population can develop ALDH Hi populations comparable to parental cells within 2 weeks in culture. Furthermore, we show that the majority of ALDH Hi cells are found within the least primitive paraclone population, which is circumvented by culturing PC3 cells as spheroids in defined medium favouring stem cell characteristics. Although ALDH Hi status enriches for holoclone formation, this activity may be mediated by a minority of ALDH Hi cells.

  9. Structural organization of the human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, M J; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1997-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) is a homotetrameric mitochondrial flavoenzyme that catalyzes the initial reaction in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation. Defects in the SCAD enzyme are associated with failure to thrive, often with neuromuscular dysfunction and elevated urinary excretion...... shown to be associated with ethylmalonic aciduria. From analysis of 18 unrelated Danish families, we show that the four SCAD gene polymorphisms constitute five allelic variants of the SCAD gene, and that the 625A variant together with the less frequent variant form of the three other polymorphisms (321C....... The evolutionary relationship between SCAD and five other members of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family was investigated by two independent approaches that gave similar phylogenetic trees....

  10. YKL071W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel aldehyde reductase for detoxification of glycolaldehyde and furfural derived from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanyu; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhou, Chang; Xiao, Difan; Guo, Yaping; Wu, Lan; Li, Xi; Gu, Yunfu; Xiang, Quanju; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiumei; Zou, Likou; Ma, Menggen

    2017-12-01

    Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA). This enzyme showed much better specific activities for reduction of GA and FF than FA and BZA, and displayed much higher Km and Kcat/Km but lower Vmax and Kcat for reduction of GA than FF. For this enzyme, the optimum pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for reduction of GA and FF, and the optimum temperature was 30 °C for reduction of GA and FF. Both pH and temperature affected stability of this enzyme in a similar trend for reduction of GA and FF. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ had severe inhibition effects on enzyme activities of Ykl071wp for reduction of GA and FF. Transcription of YKL071W in S. cerevisiae was significantly upregulated under GA and FF stress conditions, and its transcription is most probably regulated by transcription factor genes of YAP1, CAD1, PDR3, and STB5. This research provides guidelines to identify more uncharacterized genes with reductase activities for detoxification of aldehydes derived from lignocellulose in S. cerevisiae.

  11. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  12. The expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in ovarian carcinomas and its clinicopathological associations: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoran; Holm, Ruth; Trope, Claes G.; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is widely used as a specific cancer stem cell marker in a variety of cancers, and may become a promising target for cancer therapy. However, the role of its expression in tumor cells and the microenvironment in different cancers is still controversial. To clarify the clinicopathological effect of ALDH1 expression in ovarian carcinoma, a series of 248 cases of paraffin-embedded formalin fixed ovarian carcinoma tissues with long term follow-up information were studied by immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining of ALDH1was variably detected in both tumor cells and the stromal cells, although the staining in tumor cells was not as strong as that in stromal cells. Statistical analyses showed that high ALDH1 expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with histological subtypes, early FIGO stage, well differentiation grade and better survival probability (p < 0.05). The expression of ALDH1 in the stromal cells had no clinicopathological associations in the present study (p > 0.05). High expression of cancer stem cell marker ALDH1 in ovarian carcinoma cells may thus portend a favorable prognosis, but its expression in tumor microenvironment may have no role in tumor behavior of ovarian carcinomas. More studies are warranted to find out the mechanisms for this

  13. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensively studied. In our previous work, an evolved vanillin-resistant strain showed an increased vanillin reduction capacity compared with its parent strain. The transcriptome analysis suggested the reductases and dehydrogenases of this vanillin resistant strain were up-regulated. Using this as a starting point, 11 significantly regulated reductases and dehydrogenases were selected in the present work for further study. The roles of these reductases and dehydrogenases in the vanillin tolerance and detoxification abilities of S. cerevisiae are described. Among the candidate genes, the overexpression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase gene ZWF1, NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene YNL134C, and aldo-keto reductase gene YJR096W increased 177, 25, 6, 15, and 18 % of the strain μmax in the medium containing 1 g L(-1) vanillin. The in vitro detected vanillin reductase activities of strain overexpressing ADH6, YNL134C and YJR096W were notably higher than control. The vanillin specific reduction rate increased by 8 times in ADH6 overexpressed strain but not in YNL134C and YJR096W overexpressed strain. This suggested that the enzymes encoded by YNL134C and YJR096W might prefer other substrate and/or could not show their effects on vanillin on the high background of Adh6p in vivo. Overexpressing ALD6 and ZWF1 mainly increased the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] and [GSH]/[GSSG] ratios but not the vanillin reductase activities. Their

  14. A novel mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene in siblings with the hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaithra Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene are now known to be associated with hereditary paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndromes. Since the initial succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene mutation was identified about a decade ago, more than 131 unique variants have been reported. We report the case of two siblings presenting with multiple paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas; they were both found to carry a mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene involving a substitution of thymine to guanine at nucleotide 236 in exon 3. This particular mutation of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D gene has only been reported in one previous patient in Japan; this is, therefore, the first report of this pathogenic mutation in siblings and the first report of this mutation in North America. With continued screening of more individuals, we will be able to create a robust mutation database that can help us understand disease patterns associated with particular variants and may be a starting point in the development of new therapies for familial paraganglioma syndromes.

  15. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1+ tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the “classical-like” (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients’ outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1+ cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1- cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1+ cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  16. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L. [Biomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Sisley, K. [Department of Oncology, Academic Unit of Ophthalmology and Orthopties, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX (United Kingdom); Cross, N.A., E-mail: n.cross@shu.ac.uk [Biomedical Research Centre, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated ALDH{sup Hi} PC3 cells preferentially form primitive holoclone-type colonies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primitive holoclone colonies are predominantly ALDH{sup Lo} but contain rare ALDH{sup Hi} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holoclone-forming cells are not restricted to the ALDH{sup Hi} population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH phenotypic plasticity occurs in PC3 cells (ALDH{sup Lo} to ALDH{sup Hi} and vice versa). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH{sup Hi} cells are observed but very rare in PC3 spheroids grown in stem cell medium. -- Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH) activity is considered to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many tumour models, since these cells are more proliferative and tumourigenic than ALDH{sup Lo} cells in experimental models. However it is unclear whether all CSC-like cells are within the ALDH{sup Hi} population, or whether all ALDH{sup Hi} cells are highly proliferative and tumourigenic. The ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in vitro, whereby sub-populations of cells have differing proliferative and differentiation capacities, is an alternate indication of the presence of stem cell-like populations within cell lines. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ALDH status and the ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in PC3 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PC3 cells contain a stem cell hierarchy, and isolation of ALDH{sup Hi} cells enriches for the most primitive holoclone population, however holoclone formation is not restricted to ALDH{sup Hi} cells. In addition, we show that ALDH activity undergoes phenotypic plasticity, since the ALDH{sup Lo} population can develop ALDH{sup Hi} populations comparable to parental cells within 2 weeks in culture. Furthermore, we show that the majority of ALDH{sup Hi} cells are found within the least primitive paraclone population, which is circumvented by culturing PC3 cells as spheroids in

  17. Hepatic gene expression profiling using GeneChips in zebrafish exposed to 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.L.; Thomason, R.G.; Lee, D.M.; Brill, J.L.; Price, B.B.; Carr, G.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Versteeg, D.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States)], E-mail: versteeg.dj@pg.com

    2008-04-28

    Concentration and time-dependent changes in hepatic gene expression were examined in adult, female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L of a model androgen, 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT). At 24 and 168 h, fish were sacrificed and liver was extracted for gene expression analysis using custom Affymetrix GeneChip Zebrafish Genome Microarrays. In an effort to link gene expression changes to higher levels of biological organization, blood was collected for measurement of plasma steroid hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T)) and vitellogenin (VTG) using ELISA. Body and ovary weight were also measured. A significant reduction in E2 occurred at 24 h (0.7 and 4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) following MDHT exposure. In contrast, T was significantly increased at 24 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L). 171 and 575 genes were significantly affected in a concentration-dependent manner at either 24 or 168 h by MDHT exposure at p {<=} 0.001 and p {<=} 0.01, respectively. Genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase 8, member A1; retinol dehydrogenase 12), steroid biosynthesis and metabolism (e.g. hydroxysteroid (11{beta}) dehydrogenase 2; hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta-), hormone transport (e.g. sex hormone binding globulin), and regulation of cell growth and proliferation (e.g. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1; spermidinespermine N(1)-acetyltransferase) were affected by MDHT exposure. In this study, we identified genes involved in a variety of biological processes that have the potential to be used as markers of exposure to androgenic substances. Genes identified in this study provide information on the potential mode of action of strong androgens in female fish. In addition, when used for screening of EDC's, these genes may also serve as sensitive markers of exposure to androgenic compounds.

  18. The correlation between aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 level and tumor shrinkage after preoperative chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhandyka Rafli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the correlation between aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1A1 level and tumor shrinkage after chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. This is a retrospective study of 14 locally advanced rectal cancer patients with long course neoadjuvant chemoradiation. ALDH1A1 level was measured using ELISA from paraffin embedded tissue. Tumor shrinkage was measured from computed tomography (CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor v1.1 (RECIST v1.1. The mean of ALDH1A1 level was 9.014 ± 3.3 pg/mL and the mean of tumor shrinkage was 7.89 ± 35.7%. Partial response proportion was 28.6%, stable disease proportion was 50% and progressive disease proportion was 21.4%. There was a significant strong negative correlation (r = –0.890, plt; 0.001 between ALDH1A1 and tumor shrinkage. In conclusion, tumor shrinkage in locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation was influenced by ALDH1A1 level. Higher level of ALDH1A1 suggests decreased tumor shrinkage after preoperative chemoradiation.

  19. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant short-chain NAD(H)-dependent dehydrogenase/reductase from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Pucci, Biagio; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-03-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily was identified in the aerobic thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius strain DSM 639. The saadh gene was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (SaADH) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. SaADH is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 28,978-Da subunits, each composed of 264 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to 75 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of ~90 degrees C, and shows good tolerance to common organic solvents. SaADH has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, and displays a preference for the reduction of alicyclic, bicyclic and aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, but is poorly active on aliphatic, cyclic and aromatic alcohols, and shows no activity on aldehydes. The enzyme catalyses the reduction of alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformate, and methyl o-chlorobenzoylformate with 100% conversion to methyl (S)-mandelate [17% enantiomeric excess (ee)], ethyl (R)-mandelate (50% ee), and methyl (R)-o-chloromandelate (72% ee), respectively, with an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system which involves glucose and a thermophilic glucose dehydrogenase. This study provides further evidence supporting the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NAD(P)H in members of the SDR superfamily.

  20. Structural and functional characterization of plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity for natural and synthetic aminoaldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tylichová, M.; Kopečný, D.; Moréra, S.; Briozzo, P.; Lenobel, René; Snégaroff, J.; Šebela, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 396, č. 4 (2010), s. 870-882 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/0555; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase * betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase * NAD+ complex Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.008, year: 2010

  1. Novel chiral tool, (R)-2-octanol dehydrogenase, from Pichia finlandica: purification, gene cloning, and application for optically active α-haloalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Kudoh, Masatake

    2013-09-01

    A novel enantioselective alcohol dehydrogenase, (R)-2-octanol dehydrogenase (PfODH), was discovered among methylotrophic microorganisms. The enzyme was purified from Pichia finlandica and characterized. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 83,000 and 30,000 by gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The enzyme was an NAD(+)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and showed a strict enantioselectivity, very broad substrate specificity, and high tolerance to SH reagents. A gene-encoding PfODH was cloned and sequenced. The gene consisted of 765 nucleotides, coding polypeptides of 254 amino acids. The gene was singly expressed and coexpressed together with a formate dehydrogenase as an NADH regenerator in an Escherichia coli. Ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate and (S)-2-chloro-1-phenylethanol were synthesized using a whole-cell biocatalyst in more than 99 % optical purity.

  2. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Chen

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP. The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7 belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and

  3. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  4. Novel NAD+-Farnesal Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves. Purification and Characterization of Enzyme in Juvenile Hormone III Biosynthetic Pathway in Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Faris Seman-Kamarulzaman

    Full Text Available Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate

  5. In vitro modeling of experimental succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD using brain-derived neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Vogel

    Full Text Available We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH. Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1 production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate, the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2 rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3 mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4 total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5 selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD. Patterns of dysfunction were observed in all of these parameters and mirrored earlier findings in aldh5a1-/- mice. Patterns of dysregulated gene expression between hypothalamus and NSCs centered on ion channels, GABAergic receptors, and inflammation, suggesting novel pathomechanisms as well as a developmental ontogeny for gene expression potentially associated with the murine epileptic phenotype. The NSC model of SSADHD will be valuable in providing a first-tier screen for centrally-acting therapeutics and prioritizing therapeutic concepts of preclinical animal studies applicable to SSADHD.

  6. Comparative genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily in Gossypium: A focus on Gossypium hirsutum under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Dong

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs are a superfamily of enzymes which play important role in the scavenging of active aldehydes molecules. In present work, a comprehensive whole-genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily was carried out for an allotetraploid cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum, as well as in parallel relative to their diploid progenitors, G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Totally, 30 and 58 ALDH gene sequences belong to 10 families were identified from diploid and allotetraploid cotton species, respectively. The gene structures among the members from same families were highly conserved. Whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication might be the major driver for the expansion of ALDH gene superfamily in G. hirsutum. In addition, the expression patterns of GhALDH genes were diverse across tissues. Most GhALDH genes were induced or repressed by salt stress in upland cotton. Our observation shed lights on the molecular evolutionary properties of ALDH genes in diploid cottons and their alloallotetraploid derivatives. It may be useful to mine key genes for improvement of cotton response to salt stress.

  7. Inhibition of telomerase activity preferentially targets aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniesta Pilar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality rates for advanced lung cancer have not declined for decades, even with the implementation of novel chemotherapeutic regimens or the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs are thought to be responsible for resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting CSCs with novel compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung tumor growth and metastasis. We have isolated and characterized CSCs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines and measured their telomerase activity, telomere length, and sensitivity to the novel telomerase inhibitor MST312. Results The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive lung cancer cell fraction is enriched in markers of stemness and endowed with stem cell properties. ALDH+ CSCs display longer telomeres than the non-CSC population. Interestingly, MST312 has a strong antiproliferative effect on lung CSCs and induces p21, p27 and apoptosis in the whole tumor population. MST312 acts through activation of the ATM/pH2AX DNA damage pathway (short-term effect and through decrease in telomere length (long-term effect. Administration of this telomerase inhibitor (40 mg/kg in the H460 xenograft model results in significant tumor shrinkage (70% reduction, compared to controls. Combination therapy consisting of irradiation (10Gy plus administration of MST312 did not improve the therapeutic efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor alone. Treatment with MST312 reduces significantly the number of ALDH+ CSCs and their telomeric length in vivo. Conclusions We conclude that antitelomeric therapy using MST312 mainly targets lung CSCs and may represent a novel approach for effective treatment of lung cancer.

  8. S-Nitrosomycothiol Reductase and Mycothiol Are Required for Survival Under Aldehyde Stress and Biofilm Formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Derek; Hageman, Samantha; Gulati, Megha; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Rawat, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    We show that Mycobacterium smegmatis mutants disrupted in mscR, coding for a dual function S-nitrosomycothiol reductase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase, and mshC, coding for a mycothiol ligase and lacking mycothiol (MSH), are more susceptible to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and aldehydes than wild type. MSH is a cofactor for MscR, and both mshC and mscR are induced by GSNO and aldehydes. We also show that a mutant disrupted in egtA, coding for a γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase and lacking in ergothioneine, is sensitive to nitrosative stress but not to aldehydes. In addition, we find that MSH and S-nitrosomycothiol reductase are required for normal biofilm formation in M. smegmatis, suggesting potential new therapeutic pathways to target to inhibit or disrupt biofilm formation. PMID:27321674

  9. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, H.; Jiskrová, E.; Vojta, P.; Mrízová, K.; Kokáš, F.; Majeská Čudějková, M.; Bergougnoux, V.; Plíhal, O.; Klimešová, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, L.; Frébort, I.; Galuszka, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 692-705 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ROOT-GROWTH * OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE GENES * BETA-GLUCOSIDASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  10. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

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    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  11. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity does not select for cells with enhanced aggressive properties in malignant melanoma.

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    Lina Prasmickaite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is an exceptionally aggressive, drug-resistant and heterogeneous cancer. Recently it has been shown that melanoma cells with high clonogenic and tumourigenic abilities are common, but markers distinguishing such cells from cells lacking these abilities have not been identified. There is therefore no definite evidence that an exclusive cell subpopulation, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSC, exists in malignant melanoma. Rather, it is suggested that multiple cell populations are implicated in initiation and progression of the disease, making it of importance to identify subpopulations with elevated aggressive properties. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In several other cancer forms, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH, which plays a role in stem cell biology and resistance, is a valuable functional marker for identification of cells that show enhanced aggressiveness and drug-resistance. Furthermore, the presence of ALDH(+ cells is linked to poor clinical prognosis in these cancers. By analyzing cell cultures, xenografts and patient biopsies, we showed that aggressive melanoma harboured a large, distinguishable ALDH(+ subpopulation. In vivo, ALDH(+ cells gave rise to ALDH(- cells, while the opposite conversion was rare, indicating a higher abilities of ALDH(+ cells to reestablish tumour heterogeneity with respect to the ALDH phenotype. However, both ALDH(+ and ALDH(- cells demonstrated similarly high abilities for clone formation in vitro and tumour initiation in vivo. Furthermore, both subpopulations showed similar sensitivity to the anti-melanoma drugs, dacarbazine and lexatumumab. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that ALDH does not distinguish tumour-initiating and/or therapy-resistant cells, implying that the ALDH phenotype is not associated with more-aggressive subpopulations in malignant melanoma, and arguing against ALDH as a "universal" marker. Besides, it was shown that the ability to reestablish tumour heterogeneity is not

  12. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671) Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Elevated serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype) and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype) modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively) in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics. The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission. High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl), HDL-C (>80 mg/dl), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl) were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI) affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively), and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively). The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]). The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl) and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl). The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  13. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

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    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogense-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, alcohol flushing, mean corpuscular volume, and aerodigestive tract neoplasia in Japanese drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) modulate exposure levels to ethanol/acetaldehyde. Endoscopic screening of 6,014 Japanese alcoholics yielded high detection rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 4.1%) and head and neck SCC (1.0%). The risks of upper aerodigestive tract SCC/dysplasia, especially of multiple SCC/dysplasia, were increased in a multiplicative fashion by the presence of a combination of slow-metabolizing ADH1B*1/*1 and inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 because of prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol/acetaldehyde. A questionnaire asking about current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass (≈180 mL) of beer is a reliable tool for detecting the presence of inactive ALDH2. We invented a health-risk appraisal (HRA) model including the flushing questionnaire and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Esophageal SCC was detected at a high rate by endoscopic mass-screening in high HRA score persons. A total of 5.0% of 4,879 alcoholics had a history of (4.0%) or newly diagnosed (1.0%) gastric cancer. Their high frequency of a history of gastric cancer is partly explained by gastrectomy being a risk factor for alcoholism because of altered ethanol metabolism, e.g., by blood ethanol level overshooting. The combination of H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and ALDH2*1/*2 showed the greatest risk of gastric cancer in alcoholics. High detection rates of advanced colorectal adenoma/carcinoma were found in alcoholics, 15.7% of 744 immunochemical fecal occult blood test (IFOBT)-negative alcoholics and 31.5% of the 393 IFOBT-positive alcoholics. Macrocytosis with an MCV≥106 fl increased the risk of neoplasia in the entire aerodigestive tract of alcoholics, suggesting that poor nutrition as well as ethanol/acetaldehyde exposure plays an important role in neoplasia.

  15. Trends in gastrectomy and ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes in Japanese alcoholic men and their gene-gastrectomy, gene-gene and gene-age interactions for risk of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    The life-time drinking profiles of Japanese alcoholics have shown that gastrectomy increases susceptibility to alcoholism. We investigated the trends in gastrectomy and alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes and their interactions in alcoholics. This survey was conducted on 4879 Japanese alcoholic men 40 years of age or older who underwent routine gastrointestinal endoscopic screening during the period 1996-2010. ADH1B/ALDH2 genotyping was performed in 3702 patients. A history of gastrectomy was found in 508 (10.4%) patients. The reason for the gastrectomy was peptic ulcer in 317 patients and gastric cancer in 187 patients. The frequency of gastrectomy had gradually decreased from 13.3% in 1996-2000 to 10.5% in 2001-2005 and to 7.8% in 2006-2010 (P alcoholism-susceptibility genotypes, ADH1B*1/*1 and ALDH2*1/*1, modestly but significantly tended not to occur in the same individual (P = 0.026). The frequency of ADH1B*1/*1 decreased with ascending age groups. The high frequency of history of gastrectomy suggested that gastrectomy is still a risk factor for alcoholism, although the percentage decreased during the period. The alcoholism-susceptibility genotype ADH1B*1/*1 was less frequent in the gastrectomy group, suggesting a competitive gene-gastrectomy interaction for alcoholism. A gene-gene interaction and gene-age interactions regarding the ADH1B genotype were observed.

  16. Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for lateral gene transfer within and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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    Roger Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateral gene transfer can introduce genes with novel functions into genomes or replace genes with functionally similar orthologs or paralogs. Here we present a study of the occurrence of the latter gene replacement phenomenon in the four gene families encoding different classes of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, to evaluate and compare the patterns and rates of lateral gene transfer (LGT in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Results We extend the taxon sampling of gdh genes with nine new eukaryotic sequences and examine the phylogenetic distribution pattern of the various GDH classes in combination with maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses. The distribution pattern analyses indicate that LGT has played a significant role in the evolution of the four gdh gene families. Indeed, a number of gene transfer events are identified by phylogenetic analyses, including numerous prokaryotic intra-domain transfers, some prokaryotic inter-domain transfers and several inter-domain transfers between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (protists. Conclusion LGT has apparently affected eukaryotes and prokaryotes to a similar extent within the gdh gene families. In the absence of indications that the evolution of the gdh gene families is radically different from other families, these results suggest that gene transfer might be an important evolutionary mechanism in microbial eukaryote genome evolution.

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) expression is an independent prognostic factor in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Li, Huihui; Li, Yiqun; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Haijuan; Fan, Ying; Lin, Chen; Qian, Haili; Xu, Binghe

    2017-04-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subset of breast cancer that is highly aggressive and has a poor prognosis. Meanwhile, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are also characterized by a strong tumorigenic potential, which might be partly responsible for the aggressive behavior of TNBC. We previously showed that CSCs are enriched in TNBC cell lines and tissues. Further experiments in animal models revealed higher tumorigenicity of CSCs sorted from TNBC cell lines. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical relationship between CSCs and TNBC by exploring the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), which is a putative marker of breast CSCs, in TNBC tissues.ALDH1 levels in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 158 TNBC patients were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining using an ALDH1A1 primary antibody. Staining evaluation was performed independently by two pathologists, and the expression level of ALDH1 was evaluated in terms of the percentage and intensity of positive cells. The association of immunohistochemistry staining of ALDH1 expression with clinical parameters was also analyzed.ALDH1 expression in tumor cells was observed in 88 out of 158 cases (55.7%). Analysis of clinicopathological parameters showed that the immunohistochemistry staining of ALDH1 was significantly correlated with tumor size (P = 0.02) and stage (P = 0.04). Survival analysis in patients with ALDH1 expression demonstrated shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) times (P = 0.01; P = 0.001). Moreover, Cox multivariate analysis revealed that ALDH1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of RFS and OS (P = 0.04; P = 0.04).Immunohistochemistry staining of ALDH1 in tumor cells is an independent prognostic indicator of RFS and OS in TNBC patients.

  18. Cloning and Polymorphisms of Yak Lactate Dehydrogenase b Gene

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    Yaou Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to study the unique polymorphisms of the lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH1 gene in yak (Bos grunniens. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed three phenotypes of LDH1 (a tetramer of H subunit in yak heart and longissimus muscle extracts. The corresponding gene, ldhb, encoding H subunits of three LDH1 phenotypes was obtained by RT-PCR. A total of six nucleotide differences were detected in yak ldhb compared with that of cattle, of which five mutations cause amino acid substitutions. Sequence analysis shows that the G896A and C689A, mutations of ldhb gene, result in alterations of differently charged amino acids, and create the three phenotypes (F, M, and S of yak LDH1. Molecular modeling of the H subunit of LDH indicates that the substituted amino acids are not located within NAD+ or substrate binding sites. PCR-RFLP examination of G896A mutation demonstrated that most LDH1-F samples are actually heterozygote at this site. These results help to elucidate the molecular basis and genetic characteristic of the three unique LDH1 phenotypes in yak.

  19. Cloning, expression and characterization of alcohol dehydrogenases in the silkworm Bombyx mori

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    Nan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH are a class of enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols to corresponding aldehydes or ketones, by using either nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP, as coenzymes. In this study, a short-chain ADH gene was identified in Bombyx mori by 5'-RACE PCR. This is the first time the coding region of BmADH has been cloned, expressed, purified and then characterized. The cDNA fragment encoding the BmADH protein was amplified from a pool of silkworm cDNAs by PCR, and then cloned into E. coli expression vector pET-30a(+. The recombinant His-tagged BmADH protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3, and then purified by metal chelating affinity chromatography. The soluble recombinant BmADH, produced at low-growth temperature, was instrumental in catalyzing the ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD+, thereby indicating ethanol as one of the substrates of BmADH.

  20. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  1. High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Identifies a Subset of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Vascular Regenerative Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephen E; Kuljanin, Miljan; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Lajoie, Gilles A; Hess, David A

    2017-06-01

    During culture expansion, multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentially express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an intracellular detoxification enzyme that protects long-lived cells against oxidative stress. Thus, MSC selection based on ALDH-activity may be used to reduce heterogeneity and distinguish MSC subsets with improved regenerative potency. After expansion of human bone marrow-derived MSCs, cell progeny was purified based on low versus high ALDH-activity (ALDH hi ) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and each subset was compared for multipotent stromal and provascular regenerative functions. Both ALDH l ° and ALDH hi MSC subsets demonstrated similar expression of stromal cell (>95% CD73 + , CD90 + , CD105 + ) and pericyte (>95% CD146 + ) surface markers and showed multipotent differentiation into bone, cartilage, and adipose cells in vitro. Conditioned media (CDM) generated by ALDH hi MSCs demonstrated a potent proliferative and prosurvival effect on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) under serum-free conditions and augmented HMVEC tube-forming capacity in growth factor-reduced matrices. After subcutaneous transplantation within directed in vivo angiogenesis assay implants into immunodeficient mice, ALDH hi MSC or CDM produced by ALDH hi MSC significantly augmented murine vascular cell recruitment and perfused vessel infiltration compared with ALDH l ° MSC. Although both subsets demonstrated strikingly similar mRNA expression patterns, quantitative proteomic analyses performed on subset-specific CDM revealed the ALDH hi MSC subset uniquely secreted multiple proangiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor beta, platelet derived growth factor alpha, and angiogenin) and actively produced multiple factors with chemoattractant (transforming growth factor-β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1, 2, and 3 (GRO), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8) and matrix

  2. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  3. Evaluation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and transcription factors in both primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastases as a prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Maiko; Shien, Tadahiko; Omori, Masako; Mizoo, Taeko; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Nogami, Tomohiro; Motoki, Takayuki; Taira, Naruto; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2016-05-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is a marker of breast cancer stem cells, and the expression of ALDH1 may be a prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition may produce cells with stem-cell-like properties promoted by transcription factors. We investigated the expression of ALDH1 and transcription factors in both primary and metastatic lesions, and prognostic value of them in breast cancer patients with axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM). Forty-seven breast cancer patients with ALNM who underwent surgery at Okayama University Hospital from 2002 to 2008 were enrolled. We retrospectively evaluated the levels of ALDH1 and transcription factors, such as Snail, Slug and Twist, in both primary and metastatic lesions by immunohistochemistry. In primary lesions, the positive rate of ALDH1, Snail, Slug and Twist was 19, 49, 40 and 26%, respectively. In lymph nodes, that of ALDH1, Snail, Slug and Twist was 21, 32, 13 and 23%, respectively. The expression of ALDH1 or transcription factors alone was not significantly associated with a poor prognosis. However, co-expression of ALDH1 and Slug in primary lesions was associated with a shorter DFS (P = 0.009). The evaluation of the co-expression of ALDH1 and transcription factors in primary lesions may be useful in prognosis of node-positive breast cancers.

  4. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony A; Tian, Liang; Giannone, Richard J; Hettich, Robert L; Olson, Daniel G; Lynd, Lee R

    2016-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE . To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhE s, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C. thermocellum . As proof of concept, we used this plasmid to express 12 different adhE genes (both wild type and mutant) from several organisms. Ethanol production varied between clones immediately after transformation, but tended to converge to a single value after several rounds of serial transfer. The previously described mutant C. thermocellum D494G adhE gave the best ethanol production, which is consistent with previously published results.

  5. Effects of Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-Transgenic Soybean on Phosphatase Activities and Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of the Saline-Alkali Soil

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    Ying Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic soybean has produced numerous economic benefits; however the potential impact of root exudates upon soil ecological systems and rhizospheric soil microbial diversity has also received intensive attention. In the present study, the influence of saline-alkali tolerant transgenic soybean of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase on bacterial community structure and soil phosphatase during growth stages was investigated. The results showed that, compared with nontransgenic soybean as a control, the rhizospheric soil pH of transgenic soybean significantly decreased at the seedling stage. Compared to HN35, organic P content was 13.5% and 25.4% greater at the pod-filling stage and maturity, respectively. The acid phosphatase activity of SRTS was significantly better than HN35 by 12.74% at seedling, 14.03% at flowering, and 59.29% at podding, while alkaline phosphatase achieved maximum activity in the flowering stage and was markedly lower than HN35 by 13.25% at pod-filling. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was employed to investigate bacterial diversity, with a total of 25,499 operational taxonomic units (OTUs obtained from the 10 samples. Notably, the effect of SRTS on microbial richness and diversity of rhizospheric soil was marked at the stage of podding and pod-filling. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla among all samples. Compared with HN35, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was lower by 2.01%, 2.06%, and 5.28% at the stage of seedling, at pod-bearing, and at maturity. In genus level, the relative abundance of Gp6, Sphingomonas sp., and GP4 was significantly inhibited by SRTS at the stage of pod-bearing and pod-filling.

  6. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented.

  7. 2-Methylbutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Jörn Oliver; Ensenauer, Regina; Röschinger, Wulf

    2008-01-01

    2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MBD; coded by the ACADSB gene) catalyzes the step in isoleucine metabolism that corresponds to the isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase reaction in the degradation of leucine. Deficiencies of both enzymes may be detected by expanded neonatal screening with tandem...... individuals showed clinical symptoms attributable to MBD deficiency although the defect in isoleucine catabolism was demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. Several mutations in the ACADSB gene were identified, including a novel one. MBD deficiency may be a harmless metabolic variant although significant...

  8. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

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    Sakuko Ueshima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3 were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienylserine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2.

  9. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuen Hon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE. To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhEs, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C. thermocellum. As proof of concept, we used this plasmid to express 12 different adhE genes (both wild type and mutant from several organisms. Ethanol production varied between clones immediately after transformation, but tended to converge to a single value after several rounds of serial transfer. The previously described mutant C. thermocellum D494G adhE gave the best ethanol production, which is consistent with previously published results. Keywords: Clostridium Thermocellum, Plasmid, adhE, Structural stability, Gene expression

  10. New inter-correlated genes targeted by diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Maria Fedele, Anna; Costantini, Susan; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Costantini, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The marine environment is continually subjected to the action of stressors (including natural toxins), which represent a constant danger for benthic communities. In the present work using network analysis we identified ten genes on the basis of associated functions (FOXA, FoxG, GFI-1, nodal, JNK, OneCut/Hnf6, TAK1, tcf4, TCF7, VEGF) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, having key roles in different processes, such as embryonic development and asymmetry, cell fate specification, cell differentiation and morphogenesis, and skeletogenesis. These genes are correlated with three HUB genes, Foxo, Jun and HIF1A. Real Time qPCR revealed that during sea urchin embryonic development the expression levels of these genes were modulated by three diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), decadienal, heptadienal and octadienal. Our findings show how changes in gene expression levels may be used as an early indicator of stressful conditions in the marine environment. The identification of key genes and the molecular pathways in which they are involved represents a fundamental tool in understanding how marine organisms try to afford protection against toxicants, to avoid deleterious consequences and irreversible damages. The genes identified in this work as targets for PUAs can be considered as possible biomarkers to detect exposure to different environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunohistochemical analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase isoforms and their association with estrogen-receptor status and disease progression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opdenaker LM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lynn M Opdenaker,1,2 Kimberly M Arnold,1,3 Ryan T Pohlig,3,4 Jayasree S Padmanabhan,1 Daniel C Flynn,1,3 Jennifer Sims-Mourtada1–3 1Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health Services, Inc., Newark, Delaware, USA; 2Department of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 4Biostatistics Core Facility, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA Abstract: In many types of tumors, especially breast tumors, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity has been used to identify cancer stem-like cells within the tumor. The presence and quantity of these cells are believed to predict the response of tumors to chemotherapy. Therefore, identification and eradication of these cells would be necessary to cure the patient. However, there are 19 different ALDH isoforms that could contribute to the enzyme activity. ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are among the isoforms mostly responsible for the increased ALDH activity observed in these stem-like cells, although the main isoforms vary in different tissues and tumor types. In the study reported here, we attempted to determine if ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3, specifically, correlate with tumor stage, grade, and hormone-receptor status in breast-cancer patients. While there was no significant correlation between ALDH1A1 and any of the parameters tested, we were able to identify a positive correlation between ALDH1A3 and tumor stage in triple-negative cancers. In addition, ALDH1A3 was negatively correlated with estrogen-receptor status. Our data suggest that ALDH1A3 could be utilized as a marker to identify stem-like cells within triple-negative tumors. Keywords: breast tumor, ALDH, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A3, stem-like cells, triple-negative cancer

  12. The role of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1A1 polymorphisms in harmful alcohol consumption in a Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Penelope A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver cystolic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1 has been previously associated with both alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption behaviour, and has been implicated in alcohol-induced flushing and alcohol sensitivity in Caucasians. The present study tested for association between ALDH1A1 and alcohol consumption behaviour and susceptibility to problem drinking or alcohol dependence in Finnish cohorts of unrelated male subjects recruited from alcoholism clinical treatment facilities (n = 104 and from the general population (n = 201. All participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within or flanking ALDH1A1. To test for association between alcohol consumption behaviour and these polymorphisms, we used generalised linear models and haplotypic analysis. Three SNPs were nominally associated (rs348449, p = 0.043; rs610529, p = 0.013; rs348479, p = 0.025 with the quantitative AUDIT score, which evaluates alcohol consumption behaviour. Two-locus (rs6I0529-rs2288087 haplotype analysis increased the strength of association with AUDIT score (p = 0.00I5. Additionally, rs348449 is highly associated with problem drinking (allelic odds ratio [OR] 7.87, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.67-37.01 but due to the low minor allele frequency (0.01 and 0.07 in controls and problem drinkers, respectively, more samples are required to validate this observation. Conversely, rs348479 (p = 0.019 and rs6I0529 (allelic OR 0.65, 95 per cent CI 0.43-0.98; genotypic OR 0.32, 95 per cent CI 0.12-0.84 are implicated in alcohol dependence status. This study provides further evidence for a role for ALDH1A1 in alcohol consumption behaviour, including problem drinking and possibly alcohol dependence, in our Finnish population.

  13. Maternal Aldehyde Elimination during Pregnancy Preserves the Fetal Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P.; Patel, Ketan J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2−/−Fanca−/− embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. PMID:25155611

  14. Maternal aldehyde elimination during pregnancy preserves the fetal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, Nina; Langevin, Frédéric; King, Gareth; de Wind, Niels; Crossan, Gerry P; Patel, Ketan J

    2014-09-18

    Maternal metabolism provides essential nutrients to enable embryonic development. However, both mother and embryo produce reactive metabolites that can damage DNA. Here we discover how the embryo is protected from these genotoxins. Pregnant mice lacking Aldh2, a key enzyme that detoxifies reactive aldehydes, cannot support the development of embryos lacking the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway gene Fanca. Remarkably, transferring Aldh2(-/-)Fanca(-/-) embryos into wild-type mothers suppresses developmental defects and rescues embryonic lethality. These rescued neonates have severely depleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, indicating that despite intact maternal aldehyde catabolism, fetal Aldh2 is essential for hematopoiesis. Hence, maternal and fetal aldehyde detoxification protects the developing embryo from DNA damage. Failure of this genome preservation mechanism might explain why birth defects and bone marrow failure occur in Fanconi anemia, and may have implications for fetal well-being in the many women in Southeast Asia that are genetically deficient in ALDH2. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The primary structures of two yeast enolase genes. Homology between the 5' noncoding flanking regions of yeast enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M J; Holland, J P; Thill, G P; Jackson, K A

    1981-02-10

    Segments of yeast genomic DNA containing two enolase structural genes have been isolated by subculture cloning procedures using a cDNA hybridization probe synthesized from purified yeast enolase mRNA. Based on restriction endonuclease and transcriptional maps of these two segments of yeast DNA, each hybrid plasmid contains a region of extensive nucleotide sequence homology which forms hybrids with the cDNA probe. The DNA sequences which flank this homologous region in the two hybrid plasmids are nonhomologous indicating that these sequences are nontandemly repeated in the yeast genome. The complete nucleotide sequence of the coding as well as the flanking noncoding regions of these genes has been determined. The amino acid sequence predicted from one reading frame of both structural genes is extremely similar to that determined for yeast enolase (Chin, C. C. Q., Brewer, J. M., Eckard, E., and Wold, F. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 1370-1376), confirming that these isolated structural genes encode yeast enolase. The nucleotide sequences of the coding regions of the genes are approximately 95% homologous, and neither gene contains an intervening sequence. Codon utilization in the enolase genes follows the same biased pattern previously described for two yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structural genes (Holland, J. P., and Holland, M. J. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 2596-2605). DNA blotting analysis confirmed that the isolated segments of yeast DNA are colinear with yeast genomic DNA and that there are two nontandemly repeated enolase genes per haploid yeast genome. The noncoding portions of the two enolase genes adjacent to the initiation and termination codons are approximately 70% homologous and contain sequences thought to be involved in the synthesis and processing messenger RNA. Finally there are regions of extensive homology between the two enolase structural genes and two yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structural genes within the 5

  16. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase as targets for therapy of acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; De Cegli, Rossella; Carissimo, Annamaria; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2018-03-23

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate in the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-Ab, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis. Efficacy of histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol and LDH inhibitor galloflavin at reducing liver damage was evaluated in mice with induced hepatotoxicity. Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in cytoplasmatic and nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-coA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to response to damage. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus and are targets for therapy of acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening deterioration of liver function resulting in high mortality and

  17. Purification and characterization of a novel recombinant highly enantioselective short-chain NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Pucci, Biagio; Secundo, Francesco; La Cara, Francesco; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2008-07-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily was identified in the extremely thermophilic, halotolerant gram-negative eubacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27. The T. thermophilus ADH gene (adh(Tt)) was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (ADH(Tt)) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. ADH(Tt) is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 26,961-Da subunits composed of 256 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to approximately 73 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of approximately 90 degrees C, as well as good tolerance to common organic solvents. ADH(Tt) has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, a preference for reduction of aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, and poor activity on aromatic alcohols and aldehydes. This thermophilic enzyme catalyzes the following reactions with Prelog specificity: the reduction of acetophenone, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone, alpha-tetralone, and alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformates to (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol (>99% enantiomeric excess [ee]), (R)-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (93% ee), (S)-alpha-tetralol (>99% ee), methyl (R)-(-)-mandelate (92% ee), and ethyl (R)-(-)-mandelate (95% ee), respectively, by way of an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system involving 2-propanol and a second thermophilic ADH. This study further supports the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NADP(H) in members of the SDR superfamily.

  18. Defensome against toxic diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Marrone

    Full Text Available Many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes, such as decadienal, which compromise embryonic and larval development in benthic organisms. Here newly fertilized Paracentrotus lividus sea urchins were exposed to low concentration of decadienal and the expression levels of sixteen genes, implicated in a broad range of functional responses, were followed by Real Time qPCR in order to identify potential decadienal targets. We show that at low decadienal concentrations the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus places in motion different classes of genes to defend itself against this toxic aldehyde, activating hsp60 and two proteases, hat and BP10, at the blastula stage and hsp56 and several other genes (14-3-3ε, p38 MAPK, MTase, and GS at the prism stage. At this latter stage all genes involved in skeletogenesis (Nec, uni, SM50 and SM30 were also down-expressed, following developmental abnormalities that mainly affected skeleton morphogenesis. Moreover, sea urchin embryos treated with increasing concentrations of decadienal revealed a dose-dependent response of activated target genes. Finally, we suggest that this orchestrated defense system against decadienal represents part of the chemical defensome of P. lividus affording protection from environmental toxicants.

  19. Chronic oral exposure to the aldehyde pollutant acrolein induces dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Hamid, Tariq; Haberzettl, Petra; Gu, Yan; Chandrasekar, Bysani; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental triggers of dilated cardiomyopathy are poorly understood. Acute exposure to acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, impairs cardiac function and cardioprotective responses in mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic oral exposure to acrolein induces inflammation and cardiomyopathy. C57BL/6 mice were gavage-fed acrolein (1 mg/kg) or water (vehicle) daily for 48 days. The dose was chosen based on estimates of human daily unsaturated aldehyde consumption. Compared with vehicle-fed mice, acrolein-fed mice exhibited significant (P acrolein adduct formation indicative of physical translocation of ingested acrolein to the heart. Acrolein also induced myocyte hypertrophy (∼2.2-fold increased myocyte area, P acrolein-exposed hearts, along with upregulated gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Long-term oral exposure to acrolein, at an amount within the range of human unsaturated aldehyde intake, induces a phenotype of dilated cardiomyopathy in the mouse. Human exposure to acrolein may have analogous effects and raise consideration of an environmental, aldehyde-mediated basis for heart failure. PMID:21908791

  20. The Arabidopsis aldehyde oxidase 3 (AA03) gene product catalyzes the final step in abscisic acid biosynthesis in leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seo, M.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Koiwai, H.; Oritani, T.; Marion-Poll, A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koshiba, T.

    2000-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in seed development and germination and in responses to various environmental stresses. The last step of ABA biosynthesis involves oxidation of abscisic aldehyde, and aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1) is thought to catalyze this reaction. An aldehyde

  1. Association between ALDH 2 Glu504Lys polymorphism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : a meta-analysis. Jiang Xinhua, Zhao Yanfei. Abstract. Background: The findings from studies on the relationship between aldehyde dehydrogenases(ALDH) gene Glu504Lys polymorphism and colorectal cancer(CRC) were inconsistent.

  2. A deletion of the gene encoding amino aldehyde dehydrogenase enhances the "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and is a functional marker for the development of the aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangnam, Saowalak; Wanchana, Samart; Phoka, Nongnat; Saeansuk, Chatree; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya; de Hoop, Simon Jan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2017-12-01

    The gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon was identified. The sequence variation (804-bp deletion) found in the gene was used as the target for functional marker development. Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries that is popular for its nutritional and medicinal value. A "pandan-like" aroma, which is economically important in crops including rice and soybean, is rarely found in most commercial varieties of winter melon, but is present in some landraces. This aroma is a value-added potential trait in breeding winter melon with a higher economic value. In this study, we confirmed that the aroma of winter melon is due to the potent volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) as previously identified in other plants. Based on an analysis of public transcriptome data, BhAMADH encoding an aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was identified as a candidate gene conferring aroma of winter melon. A sequence comparison of BhAMADH between the aromatic and non-aromatic accessions revealed an 804-bp deletion encompassing exons 11-13 in the aromatic accession. The deletion caused several premature stop codons and could result in a truncated protein with a length of only 208 amino acids compared with 503 amino acids in the normal protein. A functional marker was successfully developed based on the 804-bp deletion and validated in 237 F 2 progenies. A perfect association of the marker genotypes and aroma phenotypes indicates that BhAMADH is the major gene conferring the aroma. The recently developed functional marker could be efficiently used in breeding programs for the aroma trait in winter melon.

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a marker for normal and malignant human colonic stem cells (SC) and tracks SC overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Emina H; Hynes, Mark J; Zhang, Tao; Ginestier, Christophe; Dontu, Gabriela; Appelman, Henry; Fields, Jeremy Z; Wicha, Max S; Boman, Bruce M

    2009-04-15

    Although the concept that cancers originate from stem cells (SC) is becoming scientifically accepted, mechanisms by which SC contribute to tumor initiation and progression are largely unknown. For colorectal cancer (CRC), investigation of this problem has been hindered by a paucity of specific markers for identification and isolation of SC from normal and malignant colon. Accordingly, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) was investigated as a possible marker for identifying colonic SC and for tracking them during cancer progression. Immunostaining showed that ALDH1(+) cells are sparse and limited to the normal crypt bottom, where SCs reside. During progression from normal epithelium to mutant (APC) epithelium to adenoma, ALDH1(+) cells increased in number and became distributed farther up the crypt. CD133(+) and CD44(+) cells, which are more numerous and broadly distributed in normal crypts, showed similar changes during tumorigenesis. Flow cytometric isolation of cancer cells based on enzymatic activity of ALDH (Aldefluor assay) and implantation of these cells in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient mice (a) generated xenograft tumors (Aldefluor(-) cells did not), (b) generated them after implanting as few as 25 cells, and (c) generated them dose dependently. Further isolation of cancer cells using a second marker (CD44(+) or CD133(+) serially) only modestly increased enrichment based on tumor-initiating ability. Thus, ALDH1 seems to be a specific marker for identifying, isolating, and tracking human colonic SC during CRC development. These findings also support our original hypothesis, derived previously from mathematical modeling of crypt dynamics, that progressive colonic SC overpopulation occurs during colon tumorigenesis and drives CRC development.

  4. First general methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Nicolas; Grison, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We herein report two innovative methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates and the first saccharidic aldehyde enolphosphates. Aldehyde enolphosphate function is worthwhile to be considered as a good phosphoenolpyruvate analogue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo Choo

    Full Text Available Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs. Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW, Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons.

  6. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V max of 2141 ± 500 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 11 ± 4 μM. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K I of 3.1 ± 0.57 μM. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V max of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 15 ± 2 μM and was not inhibited by pyrazole

  7. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  8. Cloning, functional expression and characterization of a bifunctional 3-hydroxybutanal dehydrogenase /reductase involved in acetone metabolism by Desulfococcus biacutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jasmin; Rusche, Hendrik; Schink, Bernhard; Schleheck, David

    2016-11-25

    The strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus can utilize acetone as sole carbon and energy source for growth. Whereas in aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria acetone is activated by carboxylation with CO 2 to acetoacetate, D. biacutus involves CO as a cosubstrate for acetone activation through a different, so far unknown pathway. Proteomic studies indicated that, among others, a predicted medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily, zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (locus tag DebiaDRAFT_04514) is specifically and highly produced during growth with acetone. The MDR gene DebiaDRAFT_04514 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant protein required zinc as cofactor, and accepted NADH/NAD + but not NADPH/NADP + as electron donor/acceptor. The pH optimum was at pH 8, and the temperature optimum at 45 °C. Highest specific activities were observed for reduction of C 3 - C 5 -aldehydes with NADH, such as propanal to propanol (380 ± 15 mU mg -1 protein), butanal to butanol (300 ± 24 mU mg -1 ), and 3-hydroxybutanal to 1,3-butanediol (248 ± 60 mU mg -1 ), however, the enzyme also oxidized 3-hydroxybutanal with NAD + to acetoacetaldehyde (83 ± 18 mU mg -1 ). The enzyme might play a key role in acetone degradation by D. biacutus, for example as a bifunctional 3-hydroxybutanal dehydrogenase/reductase. Its recombinant production may represent an important step in the elucidation of the complete degradation pathway.

  9. Exogenous Gene Transmission of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2 Mimics Ischemic Preconditioning Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Alexander L; Corridon, Peter R; Zhang, Shijun; Xu, Weimin; Witzmann, Frank A; Collett, Jason A; Rhodes, George J; Winfree, Seth; Bready, Devin; Pfeffenberger, Zechariah J; Pomerantz, Jeremy M; Hato, Takashi; Nagami, Glenn T; Molitoris, Bruce A; Basile, David P; Atkinson, Simon J; Bacallao, Robert L

    2018-04-01

    Ischemic preconditioning confers organ-wide protection against subsequent ischemic stress. A substantial body of evidence underscores the importance of mitochondria adaptation as a critical component of cell protection from ischemia. To identify changes in mitochondria protein expression in response to ischemic preconditioning, we isolated mitochondria from ischemic preconditioned kidneys and sham-treated kidneys as a basis for comparison. The proteomic screen identified highly upregulated proteins, including NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), and we confirmed the ability of this protein to confer cellular protection from injury in murine S3 proximal tubule cells subjected to hypoxia. To further evaluate the role of IDH2 in cell protection, we performed detailed analysis of the effects of Idh2 gene delivery on kidney susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene delivery of IDH2 before injury attenuated the injury-induced rise in serum creatinine ( P <0.05) observed in controls and increased the mitochondria membrane potential ( P <0.05), maximal respiratory capacity ( P <0.05), and intracellular ATP levels ( P <0.05) above those in controls. This communication shows that gene delivery of Idh2 can confer organ-wide protection against subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury and mimics ischemic preconditioning. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  11. Identification and characterization of aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) in the cotton bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Liao, Yalin

    2017-12-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are a family of metabolic enzymes that oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids; therefore, they play critical roles in detoxification and degradation of chemicals. By using transcriptomic and genomic approaches, we successfully identified six putative AOX genes (HarmAOX1-6) from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In silico expression profile, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that HarmAOX1 is highly expressed in adult antennae, tarsi, and larval mouthparts, so they may play an important role in degrading plant-derived compounds. HarmAOX2 is highly and specifically expressed in adult antennae, suggesting a candidate pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) to inactivate the sex pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal. RNA sequencing data further demonstrated that a number of host plants they feed on could significantly upregulate the expression levels of HarmAOX1 in larvae. This study improves our understanding of insect aldehyde oxidases and insect-plant interactions.

  12. A Turkish family with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome caused by a novel ALDH3A2 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Incecik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the aldehyde dehydrogenase family 3 member A2 (ALDH3A2 gene that encodes fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase. Affected patients display ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spastic diplegia. More than 70 mutations in ALDH3A2 have been discovered in SLS patients. We diagnosed two brothers age of 12 and 20 years with characteristic features of this rare syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed demyelinating disease in both of them. We described a novel homozygous, c. 835 T > A (p.Y279N mutation in exon 6 in two patients.

  13. Functional assignment of gene AAC16202.1 from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003: new insights into the bacterial SDR sorbitol dehydrogenases family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carvajal, Agustín; García-García, María Inmaculada; Sánchez-Carrón, Guiomar; García-Carmona, Francisco; Sánchez-Ferrer, Alvaro

    2012-11-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute one of the largest enzyme superfamilies with over 60,000 non-redundant sequences in the database, many of which need a correct functional assignment. Among them, the gene AAC16202.1 (NCBI) from Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003 has been assigned in Uniprot both as a sorbitol dehydrogenase (#D5AUY1) and, as an N-acetyl-d-mannosamine dehydrogenase (#O66112), both enzymes being of biotechnological interest. When the gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3)pLys, the purified enzyme was not active toward N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, whereas it was active toward d-sorbitol and d-fructose. However, the relative activities toward xylitol and l-iditol (0.45 and 6.9%, respectively) were low compared with that toward d-sorbitol. Thus, the enzyme could be considered sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) with very low activity toward xylitol, which could increase its biotechnological interest for determining sorbitol without the unspecific cross-determination of added xylitol in food and pharma compositions. The tetrameric enzyme (120 kDa) showed similar catalytic efficiency (2.2 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) to other sorbitol dehydrogenases for d-sorbitol, with an optimum pH of 9.0 and an optimum temperature of 37 °C. The enzyme was also more thermostable than other reported SDH, ammonium sulfate being the best stabilizer in this respect, increasing the melting temperature (T(m)) up to 52.9 °C. The enzyme can also be considered as a new member of the Zn(2+) independent SDH family since no effect on activity was detected in the presence of divalent cations or chelating agents. Finally, its in silico analysis enabled the specific conserved sequence blocks that are the fingerprints of bacterial sorbitol dehydrogenases and mainly located at C-terminal of the protein, to be determined for the first time. This knowledge will facilitate future data curation of present databases and a better functional assignment of newly described

  14. Ovarian cancer stem cells are enriched in side population and aldehyde dehydrogenase bright overlapping population.

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    Kazuyo Yasuda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiaiting cells (CICs are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential and high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs of ovarian cancer have been isolated by side population (SP analysis, ALDEFLUOR assay and using cell surface markers. However, these approaches are not definitive markers for CSCs/CICs, and it is necessary to refine recent methods for identifying more highly purified CSCs/CICs. In this study, we analyzed SP cells and aldehyde dehydrogenese bright (ALDH(Br cells from ovarian cancer cells. Both SP cells and ALDH(Br cells exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability and higher expression level of a stem cell marker, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, than those of main population (MP cells and ALDH(Low cells, respectively. We analyzed an SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population (SP/ALDH(Br, and the SP/ALDH(Br population exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability than that of SP cells or ALDH(Br cells, enabling initiation of tumor with as few as 10(2 cells. Furthermore, SP/ADLH(Br population showed higher sphere-forming ability, cisplatin resistance, adipocyte differentiation ability and expression of SOX2 than those of SP/ALDH(Low, MP/ALDH(Br and MP/ALDH(Low cells. Gene knockdown of SOX2 suppressed the tumor-initiation of ovarian cancer cells. An SP/ALDH(Br population was detected in several gynecological cancer cells with ratios of 0.1% for HEC-1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cells to 1% for MCAS ovary mucinous adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, use of the SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population is a promising approach to isolate highly purified CSCs/CICs and SOX2 might be a novel functional marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs.

  15. The natural history of class I primate alcohol dehydrogenases includes gene duplication, gene loss, and gene conversion.

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    Matthew A Carrigan

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates

  16. Molecular evidence of the toxic effects of diatom diets on gene expression patterns in copepods.

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    Chiara Lauritano

    Full Text Available Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and are considered essential in the transfer of energy through marine food chains. However, these unicellular plants at times produce secondary metabolites such as polyunsaturated aldehydes and other products deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids that are collectively termed oxylipins. These cytotoxic compounds are responsible for growth inhibition and teratogenic activity, potentially sabotaging future generations of grazers by inducing poor recruitment in marine organisms such as crustacean copepods.Here we show that two days of feeding on a strong oxylipin-producing diatom (Skeletonema marinoi is sufficient to inhibit a series of genes involved in aldehyde detoxification, apoptosis, cytoskeleton structure and stress response in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. Of the 18 transcripts analyzed by RT-qPCR at least 50% were strongly down-regulated (aldehyde dehydrogenase 9, 8 and 6, cellular apoptosis susceptibility and inhibitor of apoptosis IAP proteins, heat shock protein 40, alpha- and beta-tubulins compared to animals fed on a weak oxylipin-producing diet (Chaetoceros socialis which showed no changes in gene expression profiles.Our results provide molecular evidence of the toxic effects of strong oxylipin-producing diatoms on grazers, showing that primary defense systems that should be activated to protect copepods against toxic algae can be inhibited. On the other hand other classical detoxification genes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome P450 were not affected possibly due to short exposure times. Given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments these results offer a plausible explanation for the inefficient use of a potentially valuable food resource, the spring diatom bloom, by some copepod species.

  17. GenBank blastx search result: AK060824 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060824 001-034-B04 U75295.1 Human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH10) gene, alternative...ly spliced exon 9', and complete cds for alternatively spliced product.|PRI PRI 3e-91 +1 ...

  18. GenBank blastx search result: AK104746 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104746 001-038-E07 U75295.1 Human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH10) gene, alternative...ly spliced exon 9', and complete cds for alternatively spliced product.|PRI PRI 1e-102 +2 ...

  19. Novel mutation in Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is associated with divergent neurologic phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kathleen; Holden, Kenton R; S'Aulis, Dana; Amador, Claudia; Matheus, M Gisele; Rizzo, William B

    2013-10-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene that codes for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, which results in accumulation of fatty aldehydes and alcohols and is characterized by ichthyosis, intellectual disability, and spastic diplegia/quadriplegia. The authors describe 2 unrelated Honduran patients who carried the same novel homozygous nonsense mutation (c.1309A>T, p.K437X) and ALDH3A2 DNA haplotype, but widely differed in disease severity. One patient exhibited spastic quadriplegia with unusual neuroregression, whereas the other patient had the usual static form of spastic diplegia with neurodevelopmental disabilities. Biochemical analyses showed a similar profound deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and impaired fatty alcohol metabolism in both patients' cultured fibroblasts. These results indicate that variation in the neurologic phenotype of Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is not strictly determined by the ALDH3A2 mutation or the biochemical defect as expressed in cultured fibroblasts, but by unidentified epigenetic/environmental factors, gene modifiers, or other mechanisms.

  20. Changes in cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities from sugarcane cultivars inoculated with Sporisorium scitamineum sporidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rocío; Alarcón, Borja; de Armas, Roberto; Vicente, Carlos; Legaz, María Estrella

    2012-06-01

    This study describes a method for determining cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in sugarcane stems using reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography to elucidate their possible lignin origin. Activity is assayed using the reverse mode, the oxidation of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes. Appearance of the reaction products, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde is determined by measuring absorbance at 340 and 345 nm, respectively. Disappearance of substrates, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol is measured at 263 and 273 nm, respectively. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile:acetic acid through an RP Mediterranea sea C18 column is performed. As case examples, we have examined two different cultivars of sugarcane; My 5514 is resistant to smut, whereas B 42231 is susceptible to the pathogen. Inoculation of sugarcane stems elicits lignification and produces significant increases of coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD). Production of lignin increases about 29% in the resistant cultivar and only 13% in the susceptible cultivar after inoculation compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that the resistance of My 5514 to smut is likely derived, at least in part, to a marked increase of lignin concentration by the activation of CAD and SAD. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  1. GenBank blastx search result: AK241698 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241698 J065196B09 U75295.1 HSALDHX10 Human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH10) gene, alternative...ly spliced exon 9', and complete cds for alternatively spliced product. PRI 4e-77 1 ...

  2. Myoglobin-Catalyzed Olefination of Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vikas; Fasan, Rudi

    2016-02-12

    The olefination of aldehydes constitutes a most valuable and widely adopted strategy for constructing carbon-carbon double bonds in organic chemistry. While various synthetic methods have been made available for this purpose, no biocatalysts are known to mediate this transformation. Reported herein is that engineered myoglobin variants can catalyze the olefination of aldehydes in the presence of α-diazoesters with high catalytic efficiency (up to 4,900 turnovers) and excellent E diastereoselectivity (92-99.9 % de). This transformation could be applied to the olefination of a variety of substituted benzaldehydes and heteroaromatic aldehydes, also in combination with different alkyl α-diazoacetate reagents. This work provides a first example of biocatalytic aldehyde olefination and extends the spectrum of synthetically valuable chemical transformations accessible using metalloprotein-based catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Exploring the potential of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) promoter for recombinant gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jan Dines; Johanson, Ted; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A control point for keeping redox homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentative growth is the dynamic regulation of transcription for the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) gene. In this study, the possibility to steer the activity of the GPD2 promoter was investigated by p...

  4. The effect of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst MnTBAP on aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 nitration by organic nitrates: role in nitrate tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Muscoli, Carolina; Dagostino, Concetta; Giancotti, Luigino Antonio; Gliozzi, Micaela; Sacco, Iolanda; Visalli, Valeria; Gratteri, Santo; Palma, Ernesto; Malara, Natalia; Musolino, Vincenzo; Carresi, Cristina; Muscoli, Saverio; Vitale, Cristiana; Salvemini, Daniela; Romeo, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Bioconversion of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) into nitric oxide (NO) by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH-2) is a crucial mechanism which drives vasodilatory and antiplatelet effect of organic nitrates in vitro and in vivo. Oxidative stress generated by overproduction of free radical species, mostly superoxide anions and NO-derived peroxynitrite, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the development of nitrate tolerance, though the mechanism still remains unclear. Here we studied the free radical-dependent impairment of ALDH-2 in platelets as well as vascular tissues undergoing organic nitrate ester tolerance and potential benefit when using the selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Mn(III) tetrakis (4-Benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP). Washed human platelets were made tolerant to nitrates via incubation with GTN for 4h. This was expressed by attenuation of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (40U/mL), an effect accompanied by GTN-related induction of cGMP levels in platelets undergoing thrombin-induced aggregation. Both effects were associated to attenuated GTN-induced nitrite formation in platelets supernatants and to prominent nitration of ALDH-2, the GTN to NO metabolizing enzyme, suggesting that GTN tolerance was associated to reduced NO formation via impairment of ALDH-2. These effects were all antagonized by co-incubation of platelets with MnTBAP, which restored GTN-induced responses in tolerant platelets. Comparable effect was found under in in vivo settings. Indeed, MnTBAP (10mg/kg, i.p.) significantly restored the hypotensive effect of bolus injection of GTN in rats made tolerants to organic nitrates via chronic administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN), thus confirming the role of peroxynitrite overproduction in the development of tolerance to vascular responses induced by organic nitrates. In conclusion, oxidative stress subsequent to prolonged use of organic nitrates, which occurs via nitration of ALDH-2, represents a key event

  5. Highly stable and reusable immobilized formate dehydrogenases: Promising biocatalysts for in situ regeneration of NADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Binay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to prepare robust immobilized formate dehydrogenase (FDH preparations which can be used as effective biocatalysts along with functional oxidoreductases, in which in situ regeneration of NADH is required. For this purpose, Candida methylica FDH was covalently immobilized onto Immobead 150 support (FDHI150, Immobead 150 support modified with ethylenediamine and then activated with glutaraldehyde (FDHIGLU, and Immobead 150 support functionalized with aldehyde groups (FDHIALD. The highest immobilization yield and activity yield were obtained as 90% and 132%, respectively when Immobead 150 functionalized with aldehyde groups was used as support. The half-life times (t1/2 of free FDH, FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD were calculated as 10.6, 28.9, 22.4 and 38.5 h, respectively at 35 °C. FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD retained 69, 38 and 51% of their initial activities, respectively after 10 reuses. The results show that the FDHI150, FDHIGLU and FDHIALD offer feasible potentials for in situ regeneration of NADH.

  6. Cloning and mRNA Expression of NADH Dehydrogenase during Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Development and Pesticide Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    NADH dehydrogenase, the largest of the respiratory complexes, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have cloned and sequenced cDNA of NADH dehydrogenase gene from Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) adult (GeneBank Accession number: FJ458415). The ...

  7. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  8. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  9. Global sequence diversity of the lactate dehydrogenase gene in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpalipan, Phumin; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai

    2018-01-09

    Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization for use in remote areas to improve malaria case management. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Plasmodium falciparum is one of the main parasite antigens employed by various commercial RDTs. It has been hypothesized that the poor detection of LDH-based RDTs is attributed in part to the sequence diversity of the gene. To test this, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the P. falciparum ldh gene in Thailand and to construct the map of LDH sequence diversity in P. falciparum populations worldwide. The ldh gene was sequenced for 50 P. falciparum isolates in Thailand and compared with hundreds of sequences from P. falciparum populations worldwide. Several indices of molecular variation were calculated, including the proportion of polymorphic sites, the average nucleotide diversity index (π), and the haplotype diversity index (H). Tests of positive selection and neutrality tests were performed to determine signatures of natural selection on the gene. Mean genetic distance within and between species of Plasmodium ldh was analysed to infer evolutionary relationships. Nucleotide sequences of P. falciparum ldh could be classified into 9 alleles, encoding 5 isoforms of LDH. L1a was the most common allelic type and was distributed in P. falciparum populations worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum ldh sequences were highly conserved, with haplotype and nucleotide diversity values of 0.203 and 0.0004, respectively. The extremely low genetic diversity was maintained by purifying selection, likely due to functional constraints. Phylogenetic analysis inferred the close genetic relationship of P. falciparum to malaria parasites of great apes, rather than to other human malaria parasites. This study revealed the global genetic variation of the ldh gene in P. falciparum, providing knowledge for improving detection of LDH-based RDTs and supporting the candidacy of

  10. Cloning, characterization and sequence comparison of the gene coding for IMP dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, F R; Osipiuk, J; Trent, J; Olsen, G J; Huberman, E

    1996-10-03

    We have cloned and characterized the gene encoding inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pf), a hyperthermophillic archeon. Sequence analysis of the Pf gene indicated an open reading frame specifying a protein of 485 amino acids (aa) with a calculated M(r) of 52900. Canonical Archaea promoter elements, Box A and Box B, are located -49 and -17 nucleotides (nt), respectively, upstream of the putative start codon. The sequence of the putative active-site region conforms to the IMPDH signature motif and contains a putative active-site cysteine. Phylogenetic relationships derived by using all available IMPDH sequences are consistent with trees developed for other molecules; they do not precisely resolve the history of Pf IMPDH but indicate a close similarity to bacterial IMPDH proteins. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that a gene duplication occurred prior to the division between rodents and humans, accounting for the Type I and II isoforms identified in mice and humans.

  11. Deodorants: An experimental provocation study with cinnamic aldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, M.; Johansen, J. D.; Andersen, K. E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the significance of cinnamic aldehyde in deodorants for the development...... of axillary dermatitis when used by individuals with and without contact allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. METHODS: Patch tests with deodorants and ethanol solutions with cinnamic aldehyde, and repeated open application tests with roll-on deodorants without and with cinnamic aldehyde at different concentrations......, were performed in 37 patients with dermatitis, 20 without and 17 with contact allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. RESULTS: A repeated open application test with positive findings was noted only in patients hypersensitive to cinnamic aldehyde (P deodorants containing...

  12. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Idewaki

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671 was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2. The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76-1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80-1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54-0.93] in drinkers with *2. Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28-6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89-4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06-5.79] in drinkers with *2. In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2

  13. High ethanol and acetaldehyde impair spatial memory in mouse models: opposite effects of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and apolipoprotein E on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ono, Junichiro; Shirakami, Gotaro; Sultana, Ruby; Yu, Nakamura; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-05-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency may directly contribute to excess acetaldehyde (AcH) accumulation after ethanol (EtOH) drinking and AcH mediates some of the behavioral effects of EtOH. Apolipoprotein E has been suggested to be involved in the alteration of attention and memory. We have chosen Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO), ApoE-KO, and their wild-type (WT) control mice to examine the effects of EtOH and AcH on spatial memory and to compare the possible relationship between genetic deficiency and memory using two behavioral assessments. Mice were trained for 4 days, with EtOH (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/kg) being given intraperitoneally on day 4. A probe trial was given on day 5 in the non-EtOH state in the Morris water maze (MWM). The results showed that 2.0 g/kg EtOH increased errors, indicating memory impairment on the eight-arm radial maze (RAM) for all the mice studied. One gram per kilogram EtOH impaired the performance of Aldh2-KO and ApoE-KO mice, but not WT mice. We found similar effects of EtOH on the MWM performance, with 2.0 g/kg EtOH increasing the latencies. One gram per kilogram EtOH increased the latencies of Aldh2-KO and WT mice, but not ApoE-KO mice. The 2.0 g/kg EtOH-induced memory impairment in Aldh2-KO mice was greater, suggesting an AcH effect. Furthermore, time spent on the probe trial was shorter in mice that had previously received 2.0 g/kg EtOH. ApoE-KO mice learned more slowly, while Aldh2-KO mice learned more quickly. Both the RAM and MWM results suggest that high EtOH and AcH impair spatial memory in mice, while lower doses do not have consistent memory effects. In addition, we conclude that genetic differences might underlie some of EtOH's effects on memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) reverses cisplatin resistance of human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549/DDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunyan; Wu, Shuangshuang; Xu, Wei; Liang, Yan; Li, Yue; Zhao, Weihong; Wu, Jianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is the standard first-line chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, resistance to chemotherapy has been a major obstacle in the management of NSCLC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) overexpression has been observed in a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ALDH1A1 expression on cisplatin resistance and explore the mechanism responsible. Reverse transcriptase-PCR was applied to measure the messenger RNA expression of ALDH1A1, while Western blot assay was employed to evaluate the protein expression of ALDH1A1, B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-2-like protein 4, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT) and AKT. A short hairpin RNA was used to knockdown ALDH1A1 expression. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the effect of ALDH1A1 decrease on cell viability. The cell apoptotic rate was tested using flow cytometry assay. ALDH1A1 is overexpressed in cisplatin resistant cell line A549/DDP, compared with A549. ALDH1A1 depletion significantly decreased A549/DDP proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced cisplatin resistance. In addition, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / AKT pathway is activated in A549/DDP, and ALDH1A1 knockdown reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT. Moreover, the combination of ALDH1A1-short hairpin RNA and PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 markedly inhibited cell viability, enhanced apoptotic cell death, and increased cisplatin sensitivity. These results suggest that ALDH1A1 depletion could reverse cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell line A549/DDP, and may act as a potential target for the treatment of lung cancers resistant to cisplatin. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Potential of Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaggenborg, Rainer; Overhage, Jörg; Loos, Andrea; Archer, John A C; Lessard, Philip; Sinskey, Anthony J; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Priefert, Horst

    2006-10-01

    The potential of two Rhodococcus strains for biotechnological vanillin production from ferulic acid and eugenol was investigated. Genome sequence data of Rhodococcus sp. I24 suggested a coenzyme A-dependent, non-beta-oxidative pathway for ferulic acid bioconversion, which involves feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Fcs), enoyl-CoA hydratase/aldolase (Ech), and vanillin dehydrogenase (Vdh). This pathway was proven for Rhodococcus opacus PD630 by physiological characterization of knockout mutants. However, expression and functional characterization of corresponding structural genes from I24 suggested that degradation of ferulic acid in this strain proceeds via a beta-oxidative pathway. The vanillin precursor eugenol facilitated growth of I24 but not of PD630. Coniferyl aldehyde was an intermediate of eugenol degradation by I24. Since the genome sequence of I24 is devoid of eugenol hydroxylase homologous genes (ehyAB), eugenol bioconversion is most probably initiated by a new step in this bacterium. To establish eugenol bioconversion in PD630, the vanillyl alcohol oxidase gene (vaoA) from Penicillium simplicissimum CBS 170.90 was expressed in PD630 together with coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase (calA) and coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase (calB) genes from Pseudomonas sp. HR199. The recombinant strain converted eugenol to ferulic acid. The obtained data suggest that genetically engineered strains of I24 and PD630 are suitable candidates for vanillin production from eugenol.

  16. Distinct roles of jasmonates and aldehydes in plant-defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wassim Chehab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many inducible plant-defense responses are activated by jasmonates (JAs, C(6-aldehydes, and their corresponding derivatives, produced by the two main competing branches of the oxylipin pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL branches, respectively. In addition to competition for substrates, these branch-pathway-derived metabolites have substantial overlap in regulation of gene expression. Past experiments to define the role of C(6-aldehydes in plant defense responses were biased towards the exogenous application of the synthetic metabolites or the use of genetic manipulation of HPL expression levels in plant genotypes with intact ability to produce the competing AOS-derived metabolites. To uncouple the roles of the C(6-aldehydes and jasmonates in mediating direct and indirect plant-defense responses, we generated Arabidopsis genotypes lacking either one or both of these metabolites. These genotypes were subsequently challenged with a phloem-feeding insect (aphids: Myzus persicae, an insect herbivore (leafminers: Liriomyza trifolii, and two different necrotrophic fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. We also characterized the volatiles emitted by these plants upon aphid infestation or mechanical wounding and identified hexenyl acetate as the predominant compound in these volatile blends. Subsequently, we examined the signaling role of this compound in attracting the parasitoid wasp (Aphidius colemani, a natural enemy of aphids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study conclusively establishes that jasmonates and C(6-aldehydes play distinct roles in plant defense responses. The jasmonates are indispensable metabolites in mediating the activation of direct plant-defense responses, whereas the C(6-aldehyes are not. On the other hand, hexenyl acetate, an acetylated C(6-aldehyde, is the predominant wound-inducible volatile signal that mediates indirect defense responses by directing tritrophic

  17. Silencing of mitochondrial NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase gene enhances glioma radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Youl; Yoo, Young Hyun; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Silencing of the IDPm gene enhances IR-induced autophagy in glioma cells. •Autophagy inhibition augmented apoptosis of irradiated glioma cells. •Results offer a redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are elevated in organisms that have been exposed to ionizing radiation and are protagonists in the induction of cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and the cellular defense against oxidative damage are primary functions of mitochondrial NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPm) via the supply of NADPH for antioxidant systems. In the present study, we report an autophagic response to ionizing radiation in A172 glioma cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the IDPm gene. Autophagy in A172 transfectant cells was associated with enhanced autophagolysosome formation and GFP–LC3 punctuation/aggregation. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine augmented apoptotic cell death of irradiated A172 cells transfected with IDPm siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy functions as a survival mechanism in A172 cells against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and the sensitizing effect of IDPm siRNA and autophagy inhibitor on the ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death of glioma cells offers a novel redox-active therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer

  18. Molecular Genetics and Gene Therapy in Esophageal Cancer: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With approximately 386,000 deaths per year, esophageal cancer is the 6th most common cause of death due to cancer in the world. This cancer, like any other cancer, is the outcome of genetic alterations or environmental factors such as tobacco smoke and gastro-esophageal reflux. Tobacco smoking is a major etiologic factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in western countries, and it increases the risk by approximately 3 to 5 folds. Chronic gastro-esophageal reflux usually leads to the replacement of squamous mucosa by intestinal-type Barrett’s metaplastic mucosa which is considered the most important factor causing esophageal adenocarcinoma. In contrast to esophageal adenocarcinoma, different risk factors and mechanisms, such as mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, play an important role in causing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Molecular studies on esophageal cancers have revealed frequent genetic abnormalities in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, including altered expression of p53, p16, cyclin D1, EGFR, E-cadherin, COX-2, iNOS, RARs, Rb, hTERT, p21, APC, c-MYC, VEGF, TGT-α and NF-κB. Many studies have focused on the role of different polymorphisms such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 2 in causing esophageal cancer. Different agents including bestatin, curcumin, black raspberries, 5-lipoxygenase (LOX and COX-2 inhibitors have been found to play a role in inhibiting esophageal carcinogenesis. Different gene therapy approaches including p53 and p21WAF1 replacement gene therapies and therapy by suicide genes have also been experimented. Moreover, efforts have been made to use nanotechnology and aptamer technology in this regard.

  19. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione S-transferase M1 and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Kato, Hoichi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa; Muto, Manabu; Omori, Tai; Haneda, Tatsumasa; Kumagai, Yoshiya; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Yokoyama, Masako; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Yoshimizu, Haruko

    2002-11-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), ADH3, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) influence the metabolism of alcohol and other carcinogens. The ALDH2*1/2*2 genotype, which encodes inactive ALDH2, and ADH2*1/2*1, which encodes the low-activity form of ADH2, enhance the risk for esophageal cancer in East Asian alcoholics. This case-control study of whether the enzyme-related vulnerability for esophageal cancer can be extended to a general population involved 234 Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and 634 cancer-free Japanese men who received annual health checkups. The GSTM1 genotype was not associated with the risk for this cancer. Light drinkers (1-8.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*2 had an esophageal cancer risk 5.82 times that of light drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*1 (reference category), and their risk was similar to that of moderate drinkers (9-17.9 units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (odds ratio = 5.58). The risk for moderate drinkers with ALDH2*1/2*2 (OR = 55.84) exceeded that for heavy drinkers (18+ units/week) with ALDH2*1/2*1 (OR = 10.38). Similar increased risks were observed for those with ADH2*1/2*1. A multiple logistic model including ALDH2, ADH2, and ADH3 genotypes showed that the ADH3 genotype does not significantly affect the risk for esophageal cancer. For individuals with both ALDH2*1/2*2 and ADH2*1/2*1, the risk of esophageal cancer was enhanced in a multiplicative fashion (OR = 30.12), whereas for those with either ALDH2*1/2*2 or ADH2*1/2*1 alone the ORs were 7.36 and 4.11. In comparison with the estimated population-attributable risks for preference for strong alcoholic beverages (30.7%), smoking (53.6%) and for lower intake of green and yellow vegetables (25.7%) and fruit (37.6%), an extraordinarily high proportion of the excessive risk for esophageal cancer in the Japanese males can be attributed to drinking (90.9%), particularly drinking by persons with inactive heterozygous ALDH

  1. Identification and characterization of genes encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas putida OUS82.

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, N; Kaida, N; Torigoe, S; Moritani, T; Sawada, T; Satoh, S; Kiyohara, H

    1994-01-01

    Naphthalene and phenanthrene are transformed by enzymes encoded by the pah gene cluster of Pseudomonas putida OUS82. The pahA and pahB genes, which encode the first and second enzymes, dioxygenase and cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, respectively, were identified and sequenced. The DNA sequences showed that pahA and pahB were clustered and that pahA consisted of four cistrons, pahAa, pahAb, pahAc, and pahAd, which encode ferredoxin reductase, ferredoxin, and two subunits of the iron-sulfur prot...

  2. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  3. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebold, James P.; Evans, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof is disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  4. Transgenic Mouse Models for Alcohol Metabolism, Toxicity and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Heit, Claire; Dong, Hongbin; Chen, Ying; Shah, Yatrik M.; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse leads to tissue damage including a variety of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms by which this damage occurs remains to be fully understood. The primary enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1, (CYP2E1), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Genetic polymorphisms in human genes encoding these enzymes are associated with increased risks of alcohol-related tissue damage, as well as differences in...

  5. Regulation of the ald Gene Encoding Alanine Dehydrogenase by AldR in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-A; Baek, Eun-Young; Kim, Si Wouk; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory gene aldR was identified 95 bp upstream of the ald gene encoding l-alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The AldR protein shows sequence similarity to the regulatory proteins of the Lrp/AsnC family. Using an aldR deletion mutant, we demonstrated that AldR serves as both activator and repressor for the regulation of ald gene expression, depending on the presence or absence of l-alanine. The purified AldR protein exists as a homodimer in the absence of l-alanine, while it adopts the quaternary structure of a homohexamer in the presence of l-alanine. The binding affinity of AldR for the ald control region was shown to be increased significantly by l-alanine. Two AldR binding sites (O1 and O2) with the consensus sequence GA-N2-ATC-N2-TC and one putative AldR binding site with the sequence GA-N2-GTT-N2-TC were identified upstream of the ald gene. Alanine and cysteine were demonstrated to be the effector molecules directly involved in the induction of ald expression. The cellular level of l-alanine was shown to be increased in M. smegmatis cells grown under hypoxic conditions, and the hypoxic induction of ald expression appears to be mediated by AldR, which senses the intracellular level of alanine. PMID:23749971

  6. Copy number variations of genes involved in stress responses reflect the redox state and DNA damage in brewing yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Natkanska, Urszula; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Potocki, Leszek; Kuna, Ewelina; Panek, Anita; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The yeast strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex involved in beer production are a heterogeneous group whose genetic and genomic features are not adequately determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a genetic characterization of selected group of commercially available brewing yeasts both ale top-fermenting and lager bottom-fermenting strains. Molecular karyotyping revealed that the diversity of chromosome patterns and four strains with the most accented genetic variabilities were selected and subjected to genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis. The differences in the gene copy number were found in five functional gene categories: (1) maltose metabolism and transport, (2) response to toxin, (3) siderophore transport, (4) cellular aldehyde metabolic process, and (5) L-iditol 2-dehydrogenase activity (p < 0.05). In the Saflager W-34/70 strain (Fermentis) with the most affected array-CGH profile, loss of aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) gene dosage correlated with an imbalanced redox state, oxidative DNA damage and breaks, lower levels of nucleolar proteins Nop1 and Fob1, and diminished tolerance to fermentation-associated stress stimuli compared to other strains. We suggest that compromised stress response may not only promote oxidant-based changes in the nucleolus state that may affect fermentation performance but also provide novel directions for future strain improvement.

  7. Isolation, characterization, and mapping of gene encoding dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k) of human [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, G.; Cai, Xingang; Sheu, Kwan-Fu R.; Blass, J.P. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, White Plains, NY (United States)); Wasco, W.; Gaston, S.M.; Tanzi, R.E.; Cooper, A.J.L.; Gusella, J.F. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Charleston, MA (United States)); Szabo, P. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced cDNAs representing the full-length (2987-bp) gene for dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (E2k component) of the human [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KHDHC) from a human fetal brain cDNA library. The E2k cDNA was mapped to human chromosome 14 using a somatic cell hybrid panel, and more precisely to band 14q24.3 by in situ hybridization. This cDNA also cross-hybridized to an apparent E2k pseudogene on chromosome 1p31. Northern analysis revealed the E2k gene to be ubiquitously expressed in peripheral tissues and brain. Interestingly, chromosome 14q24.3 has recently been reported to contain gene defects for an early-onset form of familial Alzheimer's disease and for Machado-Joseph disease. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether the E2K gene plays a role in either of these two disorders.

  8. Differential gene expression in mouse liver associated with the hepatoprotective effect of clofibrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffit, Jeffrey S.; Koza-Taylor, Petra H.; Holland, Ricky D.; Thibodeau, Michael S.; Beger, Richard D.; Lawton, Michael P.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2007-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with the peroxisome proliferator clofibrate (CFB) protects against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. Previous studies have shown that activation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is required for this effect. The present study utilizes gene expression profile analysis to identify potential pathways contributing to PPARα-mediated hepatoprotection. Gene expression profiles were compared between wild type and PPARα-null mice pretreated with vehicle or CFB (500 mg/kg, i.p., daily for 10 days) and then challenged with APAP (400 mg/kg, p.o.). Total hepatic RNA was isolated 4 h after APAP treatment and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MGU74 v2.0 GeneChips. Gene expression analysis was performed utilizing GeneSpring (registered) software. Our analysis identified 53 genes of interest including vanin-1, cell cycle regulators, lipid-metabolizing enzymes, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, an acetaminophen binding protein. Vanin-1 could be important for CFB-mediated hepatoprotection because this protein is involved in the synthesis of cysteamine and cystamine. These are potent antioxidants capable of ameliorating APAP toxicity in rodents and humans. HPLC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of liver extracts indicates that enhanced vanin-1 gene expression results in elevated cystamine levels, which could be mechanistically associated with CFB-mediated hepatoprotection

  9. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E.; Calcutt, Wade M.; Brash, Alan R.; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-01-01

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using 18O-labeled substrate and incubations in H218O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom. PMID:26100625

  10. De novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provides First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Meena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavour, fragrance, cosmetic and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step towards understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases (TPS, pyrophosphatases (PPase, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, aldo-keto reductases (AKR, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD, alcohol acetyltransferases (AAT and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified enzymes in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  11. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  12. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  13. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, U; Sato, M; Tsuchiya, H; Namikawa, I

    1995-02-01

    The cellular fatty acids and aldehydes of oral Eubacterium species were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. E. brachy and E. lentum contained mainly branched-chain fatty acids, whereas the others contained straight-chain acids. E. brachy, E. lentum, E. yurii ssp. yurii, E. yurii spp. margaretiae, E. limosum, E. plauti and E. aerofaciens also contained aldehydes with even carbon numbers. In addition to species-specific components, the compositional ratios of fatty acids and aldehydes characterized each individual species. The 10 species tested were divided into 5 groups by the principal component analysis. Cellular fatty acids and aldehydes would be chemical markers for interspecies differentiation of oral Eubacterium.

  14. Furaldehyde substrate specificity and kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase 1 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laadan, Boaz; Wallace-Salinas, Valeria; Carlsson, Åsa Janfalk; Almeida, João Rm; Rådström, Peter; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2014-08-09

    A previously discovered mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1p) was shown to enable a unique NADH-dependent reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a well-known inhibitor of yeast fermentation. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis of both native and mutated ADH1 genes was performed in order to identify the key amino acids involved in this substrate shift, resulting in Adh1p-variants with different substrate specificities. In vitro activities of the Adh1p-variants using two furaldehydes, HMF and furfural, revealed that HMF reduction ability could be acquired after a single amino acid substitution (Y295C). The highest activity, however, was reached with the double mutation S110P Y295C. Kinetic characterization with both aldehydes and the in vivo primary substrate acetaldehyde also enabled to correlate the alterations in substrate affinity with the different amino acid substitutions. We demonstrated the key role of Y295C mutation in HMF reduction by Adh1p. We generated and kinetically characterized a group of protein variants using two furaldehyde compounds of industrial relevance. Also, we showed that there is a threshold after which higher in vitro HMF reduction activities do not correlate any more with faster in vivo rates of HMF conversion, indicating other cell limitations in the conversion of HMF.

  15. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  16. Enzymatic oxidation of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol with special reference to the metabolism of its intermediate phenylacetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I; Kouretas, Demetrios; Gounaris, Elias G; Beedham, Christine

    2004-12-01

    2-phenylethylamine is an endogenous constituent of the human brain and is implicated in cerebral transmission. This bioactive amine is also present in certain foodstuffs such as chocolate, cheese and wine and may cause undesirable side effects in susceptible individuals. Metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetaldehyde is catalysed by monoamine oxidase B but the oxidation to its acid is usually ascribed to aldehyde dehydrogenase and the contribution of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, if any, is ignored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the molybdenum hydroxylases, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, in the metabolism of phenylacetaldehyde derived from its parent biogenic amine. Treatments of 2-phenylethylamine with monoamine oxidase were carried out for the production of phenylacetaldehyde, as well as treatments of synthetic or enzymatic-generated phenylacetaldehyde with aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The results indicated that phenylacetaldehyde is metabolised mainly to phenylacetic acid with lower concentrations of 2-phenylethanol by all three oxidising enzymes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase was the predominant enzyme involved in phenylacetaldehyde oxidation and thus it has a major role in 2-phenylethylamine metabolism with aldehyde oxidase playing a less prominent role. Xanthine oxidase does not contribute to the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde due to low amounts being present in guinea pig. Thus aldehyde dehydrogenase is not the only enzyme oxidising xenobiotic and endobiotic aldehydes and the role of aldehyde oxidase in such reactions should not be ignored.

  17. Loss of function of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase 1 leads to unconventional lignin and a temperature-sensitive growth defect in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Zhou, Rui; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Gallego-Giraldo, Lina; Fu, Chunxiang; Jackson, Lisa A; Hahn, Michael G; Kim, Hoon; Chen, Fang; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-08-13

    There is considerable debate over the capacity of the cell wall polymer lignin to incorporate unnatural monomer units. We have identified Tnt1 retrotransposon insertion mutants of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) that show reduced lignin autofluorescence under UV microscopy and red coloration in interfascicular fibers. The phenotype is caused by insertion of retrotransposons into a gene annotated as encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, here designated M. truncatula CAD1. NMR analysis indicated that the lignin is derived almost exclusively from coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde and is therefore strikingly different from classical lignins, which are derived mainly from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Despite such a major alteration in lignin structure, the plants appear normal under standard conditions in the greenhouse or growth chamber. However, the plants are dwarfed when grown at 30 °C. Glycome profiling revealed an increased extractability of some xylan and pectin epitopes from the cell walls of the cad1-1 mutant but decreased extractability of others, suggesting that aldehyde-dominant lignin significantly alters cell wall structure.

  18. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme as a Potential Marker of Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Piechota, Joanna; Orywal, Karolina; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Human pancreas parenchyma contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and also possesses aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. The altered activities of ADH and ALDH in damaged pancreatic tissue in the course of pancreatitis are reflected in the human serum. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for acute (AP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP). Serum samples were collected for routine biochemical investigations from 75 patients suffering from acute pancreatitis and 70 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Fluorometric methods were used to measure the activity of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by a photometric method. There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH III isoenzyme (15.06 mU/l and 14.62 mU/l vs. 11.82 mU/l; ppancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH III was about 84%, specificity was 92 %, positive and negative predictive values were 93% and 87% respectively in acute pancreatitis. Area under the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) curve for ADH III in AP and CP was 0.88 and 0.86 respectively. ADH III has a potential role as a marker of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  20. Variation in gastric alcohol dehydrogenase and the risk of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Całka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is both a medical and socioeconomic problem. The disease is multifactorial, i.e. its development is attributable to gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Multi-centre studies investigating the genetic background of alcoholism stress the role of genes encoding enzymes of the ethanol decomposition pathway in the human body, particularly alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, in the development of alcohol dependence. Among five classes of alcohol dehydrogenases, class I and IV isoenzymes have been found to be associated with alcohol dependence. Class IV is of particular interest due to its occurrence in the upper gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the stomach. No activity of the enzyme has been demonstrated in the liver. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the gene encoding ADH class IV (ADH7 affects its ethanol-oxidizing activity in the gastric lumen, thereby influencing the first-pass metabolism (FPM of the substance. The findings published by various research centres have demonstrated that specific SNP changes in the ADH7 gene are of different significance for the risk of alcohol dependence according to the population studied.

  1. Expression of death-related genes and reactive oxygen species production in Skeletonema tropicum upon exposure to the polyunsaturated aldehyde octadienal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. Gallina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 4E/Z-octadienal (OCTA on ScDSP-1 and ScDSP-2 gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS production were investigated in the marine diatom Skeletonema tropicum (formerly costatum using qRTPCR and flow cytometry. ScDSP-1 and ScDSP-2 genes have been previously shown to be involved in cell death in ageing cells and in response to photosynthetic stress. OCTA induced a differential, concentration-dependent DSP gene expression associated to ROS production, 821.6 and 97.7 folds higher for ScDSP-1 and ScDSP-2, respectively. Among the concentrations tested, only 8 μM OCTA, which caused a reduction of 50% in cell concentrations at 24 h, was able to elicit an expression pattern consistent with a signalling role. Interestingly, only intermediate levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (i.e., 1.5±0.1 increase were observed to be elicited by such concentration. These results suggest that ROS are key components of the molecular cascade triggered by polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA and leading to cell death. This could have implications for bloom final stages at sea, where PUA may act as effectors of diatom population dynamics through ROS acting as modulators.

  2. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase

  3. Colorimetric Recognition of Aldehydes and Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Fang, Ming; LaGasse, Maria K; Askim, Jon R; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2017-08-07

    A colorimetric sensor array has been designed for the identification of and discrimination among aldehydes and ketones in vapor phase. Due to rapid chemical reactions between the solid-state sensor elements and gaseous analytes, distinct color difference patterns were produced and digitally imaged for chemometric analysis. The sensor array was developed from classical spot tests using aniline and phenylhydrazine dyes that enable molecular recognition of a wide variety of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes and ketones, as demonstrated by hierarchical cluster, principal component, and support vector machine analyses. The aldehyde/ketone-specific sensors were further employed for differentiation among and identification of ten liquor samples (whiskies, brandy, vodka) and ethanol controls, showing its potential applications in the beverage industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Unsaturated aldehydes as alkene equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A one-pot procedure is described for using alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as olefin equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction. The method combines the normal electron demand cycloaddition with aldehyde dienophiles and the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes to afford cyclohexenes...

  5. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  6. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes mutations and MGMT methylation in gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Tabakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common brain tumors. It is difficult to detect them at early stages of disease and there is a few available therapies providing significant improvement in survival. Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes (IDH1 and IDH2 play significant role in gliomogenesis, diagnostics and selection of patient therapy. We tested the distribution of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas of different histological types and grades of malignancy by DNA melting analysis using our protocol with a sensitivity of 5 %. The results of this assay were confirmed by conventional Sanger sequencing. IDH1/2 mutations were detected in 74 % of lower grade gliomas (II and III, World Health Organization and in 14 % of glioblastomas (IV, World Health Organization. Mutation rate in gliomas with oligodendroglioma component were significantly higher then in other glioma types (р = 0.014. The IDH1 mutations was the most common (79 % of general mutation number. IDH1/2 mutations can induce aberrant gene methylation. Detection of methylation rate of the gene encoding for O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT, predictive biomarker for treatment of gliomas with the alkylating agents, has demonstrated a partial association with IDH1/2 mutations. In 73 % of IDH1/2-mutant tumors MGMT promoter methylation were observed. At the same time IDH1/2 mutations were not revealed in 67 % tumors with MGMT promoter methylation. These results indicate existence of another mechanism of MGMT methylation in gliomas. Our data strong support for necessity of both markers testing when patient therapy is selected.

  7. Genome-wide analysis and identification of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX gene family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuange Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX; EC.1.5.99.12 regulates cytokinin (CK level in plants and plays an essential role in CK regulatory processes. CKX proteins are encoded by a small gene family with a varying number of members in different plants. In spite of their physiological importance, systematic analyses of SiCKX genes in foxtail millet have not yet been examined. In this paper, we report the genome wide isolation and characterization of SiCKXs using bioinformatic methods. A total of 11 members of the family were identified in the foxtail millet genome. SiCKX genes were distributed in seven chromosomes (chromosome 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 11. The coding sequences of all the SiCKX genes were disrupted by introns, with numbers varying from one to four. These genes expanded in the genome mainly due to segmental duplication events. Multiple alignment and motif display results showed that all SiCKX proteins share FAD- and CK-binding domains. Putative cis-elements involved in Ca2 +-response, abiotic stress response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, disease resistance and seed development were present in the promoters of SiCKX genes. Expression data mining suggested that SiCKX genes have diverse expression patterns. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that all 11 SiCKX genes were up-regulated in embryos under 6-BA treatment, and some were NaCl or PEG inducible. Collectively, these results provide molecular insights into CKX research in plants.

  8. ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Encodes both the Alanine Dehydrogenase and the Putative Glycine Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Michelle M.; Modesti, Lucia; Raab, Ronald W.; Wayne, Lawrence G.

    2012-01-01

    The putative glycine dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the reductive amination of glyoxylate to glycine but not the reverse reaction. The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase. The Ald enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and had both pyruvate and glyoxylate aminating activities. The gene, ald, was inactivated in M. tuberculosis, which resulted in the loss of all activities. Both enzyme activities were found associated with the cell and were not detected in the extracellular filtrate. By using an anti-Ald antibody, the protein was localized to the cell membrane, with a smaller fraction in the cytosol. None was detected in the extracellular medium. The ald knockout strain grew without alanine or glycine and was able to utilize glycine but not alanine as a nitrogen source. Transcription of ald was induced when alanine was the sole nitrogen source, and higher levels of Ald enzyme were measured. Ald is proposed to have several functions, including ammonium incorporation and alanine breakdown. PMID:22210765

  9. Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism and gene sequencing analysis. ... Subject: Six DNA samples from Turkish males confirmed to have G-6-PD deficiency where available for the study. Results: One subject was found to have an abnormal mobility shift ...

  10. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  11. Organization of Genes Required for the Oxidation of Methanol to Formaldehyde in Three Type II Methylotrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C.; Machlin, S.; Zhang, Y.; Donaldson, K.; Hanson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    Restriction maps of genes required for the synthesis of active methanol dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium organophilum XX and Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 have been completed and compared. In these two species of pink-pigmented, type II methylotrophs, 15 genes were identified that were required for the expression of methanol dehydrogenase activity. None of these genes were required for the synthesis of the prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase, pyrroloquinoline quinone. The structural gene required for the synthesis of cytochrome cL, an electron acceptor uniquely required for methanol dehydrogenase, and the genes encoding small basic peptides that copurified with methanol dehydrogenases were closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. A cloned 22-kilobase DNA insert from Methylsporovibrio methanica 81Z, an obligate type II methanotroph, complemented mutants that contained lesions in four genes closely linked to the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes. The methanol dehydrogenase and cytochrome cL structural genes were found to be transcribed independently in M. organophilum XX. Only two of the genes required for methanol dehydrogenase synthesis in this bacterium were found to be cotranscribed. PMID:16348074

  12. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Integrating Horizontal Gene Transfer and Common Descent to Depict Evolution and Contrast It with “Common Design”1

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUILLERMO PAZ-Y-MIÑO-C; ESPINOSA, AVELINA

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and common descent interact in space and time. Because events of HGT co-occur with phylogenetic evolution, it is difficult to depict evolutionary patterns graphically. Tree-like representations of life’s diversification are useful, but they ignore the significance of HGT in evolutionary history, particularly of unicellular organisms, ancestors of multicellular life. Here we integrate the reticulated-tree model, ring of life, symbiogenesis whole-organism model, and eliminative pattern pluralism to represent evolution. Using Entamoeba histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (EhADH2), a bifunctional enzyme in the glycolytic pathway of amoeba, we illustrate how EhADH2 could be the product of both horizontally acquired features from ancestral prokaryotes (i.e. aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH]), and subsequent functional integration of these enzymes into EhADH2, which is now inherited by amoeba via common descent. Natural selection has driven the evolution of EhADH2 active sites, which require specific amino acids (cysteine 252 in the ALDH domain; histidine 754 in the ADH domain), iron- and NAD+ as cofactors, and the substrates acetyl-CoA for ALDH and acetaldehyde for ADH. Alternative views invoking “common design” (i.e. the non-naturalistic emergence of major taxa independent from ancestry) to explain the interaction between horizontal and vertical evolution are unfounded. PMID:20021546

  15. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  16. Alcohol Metabolizing Gene Polymorphisms as Genetic Biomarkers of Alcoholic Liver Disease Susceptibility and Severity: A Northeast India Patient Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Basumatary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with genetic predisposition to Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD, but there is very limited data on both molecular and genetic aspects of ALD among the Northeast Indian (NEI population. Aim and Objectives: Screening the role of genetic alterations in alcohol metabolizing pathway genes in the pathogenesis of ALD which is prevalent in the ethnically NEI population. Material and Methods: Whole blood was collected from ALD patients (n=150 [alcoholic chronic liver disease (CLD, n=110 and alcoholic cirrhosis (Cirr/cirrhosis, n=40], Alcoholic Without Liver Disease (AWLD, n=93 and healthy controls (HC/controls, n=274 with informed consents along with Fibroscan based liver stiffness measurement (LSM score and clinical data. Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 genotyping was studied by Polymerase Chain Reaction with Confronting Two Pair Primers (PCR-CTPP; and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3 by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method. Results:ADH2*2 genotype was predominant and associated with increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases; and CLD compared to AWLD cases. ADH3*1 genotype was associated with significantly increased risk of cirrhosis compared to healthy controls, AWLD and CLD cases (p<0.001. Variant ALDH2 genotype was rare and analysis of the joint effects of genotypes showed that higher variant genotype resulted increased risk of CLD and cirrhosis compared to AWLD, and cirrhosis compared to CLD; thereby confirming the association of the polymorphisms in key alcohol metabolizing genes in the predisposition to ALD susceptibility and severity. Presence of variant ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 genotypes correlated with higher LSM scores in ALD. Conclusion: Alterations in the alcohol metabolizing genes are critically associated with ALD susceptibility and severity.

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2012 ref|ZP_02018065.1| aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammer...head [Methylobacterium extorquens PA1] gb|EDN55753.1| aldehyde oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase, a/b hammerhead [Methylobacterium extorquens PA1] ZP_02018065.1 0.029 50% ...

  18. Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lettieri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazing. The cell targets of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we identify some of the genes targeted by the diatom PUA 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal (DD using the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. The tools, techniques and genomic resources available for Ciona, as well as the suitability of Ciona embryos for medium-to high-throughput strategies, are key to their employment as model organisms in different fields, including the investigation of toxic agents that could interfere with developmental processes. We demonstrate that DD can induce developmental aberrations in Ciona larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, through a preliminary analysis, DD is shown to affect the expression level of genes involved in stress response and developmental processes.

  19. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  20. An L-glucitol oxidizing dehydrogenase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 for production of D-sorbose with enzymatic or electrochemical cofactor regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauer, Sabrina; Wang, Zhijie; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    A gene in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110, annotated as a ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH), had 87 % sequence identity (97 % positives) to the N-terminal 31 amino acids of an L-glucitol dehydrogenase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DSMZ 14322. The 729-bp long RDH gene coded for a protein consistin...

  1. Effects of Worldwide Population Subdivision on ALDH2 Linkage Disequilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Raymond J.; Goldman, David; Long, Jeffrey C.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of human population subdivision on linkage disequilibrium has previously been studied for unlinked genes. However, no study has focused on closely linked polymorphisms or formally partitioned linkage disequilibrium within and among worldwide populations. With an emphasis on population subdivision, the goal of this paper is to investigate the causes of linkage disequilibrium in ALDH2, the gene that encodes aldehyde dehydrogenase 2. Haplotypes for 756 people from 17 populations acros...

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH3 activates glucose alcoholic fermentation in genetically engineered Dekkera bruxellensis yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Siurkus, Juozas; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a non-conventional Crabtree-positive yeast with a good ethanol production capability. Compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its tolerance to acidic pH and its utilization of alternative carbon sources make it a promising organism for producing biofuel. In this study, we...... developed an auxotrophic transformation system and an expression vector, which enabled the manipulation of D. bruxellensis, thereby improving its fermentative performance. Its gene ADH3, coding for alcohol dehydrogenase, was cloned and overexpressed under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter...... TEF1. Our recombinant D. bruxellensis strain displayed 1.4 and 1.7 times faster specific glucose consumption rate during aerobic and anaerobic glucose fermentations, respectively; it yielded 1.2 times and 1.5 times more ethanol than did the parental strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...

  3. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  4. Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 for Enantioselective Bioconversion of Aromatic Secondary Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Zhang, Chong; Orita, Izumi; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) showing activity toward aromatic secondary alcohols was identified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkADH). The gene, tk0845, which encodes an aldo-keto reductase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. It was highly thermostable with an optimal temperature of 90°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C. The apparent Km values for the cofactors NAD(P)+ and NADPH were similar within a range of 66 to 127 μM. TkADH preferred secondary alcohols and accepted various ketones and aldehydes as substrates. Interestingly, the enzyme could oxidize 1-phenylethanol and its derivatives having substituents at the meta and para positions with high enantioselectivity, yielding the corresponding (R)-alcohols with optical purities of greater than 99.8% enantiomeric excess (ee). TkADH could also reduce 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol with high enantioselectivity (>99.6% ee). Furthermore, the enzyme showed high resistance to organic solvents and was particularly highly active in the presence of H2O–20% 2-propanol and H2O–50% n-hexane or n-octane. This ADH is expected to be a useful tool for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols. PMID:23354700

  5. Deep Sequencing of 71 Candidate Genes to Characterize Variation Associated with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shaunna L; McClay, Joseph L; Adkins, Daniel E; Kumar, Gaurav; Aberg, Karolina A; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Xie, Linying; Collins, Ann L; Crowley, James J; Quackenbush, Corey R; Hilliard, Christopher E; Shabalin, Andrey A; Vrieze, Scott I; Peterson, Roseann E; Copeland, William E; Silberg, Judy L; McGue, Matt; Maes, Hermine; Iacono, William G; Sullivan, Patrick F; Costello, Elizabeth J; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2017-04-01

    Previous genomewide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of putative risk loci for alcohol dependence (AD). However, only a few loci have replicated and these replicated variants only explain a small proportion of AD risk. Using an innovative approach, the goal of this study was to generate hypotheses about potentially causal variants for AD that can be explored further through functional studies. We employed targeted capture of 71 candidate loci and flanking regions followed by next-generation deep sequencing (mean coverage 78X) in 806 European Americans. Regions included in our targeted capture library were genes identified through published GWAS of alcohol, all human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, reward system genes including dopaminergic and opioid receptors, prioritized candidate genes based on previous associations, and genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. We performed single-locus tests to determine if any single variant was associated with AD symptom count. Sets of variants that overlapped with biologically meaningful annotations were tested for association in aggregate. No single, common variant was significantly associated with AD in our study. We did, however, find evidence for association with several variant sets. Two variant sets were significant at the q-value <0.10 level: a genic enhancer for ADHFE1 (p = 1.47 × 10 -5 ; q = 0.019), an alcohol dehydrogenase, and ADORA1 (p = 5.29 × 10 -5 ; q = 0.035), an adenosine receptor that belongs to a G-protein-coupled receptor gene family. To our knowledge, this is the first sequencing study of AD to examine variants in entire genes, including flanking and regulatory regions. We found that in addition to protein coding variant sets, regulatory variant sets may play a role in AD. From these findings, we have generated initial functional hypotheses about how these sets may influence AD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on

  6. ARA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1989-01-01

    We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and ABA-t-diol from postharvest apple fruits, cv. Granny Smith and confirmed their structure by GC-MS. These putative ABA biosynthetic precursors incorporate 18 O to a similar degree as ABA during 48 hours under 18 O 2 atmospheres. The presence of significant amounts of ABA-aldehyde can explain the unique 18 O labeling pattern of ABA in this tissue, where a majority of ABA molecules containing 18 O is labeled in the 1'-hydroxyl group and not in the side chain carboxyl group, the primary site of incorporation for stressed leaves. Exchange of the carbonyl oxygen of ABA-aldehyde with water would decrease 18 O enrichment in the side chain. Results of 18 O 2 experiments and feeding studies using hexadeutero-ABA-aldehyde will be presented and the biosynthetic relationship of these compounds discussed

  7. Application of heterocyclic aldehydes as components in Ugi–Smiles couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelynn M. Mason

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient one-pot Ugi–Smiles couplings are reported for the use of furyl-substituted aldehyde components. In the presence of these heterocyclic aldehydes, reactions tolerated variations in amine components and led to either isolated N-arylamide Ugi–Smiles adducts or N-arylepoxyisoindolines, products of tandem Ugi–Smiles Diels–Alder cyclizations, in moderate yields. A thienyl-substituted aldehyde was also a competent component for Ugi–Smiles adduct formation.

  8. Analysis and comparison of fragrant gene sequence in some rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the fragrant trait in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely controlled by fgr gene on chromosome 8 and it has been specified that the existence of an 8 bp deletion and three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in exon 7 is effective on this trait. In this study, sequence alignment analysis of fgr exon7 on chromosome 8 for 11 different fragrant and non-fragrant cultivars revealed that 5 aromatic rice cultivars carried 3 SNPs and 8 bp deletion in exon7 which terminates prematurely at a TAA stop codon. However, 5 of the non-aromatics showed a sequence identical to the published Nipponbare, being non-fragrant Japonica variety sequence. An exception among them was Bejar, which had 8 bp deletion and 3SNPs but it was non-aromatic. Sequencing can determine nucleotide alignment of a gene and give beneficial information about gene function. In silico prediction showed proteins sequences alignment of fgr gene for Khazar and Domsiah genotypes were different. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase complete enzyme belongs to Khazar non-fragrant genotype that has complete length and 503 amino acids while non-functional BADH2 enzyme for Domsiah fragrant genotype has 251 amino acids that result in accumulate 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP and produces aroma in fragrant genotypes.

  9. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones by Sodium Dithionite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Johannes G. de; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the effective reduction of aldehydes and ketones by sodium dithionite, Na2S2O4. Complete reduction of simple aldehydes and ketones can be achieved with excess Na2S2O4 in H2O/dioxane mixtures at reflux temperature. Some aliphatic ketones, for example, pentanone and

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase of Bacillus stearothermophilus and rational shift of the optimum pH.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakoda, H; Imanaka, T

    1992-01-01

    Using Bacillus subtilis as a host and pTB524 as a vector plasmid, we cloned the thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-T) gene (adhT) from Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA1503 and determined its nucleotide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence (337 amino acids) was compared with the sequences of ADHs from four different origins. The amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity of horse liver ADH had been clarified on the basis of three-dimensional structure. Since those cata...

  11. Neonatal pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares-Fernandes, Joao P.; Ribeiro, Manuel; Magalhaes, Zita; Rocha, Jaime F.; Teixeira-Gomes, Roseli; Cruz, Romeu; Leijser, Lara M.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is one of the most common causes of congenital lactic acidosis. Correlations between the genetic defect and neuroimaging findings are lacking. We present conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI findings in a 7-day-old male neonate with PDH deficiency due to a mosaicism for the R302H mutation in the PDHA1 gene. Corpus callosum dysgenesis, widespread increased diffusion in the white matter, and bilateral subependymal cysts were the main features. Although confirmation of PDH deficiency depends on specialized biochemical analyses, neonatal MRI plays a role in evaluating the pattern and extent of brain damage, and potentially in early diagnosis and clinical decision making. (orig.)

  12. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  13. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while

  14. Ubiquitin-aldehyde: a general inhibitor of ubiquitin-recycling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershko, A.; Rose, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    The generation and characterization of ubiquitin (Ub)-aldehyde, a potent inhibitor of Ub-C-terminal hydrolase, has previously been reported. The authors examine the action of this compound on the Ub-mediated proteolytic pathway using the system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. Addition of Ub-aldehyde was found to strongly inhibit breakdown of added 125 I-labeled lysozyme, but inhibition was overcome by increasing concentrations of Ub. The following evidence shows the effect of Ub-aldehyde on protein breakdown to be indirectly caused by its interference with the recycling of Ub, leading to exhaustion of the supply of free Ub: (i) Ub-aldehyde markedly increased the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates coincident with a much decreased rate of conjugate breakdown; (ii) release of Ub from isolated Ub-protein conjugates in the absence of ATP (and therefore not coupled to protein degradation) is markedly inhibited by Ub-aldehyde. On the other hand, the ATP-dependent degradation of the protein moiety of Ub conjugates, which is an integral part of the proteolytic process, is not inhibited by this agent; (iii) direct measurement of levels of free Ub showed a rapid disappearance caused by the inhibitor. The Ub is found to be distributed in derivatives of a wide range of molecular weight classes. It thus seems that Ub-aldehyde, previously demonstrated to inhibit the hydrolysis of Ub conjugates of small molecules, also inhibits the activity of a series of enzymes that regenerate free Ub from adducts with proteins and intermediates in protein breakdown

  15. Identification of the human mitochondrial FAD transporter and its potential role in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, András N.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) is most often caused by mutations in the genes encoding the alpha- or beta-subunit of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETF-DH). Since not all patients have

  16. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  17. Identification of four new mutations in the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) gene in two patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V S; Corydon, M J

    1998-01-01

    We have shown previously that a variant allele of the short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase ( SCAD ) gene, 625G-->A, is present in homozygous form in 7% of control individuals and in 60% of 135 patients with elevated urinary excretion of ethylmalonic acid (EMA). We have now characterized three disease......-causing mutations (confirmed by lack of enzyme activity after expression in COS-7 cells) and a new susceptibility variant in the SCAD gene of two patients with SCAD deficiency, and investigated their frequency in patients with elevated EMA excretion. The first SCAD-deficient patient was a compound heterozygote...... for two mutations, 274G-->T and 529T-->C. These mutations were not present in 98 normal control alleles, but the 529T-->C mutation was found in one allele among 133 patients with elevated EMA excretion. The second patient carried a 1147C-->T mutation and the 625G-->A polymorphism in one allele...

  18. Preferential antitumor effect of the Src inhibitor dasatinib associated with a decreased proportion of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive cells in breast cancer cells of the basal B subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Mika

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that the Src inhibitor dasatinib preferentially inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells of the basal-like subtype. To clarify this finding and further investigate combined antitumor effects of dasatinib with cytotoxic agents, a panel of breast cancer cell lines of various subtypes was treated with dasatinib and/or chemotherapeutic agents. Methods Seven human breast cancer cell lines were treated with dasatinib and/or seven chemotherapeutic agents. Effects of the treatments on c-Src activation, cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and the proportion of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 1-positive cells were examined. Results The 50%-growth inhibitory concentrations (IC50s of dasatinib were much lower in two basal B cell lines than those in the other cell lines. The IC50s of chemotherapeutic agents were not substantially different among the cell lines. Dasatinib enhanced antitumor activity of etoposide in the basal B cell lines. Dasatinib induced a G1-S blockade with a slight apoptosis, and a combined treatment of dasatinib with etoposide also induced a G1-S blockade in the basal B cell lines. Dasatinib decreased the expression levels of phosphorylated Src in all cell lines. Interestingly, dasatinib significantly decreased the proportion of ALDH1-positive cells in the basal B cell lines but not in the other cell lines. Conclusions The present study indicates that dasatinib preferentially inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells of the basal B subtype associated with a significant loss of putative cancer stem cell population. A combined use of dasatinib with etoposide additively inhibits their growth. Further studies targeting breast cancers of the basal B subtype using dasatinib with cytotoxic agents are warranted.

  19. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-01-01

    Potassium tellurite (K 2 TeO 3 ) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  20. No evidence for promoter region methylation of the succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate hydratase tumour suppressor genes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovic Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and fumarate hydratase (FH are tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle enzymes that are also known to act as tumour suppressor genes. Increased succinate or fumarate levels as a consequence of SDH and FH deficiency inhibit hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylases leading to sustained HIF-1α expression in tumours. Since HIF-1α is frequently expressed in breast carcinomas, DNA methylation at the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD and FH genes was evaluated as a possible mechanism in silencing of SDH and FH expression in breast carcinomas. Findings No DNA methylation was identified in the promoter regions of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and FH genes in 72 breast carcinomas and 10 breast cancer cell lines using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting which detects both homogeneous and heterogeneous methylation. Conclusion These results show that inactivation via DNA methylation of the promoter CpG islands of SDH and FH is unlikely to play a major role in sporadic breast carcinomas.

  1. Direct, enantioselective α-alkylation of aldehydes using simple olefins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Andrew G; Malinowski, Justin T; McAlpine, Neil J; Kuhne, Jerome; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-11-01

    Although the α-alkylation of ketones has already been established, the analogous reaction using aldehyde substrates has proven surprisingly elusive. Despite the structural similarities between the two classes of compounds, the sensitivity and unique reactivity of the aldehyde functionality has typically required activated substrates or specialized additives. Here, we show that the synergistic merger of three catalytic processes-photoredox, enamine and hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) catalysis-enables an enantioselective α-aldehyde alkylation reaction that employs simple olefins as coupling partners. Chiral imidazolidinones or prolinols, in combination with a thiophenol, iridium photoredox catalyst and visible light, have been successfully used in a triple catalytic process that is temporally sequenced to deliver a new hydrogen and electron-borrowing mechanism. This multicatalytic process enables both intra- and intermolecular aldehyde α-methylene coupling with olefins to construct both cyclic and acyclic products, respectively. With respect to atom and step-economy ideals, this stereoselective process allows the production of high-value molecules from feedstock chemicals in one step while consuming only photons.

  2. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....

  3. Molecular, phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of the cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase gene family in the Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameaux, Sabine; Cockram, James; Thiel, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Stein, Nils; Taudien, Stefan; Jack, Peter; Werner, Peter; Gray, John C; Greenland, Andy J; Powell, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    The genomes of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) are large and therefore problematic for the map-based cloning of agronomicaly important traits. However, comparative approaches within the Poaceae permit transfer of molecular knowledge between species, despite their divergence from a common ancestor sixty million years ago. The finding that null variants of the rice gene cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase 2 (OsCKX2) result in large yield increases provides an opportunity to explore whether similar gains could be achieved in other Poaceae members. Here, phylogenetic, molecular and comparative analyses of CKX families in the sequenced grass species rice, brachypodium, sorghum, maize and foxtail millet, as well as members identified from the transcriptomes/genomes of wheat and barley, are presented. Phylogenetic analyses define four Poaceae CKX clades. Comparative analyses showed that CKX phylogenetic groupings can largely be explained by a combination of local gene duplication, and the whole-genome duplication event that predates their speciation. Full-length OsCKX2 homologues in barley (HvCKX2.1, HvCKX2.2) and wheat (TaCKX2.3, TaCKX2.4, TaCKX2.5) are characterized, with comparative analysis at the DNA, protein and genetic/physical map levels suggesting that true CKX2 orthologs have been identified. Furthermore, our analysis shows CKX2 genes in barley and wheat have undergone a Triticeae-specific gene-duplication event. Finally, by identifying ten of the eleven CKX genes predicted to be present in barley by comparative analyses, we show that next-generation sequencing approaches can efficiently determine the gene space of large-genome crops. Together, this work provides the foundation for future functional investigation of CKX family members within the Poaceae. © 2011 National Institute of Agricultural Botany (NIAB). Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of distillates... distillates containing aldehydes. Distillates containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were...

  5. Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes in barley and wheat. Cloning and heterologous expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galuszka, P.; Frébortová, Jitka; Werner, T.; Yamada, M.; Strnad, Miroslav; Schmülling, T.; Frébort, I.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 20 (2004), s. 3990-4002 ISSN 0014-2956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cereals * cloning * cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.260, year: 2004

  6. [Discovery of the target genes inhibited by formic acid in Candida shehatae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peng; Xiong, Xujie; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Zhu, Junjun; Shiyuan, Yu

    2014-01-04

    At transcriptional level, the inhibitory effects of formic acid was investigated on Candida shehatae, a model yeast strain capable of fermenting xylose to ethanol. Thereby, the target genes were regulated by formic acid and the transcript profiles were discovered. On the basis of the transcriptome data of C. shehatae metabolizing glucose and xylose, the genes responsible for ethanol fermentation were chosen as candidates by the combined method of yeast metabolic pathway analysis and manual gene BLAST search. These candidates were then quantitatively detected by RQ-PCR technique to find the regulating genes under gradient doses of formic acid. By quantitative analysis of 42 candidate genes, we finally identified 10 and 5 genes as markedly down-regulated and up-regulated targets by formic acid, respectively. With regard to gene transcripts regulated by formic acid in C. shehatae, the markedly down-regulated genes ranking declines as follows: xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RKI), transaldolase (TAL), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (GND1), transketolase (TKL), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ZWF1), xylose reductase (XYL1), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC); and a declining rank for up-regulated gens as follows: fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glucokinase (GLK), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH).

  7. Alkane Biosynthesis Genes in Cyanobacteria and Their Transcriptional Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klähn, Stephan; Baumgartner, Desirée; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Voigt, Karsten; Schön, Verena; Steglich, Claudia; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl–acyl carrier protein reductase and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short-chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado) and sll0209 (aar), which give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313, and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in cyanobacteria.

  8. Alkane biosynthesis genes in cyanobacteria and their transcriptional organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eKlähn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (AAR and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase (ADO. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado and sll0209 (aar, that give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313 and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in

  9. Alkane Biosynthesis Genes in Cyanobacteria and Their Transcriptional Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klähn, Stephan; Baumgartner, Desirée; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Voigt, Karsten; Schön, Verena; Steglich, Claudia; Hess, Wolfgang R., E-mail: wolfgang.hess@biologie.uni-freiburg.de [Genetics and Experimental Bioinformatics, Institute of Biology 3, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    In cyanobacteria, alkanes are synthesized from a fatty acyl-ACP by two enzymes, acyl–acyl carrier protein reductase and aldehyde deformylating oxygenase. Despite the great interest in the exploitation for biofuel production, nothing is known about the transcriptional organization of their genes or the physiological function of alkane synthesis. The comparison of 115 microarray datasets indicates the relatively constitutive expression of aar and ado genes. The analysis of 181 available genomes showed that in 90% of the genomes both genes are present, likely indicating their physiological relevance. In 61% of them they cluster together with genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxyl transferase and a short-chain dehydrogenase, strengthening the link to fatty acid metabolism and in 76% of the genomes they are located in tandem, suggesting constraints on the gene arrangement. However, contrary to the expectations for an operon, we found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 specific promoters for the two genes, sll0208 (ado) and sll0209 (aar), which give rise to monocistronic transcripts. Moreover, the upstream located ado gene is driven by a proximal as well as a second, distal, promoter, from which a third transcript, the ~160 nt sRNA SyR9 is transcribed. Thus, the transcriptional organization of the alkane biosynthesis genes in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is of substantial complexity. We verified all three promoters to function independently from each other and show a similar promoter arrangement also in the more distant Nodularia spumigena, Trichodesmium erythraeum, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, Prochlorococcus MIT9313, and MED4. The presence of separate regulatory elements and the dominance of monocistronic mRNAs suggest the possible autonomous regulation of ado and aar. The complex transcriptional organization of the alkane synthesis gene cluster has possible metabolic implications and should be considered when manipulating the expression of these genes in cyanobacteria.

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.W.; Mars, A.E.; Meer, van der P.; Eggink, G.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance

  11. Alteration of gene expression by alcohol exposure at early neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng C; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Yunlong; Goodlett, Charles R; Liang, Tiebing; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Lang

    2011-02-21

    We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545), adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22), neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg), and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1), and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1). Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin) were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO) and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC). Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and genes that were associated with neural tube

  12. The inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase A hinders the transcription of histone 2B gene independently from the block of aerobic glycolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Carnicelli, Domenica; Brigotti, Maurizio; Fiume, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth and many efforts are made to selectively block this metabolic pathway in cancer cells by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). However, LDHA is a moonlighting protein which exerts functions also in the nucleus as a factor associated to transcriptional complexes. Here we found that two small molecules which inhibit the enzymatic activity of LDHA hinder the transcription of histone 2B gene independently from the block of aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, we observed that silencing this gene reduces cell replication, hence suggesting that the inhibition of LDHA can also affect the proliferation of normal non-glycolysing dividing cells. - Highlights: • Blocking aerobic glycolysis is an approach to impair proliferation of cancer cells. • Small inhibitors of LDHA block aerobic glycolysis. • LDHA is also involved in the transcription of histone 2B gene. • LDHA inhibitors block histone 2B transcription. • LDHA inhibitors can hinder the proliferation also of non-glycolysing normal cells.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and cloning of immunogenic protein NAD-dependent beta hydroxybutyryl CoA dehydrogenase gene of Clostridium chauvoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K. Dangi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed at polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and cloning of NAD-dependent betahydroxybutyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (BHBD gene of Clostridium chauvoei. Materials and Methods: C. chauvoei was cultured and confirmed by 16-23S rDNA spacer region primers. The primers for nad-bhbd gene of C. chauvoei were designed to aid in cloning into pRham-N-His SUMO-Kan vector, and nad-bhbd gene was amplified by PCR. The amplified nad-bhbd gene was purified and cloned into pRham-N-His SUMO-Kan expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. cloni 10 G cells and the clone was confirmed by colony PCR using the pRham-SUMO-NAD-For and pRham-SUMO-NAD-Rev primers and also by sequencing. Results: PCR amplification of nad-bhbd gene yielded a product length of 844 base pairs which was cloned into pRham-NHis SUMO-Kan vector followed by transformation into E. cloni 10G chemically competent cells. The recombinant clones were characterized by colony PCR, sequencing, followed by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST analysis to confirm the insert. Conclusions: Immunogenic protein NAD- dependent BHBD of C. chauvoei was cloned and the recombinant clones were confirmed by colony PCR and sequencing analysis.

  14. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of budC Gene Encoding meso-2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Bian, Ya-Qian; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-02-01

    The budC gene encoding a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BlBDH) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Sequence analysis reveals that this BlBDH belongs to short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. In the presence of NADH, BlBDH catalyzes the reduction of diacetyl to (3S)-acetoin (97.3% ee), and further to (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol (97.3% ee and 96.5% de). Similar to other meso-2,3-BDHs, it shows oxidative activity to racemic 2,3-butanediol whereas no activity toward racemic acetoin in the presence of NAD(+). For diacetyl reduction and 2,3-butanediol oxidation, the pH optimum of BlBDH is 5.0 and 10.0, respectively. Unusually, it shows relatively high activity over a wide pH range from 5.0 to 8.0 for racemic acetoin reduction. BlBDH shows lower K m and higher catalytic efficiency toward racemic acetoin (K m = 0.47 mM, k cat /K m = 432 s(-1)·mM(-1)) when compared with 2,3-butanediol (K m = 7.25 mM, k cat /K m = 81.5 s(-1)·mM(-1)), indicating its physiological role in favor of reducing racemic acetoin into 2,3-butanediol. The enzymatic characterization of BlBDH provides evidence for the directed engineering of B. licheniformis for producing enantiopure 2,3-butanediol.

  15. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptides. Histidine dipeptides are present in micromolar to millimolar range in the tissues of vertebrates, where they are involved in a variety of physiological functions such as pH buffering, metal chelation, oxidant and aldehyde scavenging. Histidine dipeptides such as carnosine form Michael adducts with lipid-derived unsaturated aldehydes, and react with carbohydrate-derived oxo- and hydroxy- aldehydes forming products of unknown structure. Although these peptides react with electrophilic molecules at lower rate than glutathione, they can protect glutathione from modification by oxidant and they may be important for aldehyde quenching in glutathione-depleted cells or extracellular space where glutathione is scarce. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with carnosine has been shown to diminish ischemic injury, improve glucose control, ameliorate the development of complications in animal models of diabetes and obesity, promote wound healing and decrease atherosclerosis. The protective effects of carnosine have been linked to its anti-oxidant properties, it ability to promote glycolysis, detoxify reactive aldehydes and enhance histamine levels. Thus, treatment with carnosine and related histidine dipeptides may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with high carbonyl load. PMID:23313711

  16. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of rare inherited metabolic disorders are known to lead to death in infancy. Deficiency of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase has, on clinical grounds, been related particularly to sudden infant death syndrome. The contribution of this disorder to the etiology of sudden infant death...... syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...... in the general population. A highly specific polymerase chain reaction assay was applied on dried blood spots. No over-representation of homo- or heterozygosity for G985 appears to exist in such a strictly defined population, for which reason it may be more relevant to look at a broader spectrum of clinical...

  17. Highly Stable l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase from the Thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Japanese Hot Spring: Characterization, Gene Cloning and Sequencing, and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojgan; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Nunoura-Kominato, Naoki; Sakuraba, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    l-Lysine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-lysine in the presence of NAD, was found in the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus UTB 1103 and then purified about 3,040-fold from a crude extract of the organism by using four successive column chromatography steps. This is the first report showing the presence of a thermophilic NAD-dependent lysine dehydrogenase. The product of the enzyme catalytic activity was determined to be Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, indicating that the enzyme is l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (LysDH) (EC 1.4.1.18). The molecular mass of the purified protein was about 260 kDa, and the molecule was determined to be a homohexamer with subunit molecular mass of about 43 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for the catalytic activity of the enzyme were about 10.1 and 70°C, respectively. No activity was lost at temperatures up to 65°C in the presence of 5 mM l-lysine. The enzyme was relatively selective for l-lysine as the electron donor, and either NAD or NADP could serve as the electron acceptor (NADP exhibited about 22% of the activity of NAD). The Km values for l-lysine, NAD, and NADP at 50°C and pH 10.0 were 0.73, 0.088, and 0.48 mM, respectively. When the gene encoding this LysDH was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a crude extract of the recombinant cells had about 800-fold-higher enzyme activity than the extract of G. stearothermophilus. The nucleotide sequence of the LysDH gene encoded a peptide containing 385 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 42,239 Da. PMID:14766574

  18. Cloning and functional analysis of succinate dehydrogenase gene PsSDHA in Phytophthora sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuemin; Ye, Tao; Gao, Zhimou

    2017-07-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is one of the key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and a proven target of fungicides for true fungi. To explore the roles of the SDHA gene in Phytophthora sojae, we first cloned PsSDHA to construct the PsSDHA silenced expression vector pHAM34-PsSDHA, and then utilized PEG to mediate the P. sojae protoplast transformation experiment. Through transformation screening, we obtained the silenced mutants A1 and A3, which have significant suppressive effect. Further study showed that the hyphae of the silenced mutant strains were shorter and more bifurcated; the growth of the silenced mutants was clearly inhibited in 10% V8 agar medium containing sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) or Congo Red, respectively. The pathogenicity of the silenced mutants was significantly reduced compared with the wild-type strain and the mock. The results could help us better to understand the position and function of SDH in P. sojae and provide a proven target of fungicides for the oomycete. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Overexpression of the NADP+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (icdA) in citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger WU-2223L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Hayashi, Rie; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-01-01

    In the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, NADP(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)-ICDH) catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of isocitric acid to form α-ketoglutaric acid with NADP(+) as a cofactor. We constructed an NADP(+)-ICDH gene (icdA)-overexpressing strain (OPI-1) using Aspergillus niger WU-2223L as a host and examined the effects of increase in NADP(+)-ICDH activity on citric acid production. Under citric acid-producing conditions with glucose as the carbon source, the amounts of citric acid produced and glucose consumed by OPI-1 for the 12-d cultivation period decreased by 18.7 and 10.5%, respectively, compared with those by WU-2223L. These results indicate that the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger can be altered with the NADP(+)-ICDH activity. Therefore, NADP(+)-ICDH is an important regulator of citric acid production in the TCA cycle of A. niger. Thus, we propose that the icdA gene is a potentially valuable tool for modulating citric acid production by metabolic engineering.

  20. Thermal, Catalytic Conversion of Alkanes to Linear Aldehydes and Linear Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinxin; Jia, Xiangqing; Huang, Zheng

    2018-03-21

    Alkanes, the main constituents of petroleum, are attractive feedstocks for producing value-added chemicals. Linear aldehydes and amines are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. To date, there have been no effective methods for directly converting n-alkanes to linear aldehydes and linear amines. Here, we report a molecular dual-catalyst system for production of linear aldehydes via regioselective carbonylation of n-alkanes. The system is comprised of a pincer iridium catalyst for transfer-dehydrogenation of the alkane using t-butylethylene or ethylene as a hydrogen acceptor working sequentially with a rhodium catalyst for olefin isomerization-hydroformylation with syngas. The system exhibits high regioselectivity for linear aldehydes and gives high catalytic turnover numbers when using ethylene as the acceptor. In addition, the direct conversion of light alkanes, n-pentane and n-hexane, to siloxy-terminated alkyl aldehydes through a sequence of Ir/Fe-catalyzed alkane silylation and Ir/Rh-catalyzed alkane carbonylation, is described. Finally, the Ir/Rh dual-catalyst strategy has been successfully applied to regioselective alkane aminomethylation to form linear alkyl amines.

  1. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  2. Cyclodextrin Aldehydes are Oxidase Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Bjerre, Jeannette; Bols, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Cyclodextrins containing 6-aldehyde groups were found to catalyse oxidation of aminophenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The catalysis followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is related to the catalysis previously observed with cyclodextrin ketones. A range of different cyclodextrin aldeh...

  3. Effect of deletion of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) on acetoin production of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjiao; Zhao, Xiangying; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zhao, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Tian, Yanjun; Yang, Liping

    2017-09-14

    The present work aims to block 2,3-butanediol synthesis in acetoin fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. First, we constructed a recombinant strain BS168D by deleting the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene bdhA of the B. subtilis168, and there was almost no 2,3-butanediol production in 20 g/L of glucose media. The acetoin yield of BS168D reached 6.61 g/L, which was about 1.5 times higher than that of the control B. subtilis168 (4.47 g/L). Then, when the glucose concentration was increased to 100 g/L, the acetoin yield reached 24.6 g/L, but 2.4 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was detected at the end of fermentation. The analysis of 2,3-butanediol chiral structure indicated that the main 2,3-butanediol production of BS168D was meso-2,3-butanediol, and the bdhA gene was only responsible for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol synthesis. Therefore, we speculated that there may exit another pathway relating to the meso-2,3-butanediol synthesis in the B. subtilis. In addition, the results of low oxygen condition fermentation showed that deletion of bdhA gene successfully blocked the reversible transformation between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol and eliminated the effect of dissolved oxygen on the transformation.

  4. Co-ordinate expression of glycine betaine synthesis genes linked by the FMDV 2A region in a single open reading frame in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sanhong; Yao, Quanhong; Tao, Jianmin; Qiao, Yushan; Zhang, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    The genes encoding the two enzymes choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) of glycine betaine synthesis in Suaeda salsa were cloned and fused with the 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus in a single open reading frame. The fused genes were placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter in pPIC3B and transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The expression of the fused genes in P. pastoris and the ability of recombinant yeasts to tolerate environmental stresses were studied. The results showed that induced with 0.5% methanol for 96 h, the maximal activities of CMO and BADH in the tested recombinant yeasts were 45- and 44-fold higher than those in the control yeast transformed empty vector only, respectively; the content of glycine betaine in the recombinant yeasts was 28- to 35-fold higher than that in the control. The fused genes linked by 2A region of foot-and-mouth disease virus were expressed in P. pastoris successfully and the polyprotein was 'cleaved' to each functional protein. The yeasts transformed the fused genes, which were more resistant to salt, methanol, and high temperature stresses than the control as result of glycine betaine synthesis genes introduced.

  5. Production and characterization of a thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Uria, A.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Oost, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The gene, referred to as adhD, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The

  6. Disruption of the pdhB pyruvate dehydrogenase [corrected] gene affects colony morphology, in vitro growth and cell invasiveness of Mycoplasma agalactiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Hegde

    Full Text Available The utilization of available substrates, the metabolic potential and the growth rates of bacteria can play significant roles in their pathogenicity. This study concentrates on Mycoplasma agalactiae, which causes significant economic losses through its contribution to contagious agalactia in small ruminants by as yet unknown mechanisms. This lack of knowledge is primarily due to its fastidious growth requirements and the scarcity of genetic tools available for its manipulation and analysis. Transposon mutagenesis of M. agalactiae type strain PG2 resulted in several disruptions throughout the genome. A mutant defective in growth in vitro was found to have a transposon insertion in the pdhB gene, which encodes a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This growth difference was quite significant during the actively dividing logarithmic phase but a gradual recovery was observed as the cells approached stationary phase. The mutant also exhibited a different and smaller colony morphology compared to the wild type strain PG2. For complementation, pdhAB was cloned downstream of a strong vpma promoter and upstream of a lacZ reporter gene in a newly constructed complementation vector. When transformed with this vector the pdhB mutant recovered its normal growth and colony morphology. Interestingly, the pdhB mutant also had significantly reduced invasiveness in HeLa cells, as revealed by double immunofluorescence staining. This deficiency was recovered in the complemented strain, which had invasiveness comparable to that of PG2. Taken together, these data indicate that pyruvate dehydrogenase might be an important player in infection with and colonization by M. agalactiae.

  7. Alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (rs1229984) is a strong determinant of the relationship between body weight and alcohol intake in Japanese alcoholic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Matsui, Toshifumi; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2013-07-01

    The calories in alcoholic beverages consumed by alcoholics are a major energy source and a strong modifier of their body weight. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) affect susceptibility to alcoholism and may affect body weight via gene-associated differences in fuel utilization in alcoholics. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes and the body weight and body mass index (BMI) of 1,301 Japanese alcoholic men at the time of their first visit to an addiction center. Median (25th to 75th) caloric intake in the form of alcoholic beverages was 864 (588 to 1,176) kcal/d. Age-adjusted caloric intake did not differ according to ADH1B/ALDH2 genotypes. The body weight and BMI values showed that the ADH1B*2/*2 and *1/*2 carriers (n = 939) were significantly leaner than the ADH1B*1/*1 carriers (n = 362) irrespective of age, drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. The age-adjusted body weight values of the ADH1B*2/*2, ADH1B*1/*2, and ADH1B*1/*1 carriers were 58.4 ± 0.4, 58.7 ± 0.5, and 63.6 ± 0.5 kg, respectively (ADH1B*2 vs. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers, p strong determinant of body weight in the alcoholics. The more rapid EtOH elimination associated with the ADH1B*2 allele may result in less efficient utilization of EtOH as an energy source in alcoholics. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongchao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently degrades crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels production. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Plasmid transformation, random mutagenesis and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism, hindering genetic engineering. Results The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain, resulting in a substantial shift in fermentation toward ethanol production. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products, corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant's tricarboxylic acid pathway. Conclusions The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first non-random, targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox

  9. Silver-Catalyzed Aldehyde Olefination Using Siloxy Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwei; Keller, Valerie A; Meyer, S Todd; Kozmin, Sergey A

    2010-03-20

    We describe the development of a silver-catalyzed carbonyl olefination employing electron rich siloxy alkynes. This process constitutes an efficient synthesis of trisubstituted unsaturated esters, and represents an alternative to the widely utilized Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. Excellent diastereoselectivities are observed for a range of aldehydes using either 1-siloxy-1-propyne or 1-siloxy-1-hexyne. This mild catalytic process also enables chemoselective olefination of aldehydes in the presence of either ester or ketone functionality. Furthermore, since no by-products are generated, this catalytic process is perfectly suited for development of sequential reactions that can be carried out in a single flask.

  10. Detoxification of aldehydes by histidine-containing dipeptides: from chemistry to clinical implications

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P.; Sweeney, Brooke R.; Barski, Oleg A.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehydes are generated by oxidized lipids and carbohydrates at increased levels under conditions of metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress during atherosclerosis, myocardial and cerebral ischemia, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and trauma. In most tissues, aldehydes are detoxified by oxidoreductases that catalyze the oxidation or the reduction of aldehydes or enzymatic and nonenzymatic conjugation with low molecular weight thiols and amines, such as glutathione and histidine dipeptid...

  11. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  12. Thermophilic ethanol fermentation from lignocellulose hydrolysate by genetically engineered Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Farida; Kawai, Yuto; Iwasaki, Yuki; Yoshida, Koichiro; Kita, Akihisa; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi; Murakami, Katsuji; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    A transformant of Moorella thermoacetica was constructed for thermophilic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass by deleting two phosphotransacetylase genes, pdul1 and pdul2, and introducing the native aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (aldh) controlled by the promoter from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The transformant showed tolerance to 540mM and fermented sugars including fructose, glucose, galactose and xylose to mainly ethanol. In a mixed-sugar medium of glucose and xylose, all of the sugars were consumed to produce ethanol at the yield of 1.9mol/mol-sugar. The transformant successfully fermented sugars in hydrolysate prepared through the acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose to ethanol, suggesting that this transformant can be used to ferment the sugars in lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a frequent cause of microphthalmia/anophthalmia in consanguineous families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Hana; Favez, Tatiana; Schmid, Angélique; Agosti, Céline; Youssef, Mohammed; Marzouk, Iman; El Shakankiry, Nihal; Bayoumi, Nader; Munier, Francis L; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2014-08-01

    Anophthalmia or microphthalmia (A/M), characterized by absent or small eye, can be unilateral or bilateral and represent developmental anomalies due to the mutations in several genes. Recently, mutations in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, member A3 (ALDH1A3) also known as retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3, have been reported to cause A/M. Here, we screened a cohort of 75 patients with A/M and showed that mutations in ALDH1A3 occurred in six families. Based on this series, we estimate that mutations in ALDH1A3 represent a major cause of A/M in consanguineous families, and may be responsible for approximately 10% of the cases. Screening of this gene should be performed in a first line of investigation, together with SOX2. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  14. XoxF Is Required for Expression of Methanol Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Palmer, Alexander D.; Rountree, Austin M.; Good, Nathan M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative methylotrophic bacteria, the first step in methylotrophic growth is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in the periplasm by methanol dehydrogenase. In most organisms studied to date, this enzyme consists of the MxaF and MxaI proteins, which make up the large and small subunits of this heterotetrameric enzyme. The Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 genome contains two homologs of MxaF, XoxF1 and XoxF2, which are ∼50% identical to MxaF and ∼90% identical to each other. It was previously reported that xoxF is not required for methanol growth in M. extorquens AM1, but here we show that when both xoxF homologs are absent, strains are unable to grow in methanol medium and lack methanol dehydrogenase activity. We demonstrate that these defects result from the loss of gene expression from the mxa promoter and suggest that XoxF is part of a complex regulatory cascade involving the 2-component systems MxcQE and MxbDM, which are required for the expression of the methanol dehydrogenase genes. PMID:21873495

  15. High-temperature crystallization of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from the extreme thermophilic bacteria Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase-acetyl-CoA thio esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, L.; Arni, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Ethanol fermentations from Saccharomyces sp. are used in industrial ethanol production and are performed at mesophilic temperatures where final ethanol concentrations must exceed 4% (v/v) to make the process industrially economic. In addition, distillation is required to recover ethanol. Thermophilic fermentations are very attractive since they enable separation of ethanol from continuous cultures at process temperature and reduced pressure. Two different ethanol-production pathways have been identified for thermophilic bacteria; type I from Clostridium thermocellum, which contains only NADH-linked primary-alcohol dehydrogeneases, and type II from Thermoanaerobacter brockii which in addition include NADPH-linked secondary-alcohol dehydrogenases. The thermophilic anaerobic bacterium T ethanolicus 39E produces ethanol as the major end product from starch, pentose and herose substrates. The 2 Adh has a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes and possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity. Large single crystals (0.7 x 0.3 x 0.3 mn) of this enzyme have been obtained at 40 0 C and diffraction data to 2.7 A resolution has been collected (R merge = 10.44%). Attempts are currently underway to obtain higher resolution data and a search for heavy atom derivatives is currently underway. The crystals belong to the space group P2 1 2 1 2 with cell constants of a a= 170.0 A, b=125.7 A and c=80.5 A. The asymmetric unit contains a tetramer as in the case of the crystals of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter brockii with a V M of 2.85 A 3 /Da. (author)

  16. Aldehyde-sequestering drugs: tools for studying protein damage by lipid peroxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Fontaine, Frank R; Petersen, Dennis R; Pyke, Simon M

    2002-12-27

    Elevated levels of reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes (e.g. malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and acrolein) in the affected tissues of various degenerative conditions suggest these substances are active propagators of the disease process. One experimental approach to attenuating damage by these intermediates employs 'aldehyde-sequestering drugs' as sacrificial nucleophiles, thereby sparing cell macromolecules and perhaps slowing disease progression. Drugs with demonstrated trapping activity toward lipid-derived aldehydes include various amine compounds such as aminoguanidine, carnosine and pyridoxamine. We have focused on identifying scavengers of acrolein, perhaps the most toxic aldehyde formed during lipid peroxidation cascades. Various phthalazine compounds (hydralazine and dihydralazine) were found to trap acrolein readily, forming hydrazone derivatives in a rapid Schiff-type reaction. These compounds strongly protect against acrolein-mediated toxicity in isolated hepatocytes.

  17. Expression and kinetic properties of a recombinant 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzyme of human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyashiki, Y; Tamada, Y; Miyabe, Y; Nakanishi, M; Matsuura, K; Hara, A

    1995-08-01

    Human liver cytosol contains multiple forms of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and multiple cDNAs for the enzymes have been cloned from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand the relationship of the multiple enzyme froms to the genes, a cDNA, which has been reported to code for an isoenzyme of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme showed structural and functional properties almost identical to those of the isoenzyme purified from human liver. In addition, the recombinant isoenzyme efficiently reduced 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5 beta-dihydrocortisone, the known substrates of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and chlordecone reductase previously purified, which suggests that these human liver enzymes are identical. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic data for NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation by the recombinant isoenzyme were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first. Phenolphthalein inhibited this isoenzyme much more potently than it did the other human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, and was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 20 nM) that bound to the enzyme-NADP+ complex.

  18. Molecular characterization of genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 involved in bioconversion of vanillin to protocatechuate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priefert, H; Rabenhorst, J; Steinbüchel, A

    1997-01-01

    The gene loci vdh, vanA, and vanB, which are involved in the bioconversion of vanillin to protocatechuate by Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 (DSM 7063), were identified as the structural genes of a novel vanillin dehydrogenase (vdh) and the two subunits of a vanillate demethylase (vanA and vanB), respectively. These genes were localized on an EcoRI fragment (E230), which was cloned from a Pseudomonas sp. strain HR199 genomic library in the cosmid pVK100. The vdh gene was identified on a subfragment (HE35) of E230, and the vanA and vanB genes were localized on a different subfragment (H110) of E230. The nucleotide sequences of fragment HE35 and part of fragment H110 were determined, revealing open reading frames of 1062, 951, and 1446 bp, representing vanA, vanB, and vdh, respectively. The vdh gene was organized in one operon together with a fourth open reading frame (ORF2), of 735 bp, which was located upstream of vdh. The deduced amino acid sequences of vanA and vanB exhibited 78.8 and 62.1% amino acid identity, respectively, to the corresponding gene products from Pseudomonas sp. strain ATCC 19151 (F. Brunel and J. Davison, J. Bacteriol. 170:4924-4930, 1988). The deduced amino acid sequence of the vdh gene exhibited up to 35.3% amino acid identity to aldehyde dehydrogenases from different sources. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF2 exhibited up to 28.4% amino acid identity to those of enoyl coenzyme A hydratases. Escherichia coli strains harboring fragment E230 cloned in pBluescript SK- converted vanillin to protocatechuate via vanillate, indicating the functional expression of vdh, vanA, and vanB in E. coli. High expression of vdh in E. coli was achieved with HE35 cloned in pBluescript SK-. The resulting recombinant strains converted vanillin to vanillate at a rate of up to 0.3 micromol per min per ml of culture. Transfer of vanA, vanB, and vdh to Alcaligenes eutrophus and to different Pseudomonas strains, which were unable to utilize vanillin or vanillate as

  19. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzinger, N; Podeu, R; Gruber, F; Göbl, F; Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius. Those from B. edulis, A. muscaria, and L. deterrimus were cloned and sequenced. The respective nucleotide sequences of these gene fragments showed a moderate degree of similarity (72 to 76%) in the protein-encoding regions and only a low degree of similarity in the introns (56 to 66%). Introns, where present, occurred at conserved positions, but the respective positions and numbers of introns in a given taxon varied. The amplified fragment from a given taxon could be distinguished from that of others by both restriction nuclease cleavage analysis and Southern hybridization. A procedure for labeling DNA probes with fluorescein-12-dUTP by PCR was developed. These probes were used in a nonradioactive hybridization assay, with which the gene could be detected in 2 ng of chromosomal DNA of L. deterrimus on slot blots. Taxon-specific amplification was achieved by the design of specific oligonucleotide primers. The application of the gpd gene for the identification of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions was demonstrated, with Picea abies (spruce) mycorrhizal roots harvested from a northern alpine forest area as well as from a plant-breeding nursery. The interference by inhibitory substances, which sometimes occurred in the DNA extracted from the root-fungus mixture, could be overcome by using very diluted concentrations of template DNA for a first round of PCR amplification followed by a second round with nested oligonucleotide primers. We conclude that gpd can be used to detect ectomycorrhizal fungi during symbiotic interaction. PMID:8795234

  20. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  1. Do flavouring compounds contribute to aldehyde emissions in e-cigarettes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos E; Voudris, Vassilis

    2018-05-01

    A recent study identified up to 10,000-fold higher aldehyde emissions from flavoured compared to unflavoured e-cigarette liquids. We set to replicate this study and also test similar flavourings with a new-generation e-cigarette device. Three liquids with the highest levels of aldehyde emissions in the previous study were tested (in standard and sweetened versions) using the same e-cigarette device and puffing patterns. Additionally, similar flavourings from a different manufacturer were tested using a new-generation e-cigarette device. Unflavoured samples were also tested. Low levels of formaldehyde (8.3-62 μg/g), acetaldehyde (12.1-26.0 μg/g) and acrolein (5.4-19.4 μg/g) were detected, lower by up to 589-fold compared to the previous report. Unflavoured liquid emitted 16.1 μg/g formaldehyde, 5.6 μg/g acetaldehyde and 2.4 μg/g acrolein, significantly lower compared to 2 liquids for formaldehyde and 1 for acrolein. Emissions from the new-generation device were even lower. Aldehyde emissions from all flavoured liquids were 79-99.8% lower than smoking and lower than commonly measured indoor levels and occupational and indoor safety limits. The e-cigarettes tested herein emit very low levels of aldehydes. Some flavourings may contribute to aldehyde emissions, but the absolute levels were minimal. Validated methods should be used when analysing e-cigarette emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish.

    OpenAIRE

    Biery, B. J.; Stein, D. E.; Morton, D. H.; Goodman, S. I.

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the human glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCD) gene was determined to contain 11 exons and to span approximately 7 kb. Fibroblast DNA from 64 unrelated glutaric acidemia type I (GA1) patients was screened for mutations by PCR amplification and analysis of SSCP. Fragments with altered electrophoretic mobility were subcloned and sequenced to detect mutations that caused GA1. This report describes the structure of the GCD gene, as well as point mutations and polymorphisms fou...

  4. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-12-01

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Cloning of D-lactate dehydrogenase genes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and their roles in D-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanna; You, Chunping; Liu, Zhenmin

    2017-07-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is a heterogenous lactic acid bacterium that converts pyruvate mainly to D-lactic acid using D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDHs), whose functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, the D-LDHs genes (ldb0101, ldb0813, ldb1010, ldb1147 and ldb2021) were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli JM109 from an inducible pUC18 vector, respectively, and the resulting strains were compared in terms of D-lactic acid production. The strain expressing ldb0101 and ldb1010 gene individually produced more D-lactate than other three strains. Further study revealed that Ldb0101 activity was down-regulated by the oxygen and, therefore, achieved a highest titer of D-lactate (1.94 g/L) under anaerobic condition, and introduction of ldb1010 gene enhanced D-lactate formation (0.94 and 0.85 g/L, respectively) both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions due to a relatively stable q d-lactate . Our results suggested that the enzyme Ldb0101 and Ldb1010 played a role of more importance in D-lactate formation. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the roles of different D-LDH homologs from L. bulgaricus in D-lactic acid production.

  6. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wisselink, H. Wouter; Mars, Astrid E.; van der Meer, Pieter; Eggink, Gerrit; Jeroen Hugenholtz

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance liquid chromatography and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that small amounts (

  7. The role of Cercospora zeae-maydis homologs of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 1O2-resistance genes in resistance to the photoactivated toxin cercosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beseli, Aydin; Goulart da Silva, Marilia; Daub, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and plant pathogenic fungus Cercospora nicotianae have been used as models for understanding resistance to singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)), a highly toxic reactive oxygen species. In Rhodobacter and Cercospora, (1)O(2) is derived, respectively, from photosynthesis and from the (1)O(2)-generating toxin cercosporin which the fungus produces to parasitize plants. We identified common genes recovered in transcriptome studies of putative (1)O(2)-resistance genes in these two systems, suggesting common (1)O(2)-resistance mechanisms. To determine if the Cercospora homologs of R. sphaeroides (1)O(2)-resistance genes are involved in resistance to cercosporin, we expressed the genes in the cercosporin-sensitive fungus Neurospora crassa and assayed for increases in cercosporin resistance. Neurospora crassa transformants expressing genes encoding aldo/keto reductase, succinyl-CoA ligase, O-acetylhomoserine (thiol) lyase, peptide methionine sulphoxide reductase and glutathione S-transferase did not have elevated levels of cercosporin resistance. Several transformants expressing aldehyde dehydrogenase were significantly more resistant to cercosporin. Expression of the transgene and enzyme activity did not correlate with resistance, however. We conclude that although the genes tested in this study are important in (1)O(2) resistance in R. sphaeroides, their Cercospora homologs are not involved in resistance to (1)O(2) generated from cercosporin. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium autoethanogenum for selective alcohol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Fungmin; Henstra, Anne M; Kӧpke, Michael; Winzer, Klaus; Simpson, Sean D; Minton, Nigel P

    2017-03-01

    Gas fermentation using acetogenic bacteria such as Clostridium autoethanogenum offers an attractive route for production of fuel ethanol from industrial waste gases. Acetate reduction to acetaldehyde and further to ethanol via an aldehyde: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and alcohol dehydrogenase has been postulated alongside the classic pathway of ethanol formation via a bi-functional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE). Here we demonstrate that AOR is critical to ethanol formation in acetogens and inactivation of AdhE led to consistently enhanced autotrophic ethanol production (up to 180%). Using ClosTron and allelic exchange mutagenesis, which was demonstrated for the first time in an acetogen, we generated single mutants as well as double mutants for both aor and adhE isoforms to confirm the role of each gene. The aor1+2 double knockout strain lost the ability to convert exogenous acetate, propionate and butyrate into the corresponding alcohols, further highlighting the role of these enzymes in catalyzing the thermodynamically unfavourable reduction of carboxylic acids into alcohols. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intron loss from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene of lettuce mitochondrial DNA: evidence for homologous recombination of a cDNA intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, K T; Abbas, G M; Makaroff, C A

    1994-04-01

    The mitochondrial gene coding for subunit 4 of the NADH dehydrogenase complex I (nad4) has been isolated and characterized from lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Analysis of nad4 genes in a number of plants by Southern hybridization had previously suggested that the intron content varied between species. Characterization of the lettuce gene confirms this observation. Lettuce nad4 contains two exons and one group IIA intron, whereas previously sequenced nad4 genes from turnip and wheat contain three group IIA introns. Northern analysis identified a transcript of 1600 nucleotides, which represents the mature nad4 mRNA and a primary transcript of 3200 nucleotides. Sequence analysis of lettuce and turnip nad4 cDNAs was used to confirm the intron/exon border sequences and to examine RNA editing patterns. Editing is observed at the 5' and 3' ends of the lettuce transcript, but is absent from sequences that correspond to exons two, three and the 5' end of exon four in turnip and wheat. In contrast, turnip transcripts are highly edited in this region, suggesting that homologous recombination of an edited and spliced cDNA intermediate was involved in the loss of introns two and three from an ancestral lettuce nad4 gene.

  10. Toxicity of polyunsaturated aldehydes of diatoms to Indo-Pacific bioindicator organism Echinometra mathaei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Davide; Gaion, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known suitability of early developmental stages of sea urchin as recommended model for pollutant toxicity testing, little is known about the sensitivity of Indo-Pacific species Echinometra mathaei to polyunsaturated aldehydes. In this study, the effect of three short chain aldehydes, 2,4-decadienal (DD), 2,4-octadienal (OD) and 2,4-heptadienal (HD), normally found in many diatoms, such as Skeletonema costatum, Skeletonema marinoi and Thalassiosira rotula, was evaluated on larval development of E. mathaei embryos. Aldehydes affected larval development in a dose-dependent manner, in particular HD>OD>DD; the results of this study highlighted the higher sensitivity of this species toward aldehydes compared with data registered for other sea urchin species. In comparison with studies reported in the literature, contrasting results were observed during our tests; therefore, an increasing toxic effect was registered with decreasing the chain length of aldehydes. This work could provide new insights in the development of new toxicological assays toward most sensitive species.

  11. Effect of whey protein on the In Vivo Release of Aldehydes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Claassen, N.E.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer

  12. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...... be due to residual enzyme activity as a consequence of the two missense mutations. Treatment with L-carnitine and medium chain triglycerides in the diet did not reduce the attacks of rhabdomyolysis....

  13. Effect of selected aldehydes on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science; Martinez, A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science]|[Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Biotecnologia

    1999-10-05

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic raw-materials requires the hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers into a fermentable syrup. During the hydrolysis of hemicellulose with dilute acid, a variety of toxic compounds are produced such as soluble aromatic aldehydes from lignin and furfural from pentose destruction. In this study, the authors have investigated the toxicity of representative aldehydes (furfural, 5-hydroxymethlyfurfural, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, and vanillin) as inhibitors of growth and ethanol production by ethanologenic derivatives of Escherichia coli B (strains K011 and LY01). Aromatic aldyhydes were at least twice as toxic as furfural of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on a weight basis. The toxicities of all aldehydes (and ethanol) except furfural were additive when tested in binary combinations. In all cases, combinations with furfural were unexpectedly toxic. Although the potency of these aldehydes was directly related to hydrophobicity indicating a hydrophobic site of action, none caused sufficient membrane damage to allow the leakage of intracellular magnesium even when present at sixfold the concentrations required for growth inhibition. Of the aldehydes tested, only furfural strongly inhibited ethanol production in vitro. A comparison with published results for other microorganisms indicates that LY01 is equivalent or more resistant than other biocatalysts to the aldehydes examined in this study.

  14. Differences in expression of the cancer stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 among estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative breast cancer cases with early, late, and no recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yuichiro; Shien, Tadahiko; Ogiya, Akiko; Ishida, Naoko; Yamazaki, Kieko; Horii, Rie; Horimoto, Yoshiya; Masuda, Norikazu; Yasojima, Hiroyuki; Inao, Touko; Osako, Tomofumi; Takahashi, Masato; Tomioka, Nobumoto; Endo, Yumi; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Hiroko

    2016-07-02

    The significance of the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), a cancer stem cell marker, for predicting the recurrence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer is still poorly understood. The value of ALDH1 in predicting the time of recurrence remains unknown. In total, 184 patients with early distant recurrence, 134 patients with late distant recurrence, and 321 control patients without recurrence for more than 10 years after starting initial treatment for ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer, registered in 9 institutions, were analyzed. We assessed relationships between ALDH1 and other clinicopathological features, and ALDH1 expression was compared among the three groups. The relationship between ALDH1 expression and overall survival after recurrence was also evaluated in each group. The rates of ALDH1 expression positivity (more than 1 %) in the early, late, and no recurrence groups were 18.4 %, 13.4 %, and 8.4 %, respectively. ALDH1 expression correlated significantly with lymph node metastases (p = 0.048) and the Ki-67 labeling index (p factor independently predicting overall survival after the detection of recurrence (adjusted OR 1.451, 95 % CI 0.985-2.085, p = 0.059). Among patients with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer, ALDH1 expression was more common in those with early recurrence, and this expression was found to be associated with a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype than that in the patients without recurrence. Further study is needed to clarify the prognostic significance of the heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and to confirm their role in resistance to chemotherapy.

  15. Role of Lipid Peroxidation-Derived α, β-Unsaturated Aldehydes in Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular diseases are the most prominent cause of death, and inflammation and vascular dysfunction are key initiators of the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Lipid peroxidation products, such as acrolein and other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, have been implicated as mediators of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. α, β-Unsaturated aldehydes are toxic because of their high reactivity with nucleophiles and their ability to form protein and DNA adducts without prior metabolic activation. This strong reactivity leads to electrophilic stress that disrupts normal cellular function. Furthermore, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes are reported to cause endothelial dysfunction by induction of oxidative stress, redox-sensitive mechanisms, and inflammatory changes such as induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytokines. This review provides an overview of the effects of lipid peroxidation products, α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, on inflammation and vascular dysfunction.

  16. Physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and the role of 2-oxoglutarate in Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Agustina Domínguez-Martín

    Full Text Available The enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, to produce 2-oxoglutarate. The incompleteness of the tricarboxylic acids cycle in marine cyanobacteria confers a special importance to isocitrate dehydrogenase in the C/N balance, since 2-oxoglutarate can only be metabolized through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. The physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase was studied in cultures of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511, by measuring enzyme activity and concentration using the NADPH production assay and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme activity showed little changes under nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, or upon addition of the inhibitors DCMU, DBMIB and MSX. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, induced clear increases in the isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and icd gene expression after 24 h, and also in the 2-oxoglutarate concentration. Iron starvation had the most significant effect, inducing a complete loss of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, possibly mediated by a process of oxidative inactivation, while its concentration was unaffected. Our results suggest that isocitrate dehydrogenase responds to changes in the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate and to the redox status of the cells in Prochlorococcus.

  17. The last step of syringyl monolignol biosynthesis in angiosperms is regulated by a novel gene encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Cheng, X F; Leshkevich, J; Umezawa, T; Harding, S A; Chiang, V L

    2001-07-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) has been thought to mediate the reduction of both coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde into guaiacyl and syringyl monolignols in angiosperms. Here, we report the isolation of a novel aspen gene (PtSAD) encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is phylogenetically distinct from aspen CAD (PtCAD). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based enzyme functional analysis and substrate level-controlled enzyme kinetics consistently demonstrated that PtSAD is sinapaldehyde specific and that PtCAD is coniferaldehyde specific. The enzymatic efficiency of PtSAD for sinapaldehyde was approximately 60 times greater than that of PtCAD. These data suggest that in addition to CAD, discrete SAD function is essential to the biosynthesis of syringyl monolignol in angiosperms. In aspen stem primary tissues, PtCAD was immunolocalized exclusively to xylem elements in which only guaiacyl lignin was deposited, whereas PtSAD was abundant in syringyl lignin-enriched phloem fiber cells. In the developing secondary stem xylem, PtCAD was most conspicuous in guaiacyl lignin-enriched vessels, but PtSAD was nearly absent from these elements and was conspicuous in fiber cells. In the context of additional protein immunolocalization and lignin histochemistry, these results suggest that the distinct CAD and SAD functions are linked spatiotemporally to the differential biosynthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignins in different cell types. SAD is required for the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in angiosperms.

  18. Gold nanoparticles/water-soluble carbon nanotubes/aromatic diamine polymer composite films for highly sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li Zhen, E-mail: happylizhen@yeah.ne [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Tang Lin; Wu Mengshi; Lei Xiaoxia; Liu Yuanyuan; Liu Can; Pang Ya; Zhang Yi [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Highlights: > Gold nanoparticles/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) modified electrode was fabricated. > The sensor was applied for the detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase genes. > An effective method to distribute MWCNTs and attach to the electrode was proposed. > The composite films greatly improved the sensitivity and enhanced the DNA immobilization. > The DNA biosensor exhibited fairly high sensitivity and quite low detection limit. - Abstract: An electrochemical sensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/poly (1,5-naphthalenediamine) films modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated. The effectiveness of the sensor was confirmed by sensitive detection of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) gene which was extracted from Phanerochaete chrysosporium using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The monomer of 1,5-naphthalenediamine was electropolymerized on the GCE surface with abundant free amino groups which enhanced the stability of MWCNTs modified electrode. Congo red (CR)-functionalized MWCNTs possess excellent conductivity as well as high solubility in water which enabled to form the uniform and stable network nanostructures easily and created a large number of binding sites for electrodeposition of GNPs. The continuous GNPs together with MWCNTs greatly increased the surface area, conductivity and electrocatalytic activity. This electrode structure significantly improved the sensitivity of sensor and enhanced the DNA immobilization and hybridization. The thiol modified capture probes were immobilized onto the composite films-modified GCE by a direct formation of thiol-Au bond and horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin (HRP-SA) conjugates were labeled to the biotinylated detection probes through biotin-streptavidin bond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to investigate the film assembly and DNA hybridization processes

  19. Two different dihydroorotate dehydrogenases from yeast Saccharomyees kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Knecht, Wolfgang; Piskur, Jure

    2004-01-01

    Genes for two structurally and functionally different dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs, EC 1.3.99.11), catalyzing the fourth step of pyrimidine biosynthesis, have been previously found in yeast Saccharomyces klujveri. One is closely related to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe mitochondrial family...... for their biochemical properties and interaction with inhibitors. Benzoates as pyrimidine ring analogs were shown to he selective inhibitors of cytosolic DHODs. This unique property of Saccharomyces DHODHs could appoint DHODH as a species-specific target for novel anti-fungal therapeutics....

  20. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  1. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariello Caterina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007. The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively. As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a. Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA. Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of

  2. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Øjvind; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil

    2007-01-01

    previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD. PMID: 17883863 [PubMed - in process]......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism...

  3. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control

  4. Ni-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Cross-Coupling: Direct Transformation of Aldehydes to Esters and Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Aaron M.; Dong, Vy M.

    2015-01-01

    By exploring a new mode of Ni-catalyzed cross-coupling, we have developed a protocol to transform both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into either esters or amides directly. The success of this oxidative coupling depends on the appropriate choice of catalyst and organic oxidant, including the use of either α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone or excess aldehyde. We present mechanistic data that supports a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition into the aldehyde C–H bond. PMID:25424967

  5. Structural, Biochemical, and Computational Studies Reveal the Mechanism of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibition by Cytotoxic Duocarmycin Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Maximilian F; Harteis, Sabrina; Blank, Iris D; Pestel, Galina; Tietze, Lutz F; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Schneider, Sabine; Sieber, Stephan A

    2015-11-09

    Analogues of the natural product duocarmycin bearing an indole moiety were shown to bind aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in addition to DNA, while derivatives without the indole solely addressed the ALDH1A1 protein. The molecular mechanism of selective ALDH1A1 inhibition by duocarmycin analogues was unraveled through cocrystallization, mutational studies, and molecular dynamics simulations. The structure of the complex shows the compound embedded in a hydrophobic pocket, where it is stabilized by several crucial π-stacking and van der Waals interactions. This binding mode positions the cyclopropyl electrophile for nucleophilic attack by the noncatalytic residue Cys302, thereby resulting in covalent attachment, steric occlusion of the active site, and inhibition of catalysis. The selectivity of duocarmycin analogues for ALDH1A1 is unique, since only minor alterations in the sequence of closely related protein isoforms restrict compound accessibility. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Indoor aldehydes: measurement of contamination levels and identification of their determinants in Paris dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarisse, B.; Laurent, A.M.; Seta, N.; Le Moullec, Y.; El Hasnaoui, A.; Momas, I.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increased prevalence of childhood asthma and atopy has brought into question the impact of outdoor pollutants and indoor air quality. The contributory role of aldehydes to this problem and the fact that they are mainly derived from the domestic environment make them of particular interest. This study therefore measures six different aldehyde levels in Paris dwellings from potentially different sources and identifies their indoor determinants. The study was carried out in the three principal rooms of 61 flats with no previous history of complaint for olfactory nuisance or specific symptoms, two-thirds of the flats having been recently refurbished. Aldehydes were sampled in these rooms using passive samplers, and a questionnaire on potential aldehyde sources was filled out at the same time. A multiple linear regression model was used to investigate indoor aldehyde determinants. Our study revealed that propionaldehyde and benzaldehyde were of minor importance compared to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, and hexanal. We found that levels of these last four compounds depended on the age of wall or floor coverings (renovations less than 1 year old), smoking, and ambient parameters (carbon dioxide levels, temperature). These results could help in the assessment of indoor aldehyde emissions

  7. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  8. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Romano

    Full Text Available Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms.

  9. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Myopathy in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholte, H R; Van Coster, R N; de Jonge, P C

    1999-01-01

    was deficient in muscle and fibroblasts, consistent with deficiency of very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD). The gene of this enzyme had a homozygous deletion of three base pairs in exon 9, skipping lysine residue 238. Fibroblasts oxidised myristate, palmitate and oleate at a rate of 129, 62 and 38......A 30-year-old man suffered since the age of 13 years from exercise induced episodes of intense generalised muscle pain, weakness and myoglobinuria. Fasting ketogenesis was low, while blood glucose remained normal. Muscle mitochondria failed to oxidise palmitoylcarnitine. Palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase......% of controls. In contrast to patients with cardiac VLCAD deficiency, our patient had no lipid storage, a normal heart function, a higher rate of oleate oxidation in fibroblasts and normal free carnitine in plasma and fibroblasts. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of muscle showed a normal oxidative...

  11. INTERACTION OF ALDEHYDES DERIVED FROM LIPID PEROXIDATION AND MEMBRANE PROTEINS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania ePizzimenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of compounds are formed during lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids. Among them, bioactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxyalkenals, malondialdehyde (MDA and acrolein, have received particular attention since they have been considered as toxic messengers that can propagate and amplify oxidative injury. In the 4-hydroxyalkenal class, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE is the most intensively studied aldehyde, in relation not only to its toxic function, but also to its physiological role. Indeed, HNE can be found at low concentrations in human tissues and plasma and participates in the control of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, at low doses, HNE exerts an anti-cancer effect, by inhibiting cell proliferation, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and by inducing differentiation and/or apoptosis in various tumor cell lines. It is very likely that a substantial fraction of the effects observed in cellular responses, induced by HNE and related aldehydes, be mediated by their interaction with proteins, resulting in the formation of covalent adducts or in the modulation of their expression and/or activity. In this review we focus on membrane proteins affected by lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes, under physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Study on the regulatory mechanism of the lipid metabolism pathways during chicken male germ cell differentiation based on RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Lei; Elsayed, Ahmed Kamel; Lian, Chao; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Yinjie; Jin, Kai; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we explore the regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolic signaling pathways and related genes during differentiation of male germ cells in chickens, with the hope that better understanding of these pathways may improve in vitro induction. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to obtain highly purified cultures of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), primitive germ cells (PGCs), and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). The total RNA was then extracted from each type of cell. High-throughput analysis methods (RNA-seq) were used to sequence the transcriptome of these cells. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and the KEGG database were used to identify lipid metabolism pathways and related genes. Retinoic acid (RA), the end-product of the retinol metabolism pathway, induced in vitro differentiation of ESC into male germ cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect changes in the expression of the genes involved in the retinol metabolic pathways. From the results of RNA-seq and the database analyses, we concluded that there are 328 genes in 27 lipid metabolic pathways continuously involved in lipid metabolism during the differentiation of ESC into SSC in vivo, including retinol metabolism. Alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) are involved in RA synthesis in the cell. ADH5 was specifically expressed in PGC in our experiments and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A1 (ALDH1A1) persistently increased throughout development. CYP26b1, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is involved in the degradation of RA. Expression of CYP26b1, in contrast, decreased throughout development. Exogenous RA in the culture medium induced differentiation of ESC to SSC-like cells. The expression patterns of ADH5, ALDH1A1, and CYP26b1 were consistent with RNA-seq results. We conclude that the retinol metabolism pathway plays an important role in the process of chicken male germ cell differentiation.

  13. Methyltrioxorhenium as catalyst of a novel aldehyde olefination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, W.A. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Wang Mei (Academia Sinica, Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics (China))

    1991-12-01

    From aldehydes or cyclic ketones, diazoalkanes, and teritiary phosphanes, olefins may be prepared with MTO as catalyst. In particular, diazoacetates and -malonates (R{sup 2}, R{sup 3} = H, CO{sub 2}Et, or 2 x CO{sub 2}Me) can be transformed into olefins with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes (R{sup 1} = iPr, trans-PhCH=CH, Ph, 4-NO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, etc.). Readily accessible starting materials, easy handling, mild reaction conditions, and good yields characterize the new synthesis method. (R' = Ph, 3-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}Na, nBu.) (orig.).

  14. Molecular Basis of Alcohol-Related Gastric and Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Ja Young

    2017-05-24

    Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2. Alcohol stimulates the uptake of carcinogens and their metabolism and also changes the composition of enteric microbes in a way to enhance the aldehyde level. Alcohol also undergoes chemical coupling to membrane phospholipids and disrupts organization of tight junctions, leading to nuclear translocation of β-catenin and ZONAB, which may contributes to regulation of genes involved in proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Alcohol also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by suppressing the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes and inducing expression of CYP2E1 which contribute to the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens. Besides exerting genotoxic effects by directly damaging DNA, ROS can activates signaling molecules involved in inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition, alcohol consumption induces folate deficiency, which may result in aberrant DNA methylation profiles, thereby influencing cancer-related gene expression.

  15. Research advances in the catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHAO Zhen; XU Chunming

    2005-01-01

    Selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes is one of the most difficult processes in the catalysis researches of low alkanes. The development of selective oxidation of ethane to aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein) is discussed. The latest progress of the catalysts, including bulk or supported metal oxide catalysts, highly dispersed and isolated active sites catalysts, and the photo-catalytic ethane oxidation catalysts, partial oxidation of ethane in the gas phase, and the proposed reaction pathways from ethane to aldehydes are involved.

  16. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  17. Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Urea Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jong Chan [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a new, environmentally benign and highly efficient oxidative preparation of methyl esters by the reaction of various aldehydes with UHP in methanol catalyzed by readily accessible aluminum(III) chloride hexahydrate. This new greener and cost effective direct esterification method can serve as a useful alternative to existing protocols. Esters are some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry and have been found in the sub-structure of a variety of natural products, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of various esters. In particular, this method gives low yields for both aldehydes containing electron donating substituents in aromatic rings and heterocyclic aldehydes. Therefore, development of a more general, efficient, and greener protocol for the esterification of aldehydes with readily available catalyst is still desirable.

  18. The ADH7 Promoter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Vanillin-Inducible and Enables mRNA Translation Under Severe Vanillin Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Trinh T. M.; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the major phenolic aldehyde compounds derived from lignocellulosic biomass and acts as a potent fermentation inhibitor to repress the growth and fermentative ability of yeast. Vanillin can be reduced to its less toxic form, vanillyl alcohol, by the yeast NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenases, Adh6 and Adh7. However, there is little information available regarding the regulation of their gene expression upon severe vanillin stress, which has been shown to repre...

  19. Novel glucose dehydrogenase from Mucor prainii: Purification, characterization, molecular cloning and gene expression in Aspergillus sojae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Ryoko; Ichiyanagi, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Keiichi; Hirokawa, Kozo; Araki, Yasuko; Yoshimura, Taro; Gomi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is of interest for its potential applications in the field of glucose sensors. To improve the performance of glucose sensors, GDH is required to have strict substrate specificity. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent GDH was isolated from Mucor prainii NISL0103 and its enzymatic properties were characterized. This FAD-dependent GDH (MpGDH) exhibited high specificity toward glucose. High specificity for glucose was also observed even in the presence of saccharides such as maltose, galactose and xylose. The molecular masses of the glycoforms of GDH ranged from 90 to 130 kDa. After deglycosylation, a single 80 kDa band was observed. The gene encoding MpGDH was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus sojae. The apparent kcat and Km values of recombinant enzyme for glucose were found to be 749.7 s(-1) and 28.3 mM, respectively. The results indicated that the characteristics of MpGDH were suitable for assaying blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the nature of the olefination reaction involving ditungsten hexaalkoxides and aldehydes or ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, M.H.; Huffman, J.C.; Lucas, E.A.; Sousa, A.; Streib, W.E. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1992-03-25

    Reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones to olefins under the action of ditungsten hexaalkoxides was investigated. In these reactions, reductive cleavage of the aldehyde or ketone carbonyl is followed by formation of the olefinic C-C bond and breaking of the carbonyl C-O bond of the second aldehyde or ketone. Observations concerning the initial C-O bond cleavage and subsequent C-C bond formation are presented. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Watermelon glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase is sorted to peroxisomes of the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, I.J. van der; Faber, K.N.; Keizer-Gunnink, I.; Gietl, C.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the fate of the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) glyoxysomal enzyme, malate dehydrogenase (gMDH), after synthesis in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha. The gene encoding the precursor form of gMDH (pre-gMDH) was cloned in an H. polymorpha expression vector

  2. Oxidative desulfurization of diesel with TBHP/isobutyl aldehyde/air oxidation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Chengyong; Lin, Peng; Lu, Xiaoping [Institute of Sonochemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Oxidative desulfurization of hydrogenation diesel (40 mL) was studied using air as oxidant, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as radical initiator at ambient pressure and moderate temperature in the presence of isobutyl aldehyde. TBHP could accelerate the production of carbonyl radical and its peroxidation. When the molar fraction of TBHP was 5 mmol, the conversion of DBT could reach 96.1% in the present of 20 mmol isobutyl aldehyde and air, which was more than that of 85.5% without initiator. The air was an effective oxidant and acetonitrile was an optimal solvent in this process. The sulfur content of the hydrogenation diesel could be reduced from 403 to 13 ppm (96.8% removed) under the synergistic effect of air, TBHP and isobutyl aldehyde. (author)

  3. Influences of cinnamic aldehydes on H⁺ extrusion activity and ultrastructure of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Bhatia, Rimple; Khan, Neelofar; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Manzoor, Nikhat; Khan, Luqman Ahmad

    2013-02-01

    The antifungal effects of cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (coniferyl aldehyde) and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (sinapaldehyde) were investigated against 65 strains of Candida (six standard, 39 fluconazole-sensitive and 20 fluconazole-resistant). MICs of cinnamaldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde and sinapaldehyde ranged from 100 to 500 µg ml(-1), 100 to 300 µg ml(-1) and 100 to 200 µg ml(-1), respectively. All tested isolates showed a marked sensitivity towards these aldehydes in spot and time-kill assays. Sinapaldehyde was found to be the most effective, followed by coniferyl aldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. At their respective MIC(90) values, the three compounds caused mean inhibition levels of glucose-stimulated H(+)-efflux of 36, 34 and 41 % (cinnamaldehyde), 41, 42 and 47 % (coniferyl aldehyde) and 43, 45 and 51 % (sinapaldehyde) for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Inhibition levels of H(+)-efflux caused by plasma membrane ATPase inhibitors N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (100 µM) and diethylstilbestrol (10 µM) were 34, 45 and 44 %, and 57, 39 and 35 %, for standard-sensitive, clinical-sensitive and clinical-resistant isolates, respectively. Intracellular pH (pHi) was found to decrease by 0.34, 0.42 and 0.50 units following incubation with three tested aldehydes from the control pHi of 6.70. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed on a representative strain, C. albicans 10261, showing alterations in morphology, cell wall, plasma membrane damage and lysis. Haemolytic activity of the three compounds varied from 10 to 15 % at their highest MIC compared to an activity level of 20 % shown by fluconazole at 30 µg ml(-1). In conclusion, this study shows significant activity of cinnamic aldehydes against Candida, including azole-resistant strains, suggesting that these molecules can be developed as antifungals.

  4. Assessment and predictor determination of indoor aldehyde levels in Paris newborn babies' homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonville, C; Demattei, C; Laurent, A-M; Le Moullec, Y; Seta, N; Momas, I

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to indoor chemical air pollutants expected to be potentially involved in allergic respiratory diseases in infants is poorly documented. A specific environmental investigation included in a birth cohort study was carried out to first assess indoor airborne aldehyde levels, using passive devices and their variability within 1 year (1, 6, 9 and 12 months) in the bedroom of 196 Paris infants, and second, to identify predictors for aldehyde concentrations using interviewer administered questionnaires about housing factors. Comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. Aldehydes were detected in almost all dwellings and geometric mean levels (geometric standard deviation) at the first visit were respectively for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hexanal, and pentanal 19.4 (1.7) microg/m(3), 8.9 (1.8) microg/m(3), 25.3 (3.1) microg/m(3), 3.7 (2.3) microg/m(3), consistent with earlier published results. Generalized Estimating Equation multivariate analyses showed that, apart from comfort parameters, aeration and season, the main indoor aldehyde sources were either continuous (building materials and coverings especially when they were new) or discontinuous (smoking, use of air fresheners and cleaning products, DIY etc...). Finally, the data collected by questionnaires should be sufficient to enable us to classify each infant in our cohort study according to his/her degree of exposure to the main aldehydes. This analysis contributed to document indoor aldehyde levels in Parisian homes and to identify factors determining these levels. In the major part of newborn babies' homes, indoor formaldehyde levels were above the guideline value of 10 microg/m(3) proposed by the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety for long-term exposure. Given this result, it is essential to study the health impact of exposure to aldehydes especially formaldehyde on the incidence of respiratory and allergic symptoms, particularly during the

  5. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  6. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in serum...

  7. Determination of dehydrogenase activities involved in D-glucose oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Sainz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane bound dehydrogenases (membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH, D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains. Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites (GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the A. malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h, which coincided with glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of G. oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition.Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter were

  8. Deep sequencing of the mitochondrial genome reveals common heteroplasmic sites in NADH dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyu; Fetterman, Jessica L; Liu, Poching; Luo, Yan; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Zhu, Jun; Levy, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence implicates mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and age-related conditions. But little is known about the molecular basis for this connection. A possible cause may be mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which are often heteroplasmic-the joint presence of different alleles at a single locus in the same individual. However, the involvement of mtDNA heteroplasmy in aging and age-related conditions has not been investigated thoroughly. We deep-sequenced the complete mtDNA genomes of 356 Framingham Heart Study participants (52% women, mean age 43, mean coverage 4570-fold), identified 2880 unique mutations and comprehensively annotated them by MITOMAP and PolyPhen-2. We discovered 11 heteroplasmic "hot" spots [NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunit 1, 4, 5 and 6 genes, n = 7; cytochrome c oxidase I (COI), n = 2; 16S rRNA, n = 1; D-loop, n = 1] for which the alternative-to-reference allele ratios significantly increased with advancing age (Bonferroni correction p < 0.001). Four of these heteroplasmic mutations in ND and COI genes were predicted to be deleterious nonsynonymous mutations which may have direct impact on ATP production. We confirmed previous findings that healthy individuals carry many low-frequency heteroplasmy mutations with potentially deleterious effects. We hypothesize that the effect of a single deleterious heteroplasmy may be minimal due to a low mutant-to-wildtype allele ratio, whereas the aggregate effects of many deleterious mutations may cause changes in mitochondrial function and contribute to age-related diseases. The identification of age-related mtDNA mutations is an important step to understand the genetic architecture of age-related diseases and may uncover novel therapeutic targets for such diseases.

  9. Occupational exposure of aldehydes resulting from the storage of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-06-01

    An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen. Thus, air sampling was performed in a wood pellet warehouse at a pellet mill, two residential homes with bulk wood pellet storage bins, and in controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the risk to occupants. Using NIOSH method 2539, sampling was conducted in five locations in the warehouse from April-June 2016 when it contained varying quantities of bagged pellets as well as two homes with ten ton bulk storage bins. The aldehyde concentrations were found to increase with the amount of stored pellets. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were as high as 0.45 ppm in the warehouse exceeding the NIOSH REL-C, and ACGIH TLV-C occupational exposure limits (OELs). The concentrations of aldehydes measured in the residential bins were also elevated indicating emissions may raise indoor air quality concerns for occupants. While individual exposures are of concern the combined irritant effect of all the aldehydes is a further raise the concerns for building occupants. To minimize exposure and the risk of adverse health effects to a building's occupants in storage areas with large quantities of pellets, adequate ventilation must be designed into storage areas.

  10. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in pig tissues using SYBR green qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    -microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT I), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), TATA box binding protein (TPB) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5......-monooxygenase activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ). The stability of these reference genes in different pig tissues was investigated using the geNorm application. The range of expression stability in the genes analysed was (from the most stable to the least stable): ACTB/RPL4, TBP, HPRT, HMBS, YWHAZ...

  11. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  12. Rate constants for a mechanism including intermediates in the interconversion of ternary complexes by horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekhar, V.C.; Plapp, B.V.

    1990-01-01

    Transient kinetic data for partial reactions of alcohol dehydrogenase and simulations of progress curves have led to estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism, at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: E in equilibrium E-NAD+ in equilibrium *E-NAD+ in equilibrium E-NAD(+)-RCH2OH in equilibrium E-NAD+-RCH2O- in equilibrium *E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH-RCHO in equilibrium E-NADH in equilibrium E. Previous results show that the E-NAD+ complex isomerizes with a forward rate constant of 620 s-1. The enzyme-NAD(+)-alcohol complex has a pK value of 7.2 and loses a proton rapidly (greater than 1000 s-1). The transient oxidation of ethanol is 2-fold faster in D 2 O, and proton inventory results suggest that the transition state has a charge of -0.3 on the substrate oxygen. Rate constants for hydride ion transfer in the forward or reverse reactions were similar for short-chain aliphatic substrates (400-600 s-1). A small deuterium isotope effect for transient oxidation of longer chain alcohols is apparently due to the isomerization of the E-NAD+ complex. The transient reduction of aliphatic aldehydes showed no primary deuterium isotope effect; thus, an isomerization of the E-NADH-aldehyde complex is postulated, as isomerization of the E-NADH complex was too fast to be detected. The estimated microscopic rate constants show that the observed transient reactions are controlled by multiple steps

  13. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes: DISCOVERY OF P450-TYPE HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ACTIVITY IN A CATALASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E; Calcutt, Wade M; Brash, Alan R; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-08-07

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using (18)O-labeled substrate and incubations in H2(18)O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde emissions from diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chien, Shu-Mei

    Interest in use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as alternative fuels for petroleum-based diesels has increased due to biodiesels having similar properties of those of diesels, and characteristics of renewability, biodegradability and potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Generally, exhaust emissions of regulated pollutants are widely studied and the results favor biodiesels on CO, HC and particulate emissions; however, limited and inconsistent data are showed for unregulated pollutants, such as carbonyl compounds, which are also important indicators for evaluating available vehicle fuels. For better understanding biodiesel, this study examines the effects of the biodiesel blend fuel on aldehyde chemical emissions from diesel engine exhausts in comparison with those from the diesel fuel. Test engines (Mitsubishi 4M40-2AT1) with four cylinders, a total displacement of 2.84 L, maximum horsepower of 80.9 kW at 3700 rpm, and maximum torque of 217.6 N m at 2000 rpm, were mounted and operated on a Schenck DyNAS 335 dynamometer. Exhaust emission tests were performed several times for each fuel under the US transient cycle protocol from mileages of 0-80,000 km with an interval of 20,000 km, and two additional measurements were carried out at 40,000 and 80,000 km after maintenance, respectively. Aldehyde samples were collected from diluted exhaust by using a constant volume sampling system. Samples were extracted and analyzed by the HPLC/UV system. Dominant aldehydes of both fuels' exhausts are formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These compounds together account for over 75% of total aldehyde emissions. Total aldehyde emissions for B20 (20% waste cooking oil biodiesel and 80% diesel) and diesel fuels are in the ranges of 15.4-26.9 mg bhp-h -1 and 21.3-28.6 mg bhp-h -1, respectively. The effects of increasing mileages and maintenance practice on aldehyde emissions are insignificant for both fuels. B20 generates slightly less emission than

  15. Characterization of a dehydrogenase activity responsible for oxidation of 11-cis-retinol in the retinal pigment epithelium of mice with a disrupted RDH5 gene. A model for the human hereditary disease fundus albipunctatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, G.F.; Hooser, J.P. van; Kuksa, V.; McBee, J.K.; He, Y.G.; Janssen, J.J.M.; Driessen, C.A.G.G.; Palczewski, K.

    2001-01-01

    In the vertebrate retina, the final step of visual chromophore production is the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal. This reaction is catalyzed by 11-cis-retinol dehydrogenases (11-cis-RDHs), prior to the chromophore rejoining with the visual pigment apo-proteins. The RDH5 gene encodes a

  16. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  18. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Status and the Effects of High-Dose Riboflavin Treatment in Short-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maldegem, Bianca T.; Duran, Marinus; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Waterham, Hans R.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCADD) is an inborn error, biochemically characterized by increased plasma butyrylcarnitine (C4-C) concentration and increased ethylmalonic acid (EMA) excretion and caused by rare mutations and/or common gene variants in the SCAD encoding gene. Although

  19. Reactions of the radical cations of aliphatic aldehydes in freon matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevskij, V.N.; Belopushkin, S.I.; Feldman, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    ESR spectra of γ-irradiated solutions of acetic and propionic aldehydes in freon-11 and freon-113 affected by aldehyde concentration, temperature, and the action of light were studied. It is shown that the radical cations are converted into neutral radicals, and the cations CHsub(3)CHsub(2)CHOsup(+). are converted to RCO and CHsub(3)CHCHO due to ion-molecular reactions of proton transfer of hydrogen atom transfer. (author)

  20. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  1. Modelling of the partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes on Mo-V-oxides based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1998-12-31

    A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)

  2. Direct chemoselective synthesis of glyconanoparticles from unprotected reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Mikkel Boas; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Cló, Emiliano

    2009-01-01

    Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell.......Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell....

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jimin; Lee, Daniel C.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase has been crystallized in three different crystal forms. Data were collected from each crystal form for structure determination. The Escherichia coli aceK gene encodes isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (EC 2.7.11.5), a bifunctional protein that phosphorylates and dephosphorylates isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), resulting in its inactivation and activation, respectively. This reversible (de)phosphorylation directs isocitrate, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, to either go through the full cycle or to enter the glyoxylate bypass. In the present study, the AceK protein from E. coli has been purified and crystallized. Three crystal forms were obtained from very similar crystallization conditions. The crystals belong to space groups P4 1 2 1 2, P3 2 21 and P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to resolutions of 2.9, 3.0 and 2.7 Å, respectively

  4. Effect of tungstate on acetate and ethanol production by the electrosynthetic bacterium Sporomusa ovata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammam, Fariza; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Lizak, Dawid Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    successfully converted to their corresponding alcohols 1-propanol and 1-butanol by S. ovata during gas fermentation. Increasing tungstate concentration enhanced conversion efficiency for both propionate and butyrate. Gene expression analysis suggested that tungsten-containing aldehyde ferredoxin...... oxidoreductases (AORs) and a tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenase (FDH) were involved in the improved biosynthesis of acetate, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. AORs and FDH contribute to the fatty acids re-assimilation pathway and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, respectively. This study presented here shows...

  5. Expression pattern of two paralogs encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and characterization of the corresponding mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-06-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cbeta. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units.

  6. Deletion of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene KlZWF1 Affects both Fermentative and Respiratory Metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliola, Michele; Scappucci, Gina; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Mancini, Patrizia; Falcone, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    In Kluyveromyces lactis, the pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative route for the dissimilation of glucose. The first enzyme of the pathway is the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), encoded by KlZWF1. We isolated this gene and examined its role. Like ZWF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, KlZWF1 was constitutively expressed, and its deletion led to increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide on glucose, but unlike the case for S. cerevisiae, the Klzwf1Δ strain had a reduced biomass yield on fermentative carbon sources as well as on lactate and glycerol. In addition, the reduced yield on glucose was associated with low ethanol production and decreased oxygen consumption, indicating that this gene is required for both fermentation and respiration. On ethanol, however, the mutant showed an increased biomass yield. Moreover, on this substrate, wild-type cells showed an additional band of activity that might correspond to a dimeric form of G6PDH. The partial dimerization of the G6PDH tetramer on ethanol suggested the production of an NADPH excess that was negative for biomass yield. PMID:17085636

  7. Gene ercA, encoding a putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase, is involved in regulation of ethanol utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Niels; Görisch, Helmut; Mern, Demissew S

    2013-09-01

    Several two-component regulatory systems are known to be involved in the signal transduction pathway of the ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. These sensor kinases and response regulators are organized in a hierarchical manner. In addition, a cytoplasmic putative iron-containing alcohol dehydrogenase (Fe-ADH) encoded by ercA (PA1991) has been identified to play an essential role in this regulatory network. The gene ercA (PA1991) is located next to ercS, which encodes a sensor kinase. Inactivation of ercA (PA1991) by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette created mutant NH1. NH1 showed poor growth on various alcohols. On ethanol, NH1 grew only with an extremely extended lag phase. During the induction period on ethanol, transcription of structural genes exa and pqqABCDEH, encoding components of initial ethanol oxidation in P. aeruginosa, was drastically reduced in NH1, which indicates the regulatory function of ercA (PA1991). However, transcription in the extremely delayed logarithmic growth phase was comparable to that in the wild type. To date, the involvement of an Fe-ADH in signal transduction processes has not been reported.

  8. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Polymorphism of alcohol metabolizing gene ADH3 predisposes to development of alcoholic pancreatitis in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya eSingh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim- Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP. Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated whether polymorphism in these alcohol metabolizing enzyme genes could be associated with alcoholic pancreatitis and is the purpose of our study. Method- Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP (n=72, tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP (n=75, alcoholic controls (AC (n=40 and healthy controls (HC (n=100 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result- The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7% compared with TCP (38.7%, HC (42% and AC (37.5% and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2 genotype between TCP and HC and healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all four groups. Conclusion- This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2.

  10. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development.

  11. O-Alkyl Hydroxamates as Metaphors of Enzyme-Bound Enolate Intermediates in Hydroxy Acid Dehydrogenases. Inhibitors of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Tartrate Dehydrogenase(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, Michael C.; Han, Hyunsoo; Chen, Jrlung

    1996-07-12

    The inhibition of Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase by O-methyl oxalohydroxamate was studied for comparison to earlier results of Schloss with the Salmonella enzyme. It is a fairly potent (1.2 &mgr;M), slow-binding, uncompetitive inhibitor against isopropylmalate and is far superior to an oxamide (25 mM K(i) competitive) that is isosteric with the ketoisocaproate product of the enzyme. This improvement in inhibition was attributed to its increased NH acidity, which presumably is due to the inductive effect of the hydroxylamine oxygen. This principle was extended to the structurally homologous enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase from E. coli, for which the compound O-(carboxymethyl) oxalohydroxamate is a 30 nM inhibitor, uncompetitive against isocitrate. The pH dependence of its inhibition supports the idea that it is bound to the enzyme in the anionic form. Another recently discovered homologous enzyme, tartrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida, was studied with oxalylhydroxamate. It has a relatively low affinity for the enzyme, though it is superior to tartrate. On the basis of these leads, squaric hydroxamates with increased acidity compared to squaric amides directed toward two of these enzymes were prepared, and they also show increased inhibitory potency, though not approaching the nanomolar levels of the oxalylhydroxamates.

  12. Microenvironmental characteristics important for personal exposures to aldehydes in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, J. H.; Akland, G.; Johnson, T. R.; Long, T.; Michael, L.; Cauble, L.; McCombs, M.

    Oxygenated additives in gasoline are designed to decrease the ozone-forming hydrocarbons and total air toxics, yet they can increase the emissions of aldehydes and thus increase human exposure to these toxic compounds. This paper describes a study conducted to characterize targeted aldehydes in microenvironments in Sacramento, CA, and Milwaukee, WI, and to improve our understanding of the impact of the urban environment on human exposure to air toxics. Data were obtained from microenvironmental concentration measurements, integrated, 24-h personal measurements, indoor and outdoor pollutant monitors at the participants' residences, from ambient pollutant monitors at fixed-site locations in each city, and from real-time diaries and questionnaires completed by the technicians and participants. As part of this study, a model to predict personal exposures based on individual time/activity data was developed for comparison to measured concentrations. Predicted concentrations were generally within 25% of the measured concentrations. The microenvironments that people encounter daily provide for widely varying exposures to aldehydes. The activities that occur in those microenvironments can modulate the aldehyde concentrations dramatically, especially for environments such as "indoor at home." By considering personal activity, location (microenvironment), duration in the microenvironment, and a knowledge of the general concentrations of aldehydes in the various microenvironments, a simple model can do a reasonably good job of predicting the time-averaged personal exposures to aldehydes, even in the absence of monitoring data. Although concentrations of aldehydes measured indoors at the participants' homes tracked well with personal exposure, there were instances where personal exposures and indoor concentrations differed significantly. Key to the ability to predict exposure based on time/activity data is the quality and completeness of the microenvironmental

  13. Quantitative analysis of aldehydes in canned vegetables using static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2017-11-17

    Volatile aldehydes appear in canned vegetables as constituents and some of them can also be present as disinfection by-products (DBPs) because of the contact between vegetables and treated water. This paper describes two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) methods to determine 15 aldehydes in both the solid and the liquid phases of canned vegetables. The treatment for both phases of samples was carried out simultaneously into an SHS unit, including the leaching of the aldehydes (from the vegetable), their derivatization and volatilization of the oximes formed. Detection limits were obtained within the range of 15-400μg/kg and 3-40μg/L for aldehydes in the solid and the liquid phases of the food, respectively. The relative standard deviation was lower than 7% -for the whole array of the target analytes-, the trueness evaluated by recovery experiments provided %recoveries between 89 and 99% and short- and long-term stability studies indicated there was no significant variation in relative peak areas of all aldehydes in both phases of canned vegetables after their storing at 4°C for two weeks. The study of the origin of the 15 aldehydes detected between both phases of canned vegetables showed that: i) the presence of 13 aldehydes -at average concentrations of 2.2-39μg/kg and 0.25-71μg/L for the solid and the liquid phases, respectively- is because they are natural constituents of vegetables; and ii) the presence of glyoxal and methylglyoxal -which are mainly found in the liquid phase (average values, 1.4-4.1μg/L)- is ascribed to the use of treated water, thereby being DBPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Deletion of the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis Does Not Lead to Respiratory Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

  15. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains a complex setup of non-energy conserving NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, the physiological consequences of which are highly unclear. An expression construct for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) ndb1 gene, a homologue of bacterial and fungal type II NAD...

  16. Production of natural fragrance aromatic acids by coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase and p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase genes of Pseudomonas putida JYR-1 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongfei; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Ryu, Ji-Young; Kanaly, Robert A; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2012-12-05

    A gene encoding p-anisaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of p-anisaldehyde to p-anisic acid, was identified to be clustered with the trans-anethole oxygenase (tao) gene in Pseudomonas putida JYR-1. Heterologously expressed PAADH in Escherichia coli catalyzed the oxidation of vanillin, veratraldehyde, and piperonal to the corresponding aromatic acids vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively. Coexpression of trans-anethole oxygenase (TAO) and PAADH in E. coli also resulted in the successful transformation of trans-anethole, isoeugenol, O-methyl isoeugenol, and isosafrole to p-anisic acid, vanillic acid, veratric acid, and piperonylic acid, respectively, which are compounds found in plants as secondary metabolites. Because of the relaxed substrate specificity and high transformation rates by coexpressed TAO and PAADH in E. coli , the engineered strain has potential to be applied in the fragrance industry.

  17. Catalytic properties of thermophilic lactate dehydrogenase and halophilic malate dehydrogenase at high temperature and low water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, K; Wrba, A; Jaenicke, R

    1989-07-15

    Thermophilic lactate dehydrogenases from Thermotoga maritima and Bacillus stearothermophilus are stable up to temperature limits close to the optimum growth temperature of their parent organisms. Their catalytic properties are anomalous in that Km shows a drastic increase with increasing temperature. At low temperatures, the effect levels off. Extreme halophilic malate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium marismortui exhibits a similar anomaly. Increasing salt concentration (NaCl) leads to an optimum curve for Km, oxaloacctate while Km, NADH remains constant. Previous claims that the activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase shows a maximum at 1.25 M NaCl are caused by limiting substrate concentration; at substrate saturation, specific activity of halophilic malate dehydrogenase reaches a constant value at ionic strengths I greater than or equal to 1 M. Non-halophilic (mitochondrial) malate dehydrogenase shows Km characteristics similar to those observed for the halophilic enzyme. The drastic decrease in specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme at elevated salt concentrations is caused by the salt-induced increase in rigidity of the enzyme, rather than gross structural changes.

  18. Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Comasco, E; Hellgren, C; Kollia, N; Sundström Poromaa, I; Skalkidou, A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene and neuroticism, as well as the possible mediatory role of neuroticism in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depressive symptoms. 769 women received questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum and demographic data at pregnancy week 17 and 32 and at six weeks postpartum, as well as the Swedish universities Scales of Personality at pregnancy week 32. Linear regression models showed an association between the GG genotype and depressive symptoms. When neuroticism was introduced in the model, it was associated with EPDS score, whereas the association between the GG genotype and EPDS became borderline significant. A path analysis showed that neuroticism had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and EPDS score. The use of the EPDS, which is a self-reporting instrument. Neuroticism was associated with the polymorphism and had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depression. This finding elucidates the genetic background of neuroticism and postpartum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency ... of this enzyme. Because fluoropyrimidine drugs are also broken down by the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme, deficiency of ...

  20. Effects of cyanamide and clofibrate on the enzymes of ethanol oxydation and on ethanol consumption in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboeuf, Y; De Saint Blanquat, G

    1980-01-01

    The action of cyanamide and of clofibrate was studied on the voluntary drinking behaviour of alcohol intoxicated animals and also on the enzymes of ethyl oxydation. Both substances reduce alcohol consumption by about 35% and cause metabolic modifications: inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and of catalase by cyanamide; activation of alcohol- and aldehyde-dehydrogenases by clofibrate. These effects are constantly found in most of the tissues of the rat. The results are discussed bearing in mind the relationships between alcohol metabolism, acetaldehyde metabolism, the toxicity of alcohol and the drinking behaviour.

  1. Glutamate dehydrogenase affects resistance to cell wall antibiotics in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Heon; Kingston, Anthony W; Helmann, John D

    2012-03-01

    The glutamate dehydrogenase RocG of Bacillus subtilis is a bifunctional protein with both enzymatic and regulatory functions. Here we show that the rocG null mutant is sensitive to β-lactams, including cefuroxime (CEF), and to fosfomycin but that resistant mutants arise due to gain-of-function mutations in gudB, which encodes an otherwise inactive glutamate dehydrogenase. In the presence of CEF, ΔrocG ΔgudB mutant cells exhibit growth arrest when they reach mid-exponential phase. Using microarray-based transcriptional profiling, we found that the σ(W) regulon was downregulated in the ΔrocG ΔgudB null mutant. A survey of σ(W)-controlled genes for effects on CEF resistance identified both the NfeD protein YuaF and the flotillin homologue YuaG (FloT). Notably, overexpression of yuaFG in the rocG null mutant prevents the growth arrest induced by CEF. The YuaG flotillin has been shown previously to localize to defined lipid microdomains, and we show here that the yuaFGI operon contributes to a σ(W)-dependent decrease in membrane fluidity. We conclude that glutamate dehydrogenase activity affects the expression of the σ(W) regulon, by pathways that are yet unclear, and thereby influences resistance to CEF and other antibiotics.

  2. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanavin Oivind J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. Methods We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history of seizures, who was found to excrete increased amounts of 2-methylbutyryl glycine in the urine. The SBCAD gene was examined with sequence analysis. His development was assessed with psychometric testing before and after a trial with low protein diet. Results We found homozygosity for A > G changing the +3 position of intron 3 (c.303+3A > G in the SBCAD gene. Psychometric testing showed moderate mental retardation and behavioral scores within the autistic spectrum. No beneficial effect was detected after 5 months with a low protein diet. Conclusion This mutation was also found in two previously reported cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD.

  3. A multiple mediator analysis approach to quantify the effects of the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes on hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Stephannie; Huang, Yen-Tsung; Yang, Hwai-I

    2018-06-01

    Previous work suggested a genetic component affecting the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mediation analyses have elucidated potential indirect pathways of these genetic effects. Specifically, the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) genes on HCC risk vary based on alcohol consumption habits. However, alcohol consumption may not be the only mediator in the identified pathway: factors related to alcohol consumption may contribute to the same indirect pathway. Thus, we developed a multimediator model to quantify the genetic effects on HCC risk through sequential dichotomous mediators under the counterfactual framework. Our method provided a closed form formula for the mediation effects through different indirect paths, which requires no assumption for the rarity of outcome. In simulation studies of a finite sample, we presented the utility of the method with the variance of the effects estimated using the delta method and bootstrapping. We applied our method to data from participants in Taiwan (580 cases and 3,207 controls) and quantified the mediation effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes on HCC through alcohol consumption (yes/no) and high alanine transaminase (ALT) levels (greater than or equal to 45 U/L or below 45 U/L). Assuming a dominant risk model, we identified that the SNPs' effects through alcohol consumption is more significant than through ALT levels on HCC risk. This new method provides insight to the magnitude of various casual mechanisms as a closed form solution and can be readily applied in other genomic studies. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Formation and accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes during red wine oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mónica; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Carrascón, Vanesa; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Escudero, Ana; Ferreira, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde) during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L-1) and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L-1, respectively). Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (wines) hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines) accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs) which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity towards ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity towards ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some quinones derived from catechin. All this

  5. Formation and Accumulation of Acetaldehyde and Strecker Aldehydes during Red Wine Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bueno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present work is to study the accumulation of acetaldehyde and Strecker aldehydes (isobutyraldehyde, 2-methylbutanal, isovaleraldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde during the oxidation of red wines, and to relate the patterns of accumulation to the wine chemical composition. For that, eight different wines, extensively chemically characterized, were subjected at 25°C to three different controlled O2 exposure conditions: low (10 mg L−1 and medium or high (the stoichiometrically required amount to oxidize all wine total SO2 plus 18 or 32 mg L−1, respectively. Levels of volatile aldehydes and carbonyls were then determined and processed by different statistical techniques. Results showed that young wines (<2 years-old bottled wines hardly accumulate any acetaldehyde regardless of the O2 consumed. In contrast, aged wines (>3 years-old bottled wines accumulated acetaldehyde while their content in SO2 was not null, and the aged wine containing lowest polyphenols accumulated it throughout the whole process. Models suggest that the ability of a wine to accumulate acetaldehyde is positively related to its content in combined SO2, in epigallocatechin and to the mean degree of polymerization, and negatively to its content in Aldehyde Reactive Polyphenols (ARPs which, attending to our models, are anthocyanins and small tannins. The accumulation of Strecker aldehydes is directly proportional to the wine content in the amino acid precursor, being the proportionality factor much higher for aged wines, except for phenylacetaldehyde, for which the opposite pattern was observed. Models suggest that non-aromatic Strecker aldehydes share with acetaldehyde a strong affinity toward ARPs and that the specific pattern of phenylacetaldehyde is likely due to a much reduced reactivity toward ARPs, to the possibility that diacetyl induces Strecker degradation of phenyl alanine and to the potential higher reactivity of this amino acid to some

  6. Biochemical and genetic characterization of three molybdenum cofactor hydroxylases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Tine; Frandsen, Gitte Inselmann; Rocher, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases and xanthine dehydrogenases/oxidases belong to the molybdenum cofactor dependent hydroxylase class of enzymes. Zymograms show that Arabidopsis thaliana has at least three different aldehyde oxidases and one xanthine oxidase. Three different cDNA clones encoding putative aldehyde...... oxidases (AtAO1, 2, 3) were isolated. An aldehyde oxidase is the last step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. AtAO1 is mainly expressed in seeds and roots which might reflect that it is involved in ABA biosynthesis....

  7. Sorbitol dehydrogenase of Aspergillus niger, SdhA, is part of the oxido-reductive D-galactose pathway and essential for D-sorbitol catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivistoinen, Outi M; Richard, Peter; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura; Mojzita, Dominik

    2012-02-17

    In filamentous fungi D-galactose can be catabolised through the oxido-reductive and/or the Leloir pathway. In the oxido-reductive pathway D-galactose is converted to d-fructose in a series of steps where the last step is the oxidation of d-sorbitol by an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. We identified a sorbitol dehydrogenase gene, sdhA (JGI53356), in Aspergillus niger encoding a medium chain dehydrogenase which is involved in D-galactose and D-sorbitol catabolism. The gene is upregulated in the presence of D-galactose, galactitol and D-sorbitol. An sdhA deletion strain showed reduced growth on galactitol and growth on D-sorbitol was completely abolished. The purified enzyme converted D-sorbitol to D-fructose with K(m) of 50±5 mM and v(max) of 80±10 U/mg. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cloning and molecular characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gene and cDNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, M D; Rikkerink, E H; Solon, S L; Crowhurst, R N

    1992-12-01

    The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpdA) has been identified from a genomic DNA library prepared from the plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata. Nucleotide sequence data revealed that this gene codes for a putative 338-amino-acid protein encoded by two exons of 129 and 885 bp, separated by an intron 216 bp long. The 5' leader sequence is also spliced by an intron of 156 bp. A cDNA clone was prepared using the polymerase chain reaction, the sequence of which was used to confirm the presence of the intron in the coding sequence and the splicing of the 5' leader sequence. The transcriptional start point (tsp) was mapped at -253 nt from the site of the initiation of translation by primer extension and is adjacent to a 42-bp pyrimidine-rich region. The general structure of the 5' flanking region shows similarities to gpdA from Aspergillus nidulans. The putative protein product is 71-86% identical at the aa level to GPDs from Aspergillus nidulans, Cryphonectria parasitica, Curvularia lunata, Podospora anserina and Ustilago maydis.

  9. Performance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Triose Phosphate Isomerase Genes in the Analysis of Genotypic Variability of Isolates of Giardia duodenalis from Livestocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Natália M. N.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Scalia, Luana A. M.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Pena, Isabella F.; Vieira, Carlos U.; Faria, Elaine S. M.; Cunha, Maria J.; Couto, Talles R.; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal protozoan parasite of several terrestrial vertebrates. This work aims to assess the genotypic variability of Giardia duodenalis isolates from cattle, sheep and pigs in the Southeast of Brazil, by comparing the standard characterization between glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) primers. Fecal samples from the three groups of animals were analyzed using the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique. Out of 59 positive samples, 30 were from cattle, 26 from sheep and 3 from pigs. Cyst pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers. Fragment amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 25 (42.4%) and 36 (61.0%) samples, respectively. Regarding the sequencing, 24 sequences were obtained with gdh and 20 with tpi. For both genes, there was a prevalence of E specific species assemblage, although some isolates have been identified as A and B, by the tpi sequencing. This has also shown a larger number of heterogeneous sequences, which have been attribute to mixed infections between assemblages B and E. The largest variability of inter-assemblage associated to the frequency of heterogeneity provided by tpi sequencing reinforces the polymorphic nature of this gene and makes it an excellent target for studies on molecular epidemiology. PMID:24308010

  10. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the 32 P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation

  11. RDH13L, an enzyme responsible for the aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction (AL-OL coupling reaction) to supply 11-cis retinal in the carp cone retinoid cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-01-30

    Cone photoreceptors require effective pigment regeneration mechanisms to maintain their sensitivity in the light. Our previous studies in carp cones suggested the presence of an unconventional and very effective mechanism to produce 11-cis retinal, the necessary component in pigment regeneration. In this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction, AL-OL coupling reaction), formation of 11-cis retinal, i.e. oxidation of 11-cis retinol is coupled to reduction of an aldehyde at a 1:1 molar ratio without exogenous NADP(H) which is usually required in this kind of reaction. Here, we identified carp retinol dehydrogenase 13-like (RDH13L) as an enzyme catalyzing the AL-OL coupling reaction. RDH13L was partially purified from purified carp cones, identified as a candidate protein, and its AL-OL coupling activity was confirmed using recombinant RDH13L. We further examined the substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and expression level of RDH13L. Based on these results, we concluded that RDH13L contributes to a significant part, but not all, of the AL-OL coupling activity in carp cones. RDH13L contained tightly bound NADP(+) which presumably functions as a cofactor in the reaction. Mouse RDH14, a mouse homolog of carp RDH13L, also showed the AL-OL coupling activity. Interestingly, although carp cone membranes, carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 all showed the coupling activity at 15-37 °C, they also showed a conventional NADP(+)-dependent 11-cis retinol oxidation activity above 25 °C without addition of aldehydes. This dual mechanism of 11-cis retinal synthesis attained by carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 probably contribute to effective pigment regeneration in cones that function in the light. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Expression Pattern of Two Paralogs Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and Characterization of the Corresponding Mutants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cβ. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units. PMID:12805615

  13. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  14. Heterologous expression of Spathaspora passalidarum xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase genes improved xylose fermentation ability of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Huang, Siyao; Chen, Yefu; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2018-04-30

    Aureobasidium pullulans is a yeast-like fungus that can ferment xylose to generate high-value-added products, such as pullulan, heavy oil, and melanin. The combinatorial expression of two xylose reductase (XR) genes and two xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Spathaspora passalidarum and the heterologous expression of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (XI) gene were induced in A. pullulans to increase the consumption capability of A. pullulans on xylose. The overexpression of XYL1.2 (encoding XR) and XYL2.2 (encoding XDH) was the most beneficial for xylose utilization, resulting in a 17.76% increase in consumed xylose compared with the parent strain, whereas the introduction of the Piromyces sp. XI pathway failed to enhance xylose utilization efficiency. Mutants with superior xylose fermentation performance exhibited increased intracellular reducing equivalents. The fermentation performance of all recombinant strains was not affected when glucose or sucrose was utilized as the carbon source. The strain with overexpression of XYL1.2 and XYL2.2 exhibited excellent fermentation performance with mimicked hydrolysate, and pullulan production increased by 97.72% compared with that of the parent strain. The present work indicates that the P4 mutant (using the XR/XDH pathway) with overexpressed XYL1.2 and XYL2.2 exhibited the best xylose fermentation performance. The P4 strain showed the highest intracellular reducing equivalents and XR and XDH activity, with consequently improved pullulan productivity and reduced melanin production. This valuable development in aerobic fermentation by the P4 strain may provide guidance for the biotransformation of xylose to high-value products by A. pullulans through genetic approach.

  15. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  16. An Efficient Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles via Photocatalytic Condensation of o-Phenylenediamines and Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovvuri, Jeshma; Nagaraju, Burri; Kamal, Ahmed; Srivastava, Ajay K

    2016-10-10

    A photocatalytic method has been developed for the efficient synthesis of functionalized benzimidazoles. This protocol involves photocatalytic condensation of o-phenylenediamines with various aldehydes using the Rose Bengal as photocatalyst. The method was found to be general and was successfully employed for accessing pharmaceutically important benzimidazoles by the condensation of aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines, in good-to-excellent yields. Notably, the method was found to be effective for the condensation of less reactive heterocyclic aldehydes with o-phenylenediamines.

  17. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Hansen, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate drinkers compared with abstainers. Results from some previous studies, but not all, suggest that this association is modified by variations in genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). We aimed to test this hypothesis......, including alcohol as both the amount of alcohol and the frequency of drinking. Methods: we conducted a nested case-cohort study within the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study, including 1,645 men (770 incident cases of acute coronary syndrome from 1993-1997 through 2004 and 875 randomly selected controls......). Results: Higher alcohol intake (measured as amount or drinking frequency) was associated with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes. Conclusions: The importance of functional variation in alcohol dehydrogenase...

  18. The Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium sp. Strain NJ4, a Bacterium Capable of Producing Butanol from Inulin Through Consolidated Bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yujia; Lu, Jiasheng; Chen, Tianpeng; Yan, Wei; Dong, Weiliang; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenming; Ma, Jiangfeng; Jiang, Min; Xin, Fengxue

    2018-05-23

    A novel butanogenic Clostridium sp. NJ4 was successfully isolated and characterized, which could directly produce relatively high titer of butanol from inulin through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). The assembled draft genome of strain NJ4 is 4.09 Mp, containing 3891 encoded protein sequences with G+C content of 30.73%. Among these annotated genes, a levanase, a hypothetical inulinase, and two bifunctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases (AdhE) were found to play key roles in the achievement of ABE production from inulin through CBP.

  19. Preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles and isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, hydrazines, and hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Ryo; Moriyama, Katsuhiko; Togo, Hideo

    2014-03-07

    The reaction of terminal alkynes with n-BuLi, and then with aldehydes, followed by the treatment with molecular iodine, and subsequently hydrazines or hydroxylamine provided the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles or isoxazoles in good yields with high regioselectivity, through the formations of propargyl secondary alkoxides and α-alkynyl ketones. The present reactions are one-pot preparation of 3,5-disubstituted pyrazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydrazines, and 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles from terminal alkynes, aldehydes, molecular iodine, and hydroxylamine.

  20. Mechanism of catalytic action of oxide systems in reactions of aldehyde oxidation to carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrushkevich, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanism of selective action of oxide catalysts (on the base of V 2 O 4 , MoO 3 ) of aldehyde oxidation to acids is considered, reaction acrolein oxidation to acrylic acid is taken as an example. Multistage mechanism of the process is established; it involves consequent transformation of coordination-bonded aldehyde into carbonyl-bonded aldehyde and symmetric carboxylate. Principles of active surface construction are formulated, they take into account the activity of stabilization center of concrete intermediate compound and bond energy of oxygen with surface. (author)

  1. Study on physico-chemical properties of dialdehyde yam starch with different aldehyde group contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liming; Liu, Peng; Wang, Yugao; Gao, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Dialdehyde yam starches (DASs) are prepared and characterized. Compared with native starch, viscosity average molecular weight of DASs decreases, and the extent of degradation depends on content of the aldehyde groups. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra confirm that the characteristic peak for C=O group at 1732 cm -1 is enhanced with the increasing of content of the aldehyde groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs show that the surface of starch granules becomes wrinkled. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate that their crystallinity decreases with the increasing content of the aldehyde groups before they become amorphous at higher oxidation states. The experimental results of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) show that DASs have poor stability as compared to native starch. With the increase in content of the aldehyde groups, the thermal stability of DAS declines gradually. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), gelatinization temperature (T o and T p ) of DASs are increased, whereas the gelatinization enthalpy decreased.

  2. Partial Reduction of Esters to Aldehydes Using a Novel Modified Red-Al Reducing Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Won Kyu; Kang, Daehoon; An, Duk Keun [Kangwon National Univ., Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a convenient alternative method for the synthesis of aldehydes from both aromatic and aliphatic esters in very good to excellent yields in the absence of any additives using a modified Red-Al that was easily prepared by reacting commercially available Red-Al with cis-2,6-dimethyl morpholine. The advantages of the present methodology are as follows: simple preparation procedure of the reducing agent, improved product yields, convenient reaction temperature, and short reaction times. Therefore, the new reagent has great potential to be a useful alternative partial reducing agent for the synthesis of aldehydes from esters in organic synthesis. Aldehydes are valuable building blocks and reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. The general and classical syntheses of aldehydes from esters involve reduction-oxidation and partial reduction using efficient partial reducing agents. Obviously, one-step partial reduction methods are more useful than two-step reduction-oxidation methods owing to their simplicity, and generality in organic synthesis.

  3. Genetic Transformation of Artemisia carvifolia Buch with rol Genes Enhances Artemisinin Accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Dilshad

    Full Text Available The potent antimalarial drug artemisinin has a high cost, since its only viable source to date is Artemisia annua (0.01-0.8% DW. There is therefore an urgent need to design new strategies to increase its production or to find alternative sources. In the current study, Artemisia carvifolia Buch was selected with the aim of detecting artemisinin and then enhancing the production of the target compound and its derivatives. These metabolites were determined by LC-MS in the shoots of A. carvifolia wild type plants at the following concentrations: artemisinin (8μg/g, artesunate (2.24μg/g, dihydroartemisinin (13.6μg/g and artemether (12.8μg/g. Genetic transformation of A. carvifolia was carried out with Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 harboring the rol B and rol C genes. Artemisinin content increased 3-7-fold in transgenics bearing the rol B gene, and 2.3-6-fold in those with the rol C gene. A similar pattern was observed for artemisinin analogues. The dynamics of artemisinin content in transgenics and wild type A.carvifolia was also correlated with the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. Real time qPCR analysis revealed the differential expression of genes involved in artemisinin biosynthesis, i.e. those encoding amorpha-4, 11 diene synthase (ADS, cytochrome P450 (CYP71AV1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1, with a relatively higher transcript level found in transgenics than in the wild type plant. Also, the gene related to trichome development and sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis (TFAR1 showed an altered expression in the transgenics compared to wild type A.carvifolia, which was in accordance with the trichome density of the respective plants. The trichome index was significantly higher in the rol B and rol C gene-expressing transgenics with an increased production of artemisinin, thereby demonstrating that the rol genes are effective inducers of plant secondary metabolism.

  4. Expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and their putative homologues during Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development: lessons for database annotations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kye-Won; Cho, Man-Ho; Franceschi, Vincent R; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-07-01

    A major goal currently in Arabidopsis research is determination of the (biochemical) function of each of its approximately 27,000 genes. To date, however, 12% of its genes actually have known biochemical roles. In this study, we considered it instructive to identify the gene expression patterns of nine (so-called AtCAD1-9) of 17 genes originally annotated by The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) homologues [see Costa, M.A., Collins, R.E., Anterola, A.M., Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis N.G., 2003. An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.]. In agreement with our biochemical studies in vitro [Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G.A., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C.-H., Lewis, N.G., 2004. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.], and analysis of a double mutant [Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin A., 2005. Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17, 2059-2076.], both AtCAD5 (At4g34230) and AtCAD4 (At3g19450) were found to have expression patterns consistent with development/formation of different forms of the lignified vascular apparatus, e.g. lignifying stem tissues, bases of trichomes, hydathodes, abscission zones of siliques, etc. Expression was also observed in various non-lignifying zones (e.g. root caps) indicative of, perhaps, a role in plant defense. In addition, expression patterns of the four CAD-like homologues were investigated, i.e. AtCAD2 (At2g21730), AtCAD3 (At2g21890), AtCAD7 (At4g37980) and AtCAD8 (At4g37990), each of which previously had been demonstrated to have low CAD

  5. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by the farnesoid X receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkur, Rajesh S.; Bramlett, Kelli S.; Michael, Laura F.; Burris, Thomas P.

    2005-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) functions as an important junction in intermediary metabolism by influencing the utilization of fat versus carbohydrate as a source of fuel. Activation of PDC is achieved by phosphatases, whereas, inactivation is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). The expression of PDK4 is highly regulated by the glucocorticoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. We demonstrate that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), which regulates a variety of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, also regulates the expression of PDK4. Treatment of rat hepatoma cells as well as human primary hepatocytes with FXR agonists stimulates the expression of PDK4 to levels comparable to those obtained with glucocorticoids. In addition, treatment of mice with an FXR agonist significantly increased hepatic PDK4 expression, while concomitantly decreasing plasma triglyceride levels. Thus, activation of FXR may suppress glycolysis and enhance oxidation of fatty acids via inactivation of the PDC by increasing PDK4 expression

  7. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Blakemore, A I

    1991-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency. The RFLPs were detected after digestion of patient DNA with the enzymes BanII. PstI and TaqI and with an MCAD cDNA-clone as a probe....... Of 32 disease-causing alleles studied, 31 possessed the previously published A----G point-mutation at position 985 of the cDNA. This mutation has been shown to result in inactivity of the MCAD enzyme. In at least 30 of the 31 alleles carrying this G985 mutation a specific RFLP haplotype was present...

  8. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M

    2009-01-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...

  9. Size-Selective Oxidation of Aldehydes with Zeolite Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane; Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies that the a......Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies...... that the active Au is accessible only through the zeolite micropores....

  10. Semi-catalytic reduction of secondary amides to imines and aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Nikonov, Georgii I

    2014-06-21

    Secondary amides can be reduced by silane HSiMe2Ph into imines and aldehydes by a two-stage process involving prior conversion of amides into iminoyl chlorides followed by catalytic reduction mediated by the ruthenium complex [Cp(i-Pr3P)Ru(NCCH3)2]PF6 (1). Alkyl and aryl amides bearing halogen, ketone, and ester groups were converted with moderate to good yields under mild reaction conditions to the corresponding imines and aldehydes. This procedure does not work for substrates bearing the nitro-group and fails for heteroaromatic amides. In the case of cyano substituted amides, the cyano group is reduced to imine.

  11. The domain-specific and temperature-dependent protein misfolding phenotype of variant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jank, Johanna M.; Maier, Esther M.; Reiβ, Dunja D.; Haslbeck, Martin; Kemter, Kristina F.; Truger, Marietta S.; Sommerhoff, Christian P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J.; Gersting, Søren W.; Muntau, Ania C.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of expanded newborn screening programs reduced mortality and morbidity in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. However, the disease is still potentially fatal. Missense induced MCADD is a protein misfolding disease with a

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the gene encoding proline dehydrogenase from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Ao, Pingxing; Yang, Shuanglong; Zou, Zhurong; Wang, Shasha; Gong, Ming

    2015-03-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) (EC 1.5.99.8) is a key enzyme in the catabolism of proline. The enzyme JcProDH and its complementary DNA (cDNA) were isolated from Jatropha curcas L., an important woody oil plant used as a raw material for biodiesels. It has been classified as a member of the Pro_dh superfamily based on multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic characterization, and its role in proline catabolism. Its cDNA is 1674 bp in length with a complete open reading frame of 1485 bp, which encodes a polypeptide chain of 494 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 54 kD and a pI of 8.27. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that JcProDH showed high similarity with ProDH from other plants. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that JcProDH was especially abundant in the seeds and flowers but scarcely present in the stems, roots, and leaves. In addition, the expression of JcProDH increased in leaves experiencing environmental stress such as cold (5 °C), heat (42 °C), salt (300 mM), and drought (30 % PEG6000). The JcProDH protein was successfully expressed in the yeast strain INVSc1 and showed high enzyme activity in proline catabolism. This result confirmed that the JcProDH gene negatively participated in the stress response.

  13. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regulation Mechanism of the ald Gene Encoding Alanine Dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the Lrp/AsnC Family Regulator AldR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ji-A; Hyun, Jaekyung; Oh, Jeong-Il

    2015-10-01

    In the presence of alanine, AldR, which belongs to the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators and regulates ald encoding alanine dehydrogenase in Mycobacterium smegmatis, changes its quaternary structure from a homodimer to an octamer with an open-ring conformation. Four AldR-binding sites (O2, O1, O4, and O3) with a consensus sequence of GA/T-N2-NWW/WWN-N2-A/TC were identified upstream of the M. smegmatis ald gene by means of DNase I footprinting analysis. O2, O1, and O4 are required for the induction of ald expression by alanine, while O3 is directly involved in the repression of ald expression. In addition to O3, both O1 and O4 are also necessary for full repression of ald expression in the absence of alanine, due to cooperative binding of AldR dimers to O1, O4, and O3. Binding of a molecule of the AldR octamer to the ald control region was demonstrated to require two AldR-binding sites separated by three helical turns between their centers and one additional binding site that is in phase with the two AldR-binding sites. The cooperative binding of AldR dimers to DNA requires three AldR-binding sites that are aligned with a periodicity of three helical turns. The aldR gene is negatively autoregulated independently of alanine. Comparative analysis of ald expression of M. smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in conjunction with sequence analysis of both ald control regions led us to suggest that the expression of the ald genes in both mycobacterial species is regulated by the same mechanism. In mycobacteria, alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) is the enzyme required both to utilize alanine as a nitrogen source and to grow under hypoxic conditions by maintaining the redox state of the NADH/NAD(+) pool. Expression of the ald gene was reported to be regulated by the AldR regulator that belongs to the Lrp/AsnC (feast/famine) family, but the underlying mechanism was unknown. This study revealed the regulation mechanism of ald in Mycobacterium smegmatis and

  15. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232 is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(OOONO2 formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3–8, the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  16. Role of aldehyde chemistry and NOx concentrations in secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A. W. H.; Chan, M. N.; Surratt, J. D.; Chhabra, P. S.; Loza, C. L.; Crounse, J. D.; Yee, L. D.; Flagan, R. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are an important class of products from atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly emitted atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon, produces a significant amount of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via methacrolein (a C4-unsaturated aldehyde) under urban high-NOx conditions. Previously, we have identified peroxy methacryloyl nitrate (MPAN) as the important intermediate to isoprene and methacrolein SOA in this NOx regime. Here we show that as a result of this chemistry, NO2 enhances SOA formation from methacrolein and two other α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, specifically acrolein and crotonaldehyde, a NOx effect on SOA formation previously unrecognized. Oligoesters of dihydroxycarboxylic acids and hydroxynitrooxycarboxylic acids are observed to increase with increasing NO2/NO ratio, and previous characterizations are confirmed by both online and offline high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques. Molecular structure also determines the amount of SOA formation, as the SOA mass yields are the highest for aldehydes that are α, β-unsaturated and contain an additional methyl group on the α-carbon. Aerosol formation from 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO232) is insignificant, even under high-NO2 conditions, as PAN (peroxy acyl nitrate, RC(O)OONO2) formation is structurally unfavorable. At atmospherically relevant NO2/NO ratios (3-8), the SOA yields from isoprene high-NOx photooxidation are 3 times greater than previously measured at lower NO2/NO ratios. At sufficiently high NO2 concentrations, in systems of α, β-unsaturated aldehydes, SOA formation from subsequent oxidation of products from acyl peroxyl radicals+NO2 can exceed that from RO2+HO2 reactions under the same inorganic seed conditions, making RO2+NO2 an important channel for SOA formation.

  17. Urban and rural ambient air aldehyde levels in Schenectady, New York and on Whiteface Mountain, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulam, P; Newbold, R; Hull, L A

    1985-01-01

    The air in the city of Schenectady, NY was sampled daily and analyzed for the presence of low molecular weight aldehydes during the months of June-August 1983. The diurnal variation of the aldehyde concentrations was also determined over a two day period during August. The dominant aldehyde was formaldehyde and its concentration varied from about 1-31 ppb. There was also observed a significant daily variation that appeared to correlate with traffic conditions. The technique was also used to monitor the aldehyde levels on the summit of Whiteface Mountain in Wilmington, NY at the SUNYA Atmospheric Sciences Research Center. The monitoring was done on a daily basis during the week of 14-20 August and, during that week, every 3 h for a 3-day period. The two dominant aldehydes were formaldehyde and acetaldehyde and they varied in concentration from about 0.8-2.6 and 0.2-0.8 ppb, respectively.

  18. Comparative genetics of alcoholism in the Kenyan populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase are major enzymes in the metabolism of exogenous ethanol. These enzymes are polymorphic and are involved in alcohol drinking and risk of alcoholism in some world populations. Three hundred and seventy one samples of hair root lyzates from five Kenyan ...

  19. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.; Morandi, Bill; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  20. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.

    2013-09-13

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  1. Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP + , but also with NAD + . The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP + and NAD + are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed

  2. MOLECULAR MODELLING OF HUMAN ALDEHYDE OXIDASE AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE KEY INTERACTIONS IN THE ENZYME-SUBSTRATE COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavoush Dastmalchi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde oxidase (EC 1.2.3.1, a cytosolic enzyme containing FAD, molybdenum and iron-sulphur cluster, is a member of non-cytochrome P-450 enzymes called molybdenum hydroxylases which is involved in the metabolism of a wide range of endogenous compounds and many drug substances. Drug metabolism is one of the important characteristics which influences many aspects of a therapeutic agent such as routes of administration, drug interaction and toxicity and therefore, characterisation of the key interactions between enzymes and substrates is very important from drug development point of view. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional model of human aldehyde oxidase (AO in order to assist us to identify the mode of interaction between enzyme and a set of phethalazine/quinazoline derivatives. Both sequence-based (BLAST and inverse protein fold recognition methods (THREADER were used to identify the crystal structure of bovine xanthine dehydrogenase (pdb code of 1FO4 as the suitable template for comparative modelling of human AO. Model structure was generated by aligning and then threading the sequence of human AO onto the template structure, incorporating the associated cofactors, and molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization using GROMACS program. Different criteria which were measured by the PROCHECK, QPACK, VERIFY-3D were indicative of a proper fold for the predicted structural model of human AO. For example, 97.9 percentages of phi and psi angles were in the favoured and most favoured regions in the ramachandran plot, and all residues in the model are assigned environmentally positive compatibility scores. Further evaluation on the model quality was performed by investigation of AO-mediated oxidation of a set of phthalazine/quinazoline derivatives to develop QSAR model capable of describing the extent of the oxidation. Substrates were aligned by docking onto the active site of the enzyme using GOLD technology and then

  3. Nephelauxetic and hypersensitive nature of neodymium(III) complexes with α-pyridyl-thiosemicarbazide and its furfural-2-aldehyde and thiophene-2-aldehyde derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, C.L.; Mundley, P.N.; Khandelwal, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    A new series of octahedral Nd(III) complexes with recently synthesised α-pyridylthiosemicarbazide (C 6 H 8 N 4 S or 'PT'), N-(α-pyridyl)furfural-2-aldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (C 11 H 10 N 4 SO or 'PFT') and N-(α-pyridyl)thiophene-2-aldehyde-thiosemicarbazone (C 11 H 10 N 4 S 2 or 'PTT'), have been isolated and characterised on the basis of their elemental analysis, magnetic and reflectance and ir spectral data revealing 'PT' as bidentate (pyridinic-N and thioketo-S) and 'PFT' and 'PTT' as tetradentate with pyridinic-N, thioketo-S, imine-N and furfuryl-O/thiophenyl-S as donor sites. Isolation and characterisation of Nd(III) complexes with 'PT', 'PFT' and 'PTT' and their nephelauxetic and hypersensitive nature are studied in order to evaluate the stereochemistry of the ligands around Nd(III) ion. (author). 12 refs., 2 tables

  4. Genotoxic consequences of endogenous aldehydes on mouse haematopoietic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaycoechea, Juan I; Crossan, Gerry P; Langevin, Frederic; Daly, Maria; Arends, Mark J; Patel, Ketan J

    2012-09-27

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate blood cells throughout the lifespan of an organism. With age, the functional quality of HSCs declines, partly owing to the accumulation of damaged DNA. However, the factors that damage DNA and the protective mechanisms that operate in these cells are poorly understood. We have recently shown that the Fanconi anaemia DNA-repair pathway counteracts the genotoxic effects of reactive aldehydes. Mice with combined inactivation of aldehyde catabolism (through Aldh2 knockout) and the Fanconi anaemia DNA-repair pathway (Fancd2 knockout) display developmental defects, a predisposition to leukaemia, and are susceptible to the toxic effects of ethanol-an exogenous source of acetaldehyde. Here we report that aged Aldh2(-/-) Fancd2(-/-) mutant mice that do not develop leukaemia spontaneously develop aplastic anaemia, with the concomitant accumulation of damaged DNA within the haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) pool. Unexpectedly, we find that only HSPCs, and not more mature blood precursors, require Aldh2 for protection against acetaldehyde toxicity. Additionally, the aldehyde-oxidizing activity of HSPCs, as measured by Aldefluor stain, is due to Aldh2 and correlates with this protection. Finally, there is more than a 600-fold reduction in the HSC pool of mice deficient in both Fanconi anaemia pathway-mediated DNA repair and acetaldehyde detoxification. Therefore, the emergence of bone marrow failure in Fanconi anaemia is probably due to aldehyde-mediated genotoxicity restricted to the HSPC pool. These findings identify a new link between endogenous reactive metabolites and DNA damage in HSCs, and define the protective mechanisms that counteract this threat.

  5. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  6. Quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld (Cg1027 is essential for growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on D-lactate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oikawa Tadao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium glutamicum is able to grow with lactate as sole or combined carbon and energy source. Quinone-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase LldD is known to be essential for utilization of L-lactate by C. glutamicum. D-lactate also serves as sole carbon source for C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Results Here, the gene cg1027 was shown to encode the quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld by enzymatic analysis of the protein purified from recombinant E. coli. The absorption spectrum of purified Dld indicated the presence of FAD as bound cofactor. Inactivation of dld resulted in the loss of the ability to grow with D-lactate, which could be restored by plasmid-borne expression of dld. Heterologous expression of dld from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 in C. efficiens enabled this species to grow with D-lactate as sole carbon source. Homologs of dld of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 are not encoded in the sequenced genomes of other corynebacteria and mycobacteria. However, the dld locus of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 shares 2367 bp of 2372 bp identical nucleotides with the dld locus of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii, a bacterium used in Swiss-type cheese making. Both loci are flanked by insertion sequences of the same family suggesting a possible event of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions Cg1067 encodes quinone-dependent D-lactate dehydrogenase Dld of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Dld is essential for growth with D-lactate as sole carbon source. The genomic region of dld likely has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  7. Origin of low-molecular mass aldehydes as disinfection by-products in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    A novel, simple and automatic method based on static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed to determine 10 low-molecular mass aldehydes that can be found in beverages, coming from the treated water used in their production. These aldehydes are the most frequently found in treated water as water disinfection by-products, so they can be used as indicators of the addition of treated water to beverages. The study covered a large number of fruit juices and soft drinks. The presence of the whole array of analytes is related to the contact with treated water during beverage production, mainly by the addition of treated water as ingredient. In particular, propionaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzaldehyde can be used as indicators of the addition of treated water in these kinds of beverages. Among the ten aldehydes, only formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are naturally present in all kinds of fruit, and their concentrations are related to stage of the ripening of the fruit.

  8. A catalytic reactor for the organocatalyzed enantioselective continuous flow alkylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Riccardo; Benaglia, Maurizio; Puglisi, Alessandra; Mandoli, Alessandro; Gualandi, Andrea; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    The use of immobilized metal-free catalysts offers the unique possibility to develop sustainable processes in flow mode. The challenging intermolecular organocatalyzed enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes was performed for the first time under continuous flow conditions. By using a packed-bed reactor filled with readily available supported enantiopure imidazolidinone, different aldehydes were treated with three distinct cationic electrophiles. In the organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate, excellent enantioselectivities, in some cases even better than those obtained in the flask process (up to 95% ee at 25 °C), and high productivity (more than 3800 h(-1) ) were obtained, which thus shows that a catalytic reactor may continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds. Treatment of the alkylated products with Raney-nickel furnished enantiomerically enriched α-methyl derivatives, key intermediates for active pharmaceutical ingredients and natural products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Effect of Elaeagnus Conferta Roxb (Elaeagnaceae) Dry Fruit on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and on the activities of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase in the mice was then investigated. ... decreased by 21.2 % in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg ECR. ... osteoporosis [6] and others. Several .... Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing, .... Neiman J . Alcohol as a risk factor for brain damage:.

  10. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  11. Olfactory sensitivity for sperm-attractant aromatic aldehydes: a comparative study in human subjects and spider monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Luna; Salazar, Laura Teresa Hernandez; Laska, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-alternative forced-choice ascending staircase procedure, we determined olfactory detection thresholds in 20 human subjects for seven aromatic aldehydes and compared them to those of four spider monkeys tested in parallel using an operant conditioning paradigm. With all seven odorants, both species detected concentrations lyral, and 3-phenylpropanal. No significant correlation between presence/absence of an oxygen-containing moiety attached to the benzene ring or presence/absence of an additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group, and olfactory sensitivity was found in any of the species. However, the presence of a tertiary butyl group in para position (relative to the functional aldehyde group) combined with a lack of an additional alkyl group next to the functional aldehyde group may be responsible for the finding that both species were most sensitive to bourgeonal.

  12. The TyrA family of aromatic-pathway dehydrogenases in phylogenetic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolinsky Murray

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TyrA protein family includes members that catalyze two dehydrogenase reactions in distinct pathways leading to L-tyrosine and a third reaction that is not part of tyrosine biosynthesis. Family members share a catalytic core region of about 30 kDa, where inhibitors operate competitively by acting as substrate mimics. This protein family typifies many that are challenging for bioinformatic analysis because of relatively modest sequence conservation and small size. Results Phylogenetic relationships of TyrA domains were evaluated in the context of combinatorial patterns of specificity for the two substrates, as well as the presence or absence of a variety of fusions. An interactive tool is provided for prediction of substrate specificity. Interactive alignments for a suite of catalytic-core TyrA domains of differing specificity are also provided to facilitate phylogenetic analysis. tyrA membership in apparent operons (or supraoperons was examined, and patterns of conserved synteny in relationship to organismal positions on the 16S rRNA tree were ascertained for members of the domain Bacteria. A number of aromatic-pathway genes (hisHb, aroF, aroQ have fused with tyrA, and it must be more than coincidental that the free-standing counterparts of all of the latter fused genes exhibit a distinct trace of syntenic association. Conclusion We propose that the ancestral TyrA dehydrogenase had broad specificity for both the cyclohexadienyl and pyridine nucleotide substrates. Indeed, TyrA proteins of this type persist today, but it is also common to find instances of narrowed substrate specificities, as well as of acquisition via gene fusion of additional catalytic domains or regulatory domains. In some clades a qualitative change associated with either narrowed substrate specificity or gene fusion has produced an evolutionary "jump" in the vertical genealogy of TyrA homologs. The evolutionary history of gene organizations that include

  13. Identification of glutathione adducts of α-chlorofatty aldehydes produced in activated neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    Duerr, Mark A.; Aurora, Rajeev; Ford, David A.

    2015-01-01

    α-Chlorofatty aldehydes (α-ClFALDs) are produced by hypochlorous acid targeting plasmalogens during neutrophil activation. This study investigated the reaction of the α-chlorinated carbon of α-ClFALD with the nucleophile, GSH. Utilizing ESI/MS/MS, the reaction product of GSH and the 16-carbon α-ClFALD, 2-chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), was characterized. The resulting conjugate of 2-ClHDA and GSH (HDA-GSH) has an intact free aldehyde, and the chlorine at the α-carbon is ejected. Stable isotope-l...

  14. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  16. Transfer of deuterium from [1R-2H]- and [1S-2H] ethanol to reduced metabolites formed in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronholm, T.; Fors, C.

    1977-01-01

    Since alcohol dehydrogenase is stereospecific and only removes the 1-pro-R hydrogen of ethanol, it is possible to label selectively NADH formed at the alcohol dehydrogenase by using [1R- 2 H]-ethanol. In contrast, [1S- 2 H]ethanol may be used to label NADH formed in the aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction. The present investigation is an attempt to study the relationship between the NADH pools at these two dehydrogenases, with special reference to subcellular localization, by using chiral monodeuteroethanols

  17. Catalytic Oxidation of Lignins into the Aromatic Aldehydes: General Process Trends and Development Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabanko, Valery E.; Tarabanko, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins’ catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde). It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10–15%) inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde. Very high consumption of oxygen (and consequentially, of alkali) in the process—over 10 mol per mol of obtained vanillin—is highlighted as an unresolved and unexplored problem: scientific literature reveals almost no studies devoted to the possibilities of decreasing the consumption of oxygen and alkali. Different hypotheses about the mechanism of lignin oxidation into the aromatic aldehydes are discussed, and the mechanism comprising the steps of single-electron oxidation of phenolate anions, and ending with retroaldol reaction of a substituted coniferyl aldehyde was pointed out as the most convincing one. The possibility and development prospects of single-stage oxidative processing of wood into the aromatic aldehydes and cellulose are analyzed. PMID:29140301

  18. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  19. Cloning and characterization of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, chromosomal assignment of the gene and identification in four patients of nine different mutations within the VLCAD gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Vianey-Saban, C

    1996-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is one of four straight-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD) enzymes, which are all nuclear encoded mitochondrial flavoproteins catalyzing the initial step in fatty acid beta-oxidation. We have used the very fast, Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE...

  20. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k cat ∼ 25 min −1 ). ► Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP 2 H to the carbonyl moiety. ► P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. ► Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k cat of ∼25 min −1 was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP 2 H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP 2 H but not D 2 O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  1. Flavour release of aldehydes and diacetyl in oil/water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bredie, W. L. P.; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    from the pure oil. The release over time for diacetyl and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienal showed a linear relationship in all systems. The other compounds followed an exponential relationship between the time and the fraction released in the aqueous systems. It was demonstrated that the release of the volatile...... compounds was dependent on the chain length, the degree of unsaturation as well as the characteristics of the model system. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The concentration- and time-dependent release of three C-6-aldehydes, six C-9-aldehydes and diacetyl was studied in model systems. The systems were water, rapeseed oil and oil-in-water emulsions. Dynamic headspace sampling was used to collect the volatile compounds. In the concentration...

  2. The aldehyde dehydrogenase, AldA, is essential for L-1,2-propanediol utilization in laboratory-evolved Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Monk, Jonathan M.; Andrews, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    is highly conserved among members of the family Enterobacteriacea. To test this hypothesis, we first performed computational model simulation, which confirmed the essentiality of the aldA gene for 1,2-PDO utilization by the evolved PDO-degrading E. coli. Next, we deleted the aldA gene from the evolved...

  3. An Improved Protocol for the Aldehyde Olefination Reaction Using (bmim ( as Reaction Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available [Ru(CODCl2]/CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system works efficiently in ionic liquid media for aldehyde olefination reaction. It offers good yield and selectivity with the added advantage of 5 times recyclability for [Ru(CODCl2] /CuCl2·2H2O/LiCl catalytic system. We also successfully reduced the reaction time from 12 hours to 9 hours for the aldehyde olefination reaction.

  4. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Rosa MRPS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT. Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1 was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results.

  5. Fiber-Optic Bio-sniffer (Biochemical Gas Sensor) Using Reverse Reaction of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Exhaled Acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Chien, Po-Jen; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-02-23

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exhaled in breath have huge potential as indicators of diseases and metabolisms. Application of breath analysis for disease screening and metabolism assessment is expected since breath samples can be noninvasively collected and measured. In this research, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) was developed. In the AcH bio-sniffer, a reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was employed for reducing AcH to ethanol and simultaneously consuming a coenzyme, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The concentration of AcH can be quantified by fluorescence detection of NADH that was consumed by reverse reaction of ADH. The AcH bio-sniffer was composed of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) as an excitation light source, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a fluorescence detector, and an optical fiber probe, and these three components were connected with a bifurcated optical fiber. A gas-sensing region of the fiber probe was developed with a flow-cell and an ADH-immobilized membrane. In the experiment, after optimization of the enzyme reaction conditions, the selectivity and dynamic range of the AcH bio-sniffer were investigated. The AcH bio-sniffer showed a short measurement time (within 2 min) and a broad dynamic range for determination of gaseous AcH, 0.02-10 ppm, which encompassed a typical AcH concentration in exhaled breath (1.2-6.0 ppm). Also, the AcH bio-sniffer exhibited a high selectivity to gaseous AcH based on the specificity of ADH. The sensor outputs were observed only from AcH-contained standard gaseous samples. Finally, the AcH bio-sniffer was applied to measure the concentration of AcH in exhaled breath from healthy subjects after ingestion of alcohol. As a result, a significant difference of AcH concentration between subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) phenotypes was observed. The AcH bio-sniffer can be

  6. Association between alcohol dehydrogenase 1C gene *1/*2 polymorphism and pancreatitis risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Pan, J; Su, G H; Xu, L X; Li, G; Li, Z H; Zhao, H; Wang, J

    2015-11-30

    Numerous studies have focused on the relationship be-tween alcohol dehydrogenase 1C gene (ADH1C) *1/*2 polymorphism (Ile350Val, rs698, also known as ADH1C *1/*2) and pancreatitis risk, but the results have been inconsistent. Thus, we conducted a meta-anal-ysis to more precisely estimate this association. Relevant publications were searched in several widely used databases and 9 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the strength of the association. Significant associations between ADH1C *1/*2 poly-morphism and pancreatitis risk were observed in both overall meta-analysis for 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.12-2.10) and 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.07-1.95), and the chronic alcoholic pancre-atitis subgroup for 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.17-2.29) and 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.11-2.11). Significant pancreatitis risk variation was also detected in Caucasians for 11 + 12 vs 22 (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.07-1.98). In conclusion, the ADH1C *1/*2 polymorphism is likely associated with pancreatitis risk, particularly chronic alcoholic pancreatitis risk, with the *1 allele functioning as a risk factor.

  7. NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Penicillium chrysogenum is involved in regulation of beta-lactam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Noorman, H.

    2008-01-01

    was detected in either of the Delta gdhA strains. Supplementation with glutamate restored growth but no beta-lactam production was detected for the constructed strains. Cultures with high ammonium concentrations (repressing conditions) and with proline as nitrogen source (de-repressed conditions) showed......The interactions between the ammonium assimilatory pathways and beta-lactam production were investigated by disruption of the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene (gdhA) in two industrial beta-lactam-producing strains of Penicillium chrysogenum. The strains used were an adipoyl-7-ADCA...... continued beta-lactam production for the reference strains whereas the Delta gdhA strains remained non-productive under all conditions. By overexpressing the NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, the specific growth rate could be restored, but still no beta-lactam production was detected. The results...

  8. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency: diagnosis, phenotypic variability, population genetics, and worldwide distribution of ancient and de novo mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.M. Boehmer (Annemie); D.J.J. Halley (Dicky); P.E. de Ruiter (Petra); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); S. Andersson (Stefan); F.H. de Jong (Frank); H.H. Bode (Hans); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); H. Kayserili (Hülya); M.A. de Vroede; C. Rodrigues (Cidade); B.J. Otten (Barto); B.B. Mendonça (Berenice); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); C.W. Rouwé (Catrienus); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); L.A. Sandkuijl (Lodewijk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstract17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 (17betaHSD3) deficiency is an autosomal recessive form of male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations in the HSD17B3 gene. In a nationwide study on male pseudohermaphroditism among all pediatric endocrinologists and

  9. Analysis of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates by in-tube SPME-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuLing; Hu, Sheng; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, polypyrrole/graphene (PPy/G) composite coating was prepared by a facile electrochemical polymerization strategy on the inner surface of a stainless steel (SS) tube. Based on the coating tube, a novel online in-tube solid-phase microextraction -high performance liquid chromatography (IT-SPME-HPLC) was developed and applied for the extraction of aldehydes in the human exhaled breath condensates (EBC). The hybrid PPy/G nanocomposite exhibits remarkable chemical and mechanical stability, high selectivity, and satisfactory extraction performance toward aldehyde compounds. Moreover, the proposed online IT-SPME-HPLC method possesses numerous superiorities, such as time and cost saving, process simplicity, high precision and sensitivity. Some parameters related to extraction efficiency were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of the aldehyde compounds at three spiked concentration levels varied in the range of 85%-117%. Good linearity was obtained with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)) being larger than 0.994. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) of the method ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% and the limits of detection were between 2.3 and 3.3 nmol L(-1). The successful application of the proposed method in human EBC indicated that it is a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehyde metabolites in complex EBC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Downregulation of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in switchgrass by RNA silencing results in enhanced glucose release after cellulase treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J Saathoff

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switchgrass, RNA mediated silencing of CAD was induced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cv. "Alamo" with an inverted repeat construct containing a fragment derived from the coding sequence of PviCAD2. The resulting primary transformants accumulated less CAD RNA transcript and protein than control transformants and were demonstrated to be stably transformed with between 1 and 5 copies of the T-DNA. CAD activity against coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in stems of silenced lines was significantly reduced as was overall lignin and cutin. Glucose release from ground samples pretreated with ammonium hydroxide and digested with cellulases was greater than in control transformants. When stained with the lignin and cutin specific stain phloroglucinol-HCl the staining intensity of one line indicated greater incorporation of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes in the lignin.

  11. Downregulation of cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in switchgrass by RNA silencing results in enhanced glucose release after cellulase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, Aaron J; Sarath, Gautam; Chow, Elaine K; Dien, Bruce S; Tobias, Christian M

    2011-01-27

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis and genetic evidence indicates CAD deficiency in grasses both decreases overall lignin, alters lignin structure and increases enzymatic recovery of sugars. To ascertain the effect of CAD downregulation in switchgrass, RNA mediated silencing of CAD was induced through Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cv. "Alamo" with an inverted repeat construct containing a fragment derived from the coding sequence of PviCAD2. The resulting primary transformants accumulated less CAD RNA transcript and protein than control transformants and were demonstrated to be stably transformed with between 1 and 5 copies of the T-DNA. CAD activity against coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in stems of silenced lines was significantly reduced as was overall lignin and cutin. Glucose release from ground samples pretreated with ammonium hydroxide and digested with cellulases was greater than in control transformants. When stained with the lignin and cutin specific stain phloroglucinol-HCl the staining intensity of one line indicated greater incorporation of hydroxycinnamyl aldehydes in the lignin.

  12. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  13. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Rebecca L.; Caldwell, Gary S.; Bentley, Matthew G.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD 50 values of 7 and 20 μM for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 μM of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD 50 of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 μM of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD 50 of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 μM zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 μM copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed

  14. Aldehydes react with scribed silicon to form alkyl monolayers Characterization by ToF-SIMS suggests an even-odd effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lua, Y.-Y.; Fillmore, W. Jonathan J.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    Alkyl monolayers are formed when silicon is chemomechanically scribed in the presence of aldehydes (from butanal to nonanal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wetting, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) suggest increasingly thick and hydrophobic monolayers with increasing aldehyde chain length. Superimposed on the general trend of stronger ToF-SIMS signals for hydrocarbon fragments from longer aldehyde precursors is an even-odd effect. This effect is most pronounced for smaller (one- and two-carbon) hydrocarbon fragments and for monolayers prepared with shorter aldehyde precursors. This is the first time than an even-odd effect has been demonstrated for monolayers on scribed silicon

  15. Aldehydes react with scribed silicon to form alkyl monolayers Characterization by ToF-SIMS suggests an even-odd effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lua, Y.-Y.; Fillmore, W. Jonathan J.; Linford, Matthew R

    2004-06-15

    Alkyl monolayers are formed when silicon is chemomechanically scribed in the presence of aldehydes (from butanal to nonanal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), wetting, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) suggest increasingly thick and hydrophobic monolayers with increasing aldehyde chain length. Superimposed on the general trend of stronger ToF-SIMS signals for hydrocarbon fragments from longer aldehyde precursors is an even-odd effect. This effect is most pronounced for smaller (one- and two-carbon) hydrocarbon fragments and for monolayers prepared with shorter aldehyde precursors. This is the first time than an even-odd effect has been demonstrated for monolayers on scribed silicon.

  16. A new method for the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey e-mail: ... Kinetics of reduction of aldehydes and ketones to corresponding alcohols were also examined and .... hol and unreducted ketone remain in organic phase. The.

  17. The Intramolecular Diels–Alder Reaction of Tryptamine-Derived Zincke Aldehydes Is a Stepwise Process

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Hung V.; Martin, David B. C.; Vanderwal, Christopher D.; Houk, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Computational studies show that the base-mediated intramolecular Diels–Alder of tryptamine-derived Zincke aldehydes, used as a key step in the synthesis of the Strychnos alkaloids norfluorocurarine and strychnine, proceeds via a stepwise pathway. The experimentally determined importance of a potassium counterion in the base is explained by its ability to preorganize the Zincke aldehyde diene in an s-cis conformation suitable to bicyclization. Computation also supports the thermodynamic import...

  18. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreß, Oliver [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Gnida, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Pelzmann, Astrid M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Marx, Christian [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, 07745 Jena (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Meyer, Ortwin, E-mail: Ortwin.Meyer@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceeds at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration step in

  20. Cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of 3-ketosteroid Δ4-(5α)-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterwijk, Niels van; Knol, Jan; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Geize, Robert van der; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2011-01-01

    The gene for 3-ketosteroid Δ 4 -(5α)-dehydrogenase from R. jostii RHA1 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli and the protein product was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 and diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.6 Å. 3-Ketosteroid dehydrogenases are flavoproteins which play key roles in steroid ring degradation. The enzymes are abundantly present in actinobacteria, including the catabolic powerhouse Rhodococcus jostii and the pathogenic species R. equi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene for 3-ketosteroid Δ 4 -(5α)-dehydrogenase [Δ 4 -(5α)-KSTD] from R. jostii RHA1 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. His-tagged Δ 4 -(5α)-KSTD enzyme was purified by Ni 2+ –NTA affinity chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Seeding greatly improved the number of crystals obtained. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 99.2, b = 114.3, c = 110.2 Å. Data were collected to a resolution of 1.6 Å

  1. Linkage and radiation hybrid mapping of the porcine gene for subunit C of succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHC)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stratil, Antonín; Reiner, G.; Peelman, L. J.; Poucke, M.; Geldermann, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2001), s. 110-112 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA523/00/0669 Keywords : succinate dehydrogenase complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2001

  2. Nonsense and missense mutation of mitochondrial ND6 gene promotes cell migration and invasion in human lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Yang; Wang, Weixing; Li, Huizhong; Yu, Yongwei; Tao, Jin; Huang, Shengdong; Zeng, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Previous study showed that mitochondrial ND6 (mitND6) gene missense mutation resulted in NADH dehydrogenase deficiency and was associated with tumor metastasis in several mouse tumor cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations in the metastasis of human lung adenocarcinoma. The presence of mitND6 gene mutations was screened by DNA sequencing of tumor tissues from 87 primary lung adenocarcinoma patients and the correlation of the mutations with the clinical features was analyzed. In addition, we constructed cytoplasmic hybrid cells with denucleared primary lung adenocarcinoma cell as the mitochondria donor and mitochondria depleted lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell as the nuclear donor. Using these cells, we studied the effects of mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations on cell migration and invasion through wounding healing and matrigel-coated transwell assay. The effects of mitND6 gene mutations on NADH dehydrogenase activity and ROS production were analyzed by spectrophotometry and flow cytometry. mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutations were detected in 11 of 87 lung adenocarcinoma specimens and was correlated with the clinical features including age, pathological grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and survival rate. Moreover, A549 cell containing mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutation exhibited significantly lower activity of NADH dehydrogenase, higher level of ROS, higher capacity of cell migration and invasion, and higher pAKT and pERK1/ERK2 expression level than cells with the wild type mitND6 gene. In addition, NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor rotenone was found to significantly promote the migration and invasion of A549 cells. Our data suggest that mitND6 gene nonsense and missense mutation might promote cell migration and invasion in lung adenocarcinoma, probably by NADH dehydrogenase deficiency induced over-production of ROS

  3. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States); Totah, Rheem A., E-mail: rtotah@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 357610, Seattle, WA 98195-7610 (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  4. Catalytic Oxidation of Lignins into the Aromatic Aldehydes: General Process Trends and Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery E. Tarabanko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins’ catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10–15% inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde. Very high consumption of oxygen (and consequentially, of alkali in the process—over 10 mol per mol of obtained vanillin—is highlighted as an unresolved and unexplored problem: scientific literature reveals almost no studies devoted to the possibilities of decreasing the consumption of oxygen and alkali. Different hypotheses about the mechanism of lignin oxidation into the aromatic aldehydes are discussed, and the mechanism comprising the steps of single-electron oxidation of phenolate anions, and ending with retroaldol reaction of a substituted coniferyl aldehyde was pointed out as the most convincing one. The possibility and development prospects of single-stage oxidative processing of wood into the aromatic aldehydes and cellulose are analyzed.

  5. The Reduction of Nitriles to Aldehydes: Applications of Raney Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    The selective reduction of a nitrile to an aldehyde, especially when the substrate ..... prelude to reductive amination chemistry was thwarted by a rapid aldol ... and allowed the direct incorporation of the α-methylbenzylamine chiral auxiliary.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Cytokinin Oxidase/Dehydrogenase (CKX) Genes Reveal Likely Roles in Pod Development and Stress Responses in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Jin-Qi; Zhang, Li-Yuan; Yang, Bo; Tang, Xin-Yu; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Xin-Tong; Lu, Kun; Li, Jia-Na

    2018-03-16

    Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenases (CKXs) play a critical role in the irreversible degradation of cytokinins, thereby regulating plant growth and development. Brassica napus is one of the most widely cultivated oilseed crops worldwide. With the completion of whole-genome sequencing of B. napus , genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the BnCKX gene family has become technically feasible. In this study, we identified 23 BnCKX genes and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs, protein subcellular localizations, and other properties. We also analyzed the expression of the 23 BnCKX genes in the B. napus cultivar Zhong Shuang 11 ('ZS11') by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), revealing their diverse expression patterns. We selected four BnCKX genes based on the results of RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR and compared their expression in cultivated varieties with extremely long versus short siliques. The expression levels of BnCKX5-1 , 5-2 , 6-1 , and 7-1 significantly differed between the two lines and changed during pod development, suggesting they might play roles in determining silique length and in pod development. Finally, we investigated the effects of treatment with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the expression of the four selected BnCKX genes. Our results suggest that regulating BnCKX expression is a promising way to enhance the harvest index and stress resistance in plants.

  7. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-12-01

    Using infra-red spectroscopy, the equilibrium exchange times have been determined for a series of ketones, aromatic aldehydes, and {beta}-ketoesters reacting with oxygen 18 enriched water. These exchange times have been evaluated in terms of steric and electronic considerations, and applied to a discussion of the exchange times of chlorophylls a and b and chlorophyll derivatives.

  8. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1',4'-trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous 18 O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of [ 18 O]ABA with the label incorporated in the 1'-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of 18 O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1'-4'-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from 18 O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of 18 O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. 18 O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of 18 O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of 18 O from the side chain of [ 18 O]ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde → ABA → ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to β-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed

  9. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  10. Kinetic mechanism of an aldehyde reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that relieves toxicity of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    An effective means of relieving the toxicity of furan aldehydes, furfural (FFA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), on fermenting organisms is essential for achieving efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol and other products. Ari1p, an aldehyde reductase from Saccharomyces cerev...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  12. A Toolbox for Quantitative Gene Expression in Varroa destructor: RNA Degradation in Field Samples and Systematic Analysis of Reference Gene Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is the major pest of Apis mellifera and contributes to the global honey bee health crisis threatening food security. Developing new control strategies to combat Varroa will require the application of molecular biology, including gene expression studies by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Both high quality RNA samples and suitable stable internal reference genes are required for accurate gene expression studies. In this study, ten candidate genes (succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA, NADH dehydrogenase (NADH, large ribsosmal subunit, TATA-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 18S rRNA (18S, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90, cyclophilin, α-tubulin, actin, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes using the geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and comparative ΔCq algorithims. Our study proposes the use of no more than two of the four most stable reference genes (NADH, 18S, SDHA and HSP90 in Varroa gene expression studies. These four genes remain stable in phoretic and reproductive stage Varroa and are unaffected by Deformed wing virus load. When used for determining changes in vitellogenin gene expression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the relatively unstable genes actin and α-tubulin was much lower than for the stable gene combinations (NADH + HSP90 +18S; NADH + HSP90; or NADH. Using both electropherograms and RT-qPCR for short and long amplicons as quality controls, we demonstrate that high quality RNA can be recovered from Varroa up to 10 days later stored at ambient temperature if collected into RNAlater and provided the body is pierced. This protocol allows the exchange of Varroa samples between international collaborators and field sample collectors without requiring frozen collection or shipping. Our results make important contributions to gene expression studies in Varroa by proposing a validated sampling protocol to obtain high quality Varroa

  13. Peptide aldehyde inhibitors of bacterial peptide deformylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, D J; Gordon Green, B; O'Connell, J F; Grant, S K

    1999-07-15

    Bacterial peptide deformylases (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) are metalloenzymes that cleave the N-formyl groups from N-blocked methionine polypeptides. Peptide aldehydes containing a methional or norleucinal inhibited recombinant peptide deformylase from gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor was calpeptin, N-CBZ-Leu-norleucinal, which was a competitive inhibitor of the zinc-containing metalloenzymes, E. coli and B. subtilis PDF with Ki values of 26.0 and 55.6 microM, respectively. Cobalt-substituted E. coli and B. subtilis deformylases were also inhibited by these aldehydes with Ki values for calpeptin of 9.5 and 12.4 microM, respectively. Distinct spectral changes were observed upon binding of calpeptin to the Co(II)-deformylases, consistent with the noncovalent binding of the inhibitor rather than the formation of a covalent complex. In contrast, the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline caused the time-dependent inhibition of B. subtilis Co(II)-PDF activity with the loss of the active site metal. The fact that calpeptin was nearly equipotent against deformylases from both gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial sources lends further support to the idea that a single deformylase inhibitor might have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  15. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 deficiency : Diagnosis, phenotypic variability, population genetics, and worldwide distribution of ancient and de novo mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehmer, ALM; Brinkmann, AO; Sandkuijl, LA; Halley, DJJ; Niermeijer, MF; Andersson, S; de Jong, FH; Kayserili, H; de Vroede, MA; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, CW; Mendonca, BB; Rodrigues, C; Bode, HH; de Ruiter, PE; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Drop, SLS

    1999-01-01

    17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 (17 beta HSD3) deficiency is an autosomal recessive form of male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations in the HSD17B3 gene. In a nationwide study on male pseudohermaphroditism among all pediatric endocrinologists and clinical geneticists in The Netherlands,

  16. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  17. Transition-state structure in the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase reaction: the magnitude of solvent and alpha-secondary hydrogen isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, K.M.; Creighton, D.J.; Klinman, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Solvent and alpha-secondary isotope effects have been measured in the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase reaction, under conditions of a rate-limiting transfer of hydrogen between coenzyme and substrate. Determination of catalytic constants in H20 and D20 as a function of pH(D) has allowed the separation of solvent effects on pKa from kcat. The small effect of D20 on pKa is tentatively assigned to ionization of an active-site ZnOH 2 . The near absence of an isotope effect on kcat in the direction of alcohol oxidation rules out a mechanism involving concerted catalysis by an active-site base of hydride transfer. The near identity of kinetic and equilibrium alpha-secondary isotope effects in the direction of alcohol oxidation implicates a transition-state structure which resembles aldehyde with regard to bond hybridization properties. The result contrasts sharply with previously reported structure - reactivity correlations, which implicate a transition-state structure resembling alcohol with regard to charge properties. The significance of these findings to the mechanism of NAD(P)H-dependent redox reactions is discussed

  18. Deletion of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene budC for enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background D-2,3-butanediol has many industrial applications such as chiral reagents, solvents, anti-freeze agents, and low freezing point fuels. Traditional D-2,3-butanediol producing microorganisms, such as Klebsiella pneumonia and K. xoytoca, are pathogenic and not capable of producing D-2,3-butanediol at high optical purity. Bacillus licheniformis is a potential 2,3-butanediol producer but the wild type strain (WX-02) produces a mix of D- and meso-type isomers. BudC in B. licheniformis is annotated as 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase or acetoin reductase, but no pervious experiment was performed to verify this hypothesis. Results We developed a genetically modified strain of B. licheniformis (WX-02 ΔbudC) as a D-2,3-butanediol producer with high optimal purity. A marker-less gene deletion protocol based on a temperature sensitive knock-out plasmid T2-Ori was used to knock out the budC gene in B. licheniformis WX-02. The budC knock-out strain successfully abolished meso-2,3-butanediol production with enhanced D-2,3-butanediol production. No meso-BDH activity was detectable in cells of this strain. On the other hand, the complementary strain restored the characteristics of wild strain, and produced meso-2,3-butanediol and possessed meso-BDH activity. All of these data suggested that budC encoded the major meso-BDH catalyzing the reversible reaction from acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. The budC knock-out strain produced D-2,3-butanediol isomer only with a high yield of 30.76 g/L and a productivity of 1.28 g/L-h. Conclusions We confirmed the hypothesis that budC gene is responsible to reversibly transfer acetoin to meso-2,3-butanediol in B. licheniformis. A mutant strain of B. licheniformis with depleted budC gene was successfully developed and produced high level of the D-2,3-butanediol with high optimal purity. PMID:24475980

  19. Effects of different replicons in conjugative plasmids on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression and n-butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium tyrobutyricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mingrui; Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Chang, Wei-Lun; Yang, Shang-Tian [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Tang, I-Ching [Bioprocessing Innovative Company, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 can produce butyric acid, acetic acid, and hydrogen as the main products from various carbon sources. In this study, C. tyrobutyricum was used as a host to produce n-butanol by expressing adhE2 gene under the control of a native thiolase promoter using four different conjugative plasmids (pMTL82151, 83151, 84151, and 85151) each with a different replicon (pBP1 from C. botulinum NCTC2916, pCB102 from C. butyricum, pCD6 from Clostridium difficile, and pIM13 from Bacillus subtilis). The effects of different replicons on transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, adhE2 expression and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase activities, and butanol production by different mutants of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated. Among the four plasmids and replicons studied, pMTL82151 with pBP1 gave the highest transformation efficiency, plasmid stability, gene expression, and butanol biosynthesis. Butanol production from various substrates, including glucose, xylose, mannose, and mannitol were then investigated with the best mutant strain harboring adhE2 in pMTL82151. A high butanol titer of 20.5 g/L with 0.33 g/g yield and 0.32 g/L h productivity was obtained with mannitol as the substrate in batch fermentation with pH controlled at {proportional_to}6.0. (orig.)

  20. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of nine cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase family members in Populus tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Nan; Liu, Shu-Xin; Liu, Bing-Mei; Li, Ning; Jiang, Xiang-Ning; Gai, Ying

    2014-11-01

    Nine CAD/CAD-like genes in P. tomentosa were classified into four classes based on expression patterns, phylogenetic analysis and biochemical properties with modification for the previous claim of SAD. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) functions in monolignol biosynthesis and plays a critical role in wood development and defense. In this study, we isolated and cloned nine CAD/CAD-like genes in the Populus tomentosa genome. We investigated differential expression using microarray chips and found that PtoCAD1 was highly expressed in bud, root and vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) with the greatest expression in the root. Differential expression in tissues was demonstrated for PtoCAD3, PtoCAD6 and PtoCAD9. Biochemical analysis of purified PtoCADs in vitro indicated PtoCAD1, PtoCAD2 and PtoCAD8 had detectable activity against both coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. PtoCAD1 used both substrates with high efficiency. PtoCAD2 showed no specific requirement for sinapaldehyde in spite of its high identity with so-called PtrSAD (sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase). In addition, the enzymatic activity of PtoCAD1 and PtoCAD2 was affected by temperature. We classified these nine CAD/CAD-like genes into four classes: class I included PtoCAD1, which was a bone fide CAD with the highest activity; class II included PtoCAD2, -5, -7, -8, which might function in monolignol biosynthesis and defense; class III genes included PtoCAD3, -6, -9, which have a distinct expression pattern; class IV included PtoCAD12, which has a distinct structure. These data suggest divergence of the PtoCADs and its homologs, related to their functions. We propose genes in class II are a subset of CAD genes that evolved before angiosperms appeared. These results suggest CAD/CAD-like genes in classes I and II play a role in monolignol biosynthesis and contribute to our knowledge of lignin biosynthesis in P. tomentosa.

  1. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of bio-oil and related model aldehydes with RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Li, W.; Lu, Q.; Zhu, X. [Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-12-15

    A homogeneous RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} catalyst was prepared for the hydrogenation of bio-oil to improve its stability and fuel quality. Experiments were first performed on three model aldehydes of acetaldehyde, furfural and vanillin selected to represent the linear aldehydes, oxygen heterocyclic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes in bio-oil. The results demonstrated the high hydrogenation capability of this homogeneous catalyst under mild conditions (55-90 C, 1.3-3.3 MPa). The highest conversion of the three model aldehydes was over 90 %. Furfural and acetaldehyde were singly converted to furfuryl alcohol and ethanol after hydrogenation, while vanillin was mainly converted to vanillin alcohol, together with a small amount of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol. Further experiments were conducted on a bio-oil fraction extracted by ethyl acetate and on the whole bio-oil at 70 C and 3.3 MPa. Most of the aldehydes were transformed to the corresponding alcohols, and some ketones and compounds with C-C double bond were converted to more stable compounds. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Exposure to mutagenic aldehydes and particulate matter during panfrying of beefsteak with margarine, rapeseed oil, olive oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Ann Kristin; Svendsen, Kristin

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to see if a cook could be exposed to mutagenic aldehydes in fumes from frying of beefsteak using margarine, rapeseed oil, soybean oil or virgin olive oil as frying fat. In addition, levels of particle exposure were measured to make the results comparable to other studies. The levels of higher aldehydes and total particles were measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the panfrying of beefsteak with the four different frying fats. In addition, the number of particles in the size intervals 0.3-0.5, 0.5-0.7 and 0.7-1.0 microm in the kitchen was registered. Measured levels of mutagenic aldehydes were between non-detectable and 25.33 microg m(-3) air. The exposure level of total aerosol was between 1.0 and 11.6 mg m(-3). Higher aldehydes were detected in all samples from this study, and mutagenic aldehydes were detected in most of the samples. Frying with margarine gave statistically significantly higher levels of mutagenic aldehydes and particles in all three size fractions than frying with the three different kinds of oil.

  3. Plant volatile aldehydes as natural insecticides against stored-product beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Santino, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Infestation by stored-product pests causes serious losses in food and feed commodities. Among possible strategies against these pests, which aim to reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, including fumigants, natural insecticides produced by plants represent one of the most promising approaches for their ecochemical control. Three six-carbon and nine-carbon aldehydes, natural plant volatiles produced by the plant lipoxygenase pathway, were tested for their insecticidal activity against five species of stored-product beetles in feeding, fumigation and combined bioassays. The compounds (2E,6Z)-nonadienal, (2E)-nonenal and (2E)-hexenal were incorporated into feeding discs in feeding bioassays or evaporated from filter paper in closed glass chambers in fumigation tests. Beetle sensitivity to aldehydes differed according to the different treatments. The highest activity was obtained by (2E)-hexenal in fumigation tests, with the LC(50) ranging from 4 to 26 mg L(-1), while (2E, 6Z)-nonadienal was the most effective in feeding tests, giving LD(50)s ranging from 0.44 to 2.76 mg g(-1) when applied to feeding discs. Fumigation tests in the presence of wheat grains confirmed that (2E)-hexenal was the most effective compound, with a calculated LC(99) ranging from 33 to 166 mg L(-1). The results of both feeding and fumigation tests indicated that natural plant aldehydes are potential candidates to control stored-product beetles.

  4. Copper(II)/amine synergistically catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals with aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-07-07

    The first catalytic asymmetric alkylation of N-acyl quinoliniums with aldehydes has been described. A copper/amine synergistic catalytic system has been developed, allowing the addition of functionalized aldehydes to a wide range of electronically varied N-acyl quinoliniums in good yields with excellent enantiocontrol. The synergistic catalytic system was also effective for N-acyl dihydroisoquinoliniums and β-caboliniums, demonstrating the general applicability of the protocol in the enantioselective alkylation of diverse cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals.

  5. Changes in nonpolar aldehydes in bean cotyledons during ageing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelmová, Naděžda; Domingues, P.; Srbová, M.; Fuksová, H.; Wilhelm, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2006), s. 559-564 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Ageing * aldehydes * lipid peroxidation * lipofuscin-like pigments (LFP) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  6. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  7. A comparison of CRISPR/Cas9 and siRNA-mediated ALDH2 gene silencing in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Guo, Tao; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Ruobi; Wang, Ting; Zeng, Ni; Dong, Guanghui; Zeng, Xiaowen; Li, Daochuan; Xiao, Yongmei; Hu, Qiansheng; Chen, Wen; Xing, Xiumei; Wang, Qing

    2018-06-01

    Gene knockdown and knockout using RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 allow for efficient evaluation of gene function, but it is unclear how the choice of technology can influence the results. To compare the phenotypes obtained using siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 technologies, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) was selected as an example. In this study, we constructed one HepG2 cell line with a homozygous mutation in the fifth exon of ALDH2 (ALDH2-KO1 cell) using the eukaryotic CRISPR/Cas9 expression system followed by the limited dilution method and one HepG2 cell line with different mutations in the ALDH2 gene (ALDH2-KO2 cell) using the lentivirus CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, one ALDH2-knockdown (KD) HepG2 cell line was created using siRNA. The reproducibility of these methods was further verified in the HEK293FT cell line. We found that the mRNA expression level of ALDH2 was significantly decreased and the protein expression level of ALDH2 was completely abolished in the ALDH2-KO cell lines, but not in ALDH2-KD cells. Furthermore, the functional activity of ALDH2 was also markedly disrupted in the two ALDH2-KO cell lines compared with ALDH2-KD and wild-type cells. The lack of ALDH2 expression mediated by CRIPSR/Cas9 resulted in a more dramatic increase in the cellular susceptibility to chemical-induced reactive oxygen species generation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and inflammation, especially at low concentrations compared with ALDH2-KD and WT cells. Therefore, we consider the gene knockout cell line created by CRISPR/Cas9 to be a more useful tool for identifying the function of a gene.

  8. Capturing the target genes of BldD in Saccharopolyspora erythraea using improved genomic SELEX method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Mao, Yongrong; Chen, Meng; Pan, Hui; Huang, Xunduan; Ren, Min; Wu, Hao; Li, Jiali; Xu, Zhongdong; Yuan, Hualing; Geng, Ming; Weaver, David T; Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Buchang

    2015-03-01

    BldD (SACE_2077), a key developmental regulator in actinomycetes, is the first identified transcriptional factor in Saccharopolyspora erythraea positively regulating erythromycin production and morphological differentiation. Although the BldD of S. erythraea binds to the promoters of erythromycin biosynthetic genes, the interaction affinities are relatively low, implying the existence of its other target genes in S. erythraea. Through the genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method that we herein improved, four DNA sequences of S. erythraea A226, corresponding to the promoter regions of SACE_0306 (beta-galactosidase), SACE_0811 (50S ribosomal protein L25), SACE_3410 (fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase), and SACE_6014 (aldehyde dehydrogenase), were captured with all three BldD concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 μM, while the previously identified intergenic regions of eryBIV-eryAI and ermE-eryCI plus the promoter region of SACE_7115, the amfC homolog for aerial mycelium formation, could be captured only when the BldD's concentration reached 2 μM. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis indicated that BldD specifically bound to above seven DNA sequences, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay showed that the transcriptional levels of the abovementioned target genes decreased when bldD was disrupted in A226. Furthermore, SACE_7115 and SACE_0306 in A226 were individually inactivated, showing that SACE_7115 was predominantly involved in aerial mycelium formation, while SACE_0306 mainly controlled erythromycin production. This study provides valuable information for better understanding of the pleiotropic regulator BldD in S. erythraea, and the improved method may be useful for uncovering regulatory networks of other transcriptional factors.

  9. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  10. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fe...

  11. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  12. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Sonavane, Manoj N; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-08-12

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase ( Adh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid promoters are created by shuffling of DNA fragments while keeping intact regulatory regions crucial of promoter activity. Two fragments of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter from Zea mays were selected to generate hybrid promoter. Sequence analysis of both alcohol dehydrogenase promoter fragments through ...

  14. Proteome analysis of a Lactococcus lactis strain overexpressing gapA suggests that the gene product is an auxiliary glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Martin; Kilstrup, Mogens; Roepstorff, P.

    2002-01-01

    revealed two neighbouring protein spots, GapBI and GapBII, with amino terminal sequences identical to the product of gapA from the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain LM0230 and that of the two IL1403 sequences. In order to assign the two protein spots to their respective genes we constructed an L. lactis...... was specific for NAD. No NADP dependent activity was detected. Proteome analysis of the gapA overexpressing strain revealed two new protein spots, GapAI and GapAII, not previously detected in proteome analysis of MG1363. Results from mass spectrometry analysis of GapA and GapB and comparison with the deduced......The sequence of the genome from the Lactococcus lactis subspecies lactis strain IL1403 shows the presence of two reading frames, gapA and gapB, putatively encoding glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Previous proteomic analysis of the L. lactis subspecies cremoris strain MG1363 has...

  15. Cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of 3-ketosteroid Delta(4)-(5 alpha)-dehydrogenase from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterwijk, Niels; Knol, Jan; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkstra, Bauke

    2011-01-01

    3-Ketosteroid dehydrogenases are flavoproteins which play key roles in steroid ring degradation. The enzymes are abundantly present in actinobacteria, including the catabolic powerhouse Rhodococcus jostii and the pathogenic species R. equi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gene for 3-ketosteroid

  16. Contribution to the study of carbohydrate radiolysis: study of the formation of malonic aldehyde during gamma irradiation of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enrico, Gerard.

    1974-01-01

    It was shown that malonic aldehyde can be formed directly by radiation of dry glucose or through the radicals of water when the latter is present. The direct effect leads to a malonic aldehyde production proportional to the dose and independent of dose rate, temperature over a wide range, presence of oxygen and crystalline state of the glucose, but strongly dependent on the water content and anomeric form of the glucose. Isotopic labelling showed that both ends of the glucose molecule participate in the malonic aldehyde formation. Extrapolation to linear polymers (maltose, maltotriose) reveals the independence of the radiolysis yield with regard to the α 1-4 bond and suggests that it tends towards that of glucose in amylose. The indirect effect is linked with the action of the OH radicals of water and appears when glucose is irradiated in a sufficiently hydrated state or in solution. In the latter case the malonic aldehyde concentration is largely independent of the glucose concentration and is not proportional to the dose. Oxygen has little effect but a strong activation is observed at high pH. The use of 14 C showed that the aldehyde end of glucose is responsible for most of the malonic aldehyde. Polymerisation of the glucose by α 1-4 binding reduces the radiolytic yield. The indirect effect would thus be negligible in amylose [fr

  17. InterProScan Result: FS836907 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IPR016161 Aldehyde/histidinol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Fun...ction: oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  18. InterProScan Result: FS867188 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IPR016161 Aldehyde/histidinol dehydrogenase Biological Process: metabolic process (GO:0008152)|Molecular Fun...ction: oxidoreductase activity (GO:0016491)|Biological Process: oxidation reduction (GO:0055114) ...

  19. Volatile aldehydes are promising broad-spectrum postharvest insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, D G; Rangel, S; Kubo, I

    2000-09-01

    A variety of naturally occurring aldehydes common in plants have been evaluated for their insecticidal activity and for phytotoxicity to postharvest fruits, vegetables, and grains. Twenty-nine compounds were initially screened for their activity against aphids on fava bean leaf disks. Application under reduced pressure (partial vacuum) for the first quarter of fumigation increased insecticidal activity severalfold. The 11 best aldehydes were assayed against aphids placed under the third leaf of whole heads of iceberg lettuce using the same two-tier reduced-pressure regime, which caused no additional detriment to the commodity over fumigation at atmospheric pressure. Phytotoxicity to naked and wrapped iceburg lettuce, green and red table grapes, lemon, grapefruit, orange, broccoli, avocado, cabbage, pinto bean, and rice at doses that killed 100% of aphids was recorded for three promising fumigants: propanal, (E)-2-pentenal, and 2-methyl-(E)-2-butenal. These three compounds have excellent potential as affordable postharvest insect control agents, killing 100% of the aphids with little or no detectable harm to a majority of the commodities tested. Preliminary assays indicate that similar doses are also effective against mealybugs, thrips, and whitefly.

  20. Study on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride– dehydrogenase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick analysis of the sludge activity method based on triphenyltetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (TTC-DHA) was developed to change the rule and status of the biological activity of the activated sludge in tomato paste wastewater treatment. The results indicate that dehydrogenase activity (DHA) can effectively ...

  1. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  2. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akduman, Begüm; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  3. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Begüm [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Koçarlı Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktaş, E-mail: daktas@adu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan [Biochemistry Department, Ege University, İzmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Chemistry Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer a