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Sample records for alcohols caries incidence

  1. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

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    Kauko K. Mäkinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol≥xylitol>sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials.

  2. Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria

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    Kaur Surrinder

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66% patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.

  3. Maternal risk behavior and caries incidence in children with sickle cell disease

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    Felipe Fagundes SOARES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of caries, in relation to maternal risk behaviors and clinical conditions representing different levels of sickle cell disease severity. A total of 295 children aged 6 to 60 months participated in this cohort conducted from August 2007 to December 2008. They were diagnosed and monitored by the referral service of the state. Interviews were made with families to identify sociodemographic variables, and an oral exam was performed to determine dental caries. The SRQ (Self Report Questionnaire scale was used to diagnose the presence of common mental disorders, and the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye opener was applied to determine abusive use of alcohol. The absolute and relative frequencies of the variables of interest were analyzed by Chi-square and Mann-Whitney, with a 5% significance level. The incidence variables were analyzed according to the logistic regression model, with a confidence interval of 95%. Caries incidence (1.98; SD = 4.68 was higher in the HbSS genotype. There was a statistically significant association between caries incidence and both abusive use of alcohol (32.43%, RR = 1.99; 1.05-3.78; 95%CI and common mental disorders (8.77% RR = 0.37; 0.15-0.93; 95%CI. There was also an association between caries incidence and maternal risk behavior, indicating that the care network should be expanded to include patients with sickle cell disease.

  4. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

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    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  5. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

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    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  6. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

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    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  7. Relation of salivary calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase with the incidence of dental caries in children

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    Vijayaprasad K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess possible relationship of Calcium, Phosphorus and Alkaline-phophatase levels in saliva with incidence of caries in child patients. Settings and Design: Children (n=75 attending Department of Pedodontics, St. Joseph Dental college, Eluru, with and without caries were categorized in to Group I: Consisting of 25 children with non-rampant caries, Group II: Consisting of 25 children with rampant caries, Group III: Consisting of 25 children without caries. (Control group. Materials and Methods: The samples of saliva were collected one week after oral prophylaxis. Unstimulated directly expectorated whole saliva samples were collected in clean, dry, sterilized glass bottles and fitted with proper rubber stoppers immediately. The samples were subjected to biochemical assay for estimation of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels. Statistical analysis used: ANOVA. Results: The alkaline Phosphatase activity for rampant caries group was 18.66 K.A, and control group was 4.68 K.A. The values of alkaline phosphatase activity for minimal caries group was 6.16 KA. Conclusion: Saliva could reflect a caries risk situation was supported by the fact that alkaline phosphatase activity was very much significantly higher in caries prone groups.

  8. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

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    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  9. Incidence of Caries in Babies After 15 Months of an Educative/Preventive Program

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    Eunice KUHN

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate an educative/preventive program to control caries disease in 160 babies, ages ranging from 1 to 21 months. Method: The selected children, healthy and without caries, were examined once every three months during 15 months. In each appointment, the biofilm was removed with gauze and a baby’s toothbrush, according to the child’s age. After visual examination, the number of teeth and eventual alterations were recorded. Mothers were guided to perform suitable preventive activities through personal orientation, posters and slides. There were educational lectures at the beginning of the research, as well as every six months. The oral examination and the hygiene training of the mothers were conducted at the health units, community centers and a university. Aiming to verify the changes in the feeding and hygiene habits, questionnaires were applied at the beginning of the study and 12 months later. Results: The majority of the mothers hadn’t completed elementary school and the family income ranged from 1 to 3 minimum salaries. After 15 months, the drop-out rate was 23.8%. The incidence of caries, which was 7.3% in the 122 babies, evaluated with an average of 0.25 teeth with caries. Including the black spots, the incidence of caries was 9.8%, with an average of 0.4 teeth with caries. Conclusion: The educative/preventive program contributed to a lower caries incidence, and it stimulated the adoption of healthier habits. There was a decrease of 33% in night time bottle-feeding, and an increase of 20.9% in oral hygiene.

  10. Factors related to the dental caries incidence in youth: a cohort study in Brazilian Northeastern

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    Ana Karine Macedo Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract The conceptual model of the life course considers that health-disease is a dynamic process that is also affected by previous and current lifelong experiences. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of caries and its determinants in young people in Sobral-Ceará, Brazil. This was a cohort study of oral health started in 2000, with waves in 2006 and 2012. 482 young people aged 17-21 years were examined and interviewed. The incidence of caries between 2006 and 2012 was the outcome analyzed and the independent variables were socioeconomic conditions and use of oral health actions and services. The average incidence of caries was 2.95 teeth from the adolescence to the youth. It was found that social deprivation throughout life and deny access to the dentist during infancy implies a greater incidence of caries in youth, therefore, the use of services and oral health actions during the adolescence and youth have not been sufficient to reduce inequities in oral health.

  11. INCIDENCE OF SECONDARY ROOT CARIES LESIONS IN PATIENTS REFERRED FOR TREATMENT IN THE FACULTY OF DENTAL MEDICINE – SOFIA.

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    Mirela Marinova-Takorova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented study was to determine the incidence of secondary root caries lesions in patients referred for treatment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine – Sofia. Material/Methods: The subjects who took part in the study were patients referred for treatment of caries lesions in the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Sofia. They were interviewed for smoking, presence of systematic diseases and medications and debris and plaque were removed from natural teeth prior to examination. Dental examination was carried out with a dental mirror and a probe. Decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT were recorded. Root caries lesions, restorations of those lesions and secondary caries lesions were recorded separately. Results: A total number of 603 patients were examined. The frequency of appearance of root caries in the investigated population was 33.5% (202 patients. The whole number of root caries lesions was 857. Three hundred forty three (41.4% of those lesions were restored. Presence of secondary caries lesions was observed in 138 cases (39.1%. Conclusions: Based on the data obtained from the presented study it may be concluded that most of the root caries lesions remain untreated (58.8%. Secondary carious was diagnosed in 39.1% of the root caries restorations. The patients with secondary caries lesions presented with higher incidence of concomitant diseases and lower incidence of smoking.

  12. [Dental caries incidence in adolescents in a city Northeast Brazil, 2006].

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    Noro, Luiz Roberto Augusto; Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe; Mendes Júnior, Francisco Ivan Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tooth decay in adolescents, associated with socioeconomic status, access to services, and self-perceived oral health. This was a longitudinal study using an epidemiological survey of dental caries and a structured questionnaire with a sample of 688 adolescents residing in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil. Incidence increased progressively with age, from 1.60 at 12 years of age to 2.28 at 15, with a mean incidence of 1.86 decayed teeth per adolescent. Among the study variables, tooth pain in the previous six months [RR = 1.46 (1.22-1.76)], school lunch [RR = 1.45 (1.21-1.74)], frequency of dental appointments [RR = 1.48 (1.33-1.79)], and access to the Health Service [RR = 1.21 (1.01-1.45)], adjusted by perceived need for treatment, were associated with high caries incidence. It is essential for health professionals and health system managers to formulate public policies that are not limited merely to clinical and preventive aspects, encouraging the population to struggle for better living conditions and allowing equitable access to services and developing collective management of health actions.

  13. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

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    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-05

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  14. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

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    Masako Watanabe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3 at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls.The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  15. The incidence of caries and white spot lesions in orthodontically treated adolescents with a comprehensive caries prophylactic regimen--a prospective study.

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    Hadler-Olsen, Sigurd; Sandvik, Kristin; El-Agroudi, Mohammad A; Øgaard, Bjørn

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a comprehensive prophylactic regimen in reducing the incidence of white spot lesions (WSL) and caries during orthodontic treatment. Eighty consecutive patients, scheduled for fixed appliance treatment in both jaws were compared with a non-orthodontic matched-control group. The oral hygiene regimen consisted of brushing two to three times daily, flossing, fluoride rinse, and plaque disclosing tablets. Patients were requested to avoid carbonated soft drinks/acidic juices and candies. The WSL index of Gorelick et al. (Gorelick L, Geiger A M, Gwinnett A J 1982 Incidence of white spot formation after bonding and banding. American Journal of Orthodontics 81: 93-98) was used. Caries were scored according to Amarante et al. (Amarante E, Raadal M, Espelid I 1998 Impact of diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of dental caries in Norwegian children aged 5, 12 and 18 years. Community Dental Oral Epidemiology 26: 87-94). We collected data from all finished cases. It comprised 40 subjects in the orthodontic group (mean age: 13.6 years, range: 12-16 years) and 40 matched controls. The average treatment time was 18 months (range: 9-25 months). The mean increase in WSL index in the orthodontic group was 1.9 and 0.4 in the control group (P = 0.001). The mean increase in dentine caries was 0.5 lesions and 0.7 lesions in the in the orthodontic group and control group, respectively (P = 0.62). Twenty-three per cent of treated patients showed good compliance, 68 per cent moderate compliance, and 9 per cent poor compliance. The mean increase in WSL was 1.0, 1.4, and 3.3 in the good, moderate, and poor compliance group, respectively (P = 0.155). Orthodontically treated patients have significantly higher risk for developing WSL than untreated patients, while there is no difference with respect to development of new dentinal caries lesions. This study showed that a possible relationship between compliance and WSL development existed.

  16. Kadar leptin saliva dan kejadian karies gigi anak obesitas (Salivary leptin levels and caries incidence in obese children

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    Elfrida Atzmaryanni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with obesity have a lower incidence of caries. Salivary leptin levels of obese children is higher than normal children. Leptin is protein hormone, contained in saliva. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Purpose: The article was aimed to study the correlation of salivary leptin levels with caries incidence in obese children. Review: Mouth is reflection of the health status and so many changes occur as a weight gain. Child with obesity has a low incidence of caries than normal. This condition is associated with changes in oral cavity, especially the increase in salivary leptin. Caries is a disease of hard tissues cause by the activty of microorganisms, especially Streptococcus mutans. Salivary proteins maintain the balance of the ecosystem in the mouth. Leptin is a protein saliva, produced predominantly in adipose tissue and conduct active transport to saliva. Salivary leptin works in two ways: as an antimicrobial which prevents the attachment of bacteria on tooth surface or by inducing cytokine that affect the immune system in oral cavity. Conclusion: Salivary leptin is higher in obese children than in normal children. The low incidence of caries on obesity is associated with salivary leptin. Alteration in salivary composition and flow rate also decreased caries in obesity.Latar belakang: Anak yang mengalami obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah. Kadar leptin saliva anak obesitas lebih tinggi dari anak normal. Leptin merupakan salah satu protein hormon yang terdapat di saliva. Protein saliva berfungsi untuk menjaga keseimbangan ekosistem di mulut. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan mempelajari hubungan antara kadar leptin di dalam saliva dengan kejadian karies anak obesitas. Tinjauan pustaka: Rongga mulut merupakan cerminan dari status kesehatan dan banyak perubahan yang terjadi seiring peningkatan berat badan seseorang. Anak Obesitas memiliki insiden karies yang rendah jika dibandingkan

  17. Incidence of distal caries in mandibular second molars due to impacted third molars: Nonintervention strategy of asymptomatic third molars causes harm? A retrospective study

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    Srivastava, Nikhil; Shetty, Akshay; Goswami, Rahul Dev; Apparaju, Vijay; Bagga, Vivek; Kale, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Removal of impacted third molars is the most common oral surgical procedure. Many investigators have questioned the necessity of removal in patients who are free of symptoms or associated pathologies. Aim: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of caries on distal aspect of mandibular second molars in patients referred for corresponding third molar assessment and to identify its association with angular position and depth of the impacted mandibular third molars based on the classification of Pell and Gregory. Methodology: Records of 150 patients with impacted third molar presenting to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sri Rajiv Gandhi College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, were assessed retrospectively. The radiographic angulation and depth of mandibular third molar impaction were determined and compared to determine the relationship with incidence of caries on the distal surface of the second molar. Results: According to this study results, 37.5% cases show caries on the distal aspect of mandibular second molars. The incidence of caries with mesioangular impacted third molars was 55%. A majority of these mesioangular cases were Level B and Class I as per the Pell and Gregory classification. Conclusion: The prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molars is indicated if the angulation is between 30° and 70° and is justified by incidence of distal caries in the second molars. PMID:28251102

  18. Dental caries vaccine

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    Shivakumar K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.

  19. Uso de modelos epidemiológicos para estimar la incidencia de caries dental y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas Use of epidemiological models to estimate the incidence of dental caries and periodontal disease in Chilean pregnant women

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    G Corsini Muñoz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de caries y enfermedad periodontal en embarazadas chilenas mediante un modelo de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad (IPM. Material y Método: Se construyó un modelo IPM con la prevalencia estimada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud del año 2003 y los datos del Estudio de Carga de Enfermedad en Chile en el año 2007. Para efectos de estimar la población de mujeres embarazadas, se utilizó como variable de aproximación, los partos por edad de las mujeres según la información de los nacimientos registrado por el Instituto de Nacional de Estadística (INE. Los datos fueron ingresados en el programa DisMod para determinar las incidencias y comprobar la consistencia interna del modelo. Resultados: La incidencia de caries estimada por el modelo fue de 86.870 nuevos casos y de 7.983 casos incidentes al año para la enfermedad periodontal, en un universo estimado de 230.831 mujeres embarazadas. Conclusión: Los modelos epidemiológicos son una herramienta útil para determinar la epidemiología de cualquier enfermedad, en donde la estimación de la incidencia constituye un problema y estudios de investigación en campo serían muy costoso, de larga duración y/o en donde la problemática ética del estudio sería inaceptable.Objectives: To determine the incidence of caries and periodontal disease in pregnant Chilean women through an incidence, prevalence and mortality model (IPM. Material and Methods: An IPM model was constructed with the prevalence estimated the National Health Survey 2003 and data from the Burden of Disease study in Chile in 2007. The childbirths by age of women, according to the information from the National Statistics Institute, were used to estimate the population of pregnant women. Data were entered into the DisMod program to determine the incidence and check the internal consistency of the model. Results: The estimated incidence of caries by the model was of 86.870 new cases and 7

  20. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

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    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  1. [The incidence of caries in a school-age population sample of U.S.L. n. 15 Alta Val di Cecina-Volterra].

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    Benetti, G L; Dini, M

    1990-01-01

    It was made a screening on children of some filter classes (1st and 3d class of primary school and 1st class of secondary school) of the Volterra's schools to estimate the incidence of caries and, if necessary, to activate programs for an adequate prevention. We examined 749 children arrived to the Dental Department of the Sanitary District owing an invitation letter; a set of question was given to their parents testing mainly alimentary and oral hygienic uses of the children examined by dentists. Elaboration of data obtained from replies and demonstrated that caries incidence in our population is of 65.29%, prevailing on male sex, and that this pathology is predominant on people taking insufficient care of oral hygiene, making no use of fluoridated toothpaste and eating any of cakes (especially between meals). These data show the high incidence of caries in evolutional age and how much this is strictly connected with wrong alimentary and hygienic uses. Therefore, to reduce this phenomenon, it's necessary to operate interventions of sanitary education and dental checking examinations, at least every 6-12 months, beginning in preschool age.

  2. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

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    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  3. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L;

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations.......Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations....

  4. Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china

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    Xiao Huijuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005. Methods We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies. Results We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women. The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases. Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers. Conclusions Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.

  5. Alcoholic Pancreatitis: Pathogenesis, Incidence and Treatment with Special Reference to the Associated Pain

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    Antonio M. Morselli-Labate

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic pancreatitis continues to stir up controversy. One of the most debated points is whether from onset it is a chronic disease or whether it progresses to a chronic form after repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis. Histological studies on patients with alcoholic pancreatitis have shown that the disease is chronic from onset and that alcoholic acute pancreatitis occurs in a pancreas already damaged by chronic lesions. Genetic factors may also play a role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic disease. The incidence of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis seems to have decreased in the last twenty years. Finally, recent therapeutic studies which have shown medical or surgical approaches capable of reducing the pain episodes in chronic pancreatitis patients will be described.

  6. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  7. Use of occlusal sealant in a community program and caries incidence in high- and low-risk children

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    Vânia Baldini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal, and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0; low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0 risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement; HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement. A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents. For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25. High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover, the variables "risk" and "sealant placement" were predictors for DMFT increment in the studied children.

  8. Cancer incidence among patients with alcohol use disorders--long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mikkelsen, Pernille; Andersen, Tina Veje

    2009-01-01

    to 1140.8 expected cases (SIR = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.0), while 601 women developed cancer compared to 239.1 expected cases (SIR = 2.5; 95% CI 2.3-2.7). Highly significant and strongly elevated incidence rates were found for cancer of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx......AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the cancer morbidity in a large cohort of patients with alcohol use disorders in the general Danish population. METHODS: We included 15,258 men and 3552 women free of cancer when attending the Copenhagen Outpatient Clinic for Alcoholics in the period from...... 1954 to 1992. The cancer incidence until 1999 of the patients and the general Danish population was obtained through linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry. The incidence rates were standardized (SIR) according to sex, age and calendar time. RESULTS: A total of 2145 men developed cancer compared...

  9. Health Effects of Nursing Intervention on the Incidence of Dental Caries in Children%保健护理干预对儿童龋齿发病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王易; 刘荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨保健护理干预对儿童龋齿发病的影响。方法:选择笔者所在科室2012年1月收治的无龋齿的200例小儿为研究对象。按护理方法不同分为对照组和干预组,经一年的时间2013年1月进行观察两组的小儿龋齿发病情况。结果:经合理的保健护理干预干预组患龋齿人数明显低于对照组30%。结论:保健护理干预可以有效减少儿童龋齿的发病率。%Objective:To explore the effect of health care on the incidence of dental caries.Method:Selected our department in January 2012 collection without dental caries in 200 children cases as the object of study of health effects of nursing intervention on the incidence of dental caries in children.According to the nursing methods were divided into intervention group and control group,to observe the two groups of children with caries incidence after a year in 2013 January.Result:The reasonable care intervention group was significantly lower than control group,the number of dental caried 30%.Conclusion:Health nursing intervention can effectively reduce the incidence of dental caries in children.

  10. Nonnutritive, Low Caloric Substitutes for Food Sugars: Clinical Implications for Addressing the Incidence of Dental Caries and Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries and obesity are two common conditions affecting children in the United States and other developed countries. Caries in the teeth of susceptible children have often been associated with frequent ingestion of fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in childhood obesity. Fortunately, nonnutritive artificial alternatives and non-/low-caloric natural sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in partially addressing these health issues. Diet counseling is an important adjunct to oral health instruction. Although there are only five artificial sweeteners that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, there are additional five non-/low caloric sweeteners that have FDA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe designation. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, dental professionals should be aware of the nonnutritive non-/low caloric sweeteners available on the market and both their benefits and potential risks. Dental health professionals should also be proactive in helping identify patients at risk for obesity and provide counseling and referral when appropriate.

  11. Incidence of dental caries of children aged 3-6 years in kindergartens of Baotou Steel Company%包钢托幼园所3~6岁儿童龋齿患病情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the incidence of dental caries of children aged 36 years in kindergartens of Baotou Steel Company. [ Methods] An investigation was performed on dental caries data of 3 303 children from 13 kindergartens of Baotou Steel Company. [ Results ] A total of 1 143 children suffered from dental caries, the incidence was 34.60% , that of boy and girl was 34.59% and 34. 62% respectively. The difference of dental caries incidence was not significant between genders and age groups (^2 = 33. 12,P < 0. 01). [ Conclusion] Dental caries prevention should focus on the children with primary teeth, and coordinate with teacher and parents to implement dental caries control interventions.%目的 了解包钢托幼园所3~6岁幼儿龋齿患病情况.方法 对13所托幼园所的3 303名儿童龋齿资料进行调查分析.结果 共查出有1 143名儿童患龋齿,患龋率为34.60%,其中男童患龋率为34.59%,女童患龋率为34.62%.男女童患龋率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但各年龄组间差异有统计学意义(x2=33.12,P<0.01).结论 预防龋病要从儿童抓起,要从乳牙抓起,而且需要幼儿教师和家长的配合,实施龋齿防治的干预措施.

  12. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

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    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  13. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta-analysed using fixed-effect and random-effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed-effect meta-analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed  = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed  = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low-grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression.

  14. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M.; Martin, Richard M.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol‐metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study‐specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol‐metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer‐specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta‐analysed using fixed‐effect and random‐effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed‐effect meta‐analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low‐grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression. PMID:27643404

  15. Rampant Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    Although dental caries in the pediatric and adolescent population has consistently declined in the United States, it is still the most common childhood disease. Dental problems are the number one reason for missing school next to the common cold. Dental caries are an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by…

  16. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group: study in rats Efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre cárie dentária e sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans: estudo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Zanini Kantorski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG, 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG, and water (Control Group, CG. After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10³ were: 8.17 (AG, 9.78 (IG, and 5.63 (CG. There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58 was similar to that in the AG (2.06 and in the CG (1.14, and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14, IG (2.00 and CG (0.43. The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans e sobre cárie dentária na cavidade bucal de ratos. Quarenta animais foram divididos em 3 grupos conforme a dieta líquida administrada: solução de etanol a 20% (Grupo álcool, GA, solução de sacarose a 27% (Grupo isocalórico, GI e água (Grupo controle, GC. Após 56 dias, amostras bucais foram coletadas e semeadas em ágar Mitis Salivarius Bacitracina para contagem de unidades formadoras de col

  17. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice.

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    Karsten Buschard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethanol ('alcohol' is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules. METHODS: The study included cellular in vitro tests using α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer, and in vivo NOD mice experiments detecting diabetes incidence and performing behavioural and bacterial analyses. RESULTS: Alcohol in concentrations from 0.6% to 2.5% increased IL-2 production from NKT cells stimulated with αGalCer by 60% (p<0.05. CD1d expressed on HeLa cells contained significantly increasing amounts of αGalCer with increasing concentrations of alcohol, suggesting that alcohol facilitated the passive loading of αGalCer to CD1d. NOD mice were found to tolerate 5% ethanol in their drinking water without signs of impairment in liver function. Giving this treatment, the diabetes incidence declined significantly. Higher numbers of CD3+CD49b+ NKT cells were found in spleen and liver of the alcohol treated compared to the control mice (p<0.05, whereas the amount of CD4+Foxp3+ regulator T cells did not differ. Increased concentrations of IFN-γ were detected in 24-hour blood samples of alcohol treated mice. Behavioural studies showed no change in attitude of the ethanol-consuming mice, and bacterial composition of caecum samples was not affected by alcohol, disqualifying these as protective mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Alcohol facilitates the uptake of glycolipids and the stimulation of NKT cells, which are known to counteract Type 1 diabetes development. We propose that this is the acting mechanism by which treatment with alcohol reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice. This is corroborated by epidemiology showing beneficial effect of alcohol to reduce the severity of atherosclerosis and related diseases.

  18. Incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in Danish men and women with a prolonged heavy alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Frederiksen, M.E.; Thygesen, L.C.;

    2008-01-01

    rates of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases than the population in general. METHODS: The cohort comprised 19,185 subjects (15,368 men and 3,817 women) who attended outpatient clinics for alcohol abusers within the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (1954 to 1992). Incidence rates were standardized (SIR......BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have found U- or J-shaped relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular conditions. The influence of heavy drinking is, however, sparsely studied. The objective of the present study was to examine whether alcohol addicts have higher incidence.......45-2.99; women: SIR = 2.77; 95% CI 2.18-3.48). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates increased risks of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases in subjects with an excessive alcohol intake Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...

  19. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes.

  20. Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Hernandez-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the still unclear effect of the overall alcohol-drinking pattern, beyond the amount of alcohol consumed, on the incidence of cardiovascular clinical disease (CVD. Methods: We followed 14,651 participants during up to 14 years. We built a score assessing simultaneously seven dimensions of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP. It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, preference for wine, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. Results: During 142,177 person-years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality were identified. Compared with the category of better conformity with the MADP, the low-adherence group exhibited a non-significantly higher risk (HR of total CVD ((95% CI = 1.55 (0.58–4.16. This direct association with a departure from the traditional MADP was even stronger for cardiovascular mortality (HR (95% CI = 3.35 (0.77–14.5. Nevertheless, all these associations were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Better conformity with the MADP seemed to be associated with lower cardiovascular risk in most point estimates; however, no significant results were found and more powered studies are needed to clarify the role of the MADP on CVD.

  1. Baclofen for alcohol dependence in France: incidence of treated patients and prescription patterns--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Julie; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jouanjus, Émilie; Palmaro, Aurore; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Oustric, Stéphane; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2014-02-01

    Recently, baclofen has been widely promoted for treatment of alcohol dependence in France. Our aim was firstly to describe the incidence of patients newly treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in France from 2007 to 2011, and secondly to describe baclofen prescription patterns and prescribers. A retrospective cohort study of patients newly treated with baclofen was conducted using the "Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires" database (EGB). Patients with a first dispensation of baclofen between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2011, followed by a second in the next 120 days, were included. Patients were considered treated with baclofen for neurological conditions if at least one of the following conditions was found to be true: (1) presence of a neurological condition for which baclofen could be prescribed, (2) dispensation of dantrolene, another anti-spastic drug, or (3) hospitalization for a neurological condition for which baclofen could be prescribed. We assumed that all the remaining patients were treated for alcohol dependence. During the 5-year period, 676 patients were incident users. While the annual incidence rate of patients newly treated with baclofen for neurological conditions remained stable, the annual incidence rate of patients newly treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence increased by a factor of 2.9 between 2007 (0.09/1000 person-years) and 2011 (0.26/1000 person-years). In the alcohol dependence group, median duration of baclofen treatment was 143.5 [74.0; 377.0] days; median daily dose was 24.4 [14.8; 39.5] mg. This study demonstrated the rapidly increasing use of baclofen in France for treatment of alcohol dependence.

  2. Antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and glucosyltransferases in caries-free and caries-active military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus in 't Veld, J; Bannet, D; Van Palenstein Helderman, W; Camargo, P S; Backer-Dirks, O

    1978-01-01

    1) Plaque samples from caries-active recruits showed a higher incidence of S. mutans than plaque samples from caries-free recruits. The persistance of the S. mutans serotypes in the individual plaque samples attested to the consistency of S. mutans in human dental plaque. 2) S. mutans serotype d is predominantly present in approximal plaque of caries-active subjects. 3) Serum antibody titers against S. mutans are higher in caries-active individuals. 4) Sera from caries-free or caries-active individuals inhibit the insoluble glucan synthesis by the cellbound GTF to the same extent. 5) It is unlikely that antibodies against S. mutans in parotid saliva or serum play a major role in the protection against dental caries in Dutch military recruits.

  3. Assessment of the co-incidence between non alcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Sohair Abd El-Kader; El-Folly, Runia Fouad; Ahmed, Amr Mahmmoud

    2014-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of abnormal liver biochemistry and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Those with NAFLD have a higher prevalence of atherosclerosis, as shown by increased carotid artery intimal media thickness (CIMT). The aim of this study is to assess the co-incidence and prevalence between NAFLD and carotid atherosclerosis. In this study seventy-two subjects were categorized into 2 groups. GI: 52 patients diagnosed as NAFLD with diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity or hyperlipedemia. GII: 20 diseased controls diagnosed as NAFLD without other predisposing factor. CIMT and plaque prevalence were estimated by carotid ultrasonography as a single trained operator who was blind to clinical characteristics of participants. The results showed that CIMT by carotid duplex ultrasonography was significantly higher in group A than group B but CIMT did not reveal any significant difference as regards to the etiology of NAFLD. CIMT was significantly higher in cases with bright liver than those with homogenous liver (by abdominal US) in group I and II. CIMT was significantly higher in those with moderate steatosis than those with mild steatosis (in GI & GII).

  4. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.

  5. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stora, T.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were......The aim of the study was to elucidate some supposed core features of suicide through a study of suicide in a low-incidence population. The material covered all suicides and undetermined deaths 1945-2004 in the Faroe Islands (a low-incidence population) and the study made use of all available...... confirmed. Others were not, such as an increasing rate with old age. In diagnostics, the role of psychiatric disorders was confirmed, but so was a substantial role of "no disorder". Increase period revealed a high proportion of cases with alcohol involved and a substantial part included males, in age groups...

  6. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    confirmed. Others were not, such as an increasing rate with old age. In diagnostics, the role of psychiatric disorders was confirmed, but so was a substantial role of "no disorder". Increase period revealed a high proportion of cases with alcohol involved and a substantial part included males, in age groups...... 25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods...... information. Results showed that suicide rate had been low since the Second World War. However, there was an increase throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Supposed core features of suicide, such as gender, marital status, former psychiatric admittance, former suicidal behaviour, alcohol and method preference were...

  7. Avaliação da incidência de cárie em pacientes com síndrome de Down após sua inserção em um programa preventivo Evaluation of the incidence of dental caries in patients with Down syndrome after their insertion in a preventive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de cárie dentária por meio dos índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s em indivíduos com síndrome de Down regularmente matriculados em um programa preventivo. Foram examinados 24 indivíduos com síndrome de Down de ambos os sexos, com idade entre um e 48 anos. A prevalência (situação experimental inicial e a incidência (situação experimental final de cárie dentária foram verificadas utilizando-se os índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s iniciais e finais dos participantes. Dos 24 indivíduos examinados, dez (42,0% eram livres de cárie. A prevalência de cárie dentária mostrou valores de CPO-D= 2,33; CPO-S= 3,60; ceo-d= 1,75 e ceo-s= 2,80; enquanto a incidência de cárie apresentou valores de 2,33; 3,80; 1,10 e 1,90, respectivamente. Os indivíduos com síndrome de Down avaliados neste estudo apresentaram baixos índices de cárie e pequena incidência de novas lesões, enfatizando a importância da manutenção desses pacientes em programas preventivos.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of dental caries by means of the CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes in patients with Down syndrome regularly enrolled in a preventive program. Twenty four Down syndrome patients of both sexes age range of one to 48 years were examined. The prevalence (initial experimental situation and incidence (final experimental situation of dental caries were verified using of the initial and final CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes of the participants. From 24 individual examined, 10 (42.0% were free of caries. The prevalence of dental caries showed values of CPO-D= 2.33; CPO-S= 3.60; ceo-d= 1.75 e ceo-s= 2.80; while the incidence of caries showed values of 2.33; 3.80; 1.10 e 1.90, respectively. Down syndrome individuals evaluated in this study presented low level of caries and small incidence of new lesions, emphasizing the importance of the maintenance of these patients at

  8. Low incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a Danish liver unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semb, Synne; Dam-Larsen, Sanne; Mogensen, Anne Mellon

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of histological lesions ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Simple steatosis is generally benign, while NASH can progress to severe liver disease. The aim of the present study was to quantify...

  9. Investigation and analysis of incidence and risk factors for children decid-uous caries in Nanchang area%南昌地区儿童乳牙龋病发病率及发病因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云飞; 胡逸鹏; 郑巍; 张珅玮; 谢丹丹; 谢豪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate relationship of deciduous caries prevalence and the environment,diet,oral hygiene and other factors for 3~5 years old children at different levels of kindergartens in Nanchang area. Methods All 6 of municipal, district,community kindergartens of public and private from March 2014 to February 2015 were extracted 1224 cases of children aged 3~5 at the 5 districts and 4 counties of in Nanchang region.Kindergartens were divided in-to 408 excellence,544 medium nursery,272 Inferior Kindergarten in accordance with grading criteria.Incidence of de-ciduous caries, loss,make the case were analyzed and computed by influence factors and字2 test to obtain different lev-els of dental caries incidence at different grades kindergarten in Nanchang Area. Results Birth weight,feeding patterns, the number of children,whether taken care of by their parents,household income, dietary habits (drinking sweet milk, eating fresh fruit every day,every day into the dessert of frequency, before going to bed to eat findings dessert or drink sweet drinks),dental health protection (age of begin brushing,brushing times per day),and other aspects were statistically significant in excellence,middle and Inferior kindergarten (χ²=23.28,22.10,67.19,99.48,184.77,86.93,231.64,183.68, 394.83,488.20,388.30,P<0.01).Dental caries prevalence of children at excellence,middle and inferior kindergarten were respectively 41.18%, 65.44%, 78.31%,dental caries of children in three groups had statistically significant difference (χ²=10.14,P<0.01).Deciduous caries, lost, fill ratios of men and women were respectively 42.53%,40.14%,71.34%, 60.09%,94.87%,60.34%in excellence,middle, inferior kindergarten. Conclusion Caries prevalence of children aged 3~5 in Nanchang area is associated with the environment,diet,health habits. Improving the environment and eating habits,fo-cusing on oral health education can help to reduce the incidence of caries.%目的:探讨南昌

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. O uso de vernizes fluoretados e a redução da incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Fluoride varnishes and decrease in caries incidence in preschool children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Martins Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar se existe evidência conclusiva de que o verniz fluoretado reduz a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares. Foram feitas buscas nas bases eletrônicas BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE e Cochrane para identificar ensaios clínicos controlados que avaliassem o desenvolvimento de lesões cavitadas de cárie em crianças com até seis anos de idade. Dois pesquisadores analisaram criticamente os trabalhos selecionados para inclusão. Foram encontrados 513 artigos e oito foram incluídos. Esses estudos apresentaram problemas quanto ao desenho e, além disso, eram heterogêneos quanto à experiência prévia de cárie dos participantes, ao tipo de intervenção administrada ao grupo controle, à exposição das crianças a outras fontes de fluoretos, e ao intervalo entre as aplicações de verniz. As diferenças absolutas entre as incidências de cárie nos grupos controle e teste e as frações prevenidas variaram de 0,30 a 1,64 e de 5 a 63%, respectivamente. O verniz fluoretado parece ser efetivo para reduzir a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares, mas outros ensaios clínicos de melhor qualidade metodológica são necessários para se obter evidência conclusiva a esse respeito.The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate whether there is conclusive evidence that the professional application of fluoride varnish decreases the incidence of dental caries in preschool children. We searched the BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases to identify controlled clinical trials that evaluated the development of cavitated caries lesions in children up to six years of age. Two researchers performed a critical appraisal of the studies selected for inclusion. Five-hundred and thirteen articles were found, but only eight met our inclusion criteria. Most of these eight studies were of poor methodological quality. They were also heterogeneous in relation to participants

  13. Alcohol intake and the incidence of non-hodgkin lymphoid neoplasms in the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; McCullough, Marjorie L; Teras, Lauren R; Thun, Michael J; Patel, Alpa V

    2012-07-01

    Although several studies have shown a lower risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in alcohol drinkers compared with nondrinkers, the dose-response relation and potential differences between former and current drinking and across beverage types and subtypes are unclear. The authors examined associations of alcohol intake with risk of NHL and NHL subtypes in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of US men and women aged 50-74 years. Between 1992 and 2007, there were 1,991 incident NHL cases among 143,124 participants. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of NHL associated with former drinking was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 1.10); the relative risks associated with current intakes of 2 drinks/day were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.03), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06), and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.93), respectively. Associations did not differ by sex (P-interaction = 0.45) or beverage type (P-difference = 0.22). Alcohol intake was more strongly associated with B-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.005) than with T-cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.76), and associations were similar among B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In this prospective study, current heavy alcohol intake was associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Associations did not differ by beverage type and were slightly stronger for B-cell tumors than for T-cell tumors.

  14. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is not Related to the Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Shan Bi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic nephropathy was assessed in 413 type 2 diabetic patients, by testing the 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER. The NAFLD was diagnosed based on patient’s medical history and liver ultrasound. The difference in diabetic nephropathy incidence between patients with and without NAFLD was tested by χ2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Total 363 out of 413 type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. The incidences of NAFLD and diabetic nephropathy in participants were approximately 56% (202/363 and 38% (137/363 respectively, and there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy between patients with and without NAFLD (37.1% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.787. The duration of diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.014–1.120, p = 0.012, waist circumference (OR 1.077, 95% CI 1.040–1.116, p = 0.000, and fasting blood glucose (FBG; OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023–1.1262, p = 0.017 were significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, whereas sex, high blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and ankle brachial pressure index (ABI were not significantly associated with the disorder. The present results suggest that NAFLD is not related to the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but the duration of diabetes, waist circumference, and FBG are important factors for diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes.

  15. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  16. Diabetes enhances dental caries and apical periodontitis in caries-susceptible WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-02-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries.

  17. Association of alcohol consumption with incident hypertension among middle-aged and older Japanese population: the Ibarakai Prefectural Health Study (IPHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ota, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age on the relationship between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension in a general Japanese population. A cohort of Japanese men (n=37 310) and women (n=78 426) aged 40 to 79 years who underwent community-based health checkups from 1993 to 2004 and were free of hypertension were followed up with annual examinations, including the measurement of blood pressure, until the end of 2010. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg, or the initiation of treatment for hypertension. Hazard ratios for incident hypertension according to alcohol consumption were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for possible confounding variables. A total of 45 428 participants (39.3%) developed hypertension (16 155 men and 29 273 women) for a mean follow-up time of 3.9 (1-18) years. Significant associations between alcohol consumption and incident hypertension were found in both sexes and age groups (P for trend was hypertension was found in either sex (P for interaction, >0.05). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption is a similar risk factor for incident hypertension in both the middle-aged and the older populations.

  18. Incidence and remission of specific IgE aeroallergen sensitization from age of 40 to 60 years, and association with alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Friedrich, N; Husemoen, L L N

    2010-01-01

    sensitization from the age of 40 to 60 years. Furthermore, we examined the relationship of alcohol consumption to the prevalence and incidence of aeroallergen sensitization. METHODS: In 1976-1977, a total of 1,200 people born in 1936 and randomly selected from the general population were invited for a health......BACKGROUND: Data on incidence and long-term persistence of IgE aeroallergen sensitization in older adults are limited. Alcohol consumption is a strong immune-modulator with a significant impact on the IgE response. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the incidence and remission of aeroallergen...... consumption (>14 drinks per week) at 40 years was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of sensitization at 40 years, but not with the incidence of sensitization. CONCLUSIONS: In older adults, aeroallergen sensitization as reflected by serum-specific IgE positivity to aeroallergens is a dynamic...

  19. PRIMARY CARIES: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary caries is an initial lesions produced by direct extension from an external surface. Dental caries is called as tooth decay or a cavity is a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid which than dematerializes the hard tooth structure like enamel, dentin and cementum. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries by acid production. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment and prevention of it. A review of some patents on dental caries is also provided that summarizes the recent technical advancements taken place in this area.

  20. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christina Carvalho, Joana; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2016-01-01

    process on occlusal surfaces. In addition, it considers the whole spectrum of the caries process on occlusal surfaces, ranging from the molecular ecology of occlusal biofilms to the management of deep occlusal caries lesions. Studies using molecular methods with focus on biofilms in relation to occlusal...... caries should explore the relationship between the function and the structural composition of these biofilms to understand the role of occlusal biofilms in caries development. State-of-the-art measures to evaluate risk for occlusal caries lesion activity, caries incidence, and progression should include...... the assessment of the occlusal biofilm and the stage of tooth eruption. Careful clinical examination of non-cavitated lesions, including assessment of the lesion activity status, remains the major tool to determine the immediate treatment need and to follow on the non-operative treatment outcome. Even medium...

  1. Incidence of craving for and abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in different populations of treated alcoholics: an open comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, F; Francini, S; Stoppo, M; Lorenzini, F; Vignoli, T; Del Re, A; Comaschi, C; Leggio, L; Addolorato, G; Zoli, G; Bernardi, M

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence of craving for and abuse of GHB in 47 patients enrolled and divided into four groups: group A (pure alcoholics), group B (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from cocaine dependence), group C (alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin dependence) and group D (alcoholics in a methadone maintenance treatment [MMT] programme). All patients were treated with an oral dose of GHB (50 mg/kg of body weight t.i.d.) for three months. Craving for GHB was statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P GHB proved to be statistically significant higher in group B than in group A (P GHB in alcoholics with a sustained full remission from heroin or cocaine dependence is not recommended; however, this should not discourage physicians from using GHB for the treatment of pure alcoholics or alcohol dependents following a MMT.

  2. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  3. Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Contexto familiar e incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares residentes em áreas do Estratégia Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Frederico de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial factors influence family care and can jeopardize child development. This study aimed to analyze the association between maternal common mental disorders and incidence of early dental caries in preschool-age children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in a cohort design. A total of 472 children were examined and their mothers were interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Incidence of at least one tooth with caries was 21.19%, while 7.84% of the children showed high risk of caries. The results after adjusting for the child's age and maternal schooling showed that maternal common mental disorders were associated with high caries risk in deciduous teeth (adjusted RR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.05-5.56, among children with 6 or fewer home appliances in the household; adjusted RR = 3.44, 95%CI: 1.06-11.17, among those that brushed twice or less per day. Maternal mental problems were associated with the development of caries in preschoolers.Fatores psicossociais influenciam o cuidado no contexto familiar, podendo prejudicar o desenvolvimento infantil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre transtornos mentais comuns maternos e a incidência de cárie precoce em crianças na faixa etária pré-escolar, residentes em áreas cobertas pelo Estratégia Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, em um estudo de coorte. Foram examinadas 472 crianças, e suas mães foram entrevistadas, no período de 2007 a 2008. A incidência de pelo menos 1 dente cariado foi de 21,19%, enquanto 7,84% das crianças apresentaram alto risco de cárie. Os resultados após ajuste por idade da criança e escolaridade materna mostraram que transtornos mentais comuns maternos associaram-se ao alto risco de cárie em dentes decíduos (RR ajustado = 2,41, IC95%: 1,05-5,56, entre as crianças com 6 ou menos eletrodomésticos no domicílio; RR ajustado = 3,44, IC95%: 1,06-11,17, entre as que realizavam escova

  4. Root caries, root surface restorations and lifestyle factors in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Ekstrand, Kim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate selected lifestyle factors in relation to active caries and restored root surface lesions in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on clinical examinations and questionnaires, data on root caries, socioeconomic status, body mass index, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, tobacco...... dentures were significantly associated with presence of active root caries (p tobacco use and alcohol...... consumption, as well as wearing dentures, were significantly associated with the occurrence of untreated caries and restored root surface lesions, especially in persons over 45. Thus, such lifestyle factors should be taken into consideration, identifying persons with a need of preventive dental services...

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  6. Modern approaches to caries management of the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Evans, D J P

    2013-06-01

    When prevention of dental caries fails, and a child is exposed to the risk of pain and infection, the disease must be managed to reduce this risk. There is growing evidence supporting more 'biological' and fewer 'surgical' approaches to managing dental caries in primary teeth. These biological methods include partial and stepwise caries removal procedures, as well as techniques where no caries is removed. An overview of clinical trials comparing these biological methods to complete caries removal shows that they perform as well as traditional methods and have the advantage of reducing the incidence of iatrogenic pulpal exposures. The Hall Technique is one biological approach to managing caries in primary molars which involves sealing caries beneath preformed metal (stainless steel) crowns. The crown is cemented over the tooth without caries removal, tooth preparation or use of local anaesthesia. The clinical steps for the Hall Technique are straightforward but, as with all dental care provision, appropriate treatment planning for the procedure requires skill. The Hall Technique offers another method of managing early to moderately advanced, active carious lesions in primary molars, with good evidence of effectiveness and acceptability. This evidence aligns with the positive findings of other studies on biological strategies for managing caries in primary teeth.

  7. Caries risk assessment models in caries prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Zukanović

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this research was to assess the efficiency of different multifactor models in caries prediction. Material and methods. Data from the questionnaire and objective examination of 109 examinees was entered into the Cariogram, Previser and Caries-Risk Assessment Tool (CAT multifactor risk assessment models. Caries risk was assessed with the help of all three models for each patient, classifying them as low, medium or high-risk patients. The development of new caries lesions over a period of three years [Decay Missing Filled Tooth (DMFT increment = difference between Decay Missing Filled Tooth Surface (DMFTS index at baseline and follow up], provided for examination of the predictive capacity concerning different multifactor models. Results. The data gathered showed that different multifactor risk assessment models give significantly different results (Friedman test: Chi square = 100.073, p=0.000. Cariogram is the model which identified the majority of examinees as medium risk patients (70%. The other two models were more radical in risk assessment, giving more unfavorable risk –profiles for patients. In only 12% of the patients did the three multifactor models assess the risk in the same way. Previser and CAT gave the same results in 63% of cases – the Wilcoxon test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in caries risk assessment between these two models (Z = -1.805, p=0.071. Conclusions. Evaluation of three different multifactor caries risk assessment models (Cariogram, PreViser and CAT showed that only the Cariogram can successfully predict new caries development in 12-year-old Bosnian children.

  8. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  9. Caries og drikkevandets kvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Bardow, Allan; Bruvo, Maja;

    2011-01-01

    Drikkevandskvaliteten har stor betydning for forekomsten af caries blandt 15 årige skolebørn, også selv om de bruger fluoridholdigt tandpasta. Ud over den kendte effekt af fluorid har vi vist, at calcium også har en væsentlig betydning. Begge ioner forebygger caries. Denne viden har væsentlig...

  10. CARI-7A: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Kyle

    2017-01-10

    Aircrew members can be exposed to higher annual doses of natural ionizing radiation than members of the general population in most parts of the world. The principal ionizing radiation to which they are exposed is galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Among the particles present in the primary spectrum are heavy ions: relativistic nuclei of lithium and heavier elements. These ions have very high radiation weighting factors and can contribute significantly to the effective dose at altitudes above the Pfotzer maximum. This report describes the latest version of the US Federal Aviation Administration's GCR flight dose calculation software, CARI-7A. Unlike its predecessor, CARI-6, CARI-7A directly includes heavy ion transport, using a database of atmospheric particle spectra generated by incident GCR ions pre-calculated with MCNPX 2.7.0. to enable calculations to the edge of space. Results are compared with measurements aboard commercial passenger aircraft, high altitude research aircraft and similar calculations by others.

  11. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  12. Risk factors for caries - control and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melida Hasanagić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11 from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth was determined, as well as failure in keeping teethhygiene, sugar intake with food, and incidence of oral cavity infection.Results. The dental state of permanent teeth in children aged 7and 9 has shown significant difference between the children fromrural and urban areas (p < 0,001. Out of 2,698 and 2,790 permanentteeth in children aged 11 from rural and urban areas, 1,086(40,25 % and 884 (31.68 % had caries, respectively (p < 0.01.The difference between these groups of children has been foundin relation to the index of oral hygiene too (p < 0.05.Conclusion. An identification of risk groups for getting caries wasvery important and could help health and social structures to maintaintheir programs in order to improve oral health.

  13. 甘肃临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况的抽样调查与分析%Incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture:a sampling survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司庆宗; 安晓莉; 李淼; 马占海; 马玉梅; 赵望泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. Methods Root caries in 436 Hui elderly people aged 65 -74 years and their clinical examination were investigated with questionnaire by random sampling according to the third national oral health survey standards and methods. Results The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture was 28. 90% , with mean number of root caries of 0. 42. No significant difference was found in the incidence of root caries between urban and rural areas and between male and female (P >0.05). The filling rate of root caries was only 0. 68%. The root caries index ( RCI) value was 2. 85% and 2.76% , respectively, in the distal and mesial surfaces. The RCI value was higher in maxillary teeth than in corresponding mandibular teeth. Root caries involving one root surface was detected in 88. 7% of Hui elderly people. Logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of teeth brushing and sugar food intake was closely related with the occurrence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture ( OR; 0. 492,95%C7:0.317 to 0.764,P =0.002;OR:l. 654,95%C/:1.033 to 2.648,P =0.036). Conclusion The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is low due to their good oral health and life habits. However, root caries is rarely treated, thus needing instructions on their oral health and taking more preventive measures against their oral diseases.%目的 了解并分析甘肃省临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样方法对436例临夏回族65 ~ 74岁老年人进行问卷调查及根面龋的口腔临床检查.结果 临夏市65 ~ 74岁回族老年人恒牙根面龋患病率为28.90%,龋均为0.42.患龋率和龋均在城乡和性别

  14. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup; Jensen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol ('alcohol') is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules.......Ethanol ('alcohol') is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules....

  15. Xilitol and dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marten Titus

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries is a widespread multifactoral disease. The main sympthons are minaral loss from tooth enemal and dentine, eventually leading to total destruction of the teeth, pain, impairment of mastication and problems with facial esthetics. ... Zie: Summary

  16. Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  17. Non-Fatal Injury in Thailand From 2005 to 2013: Incidence Trends and Links to Alcohol Consumption Patterns in the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Wakabayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods: A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baseline (2005 and 8 years later (2013. Incident non-fatal traffic and non-traffic injuries were recorded. Alcohol consumption patterns were categorized as follows: nondrinkers, occasional light drinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, regular drinkers, and ex-drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess associations in 2005 and 2013 between injuries and alcohol consumption. We adjusted odds ratios (ORs for socio-demographic factors, stress, health behaviors, and risk-taking behaviors. Results: Incidence estimates in 2013 were standardized to the age structure of 2005: the standardized rates were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.32–9.89 for participants with at least one non-traffic injury and 5% (95% CI, 4.86–5.29 for those with at least one traffic injury. Both standardized incidences for non-traffic and traffic injuries were significantly lower than corresponding rates in 2005 (20% and 6%, respectively. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with non-traffic injury in 2005, but the association disappeared in 2013. For example, nontraffic injury was associated with regular drinking (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.40 in 2005, but not in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.10. In both survey years, traffic injury was not associated with occasional heavy drinking when adjusted for health and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions: We examined non-fatal injury and the health-risk transition in Thailand in 2005 and 2013. Our data revealed decreases in alcohol consumption and non-fatal injury in the Thai Cohort between 2005 and 2013. Alcoholrelated injury in Thailand today

  18. Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, B F; Goldstein, R B; Chou, S P; Huang, B; Stinson, F S; Dawson, D A; Saha, T D; Smith, S M; Pulay, A J; Pickering, R P; Ruan, W J; Compton, W M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to present nationally representative findings on sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV) substance, mood and anxiety disorders using the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. One-year incidence rates of DSM-IV substance, mood and anxiety disorders were highest for alcohol abuse (1.02), alcohol dependence (1.70), major depressive disorder (MDD; 1.51) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 1.12). Incidence rates were significantly greater (Pdisorders and greater among women for mood and anxiety disorders except bipolar disorders and social phobia. Age was inversely related to all disorders. Black individuals were at decreased risk of incident alcohol abuse and Hispanic individuals were at decreased risk of GAD. Anxiety disorders at baseline more often predicted incidence of other anxiety disorders than mood disorders. Reciprocal temporal relationships were found between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. Borderline and schizotypal personality disorders predicted most incident disorders. Incidence rates of substance, mood and anxiety disorders were comparable to or greater than rates of lung cancer, stroke and cardiovascular disease. The greater incidence of all disorders in the youngest cohort underscores the need for increased vigilance in identifying and treating these disorders among young adults. Strong common factors and unique factors appear to underlie associations between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. The major results of this study are discussed with regard to prevention and treatment implications.

  19. Genetics and caries: prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rezende Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries remains the most prevalent non-contagious infectious disease in humans. It is clear that the current approaches to decrease the prevalence of caries in human populations, including water fluoridation and school-based programs, are not enough to protect everyone. The scientific community has suggested the need for innovative work in a number of areas in cariology, encompassing disease etiology, epidemiology, definition, prevention, and treatment. We have pioneered the work on genetic studies to identify genes and genetic markers of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic value. This paper summarizes a presentation that elaborated on these initial findings.

  20. Remineralization of initial enamel caries in vitro using a novel peptide based on amelogenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danxue; Lv, Xueping; Tu, Huanxin; Zhou, Xuedong; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Linglin

    2015-09-01

    Dental caries is the most common oral disease with high incidence, widely spread and can seriously affect the health of oral cavity and the whole body. Current caries prevention measures such as fluoride treatment, antimicrobial agents, and traditional Chinese herbal, have limitations to some extent. Here we design and synthesize a novel peptide based on the amelogenin, and assess its ability to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries lesions. We used enamel blocks to form initial lesions, and then subjected to 12-day pH cycling in the presence of peptide, NaF and HEPES buffer. Enamel treated with peptide or NaF had shallower, narrower lesions, thicker remineralized surfaces and less mineral loss than enamel treated with HEPES. This peptide can promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries and inhibit the progress of caries. It is a promising anti-caries agent with various research prospects and practical application value.

  1. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. ...

  2. Physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption in association with incidence of type 2 diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a prevalent chronic disease worldwide. The prevalence of T2DM is increasing rapidly in China. Understanding the contribution of modifiable lifestyle factors on T2DM risk is imperative to prevent the development of T2DM in China. METHODS: We examined associations between lifestyle factors including physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption with incidence of T2DM among middle-aged and elderly men in urban Shanghai. Information on socio-demographics, lifestyle habits, dietary habits, and disease history was collected via in-person interviews. Anthropometric measurements were taken. A total of 51 464 Chinese men aged 40-74 years free of T2DM, coronary heart disease (CHD, and stroke at baseline were included in the current study. Incident T2DM was identified through follow-up surveys conducted every 2-3 years. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between lifestyle risk factors and incidence of T2DM. RESULTS: We documented 1304 new cases of T2DM during 276 929 person-years of follow-up (average: 5.4 years. Physical activity was inversely associated with T2DM risk. Daily living, commuting, and total physical activity METs had inverse negative dose-response relationships with T2DM (P-trend = 0.0033, 0.0022, and <0.0001, respectively. Regular participation in exercise or sports reduced T2DM risk (HR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76-0.98. Moderate alcohol intake (1-3 drinks/day was inversely related to T2DM risk (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.94. Cigarette smoking, on the other hand, was associated with increased T2DM risk; HRs were 1.25 (95%CI: 1.00-1.56 for smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and 1.28 (95%CI: 1.04-1.57 for smoking more than 40 pack-years. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity and moderate alcohol intake are inversely associated with T2DM risk, whereas smoking was positively associated with T2DM risk among middle-age and elderly Chinese men. Preventive measures should

  3. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  4. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  5. Caries diagnosis using laser fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Souza-Campos, Dilma H.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2000-03-01

    Caries prevention is a goal to be achieved by dentist in order to promote health. There are several methods used to detect dental caries each one presenting advantages and disadvantages, especially regarding hidden occlusal caries. The improvement of laser technology has permitted the use of laser fluorescence for early diagnosis of hidden occlusal caries. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the use of 655 nm laser light on the detection of hidden occlusal caries. Forty molar teeth from patients of both sexes which ages ranging from 10 - 18 years old were used on this study. Following manufacture's instructions regarding the use of the equipment, the teeth had their occlusal surface examined with the DIAGNOdent. Twenty six of 40 teeth had hidden occlusal caries detected by the DIAGNOdent. However only 17 of these 26 teeth showed radiographic signs of caries the other 9 teeth showed no radiological signs of the lesion. Radiographic examination was able to identify 34,61% of false negative cases. This means that many caries would be left untreated due to the lack of diagnosis using both visual and radiographic examination. The use of the DIAGNOdent was effective in successfully detecting hidden occlusal caries.

  6. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  7. Design of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaechi Bennett T

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries incidence in adults is similar to that in children and adolescents, but few caries preventive agents have been evaluated for effectiveness in adults populations. In addition, dentists direct fewer preventive services to their adult patients. Xylitol, an over-the-counter sweetener, has shown some potential as a caries preventive agent, but the evidence for its effectiveness is not yet conclusive and is based largely on studies in child populations. Methods/Design X-ACT is a three-year, multi-center, placebo controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that tests the effects of daily use of xylitol lozenges versus placebo lozenges on the prevention of adult caries. The trial has randomized 691 participants (ages 21-80 to the two arms. The primary outcome is the increment of cavitated lesions. Discussion This trial should help resolve the overall issue of the effectiveness of xylitol in preventing caries by contributing evidence with a low risk of bias. Just as importantly, the trial will provide much-needed information about the effectiveness of a promising caries prevention agent in adults. An effective xylitol-based caries prevention intervention would represent an easily disseminated method to extend caries prevention to individuals not receiving caries preventive treatment in the dental office. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055

  8. Evaluation of Interproximal Caries with Using of Bitewing Radiography in Dental Student of Islamic Azad University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahba

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the common diseases in the world. It is an infective disease which is caused by loss of minerals and destruction of dental tissues. One of the most effective ways to diagnose the interproximal caries is radiography. Bitewing radiography is the best way for caries diagnosis.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the interproximal caries in dental students of Islamic Azad University.Materials and Methods: This research was a cross sectional study that was conducted on 89 students of the Azad University consisting of 48 females and 41 males who were selected by random sampling. For each individual student left and right posterior bitewing radiographs were taken with a standard method (the interproximal spaces were between 6-7,5,6 and 4,5. Thus 12 interproximal spaces were examined in each individual. The most proximal cavitation surfaces were detected in the upper Jaw.Results: Results revealed that 6 individuals (6.7% were totally caries free and 83 individuals (93.3% showed interproxmal caries. Out of 1068 proximal spaces which had been studied 794 Spaces (73.4% were caries free and 274 surfaces (25.7% had caries.Conclusion: The high incidence of proximal caries and the possibility of missing them in the routine examinations make the bitewing radiographs an effective procedure for diagnosis.

  9. Caries risk estimation in children regarding values of saliva buffer system components and carboanhydrase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurdilović Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the preconditions for efficacious systematic reduction of caries prevalence and prophylaxis is the determination of risks of this disease appearance. The aim of this study was to prove the significance of salivary carboanhydrase activity determination in estimation of caries risk in children. Methods. The study included 123 children of average age of 13.4±0.3 years and permanent dentition. The children were divided into two groups according to caries risk (low and high caries risk groups. Two samples of saliva - unstimulated and stimulated one were taken from each child. Salivary carboanhydrase activity, as well as pH value, bicarbonate and phosphate buffer levels were estimated in both group of saliva samples. Results. The investigation showed significantly higher carboanhydrase activity (p < 0.001 in both saliva samples in low caries risk group compared to high caries risk one. In children with low caries risk, both unstimulated and stimulated saliva show significantly higher bicarbonate and phosphate buffer concentrations (p < 0.001, as well as pH values. Conclusion. The lower caries incidence could be expected in children with high carboanhydrase activity and higher salivary buffer system parameters levels. The presented results suggest that salivary carboanhydrase activity represents the important marker of individual susceptibility for caries appearance in children.

  10. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Berg Joel H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify ...

  11. Prognosis of caries increment with past caries experience variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Palenstein Helderman, W H; van't Hof, M A; van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to select past caries experience variables as caries predictors and to compare their prognostic accuracy with the variables used in a method of caries prognosis developed in a Swiss child population. The data used for the analyses originated from an 8-year longitudinal study starting in 1980 on caries of 7.5-year-old Dutch children. Stepwise logistic regression analyses provided predictor variables. The newly introduced variables D23fi, D(123)i and D23pifi were interchangeable and the most powerful caries predictors. For the sake of uniformity and ease of application, D23fi (number of fissures of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries lesions) was chosen as the first variable in the logistic regression equations. The gain in accuracy of the second and third predictor variables (number of sound primary molars and the number of buccal and lingual smooth surfaces of the permanent first molar with non-cavitated or cavitated caries) in the regression equations was limited. The D1 condition of surfaces could be omitted from the prediction models. The present forced three-predictor-regression equations for 7.5-, 9.5- and 11.5-year-old children were evaluated to assess their prognostic performance by using the area under the ROC curve as a measure of prognostic quality. For the present regression equations, the area under the ROC curve was 81-87%, which was higher compared to the Swiss regression equations for caries prognosis.

  12. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  13. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... for prediction purposes, as measured until now in the literature, is at best questionable in schoolchildren, adolescents and adults. That is not to say these additional factors should not be assessed to help understand the strength of their associations with the disease experience in a particular patient......, and aid in the development of an individualized and targeted preventive and management plan....

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  16. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  17. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  18. Prediction of dental caries activity

    OpenAIRE

    Crossner, Claes-Göran

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to find a test for prediction of caries activity which would be useful in routine clinical work.Correlations between oral health, general health, food habits and socioeconomic conditions were investigated in 4- and 8-year-old children. It was found that the salivary secretion rate and the prevalence of oral lactobacilli were factors which might be useful in caries prediction.In 5- and 8-year-old children negative correlations between caries frequency and secr...

  19. A comparative study of oral health amongst trisomy 21 children living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Part 1 caries, malocclusion, trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AlSarheed

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: While there was no significant difference in the incidence of caries between children with and without T21, practitioners should be aware of the disparities in malocclusion and trauma in this vulnerable population.

  20. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  1. [Dental caries--therapeutic possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perić, Tamara; Marković, Dejan; Zivković, Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.

  2. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  3. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Hoceini

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries. Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  4. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  5. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  6. Ethnicity matters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Non-Linear Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Prevalence and Incidence of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roerecke

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed a complex association with hepatic steatosis with substantial differences by ethnicity and sex. Low alcohol consumption was beneficial in Japan with good epidemiological evidence, whereas there was no association in other countries. However, heterogeneity was large in countries other than Japan. More and higher quality research in diverse ethnic populations is needed to further clarify this relationship.

  7. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  8. Nutrition and Experimental Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    田村,俊吉; タムラ, シュンキチ; Shunkichi, TAMURA

    1983-01-01

    Nutrition is an effective factor for the inhibition of the development of dental caries. The constitution of diet has a strong bearing on the development of dental caries. However the theoretical background regarding the development of dental caries has not been sastifactorily established. Experimentally, we have clarified the relation of nutrition and dental caries in rats. Experimental animals used in this study were Wistar strain Albino rats (closed colony, Tamura, 1950). Young rats of 21 ...

  9. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  10. Caries og de nye nationale indkaldeintervaller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, Kim; Bruun, Gitte; Bakhshandeh, Azam

    2015-01-01

    obligatorisk at gøre under de nye retningslinjer. Det gennemgås, hvilke behandlinger der er relevante for patienten i forhold til de tre cariesdiagnoser: Caries dentalis progressiva superficialis (CS), Caries dentalis progressiva media (CM) og Caries dentalis progressiva profunda (CP). Diagnoserne angiver...

  11. Validation of Visual Caries Activity Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guedes, R S; Piovesan, C; Ardenghi, T M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive and construct validity of a caries activity assessment system associated with the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in primary teeth. A total of 469 children were reexamined: participants of a caries survey performed 2 yr before (follow-up ra...

  12. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  13. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than......PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  14. A novel caries risk test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  15. Adjunct methods for caries detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of adjunct methods used to detect and quantify dental caries. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Abstracts and full text articles were assessed i...

  16. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical appl

  17. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  18. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries (tooth decay is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old with caries (n = 20 and without caries (n = 20 were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05. The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05. Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05. The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries.

  19. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  20. Diagnosis of Dentin Caries – Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunov Ts.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The technology advance in recent years determines the need of construction of modern appliances for early diagnosis of dental caries, which are categorized by great precision, non-invasiveness, easy usage and wide availability. Such non-invasive and accurate tool for diagnostics of caries is Caries Detector (LED, Bulgarian product by “Optica Laser”. The detector emits a specific wavelength of near ultraviolet light, which causes fluorescence to porphyrins - metabolic products of the life cycle of caries-inducing bacteria. The purpose of the study is piloting a new diagnostic tool for detection and monitoring of caries excavation based on fluorescence - LED UV caries detector of company “Optica laser”. Subjected to examination by caries indicator dye and UV caries detector were sixty permanent teeth with deep dentine caries. Two methods were used to assess the dentin caries - UV fluorescence detector of “Optica Laser” and staining with caries indicator - dye (Sable ™ Seek®. It was found that among all sixty teeth, the fields, closed by margins of carious process overlap. Fifty-four of tested teeth has shown bigger field of images with staining method and six - smaller in comparison to the fluorescent method. Ultraviolet fLuorescence caries detector of “Optica Laser” company is affordable and easy applicable method for controlled excavation of dentine caries. The detector can be used in daily dental practice equally with other methods. The unit has a number of advantages - non-invasiveness, lack of interaction with tooth structures, speed, reliability, efficiency, predictability and repeatability of results.

  1. Disfunção familiar referida pela presença de depressão materna e/ou alcoolismo na família e ocorrência de cárie dentária em crianças de dois e três anos de idade Family dysfunction related to maternal depression and/or alcoholism in the family and dental caries in children from two to three years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto de Andrade Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: identificar a associação entre disfunção familiar, referida pela presença de alcoolismo na família e/ou presença de sintomas de depressão materna e a cárie dentária em crianças de dois e três anos de idade. MÉTODOS: a população consistiu de 74 famílias de Salvador, Bahia. A coleta de dados compreendeu o exame bucal das crianças e a entrevista com suas mães no domicílio. Foram utilizados para o diagnóstico de cárie dentária os critérios adotados pela da Organização Mundial de Saúde, classificando posteriormente a prevalência da doença. Para a identificação de sintomas de depressão materna e/ou caso de alcoolismo na família foram utilizados o Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20 e a escala CAGE adaptada, respectivamente. Procedeu-se a análise descritiva, e a razão de prevalência ajustada para as variáveis de confusão estimada por meio de regressão logística não-condicional. RESULTADOS: a população revelou-se homogênea no perfil socioeconômico. A prevalência de cárie em crianças foi de 20,2%. Observou-se uma associação positiva entre disfunção familiar e cárie (RPbruta= 3,06; IC95%: 1,07-8,75. Quando este modelo foi ajustado pelas covariáveis de confusão, chefia da família e situa-ção de trabalho materno nos últimos dois anos, detectou-se incremento da associação (RPajustada= 7,35; IC95%: 1,50-36,07. CONCLUSÕES: existe uma associação entre disfunção familiar e ocorrência de cárie dentária em crianças de dois e três anos de idade.OBJECTIVES: identify the association between family dysfunction related to the presence of alcoholism in the family and/or maternal depression symptoms and dental cavities/caries in children from two to three years old. METHODS: population comprised of 74 families in Salvador, Bahia. Data collection consisted of the cli-nical examination of the children and interviews of their mothers at home. Criteria of the World Health Organization were used to

  2. X-ray grazing incidence studies of the 2D crystallization of monolayers of 1-alcohols at the air water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, J.F.; Renault, A.; Konovalov, O.

    1994-01-01

    A new undulator producing an X-ray beam of high brilliance has been used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Beamline-9, Troika) for investigating the structure of two-dimensional crystals of 1-tetradecanol, 1-dodecanol, 1-decanol and 1-nonanol. These fatty alcohols...

  3. Visual Inspection for Caries Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, T; Piovesan, C; Braga, M M

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to perform a systematic review including a meta-analysis to evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting carious lesions and to identify possible sources of heterogeneity among the studies included. Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and other sources through...... July 2014 to identify published and nonpublished studies in English. Studies of visual inspection were included that 1) assessed accuracy of the method in detecting caries lesions; 2) were performed on occlusal, proximal, or free smooth surfaces in primary or permanent teeth; 3) had a reference...... (from 5,808 articles initially identified) and 1 abstract (from 168) met the inclusion criteria. In general, the analysis demonstrated that the visual method had good accuracy for detecting caries lesions. Although laboratory and clinical studies have presented similar accuracy, clinically obtained...

  4. Understanding Caries From the Oral Microbiome Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Anne C R; Kressirer, Christine A; Faller, Lina L

    2016-07-01

    Dental caries is a major disease of the oral cavity with profound clinical significance. Caries results from a transition of a healthy oral microbiome into an acidogenic community of decreased microbial diversity in response to excessive dietary sugar intake. Microbiological cultivation, molecular identification, gene expression and metabolomic analyses show the importance of the entire microbial community in understanding the role of the microbiome in the pathology of caries.

  5. Current possibilities in occlusal caries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jurić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that affects most populations throughout the world and it is still the primary cause of oral pain and tooth loss. The occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth are the most vulnerable sites for dental caries due to their anatomy. Therefore, the aim of the following article is to summarize current knowledge on occlusal caries development and the possibilities of its prevention. Although the overall caries rate today has fallen for populations in industrialized countries, the rate of occlusal surface caries has not decreased. This may be explained with fact that topically applied fluorides and their mode of action prevent caries better on smooth than on occlusal surfaces. As we know, tooth decay of first permanent molars causes a great deal of different short and long term difficulties for patients. Therefore, there is a continuous need for implementation of programs for caries prevention in permanent teeth. Nowadays, we like to treat our patients by minimally invasive methods. A very important step in our effective preventive treatment is sealing pits and fissures as a cornerstone of occlusal caries management. Reliable assessment of caries activity is also very important for defining treatment needs and plans. A very important decision, which should be made during occlusal caries management, is the selection of restorative material according to the treatment plan. Conclusion. Current possibilities in occlusal caries prevention and management are very effective. Therefore, dentists today do not have any excuse for avoiding the philosophy of Minimally Invasive Dentistry, especially when we talk about caries management of occlusal surfaces in permanent molars.

  6. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  7. O uso de vernizes fluoretados e a redução da incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares: uma revisão sistemática Fluoride varnishes and decrease in caries incidence in preschool children: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Martins Carvalho; Mariana Salazar; Branca Heloísa de Oliveira; Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo desta revisão sistemática foi verificar se existe evidência conclusiva de que o verniz fluoretado reduz a incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares. Foram feitas buscas nas bases eletrônicas BBO, LILACS, MEDLINE e Cochrane para identificar ensaios clínicos controlados que avaliassem o desenvolvimento de lesões cavitadas de cárie em crianças com até seis anos de idade. Dois pesquisadores analisaram criticamente os trabalhos selecionados para inclusão. Foram encontrados 513 artig...

  8. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  9. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  10. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Jeong Kim; Dai-Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect i...

  11. Caries risk assessment in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...

  12. Palmistry: A tool for dental caries prediction!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Madan

    2011-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1, which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  13. Diagnosis and Prevention Strategies for Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the oldest and most common diseases found in humans. With the recent shift from the surgical model, which emphasized restorative treatment, to a medical model of disease management, newer strategies emphasize disease prevention and conservation of tooth structure. For early detection and monitoring of caries, rather than waiting until a cavity is formed and restorative treatment is needed, devices such as DIAGNOdent, Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic Transillumination, quantitative light-induced fluorescence, and the Electronic Caries Monitor have been introduced. For caries prevention, oral hygiene measures, fluoride application, pit-and-fissure sealants, the use of xylitol, the development of a dental caries vaccine, and the role of the primary caregiver for infants are briefly discussed. PMID:26064846

  14. An in vitro comparison of a combined FOTI/Visual examination of occlusal caries with other caries diagnostic methods and the effect of stain on their diagnostic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K.R.; Côrtes, D.F.; Ellwood, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain......Occlusal caries, detection, fibre optic transillumination, visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, laser fluorescence, electrical caries monitor, electrical resistance, stain...

  15. BREASTFEEDING AND EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES (ECC SEVERITY OF CHILDREN UNDER THREE YEARS OLD IN DKI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risqa Rina Darwita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years old are constantly increasing. One of the cause is the increase consumption of cariogenic carbohydrate. Breast milk have buffer capacity that eventually able to prevent caries. The aims of this research are to discover the correlation between breastfeeding with the severity of Early Childhood Caries (ECC in children under three years old, to provide information on prevalence and severity of caries in children under three years, and to explain factors influencing the incidence of ECC. This research designed cross sectionally and conducted upon 565 children aged 12-38 months, selected using multistage cluster random sampling. The ECC prevalence of children under three years in DKI Jakarta is 52.7%, with average score of def-t 2.85. Bivariate analysis showed that, variables which correlate with the level of ECC are; the way to deliver (p=0,012, frequency (p=0,002, duration (p=0,002, salivary buffer capacity (p=0.013, habitual consumption of sugary diet (p=0.005, child’s dental hygiene behavior (p=0.002, and mother’s education (p=0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that ECC can be explained by these variables: age, mother’s education, the way to deliver and frequency of breast milk complements/replacement of consumtions, child’s brushing habit, plaque pH, and salivary buffer capacity. Resulting determination coefficient 32.1%. There is no significant correlation between breastfeeding and the level of Early Childhood Caries (ECC. The role of protective qualities of breastfeeding are not shown because of bias in obtaining data influence the incidence of caries.

  16. A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC. In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD, American Association of Pediatrics (AAP and American Dental Association (ADA were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.

  17. Proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography in the artificial caries activity model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Soo; Jin, Hyun Seok; Hong, Kyung Won; Oh, Berm Seok; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of the experiment was to evaluating the diagnostic ability of dental caries detection using digital subtraction in the artificial caries activity model. Digital radiographs of five teeth with 8 proximal surfaces were obtained by CCD sensor (Kodak RVG 6100 using a size no.2). The digital radiographic images and subtraction images from artificial proximal caries were examined and interpreted. In this study, we proposed novel caries detection method which could diagnose the dental proximal caries from single digital radiographic image. In artificial caries activity model, the range of lesional depth was 572-1,374 {mu}m and the range of lesional area was 36.95-138.52 mm{sup 2}. The lesional depth and the area were significantly increased with demineralization time (p<0.001). Furthermore, the proximal caries detection using digital subtraction radiography showed high detection rate compared to the proximal caries examination using simple digital radiograph. The results demonstrated that the digital subtraction radiography from single radiographic image of artificial caries was highly efficient in the detection of dental caries compared to the data from simple digital radiograph.

  18. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  19. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  20. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  1. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  2. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  3. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  4. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  5. Introducing a Dental Caries Marking Software and Evaluate Radiologists’ Disagreement in Caries Detection Using this Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baseri H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bitewing radiograph is the main reference for diagnosis of proximal and recurrent caries. There is no software for gathering and analyzing radiologists’ opinion in the field of caries detection on digital bitewing radiograph (DBR. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to introduce the first windows application that could be used for marking caries on DBR. This software is called Dental Caries Marking Software (DCMS. The second aim is to create the first DBR caries dataset to be used for future software development projects in the field of automatic caries detection; also gathering and documenting the disagreements and critiques regarding DCMS. Materials and Methods: DCMS has been designed and implemented by the researchers of this study. This software is divided into two parts. The first part is DCMS writer that is used for gathering the user’s opinion and The second part is DCMS analyzer that is used for reading and analyzing the user’s opinion file. Eight radiologists with different experiences used DCMS for marking dental caries on 200 DBR, 50 of which were repeated twice for assessing the accuracy of each radiologist. Results: A total of 3833 points were marked by 8 users on 150 non repetitive DBR. Only 35 points were marked similarly by 8 users; in other words, 8 users totally agreed with 4% of the caries points. According to 50 repetitive DBR, the maximum accuracy of users was 69% and the minimum was 50%. Conclusions: There is significant debate over the diagnosis of caries on DBR; therefore, for unifying the radiologist’s opinions, the need for intelligent caries detection software is apparent. DCMS is useful software for gathering caries data. Moreover, the use of conventional display monitor has negative impacts on accurate diagnosis of caries on DBR.

  6. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  7. Immunisation of rhesus monkeys with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus and lipoteichoic acid for protection against dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J; Lehner, T

    1982-08-01

    An attempt was made to protect rhesus monkeys from dental caries by immunisation with Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The vaccine composed of S. mutans gave significant protection against caries, a decrease in the number of S. mutans, an increase in IgG antibodies and a moderate increase in complement-fixing antibodies to LTA. When LTA was used as immunogen, there was only a small reduction in caries, without any detectable antibodies to LTA and a slight increase in IgG antibodies to cell of S. mutans. Vaccines of L. acidophilus or L. fermentum gave no protection. A combined vaccine of S. mutans and L. acidophilus did not reduce the incidence of caries but the antibody titre to cells of S. mutans was raised to a level comparable with that in the S. mutans-immunised monkeys. The results of this investigation in a subhuman primate confirm that immunisation with S. mutans induces protection against caries, unlike the attempt to immunise with two selected strains of lactobacilli. More studies are required to establish the role of specific serotypes of lactobacilli in the development of dental caries.

  8. Accuracy of Digital Bitewing Radiography versus Different Views of Digital Panoramic Radiography for Detection of Proximal Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Samety, Amir Abbas; Faghihian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dental caries are common and have a high incidence among populations. Radiographs are essential for detecting proximal caries. The best technique should be recognized for accurate detection of caries. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of detection of proximal caries using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing, improved interproximal panoramic, improved orthogonality panoramic and conventional panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, 100 extracted human teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intra and extraoral radiographs were taken. Images were evaluated and scored by two observers. Scores were compared with the histological gold standard. The diagnostic accuracy of radiographs was assessed by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (P<0.05). Results: Microscopic evaluation of proximal surfaces revealed that 54.8% of the surfaces were sound and 45.2% were carious (with different depths). The differences in the area under the ROC curve (Az value) among the five techniques were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Improved interproximal panoramic and extraoral bitewing radiographs were superior to conventional panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries ex vivo and should be considered for patients with contraindications for intraoral radiographs. PMID:26622284

  9. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  10. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Yamane, Mayu; Kataoka, Kota; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-02-25

    In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR), 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-3.58; p = 0.019). On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05-3.42; p = 0.035). These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  11. Association between Knowledge about Comprehensive Food Education and Increase in Dental Caries in Japanese University Students: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneyoshi Kunitomo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, comprehensive food education (shokuiku programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku, dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. In logistic regression analysis, males who lacked knowledge about shokuiku had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (odds ratio (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–3.58; p = 0.019. On the other hand, among females, those who frequently consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks had significantly higher odds for dental caries than those who did not (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.05–3.42; p = 0.035. These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students.

  12. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  13. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  14. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Carounanidy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces.This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century.

  15. Evidence for dental caries decline among children in an East European country (Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöke, J.; Petersen, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren......Central and Eastern Europe, dental caries prevalence, need for dental care, long-term trends of caries, schoolchildren...

  16. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG THE POPULATION OF JAGDALPUR, CHHATTISGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raichoor Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dental caries is a major and significant oral health condition that affects about 50 to 60% of the population in India among oral diseases. Unfortunately in rural areas oral health care is often limited due to lack of perceived need for dental care among the rural population, financial constraints as well as shortage of dental manpower. AIM This study aims to determine the prevalence of dental caries among the general population of Jagdalpur and also determine the important factors that could have contributed to the disease. SETTING AND DESIGN Case records of patients who reported to the Department of Dentistry were studied retrospectively. Information about decayed, missed, filled teeth, occupation, oral hygiene techniques as well as dental visits was recorded. METHODS AND MATERIAL Retrospective data of 100 patients who visited the Department of Dentistry was collected from the medical records division. Case sheets having incomplete information or patients who were aged below 5 years and above 75 years were not considered for the study. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done using software SPSS 17.0 version. Chi square test (Descriptive Statistics was done to test the significance of nonparametric analysis. P values were considered significant at 0.05% level. RESULTS Of the 100 case records that were examined, dental caries was more prevalent in males than females with asymptomatic significance of both dental caries and missing teeth to be statistically significant. Restored teeth contributed to almost 72.72% of the population. CONCLUSION The prevalence of dental caries among the rural general population is significantly high. Less frequent dental visits and improper or inadequate brushing technique/methods could have contributed to the high incidence of dental caries. Creating awareness regarding proper oral hygiene methods as well as regular dental checkup is recommended.

  17. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitha Animireddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free subjects, Group II included subjects with minimal caries and Group III included subjects with nursing caries. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects and were estimated for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean salivary flow rate, salivary ph and salivary buffer capacity and a significant increase in the salivary viscosity among caries-free subjects, subjects with minimal caries and subjects with nursing caries. Conclusion: The physicochemical properties of saliva, such as salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and viscosity, has a relation with caries activity in children and act as markers of caries activity.

  18. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beer-alcohol.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol angioedema and uticaria. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/ask-the-expert/alcohol-angioedema-urticaria.aspx. Accessed Jan. 16, 2015. Alcohol and ...

  19. The survey of the preschool children dental caries in Pengpu Community%彭浦社区学龄前儿童龋齿情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪飞; 李桂璐

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To understand the incidence of the community preschool children dental caries to study the reduction of its incidence and provide the data for health education. Methods:The total of 1 925 children in 10 public kindergartens was investigated. The oral examination was conducted under the natural light with the plane mirror. The ages, gender and fillings of the caries were analyzed. Results: The total incidence of the dental caries was 28.00% (539/1925). It increased with the growth of the age year by year. The incidence of the dental caries reached its peak at 6 years old. Conclusion:The incidence of the dental caries in the community children is high. The comprehensive measures should be taken to prevent the dental caries. The health education should be carried out actively to prevent the caries.%目的:了解社区学龄前儿童龋病发病情况,为研究降发病率及健康教育提供资料。方法:调查辖区10家公立幼儿园儿童,共计1925人,自然光线下用平面口镜进行口腔检查,分析龋齿年龄段、性别及补牙等状况。结果:总龋患率为28.00%(539/1925),随年龄的增长,龋齿患病率逐年提高,6岁达高峰。结论:社区儿童龋齿发病率较高。预防龋齿应采取综合措施,积极开展防龋的卫生宣教。

  20. Caries-related factors and bacterial composition of supragingival plaques in caries free and caries active Algerian adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amina Hoceini; Nihel Klouche Khelil; Ilhem Ben-Yelles; Amine Mesli; Sara Ziouani; Lotfi Ghellai; Nadia Aissaoui; Fatima Nas; Mounia Arab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral hygiene practices, education and social background, food intake and oral malodor of Algerian adults suffering from dental caries with normal controls, and to determine and compare the bacterial composition of the supragingival plaques from the above-mentioned groups.Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries using decayed, missing and filled teeth index according to the criteria laid down by the World Health Organization. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from 50 caries-free adults(CF) and 50 caries-active adults(CA). Standard procedures of culture and identification of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were used. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results: A total of 117 bacterial strains were isolated from supragingival plaques in CF group subjects, 76(64.96%) of them belonged to 9 aerobic genera, and 41(35.04%) to 9anaerobic genera(P < 0.05). While in the second group, 199 strains were isolated, 119(59.80%) of the strains belonged to 10 aerobic genera and 80(40.20%) to 10 anaerobic bacteria(P < 0.05). Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans,Actinomyces meyeri, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Eubacterium limosum showed a significantly higher prevalence in the CA group(P < 0.05). The findings revealed that CA group had a high sugar intake(80%). A significantly higher frequency of tooth brushing(P < 0.000) and a significantly less self-reported oral malodor(P < 0.000) and tooth pain(P < 0.000) were found in CF group, while there was no association of socioeconomic levels and intake of meal snacks with dental caries.Conclusions: This study confirms the association of some aciduric bacteria with caries formation, and a direct association of sugar intake and cultural level with dental caries.Furthermore, oral hygiene practices minimize the prevalence of tooth decay.

  1. [The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among Kaliningrad sailors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, V G

    1999-01-01

    A total of 597 sailors aged 20-60 years are examined. The prevalence [correction of incidence] of periodontal diseases in this population is 96.7% and of caries 98.5%, the processes notably progressing with age. Analysis of the rate of consultations of Kaliningrad sailors in foreign ports over the period of 1992-1996 showed their total number to be 146, 26.7% of these being consultations for dental diseases.

  2. Microanalysis of dental caries using laser-scanned fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Paton, Barry E.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.

    1992-06-01

    It is well known that enamel and dentin fluoresce when illuminated by short-wavelength optical radiation. Fluorescence emission from carious and non-carious regions of teeth have been studied using a new experimental scanning technique for fluorescence analysis of dental sections. Scanning in 2 dimensions will allow surface maps of dental caries to be created. These surface images are then enhanced using the conventional and newer image processing techniques. Carious regions can be readily identified and contour maps can be used to graphically display the degree of damage on both surfaces and transverse sections. Numerous studies have shown that carious fluorescence is significantly different than non-carious regions. The scanning laser fluorescence spectrometer focuses light from a 25 mW He-Cd laser at 442 nm through an objective lens onto a cross-section area as small as 3 micrometers in diameter. Microtome prepared dental samples 100 micrometers thick are laid flat onto an optical bench perpendicular to the incident beam. The sample is moved under computer control in X & Y with an absolute precision of 0.1 micrometers . The backscattered light is both spatial and wavelength filtered before being measured on a long wavelength sensitized photomultiplier tube. High precision analysis of dental samples allow detailed maps of carious regions to be determined. Successive images allow time studies of caries growth and even the potential for remineralization studies of decalcified regions.

  3. Clinical evaluation of Krimidanta Pratishedha (anti-caries) activity of Triphaladi Gandusha in high risk dental caries patients

    OpenAIRE

    Atara, Achyuta G.; Manjusha, R.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Vaghela, Dharmendra B.; Rooparalia, Brijesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Virtually every adult in the world has experience of dental caries. It affects almost 80% of the population. It is now being viewed in dual perspective- “caries as a disease” and “caries as a lesion”. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Triphaladi Gandusha for its anti-caries activity and improvement in Oral Hygiene Index in high risk patients of dental caries and to compare the efficacy of prevalent method...

  4. Evaluation of pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate levels of saliva in caries-free, minimal caries and nursing caries children: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitha Animireddy; Venkata Thimma Reddy Bekkem; Pranitha Vallala; Sunil Babu Kotha; Swetha Ankireddy; Noorjahan Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pH, buffering capacity, viscosity and flow rate of saliva in caries free, minimal caries and nursing caries children and to evaluate the relationship of these on the caries activity of children. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 school children of age group between 4 and 12 years were selected and divided into three equal groups: Group I, Group II and Group III, consisting of 25 subjects each. Group I included caries-free...

  5. The Hormonal Fingerprints and BMI: Implications for Risk Factors in Dental Caries and Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyanka, Goguladinne Naga Deepthi; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Ramakrishna, Juvva; Jyothi, Velagapudi

    2016-01-01

    malocclusion (p= 0.027) which further influences the caries susceptibility. Pearson’s correlation test, t-test and ANOVA were used in the study for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Conclusion This study confirms the impact of hormones on incidence of malocclusion, BMI which in turn influences the caries index and could be used as an early predictor. PMID:27656547

  6. Assessment of social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Suresh Bhayade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, dental caries is the most common disease of the early childhood. Its increased prevalence in younger age group have been predictive of oral health problems in future, affecting oral health and development leading to several morbid conditions of oral and general health. Prevalence and incidence of dental caries is highly influenced by a number of risk factors such as gender, age, socioeconomic status, dietary patterns, and oral hygiene habits. Aim: To assess social, demographic determinants and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries among the children attending Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur. Materials and Methodology: A cross sectional study in 27 Anganwadis of Hingna, Nagpur was carried out over a period of two months and a total of 324 subjects attending the Anganwadis were enrolled. Social, demographic and oral hygiene practices in relation to dental caries were assessed in the study population. Results: Out of 324 subjects, 206 had dental caries and 38 were found to be malnourished. A significant association was found among age, malnutrition, parent′s educational status, oral hygiene practices, total number of siblings, and dental caries. Conclusion: Anganwadis should be addressed routinely on effective oral and general health promoting strategies which must include education of parents, oral and general health issues, risk factors for dental caries, and malnutrition in children below 5 years of age.

  7. [Caries status in diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Dinya, E; Tamás, G

    1991-09-01

    Clinical dental examination of 1600 diabetics (815 type 1 insulin dependent and 761 type 2 non-insulin dependent patients) has been performed according to the WHD criteria. According to examination results higher DMF mean value, less uncared of teeth with caries (D) and, in the age group of 19 years and above 30 years, more edentulousness has been found than with healthy individuals. The number of filled and crowded teeth (F) below the age of 35 years in diabetics (p 0.0001), above 45 years in the control group (p 0.0001) was higher. Concerning cared of teeth there was no deviation in the number of filled teeth between diabetic and healthy individuals whereas the number of crown covered teeth was higher with diabetics. (p 0.01). As to the distribution of individuals with healthy teeth and toothless ones it was found characteristic that while among diabetic individuals but 1%, in the control 1.4% possessed retained healthy teeth. The number of completely toothless individuals was higher (11.83%) with diabetics than with healthy individuals (2.25%).

  8. Potential risk factors in systemic hypoplasia and dental caries at odontogenesis stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovach I.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lesion of hard dental tissue with caries process and lesions not connected with caries present overwhelming majority of dental diseases. Causes leading to damage of enamel integrity and dentin with progressing demineralization are known; they allow to choose justified method of primary prophylaxis. Along with it, etiology and pathogenesis of enamel lesions with demineralization signs remains unexplored. Epidemiologic study of prevalence, incidence and severity of lesion of hard dental tissues in 330 pupils, who constantly live on endemic iodine-defficient territory, of three zones – mountain zone, foothill and valley. For comparison, schoolchildren migrated to this territory 2-3 years after birth, and children – residents of favorable as for iodine level in drinking water were examined, 30 children in each group. It was established, that overwhelming number of schoolchildren of endemic zone suffer from endemic goiter of various severity, which sufficiently impacts on protein-mineral ratio of the organism, bone skeleton and teeth including. It was also established, that residents of three various levels of iodine consumption are prone to development of multiple dental caries and systemic enamel hypoplasia. Children, residents of mountain zone suffer the most, with simultaneous lesion of thyroid gland. The role of endemic goiter in systemic dental enamel hypoplasia and multiple caries, which changes protein matrix, negatively impacts on odontogenesis and mineralization degree is underlined.

  9. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Hoffmeister

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of caries in this young group is concerning. The factors associated with caries identified in this study could help in the design of preventive interventions at early ages.

  10. Relationship between Frequency of Sugary Food and Drink Consumption with Occurrence of Dental Caries among Preschool Children in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahara, A M; Fashihah, M H; Nurul, A Y

    2010-04-01

    Dental caries are attributed to various factors including diet. The present crosssectional study determined the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption and defined its relationship to dental caries among preschool children. A total of 50 preschoolers (aged 5-6 years) in three kindergartens of the Department of Community Development (KEMAS) in Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur participated in this study. A set of structured questionnaires was used to assess the frequency of sugary food and drink consumption. Dental check ups were performed by a dentist. The dft index (decayed, filled teeth) was used to describe incidence of caries in subjects. Results showed that 62% of the subjects had dental caries. with the mean dft score being 3.72. The frequency of sugary food consumption by the majority of subjects was 2 times a day, while the frequency of sugary drink consumption was more than 3 times a day. There was no significant relationship between frequency of sugary food and drink consumption with incidence of caries. Subjects with high dft scores were more likely to report dental pain. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers in this study was high, indicating a need for effective dental health promotion to improve dental health status of this age group.

  11. International comparisons of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Nicoll, Alison D

    2004-01-01

    important predictor of whether children had caries and this factor persisted in children from disadvantaged communities. 90% of children with lactobacillus had caries. CONCLUSIONS: Parental beliefs and attitudes play a key role in moderating oral health related behaviour in young children and in determining...... whether they develop caries. Further research is indicated to determine whether supporting the development of parenting skills would reduce dental caries in children from disadvantaged communities independent of ethnic origin....

  12. 21 CFR 872.1740 - Caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caries detection device. 872.1740 Section 872.1740...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1740 Caries detection device. (a) Identification. The caries detection device is a device intended to show the existence of decay in a patient's...

  13. 21 CFR 872.1745 - Laser fluorescence caries detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laser fluorescence caries detection device. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1745 Laser fluorescence caries detection device. (a) Identification. A laser fluorescence caries detection device is a laser,...

  14. PUFA - an index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Benzian, H.; Holmgren, C.J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Dental caries is a global public health problem, especially in children. Most caries in developing countries remains untreated. Only limited data are available on the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries because there is no measure to quantify the prevalence and severity of or

  15. Host and microbiological factors related to dental caries development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Soet, J.J.; van Gemert-Schriks, M.C.M.; Laine, M.L.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Morré, S.A.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Studies on dental caries suggest that in severe cases it may induce a systemic immune response. This occurs particularly when caries progresses into pulpal inflammation and results in abscess or fistula formation (AFF). We hypothesized that severe dental caries will affect the general health of chil

  16. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate of c...

  17. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgert, L.A.; Leal, S.C.; Mulder, J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was a

  18. 龋病和牙髓病的诊治要点%Diagnosis and treatment points of caries and edodontics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈栋

    2012-01-01

      Caries and edodontics are the common diseases. The cause of the caries is the quadruple factors. The varying degrees of caries damages show the different clinical manifestations, according to which the different treatment measures should be taken. The tertiary prevention and timely treatment should be well done so as to reduce the incidences of endodontics.%  龋病及牙髓病是常见病和多发病,四联因素是龋病的原因,不同程度损害的龋病其临床表现各不相同,应根据不同损害情况采取不同的治疗措施。做好龋病的三级预防和及时治疗,可降低牙髓病的发病率。

  19. Cavity lining after excavating caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After removal of dentin caries lesions, cavity lining has been advocated. Non-clinical data support this approach, but clinical data are sparse and ambiguous. We aimed at evaluating the benefits and harms of cavity lining using meta-analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis. DATA: We...... included randomized clinical trials comparing restorations without versus with cavity lining for treating primary caries lesions. Only trials reporting failure (defined as need to re-retreat) after ≥1 year follow-up were included. Trial selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted....... STUDY SELECTION: From 128 studies, three randomized trials (89/130 patients or teeth), all treating primary teeth, were included. The trials had high risk of bias. All trials compared no lining versus calcium hydroxide lining after selective caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. Follow...

  20. Enamel remineralization: controlling the caries disease or treating early caries lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The emphasis currently given to new technologies for enamel remineralization suggests that the changes in the understanding of the dental caries disease, which occurred in the last century, were either not yet adopted or were forgotten. Just like in the past, when the disease was "treated" by restoring cavities, there is presently a misunderstanding on the concept of incipient lesion remineralization. The aim of this paper was to review some concepts about caries, the natural phenomenon of enamel remineralization and the effect of fluoride (F on it, and also to discuss the clinical relevance of remineralizing products recently launched in the marketplace aiming to "treat early caries lesions".

  1. Inhibition of secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of fluoride precipitation with calcium hydroxide on secondary caries in a bacterial based in vitro caries model. Caries-free, retained wisdom teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=30). The enamel was cut off and cylindrical cavities 3 mm in diameter and 1,5 mm in depth were prepared on each dentine surface. The cavities of Group A and B were restored with composite (Z100) only. A fluoride solution (43,500 ppm Fˉ as magne...

  2. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  3. A vaccine against dental caries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, S M; Katz, J; Childers, N K

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be a costly and prevalent oral disease. Research efforts towards developing a well tolerated and effective vaccine against dental caries were initiated following the demonstration of a specific bacterial aetiology for this disease. The cariogenic mutans streptococci are the principal bacteria causing this disease. Specific immune defence against these bacteria is provided mainly by secretory immunoglobulin (Ig) A antibodies present in saliva, which are generated by the common mucosal immune system. Progress in the development of a vaccine against dental caries has increased due to both advancements in molecular biology and our understanding of the mucosal immune system and mucosal vaccines. Advancements in molecular biology have facilitated the cloning and functional characterisation of virulence factors of the mutans streptococci, including the cell-surface fibrillar proteins, which mediate adherence to the tooth surface, and the glucosyltransferase enzymes, which synthesise adhesive glucans and allow microbial accumulation on the teeth. Current strategies for immunisation against dental caries are using these virulence factors as key antigens and incorporating them into novel mucosal vaccine systems and delivering them with or without adjuvants to mucosal IgA inductive sites. The most popular routes of mucosal immunisation are via the oral or nasal route. The mucosal immune system is functional in newborn infants, who develop salivary IgA antibodies as they become colonised by oral micro-organisms. Mucosal immunisation strategies result in the induction of salivary IgA antibody responses and pose fewer problems than parenteral injection of antigen. Therefore, mucosal immunisation of infants prior to the appearance of their first teeth may be a well tolerated and effective way to induce immunity against the colonisation of teeth by mutans streptococci and protection against subsequent dental caries. The purpose of this article is to

  4. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction includin

  5. Design and Characterization of a Novel p1025 Peptide-Loaded Liquid Crystalline System for the Treatment of Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto; Matheus Henrique Garcia; Eduardo Maffud Cilli; Leila Aparecida Chiavacci; Marlus Chorilli

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, mainly caused by the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces, is an important public health problem worldwide. A synthetic peptide (p1025) corresponding to residues 1025–1044 of the adhesin can inhibit this binding. Peptides are particularly susceptible to the biological environment; therefore, a p1025 peptide-loaded liquid crystalline system (LCS) consisting of tea tree oil as the oil phase, polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol as ...

  6. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  7. Dietary pattern of Finnish children with low high caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemola-Kujala, E; Räsänen, L

    1979-08-01

    The correlations between dietary patterns and caries were studied in a series consisting of 534, 5-, 9- and 13-year-old Finnish rural children from low-fluoride areas (0.10-0.46 parts/10(6)). The food consumption of the children was assessed by the 24-hour recall method. The consumption of sweets was estimated by the dietary history method. Caries was diagnosed by clinical inspection. Children with a low and children with a high caries experience were compared with regard to food and nutrient intakes per 1000 kcal. The intakes of most foods and nutrients were similar in the low-caries and in the high-caries groups. However, the diet of the high-caries groups of 5- and 13-year-olds contained less iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid than the diet of the low-caries groups. The intake of sugar and sugar-containing products per unit of energy was higher in the high-caries groups. This was true for soft drinks in particular. Among the 9-year-olds the proportion of sugar consumed as such was greater in the high-caries than in the low-caries children. With regard to the total monthly consumption of sweets no significant differences were observed between the high- and low-caries groups. Analysis of the energy-standardized consumption of food and nutrients thus showed that the relative proportion of sugar and sugar-containing products was somewhat greater in the diet of the high-caries children than in the diet of the low-caries children, but not as high as could be expected. These products replaced foods with a higher nutritive value with the result that the diet of the high-caries groups was on the whole more refined than the diet of the low-caries groups.

  8. The Effect of Topical Iodine and Fluoride Varnish Combination in Preventing Early Childhood Caries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hashemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC in the earliest stage is preventable. The studies indicate oral bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis of dental caries. According to high prevalence of ECC, alternative therapies should be explored in order to reduce the occurrence of it. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a product containing Povidone Iodine 10% and Sodium Fluoride 0.2% as a supplementary intervention for preventing ECC.Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven children aged 4 to 6 year-old were recruited. Maxillary incisors on each side of the mouth were selected either as a test or control group. Early caries detection examinations were conducted using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS clinically and photographically. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, a product containing a mixture of  Povidone Iodine 10%  and Sodium Fluoride 0.2%  was applied to the designated incisors of the test group participants. This application was performed every week for a 3-month. The control group participants received a placebo mixture during the same time interval. The caries detection examinations were conducted again after 6 months and the results were compared. The data was analyzed with SPSS V.18, using McNemar test.Results: The incidence of carious lesions increased for the control group while it decreased in the test group (P

  9. The effect of right or left handedness on caries experience and oral hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Çakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an indisputable relationship between tooth decay and oral hygiene. Caries can only be prevented by keeping tooth decay at bay. In several prophylactic methods, brushing is the most important. Brushing efficiency is directly related to an individuals′ manual dexterity. Objective: To investigate whether there were differences in oral hygiene and caries prevalence between right- and left-handers. Materials and Methods: Forty-six elementary school students were included in the study. The subjects were 30 males and 16 females, ranging in age from 11 to 13 years. Handedness was ascertained by using the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. All students were examined intraorally. During this examination, the necessary values to determine oral hygiene status and to determine caries prevalence were recorded. Results: It was observed that subjects who used their right hands were in a better position in terms of oral hygiene than those using the left (P < 0.01. In terms of caries prevalence, however, averages for right-handed individuals were lower than those for left-handed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: It can be stated that the right-handed individuals have better oral hygiene and the lower incidence of caries because of their better manual dexterity and brush efficiency. So, dentists should consider better manual dexterity and brush efficiency in right-handed individuals before treatment planning. However, future well-designed neurologic studies involving larger numbers of subjects will be necessary to confirm the findings of this study and to understand more about the effects of handedness on oral hygiene performance.

  10. Evaluation of salivary nitric oxide level in children with early childhood caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Eagappan, AR; Rao, V. Arun Prasad; Sujatha, S.; Senthil, D.; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Rajaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a highly reactive radical, participates in the nonspecific natural defense mechanism of the oral cavity. The present study was attempted to evaluate the salivary NO levels in 4–5 year-old children with early childhood caries (ECC). The objective of the present study was to assess the salivary NO concentration in children with different caries activity. Materials and Methods: The study included 120 healthy 4.5 year-old children and they were equally divided into three groups based on decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs) score; forty caries-free children (control group), forty children with dmfs 1.5 (ECC group), and forty with dmfs ⩾6 (severe ECC group). Saliva collected was measured for NO concentration by Griess reaction method. The obtained data were analyzed by ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The mean level of NO in the saliva of the control group was 51.2 ± 8.3457 and that of ECC and severe ECC were 47.1 ± 5.2614 and 33.625 ± 4.6942, respectively. The mean salivary NO concentration was significantly higher in healthy controls when compared to children with ECC and severe ECC. Moreover, a negative correlation (r = −0.6658) was observed between the salivary NO level and the mean dmfs, suggesting that as the salivary NO level decreases, the caries incidence increases. Conclusion: The obtained results support the antimicrobial activity of salivary NO and also suggest that an increase in NO production might contribute to lower the caries occurrence in children. PMID:27605992

  11. Alcoholism and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2012-04-01

    Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  12. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  13. Effects of chlorhexidine varnish on caries during orthodontic treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Machado Pingueiro OKADA

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta-analysis with continuous data demonstrated chlorhexidine varnish effectiveness on caries reduction (p = 0.003, with a mean difference and confidence interval of −1.49 [−2.47, −0.51]. On the basis of the pooled meta-analysis of continuous data, we were able to conclude that professional application of chlorhexidine varnish is effective in caries incidence reduction during fixed orthodontic treatment.

  14. Nd:YAG laser in caries prevention: a clinical study; Avaliacao clinica da eficiencia do laser de Nd:YAG associado ao fluor fosfato acidulado na prevencao de caries de sulcos e fissuras de criancas e adolescentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boari, Heloisa Gomes Dimiranda

    2000-07-01

    The caries prevention by using laser irradiation has been investigated during the last 30 years. The Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride has been shown as a very promising technique for enamel caries prevention. The aim of this work was to clinically evaluate the efficiency of Nd: YAG laser associated with acidulated phosphate fluoride in pit and fissure caries prevention of children and adolescents. In this work it was determined the dye that enhance the effect of Nd: YAG laser in enamel. It was selected 242 pre-molar and molar teeth from 33 children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 15 years old. The selected teeth were free from caries or decalcification marks (active white marks) to the clinical and radiographic exams. The teeth were divided into two groups: the first group was laser irradiated and their homologous remained as a control. The right side teeth were dye-assisted Nd:YAG laser irradiated. The dye solution was a moisture of dust coal and equal parts of water and alcohol. The irradiation conditions were 60 mJ/10 Hz, optical fiber in contact mode, with diameter of 300 {mu}m, resulting in an energy density of 84,9 J/cm{sup 2}. The oclusal surface of the teeth was completely irradiated, specially on the slopes and in the deepest part of the pits and fissures. This procedure was repeated three times. In the sequence it was applied the acidulated phosphate fluoride for 4 minutes. On the left side teeth - control group- only acidulated phosphate fluoride was applied for the same time. The final examination considered the presence of caries and active white marks after a period of one year. There were statistical significant differences (p < 0.01) between the lased + fluoride group and the non irradiated group. The present study concluded that the technique used in this work can be an alternative clinical method for caries prevention. (author)

  15. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  16. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  17. The caries balance: the basis for caries management by risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, John D B

    2004-01-01

    Dental caries progression or reversal depends upon the balance between demineralization and remineralization. The 'Caries Balance' is determined by the relative weight of the sums of pathological factors and protective factors. Minimally invasive dentistry aims at the least possible removal of enamel or dentin, including reducing pathological factors and enhancing remineralization to avoid any removal of hard tissues. A structured caries risk assessment should be carried out based upon the concept of the caries balance. Following the risk assessment a treatment plan is devised which leads to the control of dental caries for the patient. The balance between pathological and preventive factors can be swung in the direction of caries intervention and prevention by the active role of the dentist and his/her auxiliary staff. Much is now understood about the mechanism of dental caries. We have known for a long time that demineralization of enamel, dentin or cementum is caused by organic acids that are generated by so-called acidogenic bacteria in the plaque when these bacteria feed upon fermentable carbohydrates (Silverstone, 1973; Featherstone, 2000; Loesche, 1986). The natural repair process is remineralization, which occurs when the pH rises again and calcium and phosphate from saliva together with fluoride enter the subsurface region of the lesion and form a new veneer on the existing crystal remnants in the lesion (Ten Cate and Featherstone, 1991). This veneer is less soluble than the original mineral and resists further acid attacks. The key to improved dental health for all is now for the dental profession to embrace this knowledge and put it into practice in the real world, to inhibit caries formation and progression, and to enhance the natural repair process.

  18. The Clinical, Environmental, and Behavioral Factors That Foster Early Childhood Caries: Evidence for Caries Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Caries risk assessment, an essential component of targeted health care delivery for young children, is of paramount importance in the current environment of increasing health care costs and resource constraints. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent best available evidence behind the factors that influence caries risk assessment and the validity of strategies to assess the caries risk of young children. Moderate to weak evidence supports the following recommendations: (1) Children should have a caries risk assessment done in their first year (or as soon as their first tooth erupts) as part of their overall health assessment, and this should be reassessed periodically over time. (2) Multiple clinical, environmental, and behavioral factors should be considered when assessing caries risk in young children, including factors associated with the primary caregiver. (3) The use of structured forms, although most may not yet be validated, may aid in systematic assessment of multiple caries risk factors and in objective record-keeping. (4) Children from low socioeconomic status groups should be considered at increased risk when developing community preventive programs.

  19. Dental caries from a molecular microbiological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nyvad; W. Crielaard; A. Mira; N. Takahashi; D. Beighton

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries results from an imbalance of the metabolic activity in the dental biofilm. The microbial communities of teeth have traditionally been studied by standard cultural approaches. More recently, cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene have been used to characterize the microbial composi

  20. Dental caries vaccine: some problems solved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, D L; Mallett, C P; Doyle, G

    1985-10-01

    The interest in a dental caries vaccine has been great over the past few years. Studies have shown two possible problems using Streptococcus mutans as an immunogen: (i) the production of heart reactive antibody, and (ii) the need to protect against several serotypes. Possible solutions to these problems are discussed.

  1. Need for new caries detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    1999-05-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) continues to be a major problems for adults as well as children, even though great advances have been made in preventive methods in the last 20 years. New methods for the management of caries will work best if lesions can be detected at an early stage and chemical rather than physical intervention can take place, thereby preserving the natural tooth structure and helping the saliva to heal, or remineralize, the areas of early decay. Clinical detection of caries in the US relies on visual examination, tactile with hand held explorer, and conventional radiographs, all of which are inadequate for the occlusal (biting) surfaces of the teeth where most of the decay now occurs. The dentist often has to explore by drilling with a dental bur to confirm early decay in these areas. New method that can determine the extent and degree of subsurface lesions in these surfaces non-destructively are essential for further advances in the clinical management of dental caries. Optical methods, which exploit the differences between sound and carious enamel and dentin, show great promise for the accurate detection of these lesions. Two or three- dimensional images, which include a measure of severity will be needed.

  2. Declining caries trends: are we satisfied?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Lagerweij; C. van Loveren

    2015-01-01

    WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % red

  3. Probiotics for caries prevention and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S; Keller, M K

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the microbiota for restoring and maintaining health is a growing issue in medical science. A search for relevant clinical trials on the use of probiotic bacteria as a potential and clinically applicable anti-caries measure was performed. According to predetermined criteria, papers w...

  4. Caries experience in schoolchildren in Bucharest, Romania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funieru, Cristian; Twetman, Svante; Funieru, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence and experience of dental caries among children from public middle schools in Bucharest in relation to socioeconomic status and access to school-based dental care. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from 1,595 schoolchild...

  5. Caries status in young Colombian children expressed by the ICCMS™ visual/radiographic combined caries staging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Andrea; Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Gamboa, Luis Fernando;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report (1) the caries experience prevalence and mean, and the caries severity and distribution patterns, expressed clinically and combined with radiographs with the conventional and ICCMS™ systems in young children from Bogotá, Colombia; (2) the contribution of including radiographs...... to the clinical caries scoring and (3) in which surfaces the radiograph adds to the clinical caries registration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred children from kindergartens/schools were enrolled: Cohort A: 2-year (n = 200), Cohort B: 4-year (n = 200) and Cohort C: 6-year (n = 200) olds. Radiographs were taken...... of the 4- and 6- year olds. Children were examined clinically using the Clinical (C) and Radiographic (R) ICCMS™-epi Caries Scoring Systems, staging caries lesions (d) as: Initial (Cepi/RA), Moderate (CM/RB) or Extensive (CE/RC). Caries experience including missing (m) and filled (f) surfaces was expressed...

  6. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO MARÍA ESTHER

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar -DE- 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.

  7. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content,...

  8. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part II. Recent diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; McComb, D

    2001-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looked at established methods for diagnosing occlusal decay. These methods have several limitations, particularly in their ability to diagnose early carious lesions. Part II examines new and emerging technologies that are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay. Electrical conductance measurements and quantitative laser- or light-induced fluorescence represent significant improvements over conventional diagnostic methods, especially for in vitro applications and particularly with regard to sensitivity and reproducibility. Proponents of the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence system claim that it evaluates the fluorescence that develops when laser light is incident on areas of demineralization. This noninvasive device is simple to use and provides quantitative data. Studies supporting its validity are limited but do suggest good sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. However, the DIAGNOdent system requires more scientific scrutiny. Although it offers a high rate of disease detection, it has little ability to indicate the extent of decay. In all treatment decisions, clinicians must be aware of the limitations of the diagnostic methods that have been used. Clinical judgment based on the patient s case history, visual cues, review of radiographs and probability of disease is still the most important aspect of optimum patient care. New technologies may provide supplemental information, but they cannot yet replace established methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  9. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  10. INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL IN CRANIOROFACIAL INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasseen Aly Yasseen; M.Akheel

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has become a part of daily life for people ranging from lower to upper class individuals. However, addiction of alcohol can lead to impaired judgment and undue physical harm. This study shows that alcohol intoxication plays a major role in craniorofacial trauma and incidence of road traffic accidents is extremely high in India. A strict law has to be reinforced to ban/decrease the usage of alcohols for welfare of the society.

  11. Alcohol Regulation and Violence on College Campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sara Markowitz

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of variations in alcoholic beverage prices among states of the United States on violence on college campuses. The principal hypothesis tested is that the incidence of violence is negatively related to the price of alcohol. This hypothesis is derived from two well established relationships: the positive relationship between alcohol and violence and the negative relationship between the use of alcohol and its price. The data employed in the study are the 1989, ...

  12. INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL IN CRANIOROFACIAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasseen Aly Yasseen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has become a part of daily life for people ranging from lower to upper class individuals. However, addiction of alcohol can lead to impaired judgment and undue physical harm. This study shows that alcohol intoxication plays a major role in craniorofacial trauma and incidence of road traffic accidents is extremely high in India. A strict law has to be reinforced to ban/decrease the usage of alcohols for welfare of the society.

  13. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna CARTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33 randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1 personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization, (2 life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits, and (3 oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency. An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA. Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2, whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4 and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6. Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83–3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13–1.82, respectively. The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  14. Caries-risk profiles in Italian adults using computer caries assessment system and ICDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Giovanna; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Cocco, Fabio; Sale, Silvana; Lingström, Peter; Campus, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation among socio-behavioral factors, caries status and caries risk, calculated through Cariogram, in an adult population. Four hundred eighty subjects (mean age 40.73, SE ± 0.33) randomly selected from the municipal electoral registry consented to participate in the survey. Subjects were examined, and the International Caries Detection Assessment System (ICDAS) index was registered. A highly structured questionnaire was submitted to investigate (1) personal data (i.e., age, gender, educational level, job categorization), (2) life-style behavior (i.e., smoking and dietary habits), and (3) oral health behavior (i.e., tooth brushing, use of fluoride and dental check-up frequency). An evaluation of the mutans streptococci concentration in saliva was also performed. Information on caries-related factors was entered into the Cariogram in order to generate an individual caries risk profile for each subject. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Cariogram levels as the dependent variable. The possible correlated variables were analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA). Considering ICDAS scores, 5.62% of the sample had at least an initial decay (ICDAS = 1-2), whereas 40.83% of the sample presented at least one moderate decay (ICDAS = 3-4) and 17.08% a severe decay (ICDAS = 5-6). Decay at ICDAS levels 5-6 and more than 5 missing teeth were statistically associated with Cariogram scores (OR = 2.36, 95%CI = 1.83-3.03 and OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.13-1.82, respectively). The results suggest that the Cariogram model was able to identify caries-related factors in an adult population. A direct association among the risk categories from Cariogram, the caries status and some socio-behavioral variables was verified.

  15. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  16. Association between enamel hypoplasia and dental caries in primary second molars and permanent first molars: A 3-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakeenabi Basha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Enamel hypoplasia is a defect caused by disturbances during enamel formation. These defects in the enamel present important clinical significance as they predispose a tooth to dental caries. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience of primary second molars and permanent first molars. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 765 subjects who underwent dental examinations at both ages 6 and 9 by the calibrated examiner. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were scored for the presence of enamel hypoplasia for each participant. Caries presence and number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs and DFS were determined at ages 6 and 9. The relationships between enamel hypoplasia and caries experience were assessed using multivariable regression models. Results: At the tooth level, 2.8% and 3.5% of children had hypoplasia on primary second molars and permanent first molars respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that children with enamel hypoplasia were at a significantly higher risk of caries at both ages 6 (odds ratio, OR = 5.27 for primary second molars and OR = 3.21 for permanent first molars and age 9 (OR = 3.45 for primary second molars and OR = 4.57 for permanent first molars, and that a statistically significant association was seen with caries incidence (OR = 2.08 for primary second molars and OR = 2.87 for permanent first molars. Conclusion: Enamel hypoplasia appears to be a significant risk factor for caries in both primary second molars and permanent first molars and should be considered in caries risk assessment.

  17. Effects of Autolog Saliva on Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Caries and Caries-free Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Paramita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva and Streptococcus mutans play role in biofilm formation. Saliva and S.mutans virulence are different between subjects with and without caries. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolog saliva on biofilm formation of S. mutans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects. Materials and Methods: Saliva and plaque samples are obtained from caries and caries-free subjects. Plaque samples were cultured on TYS20B for 3 days. Selected colonies were picked and cultured on TSB for 3 days. After colony counting, biofilm assay was conducted and inoculated for one day. The biofilm was tested using crystal violet binding assay and quantified by measuring the optical density at 655 nm wavelength. Result: The optical density of S. muttans biofilm isolated from subjects with caries were different from taste with no caries. Biofilm formation of S. muttans isolated from caries and caries-free subjects with and without the presence of autolog saliva were different. Conclusion: Autolog saliva influences S. mutans biofilm formation and there is a tendency that is higher than those from subjects with no caries.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.48

  18. The harm and prevention of deciduous teeth caries%乳牙龋齿的危害及预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华

    2014-01-01

    The deciduous teeth caries of children is more serious.It mainly occurred in children under 5 years old,and most of them do not receive timely treatment.It is serious harm to the growth and development of deciduous teeth and masticatory function of teeth.So we have to strengthen the prevention and treatment of deciduous teeth caries of children.This paper mainly analyzes the current situation of deciduous teeth caries of domestic children,and explain the causes and harm of deciduous teeth caries.In order to reduce the incidence of deciduous teeth caries,and ensure deciduous teeth health,it puts forward the preventive measures of deciduous teeth caries.%儿童乳牙龋齿比较严重,主要发生在5岁以下儿童,且大都没有得到及时治疗,严重危害着乳牙生长发育和牙齿的咀嚼功能,因而必须加强对儿童乳牙龋齿的预防和治疗。本文主要分析国内儿童乳牙龋齿的现状,阐述造成乳牙龋齿的原因及其危害,提出了预防乳牙龋齿的措施,旨在降低乳牙龋齿发生率,保证乳牙健康。

  19. Efficacy of Two Caries Detector Dyes in the Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Etemad-Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of two caries detector dyes in the diagnosis of dental caries.Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human posterior teeth without pulpal exposure were sectioned mesiodistally through the center of the lesions using a water-cooled disk.The tooth halves were randomly divided into two groups and treated with Caries Detector (CD and Caries Check (CC detector dyes. Access cavities were prepared followed by caries removal and dye application. All cavities were arbitrarily divided into two right and left sections and excavation of the stained areas was performed on the left parts, while the right sections remained untouched. Bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using Gram-stained decalcified sections under light microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity of both dyes were calculated.Results: The sensitivity of CD and CC were 74% and 71%,respectively. The specificity obtained for both dyes was 100%.Conclusion: Considering the low sensitivity of the dyes evaluated in the present study, it seems that they may not be reliable when used as the sole diagnostic technique for detection of carious lesions in posterior teeth.

  20. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Vanessa Resende Nogueira; Gravina, Danuze Batista Lamas; Azevedo, Tatiana Degani Paes Leme; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Barreto; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1) and 40 born term (G2), in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth) and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95) was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07) p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926). One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and caries-related risk factors in premature and term children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. Eighty children were examined, 40 born prematurely (G1 and 40 born term (G2, in the age group between 5 and 10 years. The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. The teeth were examined for presence of deficiencies of the enamel and caries that were registered. The caries were registered, focusing on the indices dmft (decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth. The results showed that 75% of the total sample had enamel defects. The logistic regression model showed that other risk factors such as per capita family income, educational level, dietary and hygiene habits, fluoride exposure, trauma, and diseases had no correlation with enamel defects and caries. A smaller value of total DMFT (0.95 was found in the group of premature children in comparison to the term children (2.07 p = 0.0164. There was no difference concerning the permanent dentition between the two groups (p = 0.9926. One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries.

  2. Relation Between Past and Present Dietary Sugar Intake and Dental Caries in A High Caries Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Malek Mohammadi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate relationship between re-ported dietary habits and dental caries in five and six-year-old children referred for dental extractions.Materials and Methods: Two hundred children were examined using standard caries di-agnostic criteria. The numbers of decayed, missing and filled deciduous teeth were re-corded. A food frequency table was completed by the parents of each child and analyzedthrough weighting the cariogenic potentialby the frequency of consumption, and summing the two scores.Results: The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft was 7.1 (SD=3.29. There was no statistically significant correlation between the reported dietary intake and the caries rate in the study population P=0.07.Use of bottles with sugared drinks during infancy was associated with increased caries levels (P<0.01.Conclusion: Poor infant feeding practices promote caries in childhood. A method of diet assessment which would evaluate diet-related health education is required.

  3. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  4. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What are dental caries? Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, occurs when bacteria ... May 2014 Task Force FINAL Recommendation | 1 Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years ...

  5. Retracted: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-02-15

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  6. Effect of Dental Caries on Children Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Malek Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined the hypothesis that severe dental caries may affect growth and development in preschool children. Methods: The study examined 218 children with severe caries using standard diagnostic criteria. All children were weighed and measured and a food frequency questionnaire was completed for each. Six months subsequent to tooth extraction, 131 of the children were followed up and underwent repeat measurement of height, weight, dental health and food intake. For each child, body mass index (BMI was calculated, and all measurements were converted into standard deviation scores and compared to the UK 1990 growth reference. Results: In the six months period after having their decayed teeth extracted the children’s BMIs had increased by 0.654. Two-sided t-tests for paired data showed this difference to be significant (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Treatment of gross dental disease appears to promote "catch-up" growth and normalisation of body mass index.

  7. Malnutrition and Dental Caries: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition occurs when there are deficiencies in protein, energy foods or both, relative to a body's needs. This paper reviews the association of early childhood malnutrition with: (1) dental caries, (2) enamel hypoplasia, (3) salivary gland hypofunction, and (4) delayed eruption. Studies suggest that caries of the primary dentition is associated with early childhood malnutrition, though the effect on caries of the permanent dentition has essentially not been studied. Enamel ...

  8. Fluoride varnish: a primary prevention tool for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Neerrajah

    2008-01-01

    Fluoride varnish is an effective tool that has been proven to prevent dental caries both in primary and permanent dentition. Its ease of use, acceptability and efficacy make it an important tool in the primary prevention of dental caries in high-caries-risk children. There has been an increase in third-party reimbursement for fluoride varnish applications in high-risk children and adults.

  9. Prevention, diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Study the news overtures to prevention, diagnosis and therapy of caries disease. Methods: We conducted one randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), one cross-sectional study and one systematic review with meta-analysis. The RCT evaluated the efficacy of the Carisolv and CeraBur. In the cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy of a new device to detect caries lesions: DIAGNOcam. The systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate efficacy of polyols in caries pr...

  10. DENTAL CARIES- A WIDELY GROWING DISEASE OF TEETH

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries called as tooth decay is basically a disease in which bacterial processes changes carbohydrate to acid. This acid then dematerializes the hard tooth structure. They are produced when demineralization amount exceeds the remineralization amount. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus are the bacteria responsible for the dental caries. This article throws light on the dental caries disease, its sign and symptoms, treatment, prevention and risk factors associated with it. A review o...

  11. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  12. Fluoride Importance in Controlling Caries and Fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s. Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, se...

  13. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  14. Early diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of occlusal caries--a clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brostek, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the clinical experiences and recommendations for use of the KaVo DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence device and of air abrasion (Kinetic cavity preparation). A major diagnostic problem facing clinicians today is the difficulty of achieving accurate occlusal caries diagnosis. Diagnostic accuracy is important because it determines the quality of the treatment decisions made, particularly with regard to the possibility of unnecessary operative intervention. The decrease in incidence of cavitated caries in Western countries, followed by the change in common presentation to non-cavitated caries, has made this accurate diagnosis more difficult. The deficiencies of using traditional methods of occlusal diagnosis are discussed and examined, along with the need for new, more accurate techniques. The use of the new technology of laser fluorescence is explained in detail with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of a commercial device: the KaVo DIAGNOdent. A minimal cavity outline philosophy is suggested for operative intervention, with particular emphasis on the advantages of using Kinetic cavity preparation (KCP) non-rotary method of tooth cutting. It should be noted that treatment options such as operative intervention should never precede adequate diagnosis and the use of preventive treatments such as sealants, should be utilized where indicated.

  15. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in the rural child population of Nainital District, Uttaranchal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a rapidly emerging oral health problem amongst the children of India. Its incidence in different states varies between 31 and 89%. This study was undertaken with a twin objective of assessing the prevalence of dental caries in parts of Uttaranchal state and designing the interventional strategies with a view to attend the oral health care needs of children. A total of 722 school children in the age range of 7-12 years of Nainital district were examined using WHO (1997 criteria. An overall caries prevalence of 77.7% was recorded, which is 67.26% in the age group of 7-9 years and 80.86% in 10-12 years with DMFT+deft of 1.97 and 2.61, respectively. It was observed that there were greater treatment needs in older age group. Another significant finding of the study was that the 59.96% required restorative treatment out of the various dental treatment needs evaluated.

  16. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  17. The Effects of Alcohol Regulation on Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Michael Grossman

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the established relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of measures of the ease of obtaining alcohol, illegal drug prices, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the parent on the incidence of child abuse. ...

  18. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment...... and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process...

  19. Identification of Microbial and Proteomic Biomarkers in Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide a univariate and multivariate analysis of genomic microbial data and salivary mass-spectrometry proteomic profiles for dental caries outcomes. In order to determine potential useful biomarkers for dental caries, a multivariate classification analysis was employed to build predictive models capable of classifying microbial and salivary sample profiles with generalization performance. We used high-throughput methodologies including multiplexed microbial arrays and SELDI-TOF-MS profiling to characterize the oral flora and salivary proteome in 204 children aged 1–8 years (n=118 caries-free, n=86 caries-active. The population received little dental care and was deemed at high risk for childhood caries. Findings of the study indicate that models incorporating both microbial and proteomic data are superior to models of only microbial or salivary data alone. Comparison of results for the combined and independent data suggests that the combination of proteomic and microbial sources is beneficial for the classification accuracy and that combined data lead to improved predictive models for caries-active and caries-free patients. The best predictive model had a 6% test error, >92% sensitivity, and >95% specificity. These findings suggest that further characterization of the oral microflora and the salivary proteome associated with health and caries may provide clinically useful biomarkers to better predict future caries experience.

  20. [Critical incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, D

    2005-03-01

    In medicine real severe mishaps are rare. On the other hand critical incidents are frequent. Anonymous critical incident reporting systems allow us to learn from these mishaps. This learning process will make our daily clinical work safer Unfortunately, before these systems can be used efficiently our professional culture has to be changed. Everyone in medicine has to admit that errors do occur to see the need for an open discussion. If we really want to learn from errors, we cannot punish the individual, who reported his or her mistake. The interest is primarily in what has happened and why it has happened and not who has committed this mistake. The cause for critical incidents in medicine is in over 80% the human factor Poor communication, work under enormous stress, conflicts and hierarchies are the main cause. This has been known for many years, therefore have already 15 years ago high-tech industries, like e.g. aviation, started to invest in special courses on team training. Medicine is a typical profession were until now only the individual performance decided about the professional career Communication, conflict management, stress management, decision making, risk management, team and team resource management were subjects that have never been taught during our preor postgraduate education. These points are the most important ones for an optimal teamwork. A multimodular course designed together with Swissair (Human Aspect Development medical, HADmedical) helps to cover, as in aviation, the soft factor and behavioural education in medicine and to prepare professionals in health care to work as a real team.

  1. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Miula Portelinha Braga; Augusta Piovesan; Natália Valarini; Sandra Mara Maciel; Flaviana Bombarda de Andrade; Regina Célia Poli-Frederico

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between t...

  2. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Malek Mohammadi T.; Hajizamani A.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by v...

  3. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in Preschool Children of Lucknow, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Jagannath, GV; Singh, Sanjay; Saha, Sonali; Garg, Nishita

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Dermatoglyphics refers to study of the intricate dermal ridge configurations on the skin covering the palmar and plantar surfaces of hand and feet. The basis of considering dermatoglyphic patterns as genetic marker for dental caries is that the epithelium of finger buds as well as enamel has ectodermal origin, and both develop at the same time of intrauterine life. Aim: To assess the relationship between fingerprint patterns and dental caries among preschool children of Lucknow city. Study design: This study was of cross-sectional design. Materials and methods: The study group comprised 512 preschool children 2-6 years of age. The prevalence of caries was recorded using "Dentition status and treatment needs" (WHO basic oral health assessment form, 1997). They were divided into three groups as follows: Group I (dmft score = 0-2), group II (dmft score = 3-4) and group III (dmft score ≥5). The handprints of each child were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and were classified according to the topological method. The frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Statistics: Chi-square test was used to test the significant difference in proportions. Means were compared using Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) or F-test. Results: Subjects belonging to groups II and III showed maximum occurrence of whorl pattern on all digits. Group I subjects had maximum occurrence of arch pattern. All the variables had statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among all three groups. Conclusion: The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of arch pattern. How to cite this article: Singh E, Saha S, Jagannath GV, Singh S, Saha S, Garg N. Association of Dermatoglyphic Peculiarities with Dental Caries in

  4. Experience of dental caries and its effects on early dental occlusion: a descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Valeria; Fabbrizi, Miriam; Coloni, Camilla; Mastrantoni, Cristina; Mirra, Carla; Bossù, Maurizio; Vestri, Annarita; Polimeni, Antonella

    2011-01-01

    Summary Aim Describe the occurrence of dental caries in a sample of pre-school children and school children, aged 3 and 12, and study the possible association between caries and malocclusion. Methods We selected and analyzed the medical records of a sample of 588 patients who had their first dental examination at the Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences of Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome. Results In the sample, 55.4% of the children had no decayed deciduous elements, while 44.6% had at least one decayed deciduous element. The prevalence of decayed permanent teeth was 10.2%, while 89.8% had no decayed permanent teeth. In the sample, 9.4% of the children showed advanced carious lesions, that needed tooth extraction and 6.6% needed a space maintainer for post-extractive interceptive treatment. In the sample, 26.7% of the examined patients had increased overjet, while 3.7% had decreased overjet and 25.4% of the sample had an increased overbite, 11, 2% had reduced over-bite values. A percentage over 10% of the sample had an anterior openbite in centric occlusion. The prevalence of posterior crossbite among entire samples was 19.8%. Conclusions Although the incidence of caries disease was high in the selected samples, the study did not show a statistically significant association between caries and clinical orthodontic abnormalities, except for the association between the midline deviation and the severe carious diseases, necessitating extraction. PMID:22238717

  5. A Review on Traditional Caries Diagnostic Systems and Introduction of New International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Mohammadi T.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infection disease that manifests itself through demineralization of dental tissues and cavitations in the tooth structure. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. Naturally, visual and visual-tactile examinations have been the most commonly used diagnostic aids in caries examination for many years. A major drawback in common dental examination was the use of varied diagnostic criteria by various authors. Some extensive reviews regarding this have emphasized the need for a unique system for the diagnosis of such caries. Thus, International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS emerged as a benchmark for detection and assessment of dental caries. The main objective of the new system is to improve the level of information to help make informed decision about diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical management of caries at both individual and public health levels.This study aimed to review traditional caries diagnosis methods and also describe the philosophy of the new ICDAS system for diagnosis and assessment of caries and also demonstrate how it can serve as a basis and benchmark for clinical and epidemiological research.

  6. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even small amounts of alcohol may hurt an unborn child)Drink alcohol while you are looking after ... shakes, being very suspicious), and can even include death. This is why you need your doctor’s care ...

  7. The role of Hsp0, CD-8 and IFN-γ in immunopathobiogenesis of periapical granuloma in dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risya Cilmiaty

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of dental caries with periapical granulomas in Indonesia is quite high. However, the mechanism of the formation of periapical granulomas in dental caries caused by bacterial infection in immunopathobiogenesis cannot be explained completely. Thus, this explanation is necessary in order to be used as a basis for diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the role of Hsp60, CD-8 and IFN-γ in immunopatobiogenesis of periapical granuloma in dental caries. Methods: This research was an analytic observational study with cross sectional approach. Samples of this research were 36 teeth of patients with dental caries, consisting of 18 caries teeth with periapical granulomas and 18 caries teeth without periapical granulomas. The variables observed in this research were Hsp60, CD-8 and IFN-γ. Measurements were conducted by using immunohistochemical methods on periapical tissue. Results: The mean of Hsp60, CD-8 and IFN-γ in granuloma group was significantly higher than those in non granuloma group (p<0.05. The positive role of IFN-γ on the incidence of granulomas appeared to be more prominent. Conclusion: The study suggested that in immunopathobiogenesis of periapical granuloma in dental caries, Hsp60, CD-8 and IFN-γ played important roles, but the role of IFN-γ was found to be more prominent.Latar belakang: Angka kejadian gigi karies dengan granuloma periapikal di Indonesia cukup tinggi, Namun mekanisme terbentuknya granuloma periapikal pada gigi karies yang disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri secara imunopatobiogenesis belum dapat dijelaskan secara tuntas. Adanya penjelasan ini diperlukan agar dapat digunakan sebagai dasar pengembangan diagnosis, langkah preventif dan terapinya. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peran Hsp60, CD-8 dan IFN-γ dalam immunopatobiogenesis dari granuloma periapikal karies gigi. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional

  8. Absence of Fluoride Varnish–Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A.; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S.; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F.; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L.; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children’s parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. Results A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish–related adverse events. Conclusion Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. PMID:28207379

  9. A novel LED-based device for occlusal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, Ali Murat; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Ciftçi, Mehmet Ertuğrul; Sirin Karaarslan, Emine

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the performance of laser-based (DIAGNOdent, KaVo, Biberach, Germany) and LED-based (Midwest Caries I.D., DENTSPLY Professional, New York, USA) caries detectors in the detection of occlusal caries in permanent molars. The study consisted of 129 visually sound or non-cavitated pits or fissures in 82 extracted permanent human molar teeth. Two trained examiners used the laser-based and LED-based caries detectors to examine the fissures for caries. The teeth were then sectioned at the surfaces suspected of containing occlusal caries and histologically evaluated using stereomicroscopy as a gold standard. Inter-examiner reliability of the caries detector examination was assessed using Cohen's Kappa statistics. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing occlusal caries using the two devices were calculated according to appropriate cut-off scores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also determined to compare the diagnostic performance of the devices in occlusal caries diagnosis. The cut-off level of significance was taken as p = 0.005. Cohen's Kappa showed substantial agreement for the laser-based caries detector (0.74), and almost perfect agreement for the LED-based (0.89) caries detector. The specificity of the laser-based device varied from 0.49 to 0.97 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.33 to 0.65 at T1 and T2. The specificity of the LED-based device varied from 0.48 to 0.56 at T1 and T2. Its sensitivity varied from 0.65 to 0.84 at T1 and from 0.80 to 0.84 at T2. Taking the limitations of the current study into consideration, the DIAGNOdent laser pen was more accurate in determining when teeth were free of occlusal caries than was the Midwest Caries I.D. LED-based device, although the Midwest Caries I.D. device more often revealed the presence of occlusal caries than did the DIAGNOdent pen.

  10. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  11. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t be awakened is at risk of dying. Alcohol poisoning is an emergency If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning — even if you don't see the ... immediately. Never assume the person will sleep off alcohol poisoning. Be prepared to provide information. If you ...

  12. Clinical Analysis of Related Factors and Prevention Countermeasures on Dental Caries in Preschool Children%学龄前儿童龋病相关因素临床分析及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚小利

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the related factors and prevention countermeasures of dental caries in preschool children. Methods:Retrospective analysis of the relevant data of 240 cases medical preschool children,comparison related factors difference of dental caries and no dental caries preschool children.Results:240 cases preschool children have caries 110 cases(45.83%), dental caries 1~6, mean (2.24±1.76), dental caries children group non breast feeding, parents lack caries prevention knowledge, not brush their teeth every day, malnutrition, sweet tooth, living in rural areas than non caries dental caries group (P<0.05), is dangerous factors of dental caries in preschool children. Conclusion:The incidence of dental caries in preschool children was high, with a variety of factors, implementation the corresponding countermeasures to avoid reducing the incidence of dental caries.%目的:探讨引起学龄前儿童龋病相关因素及预防对策。方法:回顾性分析240例我院体检学龄前儿童相关资料,比较龋病组及无龋病两组学龄前儿童相关因素方面差异。结果:240例体检学龄前儿童存在龋病110例(45.83%),龋齿1~6个,平均(2.24±1.76)个,龋病组儿童非母乳喂养、家长缺少龋病预防知识、未每天刷牙、营养不良、嗜好甜食、居住农村高于无龋病组(P<0.05),是引起学龄前儿童龋病的危险因素。结论:学龄前儿童龋病发生率较高,与多种因素有关,实施相应的对策避免减少龋病的发生。

  13. Alcoholism: Current Marker Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    mongolism are high-risk candidates for certain types of leukemia. Similarly, hemophiliacs have a correspondingly high incidence of color blindness . (4...genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type. GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...their study had linked color blindness , cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. They further hypothesized the existence of a sex-linked carrier gene

  14. The incidence and risk factors of dental caries among Uyghur vs Han children at age of 3 to 5 years in Kashi, Xinjiang%喀什市3~5岁维吾尔族、汉族儿童患龋情况及风险性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉婷; 李艳; 刘媛; 赵今

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查喀什市维吾尔族、汉族3~5岁儿童患龋情况及患龋风险因素的相关资料,建立儿童个体龋风险评估(caries risk assessment,CRA)模型,为当地儿童龋病风险性评估和制定综合防控计划提供样本及参考数据.方法 采用分层、整群抽样的方式随机抽取喀什市3所幼儿园397名3~5岁健康儿童作为研究对象,进行口腔检查和龋风险评估.分别应用卡方检验、方差分析及Logistic回归分析方法对龋风险评估相关因素进行统计分析.结果 (1)喀什市3~5岁汉族与维吾尔族儿童分布在CAR低度组、中度组和高度组三组比较差异均有统计学意义(x2=8.055,P=0.018).(2)汉族与维吾尔族儿童的龋在不同CAR分度组的差异均具有统计学意义(F1=47.46,P=0.000;F2=74.5,P=0.000).(3)汉族和维吾尔族在龋风险评估各组之间的患龋率差异有统计学意义(x21=98.21,P=0.000;x22=154.89,P=0.000). (4)多因素Logistic回归分析风险评估相关因素结果显示:年龄更大[OR=1.769,P=0.001]、母亲患有龋齿[OR=2.274,P=0.004]、经常用奶瓶和牛奶或果汁[OR=0.705,P=0.000]、经常吃零食[OR=4.825,P=0.000]是婴幼儿龋的危险因素;刷牙[OR=0.319,P=0.019]、辅助儿童刷牙[OR=0.305,P=0.002]是婴幼儿龋的保护因素.结论 喀什市3~5岁儿童患龋情况严重,龋风险评估高的儿童占大多数,应加强口腔健康教育,开展多种防龋措施.

  15. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSING ON CARIES LESION DEVELOPMENT IN SHARK ENAMEL - AN INSITU CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; ROLLA, G; DIJKMAN, T; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    Shark enamel consists of nearly pure fluorapatite and has been shown to demineralize in an in situ caries model. The present study was conducted to investigate whether additional fluoride supplementation in the form of mouthrinsing would inhibit lesion development in shark enamel. The study slabs of

  16. Caries preventive efficiency of therapeutic complex accomponying orthodontic treatment of children with initial dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga A.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of orthodontic non-removable appliance in orthodontic treatment inter¬feres with the process of teeth mineralization, worsens level of oral cavity hygiene, stimulates development of caries process. The situation is complicated when a patient has an initial tooth decay. The aim of this study was to determine genetic characteristics of children with initial caries and clinical evaluation of effectiveness of the developed caries preventive therapeutic complex accompanying treatment of jaw facial anomalies (JFA. 47 children aged 12-14 with initial tooth decay participated in the examination. Complex diagnostics, including molecular genetic studies was carried out. Therapeutic complex for children, of the main group included remineralizing, adaptogenic, biogenic agents, which increase non-specific resistance, as well as infiltration ICON therapy before fixing braces. Caries preventive complex accompanying JFA treatment in children with primary tooth decay developed with regard to revealed genetic disorders of amelogenesis, 2-nd of phase detoxification, collagen formation, functional responses in the oral cavity, state of hard tissues of teeth and periodontal tissues enabled to preserve existing carious process, normalize periodontal and hygienic indices at all stages of treatment.

  17. Epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease in Denmark 2006-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Becker, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To describe incidence, prevalence, hospitalization rates and survival for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in Denmark 2006-2011. METHODS: Using nationwide healthcare registries we identified all Danish residents with a hospital diagnosis of ALD and computed standardized incidence, prevalence...

  18. Fluorine profiling after application of various anti-caries gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschau, H.E.; Plier, F.; Otto, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Wissenschaftsbereich Angewandte Kernphysik); Wyrwich, C.; Treide, A. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedische und Kinderstomatologie)

    1990-04-01

    Two newly developed caries-preventing gels were tested together with Elmex on pre-school children over a time of 3 years. Proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry (PIGE) was used to measure the fluorine profiles in milk teeth (incisors). In accordance with the clinical statement the results allow to produce a new anti-caries drug. (orig.).

  19. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): an infectious transmissible oral disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Poureslami; W.E. van Amerongen

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries in babies and toddlers is called Early Childhood Caries (ECC). It is an infectious and transmissible die-to-bacterial disease. Detailed knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents facilitates a more comprehensive approach toward prevention. Mutans streptoc

  20. Fluorides in caries prevention and control: empiricism or science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, J M

    2004-01-01

    The caries-preventive effects of fluoride are beyond any reasonable doubt! Inclusion of fluoride use in caries prevention protocols has resulted in significant reduction in caries prevalence in the majority of the population. Nevertheless, even in low-caries prevalence populations up to 20% of individuals may suffer to an unacceptable degree from caries. In the history of caries research various phases can be discerned. Starting with the initial - laboratory - studies to reveal the mode of action of fluoride, attention later shifted to intra-oral studies and in situ product testing. Currently much emphasis is given to evidence-based dentistry and guidelines for clinical practice, which trend has also focussed the research on fluoride and caries. While on some topics, such as the efficacy of fluoride toothpastes, evidence is convincing, additional research is indicated to resolve remaining questions. One such question is that of high-prevalence individuals for which a comprehensive research programme focussing both on caries aetiological and behavioural aspects should be further developed. Efforts should continue to be directed at improving our understanding of fluoride, in particular on topics where success so far has failed.

  1. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to ex

  2. Estimation of caries experience by multiple imputation and direct standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A.A.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  3. Estimation of Caries Experience by Multiple Imputation and Direct Standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, A. A.; van Buuren, S.

    2014-01-01

    Valid estimates of caries experience are needed to monitor oral population health. Obtaining such estimates in practice is often complicated by nonresponse and missing data. The goal of this study was to estimate caries experiences in a population of children aged 5 and 11 years, in the presence of

  4. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple...

  5. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to e

  6. Dental Caries and General Health in Children and Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...

  7. Cancer incidence among Danish Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Hansen, Helle Ploug;

    2012-01-01

    American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. In this s......American Seventh-day Adventists have been reported to have lower cancer mortality and incidence than the general population. Adventists do not consume tobacco, alcohol or pork, and many adhere to a lacto-ovo-vegetarian lifestyle. Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco...

  8. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  9. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  10. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Schwarz, Eli; Blinkhorn, Anthony Stevenson

    2011-11-01

    Early childhood caries is a significant international public health problem. The aim of this paper was to review the current evidence of the risk factors for dental caries in disadvantaged children under 6 years of age. Medline, Cochrane, and PubMed database searches were conducted. Systematic reviews were used where available, or meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (in that order). Studies were restricted to those published in English from 1990 to October 2010. Early childhood caries has a complex etiology with biological, behavioral, and sociodemographic influences. Evidence suggests that young children are most likely to develop caries if Streptococcus mutans is acquired at an early age, although this is influenced by other factors, such as oral hygiene, fluoride, diet, dental visit patterns, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and health literacy. Etiological pathways should be taken into consideration when designing interventions to prevent dental caries in disadvantaged preschool children.

  11. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  12. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Birkedal, Henrik; Olsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Caries is caused by acid production in biofilms on dental surfaces. Preventing caries therefore involves control of microorganisms and/or the acid produced. Here, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles are presented as a new approach to caries control. The particles are made by co......-precipitation and designed to bind to bacteria in biofilms, impede biofilm build-up without killing the microflora, and release phosphate ions to buffer bacterial acid production if the pH decreases below 6. Analysis of biofilm formation and pH in a five-species biofilm model for dental caries showed that treatment......H always remained above 5.5. Hence, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles show potential for applications in caries control....

  13. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Areias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption.

  14. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  15. Survey analysis of caries of primary students in Shahekou, Dalian%2010年大连市沙河口区小学生龋齿患病情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立婷; 梁筱璐; 于惠娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this survey was to find out the permanent teeth caries prevalence among the primary students in Shahekou,Dalian,so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of caries. Methods According to the caries diagnostic criteria of WHO,the caries conditions of 26 076 primary students in Shahekou were surgeryed. In these subjects,the caries prevalence was 8. 36% ,and DMFT was 0. 132. The girls' caries prevalence was higher than boys'. Conclusions The caries prevalence is obviously lower than ten years ago. The filling rate of dental caries is high. It's still needed to increase prevention efforts in order to reduce the incidence of dental caries.%目的 调查大连市沙河口区小学生恒牙患龋情况,为大连市口腔卫生防治工作提供参考依据.方法 按WHO龋齿诊断调查标准对大连市沙河口区26 121名小学生龋齿情况进行调查.采用SPSS 10.0统计软件进行统计分析.结果 在26 121名受检者中,患龋率为8.35%,龋均为0.1323,女性患龋率高于男性.结论 患龋率明显低于10年前,龋齿充填率较高,仍要加大预防力度,降低龋齿发生率.

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  17. DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussi, A; Hibst, R; Paulus, R

    2004-01-01

    The onset of caries is characterized by demineralization of dental hard tissues. Optimal fluoridation with respective oral hygiene habits and diet may stop the progression of a lesion and even allow for its remineralization. The aim of modern dentistry must be a preventive approach rather than invasive repair of the disease. This is possible only with early detection and respective preventive measures. Some of today's diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough to detect this early onset of destruction. Tools based on fluorescence could have the possibility to overcome this problem. This overview will focus on today's knowledge of one possible tool, the DIAGNOdent.

  18. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  19. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  20. Association of parental stress and early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ebrahim Jabbarifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Little research has been carried out on whether the parental stress affects children′s oral health in general and dental caries in particular. This study aimed to investigate the association be-tween parental stress and early childhood caries (ECC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed that included 250 children of 4-6 year-old; 127 ones attended the pediatric department of Isfahan School of Dentistry who had early childhood caries and a comparison group of 123 caries free children attended five kindergartens and pre-schools in Isfahan city. Clinical examinations were conducted to evaluate the caries status. The parents of the two study groups completed the self-administrated long form of the Parenting Stress Index questionnaire. De-tails of their socio-demographic status were gathered too. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5. The nonparametric Mantel-Haenszel test for correlation statistics was used to determine bivariate associations between total parenting stress and their domains scores in the two groups; i.e., those with early childhood caries and the caries free group. Results: Mean score of PSI in the early childhood caries and caries free group were 286.66 ± 66.26 and 273.87 ± 31.03, respectively. There was not any significant relationship between total parental stress and ECC. The scores of the following domains of PSI demonstrated significant differences between ECC and CF groups: child reinforcement, child distractibility, child deficit attention, life stress and relationship with spouse (P = 0.01, 0.01, 0.001, 0.005 respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study did not show any significant association between total parenting stress score and prevalence of early childhood caries.

  1. Caries-preventive Effect of Supervised Toothbrushing and Sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, L A; Leal, S C; Mulder, J; Creugers, N H J; Frencken, J E

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 3 caries-preventive measures on high- and low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y. This cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial covered 242 schoolchildren, 6 to 7 y old, from low socioeconomic areas. At baseline, caries risk was assessed at the tooth surface level, through a combination of ICDAS II (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) and fissure depth codes. High-caries risk occlusal surfaces were treated according to daily supervised toothbrushing (STB) at school and 2 sealants: composite resin (CR) and atraumatic restorative treatment-high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (ART-GIC). Low-caries risk occlusal surfaces received STB or no intervention. Evaluations were performed after 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 y. A cavitated dentine carious lesion was considered a failure. Data were analyzed according to the proportional hazard rate regression model with frailty correction, Wald test, analysis of variance, and t test, according to the jackknife procedure for calculating standard errors. The cumulative survival rates of cavitated dentine carious lesion-free, high-caries risk occlusal surfaces were 95.6%, 91.4%, and 90.2% for STB, CR, and ART-GIC, respectively, over 3 y, which were not statistically significantly different. For low-caries risk occlusal surfaces, no statistically significant difference was observed between the cumulative survival rate of the STB group (94.8%) and the no-intervention group (92.1%) over 3 y. There was neither a difference among STB, CR, and ART-GIC on school premises in preventing cavitated dentine carious lesions in high-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars nor a difference between STB and no intervention for low-caries risk occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars over 3 y.

  2. An artifical neural network for detection of simulated dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositbowornchai, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Oral Diagnosis; Siriteptawee, S.; Plermkamon, S.; Bureerat, S. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chetchotsak, D. [Khon Kaen Univ. (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Objects: A neural network was developed to diagnose artificial dental caries using images from a charged-coupled device (CCD)camera and intra-oral digital radiography. The diagnostic performance of this neural network was evaluated against a gold standard. Materials and methods: The neural network design was the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) used to classify a tooth surface as sound or as having dental caries. The depth of the dental caries was indicated on a graphic user interface (GUI) screen developed by Matlab programming. Forty-nine images of both sound and simulated dental caries, derived from a CCD camera and by digital radiography, were used to 'train' an artificial neural network. After the 'training' process, a separate test-set comprising 322 unseen images was evaluated. Tooth sections and microscopic examinations were used to confirm the actual dental caries status.The performance of neural network was evaluated using diagnostic test. Results: The sensitivity (95%CI)/specificity (95%CI) of dental caries detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography were 0.77(0.68-0.85)/0.85(0.75-0.92) and 0.81(0.72-0.88)/0.93(0.84-0.97), respectively. The accuracy of caries depth-detection by the CCD camera and digital radiography was 58 and 40%, respectively. Conclusions: The model neural network used in this study could be a prototype for caries detection but should be improved for classifying caries depth. Our study suggests an artificial neural network can be trained to make the correct interpretations of dental caries. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of the Causes of Dental Caries in Children and the Measures of Prevention%小儿龋齿病因分析及防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬

    2015-01-01

    目的:对小儿龋齿的病因进行详细分析,并制定有效可行的防治措施。方法选取某社区的2012-2014年的儿童调查,统计三年的儿童龋齿发生状况,并且自行制作调查问卷,发放给家长,统计小儿龋齿的病因。结果2012年有龋齿的儿童数为53人,发病率42.40%;2013年有龋齿的儿童数为69人,发病率53.08%;2014年有龋齿的儿童数为91人,发病率68.42%。病因主要是饮食及卫生习惯不良好。结论小儿龋齿的发展呈逐年增长趋势,应制定有效措施来防治小儿龋齿问题。%Objective The etiology of dental caries in children will be analyzed in detail, and to develop the measures of effective prevention . Methods Select the children of a community form 2012 to 2014, statistic dental caries prevalence for three years, and distribute the questionnaire to parents,statistic children with caries etiology and formulate the corresponding prevention measures. Results The number of caries children in 2012 was 53, the incidence rate of 42.40%; in 2013, the number of children dental caries was 69, the incidence of 53.08%;in 2014 the number of dental caries children was 91, the incidence rate of 68.42%. The etiology is mainly diet and bad health habits. Conclusion The trend of the development of dental caries in children is increasing year by year, so we should formulate effective measures to prevent the trouble of children dental caries.

  4. Dental Caries in High-Risk School-Aged African-American Children in Alabama: A Six-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal, Tariq S.; Levy, Steven M.; Childers, Noel K.; Broffitt, Barbara A.; Caplan, Daniel J; Warren, John J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kolker, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence and incidence of dental caries in school-aged African-American children who received semi-annual fluoride varnish applications. Methods A cohort of six-year-old high caries-risk African-American children (n=98) was recruited in Uniontown, Alabama and followed for six years. Oral examinations were done annually by three trained/calibrated dentists. Tooth surfaces with cavitated caries, missing due to caries and with filled surfaces were recorded, using WHO criteria. Also, as part of the study, children received periodic oral health instruction, fluoride varnish applications and referral to dentists starting at baseline. Results The person-level prevalence of dmfs/DMFS was: 61.2 percent at mean age 5.9 (n=98, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.6); 63.8 percent at age 6.7 (n=80, mean dmfs/DMFS=13.2); 70.6 percent at age 7.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=14.2); 65.7 percent at age 8.8 (n=68, mean dmfs/DMFS=11.8); 55.6 percent at age 9.7 (n=63, mean dmfs/DMFS=8.8); 40.3 percent at age 10.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=3.4); and 37.1 percent at age 11.7 (n=62, mean dmfs/DMFS=2.3). The six-year person-level incidence of dmfs/DMFS was 32.3 percent (mean dmfs/DMFS=1.6) from age 5.9 to age 11.7 (n=62). Conclusion In spite of the oral health education and fluoride varnish applications, there was substantial new dental caries in this high-risk sample. Additional studies evaluating risk factors for caries development are ongoing. PMID:27306247

  5. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wiel, Albert

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system.

  6. Genotypic diversity and virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active individuals

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    Miula Portelinha Braga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001. There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01.

  7. Gestação e cárie dental Pregnancy and dental caries

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    Yvette Viegas

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar se a incidência de cárie aumenta durante a gestação. Foram incluídas neste estudo 82 gestantes e 40 não gestantes nas quais se observou a incidência de superfícies atacadas pela cárie durante um período de 6 meses. À análise dos dados constatamos que não ocorreu diferença estatìsticamente significante entre os dois grupos quanto à incidência de cárie.The purpose of this investigation was to verify if the incidence of dental decay increases during pregnancy.In this study 82 pregnant and 40 nonpregnant women were included. In both groups the incidence of attacked surfaces was studied in a period of six months. The observed incidence of dental caries between the groups was not statistically significant.

  8. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

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    Schwarz Eli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b introduction of solid food, c intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d fluoride exposure, and e oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney.

  9. Caries dental en escolares del Distrito Federal Dental caries in school children in Mexico City

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    MARÍA ESTHER IRIGOYEN-CAMACHO

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de la prevalencia y la severidad de caries dental, así como las necesidades de tratamiento de la población escolar del Distrito Federal examinada en la encuesta de caries dental que se llevó a cabo en 1988 con la finalidad de obtener datos basales sobre caries en los escolares al inicio del Programa Nacional de Fluoruración de la Sal en México. Material y métodos. La población de estudio fue seleccionada empleando un marco muestral basado en el listado de las escuelas primarias y los jardines de niños registrados por la Secretaría de Educación Pública en 1988. En el examen de la cavidad bucal de los escolares se utilizaron los criterios diagnósticos señalados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. Un total de 4 475 escolares de 5 a 12 años de edad participaron en el estudio. La prevalencia de caries dental en la población alcanzó 90.5%. El índice de necesidades de tratamiento fue elevado (79.6%. El promedio de los índices de caries en los escolares de 12 años de edad fue CPOD= 4.42 (desviación estándar –DE– 3.2 y CPOS= 6.53 (DE 4.8. Conclusiones. Los resultados de la encuesta subrayan la pertinencia de un programa preventivo de amplia cobertura, como el de fluoruración de la sal. Además, muestran que se requiere elaborar estrategias para mejorar el acceso de la población escolar a los servicios odontológicos del sistema de salud en México.Objective. To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the dental treatment necessities of school children in Mexico City. The studied population was surveyed for dental caries in 1988 to obtain data necessary for the National Program of Salt Fluoridation in Mexico. Material and methods. The population was selected with a sample frame based on a list of Kindergardens and primary schools registered at the Ministry of Public Education in 1988. The oral cavity examination was based on diagnostic criteria marked by the

  10. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Marta; Podzimek, Stepan; Broukal, Zdenek; Lencova, Erika; Duskova, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  11. Periodontal Diseases and Dental Caries in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Marta Novotna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes. Juvenile periodontitis is rare both in healthy subjects and in those with type 1 diabetes. Yet certain findings from well-conducted studies, for example, differences in oral microflora or the impact of metabolic control of diabetes on periodontal health, indicate a higher risk of periodontitis in children with type 1 diabetes. As for the association of diabetes and dental caries, the results of the studies are inconsistent. However, it was found that some risk factors for dental caries are either more or less prevalent in the diabetic population. Despite an extensive research in this area we have to acknowledge that many questions have remained unanswered. There is a need for continued, thorough research in this area.

  12. Caries-resistant bonding layer in dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-Na; Hu, Lin; Jiao, Kai; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-Juan; Tay, Franklin R; Chen, Ji-Hua

    2016-09-07

    The present study examined the mechanism for caries resistance and the pulp responses in vital teeth following the use of the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique. Dentin adhesives were applied to the surface of sound dentin disks in 4 experimental groups: non-antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (N-G), non-antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (N-H), antibacterial adhesive and gentle adhesive displacement (A-G), antibacterial adhesive and augmented-pressure adhesive displacement (A-H). The depth of demineralization induced by biological or chemical demineralization models was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Pulp responses of vital dog's teeth to the augmented-pressure adhesive displacement technique were evaluated using light microscopy. Depth of demineralization was significantly affected by "adhesive type" and "intensity of adhesive displacement" for biological demineralization. For chemical demineralization, only "intensity of adhesive displacement" showed significant influence on lesion depth. Pulp response of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 MPa groups showed only moderate disorganization of the odontoblast layer at 24 hours that completely re-organized after 3 weeks. Augmented-pressure adhesive displacement improves the caries resistance property of bonded dentin and does not cause irreversible pulpal damage to vital teeth when the air pressure employed is equal or smaller than 0.3 MPa.

  13. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  14. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  15. A clinical study on relationship of dental caries and removable partial denture of the aged patients%老年患者基牙龋病与可摘局部义齿关系的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李行懿; 陈娜; 刘聪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize (patterns of caries after placing RPD. Methods A total of 95 patients were included in this study. A clinical examination of caries lesions on abutment teeth was conducted by me. Results The incidence of caries on abutment teeth and on nonabutment teeth were respectively 23. 67% and 3. 45%. ( P < 0.05). 27.49% of abutment teeth had new caries on the posterior oral cavity, onlyl3.89% of that on the anterior oral cavity. (P<0. 05). The incidence of caries on proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures was 25. 72% , under denture rests was 9. 33% , on root surfaces was 3. 02% , on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was 1. 36% . The incidence of caries on abutment teeth of three groups classified by the oral hygienic habit were respectively 8. 91% 、24. 09%、44. 29% (P<0.01). Conclusion RPD wearers had more caries incidence. Abutment teeth had a higher of incidence of caries than nonabutment teeth. On the posterior oral cavity, abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures abutment teeth had more caries incidence. Proximal surfaces adjacent to dentures were at highest risk of being decayed, surfaces under denture rests were next. The incidence of root caries on abutment teeth significantly increased. The incidence of caries on tooth surfaces in contact with denture clasps was not high.%目的 观察老年患者戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年后的龋病发病情况及其临床特点.方法 对95例戴用可摘局部义齿2-3年患者的基牙和非基牙的龋齿发病情况进行检查.结果 基牙龋齿发病率23.67%高于非基牙3.45%(P<0.05).口腔后部基牙龋齿发病率27.49%高于口腔前部基牙13.89%(P<0.05).基牙邻接面龋发病率25.72%,支托窝龋发病率9.33%,根面龋发病率3.02%,卡环龋发病率1.36%.口腔卫生习惯优、良、差三级的基牙龋齿发病率分别为8.91%、24.09%、44.29%,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 患者戴用可摘局部义齿后易患龋

  16. Multifocal Osteonecrosis Secondary to Chronic Alcohol Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Kazu Matsumoto; Hiroyasu Ogawa; Haruhiko Akiyama

    2015-01-01

    Multifocal osteonecrosis is a relatively rare disorder with an estimated incidence of around 3% among patients diagnosed as having osteonecrosis. Multifocal osteonecrosis is caused by the several conditions including corticosteroid treatment, coagulation disorders, connective tissue disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease, renal transplantation, and underlying malignancies. Alcohol abuse is one of the risk factors for osteonecrosis, and alcohol-induc...

  17. The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Shu; Li, Yao; Cao, Xue; Cui, Yun

    2013-06-01

    Eugenol has been widely used in medicine due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries development in rats. Eugenol demonstrated significant inhibitory effects against acid production by S. mutans. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by glucosyltransferases was reduced by eugenol. Eugenol also markedly suppressed the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Furthermore, topical application of eugenol reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the natural compound eugenol may be a useful therapeutic agent for dental caries.

  18. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  19. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review

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    Sulugodu Ramachandra Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged <30 years (older individuals can also be affected and is characterized by a young age of onset, rapid rate of disease progression, and familial aggregation of cases. Dental caries is caused by the dissolution of enamel by acid-producing bacteria present in the plaque biofilm, especially when the biofilm reaches critical mass due to improper oral hygiene. The association between caries level and aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down’s syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  20. New diagnostic technology and hidden pits and fissures caries

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    Fabrizio Guerra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy in pits and fissures caries detection is of paramount importance in dental caries primary and secondary prevention. A combination of visual examination and probing is currently the mainstay of occlusal caries diagnosis. Unfortunately, these types of inspection alone may leave a certain number of pit and fissure caries undetected. The Vista Cam iX fluorescence camera (Durr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany is a novel dental diagnostic tool for quantitative assessment of dental caries with high specificity for carious lesions detection. In the presented cases photographic images, representing the visual diagnostic approach, are applied as integration to VistaCam iX Proof images. A step-by-step sequence of inspection and assessment of operative treatment need is presented in a case of hidden pit and fissure caries on a permanent molar. Based on the reported case, it could be observed that VistaCam iX Proof shows promising results in hidden pits and fissures caries detection and could be considered a non-invasive examination method that facilitate the detection of early lesions and a potential diagnostic aid.

  1. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  2. Diet and the microbial aetiology of dental caries: new paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, David J; Lynch, Richard J M

    2013-12-01

    The microbial and dietary factors that drive caries have been studied scientifically for 120 years. Frequent and/or excessive sugar (especially sucrose) consumption has been ascribed a central role in caries causation, while Streptococcus mutans appeared to play the key role in metabolising sucrose to produce lactic acid, which can demineralise enamel. Many authors described caries as a transmissible infectious disease. However, more recent data have shifted these paradigms. Streptococcus mutans does not fulfil Koch's postulates - presence of the organism leading to disease, and absence of the organism precluding disease. Furthermore, molecular microbiological methods have shown that, even with a sugar-rich diet, a much broader spectrum of acidogenic microbes is found in dental plaque. While simple sugars can be cariogenic, cooked starches are also now recognised to be a caries threat, especially because such starches, while not 'sticky in the hand', can be highly retentive in the mouth. Metabolism of starch particles can yield a prolonged acidic challenge, especially at retentive, caries-prone sites. These changes in the paradigms of caries aetiology have important implications for caries control strategies. Preventing the transmission of S. mutans will likely be inadequate to prevent caries if a sufficiently carbohydrate-rich diet continues. Similarly, restriction of sucrose intake, although welcome, would be unlikely to be a panacea for caries, especially if frequent starch intake persisted. Instead, approaches to optimise fluoride delivery, to target plaque acidogenicity or acidogenic microbes, to promote plaque alkali generation, to increase salivary flow or replace fermentable carbohydrates with non-fermentable alternatives may be more promising.

  3. Heavy smoking and severe dental caries in Indonesian men

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    Sumartono, Wasis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Indonesia, the prevalence of dental caries is 85%–99% and 67.4% of males aged 15 years or older are current users of tobacco. The aim of this study was to examine the association between heavy smoking and severe dental caries. METHODS: The authors used secondary data from Basic Health Research 2007. Respondents were Indonesian males aged 45–54 years (n = 34 534. Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT value was used to define severe dental caries with 31.4% of respondents having DMFT value ≥ 8, the cutoff point of severe dental caries in this study. In addition, the enumerators recorded socio-demographic characteristics (age, socio-economic status, education, and job, tooth brushing and smoking behavior of respondents. Chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of severe dental caries between heavy smokers (defined as Brinkman Index or BI ≥ 400 and never smokers (BI = 0. The multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate adjusted association between heavy smoking and dental caries severity. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe dental caries among never smokers, light smokers (BI 1-399 and heavy smokers was 24.9%, 32.5%, and 38.7% respectively (p < 0.005. Compared to never smokers, the adjusted ORs of having severe dental caries among light smokers and heavy smokers were 1.45 (95% CI: 1.37-1.53 and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.59 – 1.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor of severe dental caries in Indonesian men with dose-and-response association revealed between the exposure and the outcome. Indonesian dentists, individually and collectively, have to participate in smoking prevention and control more actively.

  4. Ozone and caries: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, F J Trevor

    2012-05-01

    Ozone, either in gaseous form or as ozonated water, has been available for use as a treatment for dental caries for a decade. This paper reviews the literature on the subject by examining the findings of publications in the peer review literature. Eighteen papers were identified by a literature search. From the review of these, it was concluded that, while some laboratory studies and some short duration clinical studies have suggested that ozone may be effective in the treatment of root caries or killing of oral micro-organisms, the clinical evidence for the use of ozone in treatment of caries is not compelling.

  5. The colony number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva of dental caries and free caries children

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    Seno Pradopo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans are regarded as the main initiator microorganism of caries, with Lactobacilli participating on caries progression, due to its carcinogenic capacity. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp in children with in children’s saliva with dental caries and free caries. Twenty children attending the Paediatric Dental Clinic in Airlangga University participated in our study. Their age ranged from 1–14 years old. Subject was divided into two groups, which were study group consisting of 10 children with 3–5 dmft/DMFT and control group with 10 caries free children. Subjects were examined and their caries number was recorded using WHO index. Stimulated saliva was collected from each subject for bacterial assessment. Colony counting of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp count in each saliva sample group were done. The study showed that subject with 3–5 dmft/DMFT had higher number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus sp than caries free.

  6. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE, la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de caries en la dentición permanente. Resultados: El promedio de dientes temporales cariados, extraídos y obturados (ceod y dientes permanentes cariados, perdidos y obturados (CPOD fue de 2,48 (2,82 (ceod > 0 = 58,9% y 0,40 (0,98 (CPOD > 0 = 18,2%, respectivamente. El índice SiC (índice de caries significativa, calculado en la dentición temporal fue de 5,85 para los niños de 6 años de edad. En el análisis de regresión logística multivariado permanecieron significativas, después de ajustar por variables de exposición a fluoruros, la mayor edad (odds ratio [OR] = 2,99, el ceod > 0 (OR = 5,46, la menor escolaridad de la madre (OR = 1,57 y una interacción entre sexo y defectos del esmalte. Conclusiones: Las caries en la dentición temporal y permanente fueron relativamente menores que las observaciones publicadas por otros estudios en México. Los resultados confirmaron que la caries en la dentición temporal se asoció fuertemente con la caries en la dentición permanente. No hubo una relación significativa entre las fuentes de fluoruro y la caries dental en la dentición permanente.Objective: To examine the relationship between the presence of enamel defects, dental caries in primary teeth, and exposure to various fluoride technologies and the presence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 713 children aged 6-9 years old

  7. Epidemiological Characteristics and Prevention and Control Effects of Caries in Preschool Children%学龄前儿童龋病流行病学特征及其防治效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄成; 文勇; 叶艳; 任修勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解个旧市儿童龋病流行病学特征,探讨儿童龋病高发原因,为制定防治措施提供依据.方法 以学龄前集体儿童为观察对象;采用临床检查与问卷相结合的方法和WTO规定的龋病诊断标准为依据进行调查;以健康教育和培养儿童正确刷牙习惯和方法,并采用氟离子透人为干预措施;对患龋儿童采用“ART”龋病治疗技术,对儿童龋齿充填治疗.结果 共调查3~6岁儿童1 245名,儿童患龋率66.43%,显著高于全国平均水平;龋均5.03,高于其他城市.儿童患龋率汉族高于回族和彝族,城市高于农村.乳牙龋齿的发生部位以下颌磨牙最多,下颌乳前牙最少,且左右基本对称.氟离子透入对降低儿童龋病率是一种显著有效的方法.刷牙习惯对降低儿童龋患率是一种重要行为干预. “ART”龋病治疗技术是儿童龋齿充填治疗简便有效的方法.结论 儿童口腔健康教育和氟离子透人防龋综合干预措施是降低儿童患龋率的重要方法.%Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of caries in city preschool children, disscuss the causes of caries high incidence, and provide scientific basis for making prevention and control measures. Methods The preschool children were selected as observation objects. The clinical examination and the method of combining the questionnaire, and the provisions of the WTO caries diagnostic criteria were used for disease investigation. Health education and teaching children correct brushing habits and method, and USES the fluorin ion penetration were used as intervention measures. Children with caries were treated by "ART" treatment technology, and the dental caries were given filling reatment in time. Results The incidence of caries was 66.43% in 1245 city preschool children invstigated, which was significantly higher than the national average level. Cavities are 5.03, higher than other cities. The incidence of caries in

  8. Caries detection and quantification with DIAGNOdent: prospects for occlusal and root caries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, R; Wicht, M J

    2004-10-01

    A possible consequence of light absorption as the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with molecules of the tooth's hard substances is, apart from the emission of heat, fluorescence. It was demonstrated that the emission spectra of enamel, dentin, and caries look alike upon excitation with red light; however, fluorescence increases with the process of carious destruction. Based on that, the DIAGNOdent System was developed, which simultaneously injects red light into the tooth surface and detects the resulting fluorescence. Due to this design, clinical application is currently limited to accessible occlusal and smooth surfaces. For occlusal caries detection, it was shown that validity and reproducibility could be optimized over classical diagnostic tests for deep dentin lesions with seemingly intact surfaces. The detection of root caries does not play a relevant role in the directly accessible areas, but estimation of the lesion's activity and progression rate is a prerequisite for differentiated lesion management Excellent reproducibility of the laser fluorescence measurements was confirmed for this scenario. Lesions with a soft surface texture show significantly higher fluorescence values than leathery or hard lesions, and values also increase with increasing cavity depth. DIAGNOdent offers the potential to improve follow-ups and estimation of the prognosis and to support clinical management of primary carious lesions.

  9. Analysis of the relationship between unilateral mastication and caries%习惯性偏侧咀嚼与龋病相关性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛梦莹; 周玉乔; 陈谦明; 廖生

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查成都市青少年偏侧咀嚼习惯患病率、患龋率,并探讨偏侧咀嚼和龋病的关系.方法 对成都市3所初级中学部分学生(160名)进行标准口腔龋齿检测、偏侧咀嚼检查及问卷调查,分析偏侧咀嚼者、龋病患病率二者之间的相关性.结果 有偏侧咀嚼习惯时患龋率(60.71%)明显高于无偏侧咀嚼时患龋率(40.68%),偏侧咀嚼与龋齿患病之间显著正相关(Phi=0.198,P=0.018).结论 成都市青少年(14~15岁初中生)偏侧咀嚼者患龋率比非偏侧咀嚼者高,偏侧咀嚼和龋病存在一定相关性.在龋病预防发面,偏侧咀嚼的影响不可忽视.%OBJECTIVE The purpose is to investigate incidence of caries and unilateral mastication in adolescents, and to analyze the relationship between unilateral mastication and caries. METHODS By means of standard dental caries detection, unilateral mastication examination and questionnaire survey in students (160) among three junior middle schools in Chengdu, we analyzed the correlation between unilateral mastication and prevalence of dental caries. RESULTS According to the statistics, students with unilateral mastication had a 60.71% caries prevalence which was significantly higher than that of control group (40.68%). There was a significant positive correlation between unilateral mastication and dental caries prevalence (Phi = 0.198, P= 0.018). CONCLUSION Unilateral mastication and caries have a certain relevance, adolescents in Chengdu (14-15 year-old middle school students) with unilateral mastication have higher caries prevalence than that of none-unilateral-mastication. In the prevention of dental caries, the significance of preventing unilateral mastication should be highly valued.

  10. 新城实验幼儿园儿童龋病调查分析%The Survey of dental caries in the xincheng experimental Kindergarten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛玉梅; 邢文燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:为了解西安市学龄前儿童龋病的流行状况,为开展龋病的防治工作提出指导意义。方法对西安市新城实验幼儿园两个年级的儿童348名进行了龋病普查,自然光下用口镜进行检查,计算出患龋率、龋均、龋面均,分析龋病的流行状况。结果该幼儿园两个年级总患龋率为69.54%,龋均3.51,龋面均4.34。结论学龄前儿童龋病发病率高,龋病的防治工作不能忽视,应继续推进龋病的宣传和防治工作,同时提高家长、学校、和社会对儿童口腔健康的共同重视。%Objective To understand the incidence of the preschool children dental caries in Xi'an and propose guiding significance for the development of dental caries prevention. Methods The total of 348 children in the xincheng experimental Kindergarten was investigated. The oral examination was conducted under the natural light with the plane mirror. Calculate the caries prevalence rate, mean DMFT, mean DMFS, and analyze the prevalence of dental caries. Results The total incidence of the dental caries was 69.54% , mean DMFT was 3.51, mean DMFS was 4.34. Conclusion The caries prevalence rate of preschool children is high. The prevention of dental caries can’t be ignored, we should continue to promote advocacy and prevention of dental caries, and raise the awareness of parents, schools, and society to the importance of children's oral health.

  11. Pulpal inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Douglass, Chester W

    2006-02-01

    Pulpal inflammation is primarily caused by coronal caries, and leads to root canal therapy (RCT). Chronic inflammation has been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the association between pulpal inflammation (using RCT as a surrogate) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We report results among males from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), excluding participants with prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes. We obtained RCT data from the HPFS cohort (n = 34,683). Compared to men without RCT, those with >/=1 RCT had a multivariate RR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.40) for CHD. The association was limited to dentists (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67). There was no association among nondentists (RR = 1.03). Dental caries was not associated with CHD. The results suggest a possible modest association between pulpal inflammation and CHD.

  12. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  13. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Samir Kabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contributing to severe early childhood caries and placed them in the order of their significance as follows: snacking of sugary food several times a day, increased number of siblings to three or more, night feeding, child self-employed brushing, mother’s caries experience, two siblings, on demand feeding, once/day sugary food, sharing utensils, one sibling, male gender, father’s education, late first dental visit, brushing time, mother’s education, no dental visit, decreased brushing frequency, and no night brushing.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  15. RECENT ADVANCES IN DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF DENTAL CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries , a progressive bacterial damage to teeth , is one of the most commondiseases that affects 95% of the population and is still a major cause of tooth loss.Recent years have seen an increase in research activity surrounding diagnostic methods , particularly in the assessment of early caries lesions. The use of technologi es as adjunct to clinical visual examination for caries diagnosis will facilitate preventive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost as well as reduce the cost and time for testing potential anticaries agents. This article describes the various technolog ies available to aid the dental practitioners in detecting and diagnosis ofdental caries at the earliest stage of its formation , assessing the activities of the detected carious lesion , and quantitatively or qualitatively monitoring of the lesion over time .

  16. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruvo, M.; Ekstrand, K.; Arvin, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect...... of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations...... in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control...

  17. Altered Bacterial Profiles in Saliva from Adults with Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Fiehn, N-E; Nielsen, C H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed...... using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann......-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica...

  18. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  19. [Microabrasive tooth preparation for early caries prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrova, A G; Kulakov, A A; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Monastyreva, E G

    2011-01-01

    Based on the 4-year experience with the method of air-abrasion treatment on the stages of treatment and prevention of dental caries in the article provides data on the indications for its use, benefits and complications.

  20. Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Aguilar-Ayala

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: due to the high prevalence of white spots, is necessary to create prevention programs that educate mothers or caregivers about the caries risk factors and its control, promoting self-care as a preven- tion strategy.

  1. Detection activity assessment and diagnosis of dental caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews the current methods for detection and assessment of caries lesions focusing on applicability for daily clinical practice. The end point is to arrive at a diagnosis for each caries lesion. Visual inspection aided by a ball-ended probe is essential for caries lesions assessment and the method must be used for all patients. Use of indices, for example, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), can improve the performance of this method. Using visual inspection, the clinician must decide about the presence, severity and activity of lesions. After this process, additional methods could aid the dentist in reaching a more appropriate treatment decision in some cases. The ICDAS, including the activity assessment system or the Nyvad system, seems to be the best option to reach final diagnoses for managing lesions. The radiographic method is the most recommended additional method available for daily clinical practice.

  2. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  3. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24018 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  4. Reemergencia de la caries dental en adolescentes Re-emerging of dental caries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Franco Cortés

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las inequidades en la cobertura de los programas preventivos y en el acceso a la atención podrían afectar los indicadores de salud bucal de los adolescentes. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio descriptivo fue determinar la prevalencia y la historia de caries de los adolescentes de Medellín; evaluar la tendencia de los indicadores y en consecuencia evaluar una posible reemergencia de este problema. Materiales y métodos: Los datos se obtuvieron mediante un examen clínico dental en una muestra estratificada aleatoria de 1292 adolescentes en el año 2005; los examinadores fueron previamente entrenados y calibrados (Kappa > 0,65. Se realizaron pruebas chi cuadrado, Kruskal - Wallis y de Mann - Whitney (α = 5%. Resultados y Conclusiones: Los valores promedio y desviación estándar del índice CPOD y el Índice Significante de Caries fueron 4,5±2,8 y 2,8±3,3 y 11,3 y 6,2 en los jóvenes de 17 años de colegios públicos y privados respectivamente. Estos resultados indican un incremento en la prevalencia de caries para este grupo poblacional y además de ello la polarización del problema en un grupo reducido de jóvenes cuyas características deben estudiarse cuidadosamente. Las autoridades de salud deberán enfocar la atención y la intervención sobre ambos problemas.Introduction: inequities in coverage of preventive programs and access to care may affect the indicators of oral health of adolescents. Objective: The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the prevalence and history of dental caries among adolescents of Medellin; to evaluate the tendency of the indicators, and to evaluate possible re-emerging of these problem. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from dental examinations of a stratified randomized sample of 1292 students in 2005, performed by trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa > 0.65. Chi - square, Kruskal - Wallis, and Mann - Whitney tests were used (α = 5%. Results and conclusions: The

  5. CLINICAL OBSERVING AND ANALYSES OF ROOT-CARIES(197 CASES)%根面龋临床观察与分析(附197例)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 谢晓莉; 米大丽

    2001-01-01

    Root-caries is the disease which is often occured in old people.We investigated 197 patients(40~85 years old) in stomatological clinic,and found that there were 114 patients who had root-caries,an the incidence of root-caries is 57.87 percent.There was a significantly different in incidence between middle-aged people and old ones(P<0.01),and no significantly diferent in incidence between men and women(P>0.05).This conclusion is different from some domestic reports.Root-Caries Index (RCI) is 0.26.The incidecnce of root-caries and value of RCI are directly proportionate with age,but value of RCI in group of 40~49 years old is higher than it in the group of 50~59 years old.Gingival atrophy is relate to root-caries closely.Root-caries is mostly occurred in mandibular molar teeth,and is seldom seen in mandibular front teeth.%根面龋是老年人常见的口腔疾病,我们对口腔门诊40~85岁197例患者进行调查,发现患根面龋人数114例,根龋发病率57.87%,中、老年人发病率有高度显著性差异(P<0.01),男女发病率差异无显著性(P>0.05),与国内有些报道相异。根龋指数RCI为0.26。受检患者根龋发病率、RCI值与年龄呈正相关,但40~49岁年龄组RCI数据高于50~59岁组。调查发现,牙龈退缩与根面龋密切相关。根龋发生最多的牙位是下磨牙,最少的是下前牙。

  6. 幼儿龋齿患病情况的多因素分析%Multiple factors analysis on the prevalence of dental caries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨幼儿龋齿患病情况相关因素。方法:收治幼儿1000例,成立幼儿龋齿调查小组,采用多因素Logistic 回归法对龋齿儿童进行分析。结果:在1000例幼儿中,检出龋齿患儿151例,发病率15.1%,其中男95例,男孩龋齿发病率15.57%(95/610),女56例,女孩龋齿发病率14.36%(56/390),性别之间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:睡前进食、饭后漱口、使用氟牙膏、喜食碳酸饮料、喜食甜食、刷牙时间、刷牙次数、家长处理方式是幼儿龋齿的多因素。%Objective:To investigate the factors related to the prevalence of dental caries in children.Methods:1 000 cases of children were selected.We set up the children's dental caries research group.We analyzed the dental caries in children using multiple factors Logistic regression method.Results:In 1 000 cases of children,151 cases of children had dental caries,and the incidence rate was 15.1%.Among them,95 cases were male,and the incidence rate of dental caries in male was 15.57%(95/610);56 cases were female,and the incidence rate of dental caries in female was 14.36%(56/390);there was no statistical significance between the sexes(P>0.05).Conclusion:To eat before going to bed,mouthwash after meals,the use of fluoride toothpaste,eating carbonated drinks,eating sweetmeat,brushing time,frequency of tooth brushing,parents approach were the multiple factors of children's dental caries.

  7. A systematic approach to deep caries removal end points: the peripheral seal concept in adhesive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, David S; Magne, Pascal

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this article is to present evidence-based protocols for the diagnosis and treatment of deep caries lesions in vital teeth. These protocols combine caries-detecting dye with anatomical and histologic knowledge to arrive at ideal caries removal end points for adhesive restorations. DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technology can also be used to confirm these end points. These ideal caries removal end points generate a peripheral seal zone that can support long-term biomimetic restorations. A review of the published literature since 1980 on caries, caries diagnosis, and caries treatments and their relationships to adhesive bonding techniques was carried out. Combining anatomical measurements and pathologic and histologic knowledge with caries-detecting dye and DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence technologies can produce ideal caries removal end points for adhesive dentistry without exposing vital pulps.

  8. Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, M M; Liu, Y; Kalra, R; Perry, S; Adewumi, A; Xu, X; Primosch, R E; Burne, R A

    2013-07-01

    Arginine metabolism by oral bacteria via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) increases the local pH, which can neutralize the effects of acidification from sugar metabolism and reduce the cariogenicity of oral biofilms. To explore the relationship between oral arginine metabolism and dental caries experience in children, we measured ADS activity in oral samples from 100 children and correlated it with their caries status and type of dentition. Supragingival dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces that were caries-lesion-free (PF) and from dentinal (PD) and enamel (PE) caries lesions. Regardless of children's caries status or type of dentition, PF (378.6) had significantly higher ADS activity compared with PD (208.4; p caries status. Mixed-model analysis showed that plaque caries status is significantly associated with ADS activity despite children's age, caries status, and dentition (p caries.

  9. Deciduous teeth occlusal caries detection with 655-nm diode laser confirmed by surface scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Danilo; Fonseca, Yara P. C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    The morphological complexity of the occlusal surface of deciduous molar teeth is considered as a factor to increase vulnerability to caries lesion. Occlusal surface of these teeth shows sulcus, pits and fissures which allow retention of both micro-organisms and food debris which make them more susceptible to caries. In the last decades there was a significant reduction on caries of smooth surface but not on the occlusal surface where dentinal caries develops under fissures which are apparently caries-free under eye observation. This is known as a hidden caries. The occlusal surface of sound extracted deciduous molar teeth were examined using a 655 nm diode laser (DIAGNOdent - KaVo) in order to detect hidden caries. When there was indication of a hidden caries, the area was examined using SEM and confirm or not the diagnosis. The authors concludes that the diagnosis of caries using 655 diode laser is reliable and precise method.

  10. Prioritizing the Risk Factors of Severe Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Noha Samir Kabil; Sherif Eltawil

    2017-01-01

    Severe early childhood caries remains the most common chronic disease affecting children. The multifactorial etiology of caries has established a controversy about which risk factors were more significant to its development. Therefore, our study aimed through meticulous statistical analysis to arrange the “well agreed upon” common risk factors in order of significance, to aid the clinician in tailoring an adequate preventive program. The study prioritized or reshuffled the risk factors contri...

  11. Comparison of two different methods of detecting residual caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütük, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Yalçın Çakır, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the fluorescence-aided caries excavation (FACE) device to detect residual caries by comparing conventional methods in vivo. Materials and Methods A total of 301 females and 202 males with carious teeth participated in this study. The cavity preparations were done by grade 4 (Group 1, 154 teeth), grade 5 (Group 2, 176 teeth), and postgraduate (Group 3, 173 teeth) students. After caries excavation using a handpiece and hand instruments, the presence of residual caries was evaluated by 2 investigators who were previously calibrated for visual-tactile assessment with and without magnifying glasses and trained in the use of a FACE device. The tooth number, cavity type, and presence or absence of residual caries were recorded. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, the Fisher's Exact test, or the McNemar test as appropriate. Kappa statistics was used for calibration. In all tests, the level of significance was set at p = 0.05. Results Almost half of the cavities prepared were Class II (Class I, 20.9%; Class II, 48.9%; Class III, 20.1%; Class IV, 3.4%; Class V, 6.8%). Higher numbers of cavities left with caries were observed in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 for all examination methods. Significant differences were found between visual inspection with or without magnifying glasses and inspection with a FACE device for all groups (p < 0.001). More residual caries were detected through inspection with a FACE device (46.5%) than through either visual inspection (31.8%) or inspection with a magnifying glass (37.6%). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the FACE device may be an effective method for the detection of residual caries. PMID:28194364

  12. INTERFERENCE POSSIBILITIES OF HABITAT OF CARIES IN CHILDHOOD IN BLANSKO

    OpenAIRE

    Vašíčková, Pavlína

    2007-01-01

    The tooth decay is the most widespread disease. The preschool and school age is important period for the tooth decay prevention. The nutrition of children is one of the most important part in interference occurrence of the tooth decay, dental care is also necessary by using chemical and mechanical agents. It is very important for choldren to know the caries prevention. There was found by this research that the nutrition of children do not correspond to the caries prevention, the good and qual...

  13. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries ...

  14. Caries prevalence in older persons with and without dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Morse, Douglas E;

    2008-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability.......To examine the prevalence of coronal and root caries in a memory clinic-based population of elderly patients with and without a diagnosis of dementia and to examine the influence of age, sex, social relations, social position, and functional ability....

  15. Effects Observation of Pit and Fissure Sealant Combined with Fluor Protector Against Dental Caries on Children%儿童窝沟封闭联合氟保护漆防龋的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 陈晖; 陆蓓; 田琦; 彭艳; 张焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects pit and fissure sealant combined with fluor protector against dental caries on children, to provide interventions for the prevention of dental caries in children. Methods: 120 cases of 3—4-year-old children were selected from department of stomatology and children's dental clinic from Dec.2009 to May.2010. According to the random number table, they were divided into observation group and control group with 60 cases in each group. The control group used fluor protector painting, on this basis the observation group used pit and fissure sealant on the point gap ditch split of deciduous molars crown surface. The incidence of caries and caries of 6 months ,12 months, 24 months of two groups were compared. Results: The incidence of caries and caries at 6 months showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups (P>0.05); the incidence of caries at 12 months compared, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05), but the caries of observation group were significantly lower than the control group at 12 months (P<0.05); The incidence of caries and caries of observation group at 24 months were both significantly lower than that of control group, and the differences were statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusion: Compared with a single prevention mode, the application of pit and fissure sealant and fluor protector against dental caries on children can effectively reduce the incidence of caries, greatly reduce the destruction of dental caries on children's teeth. It is of clinical application.%目的:对儿童窝沟封闭联合氟保护漆的防龋效果进行评价,为儿童龋齿的预防提供干预措施.方法:选择我所预防科于2009年12月~2010年5月检查的3~4岁幼儿120例,按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组各60例.对照组进行氟保护漆涂布,观察组在此基础上对乳磨牙冠表面点隙沟裂进行窝沟封闭.比较两组6个月、12

  16. 龋病早期诊断的现代理念与方法%New concept and moden high-teehes for early diagnosis of dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晖; 张林朴; 李燕妮; 徐延勇; 王冠华

    2009-01-01

    介绍龋病成因及其早期诊断的现代理念和诊断标准,客观叙述了光学相干断层成像(OCT)、定量光激发荧光法(QIF)、激光荧光技术(IF)、红外热成像(IHT)、超声成像(UIT)等新兴龋齿早期检测技术的研究进展、存在问题和临床应用前景.指出经不断探索完善后的快速、无创、量化的现代龋齿早期检测技术将会使未来的牙科医生能够高效精确地在亚临床水平早期诊断龋病并采取有效的干预措施及时遏制甚至逆转龋病进程,降低龋齿发病率,提高人体健康水平.%Introduce etiopathogenisis of odontosphacelism,ideal early diagnostic standard for detecting caries,as well as new concept and hish-teches for early diagnosis of dental caries.Recount objectively the great achivments obtained nowadays for early caries dictating with optical coherence tomography(OCT),quantitative light induced fluorescence(QLF),laser fluorescence methods(LF),ultrasonic imaging technique (UZT) and infrared heat imaging technique(IHT),also the remaining inadequacy and clinical perspective of all.Finally pointed that the improved moden high-teches for quantitively dictating early dental caries will provide dentist with new effective,precise and un-traumatic diagnostic methods to arrest decayed process preclinically and adopt early intervention to dental caries as soon as possible,so as to reduce the incidence of caries and keep the health of human body.

  17. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Pereira da Silva Tagliaferro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25 was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17 or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37 presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68 and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87. Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  18. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF DENTAL CARIES: A CHANGE IN THERAPEUTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease, which causes destruction of teeth by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries progression or reversal is determined by the balance between protective and pathological factors in the mouth. There have been revolutions in every field and dentistry is no exception to it, these changes have led to a change in concept from the conventional surgical approach of removing dental decay and cutting of tooth structure to the medical model which deals with interception of disease at different stages and possible reversal of the disease process. The key to medical paradigm is determination of caries risk in an individual and effective early detection of initial carious lesions. There are various equipments available in market which uses different principles for diagnosing caries susceptibility in an individual. In the years of thorough research different agents have been investigated for their role in caries prevention and reversal. There is a separate treatment plan for managing patients falling in different risk category. This article outlines the need for the medical management of dental caries and how it can be a viable option in dental decay management.

  19. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL−1 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3. PMID:26756046

  20. Early Childhood Caries with the Perspective of Pediatrician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bucak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early childhood caries are characterized by the presence of at least one or more decayed, missing or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth of a child 24-72 months of age. The prevalance of early childhood caries is variable among the world because of wide range of contributing aetiological factors. Aim of this study to determine the prevalance and aetiologic factors of early childhood caries, in South East Anatolia Region of Turkey and evaluated as a pediatrician view. Material and Method: Patients admitted to pediatric polyclinics for any reason, aging between 24 to 72 months, were enrolled in this study. The children who had dental caries and who had not were examined by a dentist. Families were requested to voluntarily answer questions asked by our staff who follow a questionnaire. This questionnaire contains breastfeeding, usage of vitamin D, multivitamin formulations, iron supplements, baby bottle and pacifier, as well as consumpion of yogurt, acidic drinks, in addition to health habits of brushing teeth, check up by the dentist, cigarette usage of parents (mother, father or both. Results: 553 patients were included the study. Early childhood caries was determined to be 33,1 %. As a result of this study, we found that pacifier usage, multiviamin supplements and acidic drinks were significantly contributing to early childhood caries. Discussion: We advise refrainment from pacifier usage and unnecesary consumption of multivitamin supplemantation, acidic drinks or at least brushing of teeth rightafter consumption of these foods in childhood.

  1. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng-Yu Yang; Wan-Lu Lu; Xiao-Qian Wang; Jiao Chen; Yun Feng; Xue-Dong Zhou; Ping Zhang; Wen-Jie Zhou; Yue Du; Song-Tao Wu; Wen-Wen Yuan; Yu Yu; Lin Su; Yang Luo; Jie-Hua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries.Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Asignificantly decreased concentration of salivaryPR3was notedwith increasing severity of dental caries (P,0.01); a positive correlation (r50.87; P,0.01; Pearson’s correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pHand PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng?mL21 or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P,0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3.

  2. Factors Used for Caries Prediction in First Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Azeredo Alves ANTUNES

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early presence of caries cavitation and active white spots (AWS in maxilary anterior teeth in the primary dentition associating them with other factors (diet, fluor exposure, precocious ocorrence of mutans streptococci, oral hygiene with the purpose of predict future caries lesion in posterior primary teeth. Method: The examination of the charts was done by the evaluation including anamnesis and clinical examination recorder in 250 files (young children with 18 - 36 months attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic from a public University Dental School of Rio de Janeiro in 2000 - 2003. Results: After data analysis, the result agree with other studies: the early experience of caries in anterior primary teeth was the best predictor of caries cavitation in deciduos molares (74,49%, other risks factors also have been significance in the prediction. After carie, the second most important variable was anterior teeth with white spots (58,82%, followed by high consuption of sugar (54% and natural breastfeeding after 12 months of age (49,59%. Conclusion: This way this study could establish that dental caries is the best predictor, so preventive operatives shoud be done in early primary dentition.

  3. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak PA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prathibha Anand Nayak,1 Ullal Anand Nayak,2 Vishal Khandelwal3 1Department of Periodontics, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, NIMS Dental College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Index Dental College and Hospital, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India Abstract: Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. Keywords: xylitol, caries preventive effect, oral flora 

  4. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yang

    Full Text Available Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis.

  5. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    Alcohol is used all over the world and in most Western societies, the average intake is high. Alcohol is associated with more than 60 diseases and globally, 4% of all deaths are attributable to alcohol. The aim of the present thesis is to study associations between alcohol intake and risk...... with increasing HDL cholesterol and non-fasting triglycerides, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreasing fibrinogen. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of CHD or with any of the cardiovascular biomarkers, and there was no indication that associations between...... that the association between alcohol and relative risk of CHD was similar in young adults (39-50 years), middle-aged (50-60 years) and older individuals (60+ years). However, since the incidence of CHD is low in young adults, the incidence rate difference between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers was much smaller...

  6. Multifocal Osteonecrosis Secondary to Chronic Alcohol Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazu Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal osteonecrosis is a relatively rare disorder with an estimated incidence of around 3% among patients diagnosed as having osteonecrosis. Multifocal osteonecrosis is caused by the several conditions including corticosteroid treatment, coagulation disorders, connective tissue disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, inflammatory bowel disease, renal transplantation, and underlying malignancies. Alcohol abuse is one of the risk factors for osteonecrosis, and alcohol-induced osteonecrosis is 5% among all the osteonecrosis. Furthermore, the overall incidence of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis was approximately 6% among all the osteonecrosis induced by the alcohol. Therefore, here, we report an extremely rare case of alcohol-induced multifocal osteonecrosis involving three joints (two knees and one hip and review the related literature.

  7. Chemomechanical caries removal method versus mechanical caries removal methods in clinical and community-based setting: A comparative in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. V. K. Santosh; Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Sandeep, R. Venkata; Reddy, S. Pavani; Divya, D.; Pratyusha, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of various caries removal techniques in mandibular primary molars using Smart Burs, atraumatic restorative technique (ART) (mechanical caries removal) and Carie-care (chemomechanical caries removal [CMCR]) among primary school children in clinical and community-based settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 carious primary mandibular molars were selected for the study from the dental clinic and community. They were equally assigned to four groups according to caries removal technique and also by the operating site. In Group 1, caries was removed using Carie-care in the dental clinic and in Group 2, with Smart Burs in the dental clinic. In Group 3, caries was removed using Carie-care in the field and in Group 4, with the ART in the field. The time taken for caries removal, the efficacy of caries removal and patient acceptance were evaluated with different caries removal techniques. Statistical Analysis: The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis by ANOVA test. Results: In clinical settings, Carie-care was time-consuming but was more efficient with increased acceptance than Smart Burs and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). In community-based settings, Carie-care was more efficient, less time consuming, and showed an increased acceptance when compared to atraumatic restorative treatment and the result was found to be significant statistically (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The CMCR technique was superior to the mechanical caries removal technique in primary teeth among school children in terms of time, efficacy, and acceptance in both clinical- and community-based settings. PMID:27403059

  8. 伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿疗效研究%Research on Curative Effect of Carisolv Minimally Invasive Gel Caries Re-moval in Treatment of Dental Caries in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀超

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children. Methods 136 cases of children with dental caries admitted and treated in our department from September 2013 to September 2015 were selected and randomly divided into two groups with 68 cases in each, the observation group adopted carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal treatment, the control group adopted conventional dental drill to remove the necrotic tissue, and the curative effects were compared between the two groups. Results The pain degree in the observation group was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05, and the incidence rate of complications in the observa-tion group was 2.9%, which was obviously better than those in the control group, P<0.05. Conclusion Carisolv minimally invasive gel caries removal in treatment of dental caries in children is a technique with small trauma and few complications.%目的:探讨伢典微创凝胶去龋治疗儿童龋齿的效果。方法整群选取该院2013年9月—2015年9月收治的龋齿患儿136例,随机分为2组各68例,观察组采用伢典微创凝胶治疗,对照组采用常规牙钻去腐,比较两组疗效。结果观察组疼痛程度明显优于对照组(P<0.05),观察组并发症发生率为2.9%,明显优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论伢典微创凝胶是治疗儿童龋齿的一种创伤性小、并发症少的技术。

  9. The curative effect observation of children dental caries early intervention methods to prevent dental caries%儿童龋病早期干预方法预防龋病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立革

    2015-01-01

    ]Objective To observe the curative effect of intervention methods for early childhood caries prevention of dental caries, for clinical reference.Methods Selected in our hospital from March 2010 to 2013 years 6 months from children with caries 320 cases as the object of study, using randomized children were divided into a, B, C, D group four groups, 80 cases in each. In the A group, the B group was treated with the group, the C group was treated with fl uoride coating. The D group was treated with the combination of fl uoride and fl uoride coating.Results The incidence of dental caries in A, B and C groups was compared with that of P, A,, B, D, three and C, and the difference was statistically signifi cant (P<0.05).Conclusion For children with caries using any early intervention methods can effectively prevent the occurrence of dental caries, worthy of promotion.%目的:观察儿童龋病早期干预方法预防龋病的疗效,为临床提供参考。方法选取我院2010年3月~2013年6月收治的龋病患儿320例作为研究对象,采用随机分组的方式将患儿分成A、B、C、D组四组,各80例。A组采取窝沟封闭术进行干预,B组采取含氟涂料进行干预,C组采取窝沟封闭术联合含氟涂料进行干预,D组不采取任何干预措施,随访2年,观察比较四组患儿的龋齿发生率。结果 A、B、C组的龋齿发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),A、B、C三组与D组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对龋病患儿采用任何早期干预方法均能有效预防龋齿的发生,值得推广。

  10. Dental caries in relation to socio-behavioral factors of 6-year-old school children of Udaipur district, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Tadakamadla

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Rural children and boys experienced greater caries than their urban and girl counterparts. Caries experience was related to the parent′s occupation and education. Moreover, caries occurrence was influenced by brushing frequency and dental visiting habits.

  11. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  12. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjec

  13. Influence of alcohol intake on postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, C; Jensen, L M; Tønnesen, H

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative morbidity after hysterectomy was prospectively studied in 229 consecutive patients in our departments. The incidence of alcohol abuse (greater than 60 gm of alcohol daily) and social drinking (between 25 and 60 gm of alcohol daily) was 6.5% for each. When compared with the social...... drinkers and the control group, the alcohol abuse group had significantly more complications (80% vs 27% and 80% vs 13%, respectively)....

  14. Light alcohol intake during adolescence induces alcohol addiction in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Balguerie, Kevin; Coune, Fabien; Legastelois, Rémi; Jeanblanc, Virginie; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a series of positive, negative or cognitive symptoms but with also the particularity of exhibiting a high rate of co-morbid use of drugs of abuse. While more than 80% of schizophrenics are smokers, the second most consumed drug is alcohol, with dramatic consequences on frequency and intensity of psychotic episodes and on life expectancy. Here we investigated the impact of light alcohol intake during adolescence on the subsequent occurrence of alcohol addiction-like behavior in neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rats, a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Our findings demonstrated an increased liability to addictive behaviors in adult NVHL rats after voluntary alcohol intake during adolescence. NVHL rats displayed several signs of alcohol use disorder such as a loss of control over alcohol intake and high motivation to consume alcohol, associated with a higher resistance to extinction. In addition, once NVHL rats relapsed, they maintained higher drinking levels than controls. We finally showed that the anti-addictive drug naltrexone is efficient in reducing excessive alcohol intake in NVHL rats. Our results are in accordance with epidemiological studies underlying the particular vulnerability to alcohol addiction after adolescent exposure to alcohol and highlight the fact that schizophrenic subjects may be particularly at risk even after light alcohol consumption. Based on these results, it seems particularly relevant to prevent early onset of alcohol use in at-risk subjects and thus to reduce the incidence of co-morbid alcohol abuse in psychotic patients.

  15. Brief communication: a pilot study: smooth surface early caries (caries incipiens) detection with KaVo DIAGNODent in historical material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Jacek; Komarnitki, Iulian; Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota

    2013-03-01

    In many odontological studies concerning archeological material, there is no analysis of early caries lesions (caries incipiens) that manifest as a carious spot. At this stage of caries, the enamel is still hard, and thus, it is impossible to diagnose caries by visual methods. We assessed the usefulness of the DIAGNODent pen (DD laser) in analyzing noncavity lesions on the smooth surface sites of crowns from historical populations. Twenty-seven individuals were examined: 18 from Radom (Poland), and nine from Tell Masaikh and Terqa (Syria). A total of 562 teeth were characterized. The series represented different climatic zones, but were dated from the similar period, 18th to 19th century AD. We used four diagnostic techniques: visual, DD laser, radiographic, and histological as the gold standard. DD laser showed that the mean values of healthy enamel in both series did not exceed 15 units. The mean values of smooth and rough spots in the Syrian population were significantly higher than those from Poland. This study showed that all the noncarious spots from the Radom series did not exceed 30 units. In the Syrian samples, this limit was higher at 44 units. These results were confirmed by histology and radiography. The DD laser provided good results in detecting dentine carious lesions in historical material, but its efficiency in diagnosing early caries (caries incipiens) remains uncertain based on the presented series.

  16. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  17. Metatranscriptomics reveals overall active bacterial composition in caries lesions

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    Aurea Simón-Soro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the microbial species in caries lesions is instrumental to determine the etiology of dental caries. However, a significant proportion of bacteria in carious lesions have not been cultured, and the use of molecular methods has been limited to DNA-based approaches, which detect both active and inactive or dead microorganisms. Objective: To identify the RNA-based, metabolically active bacterial composition of caries lesions at different stages of disease progression in order to provide a list of potential etiological agents of tooth decay. Design: Non-cavitated enamel caries lesions (n=15 and dentin caries lesions samples (n=12 were collected from 13 individuals. RNA was extracted and cDNA was constructed, which was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting 780 bp polymerase chain reaction products were pyrosequenced using Titanium-plus chemistry, and the sequences obtained were used to determine the bacterial composition. Results: A mean of 4,900 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene with an average read length of 661 bp was obtained per sample, giving a comprehensive view of the active bacterial communities in caries lesions. Estimates of bacterial diversity indicate that the microbiota of cavities is highly complex, each sample containing between 70 and 400 metabolically active species. The composition of these bacterial consortia varied among individuals and between caries lesions of the same individuals. In addition, enamel and dentin lesions had a different bacterial makeup. Lactobacilli were found almost exclusively in dentin cavities. Streptococci accounted for 40% of the total active community in enamel caries, and 20% in dentin caries. However, Streptococcus mutans represented only 0.02–0.73% of the total bacterial community. Conclusions: The data indicate that the etiology of dental caries is tissue dependent and that the disease has a clear polymicrobial origin. The low proportion of mutans streptococci

  18. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.

  19. The etiology and prevention of dental caries in children%儿童龋齿的病因和预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洋

    2014-01-01

    In order to properly guide the children reasonable care of the teeth ,to promote children's healthy growth .Five inner-city children through kindergarten age 7 physical examination ,found that the number of children suffering from dental caries upward trend .Cause of dental caries by quadruple factor analysis ,guidance on the proper way to protect teeth ,obtained from childhood to develop good health habits to main-tain oral hygiene can reduce the chance of corrosion ,can greatly reduce the incidence of dental caries in children suffering conclusions .%为了正确引导儿童进行牙齿的合理保健、促进儿童健康生长。通过对城区五所幼儿园7岁内儿童进行健康体检,发现儿童患龋病人数呈上升趋势。由四联因素分析引起龋齿的原因、指导正确保护牙齿的方法,得出从小养成良好卫生习惯保持口腔清洁可以减少腐蚀机会,可大大降低儿童患龋齿的发病率的结论。

  20. Caries en una población militar española Dental caries in a Spanish military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mombiedro Sandoval

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de caries de la población militar española de la base "General Almirante" Marines, Valencia. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo transversal para el que se seleccionó una muestra de 387 militares para un IC del 95%. En el gabinete dental de la base se realizó la exploración oral siguiendo los criterios de la OMS (1997, 4ª edición. Un solo profesional experimentado con un explorador patrón llevó a cabo la encuesta entre diciembre del 2003 y julio del 2004. Resultados: El índice de dientes con caries, ausentes y obturados (CAO-D fue de 4,05. El 23% de la muestra estaba libre de caries. Presentaban caries sin tratar el 40% de los explorados, siendo significativamente superior el porcentaje en la tropa y en los que referían no cepillarse de forma regular. El índice de restauración (% O/ CAO-D fue del 60%. La población de tropa presentó con significación estadística mas caries y menos dientes con caries tratada (A,O que el grupo de oficiales y suboficiales. Conclusiones: Casi la mitad de la población encuestada precisa tratamiento por caries. Estrategias de asistencia basadas en políticas preventivas de diagnostico precoz y de asistencia personalizada en función del riesgo individual de caries, adaptadas al medio militar, pudieran ser la clave para poder desplegar en un futuro tropas que no ocasionen emergencias en futuras operaciones.Object: The target of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in a population of Spanish military personnel at the "General Almirante " base at Marines (Valencia. Material and Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was made of a sample of 387 military personnel, (95% CI. The oral examinations were conducted at the dental clinic at the base, in accordance with the WHO (1997, 4th ed. criteria, by a single dentist calibrated against an experienced examiner. The survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Results: The decayed, missed and

  1. Occlusal caries detection and quantification by DIAGNOdent and Electronic Caries Monitor: in vitro comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamzahim, Mohammad; Shi, Xie-Qi; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2002-12-01

    The Electronic Caries Monitor (ECM) and the recently introduced laser-based KaVo DIAGNOdent have been developed as clinical diagnostic aids in the detection and quantification of occlusal carious lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare their reproducibility and validity. The ability of DIAGNOdent to retrieve sites of occlusal carious lesions without reference to photographs or drawings from previous assessments was also tested. The material comprised 87 premolar teeth: the occlusal surfaces were sound or exhibited non-cavity carious lesions of varying severity. All were photographed and measured by DIAGNOdent and ECM on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The teeth were then sectioned into 300 microm thick slices. Two observers independently classified the sections according to the histopathology, into 5 categories, ranging from sound to dentinal caries in the inner part of the dentin. Statistical analysis comprised intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) to test reproducibility and regression analysis of validity. Sensitivity and specificity were also calculated for detection of D3 lesions for both devices. DIAGNOdent recorded maximum readings at identical sites on both occasions in 89% of the teeth. The ICC for readings on 2 separate occasions was 0.97 for DIAGNOdent and 0.71 for ECM. The correlations with histology were r = 0.93 and 0.83, for DIAGNOdent and ECM, respectively. For detection of D3 lesions, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.8 and 1 for DIAGNOdent and 0.75 and 0.88 for ECM. In this in vitro study, DIAGNOdent was superior to ECM for occlusal caries detection.

  2. Detection method of proximal caries using line profile in digital intra-oral radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Min Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Hoon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how to detect proximal caries using line profile and validate linear measurements of proximal caries lesions by basic digital manipulation of radiographic images. The X-ray images of control group (15) and caries teeth (15) from patients were used. For each image, the line profile at the proximal caries-susceptible zone was calculated. To evaluate the contrast as a function of line profile to detect proximal caries, a difference coefficient (D) that indicates the relative difference between caries and sound dentin or intact enamel was measured. Mean values of D were 0.0354 {+-} 0.0155 in non-caries and 0.2632 {+-} 0.0982 in caries (p<0.001). The mean values of caries group were higher than non-caries group and there was correlation between proximal dental caries and D. It is demonstrated that the mean value of D from caries group was higher than that of control group. From the result, values of D possess great potentiality as a new detection parameter for proximal dental caries.

  3. Sex differences in dental caries experience: clinical evidence, complex etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R

    2011-10-01

    A sex difference in oral health has been widely documented through time and across cultures. Women's oral health declines more rapidly than men's with the onset of agriculture and the associated rise in fertility. The magnitude of this disparity in oral health by sex increases during ontogeny: from childhood, to adolescence, and through the reproductive years. Representative studies of sex differences in caries, tooth loss, and periodontal disease are critically reviewed. Surveys conducted in Hungary, India, and in an isolated traditional Brazilian sample provide additional support for a significant sex bias in dental caries, especially in mature adults. Compounding hormonal and reproductive factors, the sex difference in oral health in India appears to involve social and religious causes such as son preference, ritual fasting, and dietary restrictions during pregnancy. Like the sex difference in caries, tooth loss in women is greater than in men and has been linked to caries and parity. Results of genome wide association studies have found caries susceptible and caries protective loci that influence variation in taste, saliva, and enamel proteins, affecting the oral environment and the micro-structure of enamel. Genetic variation, some of which is X-linked, may partly explain how sex differences in oral health originate. A primary, but neglected, factor in explaining the sex differential in oral health is the complex and synergistic changes associated with female sex hormones, pregnancy, and women's reproductive life history. Caries etiology is complex and impacts understanding of the sex difference in oral health. Both biological (genetics, hormones, and reproductive history) and anthropological (behavioral) factors such culture-based division of labor and gender-based dietary preferences play a role.

  4. The occurrence of dental caries is associated with atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Glodny

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that marginal periodontitis is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether caries may also be associated with atherosclerosis. METHODS: The computed tomography data sets of 292 consecutive patients, 137 women and 155 men with a mean age of 54.1±17.3 years, were analyzed. Caries were quantified based on the number of decayed surfaces of all the teeth, and periodontitis was quantified on the basis of the horizontal bone loss in the jaw. The presence of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP was assessed, and the aortic atherosclerotic burden was quantified using a calcium scoring method. RESULTS: The patients with <1 caries surfaces/tooth had a lower atherosclerotic burden (0.13±0.61 mL than patients with ≥1 caries surfaces/tooth. The atherosclerotic burden was greater in patients with a higher number of lesions with pulpal involvement and more teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. In the logistical regression models, age (Wald 49.3, number of caries per tooth (Wald 26.4, periodontitis (Wald 8.6, and male gender (Wald 11 were found to be independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. In the linear regression analyses, age and the number of decayed surfaces per tooth were identified as influencing factors associated with a higher atherosclerotic burden, and the number of restorations per tooth was associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden. CONCLUSION: Dental caries, pulpal caries, and chronic apical periodontitis are associated positively, while restorations are associated inversely, with aortic atherosclerotic burden. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations and answer the question of possible causality.

  5. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  6. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  7. Quantitative detection of Streptococcus mutans and bacteria of dental caries and no caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-yong; WANG Jian-qiu; ZHOU Yan; ZHAO Dong; XIAO Bai

    2012-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) is the prime pathogen of dental caries.There are few reports that studied the relationship between S.mutans,bacteria and dental caries in permanent teeth when compared to those in primary teeth.This study aimed to detect S.mutans and bacteria of dental caries and non-caries groups in permanent teeth from a north China population by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compare the relationship between the number of these bacteria and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth.Methods Human saliva samples were collected from 142 subjects with permanent teeth.According to their dental tooth (DT),142 subjects were divided into a dental caries group (DT≥1) and a non-caries group (DT=0).With specific primers for S.mutans and 16S rRNA,the total number of S.mutans and total bacteria of 142 saliva samples were detected by real-time PCR and statistically analyzed.Results There was no significant difference between the detection rates of S.mutans (P=0.118) and medians of S.mutans (P=0.115).The ratio of S.mutans to total bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly higher than in those without caries (P <0.001),but the total number of bacteria in people with dental caries was significantly lower than in those without caries (P <0.001).Conclusions S.mutans had different effects on caries in the permanent teeth of several individuals from a north China population.The ratios of S.mutans to total bacteria in saliva detected by real-time PCR with Sm479F/R and 16S RNA primers were closely associated with the prevalence of dental caries in the same population.These assays may be useful for the assessment of an individual's risk of dental caries.

  8. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  9. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Grønbaek, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... dehydrogenases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  10. Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Grønbæk, Morten; nordestgaard, børge

    2009-01-01

      Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... dehydrogenases. Methods and Results- We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  11. 刍议儿童龋齿发生的原因及预防措施%Talking About the Causes and Prevention of Dental Caries in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁淑华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of dental caries in children causes and preventive measures to reduce the incidence of realization, promote children's dental health. Methods From January 2014-January 2015 the city 743 cas-es of children with medical information, Determinants of dental caries in children. Results 743 cases of children, 225 cases of children suffering from dental caries, dental caries rate of 30.28%. Snacking dental caries in children was significantly higher than the children do not eat snacks (P<0.05), proper brushing dental caries in children was significantly lower than brushing method is not correct by (P<0.05). Conclusion Eat snacks, good brushing habits are the main reason for children suffering from dental caries, in everyday life, we should strengthen the training of children to establish good eating, brushing habits, regular dental check, so that early detection and early treatment.%目的:探讨儿童龋齿的发生原因及预防措施,以降低发生率,促进儿童牙齿健康。方法选取2014年1月-2015年1月该市743例儿童的体检资料,统计分析儿童龋齿的影响因素。结果743例儿童中,225例儿童患龋齿,患龋齿率达30.28%。爱吃零食儿童龋齿率明显高于不爱吃零食儿童(P<0.05),正确刷牙儿童龋齿率明显低于刷牙方法不正确者(P<0.05)。结论爱吃零食、刷牙习惯不好是儿童患龋齿的主要原因,在日常生活中,要加强培养儿童建立良好饮食、刷牙习惯,定期检查口腔,做到早发现早治疗。

  12. Dental caries and risk behavior factors among 12-year-old children in Dongguan city%东莞市12岁儿童龋病现状及其行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢培豪; 赵苏立

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究东莞市城乡12岁儿童恒牙龋病现状及其行为影响因素,分析两者之间的关系,为东莞市儿童口腔卫生保健工作提供科学依据.方法:采用多阶段、分层、整群、随机抽样的方法,抽取东莞市12岁城乡常住人口604人,检查全口恒牙龋病的患病状况并用问卷调查的方式收集全部受检儿童口腔健康行为等相关因素.结果:东莞市12岁儿童患龋率和龋均分别是40.89%和1.47.Logistic回归分析显示:口腔保健知识掌握越多的儿童其患龋率越低,食用水果的频率越高,儿童患龋率也相应增加.结论:东莞市12岁儿童患龋水平较高,口腔卫生行为较差,口腔保健知识掌握情况是致龋最为重要的影响因素,食用水果的频率是危险因素.%AIM; To investigate the relationships between dental caries and behavioral risk factors among 12-year-old children in Dongguan City. METHODS; The survey employed a multistage,stratified,clustered, randomized sampling method. Six hundred and four 12 - year - old children of urban and rural residency in DongGuan were enrolled to investigate the prevalence of dental caries. Oral health behavior and other relevant factors were collected by questionnaire survey. RESULTS: The incidence of caries and mean DMFT in 12-year-old children in DongGuan were 40.89% and 1.47 respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that a negative correlation existed between oral health knowledge and the incidence of caries, and a positive correlation existed between the intake frequency of fruits and the incidence of caries among the children. CONCLUSION; The incidence of caries was high and oral health behaviour was poor among 12-year-old children in DongGuan city. Oral health knowledge was the most important influencing factor of dental caries. Fruit intake was also a risk factor of dental caries.

  13. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  14. Caries risk assessment in school children using a reduced Cariogram model without saliva tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Isberg, Per-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren.......To investigate the caries predictive ability of a reduced Cariogram model without salivary tests in schoolchildren....

  15. Dental caries and its association with sociodemographics, erosion, and diet in schoolchildren from southeast Brazil.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Auad, Sheyla Marcia

    2009-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.

  16. Spectral characteristics of caries-related autofluorescence spectra and their use for diagnosis of caries stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyeong-Hoon; Ko, Ching-Chang; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify factors useful for diagnosis of the caries stage from laser-induced autofluorescence (AF) spectra. Affected teeth were accurately staged and allocated to four groups: sound, stage II, stage III, or stage IV. A 405-nm laser was used to produce AF spectra. The spectrum factors analyzed were spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm, spectral area from 500 and 590 nm, and intensity ratio of peaks 625 and 667 nm (625/667 nm). DIAGNOdent was used as control measurement. AF spectra of sound teeth had a peak near 500 nm followed by a smooth decline to 800 nm. As caries progressed, some specimens in stages II to IV showed one or two peak(s) near 625 and 667 nm. Slopes at 550 to 600 nm and areas under the curve at 500 to 590 nm were significantly different (p<0.001) for each stage. Two-peak ratios were also significantly different (p<0.001) except for stage III and stage IV. DIAGNOdent readings for sound and stage II and stage III and IV were not significantly different. Among the studied factors, the spectrum slope at 550 to 600 nm and area under curve at 500 to 590 nm could be useful treatment decision-making tools for carious lesions.

  17. The antimicrobial peptide DEFB1 is associated with caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A; Famili, P; Vieira, A R

    2010-06-01

    Genetics is an important component in the determination of individual susceptibility to caries and periodontal diseases. Since beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) localizes in the oral cavity, we tested if variation in DEFB1 is associated with caries and periodontitis. We analyzed 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DEFB1 in DNA samples from unrelated individuals. Carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs11362 (G-20A) increased the DMFT and DMFS scores more than five-fold. Also, carrying a copy of the variant allele of the DEFB1 marker rs179946 (G-52A) correlated with low DMFT scores. We found a high-caries-experience haplotype (GCA), which increased DMFT scores two-fold, and a low- caries-experience haplotype (ACG), which decreased DMFT scores two-fold, in the DEFB1 promoter. No association between DEFB1 genetic markers and periodontal disease was found. Our results suggest that functional polymorphisms of DEFB1 are potential markers for caries.

  18. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  19. Caries prevention with fluoride toothpaste in children: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... fluorosis in low-caries communities but not in socially deprived high-caries populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results reinforced the outstanding role of fluoride toothpaste as an effective caries preventive measure in children.......AIM: The aim was to examine recent literature and review the caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste in children. METHODS: Based on three comprehensive systematic reviews published in 2003, a broad search of the PubMed and Cochrane library databases was conducted for papers published 2002...... of the study. The targeted papers were critically assessed concerning design, methodology and performance according to a pre-determined checklist. RESULTS: The initial search revealed 179 papers of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence that daily use of fluoride toothpaste has...

  20. Aquaporin 5 Interacts with Fluoride and Possibly Protects against Caries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Anjomshoaa

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQP are water channel proteins and the genes coding for AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are clustered in 12q13. Since AQP5 is expressed in serous acinar cells of salivary glands, we investigated its involvement in caries. DNA samples from 1,383 individuals from six groups were studied. Genotypes of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the aquaporin locus were tested for association with caries experience. Interaction with genes involved in enamel formation was tested. The association between enamel microhardness at baseline, after creation of artificial caries lesion, and after exposure to fluoride and the genetic markers in AQP5 was tested. Finally, AQP5 expression in human whole saliva, after exposure to fluoride in a mammary gland cell line, which is known to express AQP5, and in Wistar rats was also verified. Nominal associations were found between caries experience and markers in the AQP5 locus. Since these associations suggested that AQP5 may be inhibited by levels of fluoride in the drinking water that cause fluorosis, we showed that fluoride levels above optimal levels change AQP5 expression in humans, cell lines, and rats. We have shown that AQP5 is involved in the pathogenesis of caries and likely interacts with fluoride.

  1. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz, Merve Erkmen; Sönmez, Işıl Şaroğlu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to assess the effectiveness of ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries, reviewing clinical and in vitro studies. Ozone has proven to be effective against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In dentistry, most of the published articles are based on ozone's antimicrobial effects and the treatment of caries. Most of the clinical studies reported ozone to be a promising alternative to conventional methods for caries management. However, a few studies have shown ozone to be insufficient for preventing caries and reducing microorganisms in open occlusal carious lesions. Ozone might be a useful tool to reduce and control oral infectious microorganisms in dental plaque and dental cavity. However, the results of in vitro studies are controversial; while some researchers reported that ozone therapy had a minimal or no effect on the viability of microorganisms, others suggested ozone to be highly effective in killing both gram-positive and gram-negative oral microorganisms. Therefore, more evidence is required before ozone can be accepted as an alternative to present methods for the management and prevention of caries.

  2. Oratest: A new concept to test caries activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caries activity tests are based on the concept of a specific odontogenic infection, the principle causative organism being streptococci mutans. Their predominance is attributed to its acidogenic and aciduric nature after a selective growth advantages over the other non- acid tolerant organisms. Many studies on caries activity are aimed at finding relevant microorganisms. Till date, the ideal method to evaluate in terms of sensitivity, specialization and reliability has not been found. Many of these caries activity tests require extensive work up time and additional equipment. Rosenberg et al. in 1989 developed Oratest, a simple, economical, non- invasive and less time-consuming test for estimating the oral microbial level. The test is simple and consists of rinsing the mouth with 10 ml of sterile milk, 3 ml of which is mixed with 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue dye and observed for colour change. The present study sample consists of twenty five children with dental caries and twenty five controls, free of caries, gingivitis and other oral ailments. This study is being conducted in the department of Oral Pathology & Microbiology and is in the preliminary phase so further results are awaited.

  3. Dermatoglyphics: A genetic marker of early childhood caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is an accepted fact that genetics plays an important role in determination of palmar dermatoglyphic patterns. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, this study was undertaken to explore the possibility of dermatoglyphics as a noninvasive and early predictor of dental caries in children, so as to initiate preventive oral health measures at an early age. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 200 children aged between 4 and 5 years. The dmfs score was evaluated. The experimental group (Group 1, comprised of 100 children with early childhood caries (ECC with dmfs >5. The control group (Group 2 comprised of 100 children with dmfs score of 0. Results: An increased frequency of ulnar loops in caries-free children and whorls in children with ECC was observed. Low mean atd angle and low mean. Total ridge count was observed in the ECC group. Conclusion: There is definite variation in dermatoglyphics between the ECC and caries-free group, indicating that dermatoglyphic patterns can be used as a predictive tool for children with ECC.

  4. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested.

  5. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  6. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  7. Caries remineralisation and arresting effect in children by professionally applied fluoride treatment – a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sherry Shiqian; Zhang, Shinan; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background As a low-cost and easily operated treatment, the use of professionally applied topical fluoride was approved for preventing dental caries and remineralising early enamel caries or white spot lesions. It is also used to arrest dentine caries. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of professional fluoride therapy in remineralising and arresting caries in children. Method A systematic search of publications from 1948 to 2014 was conducted using four databases: ...

  8. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  9. Predictors of motivation to change in mandated college students following a referral incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, David; Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of present study was to understand factors that are related to a desire or motivation to change (MTC) alcohol use in a sample of college students mandated to receive an alcohol intervention. We examined characteristics of and reactions to the referral event, typical alcohol use involvement, and alcohol beliefs about the perceived importance of drinking in college assessed by the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale (CLASS; Osberg et al., 2010) as predictors of MTC following referral to an alcohol intervention. College students (N = 932) who presented for a mandatory alcohol intervention following a referral event (e.g., citation for underage drinking, medical attention for an alcohol-related incident, or driving under the influence) completed an assessment prior to receiving an alcohol intervention. Higher perceived aversiveness of the referral event and higher personal responsibility one felt for the occurrence of the event were positively related to higher MTC. Although alcohol beliefs about the role of drinking in college were not significantly related to either event aversiveness or responsibility, it was negatively related to MTC even after controlling for alcohol use involvement variables. Alcohol beliefs about the role of drinking in college represent an important construct that is related to increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems and decreased MTC in a sample of college students. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol beliefs about the role of drinking in college may be an effective strategy to reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related problems by college students.

  10. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  11. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  12. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs among school going children of Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashri Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the findings, it can be concluded that high prevalence of caries was found in primary dentition than permanent dentition and most of the decayed teeth were untreated. This study emphasize the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage and parents should be made aware of caries preventive measures for their children.

  13. Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellefsen, Birita; Morse, Douglas E; Waldemar, Gunhild;

    2012-01-01

    doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2011.00560.x Indicators for root caries in Danish persons with recently diagnosed Alzheimer's disease Objective:  To identify indicators of root caries among persons with newly diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background:  Few studies have investigated dental caries...

  14. Typing of Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from caries free and susceptible subjects by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmourespour, Arezoo; Nabinejad, Abdolreza; Shirian, Hannaneh; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Tahmourespour, Sanaz

    2013-01-01

    This study was evaluated the clonal diversity of Streptococcus mutans in caries-free and caries-active subjects using MLEE. Strains from caries-free subjects were grouped in a single taxon. Unrooted dendrogram showed that different strains clustered in four different clades, also showed that more than one clonal type can be found in a same individual.

  15. Modernisation of the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2002 the International Consensus Workshop on Caries Clinical Trials was organised in Scotland. The meeting was an initiative of both academic and industrial partners, in order to arrive at a consensus about ways to modernise the design of clinical trials for caries preventive agents (Cari

  16. [Secular trends of caries prevalence among 6 and 12 year-old youths in the Netherlands].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Schuller, A.A.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Mulder, J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980'

  17. 上海市金山区12岁学生恒牙龋病调查分析%Epidemiology of Dental Caries in Permanent Teeth among 12-Year-Old Students in .Iinshan District of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓颖; 伍平群; 沈国荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the incidence and the risk factors of dental caries in permanent teeth among 12-year-old students in Jinshan district of Shanghai. Methods: A total of 4 052 students aged 12 in 27 middle schools in Jinshan district have been enrolled. All of them were examined for dental caries in permanent teeth. They also received a questionnaire survey,which included demographics data,oral health behaviors,dietary habits,etc. Results: The prevalence rate of dental caries was 30. 16% for permanent teeth among 12-year-old students in Jinshan district of Shanghai. The mean of decayed,missing and filled tooth(DMFT),significant caries index(SiC) and filling rate were 0. 46,1. 61 and 43. 55% > respectively. The prevalence rate of dental caries was higher in females than in males. Those students who brushed tooth less than twice per day and who enjoy sweet food and bedtime snack were at high risk for dental caries . Conclusions; The incidence of dental caries among 12-year-old students in Jinshan district of Shanghai showed a polarized distribution. It is important to take measures to prevent dental caries in high-risk population.%目的:了解上海市金山区12岁学生恒牙龋病的患病情况及其影响因素.方法:2010年对金山区27所中学的4052例12岁学生进行全口恒牙牙冠龋病情况检查,并进行问卷调查.问卷内容包括人口统计学资料、口腔卫生习惯和饮食习惯等.结果:上海市金山区12岁学生恒牙患龋率、龋均、龋齿充填率分别为30.16%、0.46和43.55%,显著性龋均指数(significant caries index,SiC)为1.61.女性学生、日刷牙频率小于2次、喜欢吃甜食、睡前吃零食者患龋率较高.结论:上海市金山区12岁学生恒牙龋患呈两级化分布,应进一步完善高危人群的龋病预防保健措施.

  18. Caries prevention by professional fluoride gel application on enamel and dentinal lesions in low-caries children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, G J; van't Hof, M A

    2005-01-01

    In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, the caries-reducing effect of semi-annually applied fluoride gel in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years (n = 773) has been investigated. Secondary analyses of the data were performed to study the caries reduction including non-cavitated lesions. The treatment effect of fluoride gel was calculated as preventive fraction (PF). When enamel lesions were included in DFS count (D(2) grade), the PF was 22% as compared to 26% counting dentinal lesions. The PFs showed that the mean effect of professionally applied fluoride gel was highest (71%) for D(3)S in the permanent dentition and lowest for d(3)s in the primary dentition (5%). The PFs for approximal and buccal and lingual surfaces of the permanent dentition significantly decreased from 80 to 25% and from 60 to 37% when enamel lesions (D(2)S) were included. With the exception of the buccal and lingual surfaces, in the primary dentition the PFs varied slightly when enamel lesions were included. Inclusion of non-cavitated lesions in the treatment effect statistics did not change the former conclusion that the treatment effect of fluoride gel application on dental caries reduction in a low-caries child population was considered not clinically relevant.

  19. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gutiérrez Acero

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio oral tienen una relación muy directa con las bacterias de la caries radicular y del biofilm que forman.The root caries is one of most important bucodental problems that affect to the old patient. The root caries is the decay process that produce on the expose root. The principals pathogens relying are Streptococos mutans, Actinomyces viscosus and Lactobacillus acidofilus, that produce the organics acids demineralizating of root cement and dentin producing the cavitation of the root. The changes producing in the mouth have a direct relation with the bacteria and its biofilm.

  20. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...... drops to 6 or below and release buffering phosphate ions that stabilize biofilm pH above the critical level for enamel dissolution. With that twofold approach, calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles may make a relevant contribution to clinical caries control....

  1. Caries diagnosis with the DIAGNOdent laser: a user's product evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, G

    1999-03-01

    In the study, the DIAGNOdent has shown itself to be very accurate in the diagnosis of pit and fissure lesions. In the clinical situation, it showed a 92.1 per cent accuracy in diagnosing lesions, as well as their severity. In addition, when the unit showed a reading of less than 30, it was 100 per cent accurate in the virgin teeth. When the unit indicated that there was no caries in extracted teeth, it was accurate 98.1 per cent of the time. Now, for the first time, dentists can do research as to the speed of progression of caries, as well as what percentage of caries becomes arrested and what percentage deteriorate.

  2. Implications of caries diagnostic strategies for clinical management decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baelum, Vibeke; Hintze, Hanne; Wenzel, Ann;

    2012-01-01

    in a low-caries population. METHODS: Each of four examiners independently examined preselected contacting interproximal surfaces in 53 dental students aged 20-37 years using a visual-tactile examination and bitewing radiography. The visual-tactile examination distinguished between noncavitated......OBJECTIVES: In clinical practice, a visual-tactile caries examination is frequently supplemented by bitewing radiography. This study evaluated strategies for combining visual-tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and determined their implications for clinical management decisions......-specificity) were calculated for each diagnostic strategy. RESULTS: Visual-tactile examination provided a true-positive rate of 34.2% and a false-positive rate of 1.5% for the detection of a cavity. The combination of a visual-tactile and a radiographic examination using the lesion in dentin threshold...

  3. Fluoride use in Controlling Dental Caries and Fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Solanki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy were introduced to control fluoride exposure and to reduce the prevalence of fluorosis. The study aimed of describing the prevalence, severity and risk factors for fluorosis, and to describe the trend of fluorosis among Indian children. The study also aimed of exploring the effect of the change in fluoride exposure on dental fluorosis and caries. Establishing an appropriate use of fluoride toothpaste could be successful in reducing fluorosis without a significant increase in caries experience. The use of fluorides for oral health has always involved a balance between the protective benefit against dental caries and the risk of developing fluorosis. The link between fluoride and dental health was established to determining the causes of dental fluorosis or enamel mottling. Fluorosis in Indian children was highly prevalent in the early 1990s.

  4. New methodology for studying the structural ecology of occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Grønkjær, Lene; Nyvad, Bente

    Microbiological studies of occlusal dental biofilms have hitherto been hampered by inaccessibility to the sampling site and demolition of the original biofilm architecture. The aim of the present study was to explore the spatial distribution of bacterial taxa in vivo at various stages of occusal...... caries, applying a new methodology involving preparation of embedded hard dental tissue slices for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. 11 extracted teeth were included in the study and classified according to their occlusal caries status (active/inactive/sound; cavitated......-bacterial origin resembling developmental protein, calculus and/or dead bacteria. Bacterial invasion with penetration into the dentinal tubules was seen only at advanced stages of the caries process with manifest cavity formation. It is concluded that the new methodology represents a valuable supplement...

  5. Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcik-Checinska Ilona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

  6. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Guerra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  7. Bionic restorative system: its potential value in caries therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M M Hao; Zheng, M M Ren; Lin, M D Yinghe

    2009-07-01

    Dental defect caused by dental caries is usually restored by fillings, inlays or onlays at the present day. Although the therapeutic effects of these methods have already been confirmed, complications occasionally set in, such as pulp injury, fracture and secondary caries. Bionic dental organic center possesses similar functions of the natural dental organic center. So we put forward a hypothesis that bionic organic center can be transplanted onto the conditioned pulpal walls of the prepared cavity and a specific filling material, which the cavity will be filled with, provides oxygen, nutrition and raw materials for it to regenerate the lost odontal tissue in vivo. The regenerated odontal tissue which has similar properties of the healthy odontal tissue will restore the defect and it will be combined with the residual odontal tissue tightly, not only in physical structure but also in function. Then the teeth suffering from dental caries could live and function like healthy ones.

  8. Caries assessment: establishing mathematical link of clinical and benchtop method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that the development of new technologies for early detection and quantitative monitoring of dental caries at its early stage could provide health and economic benefits ranging from timely preventive interventions to reduction of the time required for clinical trials of anti-caries agents. However, the new technologies currently used in clinical setting cannot assess and monitor caries using the actual mineral concentration within the lesion, while a laboratory-based microcomputed tomography (MCT) has been shown to possess this capability. Thus we envision the establishment of mathematical equations relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT will enable the mineral concentration of lesions detected and assessed in clinical practice to be extrapolated from the equation, and this will facilitate preventitive care in dentistry to lower treatment cost. We utilize MCT and the two prominent clinical caries assessment devices (Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence [QLF] and Diagnodent) to longitudinally monitor the development of caries in a continuous flow mixed-organisms biofilm model (artificial mouth), and then used the collected data to establish mathematical equation relating the measurements of each of the clinical technologies to that of MCT. A linear correlation was observed between the measurements of MicroCT and that of QLF and Diagnodent. Thus mineral density in a carious lesion detected and measured using QLF or Diagnodent can be extrapolated using the developed equation. This highlights the usefulness of MCT for monitoring the progress of an early caries being treated with therapeutic agents in clinical practice or trials.

  9. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established.

  10. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  11. [Dietary habits and early childhood caries intensity among young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagińska, Joanna; Stokowska, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a diet and the feeding method on caries intensity among children aged 36-48 months. Dental examination was carried out in 255 children and their mothers were asked about child's dietary habits. The population checked was divided into three groups: with dmf = 0, dmf 1-3 and dmf > or = 4. Statistically significant correlation between caries intensity and bottle feeding during sleep and frequency of eating cariogenic food were shown. Parents of young children should be educated about the influence of dietary habits on dental condition.

  12. [DNA-technologies application for early detection of caries predisposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, I L

    2006-01-01

    In the paper the possible use of modern DNA-technologies for estimation of gene pool, dental hard tissue resistance to caries prognosis, hereditary predisposition to the main oral diseases diagnosis are presented. Application potentialities of DNA-markers for multiple testing in population are identified. Today very little information is available concerning Russia gene pool characteristics in genome polymorphism, DNA-markers-allelic gene variants, related to the caries predisposition. These characteristics are needed to solve the problems concerning dental diseases prophylaxis and treatment.

  13. Fluoride Varnish Efficacy in Preventing Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Weintraub, J.A.; Ramos-Gomez, F; Jue, B.; Shain, S.; Hoover, C I; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Gansky, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of fluoride varnish (5% NaF, Duraphat®, Colgate) added to caregiver counseling to prevent early childhood caries, we conducted a two-year randomized, dental-examiner-masked clinical trial. Initially, 376 caries-free children, from low-income Chinese or Hispanic San Francisco families, were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation, 1.8 ± 0.6 yrs). All families received counseling, and children were randomized to the following groups: no fluoride varnish, fluoride varni...

  14. Randomized trial on fluorides and sealants for fissure caries prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, HC; Liu, BY; Lo, ECM; Chu, CH

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of topical fluorides in preventing fissure caries, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. In total, 501 children (1,539 molars, 3,078 sites), mean age 9.1 years, who had at least one sound permanent first molar with deep fissures or fissures with signs of early caries were recruited. They were randomly allocated among four groups: (1) resin sealant, single placement; (2) 5% NaF varnish, semi-annual application; (3) 38% silver diamine ...

  15. Visual Inspection Displays Good Accuracy for Detecting Caries Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Visual inspection for caries detection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gimenez T, Piovesan C, Braga MM, Raggio DP, Deery C, Ricketts DN, Ekstrand DR, Mendes FM. J Dent Res 2015;94(7):895-904. REVIEWER: Svante Twetman, DDS, PhD, Odont Dr PURPOSE....../QUESTION: To evaluate the overall accuracy of visual methods for detecting caries lesions. SOURCE OF FUNDING: Brazilian government (Process 2012/17888-1). TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION...

  16. Calcium-phosphate-osteopontin particles for caries control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian

    Oftentimes caries lesions develop in protected sites that are difficult to access by self-performed mechanical tooth cleaning. At present, there is a growing interest in chemical adjuncts to mechanical procedures of oral hygiene that aim at biofilm control rather than biofilm eradication. Calcium......-phosphate-osteopontin particles are a new promising therapeutic approach to caries control. They are designed to bind to dental biofilms and interfere with biofilm build-up, lowering the bacterial burden on the tooth surface without affecting bacterial viability in the oral cavity. Moreover, they dissolve when pH in the biofilm...

  17. Detection of early dental caries with short pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Nahoko; Goto, Shigeru [Osada Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ohzu, Akira; Arisawa, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Differences in the optical properties of polarization and photoluminescence between caries lesion and noncaries (sound) enamel have been investigated by focusing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm on the surface of teeth. Significant difference in the polarization property of the scattered light from the surface can be observed with some carious samples. For photoluminescence spectral lines which appear at around 650 nm, the intensity of caries lesion has been approximately two times higher than that of sound one. A discussion is presented in which early are potentially detectable by the pulsed laser. (author)

  18. Detecting short-term changes in the activity of caries lesions with the aid of new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van der Veen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries c

  19. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  20. Critical incident reporting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Jag; Marriott, Lin

    2005-02-01

    Approximately 10% of all hospital admissions are complicated by critical incidents in which harm is caused to the patient - this amounts to more than 850,000 incidents annually. Critical incident reporting (CIR) systems refer to the structured reporting, collation and analysis of such incidents. This article describes the attributes required for an effective CIR system. Example neonatal trigger events and a management pathway for handling a critical incident report are described. The benefits and limitations of CIR systems, reactive and prospective approaches to the analysis of actual or potential critical incidents and the assessment of risk are also reviewed. Individual human error is but one contributor in the majority of critical incidents. Recognition of this and the fostering of an organisational culture that views critical incident reports as an opportunity to learn and to improve future patient care is vital if CIR systems are to be effective.

  1. Microbiología de la caries radicular en el paciente mayor Microbiology of the root caries in old patients

    OpenAIRE

    D Gutiérrez Acero; L Alós Cortés; García Gómez, F.; A González Sanz

    2006-01-01

    La caries radicular es uno de los problemas bucodentales más importantes y que más comúnmente afectan al adulto mayor. La caries radicular es aquel proceso carioso que se produce sobre la raíz expuesta del diente. Los principales patógenos implicados son el Streptococcus mutans, el Actinomyces viscosus y el Lactobacillus acidofilus, que producen los ácidos orgánicos que desmineralizan el cemento y la dentina de la raíz, llegando producir su cavitación. Los cambios que se producen en el medio ...

  2. Susceptibility to Dental Caries and the Salivary Proline-Rich Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries affects 28% of children aged 2–6 in the US and is not decreasing. There is a well-recognized need to identify susceptible children at birth. Caries-free adults neutralize bacterial acids in dental biofilms better than adults with severe caries. Saliva contains acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs which attach to oral streptococci. The PRPs are encoded within a small region of chromosome 12. An acidic PRP allele (Db protects Caucasian children from caries but is more common in African Americans. Some basic PRP allelic phenotypes have a three-fold greater frequency in caries-free adults than in those with severe caries. Early childhood caries may associate with an absence of certain basic PRP alleles which bind oral streptococci, neutralize biofilm acids, and are in linkage disequilibrium with Db in Caucasians. The encoding of basic PRP alleles is updated and a new technology for genotyping them is described.

  3. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  4. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  5. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  6. 表兄链球菌的检测与儿童猛性龋的关系%The relationship between Streptococcus sobrinus and rampant caries in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云霞; 刘学军

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE:To explore the relations between Streptococcus sobrinus (S.Sobrinus) and rampant caries in children.METHODS:Based on previous investigation result for rampant caries in Zhengzhou city,66 children aged 3-5 years were selected by random sampling,and divided into 3 groups of rampant caries,high dental caries and no caries,22 cases in each group.The final identification of S.mutans and S.sobrinus were performed after using culture medium TYCSB to operate preliminary screening of Streptococcus mutans (S.Mutans) and S.Sobrinus with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with physiological and biochemical identification.SPSS10.0 software package was used to compare the detection rate and mean values of S.mutans and S.sobrinus in the experimental group and the control group.RESULTS:It was found that single S.sobrinus without S.mutans was not detected from dental plaque in each group.The detection rate of S.mutans in group of rampant caries was higher than in group of high dental caries,but there was no significant difference (P>0.05).The difference of detection rate of S.sobrinus between the two groups and the detection rate of S.mutans between group of rampant caries and group without caries was significant (P<0.05).The difference of the detection rate of S.sobrinus between group of rampant caries and group without caries was also significant (P<0.01).The incidence of rampant caries,DMFT,DMFS,smooth-surface caries among the sample with both of S.sobrinus and S.mutans detected and the sample only with S.mutans and the sample without S.sobrinus and S.mutaus were significantly different (P<0.01).CONCLUSIONS:The main pathogenic bacteria of rampant caries in children are S.mutans and S.sobrinus.The incidence of rampant caries was related to S.sobrinus,which had synergic effect on the occurrence and development of rampant caries in children.%目的:探讨表兄链球菌(Streptococcus sobrinus,S.sobrinus)与儿童猛性龋的关系.方法:根据前期郑州市

  7. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study...

  8. Caries risk assessment in schoolchildren - a form based on Cariogram® software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Nunes CABRAL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying caries risk factors is an important measure which contributes to best understanding of the cariogenic profile of the patient. The Cariogram® software provides this analysis, and protocols simplifying the method were suggested. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether a newly developed Caries Risk Assessment (CRA form based on the Cariogram® software could classify schoolchildren according to their caries risk and to evaluate relationships between caries risk and the variables in the form. Material and Methods: 150 schoolchildren aged 5 to 7 years old were included in this survey. Caries prevalence was obtained according to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II. Information for filling in the form based on Cariogram® was collected clinically and from questionnaires sent to parents. Linear regression and a forward stepwise multiple regression model were applied to correlate the variables included in the form with the caries risk. Results: Caries prevalence, in primary dentition, including enamel and dentine carious lesions was 98.6%, and 77.3% when only dentine lesions were considered. Eighty-six percent of the children were classified as at moderate caries risk. The forward stepwise multiple regression model result was significant (R2=0.904; p<0.00001, showing that the most significant factors influencing caries risk were caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources. Conclusion: The use of the form based on the Cariogram® software enabled classification of the schoolchildren at low, moderate and high caries risk. Caries experience, oral hygiene, frequency of food consumption, sugar consumption and fluoride sources are the variables that were shown to be highly correlated with caries risk.

  9. Caries set fra et økologisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on...

  10. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  11. A Comparison of Different Methods for Fissure Caries Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to compare the diagnostic capabilities of three different diagnostic methods: Quantitative Laser Fluorescence (QLF − DIAGNOdent Classic (DD, Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF − SoproLife daylight and blue fluorescence, and their relevance to ICDAS II system in detection of fissure caries lesions in permanent molars. Permanent molars (n = 45 are divided in two groups: 1 third molars, n = 35; 2 first and second molars, n = 10. They are examined by 2 examiners with and without magnification x5 using ICDAS II, SoproLife “day light” and “blue light” (405nm, LIF, DIAGNOdent Classic − emitting laser light on 655nm, QLF. The results are proven with histological bucco-lingual or mesio-distal sections through the body of the lesion with diamond blade rinsed with water. Photos of all occlusal surfaces of the molars are taken before and after the sections. The lowest overdiagnosis rate is found with SoproLife camera. When visual examination is applied overdiagnoses are fewer than with DD. DD is not capable to differentiate white and brown spots from a caries lesion. Soprolife is not capable to differentiate brown spots from a caries lesion. The most accurate method in this in vitro study for diagnosis of fissure caries is LIF (SoproLife − 75.6% of the teeth are correctly diagnosed, followed by ICDAS (57.8% and QLF (DIAGNOdent (40%.

  12. Are we ready for caries prevention through bacteriotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Twetman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights in medical science indicate that human biofilms play an important role in health and well-being, and have put microbiota modulation through bacteriotherapy into focus. In dentistry, bacterial interference with probiotic bacteria to support the stability and diversity of oral biofilms has gained similar interest. Investigations in vitro into metabolic activity, co-aggregation, growth inhibition, bacteriocin production, and adhesion have collectively suggested a potential role for probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to modulate the oral microbial ecology. Likewise, short-term clinical studies with intermediate microbial endpoints indicate that interference with caries-associated bacteria seems possible through probiotic dairy products, tablets, lozenges and chewing gum in various dose regimens. Few randomized controlled clinical trials with caries outcomes are available, but three studies with preschool children and the elderly have demonstrated preventive fractions between 21% and 75%, following regular intake of milk supplemented with probiotic lactobacilli. However, further large-scale trials with orally derived anti-caries candidates are needed before we can say that we are ready for bacteriotherapy as an adjunct to complement the existing evidence-based methods for preventing and controlling caries in daily practice.

  13. Economic aspects of the detection of occlusal dentine caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlund, Anders; Axelsson, Susanna; Dahlen, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost of true-positive occlusal dentine caries detection in permanent molars assessed by: (I) visual-tactile examination, (II) visual-tactile examination combined with bitewing radiographs, and (III) selective radiographic examination of patients with lesions detected cl...

  14. Methods for the evaluation of caries preventing agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herkströter, Franciscus Maria

    1990-01-01

    Dental caries, or tooth decay, is a pathological process of localized destruction of tooth tissues by micro-organisms present in the so-called plaque. The destruction, caused by acids formed in the plague,Ieads to mineral loss (demineralization) from the hard tissues. A demineralized tooth can also

  15. [Diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions using laser fluorescence measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphausen, M T P; Riemersma, M; Verdonschot, E H

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a device for detecting occlusal caries lesions (DIAGNOdent) has been introduced. The reproducibility and validity of this laser-fluorescence device were investigated. In the in vivo part of the study, 45 sites at the occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth in 13 patients were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices, one produced in 1998 and one in 1999. The interobserver reliability between both devices and both observers was established. In the in vitro part of the study, 49 permanent molars were measured by 2 observers using 2 DIAGNOdent devices. In addition, visual inspection was performed. The teeth were sectioned to measure the histological depth and area of the caries lesions. The reproducibility of both DIAGNOdent devices was high, and so was the interobserver reliability. The correlation between DIAGNOdent measurements and the actual depth of the caries lesions was lower than that of visual inspection. The correlation with the enamel part of the lesion exceeded that of the dentine part. It was concluded that the validity of the DIAGNOdent, expressed as the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, was not statistically significantly different from that of visual inspection. Because of the high reproducibility, dental practitioners who wish to use the DIAGNOdent for monitoring caries lesions, this investigation indicates that an old device may be replaced by a new one, provided that the same tip will be used.

  16. ART: a minimal intervention approach to manage dental caries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Holmgren, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    The number of studies investigating aspects of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach has increased in recent years. This tissue preservative treatment approach appears to be less painful and is, therefore, more patient-friendly than conventional caries treatments. The investigations so

  17. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  18. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  19. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; van Loveren, C.; Dusseldorp, E.; Verrips, G.H.W.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) sco

  20. Sealing occlusal caries lesions in adults referred for restorative treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhshandeh, Azam; Qvist, Vibeke; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2012-01-01

    treatment by senior lecturers at School of Dentistry, Copenhagen, Denmark were included. In case the patient had more than one occlusal caries lesion, randomization between sealing and restoration was made; otherwise, the lesion was sealed. In total, 60 resin sealants and 12 composite restorations were made...

  1. Developing explanatory models of health inequalities in childhood dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pine, Cynthia M; Adair, Pauline M; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term aim is to determine optimum interventions to reduce dental caries in children in disadvantaged communities and minimise the effects of exclusion from health care systems, of ethnic diversity, and health inequalities. DESIGN: Generation of initial explanatory models, study pro...

  2. OPTICAL QUANTITATION AND RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF INCIPIENT APPROXIMAL CARIES LESIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERDONSCHOT, EH; VANDERIJKE, JW; BROUWER, W; TENBOSCH, JJ; TRUIN, GJ

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the applicability of photocell measurements in approximal caries diagnosis and to evaluate the use of radiographs as validating criterion. Forty extracted premolars were selected, and the progression of the approximal lesions was graded clinically and radiog

  3. Digital contrast subtraction radiography for proximal caries diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Dental Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To determine whether subtraction images utilizing contrast media can improve the diagnostic performance of proximal caries diagnosis compared to conventional periapical radiographic images. Thirty-six teeth with 57 proximal surfaces were radiographied using a size no.2 RVG-ui sensor (Trophy Radiology, Marne-la-Vallee, France). The teeth immersed in water-soluble contrast media and subtraction images were taken. Each tooth was then sectioned for histologic examination. The digital radiographic images and subtraction images were examined and interpreted by three dentists for proximal caries. The results of the proximal caries diagnosis were then verified with the results of the histologic examination. The proximal caries sensitivity using digital subtraction radiography was significantly higher than simply examining a single digital radiograph. The sensitivity of the proximal dentinal carious lesion when analyzed with the subtraction radiograph and the radiograph together was higher than with the subtraction radiograph or the radiograph alone. The use of subtraction radiography with contrast media may be useful for detecting proximal dentinal carious lesions.

  4. Mechanisms of action of fluoride for caries control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzalaf, M.A.R.; Pessan, J.P.; Honório, H.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoride was introduced into dentistry over 70 years ago, and it is now recognized as the main factor responsible for the dramatic decline in caries prevalence that has been observed worldwide. However, excessive fluoride intake during the period of tooth development can cause dental fluorosis. In o

  5. Efficacy of Miswak (Salvadorapersica in Prevention of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The rate of tooth decay and periodontal diseases today is still high, regardless of progress in oral and dental hygiene. The traditional toothbrush or chewing stick called "Miswak" has been used since ancient times. Many significant effects of Miswak such as antibacterial, anti-caries and antiperiopathic effects have been recognized today. Tooth care is a very important issue and both prevention and treatment of dental caries could be very helpful in maintaining good personal health. In this research, the efficacy of natural toothbrush or Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush and toothpaste. Aim: Miswak was introduced for preventing dental caries by the Holy Prophet Mohammad (S.A.W 1400 years ago and has been used since then in many Islamic countries. In this research, the efficacy of Miswak in prevention of dental caries was investigated and compared with the efficacy of ordinary toothbrush. Methods: This analytical and clinical trial was performed in a high school student population (girls and boys in the city of Yazd, Iran in 2001-2002. Twelve high schools were randomly chosen. From these high schools, 380 second year students (190 cases and 190 controls were enrolled and their teeth condition such as the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMF were recorded in a specific questionnaire. The degrees of decay in the decayed teeth were recorded as well. Then, Miswak sticks were distributed to the case group and required dental training was given to both groups. After one year, the examinations were repeated and findings recorded in the same questionnaires. For analyzing the data, one-way variance analysis, Chi square, Paired t-test and two variable analyses were used. Results: At the start of the study, there were no significant differences between the two groups (case and control with regards to their dental condition and the frequency of

  6. Effectiveness of the bucco-lingual technique within a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries: a randomized controlled trial

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    Frazão Paulo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supervised toothbrushing programs using fluoride dentifrice have reduced caries increment. However there is no information about the effectiveness of the professional cross-brushing technique within a community intervention. The aim was to assess if the bucco-lingual technique can increase the effectiveness of a school-based supervised toothbrushing program on preventing caries. Methods A randomized double-blinded controlled community intervention trial to be analyzed at an individual level was conducted in a Brazilian low-income fluoridated area. Six preschools were randomly assigned to the test and control groups and 284 five-year-old children presenting at least one permanent molar with emerged/sound occlusal surface participated. In control group, oral health education and dental plaque dying followed by toothbrushing with fluoride dentifrice supervised directly by a dental assistant, was developed four times per year. At the remaining school days the children brushed their teeth under indirect supervising of the teachers. In test group, children also underwent a professional cross-brushing on surfaces of first permanent molar rendered by a specially trained dental assistant five times per year. Enamel and dentin caries were recorded on buccal, occlusal and lingual surfaces of permanent molars during 18-month follow-up. Exposure time of surfaces was calculated and incidence density ratio was estimated using Poisson regression model. Results Difference of 21.6 lesions per 1,000 children between control and test groups was observed. Among boys whose caries risk was higher compared to girls, incidence density was 50% lower in test group (p = 0.016. Conclusion Modified program was effective among the boys. It is licit to project a relevant effect in a larger period suggesting in a broader population substantial reduction of dental care needs. Trial registration ISRCTN18548869.

  7. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in Europe

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    Katsa M.E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is one of the major risk factors for individuals’ and society’s health. Alcohol consumption is present since ancient years in Europe, constituting tradition, with Europeans preferring different kinds of alcohol depending on the geographic location of their country. The economic crisis that European citizens are undergoing nowadays, has an impact on their health and more specifically there has been a significant increase in alcohol consumption. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study is to explore the factors which effect the alcohol consumption and consequences of this consumption in Europe. Literature review of relevant articles, published from 2005 to 2013, to these databases: WHO, Google scholar, PubMed. Finally, 42 studies were used to our review. Results: The alcohol consumption is connected with the economic situation of the country, the availability of alcohol, the restrictions and taxes of each country. Alcohol consumption is also related with the gender and age of each individual. In Central-eastern Europe, in contrast to the south Europe, the greatest percentage of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption is found. 35,95% is the mortality rate which is found in Europe. Regarding Greece in recent years, alcohol consumption has declined, while the rates of intoxication have shown as light increase. Conclusions: The lack of legislation, the non-existence of a minimum sale price and the increased availability, can lead to increased incidence of mortality caused by the alcohol consumption. Further research regarding the correlation of economic crisis and alcohol consumption is necessary.

  8. Caries Diagnosis in the Mixed Dentition Using ICDAS II

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    Erica Simone dos Santos Souza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the dental caries prevalence with ICDAS II in the mixed dentition, 40 children aged 7 to 11 years old, participating in a social program, whose parents and/or guardians signed a informed consent form. Material and Methods: Clinical examination was carried out after brushing. A single researcher performed the examination and the diagnosis consistency was obtained by Kappa coefficient in 12% of the sample. All dental surfaces were examined receiving a two-digit code. The first one refers to the presence of restoration/sealant and the second, the severity of carious lesions. The data was processed at SPSS software version 10.0 and analyzed using descriptive statistics (absolute distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Results: The coefficient intra-examiner agreement was 0,83. Caries prevalence was considered high because 100% of the children had some surface with non-cavitated caries lesion. ICDAS II can be easily transformed to dmf-s or DMF-S without compromising its integrity. For dmf-s/DMF-S decayed surfaces were considered ICDAS codes 3 to 6, resulting in a dmf-s = 6,57 where 11 children (27,5% presented no decayed deciduous teeth surface. DMF-S = 2,0 showed that 15 children (37,5% had none decayed permanent surface, determining a underestimation of the caries disease when using dmf-d/dmf-s and DMF-S indexes. Conclusion: A careful viewing of initial caries lesions makes ICDAS II usefull in evaluating the health promotion actions impact, supporting the planning process, implementation and evaluation of program activities.

  9. Role of dentin MMPs in caries progression and bond stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A; Tjäderhane, L; Checchi, V; Di Lenarda, R; Salo, T; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Breschi, L

    2015-02-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  10. [Relation between biofilm, caries activity and gingivitis in HIV + children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Apoena de Aguiar; Portela, Maristela; Souza, Ivete Pomarico de

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of medicines to treat HIV-infected children has been promoting a decrease in the prevalence of soft-tissue oral lesions, as years pass by. In contrast, it has been observed that the experience of caries and gingivitis is constant in this population, mostly because of the chronic influence of some factors involved in the HIV-infection process, such as the chronic utilization of sweetened liquid medicines and carbohydrate-enriched diet, as well as frequent episodes of hospitalization. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the quality and quantity of biofilm are important factors in the activity of dental caries and gingivitis, also in this special group. After examination of the biofilm (biofilm index - Ribeiro23, 2000), the activity of caries and gingivitis was assessed in 56 children, aging from 0 to 14 years, who were patients with definitive diagnosis of HIV infection. It was observed that only 7 subjects (12.5%) did not present with clinically visible biofilm, and 33 (58.9%) presented with gingivitis, with the average of 4.44 bleeding sites. As to dental caries, 73.2% of the patients presented with active carious lesions. A strong correlation was verified between Biofilm Index, gingival status and active carious lesions (Spearman's correlation test, r s = +0.57 and r s = +0.49, respectively). It was concluded that, also in HIV-infected children, the quality and quantity of biofilm over the dental surfaces are important etiologic factors related to the activity of caries and gingivitis. Biofilm should, thus, be controlled in order to reestablish the oral health of HIV-infected children.

  11. Role of Dentin MMPs in Caries Progression and Bond Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Tjäderhane, L.; Checchi, V.; Di Lenarda, R.; Salo, T.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin can be described as a biological composite with collagen matrix embedded with nanosized hydroxyapatite mineral crystallites. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cysteine cathepsins are families of endopeptidases. Enzymes of both families are present in dentin and collectively capable of degrading virtually all extracellular matrix components. This review describes these enzymes and their presence in dentin, mainly focusing on their role in dentin caries pathogenesis and loss of collagen in the adhesive hybrid layer under composite restorations. MMPs and cysteine cathepsins present in saliva, mineralized dentin, and/or dentinal fluid may affect the dentin caries process at the early phases of demineralization. Changes in collagen and noncollagenous protein structure may participate in observed decreases in mechanical properties of caries-affected dentin and reduce the ability of caries-affected dentin to remineralize. These endogenous enzymes also remain entrapped within the hybrid layer during the resin infiltration process, and the acidic bonding agents themselves (irrespective of whether they are etch-and-rinse or self-etch) can activate these endogenous protease proforms. Since resin impregnation is frequently incomplete, denuded collagen matrices associated with free water (which serves as a collagen cleavage reagent for these endogenous hydrolase enzymes) can be enzymatically disrupted, finally contributing to the degradation of the hybrid layer. There are multiple in vitro and in vivo reports showing that the longevity of the adhesive interface is increased when nonspecific enzyme-inhibiting strategies are used. Different chemicals (i.e., chlorhexidine, galardin, and benzalkonium chloride) or collagen cross-linker agents have been successfully employed as therapeutic primers in the bonding procedure. In addition, the incorporation of enzyme inhibitors (i.e., quaternary ammonium methacrylates) into the resin blends has been recently promoted. This

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence in diagnosis of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, Eleni A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan; Serafetinides, Alexandros A.

    2003-09-01

    The autofluorescence spectra of hard dental tissues, both in normal and pathological areas were investigated in this study. The measurements were performed both on the intact hard tissues of the examined teeth, such as enamel, dentine, cementum, and root canal, and on the tissues pathologically affected by caries (superficial, intermediate, and deep). Various laser wavelengths (337 nm, 488 nm, and 514 nm) were used to irradiate the dental surfaces and a computer-controlled spectrograph captured the fluorescent spectra. The emission signals were stored, measured, analyzed and quantified in terms of wavelength distribution and the relative photon intensity. Results indicated that the fluorescent spectra from healthy enamel, dentine, and cementum were almost identical in form, depending on the excitation wavelength. The intact and affected hard tissues were greatly different in the integral fluorescent intensity. Healthy areas were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity, whereas the carious regions produced the weaker fluorescent intensity. Independently of the laser excitation wavelength, dentin regions were found to produce the most pronounced fluorescent intensity than any other dental component. The fluorescence signal of carious affected dental structure revealed a reed shifted spectral curve, more pronounced after 488 nm excitation. There was a pronounced red shift for deep caries (crown -- root caries), after ultraviolet laser excitation. Excitation with visible wavelengths did not produce such differences between intact and cervical, deep carious affected tissue. Using a monochromatic light source without any light output at the wavelengths of fluorescence, e.g. a laser with the appropriate filters, the difference in fluorescence between intact and carious enamel was generally easy to observe. Finally, we found that the blue line of an argon ion laser is preferable for superficial caries detection, while the ultraviolet emitting nitrogen

  13. Ten-year results of a Screening Program during pregnancy for children’s dental caries prophylaxis

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    Sonia Merluzzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with many contributing factors in the genesis of risk (11. Streptococcus mutans (SM is a gram positive, facultative anaerobe commonly found in the human oral cavity. Described for the first time in 1924 by Clarke, is the main germ responsible for the caries disease (5, 9. In fact, SM produces an insoluble extracellular polysaccharide sucrose which plays an important role as a mediator of the adhesiveness, both as a cementing molecule for other microorganisms, and to create a protected site where the microorganism can proliferate (6, 9, 10. Its presence in the plaque is not equal for all people and is closely related to sugar consumption (9. Its transmission can take place early in the life of the child through the mother’s saliva (2, 3, 4, 8.The early acquisition of this organism is associated with Early Childhood Caries (ECC and then creates a primary colonization which is hardly removed (1, 7. Paying special attention to the health of women and children, this work aimed to decrease the incidence of childhood tooth decay, streamlining preventive efforts in a population at risk. Methods: Since 1999, all women referred to our clinic in the second trimester of pregnancy or during childbirth were offered the opportunity to perform a simple test to measure the presence of SM in saliva and have been given some advice (diet, hygiene, fuoro-prophylaxis, dental visit. The sampling of saliva was performed after chewing one paraffin tablet for about 1 minute. For the microbiological examination the technique of dip-slide test (CTR bacteria, Ivoclar Vivadent was used; results were classified according to semi-quantitative classes of microorganism concentration.Women were classified positive when bacterial concentration was 100000 CFU/ml. Besides a general advice on hygiene and diet, these women were invited to undergo a prophylactic treatment with chlorhexidine, a disinfectant with bactericidal

  14. Design and Characterization of a Novel p1025 Peptide-Loaded Liquid Crystalline System for the Treatment of Dental Caries

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    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, mainly caused by the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces, is an important public health problem worldwide. A synthetic peptide (p1025 corresponding to residues 1025–1044 of the adhesin can inhibit this binding. Peptides are particularly susceptible to the biological environment; therefore, a p1025 peptide-loaded liquid crystalline system (LCS consisting of tea tree oil as the oil phase, polyoxypropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol as the surfactant, and water or 0.5% polycarbophil polymer dispersions as the aqueous phase was employed as a drug delivery platform. This system exhibited anticaries and bioadhesive properties and provided a protective environment to p1025 at the site of action, thereby modulating its action, prolonging its contact with the teeth, and decreasing the frequency of administration. LCSs were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, and rheological, texture, and bioadhesive tests. PLM and SAXS revealed the presence of hexagonal liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions. Rheological analyses demonstrated that the addition of polymer dispersions favored characteristics such as shear thinning and thixotropy, hence improving buccal application. Bioadhesion tests showed that polymer dispersions contributed to the adhesion onto the teeth. Taken together, LCS could provide a novel pharmaceutical nanotechnology platform for dental caries treatment.

  15. Design and Characterization of a Novel p1025 Peptide-Loaded Liquid Crystalline System for the Treatment of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Garcia, Matheus Henrique; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Chiavacci, Leila Aparecida; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-28

    Dental caries, mainly caused by the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to pellicle-coated tooth surfaces, is an important public health problem worldwide. A synthetic peptide (p1025) corresponding to residues 1025-1044 of the adhesin can inhibit this binding. Peptides are particularly susceptible to the biological environment; therefore, a p1025 peptide-loaded liquid crystalline system (LCS) consisting of tea tree oil as the oil phase, polyoxypropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol as the surfactant, and water or 0.5% polycarbophil polymer dispersions as the aqueous phase was employed as a drug delivery platform. This system exhibited anticaries and bioadhesive properties and provided a protective environment to p1025 at the site of action, thereby modulating its action, prolonging its contact with the teeth, and decreasing the frequency of administration. LCSs were characterized by polarized light microscopy (PLM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological, texture, and bioadhesive tests. PLM and SAXS revealed the presence of hexagonal liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions. Rheological analyses demonstrated that the addition of polymer dispersions favored characteristics such as shear thinning and thixotropy, hence improving buccal application. Bioadhesion tests showed that polymer dispersions contributed to the adhesion onto the teeth. Taken together, LCS could provide a novel pharmaceutical nanotechnology platform for dental caries treatment.

  16. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

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    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  17. Evaluation of possible associated factors for early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries: a multicenter cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özen, B.; van Strijp, A.J.P.; Özer, L.; Olmus, H.; Genc, A.; Cehreli, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated associated factors for developing early childhood caries (ECC) and Severe-ECC (S-ECC) in a group of children aged 24–71 months. Potential positive effects of early dental visit on formation of ECC is investigated as well. Study Design: This was a multicenter,

  18. EFECTO DE UN GEL DE THEOBROMA CACAO EN EL CONTROL DE CARIES VESTIBULAR EN PACIENTES CON TRATAMIENTO DE ORTODONCIA. CONSULTA PRIVADA. AREQUIPA. 2014

    OpenAIRE

    SALAS LINARES, MARY JULISSA

    2015-01-01

    THEOBROMA CACAO GENERALIDADES DESCRIPCIÓN ORIGEN Y EXTENSIÓN CLASIFICACIÓN CIENTÍFICA VARIEDADES DEL CACAO DISTRIBUCIÓN USOS MEDICINALES EFECTO ANTICARIOGÉNICO GEL CARIES DENTAL FACTORES DE RIESGO MICROORGANISMOS IMPLICADOS EN LA CARIES DENTAL CARIES EN EL ESMALTE CLASIFICACIÓN DE LA CARIES MÉTODOS DE DETECCIÓN DE CARIES CRITERIOS ICDAS

  19. Effect of fluoride foam on the prevention ofdental caries in preschool children%氟化泡沫对学龄前儿童龋齿的预防效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of fluoride foam on the prevention of dental caries in preschool children.methods Random cluster sampling method was used to select 250 cases of preschool children in three kindergartens located in the city as the observation group,and select 250 preschool children in other three kindergarten for the control group.The observation group was used fluoride foam to prevent dental caries,when placebo was used in the control group.After children in two groups were followed up for 3 years,dental caries incidence was compared between the two groups.Results The incidence rate of dental caries in the observation group was 56.8%,when the incidence rate of new caries after intervention was 5%.The incidence rate of the control group before the intervention was 55.2%,the incidence rate of new caries after the intervention was 15.2%.There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of dental caries before the intervention between the 2 groups(P>0.05),but the difference in the incidence of new caries was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion Fluoride foam has a good preventive effect on dental caries in preschool children.%目的:探讨氟化泡沫对学龄前儿童龋齿的预防效果。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法抽取本市3所幼儿园学龄前儿童250名为观察组,另外3所幼儿园学龄前儿童250名为对照组,观察组采用氟化泡沫预防龋齿,对照组采用安慰剂,2组儿童随访3年,比较2组的龋齿发生率。结果观察组干预前龋齿发病率为56.8%,干预后新发龋齿的发生率为5.0%;对照组干预前龋齿发病率为55.2%,干预后新发龋齿的发生率为15.2%。2组干预前龋齿的发病率差别无统计学意义(P>0.05);而干预后新发龋齿的发生率差别有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论氟化泡沫对学龄前儿童龋齿有着良好的预防作用。

  20. Efficacy of three-tone disclosing agent as an adjunct in caries risk assessment

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    Mungara Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, most approaches to caries viewed that catastrophic change in normal plaque biofilm is responsible for the disease. The behavior and composition of the biofilm are a reflection of the oral environment; the caries is a reflection of adverse changes occurring in that environment. Thus, it is important to identify the pathogenicity of the plaque biofilm so as to predict the caries risk. The recently developed three-tone plaque disclosing agent was used to test its ability in identifying the pathogenicity of plaque. Aim: To assess the efficacy of three-tone plaque disclosing agent in identifying the plaque pathogenicity and correlate with the clinical caries status and microbiological findings. Materials and Methods: Sixty children of 6-13 years age group of both sexes were clinically examined for caries and plaque scores, and then disclosing agent was applied; the color stained plaque samples were collected and cultured for microbiological assessment, and the data were analyzed based on the caries status of the children. Results: There was a significant difference between the pathological plaque of caries active and caries free group (P < 0.05. The pathological plaque scores and the total colony counts, Streptococcus counts and mutans streptococci counts increased with the increase in caries. Conclusion: Three-tone plaque disclosing agent was effective in identifying pathological plaque and can be used as one of the chairside adjuvants in caries risk assessment.

  1. Women Are More Susceptible to Caries but Individuals Born with Clefts Are Not

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    Aditi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at a higher risk of developing caries is of great interest. Isolated forms of cleft lip and palate are among the most common craniofacial congenital anomalies in humans. Historically, several reports suggest that individuals born with clefts have a higher risk for caries. Caries continues to be the most common infectious noncontagious disease worldwide and a great burden to any health system. The identification of individuals of higher susceptibility to caries is of great interest. In this paper, we assessed caries experience of 1,593 individuals from three distinct populations. The study included individuals born with clefts, their unaffected relatives, and unrelated unaffected controls that were recruited from areas with similar cultural pressures and limited access to dental care. DMFT/dmft scores were obtained, and caries experience rates were compared among the three groups in each geographic area. Individuals born with clefts did not present higher caries experience in comparison to their unaffected relatives or unrelated unaffected controls. Women tend to present higher caries rates in comparison to men. Our work provides strong evidence that individuals born with clefts are not at higher risk to caries; however, women tend to have more severe caries experience.

  2. Dental caries experience in 12-year-old schoolchildren in southeastern Brazil

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    Silvia Cypriano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997 was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0, with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62. There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.

  3. Investigation of salivary function and oral microbiota of radiation caries-free people with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Jingyang Zhang

    Full Text Available Radiation caries have been reported to be correlated with radiotherapy-induced destruction of salivary function and changes in oral microbiota. There have been no published reports detailing patients who have remained radiation caries-free following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary function, oral microbiota and the absence of radiation caries. Twelve radiation caries-free patients and nine patients exhibiting radiation caries following irradiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were selected. V40, the dose at which the volume of the contralateral parotid gland receives more than 40 Gy, was recorded. Stimulated saliva flow rate, pH values and buffering capacity were examined to assess salivary function. Stimulated saliva was used for molecular profiling by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Mutans streptococci and Lactobacilli in saliva were also cultivated. There were no significant differences in V40 between radiation caries-free individuals and those with radiation caries. Compared with normal values, the radiation caries-free group had significantly decreased simulated saliva flow rate, while there were no significant differences in the saliva pH value and buffering capacity. Similar results were observed in the radiation caries group. There was no statistical difference in microbial diversity, composition and log CFU counts in cultivation from the radiation caries-free group and the radiation caries group. Eleven genera were detected in these two groups, among which Streptococcus spp. and Neisseria spp. had the highest distribution. Our results suggest that changes in salivary function and in salivary microbiota do not explain the absence of radiation caries in radiation caries-free individuals.

  4. Prevention and Analysis of Orthodontic Dental Hygiene and Dental Caries%正畸口腔卫生和龋齿的预防及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃林

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analys ecomprehensive prevention and control measures of orthodontic oral health and dental caries disease prevention and treatment ef ect.Methods 120 cases were Randomly selected from April 2011 to April 2012 orthodontic children caries disease patients treated in our hospital ,More children were randomly divided into two groups, 60 cases in each group.A group as the control group, adopts the conventional orthodontic treatment and brush your teeth every day, another group as the observation group, oral comprehensive prevention and control measures,After six months, through statistical patients the incidence of dental caries, dental caries index, the total number of lactobacil us and streptococcus mutans,To observe the therapeutic ef ect of comparing two groups of patients. Results Compare the therapeutic ef ect of two groups of patients, the observation group of patients with dental caries incidence was 1.7%, the incidence of dental caries in the control group patients was 11.7%, Observation group of caries index, the total number of lactobacil us and streptococcus mutans were significantly lower than the control group, the total, significant dif erence was statistical y significant, <0.05).Conclusion For orthodontic treatment of patients, adopt comprehensive prevention and control measures can ef ectively prevent the occur ence of dental caries and treatment ef ect is significant, worthy of clinical widely promotion and application.%目的分析研究综合防治措施对正畸口腔卫生和龋齿疾病的预防及治疗效果。方法随机选取2011年4月~2012年4月在我院治疗正畸儿童龋齿疾病患者120例,将以上儿童随机分成两组,每组60例患儿。一组为对照组,采取常规的正畸治疗方法并3次/d常规刷牙,另一组为观察组,采取口腔综合防治措施方法,1年后,通过统计患者的龋齿发生率、龋齿指数、乳酸杆菌总数以及变形链球菌总数,观察比较两组患

  5. Caries-inhibiting effect of professional fluoride gel application in low-caries children initially aged 4.5-6.5 years.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkom, H.M. van; Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2004-01-01

    It was the purpose of the study to investigate the caries-reducing effect of semi-annual professional fluoride gel application in a low-caries child population initially aged 4.5-6.5 years during a 4-year follow-up period. In a double-blind randomised controlled trial (n = 773) the effect of sodium

  6. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  7. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  9. Analysis on the Factors of Children's Dental Caries%儿童龋齿的发病因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕平

    2016-01-01

    Objective Understand the incidence of dental caries in children. Methods Take oral health examination on 268 children in a kindergarten in our city,and the parents with the questionnaire,to survey the eating habits and brushing habits of the 268 children. Results In 268 children, contracts the decayed tooth rate is 36.94%,the dental caries rate of the children do not like to eat sweets and have a good brushing habits of is lower than the sweet tooth and no good brushing habits of children ( ﹤0.05).Conclusion Sweet tooth and no good brushing habits are the main causes of children's dental caries.%目的:了解儿童龋齿的发病因素。方法对我区某幼儿园的268例儿童进行口腔健康检查,采用家长配合的问卷调查方式,调查该268名儿童儿童的饮食习惯和刷牙习惯。结果268例儿童患龋率为36.94%,其中不爱吃甜食和有良好刷牙习惯的儿童龋齿率低于爱吃甜食和没有良好刷牙习惯的儿童,(﹤0.05)。结论爱吃甜食和没有良好的刷牙习惯是儿童龋齿的主要发病原因。

  10. Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus

    2011-07-01

    A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community.

  11. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  12. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  13. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  14. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Significantly increased incidences were found of cancer in the tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, liver, larynx, lung and pleura and secondary cancer. The women had significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (RR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.0). The men developed prostatic cancer......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  15. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  16. Explaining Gender Differences in Caries: A Multifactorial Approach to a Multifactorial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferraro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated that caries rates are higher in women than in men. This review attempts to provide an explanation for this trend by examining each factor which contributes to caries and how the factor differs in men and women. Evidence has been provided to demonstrate that caries risk factors for women include a different salivary composition and flow rate, hormonal fluctuations, dietary habits, genetic variations, and particular social roles among their family. Systemic diseases that have been found to be associated with caries have also been found to have an association with the female gender. An extended exposure to the oral cavity or a more cariogenic oral microflora has not been proven to contribute to higher caries in women. Further research in these areas could be done in the future to explain their contribution, or lack thereof, to a higher caries rate in women.

  17. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Seok; Ahn, Jin Soo; Kwon, Ho Beom; Lee, Seung Pyo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future.

  18. Malnutrition and hospital prognosis in the alcoholic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienia, R; Ratcliff, S; Barbour, G L; Kummer, M

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional status of 65 alcoholic patients admitted to the Medical Service of a Veterans Administration Hospital was evaluated and compared to that 87 nonalcoholic patients admitted during the same period of time. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of malnutrition in the alcoholic population (36.9%) when compared to the nonalcoholic population (43.7%). The death rate and incidence of infection were similar in both populations as was the prevalence of anemia, depressed total lymphocyte count, and skin test anergy. Malnutrition, however, correlated with an increased death rate and incidence of infection, regardless of whether the patient was an alcoholic or not.

  19. A novel saliva test for caries risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Si, Yan; Navazesh, Mahvash; Galligan, Joyce M

    2006-04-01

    A new saliva test for caries risk assessment introduced in this study integrates a variety of host factors to predict for children, individual risk levels that are tooth-group specific. These various host factors correlate with caries history, DFT (decayed and filled teeth) or DFS (decayed and filled surfaces) in young adults. The test is based on the pattern of genetically determined oligosaccharides present on salivary glycoproteins. The mechanism behind the test is believed to be centered on the specific oligosaccharides that either facilitate bacterial attachment and colonization at the surface of teeth or protect against colonization by promoting agglutination and removal of free bacteria. It is the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides that is very strongly correlated with the numerical range of DFS or DFT observed in a young adult population.

  20. Role of Probiotics in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bhardwaj

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have been found to be beneficial to host health. In medicine, probiotics are used mainly in support therapy for gastro-intestinal diseases. In recent years, probiotics have been used as a treatment to promote oral health. There has also been a change in understanding of the oral disease process because of better understanding of the ecology and microbiology of the oral cavity. Very encouraging studies exploring probiotics in the fields of caries, periodontal diseases and few other areas have come up in the recent past and the results tend to suggest beneficial effects of probiotics on oral health and on the whole body in general. Extensive research to create a probiotic product intended to maintain dental and periodontal health is needed. This article reviews the role of probiotics in dental caries and periodontal disease. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(1.000: 45-49

  1. Defectos del esmalte, caries en dentición primaria, fuentes de fluoruro y su relación con caries en dientes permanentes Enamel defects, caries in primary dentition and fluoride sources: relationship with caries in permanent teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Alicia Vallejos-Sánchez; Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís; Juan Fernando Casanova-Rosado; Gerardo Maupomé; Alejandro José Casanova-Rosado; Mirna Minaya-Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre la presencia de defectos del esmalte (DE), la experiencia de caries en la dentición temporal, y la exposición a diversas fuentes de fluoruros, con la presencia de caries en la dentición permanente de niños con dentición mixta. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 713 sujetos de 6-9 años de edad de 4 escuelas de Campeche, México, mediante un cuestionario dirigido a las madres, y un examen clínico bucal a los niños. La variable dependient...

  2. Retraction statement: Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    "Modern Concepts for Caries Tissue Removal", by Falk Schwendicke The above article, published online on 15 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.llll/jerd.12201), has been retracted by agreement between the author, Dr. Falk Schwendicke, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Harald O. Heymann, Associate Editor, Dr. Edward Swift and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed as the article was published in advance of other companion work which should have had precedence. The article pages have been replaced by the Retraction Statement and the article condensed accordingly. Schwendicke, F. Swift, EJ. Modern concepts for caries tissue removal. Dent J Esthet Rest 2016; 28:1; DOI: 10.1111/jerd.12201.

  3. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  4. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cura

    2012-01-01

    The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1 the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2 the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3 an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4 the type of alimentary diet and 5 the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  5. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body at even greater risk for harm. Ongoing stress, or chronic, heavy alcohol use, may impair the body’s ability ... J.A., and Chard, K.M. Alcohol and stress in the military. Alcohol Research: ... suicide ideation and attempts associated with adverse childhood experiences. ...

  6. UCSF Protocol for Caries Arrest Using Silver Diamine Fluoride: Rationale, Indications, and Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Ellenikiotis, Hellene; Milgrom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration recently cleared silver diamine fluoride for reducing tooth sensitivity. Clinical trials document arrest and prevention of dental caries by silver diamine fluoride; this off-label use is now permissible and appropriate under U.S. law. A CDT code was approved for caries arresting medicaments for 2016 to facilitate documentation and billing. We present a systematic review, clinical indications, clinical protocol, and consent procedure to guide application for caries arrest treatment. PMID:26897901

  7. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  8. FDI Global Caries Initiative; implementing a paradigm shift in dental practice and the global policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Johnston, S; Hewson, N; van Dijk, W; Reich, E; Eiselé, J-L; Bourgeois, D

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of a new paradigm for caries management is necessary for the profession to respond effectively to changing population health needs. The FDI Global Caries Initiative (GCI) is a 10 year programme aimed at developing and implementing a new paradigm for caries management, one that would contribute to a common vision of health. The article reviews the global health policy landscape and examines how it might influence and shape the implementation of the GCI.

  9. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Cheol [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-02-15

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  10. Caries prevention in high-risk preschool children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Autio-Gold, J. (Jaana)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental caries is a common infectious disease affecting young children living in low-income families in the United States. Efficacious, safe, feasible and cost-effective caries prevention methods for these children are essential. Several studies have shown the efficacy of fluoride varnish and xylitol to improve the oral health of children. The efficiency of caries prevention programs including the use of fluoride varnish or xylitol chewing gum in early childhood has not been w...

  11. A randomized clinical trial on arresting dentin caries in preschool children by topical fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Duangthip, Duangporn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Silver diammine fluoride (SDF) has been found to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries in children. The annual or semi-annual application of SDF may not be practical in migratory populations or effective high caries risk patients. So far, no data are available about the effectiveness of intensive fluoride treatment in arresting dental caries in primary teeth. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three topical fluoride application prot...

  12. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES ...presence or absence of dental caries is of the utmost importance since errors may lead to either performance of irreversible, but unnecessary

  13. Evaluation of total antioxidant level of saliva in modulation of caries occurrence and progression in children

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen Reddy Banda; Garima Singh; Vandana Markam

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have implicated a direct relation between dental caries and salivary total antioxidant level (TAL), which can be suggested as an indicator (either harmful or protective) for susceptibility of individuals for dental caries. Aim: To evaluate the total antioxidant level (TAL) in unstimulated saliva of children, and to correlate the TAL with caries experience and BMI (body mass index). Settings and Design: 60 children, aged 6-12 yrs, were randomly selected for the study. T...

  14. Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries among 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiana Piovesan; Fausto Medeiros Mendes; José Leopoldo Ferreira Antunes; Thiago Machado Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the inequality in the distribution of dental caries and the association between indicators of socioeconomic status and caries experience in a representative sample of schoolchildren. This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 792 schoolchildren aged 12 years, representative of this age group in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Guardians answered questions on socioeconomic status and a dental examination provided information on the dental caries experience (DMF-T). Ineq...

  15. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  16. Caries prevalence of children and adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Markovic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to present epidemiological parameters of caries prevalence in children and adolescents in index age groups on a national and regional level in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH. Materials and methods. The study was conducted during 2004 year for children aged 6 and 12, and during 2007 for adolescents aged 15. An oral health survey was performed on a total number of 1,240 children and adolescents in line with World Health Organization methodology and criteria. Results for caries prevalence and treatment needs were presented and discussed in this paper. Results. Mean dmft (decay, missing, filled teeth for primary dentition for children aged six was 6.7 (SD±3.9 in that the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (88.8%, followed by extracted teeth (8.9% and a small percentage of filled teeth (2.3%. In 12-year-olds DMFT (Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth for permanent dentition was 4.2 (SD±2.9, Significant Caries index (SiC was 7.7 (SD±2.9, the decayed teeth constituted the major part of the index (45.4%, followed by 42.1% of FT and 12.5% of extracted teeth. Among 15-year-olds the DMFT was 7.6 (SD±4.1, SiC was 9.2 (SD±1.2, and filled teeth constituted the major part of the index. Conclusion. The present study provides some evidence of relatively high caries prevalence and severity in comparison with Western European countries. It is necessary to devote more attention to the oral health of children and adolescents. Community based oral health promotion, preventive programs and preventive oriented public dental health care services should be made available and accessible to all children in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  18. Occlusal Caries: Biological Approach for Its Diagnosis and Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, JC; Dige, Irene; Machiulskiene, V;

    2016-01-01

    occlusal caries lesions in the permanent dentition may be treated by non-invasive fissure sealing. By extending the criteria for non-invasive treatments, traditional restoration of occlusal surfaces can be postponed or even avoided, and the dental health in children and adolescents can be improved....... Selective removal (incomplete) to soft dentin in deep carious lesions has greater success rates than stepwise excavation. Selective (complete) removal to firm dentin has a lower success rate due to increased pulp exposure....

  19. Recent and Planned Developments in the CARI Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    calculation software developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The software is of benefit to the FAA and the public as a tool used...needed to keep CARI-6 up-to-date in terms of dose calculation standards. As another improvement, cutoff rigidities for geomagnetic epoch 2000 are...Gluon String Model MCNPX -- Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended MS-DOS -- Microsoft ® DOS NCRP ----- National Council on Radiation Protection and

  20. Effect of Iron Containing Supplements on Rats' Dental Caries Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Eshghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries. Iron containing supplements have been used effectively to solve this problem. In children, because of teeth staining after taking iron drops, parents have the idea that iron drops are the cause of tooth decay; therefore, they limit thisvital supplement in their children’s diet. Hereby, we evaluate the histologic effect of iron containing supplements on tooth caries in rice rats with cariogenic or noncariogenic diet.Materials and Methods: Twelve rats were selected and divided into four groups for this interventional experimental study. Four different types of dietary regimens were used for four months; group A, cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group B, cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements; groupC, non-cariogenic diet with iron containing supplements; group D, non-cariogenic diet without iron containing supplements. After sacrificing the rats, 20-micron histological sections of their posterior teeth were prepared using the Ground Sectionmethod, then they were studied under polarized light microscopy. In order to compare the progression of caries in different samples, the depth of the lesions in the enamel was measured as three grades I, II and III.Results: The mean grade value of A, B, C and D groups were 1.61, 2.61, 1.37 and 1.80, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that significantly fewer caries were seen in the group which had received iron containing supplements and cariogenicdiet compared with cariogenic diet without iron supplements (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ferrous sulfate reduces the progression of dental caries in the cariogenic dietary regimen.