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Sample records for alcoholic intoxication

  1. Alcohol Intoxication in Newborn: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Özmert M.A.; Kazım Küçüktaşçı; Özlem Şahin; Alper Akpınar; Hacer Ergin

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication is extremely rare in the neonatal period. Clinical presentation may be occurred by lethargy, tremor, mild fever, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, respiratory depression and coma. Intoxication usually appears as giving the baby alcohol with neglect of family or accident. The basic principle of therapy is support therapy and provision of clinical stabilization of the baby the elimination of alcohol from the body until it does. When the drops of 70% ethyl alcohol that her mother tho...

  2. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  3. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...

  4. Alcohol Intoxication in Newborn: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özmert M.A. Özdemir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication is extremely rare in the neonatal period. Clinical presentation may be occurred by lethargy, tremor, mild fever, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, respiratory depression and coma. Intoxication usually appears as giving the baby alcohol with neglect of family or accident. The basic principle of therapy is support therapy and provision of clinical stabilization of the baby the elimination of alcohol from the body until it does. When the drops of 70% ethyl alcohol that her mother thought the gas drops unintentional was dripped to baby’s mouth, lid of drug cover was opened and poured abundantly. Afterward, a 25 days old female case was presented to our hospital emergency service. Her physical examination was normal, serum ethyl alcohol level was 3.12 mg/dl (0.12 per mil. This case, that was provided clinical stabilization and applied only supportive therapy, was discharged four days later. In this report, we wanted to emphasize that family and/or caregivers should be well-trained drug administration in neonates. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 39-41

  5. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob L. Orquin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 % to 36 % while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17 %.

  6. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%. PMID:24723899

  7. Intoxicación por alcoholes Alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roldán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La intoxicación etílica es la primera toxicomanía en muchos países del mundo. Afecta a todos los tramos de edad, en los dos sexos y en casi todos los grupos sociales. La mortalidad asociada sólo a la intoxicación etílica aguda es excepcional, pero puede ser un importante factor si coexiste con ingesta de otras drogas de abuso. Es responsable directo de más de la mitad de los accidentes de tráfico. El diagnóstico es fácil por la anamnesis y la clínica y se puede confirmar determinando el nivel de etanol en sangre. El tratamiento es de sostén, intentando proteger al paciente de complicaciones secundarias. El metanol o alcohol de quemar se utiliza como disolvente, encontrándose también como adulterante de bebidas alcohólicas. La intoxicación vía oral es la más frecuente. Oxidado en el hígado a través de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa, la toxicidad se debe a sus metabolitos, formaldehído y ácido fórmico. La clínica consiste fundamentalmente en cefalea, náuseas, vómitos, hipotensión y depresión del SNC. El nervio óptico es especialmente sensible pudiendo producirse una ceguera total e irreversible. El etilenglicol se utiliza como disolvente y anticongelante; la toxicidad se debe a la acumulación de sus metabolitos. La clínica incluye síntomas comunes con la intoxicación metílica. Puede ocurrir fallo renal por necrosis tubular y depósito de cristales de oxalato.Alcohol intoxication is the principal drug addiction in many countries of the world. It affects all age groups, both sexes and almost all social groups. Mortality associated with acute alcohol poisoning on its own is exceptional, but it can be an important factor if it coexists with recreational drugs. It is directly responsible for more than half of traffic accidents. Diagnosis is easy by means of anamnesis and clinical examination, and can be confirmed by determining the level of ethanol in the bloodstream. Supportive care is the best therapy in order to

  8. Portrayal of Alcohol Intoxication on YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Colditz, Jason B.; Pang, Kevin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize the content of leading YouTube videos related to alcohol intoxication and to examine factors associated with alcohol intoxication in videos that were assessed positively by viewers. Methods We systematically captured the 70 most relevant and popular videos on YouTube related to alcohol intoxication. We employed an iterative process to codebook development which resulted in 42 codes in 6 categories: video characteristics, character socio-demographics, alcohol depiction, degree of alcohol use, characteristics associated with alcohol, and consequences of alcohol. Results There were a total of 333,246,875 views for all videos combined. While 89% of videos involved males, only 49% involved females. The videos had a median of 1646 (IQR 300-22,969) “like” designations and 33 (IQR 14-1,261) “dislike” designations each. Liquor was most frequently represented, followed by beer and then wine/champagne. Nearly one-half (44%) of videos contained a brand reference. Humor was juxtaposed with alcohol use in 79% of videos, and motor vehicle use was present in 24%. There were significantly more likes per dislike, indicating more positive sentiment, when there was representation of liquor (29.1 vs. 11.4, p = .008), brand references (32.1 vs. 19.2, p = .04), and/or physical attractiveness (67.5 vs. 17.8, p brand-name reference. While these videos commonly juxtapose alcohol intoxication with characteristics such as humor and attractiveness, they infrequently depict negative clinical outcomes. The popularity of this site may provide an opportunity for public health intervention. PMID:25703135

  9. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men). A...

  10. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob L. Orquin; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and ...

  11. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor t...

  12. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Fahlke; Pär Anders Granhag; Angelica Hagsand; Emma Roos-af-Hjelmsäter; Anna Söderpalm-Gordh

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123) were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol) vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol) vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol)] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent) between-subject design. Participants consumed two glass...

  13. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  14. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulou Iakovina; Fruchter Lauren L; Lau Keith K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well...

  15. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  16. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

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    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  17. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  18. The mechanism of the antagonism by naloxone of acute alcohol intoxication.

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, A. A.; Evans, M

    1981-01-01

    Naloxone lowers blood-ethanol concentration and causes a simultaneous reversal of the disturbances in the redox states of the hepatic nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) couples in acutely-ethanol-intoxicated rats. It is suggested that these effects of naloxone form the basis of its antagonism of acute alcohol intoxication.

  19. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Lauren L; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Lau, Keith K

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis. PMID:21496243

  1. "A cool little buzz": alcohol intoxication in the dance club scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing concern about youthful "binge" drinking and intoxication. Yet the meaning of intoxication remains under-theorized. This paper examines intoxication in a young adult nightlife scene, using data from a 2005-2008 National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded project on Asian American youth and nightlife. Analyzing in-depth qualitative interview data with 250 Asian American young adults in the San Francisco area, we examine their narratives about alcohol intoxication with respect to sociability, stress, and fun, and their navigation of the fine line between being "buzzed" and being "wasted." Finally, limitations of the study and directions for future research are noted. PMID:24779496

  2. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  3. Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette...

  4. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  5. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

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    Straka Lubomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.

  6. A Real Time Embedded System Application for Driver Drowsiness and Alcoholic Intoxication Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dwipjoy Sarkar; Atanu Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a novel approach for the real time detection of car driver drowsiness and alcoholic intoxication. There are large numbers of road accidents which takes place due to fatigue or alcohol drinking of driver. Computer vision and alcohol gas sensor application is combined to an embedded system to achieve this goal. The proposed system is realized with an open source 5 megapixel digital camera supported embedded system board Raspberry-pi loaded with Raspbian-OS, and Python-IDLE w...

  7. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,61...

  8. Event-Level Associations between Objective and Subjective Alcohol Intoxication and Driving after Drinking across the College Years

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is strongly associated with driving after drinking, yet there has been mixed evidence regarding whether the disinhibiting effects of alcohol intoxication contribute to the decision to drive after drinking. This investigation tested whether greater alcohol intoxication increased the probability of driving after drinking particularly during drinking episodes in which students experienced reduced subjective feelings of intoxication. A sample of 1,350 college students comp...

  9. Celebratory Drinking and Intoxication: A Contextual Influence on Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Kent E.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Two field studies measured college students' actual intoxication levels using handheld breathalyzers on Halloween and St. Patrick's Day and compared these celebration days to typical nights surrounding these events. In addition, across all nights of Study 2, participants were asked if they were celebrating any occasion or event that night, and…

  10. Injuries of the floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Konstantin A

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of injuries of floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication havebeen based on the 180 accidents on board of ships with temporary loss of ability to work, and 1686 casehistories with alcoholic injuries, which demanded treatment in a surgical department. Among persons,the received injuries on the ship in the state of alcoholic intoxication were 8.1% of the victims: in thestrength of the transport fleet - 8.9%; fishing - 8.9% and river ones - 4.1%. Masters of fish production,skippers, rulers of the radio stations and masters of fish processing were most frequently injured afterthe consumption of the alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic injuries have been recorded at the time of walkingon the catwalk and the decks (54.2%), mooring operations (15.1%), maintenance and repairing the deckmachinery, water preparation (6.6%), as well as boat and loading-unloading works (4.3%). Falls from heightconstituted 36.6% of the injuries. Alcohol in 3.2 times increases the weight of the combined injuries. Thedeaths from the alcohol related injuries in marine conditions (43.4%) significantly exceed the indicators inthe group of non-alcoholic injuries (7.0%). Alcoholic intoxication has been noted in 35.0% of the cases ofthe floating crew injuries, hospitalised in the surgical department. Victims with alcoholic injuries receivedduring performing ship's works were hospitalised 10 times less, than those with non-productive types ofinjuries. In the structure of non-industrial injuries, household injuries prevail (78.2%) over those receiveddue to falls on the street, in pedestrian flows (10.3%), transport and traffic accidents (6.7%), intentionalinjuries (4.1%) or those connected with sports games and competitions (0.7%). Fishermen are a professionalgroup of seamen, subject to the high social vulnerability to the alcoholic beverages consumptionand related injuries. PMID:23788165

  11. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  12. Does acute alcohol intoxication cause transaminase elevations in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Christoph; Knibbe, Karoline; Kreissl, Alexandra; Repa, Andreas; Thanhaeuser, Margarita; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Berger, Angelika; Jilma, Bernd; Haiden, Nadja

    2016-03-01

    Several long-term effects of alcohol abuse in children and adolescents are well described. Alcohol abuse has severe effects on neurodevelopmental outcome, such as learning disabilities, memory deficits, and decreased cognitive performance. Additionally, chronic alcohol intake is associated with chronic liver disease. However, the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on liver function in children and adolescents are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to determine if a single event of acute alcohol intoxication has short-term effects on liver function and metabolism. All children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine between 2004 and 2011 with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were included in this retrospective analysis. Clinical records were evaluated for age, gender, alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration, symptoms, and therapy. Blood values of the liver parameters, CK, creatinine, LDH, AP, and the values of the blood gas analysis were analyzed. During the 8-year study period, 249 children and adolescents with the diagnosis "acute alcohol intoxication" were admitted, 132 (53%) girls and 117 (47%) boys. The mean age was 15.3 ± 1.2 years and the mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.201 ± 0.049%. Girls consumed significantly less alcohol than boys (64 g vs. 90 g), but reached the same blood alcohol concentration (girls: 0.199 ± 0.049%; boys: 0.204 ± 0.049%). The mean values of liver parameters were in normal ranges, but AST was increased in 9.1%, ALT in 3.9%, and γGT in 1.4%. In contrast, the mean value of AST/ALT ratio was increased and the ratio was elevated in 92.6% of all patients. Data of the present study showed significant differences in the AST/ALT ratio (p difference in alcohol metabolism and effects between girls and boys: girls need less alcohol than boys to achieve the same blood alcohol levels than boys, and are more prone to loss of consciousness. PMID:26992701

  13. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery, and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheenen, Myrthe E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Roks, Gerwin; Yilmaz, Tansel; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-02-15

    A substantial number of patients (30% to 50%) sustains a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) while they are under the influence of alcohol. An acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of injury has been subject of research in severe TBI, but little is known about the relation between AAI and mTBI. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. We included 528 mTBI patients (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score 13-15) admitted to two Level 1 trauma centers as part of a prospective follow-up study. We compared clinical characteristics, demographics, and injury mechanism between groups. Post-concussive complaints, mood disorders, and post-traumatic stress-related complaints were assessed at 2 weeks post-injury, and outcome at 6 months with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Thirty-three percent of the mTBI patients were intoxicated. Results showed that the intoxicated group was younger (36 vs. 40 years; p = 0.001) and were more frequently of male gender (78% vs. 60%; p violence-related injuries. The intoxicated group was assessed with a lower GCS score and had a higher hospital admission rate. However, at 2 weeks post-injury, intoxicated patients reported less complaints than the non-alcohol group and showed a better recovery at 6 months (average GOSE scores 7 vs. 7.3; p = 0.030). We conclude that AAI in mTBI represents a characteristically different group, which has implications for prevention measures, as well as the course of recovery. PMID:26230219

  14. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  15. [Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Diestelkamp, Silke; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial Characteristics of Adolescents Treated for Alcohol Intoxication in Emergency Departments In Germany, every year a substantial number of adolescents is treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Until now, only few studies have been published investigating psychosocial aspects in this group of adolescents. In the present study 316 adolescents were surveyed in the emergency department regarding their problematic use of alcohol and illicit drugs, their patterns of alcohol consumption, their alcohol-related and mental problems. We reported results for the whole sample. Additionally, the sample was divided in two groups based on the result in an established screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d). To compare the two groups we conducted unpaired t tests, chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses. Compared to the other group the adolescents exceeding the cut-off value of the CRAFFT-d reported a statistically significant higher past 30-day binge drinking frequency and number of standard-drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, more alcohol-related problems, more frequently a problematic use of illicit drugs and more mental problems (regarding antisocial behavior, anger control problems and self-esteem). Antisocial behavior was the most important factor for the affiliation to one of the two groups. The application of the screening instrument for problematic alcohol use (CRAFFT-d) in the emergency department seems to be a promising approach to identify adolescents with a general higher psychosocial burden. PMID:27595810

  16. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  17. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition. PMID:21769768

  18. Early environmental influences contribute to covariation between internalizing symptoms and alcohol intoxication frequency across adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms during adolescence varies across studies, and the causes underlying this association remain unclear. The current study examines the relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression and intoxication frequency in a sample of Swedish twins assessed longitudinally from ages 13–14 to 19–20. The objectives of the study were to assess the stability of genetic and environmental influences on each trait across adolescence; to invest...

  19. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  20. A Heart too Drunk to Drive; AV Block following Acute Alcohol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stigt, Arthur H; Overduin, Ruben J; Staats, Liza C; Loen, Vera; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2016-02-29

    Acute excessive alcohol consumption is associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation but also premature ventricular contractions, collectively known as the "holiday heart syndrome". More rarely but clinically significant are reports of atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances in binge drinkers with no underlying heart disease or chronic alcohol consumption. To obtain better insights into common denominators and the potential underlying mechanisms we collected and compared individual case reports of AV block following acute alcohol intoxication in otherwise healthy people. By screening PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and JSTOR, fifteen cases were found of which eight were sufficiently documented for full analysis. Blood alcohol levels ranged from 90 to 958 mg/dl (19 to 205 mM). Second and third degree AV block was observed most (6/8) albeit that in two of these patients a vagal stimulus led to deterioration from first into higher order AV block. In all cases, patients reverted to normal sinus rhythm upon becoming sober again. Mildly lowered body temperature (35.9 ± 0.5°C) was observed but can be excluded as a major cause of conduction blockade. We hypothesize that ethanol induced partial inhibition of calcium and potentially also sodium currents in conductive tissue structures may be one of the mechanisms of conduction slowing and block that may become exaggerated upon increased vagal tone. An impairment of gap junction function cannot be excluded as a contributing factor. In conclusion, cases of documented alcohol induced AV block are very rare but events can occur at relatively low serum alcohol levels which should prompt to awareness of this phenomenon in alcohol intoxicated patients. PMID:26875557

  1. Alcohol intoxications during adolescence increase motivation for alcohol in adult rats and induce neuroadaptations in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Warnault, Vincent; Legastelois, Rémi; Botia, Béatrice; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Vilpoux, Catherine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2013-04-01

    Adolescent alcohol binge drinking constitutes a major vulnerability factor to develop alcoholism. However, mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. We evaluated the effect of adolescent binge-like ethanol intoxication on vulnerability to alcohol abuse in Sprague-Dawley rats. To model binge-like ethanol intoxication, every 2 days, rats received an ethanol injection (3.0 g/kg) for 2 consecutive days across 14 days either from postnatal day 30 (PND30) to 43 (early adolescence) or from PND 45 to PND 58 (late adolescence). In young adult animals, we measured free ethanol consumption in the two-bottle choice paradigm, motivation for ethanol in the operant self-administration task and both ethanol's rewarding and aversive properties in the conditioned place preference (CPP) and taste aversion (CTA) paradigms. While intermittent ethanol intoxications (IEI) during late adolescence had no effect on free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, we found that IEI during early adolescence promoted free-choice 10% ethanol consumption, enhanced motivation for ethanol in the self-administration paradigm and induced a loss of both ethanol-induced CPP and CTA in young adults. No modification in either sucrose self-administration or amphetamine-induced CPP was observed. As the nucleus accumbens (Nac) is particularly involved in addictive behavior, we analyzed IEI-induced long-term neuroadaptations in the Nac using c-Fos immunohistochemistry and an array of neurotransmission-related genes. This vulnerability to ethanol abuse was associated with a lower c-Fos immunoreactivity in the Nac and enduring alterations of the expression of Penk and Slc6a4, 2 neurotransmission-related genes that have been shown to play critical roles in the behavioral effects of ethanol and alcoholism. PMID:23287538

  2. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the e...

  3. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    OpenAIRE

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and at...

  4. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  5. [Accidental ethyl alcohol intoxication in a 30-day-old infant. Clinical findings and neurological follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palano, G M; Praticò, A D; Praticò, E R; D'Agata, A; Carpinato, C; Sottile, F; Distefano, G

    2007-06-01

    Fetus damages due to alcohol abuse in pregnancy, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), are widely documented in the literature, whereas short and long term clinical signs of acute alcohol intoxication in newborn babies are poorly described. In our study we describe the case of a 30-day-old newborn baby erroneously fed with 70 mL of white wine in place of the water for milk dilution. The baby clinical features were torpor, tremors, slight fever without metabolic anomalies typical of classic acute alcohol intoxication such as hypoglycemia, hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and coma. Periodical follow-up a 2, 3, 6 and 12 months were performed in order to evaluate neuromotor development using Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, for children between 1 and 42 months old. The results showed normal psychomotor development in our patient. PMID:17519873

  6. Morphofunctional changes in the brain blood loss on the background of alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Indiaminov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of histological and morphometric methods allowed to determine significant changes of brain structures in people who died from traumatic hemorrhage in the condition of alcohol intoxication of mild and moderate degree. A marked spasm of large pial arteries has been revealed. Dystonia with a predominance of spasms is typical for intracerebral arteries, and dilatation for the veins. Spasm of the arteries leads to a significant increase in perivascular spaces. The density of glial component in the gray substance of the brain is sharply reduced, and in the white substance it does not change significantly. The total area of the microcirculatory bloodstream vessels reduces significantly. Marked changes in the structure of neurons suggest that these disorders are caused not only by anemia, dissociation of vessels with neuroglia, but by direct influence of ethanol on nerve cells as well.

  7. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  8. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on information processing, motor coordination and subjective reports of intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has become a popular and controversial practice among young people. Increased rates of impaired driving and injuries have been associated with AmED consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine if the consumption of AmED alters cognitive processing and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Eighteen participants (nine men and nine women) attended four test sessions where they received one of four doses in random order (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED, or a placebo beverage). Performance on a psychological refractory period (PRP) task was used to measure dual-task information processing and performance on the Purdue pegboard task was used to measure simple and complex motor coordination following dose administration. In addition, various subjective measures of stimulation, sedation, impairment, and level of intoxication were recorded. The results indicated that alcohol slowed dual-task information processing and impaired simple and complex motor coordination. The coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol did not alter the alcohol-induced impairment on these objective measures. For subjective effects, alcohol increased various ratings indicative of feelings of intoxication. More importantly, coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol reduced perceptions of mental fatigue and enhanced feelings of stimulation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, AmED may contribute to a high-risk scenario for a drinker. The mix of behavioral impairment with reduced fatigue and enhanced stimulation may lead AmED consumers to erroneously perceive themselves as better able to function than is actually the case. PMID:22023670

  9. Women’s Condom Use Assertiveness and Sexual Risk-Taking: Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Adult Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Stoner, Susan A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Morrison, Diane M.; Zawacki, Tina; DAVIS, KELLY CUE; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N = 161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As prot...

  10. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. PMID:27418952

  11. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  12. One more beer? Serving alcohol to pseudo-intoxicated guests in bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordy F.; Hoof, van Joris J.; Goverde, Martine M.; Jong, de Menno D.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Consuming large quantities of alcohol might result in negative consequences for both individual drinkers (alcohol dependency and addiction) and society (violence, traffic crashes). In order to decrease the prevalence of alcohol abuse, many countries have adopted regulations prohibiting th

  13. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  14. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized contro

  15. Street-level alcohol policy: Assessing intoxication at drinking venues in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Buvik, Kristin; Baklien, Bergljot

    2014-01-01

    This article examines liquor inspectors' assessment of intoxication at drinking establishments in Norway. It draws upon Lipsky's theory of street-level bureaucrats (1980) to study a situation where laws and informal norms seem to pull in opposite directions. We conducted 26 ethnographic observations of liquor inspectors' visits to drinking venues in Oslo, as well as qualitative interviews and field conversations with liquor inspectors. The study reveals that inspectors interpret the N...

  16. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on sub

  17. [Forensic medical diagnostics of chronic alcoholic intoxication based on histological changes in the soft tissues of oral cavity and salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dolzhanskiĭ, O V; Mamsurova, T S; Chertovskikh, A A

    2011-01-01

    Histological studies of oral cavity mucosa and salivary glands in subjects with chronic alcoholic intoxication revealed changes at the surface of the tongue and in the glandular tissues. Specific features of chronic alcoholic intoxication include acinar and ductal hyperplasia, reduction of the adipose tissue mass in salivary gland stroma, predominance of T-lymphocytes in hard palate minor salivary glands and B-lymphocytes in the stroma of labial minor salivary gland, the absence of plasma cells in the stroma of hard palate minor salivary glands and labial mucosa. Leukoplakia, dysplasia, and hyperplasia of the basal epithelial layer of oral cavity mucosa are considered to be the signs of long-term (over 12 months) alcohol consumption. PMID:21866840

  18. Alcohol intoxication and mental health among adolescents – a population review of 8983 young people, 13–19 years in North-Trøndelag, Norway: the Young-HUNT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmen Turid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to describe alcohol use among Norwegian teenagers and investigate the associations between mental health problems and alcohol intoxications with focus on age and gender. Methods Population based, cross-sectional survey addressing all adolescents aged 13–19 years, attending secondary or high school in North – Trøndelag County, Norway. 8983 youths (91% answered the Young-HUNT questionnaire in the 1995–1997 survey. Logistic regression models were used to study associations. Results 80% of the respondents reported that they had tried drinking alcohol, and 57% had been intoxicated at least once. The proportion of the students, which had tried alcohol, was equal in both genders and increased with age. Attention problems and conduct problems were strongly associated with frequent alcohol intoxications in both genders. Anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls were also related to high numbers of intoxications Conclusion Gender differences in number of alcohol intoxications were small. There was a close association between both conduct and attention problems and high alcohol consumption in both genders. Girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression reported more frequent alcohol intoxications.

  19. Determinants of alcohol intoxication and social responsibility for DUI-risk at university parties

    OpenAIRE

    Glindemann, Kent E.

    1995-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among youth and young adults and accompanying undesirable behaviors (e.g., physical aggressiveness, vandalism, date rape, DUI) is a significant public health problem. This field research examined various intervention techniques for reducing excessive alcohol consumption in party settings. Prior to four fraternity parties, students' drinking intentions, lifestyles, and person characteristics (i.e., self-esteem, optimism, personal control, group cohesion, sensati...

  20. Men’s Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21–35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of alcohol prior to these acts, and their use of condoms during acts involving penetration. Descriptive statistics and, Pearson's chi-square tests were u...

  1. Polymorphism of mitochondria in rat auriclar contractive cardiomyocites under the chronic alcoholic intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunaev A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of the questions related to the reactions of mitochondrial apparatus of atrial cardiomyocites under the chronic alcoholization were dissolved in this study. The purpose of the study was to analyze morphological reactions of mi-tochondrial apparatus of atrial contractive cardiomyocites in rats on the chronic alcoholic poisoning. Modeling of the chronic alcoholic poisoning in rats was realized by daily introduction of ethyl alcohol per os in dosage 2-3,5 mg/g of rat weight dur-ing 30 days. Morphological research comprised both light and electronic microscopy of myocardium of right and left atria, right and left auricles, and also interatrial septum. Stereological estimation of several indexes was carried out: the compact-ness of mitochondria, numeral compactness of mitohondria, surface area of external mitochondrial membrane, compactness of mitochondrial cristae, number of mitochondrial cristae, surface area of internal mitochondrial membrane, degree of cristae orientation, coefficient of mitochondrial sphericity, volume of mitochondrium, quantitative correlation of types of mitochon-dria. It was shown that the reaction of different types of mitochondria on development of chronic alcoholization in atrial con-tractive cardiomyocites depends on the structural-metabolic type of mitochondria. Under the chronic alcoholic poisoning the moderate diffuse reduction of mitochondrial apparatus of contractive cardiomyocites takes place that is accompanied by the prolonged renewal of high-energy mitochondria and causes energetical limitation of contractive function of atrial myocar-dium.

  2. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in ...

  3. Carnitine: function, metabolism and value in hepatic failure during chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is one of the most frequent dependences among people, leading to damage of the liver and death of the person. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with carnitine metabolism and citric acid cycle activity. Block in activity of the citric acid cycle caused by alcohol and its metabolites is partially compensated by increased ketone body production, which results in ketosis. Chronic administration of alcohol induces liver injury, inflammation, cirrhosis, focal necrosis and steatosis.L-carnitine (L-3-hydroxy-4-N, N, N-trimethylaminebutyric acid is an essential factor in fatty acid metabolism, which plays a major role in transport of activated long-chain fatty acids to sites of β-oxidation in mitochondria. Carnitine also stabilizes cell membranes by removing long-chain acyl-CoA and excess of the acyl group from the body. L-carnitine can be a useful and safe drug in the liver pathology induced by chronic ethanol exposure.

  4. Mechanisms of Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Modulation of Cyclic Mobilization of [Ca2+] in Rat Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerut, Edmund K.; Breslin, Jerome W.; Molina, Patricia E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: We have demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases the magnitude of Ca2+ transients in pumping lymphatic vessels. We tested the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ via L-type Ca2+ channels and intracellular Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to the AAI-induced increase in Ca2+ transients. Methods and Results: AAI was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to conscious, unrestrained rats; isovolumic administration of water served as the control. Mesenteric lymphatic vessels were isolated, cannulated, and loaded with Fura-2 AM to measure changes in intracellular Ca2+. Measurements were made at intraluminal pressures of 2, 6, and 10 cm H2O. L-type Ca2+ channels were blocked with nifedipine; IP-3 receptors were inhibited with xestospongin C; and SR Ca2+ release and Ca2+ pool (Ca2+ free APSS) were achieved using caffeine. Nifedipine reduced lymphatic Ca2+ transient magnitude in both AAI and control groups at all pressures tested, but reduced lymphatic contraction frequency only in the control group. Xestospongin C did not significantly change any of the Ca2+ parameters in either group; however, fractional shortening increased in the controls at low transmural pressure. RyR (ryanodine receptor) activation with caffeine resulted in a single contraction with a greater Ca2+ transient in lymphatics from AAI than those from controls. SR Ca2+ pool was also greater in lymphatics isolated from AAI- than from control animals. Conclusions: These data suggest that 1) L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to the AAI-induced increase in lymphatic Ca2+ transient, 2) blockage of IP-3 receptors could increase calcium sensitivity, and 3) AAI increases Ca2+ storage in the SR in lymphatic vessels. PMID:26056854

  5. Effect of Citrocard on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria during chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Ostrovskii, O V; Verovskii, V E; Popova, T A; Lebedeva, S A; Dib, H

    2007-03-01

    Chronic administration of 50% ethanol in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a toxic effect on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria, which manifested in decreased rates of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Structural GABA analogue Citrocard (phenibut citrate) and reference preparation piracetam in doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, prevented the damaging effect of alcohol, which was seen from increased indexes of oxidative phosphorylation in treated animals compared to the control group. PMID:18225758

  6. [Correction of cardiotoxic effect of chronic alcoholic intoxication by GABA-ergic compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Lebedeva, S A

    2007-01-01

    Toxic effect of 50% ethanol solution (8 g/kg) on the heart appeared as diminishment of contractile properties of the myocardium. Structural GABA-analogues - citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg) and pyracetam (200 mg/kg) prevented injurious action of alcohol. This was evidenced by higher indices of contraction and relaxation velocity, and left ventricular pressure in intervention groups of animals compared with controls during functional tests with volume and maximal isometric load. PMID:18260875

  7. Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Rahul; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Kivisaari, Riku; Hernesniemi, Juha; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Siironen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The effect of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) on outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is controversial. We sought to assess the independent effect of positive BAC on long-term outcome in patients with TBI treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of 405 patients with TBI, admitted to the ICU of a large urban Level 1 trauma center between January 2009 and December 2012. Outcome was six-month mortality and unfavorable neurological outcome (defined a...

  8. Lithium Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Kesebir, Sermin; Üstündağ, Mehmet Fatih; Kavzoğlu, Semine Özdoğan

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose...

  9. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  10. 急性乙醇中毒时猝死原因及防范%The Causes and Prevention Measures for the Sudden Death in Acute Alcoholic Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 孟庆义

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the causes and prevention measures for the sudden death in acute alcoholic intoxication. The main causes included the mis - aspiration, acute pancreatitis, cardiac emergencies, cerebral hemorrhage, disulfiram - like reaction, hypothermia, rhabdomyolysis, and hypotonic state after gastric lavage. That was instructive for the clinician to diagnosis and treatment for acute alcoholic intoxication and to avoid the medical malpractice in the clinical work.%本文对急性乙醇中毒时猝死的原因及防范措施进行了分析阐述,主要猝死原因有误吸、急性胰腺炎、心脏急症、脑出血、双硫仑样反应、低体温、横纹肌溶解和洗胃后低渗.希望能为临床医生正确地诊断与治疗急性乙醇中毒及避免医疗失误提供借鉴.

  11. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  12. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan; Cleveringa, A. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Meyer, P.; Heineman, E.; Hulscher, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced

  13. 急性酒精中素对兔脑外伤后的影响%The influence of acute alcohol intoxication on rabbits with head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永康; 张志强; 冯祖荫; 杨波; 孙红卫

    2001-01-01

    To study the influence of acute alcohol intoxication on rabbitswith head injury. Methods: 30 rabbits weredivided into three groups, ten in each one. Group A was nomal control group; group B was head injuried group;group C was alcoholintoxicated and head injuried group. Acute aleolhol intoxication of rabbits were made by gastric administration of ethanolnd headinjury by free drop hammer hitting skull. The changes of respiratory rate (RR), mean aterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranialpressure (ICP), middle cerebral artery flow velocity ( vmca)、 pulsafility index (PI) and cerebral vesscular diameter index( CVI ) weremearstured at different moments before and after head injury. SOD acfivifies、 LPO contents and water content in brain were detectedat 4 h after head injury. Restlts: The marked depression of respiratory, lower MABP, slower vmca,higher PI,less CVI, lower SOD,higher LPO and water content ( P > 0.01) were observed in alcohol intoxicated head injuried rabbits. Conclusion: Alcohol intoxication can result in signiticant respiratory depression, hypotension, cerebral vasospasm, and increase in resistance of cerebral bloodvessels, decrease in CBF, promoted free radical reactions and exacerbated brain edema following head injury.%目的:研究急性酒精中毒对兔脑外伤后的影响。方法:家兔30只,随机分为3组,每组10只。A组为正常对照组,B组为单纯脑外伤组,C组为酒精中毒加脑外伤组。乙醇灌胃法致使家兔急性酒精中毒,直接打击颅骨法制作急性颅脑损伤模型;于伤前、伤后一定时间测定呼吸频率、平均动脉压、颅内压、大脑中动脉血流速度(vmca)、脉搏指数(PI)、脑血管直径指数(CⅥ);伤后4h处死动物,测定脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、脂质过氧化物(LPO)含量及含水量。结果:C组伤后立即出现显著的呼吸抑制及低血压,vmca明显减慢,PI值显著升高,CVI明显减小,伤后4h

  14. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  15. Encephalon Condition in Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and the Role of Amoebic Invasion of this Organ in the Development of Ethanol Attraction in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Shormanov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reviews data from studies on the encephalon in 27 men ranging in age from 21 to 51 years, showing signs of chronic alcohol intoxication and who died from causes other than skull injury and 14 control subjects. The specimens were fixed in formalin or Karnua liquid, filled with paraffin and then examined, utilizing a variety of histological, histochemical and morphometric techniques. The data refers to the structural changes in the various tissue components of the brain (nervous, glia-cells, arteries, veins, as well as pertinent information concerning the presence of Protozoa in all the sections examined which according to their morphological signs and behavioral reactions indicate that amoeba had been present. The degree of cerebral tissue insemination by these parasites has been demonstrated. The condition of the membranes of these microorganisms, their cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleoli as well as the chromatoid corpuscles has been assessed and recorded. The ability of these microorganisms to split, migrate within the CNS limits, to trigger incitement and dystrophic changes and in the case of death – calcification or exulceration is shown. Further, the issue of species characteristics of amoeba occurring in the patients’ brains is discussed. The hypothesis of a possible link of amebic invasion with the development of alcohol dependence in humans is proposed.

  16. Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men’s and Women’s Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Tammy W.; Thomas K. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking ac...

  17. Rape myths, alcohol intoxication and condom use among males accused of sexual assault in Kabale, rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K; Kakaire, Othman; Osinde, Michael O

    2011-07-01

    Through a cross-sectional study conducted at Kabale Regional Hospital, among 111 men accused of rape and admitted for forensic examination from June 2009 to June 2010, we assessed whether the characteristics of perpetrators and the circumstances of the alleged sexual assault differ in acquaintance and stranger rape. Using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and records review, data were collected on socio-demographic variables, circumstances of the alleged offense and the relation of the accused to the survivors. The mean age was 26.6 years (± 10.1 years), 30 (27.0) had been drunk and 67.2% (75) knew their accuser. There was no difference in the socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics between stranger and acquaintance rape. There were no differences regarding whether the alleged crime occurred at the assailant's/survivor's home or outside either the survivor's or the assailant's home setting. Respondents either trivialized or justified the accusations against them. Our study shows that rape myths and drinking alcohol were common in all types of sexual assault. PMID:21532000

  18. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Methods Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activi...

  19. Impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome on social phobia and panic disorder in alcoholic inpatients Impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência de álcool sobre a fobia social e o transtorno de pânico em pacientes alcoolistas hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal on the course of social phobia and panic disorder. METHOD: A group of 41 alcoholic inpatients undergoing detoxification therapy were interviewed using the SCID-I (DSM-IV and questions to detect fluctuations in the course of social phobia and panic disorder as a function of the different phases in alcohol dependence (intoxication, withdrawal, and lucid interval. RESULTS: Only 1 (2.4% patient presented panic disorder throughout life, and 9 (21.9% had panic attacks during alcohol intoxication or during the withdrawal syndrome. Sixteen (39% alcoholic patients showed social phobia with onset prior to drug use. However, drinking eventually became unable to alleviate social phobia symptoms or worsened such symptoms in 31.2% of social-phobic patients. While patients with social phobia reported a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms during alcohol intoxication, patients experiencing panic attacks worsened significantly during intoxication. In the withdrawal phase, patients with social phobia tended to have more and more intense phobic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the impact of alcohol intoxication is different for social phobia as compared to panic disorder, at first decreasing the social-phobic symptoms but later aggravating them. In panic disorder, the impact of intoxication by alcohol is more harmful, at least in the short term.OBJETIVO: Estudar o impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência do uso de álcool sobre o curso da fobia social e do transtorno de pânico. MÉTODO: Um grupo de 41 pacientes hospitalizados por dependência de álcool foi entrevistado com o SCID-I (DSM-IV, adicionado de perguntas para detectar as flutuações no curso da fobia social e do transtorno do pânico em função das diferentes fases do uso da droga (intoxicação, abstinência e intervalo lúcido. RESULTADOS: Apenas um (2,4% paciente, apresentou transtorno

  20. 醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠抗氧化作用的干预研究%Intervention Study of Antioxidation Effect in Xingnaojing Injection on Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 邸智勇; 胡慧静; 马晨光

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To research the intervention effect of Xingnaojing Injection on acute alcohol intoxication. Methods:After fasting for 12h,the acute alcohol intoxication model was made by 50% alcohol for 60 min. These rats were divided randomly into the treatment group with the Xingnaojing Injection and the control group with the normal saline. The alcohol tolerance time,the drunk shorten time,the SOD level and the alcohol concentration were detected after treatment. Results:In the treatment group,the alcohol tolerance lime was prolong and the drunk shorten time was shorten. Meanwhile,the oxidation degree in this group was reduced obviously. Conclu-siomThe Xingnaojing Injection has the protection and the antioxidation effect.%目的 观察醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠抗氧化作用的干预作用.方法 将80只月龄为8~10周的SD雄性大鼠,体质量240~260 g,禁食12h处理后分别灌胃醒脑静注射液和生理盐水,30 min后按照16 mL/kg用50%酒精灌胃.灌胃60 min后以翻正反射消失为指标判断大鼠急性酒精中毒模型.比较两组大鼠酒精耐受时间和醉酒时间;分别测定血浆氧自由基和超氧化物歧化酶的水平及血浆中乙醇的含量.结果 醒脑静注射液能够延长急性酒精中毒大鼠的酒精耐受时间、缩短醉酒时间;实验组氧化程度有明显降低.结论 醒脑静注射液对急性酒精中毒大鼠有保护和抗氧化作用.

  1. A patient with clove oil intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Dyrbye; L. Dubois; R. Vink; J. Horn

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the case of a 67-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room because of inability to speak and confusion. His medical history revealed hypertension and alcohol abuse. His neurological symptoms and laboratory abnormalities are caused by intoxication with clove oil combine

  2. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren;

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis was...... than the exception in deaths in alcoholics....

  3. Nerve cells apoptosis and Fas and Caspase-8 expression among chronic alcoholic intoxication rats%慢性酒精中毒大鼠神经细胞凋亡及Fas、Caspase8蛋白的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉香; 张永利; 王彦

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究慢性酒精中毒大鼠神经细胞凋亡及Fas、Caspase8蛋白表达情况.方法 逐步增加饮水中酒精浓度,建立慢性酒精中毒大鼠动物模型,HE染色光镜下观察大鼠脑组织病理变化,Tunnel法检测大鼠脑细胞凋亡情况,免疫组化法检测Fas、Caspase8蛋白表达情况.结果 酒精组大脑皮质、海马、小脑等部位均有神经细胞数目缺失及细胞变性和损伤,酒精组各脑区凋亡细胞数和Fas、Casepse8蛋白表达阳性细胞数均高于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 慢性酒精中毒大鼠脑存在明显神经细胞凋亡,伴有Fas、Caspase-8蛋白表达增加,提示细胞死亡受体途径在慢性酒精中毒大鼠脑损伤病理过程中发挥作用.%Objective To understand nerve cells apoptosis and Fas and Casepse -8 protein expression status a-mong chronic alcoholic intoxication rats. Method Established chronic alcoholic intoxication rat model by increasing alcohol percentage of drinking gradually. Pathological changes were observed by light microscope, cells apoptosis and Fas and Casepse -8 protein expression were examined by Tunnel and Tmmunohistochemical method. Results In alcohol group, there were nerve cells missing, degeneration and damage in cerebral cortex, seahorse and cerebellum. The cells number of apoptosis and the positive cell of expression Fas and caspase -8 were obviously higher than control group, there was statistical significance between the 2 groups (P < 0.01) . Condusions There were obviously nerve cells apoptosis as well as the expression of Fas and Casepse -8 increased in the rats, which indicated that Fas and Casepse -8 protein attribute to nerve apoptosis and involved in the pathogenesis of chronic alcoholism.

  4. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it okay to drink when pregnant? What is alcohol? Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient ... sugars, and starches. Top of Page How does alcohol affect a person? Alcohol affects every organ in ...

  5. CAGE, RAPS4, RAPS4-QF and AUDIT Screening Tests for Men and Women Admitted for Acute Alcohol Intoxication to an Emergency Department: Are Standard Thresholds Appropriate?

    OpenAIRE

    Geneste, J.; Pereira, B; Arnaud, B.; Christol, N.; Liotier, J.; Blanc, O.; Teissedre, F.; Hope, S; Schwan, R.; Llorca, P.M.; J. Schmidt; Cherpitel, C.J.; Malet, L.; Brousse, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A number of screening instruments are routinely used in Emergency Department (ED) situations to identify alcohol-use disorders (AUD). We wished to study the psychometric features, particularly concerning optimal thresholds scores (TSs), of four assessment scales frequently used to screen for abuse and/or dependence, the cut-down annoyed guilty eye-opener (CAGE), Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4), RAPS4-quantity-frequency and AUD Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaires, particula...

  6. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Lindsay J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Methods Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007 of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80 with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0. Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS, outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments. Statistical analysis: p 80; stratified chi square. Results Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987 of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 ± 17.9, ISS of 18.0 ± 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67 or complications (p = 0.38. There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06. The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (≥ 5 days, ventilator days (≥ 8 days, and hospital LOS (> 14 days when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p Conclusions The data suggests that intoxicated drivers may have better outcomes and a trend towards reduced mortality. They appeared to be less likely to have prolonged hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. We also observed that intoxicated drivers were more likely to be self-pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely

  8. Fatal colchicine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smael Labib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is an alkaloid extracted from autumnal Colchicum plant which is used primarily for its anti-inflammatory therapy effect. Acute intoxication with colchicine is uncommon but often severe and results in multiple visceral organ dysfunctions. The intoxication severity and mortality are directly depending on the ingested dose. The treatment is manly symptomatic. However, the development of specific anti-colchicine immunotherapy would offer a new therapeutic perspective. Authors report a case of a young patient that ingested 40 tablets colchicine, which caused a multiple organ failure and with fatal outcome.

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... development. There also may be problems with the face and bones. Tests include: Blood alcohol level in pregnant women who show signs of being drunk (intoxicated) Brain imaging studies (CT or MRI) after the child is born Pregnancy ultrasound

  10. Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse...

  11. Intoxicação alcoólica em crianças e adolescentes: dados de um centro de assistência toxicológica Intoxicación alcohólica en niños y adolescentes: datos de un centro de asistencia toxicológica Alcoholic intoxication in children and adolescents: information from an intoxication control center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    one of the biggest social and health issues of our time. This study aims to characterize the toxicological occurrences among children and teenagers aged to 18 years-old, hospitalized because of alcoholic intoxication and notified in an Intoxication Control from 2003 to 2007. The present work is a retrospective study, with qualitative analysis of the data. 338 occurrences were found. It was observed that alcohol abuse occurred mainly among the masculine sex, being weekends, the night time, and intense use of most often occurrence. Violent acts associated with alcoholic intoxication have increased 12 times the chances of hospitalization and it has been observed a significant relation between the chronic use and the intensification of clinical seriousness. We suggest studies on the subject and the implementation of preventive politics and strategies, having teenagers and children as the main audience.

  12. Prevention and Cure of Acute Alcohol Intoxica-tion in Mice by Administration of Compound of Japanese Raisintree Fruit, Lobed Kudzuvine Flower Bud and Lightyellow Sophora Root%枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔玲; 李杰; 张秀珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of compound of traditional Chinese drugs (Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root) on acute alcohol intoxication in mice. [Method] Acute alcohol intoxication was induced by administering alcohol to mice. Three different doses (low, middle and high) of compound of traditional Chinese drugs were administered to mice before and after administering alcohol respectively to investigate the preventive and therapeutical effect of drugs on acute alcohol intox-ication through doing statistical analysis about drunk mice and their sleeping time. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and triglyc-erides (TG) in liver was also determined to investigate the protective effect of drugs on liver. [Result] The efficacy of compound of traditional Chinese drugs on acute al-cohol intoxication was dose-dependent. High-dose administration decreased the number of drunk mice significantly compared with control group; middle- and high-dose administration reduced the sleeping time of drunk mice and the concentration of MDA and TG in liver tissue; three doses al increased the concentration of GSH. [Conclusion] The compound of Japanese raisintree fruit, lobed kudzuvine flower bud and lightyel ow sophora root had preventive and therapeutical effect on hangover, and it also had certain preventive and therapeutical effect on liver damage caused by alcohol.%[目的]探讨中药枳子、葛根花和苦参混合药物对小鼠急性酒精中毒的防治作用。[方法]采用酒精灌胃法建立小鼠急性酒精中毒模型,灌喂低、中、高3种剂量的药物,进行先药后酒的预防醉酒和先酒后药的治疗醉酒试验,统计醉酒小鼠数目和小鼠睡眠时间,并通过检测小鼠肝组织中的丙二醛( MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)及血清甘油三酯(TG)的含量,研究药物对小鼠肝的保护作用

  13. Acute Theophylline Intoxication: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Baykal Tutal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is an efficient bronchodilatator, which is used in the treatment of the disease such like Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease (COPD neonatal apnea, bradycardial syndrome. Blood levels of theophylline above 15 ug/ml have risk of intoxication. Acute and chronic intoxication can be seen. Nausea, vomitin, agitation, palpitation and metabolic abnormalities such as, hyperglisemia, hypokalemia, impairment in acid base equilibrium and leukocytosis can be seen in acute theophylline intoxication. Acute theophylline intoxications can result life threatening situations such as convulsions, ventricular arrhythmias and death. Theophylline intoxications are often iatrogenic. In this case, the clinical course of a patient with COPD who took theophylline with the intention of suicide attempt is to mentioned and discussion of diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of acute theophylline intoxication was to aimed.

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  15. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  16. Approach to the Treatment of Methanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2016-07-01

    Methanol intoxication is an uncommon but serious poisoning. Its adverse effects are due primarily to the impact of its major metabolite formic acid and lactic acid resulting from cellular hypoxia. Symptoms including abdominal pain and loss of vision can appear a few hours to a few days after exposure, reflecting the time necessary for accumulation of the toxic byproducts. In addition to a history of exposure, increases in serum osmolal and anion gaps can be clues to its presence. However, increments in both parameters can be absent depending on the nature of the toxic alcohol, time of exposure, and coingestion of ethanol. Definitive diagnosis requires measurement with gas or liquid chromatography, which are laborious and expensive procedures. Tests under study to detect methanol or its metabolite formate might facilitate the diagnosis of this poisoning. Treatment can include administration of ethanol or fomepizole, both inhibitors of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent formation of its metabolites, and hemodialysis to remove methanol and formate. In this Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, a patient with methanol intoxication due to ingestion of model airplane fuel is described, and the value and limitations of current and new diagnostic and treatment measures are discussed. PMID:27180631

  17. A fatal intoxication case involving ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duband, Sébastien; Bidat, Carolyne; Gaillard, Yvan; Rochet, Max; Camdessanche, Jean-Philippe; Péoc'h, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Ropinirole, a specific non-ergoline dopamine D2-receptor agonist, belongs to the drugs applied in treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) and acts as a D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptor agonist with highest affinity for D3. Therapeutic ropinirole plasma levels in adults are defined between 0.4 and 6 ng/mL. This case report documents a fatal intoxication involving ropinirole. Information about lethal ropinirole concentrations is hitherto lacking in the literature and the assessed ropinirole levels of this case may present a step towards defining potentially lethal concentrations. A 37-year-old man without medical history was found dead in a converted van used as place of residence and an autopsy was performed. The pathological findings did not reveal an apparent cause of death but the toxicological analysis revealed the presence of ropinirole, paracetamol, and alcohol in the peripheral blood sample. Quantitative analysis revealed that ropinirole was present at a peripheral blood concentration of 64 ng/mL. The ropinirole concentrations determined in vitreous humor, urine and bile were respectively, 11 ng/mL, 2670 ng/mL and 826 ng/mL. Paracetamol was detected at a blood level of intoxication with ropinirole in combination with alcohol. PMID:22920767

  18. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. PMID:26052116

  19. Retrospective Evaluation of Intoxication Cases Presented to Sivas Numune Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadigar Yılmaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and demographic features and prognosis of all patients admitted to the emergency department and followed in intensive care unit due to poisoning. Methods: We resrospectively evaluated the patients over 14 years of age, who attended to the emergency department and was followed in our intensive care unit due to poisoning, were evaluated according to their demographic characteristics, anamnesis and prognosis. Results: Of 1894 patients, who were admitted to the emergency department, 1034 were female (54.8%. The mean age was 32.76±14.88 years. 36.4% of these patients were suicide attempters. Three hundred twenty-eight patients (17.3% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Two hundred thirty-four (17.3% were females and the mean age was 27.98±13.87 years. Of those patients, 263 (80.2% were treated for drug intoxications, 33 (10.1% for carbonmonoxide (CO intoxications, 18 (5.5% for food intoxications, 4 (1.2% for insecticide poisoning, 4 (1.2% for bee sting, 3 (0.9% for rat poison intoxications, 1 (0,3% for alcohol intoxication, and 1 (0.3% was treated for snakebite. 80.5% of them were suicide attempters. The most frequently taken drugs were antidepressants (25.8%. Conclusion: Intoxication cases admitted to the emergency department and intensive care unit were mostly young women, and drug overdose was the most common attempted method of suicide. The most frequent used drugs were antidepressants. In this study, we determined the patient profile of intoxication in Sivas province. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51: 178-82

  20. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  1. Carbon monoxide intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kales, S.N. (Cambridge Hospital, MA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning usually results from inhalation of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles, smoke from fires or fumes from faulty heating systems. Carbon monoxide has a high affinity for hemoglobin, with which it forms carboxyhemoglobin. The resulting decrease in both oxygen-carrying capacity and oxygen release can lead to end-organ hypoxia. The clinical presentation is nonspecific. Headache, dizziness, fatigue and nausea are common in mild to moderate carbon monoxide poisoning. In more severe cases, tachycardia, tachypnea and central nervous system depression occur. When carbon monoxide intoxication is suspected, empiric treatment with 100 percent oxygen should be initiated immediately. The diagnosis is confirmed by documenting an elevated carboxyhemoglobin level. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is recommended in patients with neurologic dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction or a history of unconsciousness. 26 refs.

  2. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang;

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the...... inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the...

  3. Dealing with Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2005-01-01

    Sometimes through inexperience or dependence consumers get drunk and bartenders, managers must display patience, tact, firmness and experience as they deal with the many different personalities and the effect that alcohol has on their customers humour and nature.

  4. Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Kneller; Alistair J. Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance ...

  5. Protective Effect of Blackcurrant on Liver Cell Membrane of Rats Intoxicated with Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Szachowicz-Petelska, Barbara; Dobrzyńska, Izabela; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta; Figaszewski, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic ethanol intoxication oxidative stress participates in the development of many diseases. Nutrition and the interaction of food nutrients with ethanol metabolism may modulate alcohol toxicity. One such compound is blackcurrant, which also has antioxidant abilities. We investigated the effect of blackcurrant as an antioxidant on the composition and electrical charge of liver cell membranes in ethanol-intoxicated rats. Qualitative and quantitative phospholipid composition and the presence...

  6. Alcohol use and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J D; Barber, B; Engrav, L; Heimbach, D

    1991-01-01

    Charts of 108 consecutive adult patients with flame burns of 20% to 70% total body surface area were reviewed to determine the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication and the likelihood that intoxicated patients were chronic alcohol abusers, to assess morbidity and mortality in the alcoholic patient with burns, and to characterize the intervention used in postdischarge treatment of the alcoholic patient with burns who survives. Twenty-seven percent of patients were acutely intoxicated at the time of injury. Evidence for chronic alcohol abuse was apparent in 90% of intoxicated patients, compared to only 11% of nonintoxicated patients (p = 0.0001). Alcoholic patients with burns not only had an overall mortality rate three times that of nonalcoholics (p = 0.001) but also died of smaller burns (p less than 0.05). Surviving alcoholic patients with burns required significantly more intravenous antibiotics and a longer hospitalization. Social service evaluation of use of alcohol was made in 84% of the cases of surviving intoxicated burn victims. Further intervention was undertaken in two thirds of these cases, usually involving an outpatient treatment program. PMID:2050723

  7. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the legal norm (0.5 promille) (2) increased social control and (3) increased knowledge on sanctions and sobering remedies. An evaluation was conducted with the main objective to determine whether or not ...

  8. Acute bromadiolone intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10). PMID:16803669

  9. Vitamin D intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  10. Mechanisms of Alcohol-Facilitated Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Sprunger, Joel G.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health problem that requires clear and testable etiological models that may translate into effective interventions. While alcohol intoxication and a pattern of heavy alcohol consumption are robust correlates of IPV perpetration, there has been limited research that examines the mediating mechanisms of how alcohol potentiates IPV. We provide a theoretical and methodological framework for researchers to conceptualize how alcohol intoxication ...

  11. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians....18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful... manufacture, sale, gift, transportation, drinking or storage of intoxicating liquors or beverages in...

  12. Intoxication by Intraperitoneal Injection or Oral Gavage Equally Potentiates Postburn Organ Damage and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of binge drinking and its association with trauma necessitate accurate animal models to examine the impact of intoxication on the response and outcome to injuries such as burn. While much research has focused on the effect of alcohol dose and duration on the subsequent inflammatory parameters following burn, little evidence exists on the effect of the route of alcohol administration. We examined the degree to which intoxication before burn injury causes systemic inflammation when ethanol is given by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection or oral gavage. We found that intoxication potentiates postburn damage in the ileum, liver, and lungs of mice to an equivalent extent when either ethanol administration route is used. We also found a similar hematologic response and levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6 when either ethanol paradigm achieved intoxication before burn. Furthermore, both i.p. and gavage resulted in similar blood alcohol concentrations at all time points tested. Overall, our data show an equal inflammatory response to burn injury when intoxication is achieved by either i.p. injection or oral gavage, suggesting that findings from studies using either ethanol paradigm are directly comparable.

  13. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  14. [Carbon monoxide intoxications in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Márcia Christel; Rodrigues, Rui Paulo; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of carbon monoxide intoxication in the World shows that this is a common situation. In Portugal, there are no concrete data available in literature and its incidence remains unknown. Currently, the use of hyperbaric oxygen is a valid therapeutic for carbon monoxide poisoning management. However, its effectiveness and its proper handling are still controversial. The first aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of carbon monoxide intoxication in Portugal and to analyze its demographic characteristics. The second objective of this work was to evaluate the possible change in the type of treatment applied in areas near de hyperbaric chamber of Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, since its opening in June 2006. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a survey on admissions data for carbon monoxide intoxication occured between January first, 2000 and December 31, 2007. These data was collected in seven hospitals and in the Administração Central do Sistema de Saúde, I.P. Nationally, 621 hospitalizations were recorded, which represents an incidence of 5,86/100000 in 8 years. In the seven hospitals, there were 93 hospitalizations due to carbon monoxide intoxication during the same period of time. There was a peak of incidence during winter, between November and March and there was a similar distribution in men (47,3%) and women (52,7%). Since June 2006, date of opening of the hyperbaric chamber, the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. recorded a sharp increase in the number of hospitalization for carbon monoxide intoxication. The number of admissions in the 19 months after the chamber opening was double the number of all cases occurred in that institution in the 65 months prior. We concluded that, in Portugal, carbon monoxide intoxication is an uncommon situation but it´s still an important cause of hospitalization. The referral of cases to the Unidade Local de Saúde de Matosinhos, E.P.E. since the opening of hyperbaric chamber

  15. Drunk and Disorganised: Relationships between Bar Characteristics and Customer Intoxication in European Drinking Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Ferry X.; Mariangels Duch; Montse Juan; Lotte Voorham; Matej Kosir; Amador Calafat; Ninette van Hasselt; Zara Quigg; Bellis, Mark A; Karen Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia,...

  16. Acute isoniazid intoxication: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Altun; Halil Cetingok; Gulay AsIk Eren; Zafer Cukurova; Oya Hergunsel

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid is a bactericidal antituberculosis drug, used commonly for treatment and prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Acute isoniazid intoxication is characterized by a clinical triad consisting of metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap resistant to treatment with sodium bicarbonate, seizures which may be fatal and refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and coma. Pyridoxine, in a dose equivalent to the amount of isoniasid ingested, is the only effective antidote. Here, we reported a 14 ye...

  17. Decerebrate posturing in alcoholic coma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, A J; Grant, P T

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of alcoholic coma are presented where extensor responses to noxious stimuli are demonstrated. Decerebrate posturing normally indicates severe structural or functional depression of midbrain function but can be caused by depressant drugs. Blood alcohol measurements are a vital test in the comatose patient as the clinical picture may be caused, or temporarily significantly worsened, by severe alcohol intoxication. The preservation of pupillary light reflexes in the presence of deep co...

  18. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.TimurSevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  19. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects. PMID:22645036

  20. Alcohol, head injury, and pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M A; Janson, S; Seago, J A

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in rates of pulmonary complications (e.g., aspiration, pneumonia) in head-injured patients with and without concomitant alcohol intoxication. The records of 98 consecutive patients admitted over a 1-year period to a Level I Trauma Center were reviewed. The patients were grouped into three subsets: acutely intoxicated (n = 26), acutely intoxicated with a diagnosis of chronic alcoholism (n = 14), and non-intoxicated (n = 58). Alcohol intoxication was defined as a blood alcohol level (BAL) > or = 0.08 mg/dl. Admission BALs and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were tabulated at admission. Frequency of arterial blood gas (ABG) measurements, need for an artificial airway/mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed by using one-way analysis of variance. Intergroup differences in breath sounds were compared by using the nonparametric Kruskall-Wallis technique. We found no statistical difference between groups in terms of pulmonary sequelae despite the remarkably high BALs observed in the study groups. Similarly, there was no statistically greater LOS in the groups with alcohol intoxication than in alcohol-free cohorts. Despite a great deal of BAL science research to support our hypothesis, we failed to demonstrate a significantly higher rate of pulmonary problems in inebriated individuals with head injuries. We found that our strict exclusion criteria (no concomitant chest, abdominal, or pelvic trauma) limited the sample to only those patients without significant intracranial bleeding, whereas most complications in blood alcohol neuroscience research have been associated with much larger mass lesions (e.g., epidural or subdural hematomas). In addition, we found the characterizations of patients as chronically alcoholic were cumbersome and inaccurate in many cases. Future research should allow for a greater range of concomitant injuries that might suggest a positive or negative relationship to acute

  1. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / Spring 2014 ... For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and provides a ...

  2. [Metabolic therapy of postperitoneal intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, A P; Anaskin, S G; Vlasova, T I; Chivisov, S M; Shibitov, V A; Potyanova, I V; Selentsov, P V

    2012-01-01

    This clinico-laboratory study showed that antihypoxant remaxol promoted normalization of lipid metabolism in acute peritonitis and significantly reduced membrane-destabilizing events. This resulted in rapid elimination of the inflammatory process in the abdominal cavity and lowering of the intensity of endogenous intoxication. This beneficial effect decreased the severity of myocardial lesions and resulted in the normalization of erythrocyte function. It is concluded that the regulatory action of remaxol on lipid metabolism is due to its ability to control free radicals in lipid peroxidation and reduce phospholipase A2 activity. PMID:23285765

  3. INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL IN CRANIOROFACIAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasseen Aly Yasseen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption has become a part of daily life for people ranging from lower to upper class individuals. However, addiction of alcohol can lead to impaired judgment and undue physical harm. This study shows that alcohol intoxication plays a major role in craniorofacial trauma and incidence of road traffic accidents is extremely high in India. A strict law has to be reinforced to ban/decrease the usage of alcohols for welfare of the society.

  4. Intoxication and criminal responsibility in Dutch criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kalmthout, A

    1998-09-01

    This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity. PMID:9742271

  5. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  6. Delayed Encephalopathy Associated with Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Hüseyin Aydın; Mürüvet Akın; Emel Boyraz; Murat Çolakkaya

    2011-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide intoxication may cause coma and death. Patients usually recovier within days after prompt therapy. However, in a small number of patients, severe clinical deterioration may develop after a period with no apparent abnormality. This is called delayed type encephalopathy. We present MR imaging findings of a case of delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication.

  7. A successful management of aluminum phosphide intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Abedi, Seyed Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aluminum Phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides which leads to accidental or intentional acute intoxication and finally death. In this paper, we describe a successful management of intoxication with rice tablet in a young girl.

  8. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  9. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed. PMID:26043841

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  11. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol Use Disorders Are a Major Problem..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder involves an alcohol-induced imbalance in the brain's reward and stress systems. Moderate alcohol use initially leads to the pleasant feelings associated with mild intoxication. With excessive alcohol use, over time brain changes occur that lead to tolerance, the need ...

  12. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the growing, processing, manufacture, sale, disposition, possession, transportation, or importation of... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under the influence of alcohol or a drug; (2) The cancellation, suspension, or revocation of a license to operate...

  13. [Pharmacological correction of toxic liver damage in patients with heavy forms of acute ethanol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikalova, I A; Shilov, V V; Vasil'ev, S A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Loladze, A T

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using remaxol and ademethionine in the therapy of patients with heavy acute alcohol intoxication on the background of toxic liver damage has been studied. The administration of remaxol led to improvement of the clinical treatment of alcohol intoxication, which is manifested by a decrease in the rate and duration of delirium tremens (from 33.9 to 10.8%), frequency of secondary lung disorders (from 18.5 to 3.1%), duration of stay in hospital (from 7.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days), and total therapy duration (from 11.8 +/- 1.05 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days). The results of biochemical investigations confirmed that remaxol and ademethionine provide effective treatment of the toxic liver damage. Remaxol decreases the degree of metabolic disorders to a greater extent than does ademethionine. PMID:22702109

  14. Preventing lithium intoxication. Guide for physicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Delva, N. J.; Hawken, E. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To raise awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms of, lithium intoxication. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The literature was searched via MEDLINE from January 1970 to December 1999 using the MeSH headings Lithium, Lithium Carbonate, Drug Toxicity, and Aging. Articles were selected based on clinical relevance and design. Most were case reports, case series, or reviews. MAIN MESSAGE: A case study illustrates both risk factors predisposing patients to lithium intoxication and the symptoms o...

  15. A Yeast Related Ethanol Intoxication Syndrome in Experimental Calves: Prevention with Nystatin

    OpenAIRE

    Wijayasinghe, M. S.; Miranda, M; Smith, N. E.; Baldwin, R L; Wijayasinghe, C.; Har, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    In a calf nutrition-metabolism study in which a high glucose (60% glucose and 3% lard) versus a high fat (23% glucose and 30% lard) milk replacer were compared, a syndrome characterized by anorexia, an unstable gait, depression, a distended abdomen and an odor of alcohol on the breath was observed in some calves. These signs were associated with intoxicating levels of plasma ethanol and the predominance of the yeast species Torulopsis glabrata in gastrointestinal contents of afflicted calves....

  16. Radiology of Fractures in Intoxicated Emergency Department Patients: Locations, Mechanisms, Presentation, and Initial Interpretation Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    MORITA, Yuka; Nozaki, Taiki; Starkey, Jay; Okajima, Yuka; Ohde, Sachiko; Matsusako, Masaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Saida, Yukihisa; Kurihara, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of alcohol intoxication to time-to-presentation following injury, fracture type, mechanism of injury leading to fracture, and initial diagnostic radiology interpretation performance of emergency physicians versus diagnostic radiologists in patients who present to the emergency department (ED) and are subsequently diagnosed with fracture. Medical records of 1286 patients who presented to the ED and were diagnosed with fract...

  17. Fatal intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid MDMB-CHMICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    MDMB-CHMICA is a synthetic cannabinoid that appeared on the European drug market in September 2014. This substance was found in Poland in the herbal mixture "Mocarz" ("Strongman"), which caused a large outbreak of intoxications at the beginning of July 2015. This paper describes the circumstances of death and toxicological findings in a fatal intoxication with MDMB-CHMICA (in combination with alcohol). Loss of consciousness and asystole occurred a few minutes after smoking the 'legal high'. The man died after 4 days of hospitalisation. The cause of death accepted by the medical examiner was multiple organ failure. MDMB-CHMICA was detected and quantified in blood (ante- and postmortem) and internal organs tissues. The samples were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The concentration of MDMB-CHMICA in antemortem blood was 5.6ng/mL. Although the death occurred after 4 days from administration a relatively high concentration (2.6ng/g) was estimated in the brain. Traces of this compound were also found in other postmortem materials (blood, stomach, liver, bile, and kidney). The presented case shows the health risks associated with MDMB-CHMICA use. The administration of this substance can lead to the number of organ failures, cardiac arrest and consequently death. PMID:26934903

  18. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  19. Fatal Intoxication with Acetyl Fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Susan M; Haikal, Nabila A; Kraner, James C

    2016-01-01

    Among the new psychoactive substances encountered in forensic investigations is the opioid, acetyl fentanyl. The death of a 28-year-old man from recreational use of this compound is reported. The decedent was found in the bathroom of his residence with a tourniquet secured around his arm and a syringe nearby. Postmortem examination findings included marked pulmonary and cerebral edema and needle track marks. Toxicological analysis revealed acetyl fentanyl in subclavian blood, liver, vitreous fluid, and urine at concentrations of 235 ng/mL, 2400 ng/g, 131 ng/mL, and 234 ng/mL, respectively. Acetyl fentanyl was also detected in the accompanying syringe. Death was attributed to recreational acetyl fentanyl abuse, likely through intravenous administration. The blood acetyl fentanyl concentration is considerably higher than typically found in fatal fentanyl intoxications. Analysis of this case underscores the need for consideration of a wide range of compounds with potential opioid-agonist activity when investigating apparent recreational drug-related deaths. PMID:26389815

  20. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life. PMID:26242570

  1. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:153-7

  2. Evaluation of Drug Intoxications Due To Suicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teslime Ayaz1

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The intoxications occur via taking high doses of drugs or substances for the purpose of suicide or unconsciously. In this retrospective study, we aimed to explore the causes of intoxications and to evaluate the demographic and clinical features and the prognosis of patients who were followed and treated for intoxications in our intensive care unit or internal medicine clinic and secondly we aimed to add information for the data of intoxications in our country. Methods: All patients over 15 years old who admitted to Emergency Unit of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University Teaching and Research Hospital for the intoxications because of suicide, between November 2008 and November 2013 included in this study. Results: 127 patients were enrolled in the current study and 75,6% (96 of the patients were female. Mean age of the patients was 25,04±9, 61 years and 37% of the patients were under 20 years old. The antidepressant agents were the most frequent pharmacologic agent (28,3% as the cause of intoxications. The number of drugs taken for the intoxication was 15-20 in 22% of the patients. 58,3% of the patients admitted to the hospital after 1-2 hours taking the drug. The patients were followed and treated for meanly 1.88 days in the hospital. When we evaluated the results of psychiatry consultation reports, we found that 50,4% of the patients were diagnosed with depression. Conclusion: The young and female patients are on the risk of drug abuse for the aim of suicide. Particularly, suicides are observed more frequently in the patients with depression. Admission to the hospital in a short time after taking the drugs reduces the time of stay in hospital and mortality.

  3. Two Fatal Intoxications with Cyanohydrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shuiqing; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Liang, Chen; Cao, Fangqi; Zhang, Runsheng

    2016-06-01

    Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T. The second is the determination of acetone or formaldehyde. In this part, headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (HS-GC-FID) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detectors (GC-MSD) had been used. In this report, we reported two fatal intoxication cases of ACH and FCH; one person was killed by his wife by poisoning his food and the other was suicide by poison. Two real cases of ACH and FCH in human blood and gastric contents have been analyzed by using the above-mentioned method. The Prussian blue reaction was positive in the two cases. The peaks of acetone with retention times of 0.998 min appear in specimens of the deceased are consistent with the retention times of pure acetone. The peaks of formaldehyde with a retention time of 1.658 min appear in heart blood of the deceased, and the retention time of formaldehyde of the liquid is 1.674 min, which are consistent with the retention times of pure formaldehyde (1.673 min). PMID:27026650

  4. Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence, confidence ratings, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kneller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.

  5. Plant Intoxication Leading to Anticholinergic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan N et al.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Datura stramonium is a widely abundant plant in Turkey. It is regarded as pipe plant, lough plant, sorcerer’s plant, or devil’s apple among the population. People may frequently use it against asthma, diarrhea, nocturia, hemorrhoids, acne, and regional pain symptoms. The plant contains L-hiyosiyamin and this molecule is responsible for the atropine and scopolamine intoxication findings. In this report, we present a case that was admitted to the emergency department with anticholinergic symptoms and diagnosed as Datura stramonium intoxication with history and physical examination findings. We aim to stress on the importance of recalling Datura stramonium intoxication especially in patients who present to the emergency departments with anticholinergic symptoms.

  6. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  7. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These me

  8. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication.

  9. Acute alcohol intoxication in a 15-day-old neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Masafumi; Inada, Yukiko; Tashiro, Katsuya; Hayashi, Chiduru; Doi, Hirohito; Hamasaki, Yuhei; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2013-12-01

    We describe a 15-day-old newborn girl who was fed with formula milk that was accidentally diluted with sake (Japanese wine prepared from fermented rice). The clinical features were flushed skin, tachycardia and low blood pressure indicating circulatory failure, somnolence and metabolic acidosis without hypoglycemia. The serum ethanol concentration was 43.0 mg/dL at 3 h after intake. The patient recovered under intravenous fluid replacement without complications. Follow-up examinations at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months confirmed normal psychomotor development. PMID:24330291

  10. Alcohol, Violence, and the Alcohol Myopia Model: Preliminary Findings and Implications for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Giancola, Peter R.; Aaron A. Duke; Ritz, Katalin Z.

    2011-01-01

    This experiment provided a preliminary test of whether the Alcohol Myopia Model (AMM; Steele & Josephs, 1990) would provide a guiding framework for the prevention of alcohol-related violence. The model contends that alcohol has a “myopic” effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates violence by focusing attention onto more salient provocative, rather than less salient inhibitory, cues in hostile situations. Participants were 16 intoxicated male social drinkers who completed a la...

  11. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  12. Ecstasy intoxication: the toxicological basis for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferigolo Maristela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Youngsters are increasingly using 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, known as ecstasy, because it is wrongly believed that it does not induce harm. However, there are many reports of adverse effects, including acute intoxication, abuse potential, and possible neurotoxic effects. Therefore, health care providers need to promptly recognize the symptoms of systemic intoxication in order to initiate early treatment. The drug is used by the oral route for long hours during crowded dance parties. Acutely, ecstasy increases the release of serotonin and decreases its reuptake, leading to hypertension, hyperthermia, trismus, and vomiting. There is debate on whether recreational doses of ecstasy cause permanent damage to human serotonergic neurons. Ecstasy users showed a high risk of developing psychopathological disturbances. The prolonged use of ecstasy might induce dependence, characterized by tolerance and hangover. Acute ecstasy intoxication needs emergency-type treatment to avoid the dose-dependent increase in adverse reactions and in severity of complications. There are no specific antidotes to be used during acute intoxication. Supportive measures and medical treatment for each one of the complications should be implemented, keeping in mind that symptoms originate mainly from the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system.

  13. Water intoxication in cattle : continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Njoroge

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors.

  14. Fatal cocaine intoxication in a body packer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ‘Body packer’ syndrome with severe intoxication or sudden death may happen in persons who smuggle drugs in their body cavities. In case of lethal outcome when carrying cocaine, it is important, but sometimes difficult to determine whether death was due to intoxication or due to other causes. Therefore, it is necessary not only to quantify cocaine and its metabolites in biological material, but also based on their distribution in body fluids and tissues to conclude whether it is acute intoxication. We described a well-documented case of fatal poisoning in a body packer and post mortem distribution of the drug in biological samples. Case report. A 26-year-old man was brought to hospital with no vital signs. Resuscitation measures started at once, but with no success. Autopsy revealed 66 packets of cocaine in his digestive tract, one of which was ruptured. Hyperemia of the most of all internal organs and pulmonary and brain edema were found. High concentrations of cocaine, its metabolites benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester, as well as cocaine adulteration levamisole were proven in the post mortem blood and tissues by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MC method with selective-ion monitoring. Conclusion. The ratio of cocaine and its metabolites concentrations in the brain and blood obtained by LC-MS method can be used for forensic confirmation of acute intoxication with cocaine.

  15. An alteration of the gut-liver axis drives pulmonary inflammation after intoxication and burn injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael M; Zahs, Anita; Brown, Mary M; Ramirez, Luis; Turner, Jerrold R; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2014-10-01

    Approximately half of all adult burn patients are intoxicated at the time of their injury and have worse clinical outcomes than those without prior alcohol exposure. This study tested the hypothesis that intoxication alters the gut-liver axis, leading to increased pulmonary inflammation mediated by burn-induced IL-6 in the liver. C57BL/6 mice were given 1.2 g/kg ethanol 30 min prior to a 15% total body surface area burn. To restore gut barrier function, the specific myosin light chain kinase inhibitor membrane-permeant inhibitor of kinase (PIK), which we have demonstrated to reduce bacterial translocation from the gut, was administered 30 min after injury. Limiting bacterial translocation with PIK attenuated hepatic damage as measured by a 47% reduction in serum alanine aminotransferase (P intoxicated and burn-injured mice without PIK. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 49% decline in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (P antibiotics before intoxication and burn injury. Overall, these data suggest that the gut-liver axis is deranged when intoxication precedes burn injury and that limiting bacterial translocation in this setting attenuates hepatic damage and pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25104501

  16. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were men (87.3%, with basic education (61.0% and elderly (37.2%. Alcohol use (83.8% and chronic intoxications (89.9% were predominant. Clinical complications were present in most medical diagnoses (63.4%. However, mortality was higher in the event deferral by cold and fire weapons. Conclusion: the consumption of drugs of abuse influences morbidity and mortality, particularly in men aged at 60 years or above and with low level of education.

  17. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  18. The ultra-structural survey of Aloe Vera extract on photoreceptor layer after methanol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahramian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The photoreceptor layer is a main part of the retina. The Aloe Vera has antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effects of Aloe Vera extract against the methanol toxicity. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 30 adult male wistar rats in three groups of ten: as control, methanol intoxication, methanol intoxication receiving 400 mg/kg Aloe Vera extract for 30 days. Methanol intoxication was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 4gr/kg of methanol for 30 days. At the end of experiment, the eyes were removed and retina was separated near the optic disc and immersed in gluteraldehyde 4%. The retinal tissue was rinsed with buffer and fixed in osmium tetroxide 1% and dehydrated through a graded alcohol series. Then, the tissues were placed in a mixture of propylene oxide and resin and embedded in pure resin. Semi thin and ultrathin sections prepared and studied by transmission electron and light microscopes. Using One Way ANOVA and Tukey test data were analyzed. Result: Results showed that revealed decrement of the pathological sign in Aloe Vera-methanol group in comparison to methanol intoxication group. The outer segment loss, highly vacuolization in inner segment and condense and pyknotic nuclei were seen in methanol intoxication group. But the moderate outer segment loss, lightly vacuolization in inner segment and condense nuclei were observed in Aloe Vera-methanol group. Morphometric observations showed that the thickness of photoreceptor layer decreased in methanol intoxication group and little reduction in Aloe Vera-methanol group. The decrement of thickness in this group has significant difference with control group. But the decrement of thickness of photoreceptor layer in Aloe Vera-methanol group has no significant difference with

  19. The condition of hemato and liquor-encephalic barriers of the human brain in acute blood loss on the background of alcoholemia and drug intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Indiaminov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the histological methods, scanning and transmission electronic microscopy the cerebral cortex of the brain (field 6, the walls of III and IV ventricles of the brain of dead people, who had died of acute anemia on the background of alcohol intoxication and drug intoxication, have been studied. Examination has found thinning of the basal membrane of capillaries, development of fissures in the places of contact of neighboring endothelial cells, also between basal membrane and endothelial cells, and swelling of pericytes. In the wall of brain ventricles, a marked polymorphism of the ependymal cells and disturbance of the continuity of the layer are noted. Accumulation of blood cells, thickening of detritus, crystal structures are seen on ependymal surface. Reported symptoms reflect the disturbance of permeability of hematoencephalic and liquor-encephalic barriers of the brain with a combination of traumatic blood loss with alcohol and drug intoxication.

  20. Alcohol Myopia and Sexual Abdication among Women: Examining the Moderating Effect of Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, Jennifer M.; George, William H.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship (Steele et al., 1985). This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there...

  1. Information Security Analysis: A Study to Analyze the Extent to Which Information Security Systems Can Be Utilized to Prevent Intoxicated Individuals from Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph D.

    2011-01-01

    Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…

  2. The emergency care of cocaine intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroegop, M P; Franssen, E J; van der Voort, P H J; van den Berg, T N A; Langeweg, R J; Kramers, C

    2009-04-01

    Cocaine is frequently used, especially among adolescents and by men between the age of 25 and 44. Many of them are able to use cocaine in normal day-to-day life, without any problems. Reduced prices of cocaine and other recreational drugs such as MDMA (ecstasy) and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has led to an increased incidence of intoxications with these drugs. Since the production of cocaine is illegal, it may be impure and mixtures with other drugs such as atropine may occur. The treatment of patients with an acute cocaine intoxication can be complicated. Combination of cocaine with other drugs results in clinical pictures which are difficult to discriminate and that may have important consequences for treatment. PMID:19581655

  3. From Rickets Prevention to Vitamin D Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Momcilo; Berenji, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Hypervitaminosis D occurs in infants due to increased intake of vitamin D and results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. We present the case of a 4.5-month old infant with signs of vitamin D intoxication, which occurred due to supplementation for the purpose of rickets prevention and diet with vitamin D-fortified milk. The clinical manifestations were constipation, vomiting and failure to thrive. After excluding hormonal, tumoral and malformative (Williams syndrome) causes, treatment includ...

  4. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  5. Strange taste and mild lithium intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Terao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shosuke; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Hoaki, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    So far, it has not been emphasised that lithium can lose or change taste in some patients. This report addresses such side effect of lithium. A 61-year-old bipolar patient experienced taste changes while increasing lithium levels up to 1.28 mEq/l and the taste changes returned to normal after lithium discontinuation. The present findings suggest that changes in tastes may be a symptom of mild lithium intoxication.

  6. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  7. Atropa Belladonna intoxication: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Berdai, Mohamed Adnane; Labib, Smael; Chetouani, Khadija; Harandou, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna is a poisonous plant also called deadly nightshade. Its roots, leaves and fruits contain alkaloids: atropine, hyocyamine and scopolamine. The risk of poisoning in children is important because of possible confusion with other berries. Atropa Belladonna acute intoxication is a severe condition, it's should be considered in the presence of anti-cholinergic toxidrome, the differential diagnosis include other plants or psychoactive drugs containing atropine. The treatment is mai...

  8. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms. PMID:19375827

  9. Alcohol Expectancies and Self-Efficacy as Moderators of Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrhart, Ian James

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety is widely thought to be positively associated with alcohol use. However, these studies rely primarily on self-report of drinking behavior. This research aimed to further explore this research by assessing blood alcohol concentration (BAC), a physiological measure of alcohol intoxication, as the dependent measure in naturalistic settings (i.e., fraternity parties). Results from Study 1 suggest a weak relationship between self-reported anxiety levels and BAC. Study 2 was based on...

  10. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case series Objective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events. Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series. Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis. Conclusions and

  11. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and

  12. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Giesbrecht; Jürgen Rehm; Jason Bond; William Kerr; Thomas K. Greenfield; Yu Ye

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk dr...

  13. Impaired respiratory function and heightened pulmonary inflammation in episodic binge ethanol intoxication and burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda J; Chen, Michael M; O'Halloran, Eileen B; Ramirez, Luis; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    Clinical data indicate that cutaneous burn injuries covering greater than 10% of the total body surface area are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in which pulmonary complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), contribute to nearly half of all patient deaths. Approximately 50% of burn patients are intoxicated at the time of hospital admission, which increases days on ventilators by 3-fold, and doubles the length of hospitalization, compared to non-intoxicated burn patients. The most common drinking pattern in the United States is binge drinking, where an individual rapidly consumes alcoholic beverages (4 for women, 5 for men) in 2 h. An estimated 38 million Americans binge drink, often several times per month. Experimental data demonstrate that a single binge-ethanol exposure, prior to scald injury, impairs innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby enhancing infection susceptibility and amplifying pulmonary inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and edema, and is associated with increased mortality. Since these characteristics are similar to those observed in ARDS burn patients, our study objective was to determine whether ethanol intoxication and burn injury and the subsequent pulmonary congestion affect physiological parameters of lung function, using non-invasive and unrestrained plethysmography in a murine model system. Furthermore, to mirror young adult binge-drinking patterns, and to determine the effect of multiple ethanol exposures on pulmonary inflammation, we utilized an episodic binge-ethanol exposure regimen, where mice were exposed to ethanol for a total of 6 days (3 days ethanol, 4 days rest, 3 days ethanol) prior to burn injury. Our analyses demonstrate mice exposed to episodic binge ethanol and burn injury have higher mortality, increased pulmonary congestion and neutrophil infiltration, elevated neutrophil chemoattractants, and respiratory dysfunction, compared to burn or ethanol intoxication alone

  14. Alcohol and the disinhibition of sexual responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R

    1984-05-01

    In a balanced placebo design, in which the joint and separate effects of alcohol and expectation of intoxication were investigated, 22 men undergraduate students who were social drinkers listened to an erotic audiotape while penile tumescence was continuously recorded. The intoxicated subjects showed significantly shorter latency to onset of tumescence and to peak level of tumescence than did their sober counterparts. In contrast to previous research, no effect of expectations about drinking was obtained in this study. The findings are interpreted as indicating a specific effect of alcohol in impairing men's ability to inhibit sexual responsiveness. It appears that the sexual response threshold is lowered but that, once the process of arousal begins, tumescence reaches an average level that is unaffected by a small amount of alcohol. PMID:6748663

  15. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  16. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects o...

  17. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  18. Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. PMID:23384077

  19. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identifies K-ras as a regulator of alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; van der Stap, Lena D.; Chen, Jihuan; Sabino, Valentina; Wagner, Ulrich; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Schumann, Gunter; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Adaptations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been implicated in alcohol and drug addiction. To identify genes that may contribute to excessive drinking, here we performed microarray analyses in laser microdissected rat ACC after a single or repeated administration of an intoxicating dose of alcohol (3g/kg). Expression of the small G protein K-ras was reduced following both single and repeated alcohol administration. We also observed that voluntary alcohol intake in K-ras heterozygo...

  20. Sweet sixteen and never been drunk? : adolescent alcohol use, predictors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hoof, van, Joris J.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use, especially at a young age, has many negative consequences, both on the individual and the societal level. After an introduction describing a conceptual model of predictors and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, the first two chapters in this dissertation report on two studies on alcohol intoxication related admissions of adolescents in Dutch hospitals. Data collected in 2007 and 2008 underline the societal relevance of the problem of adolescent alcohol use. The nu...

  1. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S.A.; Kelso, M.L.; Liput, D.J.; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent’s unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study i...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking once you've started Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms Tolerance - the need to drink more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  3. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009) to ana...... consumption with disciplined pleasure can be seen as a corporate social responsibility strategy by the alcohol industry. These strategies become relevant to include in order to understand prevention efforts within the national state.......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009) to...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol...

  4. ALCOHOL DRINKING HABITS AND ITS REPERCUSSIONS ON FAMILY, HEALTH AND JOBS AMONG THE TRIBAL KORAGA COMMUNITY IN AND AROUND UDUPI DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and binge drinking are the two aspects of alcohol consumption among the different communities worldwide. People get indulged in alcoholic beverages either to celebrate, entertain to relieve stress-tension and many more… Alcoholism and alcohol drinking is present among human civilization from time immemorial in the history. Social drinking is a practice wherein drinking is a social norm where the individual is not involved to a point of got drunk or intoxicated. On the other hand, binge drinking is an addiction to alcohol and the purpose of drinking is to get over-drunk or intoxicated.

  5. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  6. Retained knife blade: an unusual cause for headache following massive alcohol intake

    OpenAIRE

    Lesieur, O; Verrier, V; Lequeux, B.; Lempereur, M.; Picquenot, E

    2006-01-01

    Massive alcohol intake usually resolves in a banal headache. We report a case of a patient presenting with acute alcohol intoxication in which the ensuing “hangover” was due to a knife blade deeply retained in the brain parenchyma. This case underlines the unpredictability of retained foreign bodies without a high level of suspicion and a detailed description of the circumstances of admission.

  7. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  8. Alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This issue is devoted almost entirely to alcohol fuels, the following topics being presented: A History of Alcohol Fuels; In the Midwest - Focus on Alcohol Fuels; Gasohol - A DOE Priority; Alcohol Fuels Potential; Gasohol - The Nutritious Fuel; Energy from Agriculture; Alcohol and the Price of Food; A New Look at Economics and Energy Balance in Alcohol Production; Economics of small-scale alcohol producers; Get the Lead Out with Alcohol; Biomass and the Carbon Dioxide Buildup; Federal Agency Activity in Alcohol Fuels; Congressional Activity in Alchol Fuels; Licensing a Small Still; Funding Sources for Alcohol Facilities; Safety in Alcohol Production; Alcohol Fuels Information; State-by-State Guide to Alcohol Activity; Alcohol Fuels Glossary; Alcohol Fuels and Your Car; Alcohol Fuels Training Grants Progam; Citizen Action Plan for Gasohol; and Alcohol Fuels - a Path to Reconciliation.

  9. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent. PMID:20118865

  10. Fatal motorcycle accidents and alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C F; Hardt-Madsen, M

    1987-01-01

    A series of fatal motorcycle accidents from a 7-year period (1977-1983) has been analyzed. Of the fatalities 30 were operators of the motorcycle, 11 pillion passengers and 8 counterparts. Of 41 operators 37% were sober at the time of accident, 66% had measurable blood alcohol concentration (BAC......); 59% above 0.08%. In all cases where a pillion passenger was killed, the operator of the motorcycle had a BAC greater than 0.08%. Of the killed counterparts 2 were non-intoxicated, 2 had a BAC greater than 0.08%, and 4 were not tested. The results advocate that the law should restrict alcohol...... consumption by pillion passengers as well as by the motorcycle operator. Suggestions made to extend the data base needed for developing appropriate alcohol countermeasures by collecting sociodemographic data on drivers killed or seriously injured should be supported....

  11. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... intoxication and poisoning. (b) Classification. Class II....

  13. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse, either by acute intoxication or prolonged excessive consumption, leads to pathological changes in many organs and tissues including skeletal muscle. As muscle protein serves not only a contractile function but also as a metabolic reserve for amino acids, which are used to support the energy needs of other tissues, its content is tightly regulated and dynamic. This review focuses on the etiology by which alcohol perturbs skeletal muscle protein balance and thereby over time prod...

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  15. [Cognitive disorders in patients with chronic mercury intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamanova, E V; Shevchenko, O I; Lakhman, O L; Denisova, I A

    2014-01-01

    To assess severity of cognitive disorders in chronic mercury intoxication, the authors performed claster and discrimination analysis of neuropsychologic and neurophysiologic research data from workers exposed to mercury during long length of service, from patients with early and marked stages of chronic mercurial intoxication. Cognitive disorders in chronic mercurial intoxication have three severity degrees, in the light degree disorders patients demonstrate lower amplitude of cognitive evoked potentials, poor long-term memory and associative thinking. Moderate cognitive disorders are characterized by decreased visual, long-term memory, concentration of attention, poor optic and spatial gnosis. Marked cognitive disorders with chronic mercurial intoxication present with more decreased long-term, short-term, picturesque memory, poor intellect, optic and spatial gnosis and associative thinking. PMID:25051667

  16. Acute water intoxication as another unusual manifestation of child abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Mortimer, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A 4 1/2-year-old boy developed hyponatraemia with coma and convulsions as the result of acute water intoxication. Information subsequently obtained strongly suggested that the excessive water ingestion was enforced by a punitive foster father.

  17. A case of bismuth intoxication with irreversible renal damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden, Samet Karahan, Kadir Bulut, Mustafa Basak, Tuncay Aslan, Ali Cetinkaya, Hatice Karagoz, Deniz Avci Internal Medicine Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: Bismuth is a chemical element symbolized as Bi and is a trivalent poor metal, which chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS and bismuth subsalicylate are the bismuth salts widely used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, functional dyspepsia, and chronic gastritis. Intoxications with CBS are rare. In a few case reports, acute renal failure was described, but the literature review revealed no chronic renal failure related to CBS intoxication. In this case report we present a 21-year old female with chronic renal failure after a one year follow-up of CBS intoxication. Keywords: acute renal failure, bismuth, intoxication, chronic renal failure

  18. Alcohol, emotion and attention: revisiting the Alcohol Myopia Theory Álcool, emoção e atenção: resgatando a Teoria da Miopia Alcoólica

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Mocaiber; Isabel Antunes David; Letícia de Oliveira; Mirtes Garcia Pereira; Eliane Volchan; Ivan Figueira; Jaime Vila; Walter Machado-Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Among the known effects of alcohol on behavior, the modulation of cognitive functions (such as attention and memory), emotion, risk-taking and aggressive behavior are noteworthy. Here, we performed literature review in order to reinterpret alcohol effects on behavior according to the Alcohol Myopia Theory. According to this construct, there is a reduction of attentional resources during alcohol intoxication, which are primarily allocated to the most salient events in a given situation. The co...

  19. Acute Isoniazid Intoxication: Convulsion, Rhabdomyolysis and Metabolic Acidosis

    OpenAIRE

    OKUTUR, Sadi Kerem

    2006-01-01

    Isoniazid is one of the most commonly used antituberculous drugs. Acute intoxication is characterized by repetitious convulsions, high anion gap metabolic acidosis and coma. The basis of therapy consists of parenteral pyridoxine administration in a dose equivalent to that of isoniazid ingested. Here we present a case of acute isoniazid intoxication presenting with convulsions and metabolic acidosis with consequent rhabdomyolysis and discuss the clinical signs and pathophysiology of isoniazid ...

  20. Cyanide intoxication with encephalitis clinic: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Murat; Yilmaz, Cahide; Kaya, Avni; Caksen, Huseyin; Taskin, Gokmen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract.Cyanide intoxication is one of the most dangerous poisonings and may occur by oral, respiratuary and dermal routes. Central nervous system is the most susceptible region to acute cyanide intoxication. A 3.5-years-old-girl was brought to our pediatric emergency polyclinic with complaints of fever, dullness and convulsion. On physical examination, lethargy and agitation, increased deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar response were determined. On brain magnetic resonance ...

  1. Drug intoxications and hospital costs – Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, Taner; Derinöz, Okşan; Demirel, Birol

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the demographic characteristics the types of utilized drugs and the hospital costs of the drug intoxication cases who attended to the Gazi University Medical Faculty Pediatric Emergency Service to determine the burden on the national economy and to plan the prevention nbsp; Material and Method: The epichrises of the cases attended because of drug intoxication were evaluated using the hospital records and the hospital costs were evaluated using the Av...

  2. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

  3. WOMEN’S AWARENESS OF AND DISCOMFORT WITH SEXUAL ASSAULT CUES: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND RELATIONSHIP TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Stoner, Susan A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Masters, N. Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of alcohol and relationship type on women’s sexual assault risk perception. Study 1 participants (N=62) consumed a moderate alcohol dose or non-alcoholic beverage, then rated their awareness of and discomfort with sexual assault risk cues in a hypothetical encounter with a new or established dating partner. Study 2 (N=351) compared control, placebo, low and high alcohol dose conditions using a similar scenario. Intoxicated women reported decreased awareness of...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging features of brain and spinal cord injury in a fatal case of isopropanol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan PS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parag Suresh Mahajan,1 Joyal Jacob Mathew,2 Abhilash Pulincherry Jayaram,1 Vidya Chander Negi,1 Mohamed Milad Abu Hmaira21Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, Al-Khor Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarAbstract: A 60-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness, and disorientation one day after consumption of isopropanol along with ethanol. Computed tomography (CT of the brain performed immediately was unremarkable. The patient collapsed within the hospital 30 minutes after the CT scan was done, and remained comatose until death, showing no improvement with symptomatic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine done 6 days after admission revealed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities involving the cerebral and cerebellar cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, thalami, and brainstem on T2-weighted, fluid attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion weighted images; similar hyperintensities were seen involving the swollen and edematous cervical spinal cord and cerebellar tonsillar herniation compressing the proximal cervical cord. Petechial hemorrhages were also noted within the brainstem. These features are compatible with toxic injury to the brain and cervical spinal cord. To our knowledge, the magnetic resonance imaging features of brain and spinal cord injury and cerebellar tonsillar herniation, secondary to isopropanol intoxication have not been reported in the published literature before.Keywords: alcohol intoxication, computed tomography, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, toxicity

  5. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  6. Whether or not to ride with an intoxicated driver: Predicting intentions using an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Moan, Inger Synnøve

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) extended with past behaviour, moral norm, descriptive norm, demographic variables and frequency of alcohol use is able to predict intentions not to ride with an intoxicated driver. Second, to examine whether different processes guide intentions among young passengers (35 years and below) versus passengers aged above 35 years, and women's versus men's intentions. Questionnaires were sent to a sample...

  7. Domestic violence and alcohol use: Security measures of compulsory treatment and a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is one among a number of factors in the etiology of violent crime which includes domestic violence. Domestic violence usually designates: violence between partners (spouses) and violence towards children and elderly parents. The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of alcohol abuse (intoxication) and alcohol dependence on domestic violence, but also to emphasize the multifactoriality of this relation, the economic damage that s...

  8. Suicide Attempts During Heavy Drinking Episodes Among Individuals Entering Alcohol Treatment in Warsaw, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Acute alcohol intoxication itself may act as a trigger for suicidal thoughts and attempts among individuals at risk and may influence the potential lethality of the suicide attempt. This study in alcohol-dependent patients compared the correlates of suicide attempts during a heavy drinking episode with those of suicide attempts during relative sobriety. Methods: In two outpatient and two residential alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland, 113 patients who reported a suicide attemp...

  9. Changes in alcohol-related inpatient care in Stockholm County in relation to socioeconomic status during a period of decline in alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Diderichsen, Finn

    1989-01-01

    1975 and 1980 with the inpatient care registers for 1976 and 1981. In both years, all rates were highest for people outside the labor market and lowest among white collar employees. The employment rate for those aged 25-44 years and treated in 1981 for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, and alcohol...... intoxication--already low in 1975--had drifted further downward by 1980. Total rates of inpatient treatment for alcohol-related diagnoses generally declined but the gap between blue collar workers and white collar workers widened. We conclude that the goal for national alcohol policy, suggested by the WHO...

  10. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  11. Economic Behavior under the Influence of Alcohol: An Experiment on Time Preferences, Risk-Taking, and Altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazzini, Luca; Filippin, Antonio; Vanin, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects’ risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic. PMID:25853520

  12. Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: testing a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into 3 dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and 2 dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  13. Accidental monensin sodium intoxication of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E

    1984-05-15

    Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  15. Imaging study of brain damage from methanol intoxication of wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the imaging of CT and MRI in brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine, and to study the relations between imaging manifestation and different degrees of the methanol intoxication. Method: Thirty nine cases with methanol intoxication from false wine were retrospectively reported, The latent period of these patients was 0-4 days, and the average latent period of these patients was 0.5 days, All cases were performed by serology examination, brain CT scan, and four cases performed by MRI scan after average 2.5 days (range, 1-6 days) the onset of methanol intoxication. Results: Six cases showed hyperintense signals in bilateral putamen, two cases also showed hyperintense signals in biolateral subcortex white substance regions. Four cases showed hyperintense signals in unilateral internal capsule. One case showed hyperintense changess in subcortex white substance regions. Our study showed the positive correlation between CT features and the amount of methanol and stage of clinic manifestation(χ2=4.232, P2=0.001, P>0.05). Conclusions: MRI was better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine. The characteristic finding changes of the patients was showed mainly in in bilateral putamen, Prognosis for the patients combined with subcortex white substance lesion wasn't hopeful. (authors)

  16. Timing of early chelating therapy for acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were treated with DTPA and H-73-10 intraperitoneal injections 15 minutes to 4 days after acute uranium intoxication. The mortality and changes in body weight, kidney weight, renal histology and histochemistry were investigated. The results show that the renal damage could be diminished significantly by chelating therapy started 15 minutes and 6 hours after urnium poisoning. Single large dose injection (1 g/kg weight) of H-73-10 yielded the best result, and daily 0.5 g/kg of H-73-10 injection for 5 days is the next, both are better than single injection of DTPA (1 g/kg body weight). One day after intoxication there was still some protective effect. On the contrary, if the chelating therapy started 2-4 days after urnium poisoning it would increase the renal damage and the mortality. This is of great value to the correct selection of timing of chelating therapy for uranium intoxication

  17. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  18. The alcohol hangover research group consensus statement on best practice in alcohol hangover research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Stephens, Richard; Penning, Renske; Rohsenow, Damaris; McGeary, John; Levy, Dan; McKinney, Adele; Finnigan, Frances; Piasecki, Thomas M; Adan, Ana; Batty, G David; Fliervoet, Lies A L; Heffernan, Thomas; Howland, Jonathan; Kim, Dai-Jin; Kruisselbrink, L Darren; Ling, Jonathan; McGregor, Neil; Murphy, René J L; van Nuland, Merel; Oudelaar, Marieke; Parkes, Andrew; Prat, Gemma; Reed, Nick; Slutske, Wendy S; Smith, Gordon; Young, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol-induced hangover, defined by a series of symptoms, is the most commonly reported consequence of excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol hangovers contribute to workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity, poor academic achievement, and may compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. These socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover are much higher when compared to various common diseases and other health risk factors. Nevertheless, unlike alcohol intoxication the hangover has received very little scientific attention and studies have often yielded inconclusive results. Systematic research is important to increase our knowledge on alcohol hangover and its consequences. This consensus paper of the Alcohol Hangover Research Group discusses methodological issues that should be taken into account when performing future alcohol hangover research. Future research should aim to (1) further determine the pathology of alcohol hangover, (2) examine the role of genetics, (3) determine the economic costs of alcohol hangover, (4) examine sex and age differences, (5) develop common research tools and methodologies to study hangover effects, (6) focus on factor that aggravate hangover severity (e.g., congeners), and (7) develop effective hangover remedies. PMID:20712593

  19. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster1, Christoph Aufricht2, Chris Alford31Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Währinger Gürtel, Wien, Austria; 3University of the West of England, Psychology Department, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UKBackground: Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol.Methods: A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase.Results: There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse.Conclusion: Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The

  20. THE DIRECTIONS OF THE LEGAL PREVENTION OF FAMILY AND DOMESTIC CRIMES COMMITTED WHILE INTOXICATED

    OpenAIRE

    Zelik V. A.; Yablochkin A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define the criminal law prevention of family offences committed while intoxicated. The qualitative and quantitative indicators of family offences committed while intoxicated were shown. We have proposed to amend existing legislation in order to increase the effectiveness of the criminal law prevention of family violence crimes committed while intoxicated. Criminal law prevention of family offences committed while intoxicated is methodologically built on the follo...

  1. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; WU, YI-YING; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and y...

  2. ALCOHOL DRINKING HABITS AND ITS REPERCUSSIONS ON FAMILY, HEALTH AND JOBS AMONG THE TRIBAL KORAGA COMMUNITY IN AND AROUND UDUPI DISTRICT, KARNATAKA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sandesh; Annapurna

    2014-01-01

    Social and binge drinking are the two aspects of alcohol consumption among the different communities worldwide. People get indulged in alcoholic beverages either to celebrate, entertain to relieve stress-tension and many more… Alcoholism and alcohol drinking is present among human civilization from time immemorial in the history. Social drinking is a practice wherein drinking is a social norm where the individual is not involved to a point of got drunk or intoxicated. On t...

  3. Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Leckenby, Nicola; Quigg, Zara; Hardcastle, Katherine; Sharples, Olivia; Llewellyn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background By measuring alcohol retailers’ propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. Methods 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problem...

  4. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    reported (2.6 for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9.Conclusion: Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.Keywords: alcohol, energy drinks, AMED, alcohol consumption, consequences

  5. Estudo estereológico das células de Purkinje cerebelares submetidas à intoxicação alcoólica em ratos Wistar Stereologic study of the cerebellar Purkinje cells submitted to alcoholic intoxication in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Ibis Rodrigues Apfel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVO DO ESTUDO: Analisar o efeito do álcool sobre as células de Purkinje de ratos. MÉTODO: Ratos Wistar receberam oralmente soluções alcoólicas em diferentes concentrações 4%, 12% e 24%. Os animais foram sacrificados com 4, 8 e 12 semanas e os cerebelos foram clivados em cortes aleatórios e uniformemente isotrópicos e incluídos em parafina. Cortes de 6µm (H & E foram analisados por estereologia. RESULTADOS: As diferenças entre a densidade por área e densidade de superfície das células de Purkinje de todos os grupos experimentais (E e os respectivos controles (C foram significativas. Com 12 semanas, a densidade volumétrica da célula de Purkinje diminuiu entre os grupos C e E nas concentrações de 4% e 12%, mas não para a concentração de 24%, provavelmente devido a menor ingestão de líquido pelos animais. CONCLUSÃO: O álcool exerceu efeito tóxico sobre o corpo celular da célula de Purkinje nas três concentrações estudadas a partir de 4 semanas.BACKGROUND: to analyze the effect of the alcohol on the cells of Purkinje. METHOD: Wistar rats received alcoholic solutions orally in different concentrations 4%, 12% and 24%. The animals were sacrificed with 4, 8 and 12 weeks and the cerebella were randomly cut and embedded in paraffin. Sections of 6µm (H&E were stereologically analyzed. RESULTS: The differences among the density for area and density of surface of the cells of Purkinje of all of the experimental groups (E and the respective controls (C were significant. With 12 weeks the cell of Purkinje volume density decreased among the groups C and E in the concentrations of 4% and 12%, but not for the concentration of 24%, probably due to smaller liquid ingestion by the animals. CONCLUSION: The alcohol has toxic effect on the Purkinje cellular body in the three studied concentrations from 4 weeks.

  6. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  7. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology. PMID:26692340

  8. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Pineda, Carmen; Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  9. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  10. Evaluation of intoxicated patients hospitalized in a newly-opened level two pediatric intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngörer, Vildan; Yisldırım, Nurdan Kökten

    2016-01-01

    to the Pediatric Psychiatric Unit as outpatients after discharge and three patients (3.6%) were referred to Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment and Research Centre. Conclusions: Because the rate of drug intoxication was found to be substantially high in this study, we think that politics related with education of parents on this issue, packaging of drugs in such a way that children can not open these packages and drug supply should be reviewed. PMID:27103862

  11. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided. PMID:21420363

  12. Assessment of Club Patrons’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Branner, Amy C.; Voas, Robert; B. Johnson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Young adulthood (ages 18–25 years) represents a time when high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and drug use, peak. Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) featured at clubs provide an ecologic niche for these high-risk behaviors. Purpose This paper examines the prevalence of alcohol and drug use among EMDE patrons. Examination of personal characteristics associated with exit levels of alcohol and drug use identifies important indicators of risk taking for prevention strategies. Methods Data were collected anonymously during 2010–2012 from 2028 patrons as they entered and exited clubs in the San Francisco Bay area featuring EMDEs. Nearly half were aged ≤25 years. Biological measures of drug and alcohol and self-reported personal characteristics were attained. Analyses were completed in 2012. Results At entrance, more than one fifth of patrons were positive for drug use and one fourth arrived either impaired (blood alcohol concentration [BAC]: 0.05%–0.079%) or intoxicated (BAC: >0.08%) by alcohol. At exit, one fourth tested positive for drugs, and nearly half were impaired or intoxicated by alcohol. Individual characteristics that were important for levels of risk included prior alcohol use behaviors, sexual identity, ethnic/racial identity, and transportation to the event. Gender did not differentiate for alcohol use but fewer women used drugs. Conclusions Findings confirm the importance of targeting EMDEs for prevention efforts. EMDEs attract young working adults who are engaged in heavy alcohol and/or drug use. Targeting these social settings for delivering public health prevention strategies regarding alcohol and drug use and related harms is indicated by the findings. PMID:24139778

  13. Stadium Alcohol Management: A Best Practices Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Filce

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport managers have expressed the concern that the largest threat to fan safety emanates from alcohol overuse. A Turnkey Sports & Entertainment (2009 study asked 1,100 senior sport executives in the United States to rank various threats to fan safety. Alcohol abuse by unruly fans was listed by 62% of respondents, easily outpacing the next highest response of terrorism (18.73%. Previous studies have also identified an increase in violence and criminal activity relating to alcohol consumption at sporting events (Erickson et al., 2011; Menaker & Chaney, 2014. Intoxicated fans have been the source of numerous documented tort claims against vendors and facility owners (Bearman, 1983; Verni, 2006. Despite the known tort liability risk, administrators continue to make decisions without real evidence due to a lack of literature on alcohol policies at sporting events (Oster-Aaland & Neighbors, 2007. This paper will document the problems associated with alcohol consumption at sporting events, review current alcohol policies and barriers to the implementation of stricter policies, and conclude with research-based suggestions for best practices in stadium alcohol management relative to: policy and training, sales and marketing, tailgating, and detection and enforcement.

  14. Alcohol-related brain damage in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia M Erdozain

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area (BA 9 from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics.

  15. Alcohol and cannabis use in Norway during the period 1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin K. Bye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of alcohol and cannabis use in the period 1995-2009 is based on data from five sets of surveys. Sales figures for alcohol consumption are also included. Alcohol sales in Norway increased by 40 per cent during the period 1995-2009, from 4.8 to 6.7 litres of pure alcohol per inhabitant aged 15 years and over. This increase largely reflects a sharp increase in the sale of wine. Also when taking into account unregistered alcohol consumption, the consumption of alcohol increased considerably in Norway during the period in question. The increased alcohol consumption seems to be due to an increase in moderate alcohol consumers and/or an increase in situations involving moderate alcohol consumption. Population surveys indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion who drink alcohol and in the proportion of people who drink relatively often, but the increased drinking frequency is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in the proportion who often drink until they are intoxicated. On average, men drink more often and greater quantities than women, with the exception of wine. The proportion who drink alcohol at least twice a month or more has increased in all age groups, and the increase has been particularly marked among those above the age of 50. Despite a reduction in consumption among young people in recent years, consumption and drinking until intoxicated are still widespread. Young girls drink alcohol as often as boys and are equally often intoxicated. As for cannabis, there was an increase in the age group 15-20 years in the second half of the 1990s, followed by a decrease and stagnation since the turn of the millennium. There was little or no difference between boys and girls in the 15-20 age group in the use of cannabis, while among young adults, far more men than women reported that they had used cannabis

  16. Alcohol Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  17. Alcoholics Anonymous

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  18. Age at Menarche Is Associated with Divergent Alcohol Use Patterns in Early Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…

  19. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... and publish in the Federal Register notice of adopted liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices..., including among other things, ale, beer, stout, porter, and the like. Malt beverages are exclusive of...

  20. The Influence of Being under the Influence: Alcohol Effects on Adolescent Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Teasdale, Brent; Burchfield, Keri B.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine the relationship between intoxication, chronic alcohol use, and violent behavior using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The authors introduce a method for disentangling spuriousness from the causal effects of situational variables. Their results suggest that drinkers are much more likely to commit…

  1. An Evaluation of First Offender Driver Alcohol Education Models: 40 Hours versus 15 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Kim; And Others

    An evaluation assessed the impact of the 40- and 15-hour driver alcohol education (DAE) program models on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of driving while intoxicated (DWI) first offenders in Massachusetts. The 40-hour program evaluation studied 306 clients from 31 DAE programs; the 15-hour study group consisted of 207 clients in 23 DAE…

  2. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  3. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  4. Alcohol misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, W

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity internationally, and is ranked by the WHO as one of the top five risk factors for disease burden. Without treatment, approximately 16% of hazardous or harmful alcohol users will progress to more dependent patterns of alcohol consumption.

  5. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  6. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaraj Rama; Thomas Mahiban; Kavanagh David; d’Abbs Peter; Mayo Luke; Thomson Valerie; Griffin Carolyn; Nagel Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Meth...

  7. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M

    2013-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same...

  8. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  9. The effects of a modest dose of alcohol on executive functioning and prospective memory

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, C.; Ashmore, K.V.; Jansari, Ashok S.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Acute alcohol intoxication selectively impairs executive functioning and prospective memory (PM). Much previous researches in this area have used laboratory-based tasks that may not mimic functions that individuals with dysexecutive syndrome have problems with in their everyday life. The present study aimed to assess the effects of a modest dose of alcohol on executive functioning and PM using a virtual reality task and investigate the role of executive planning in PM performance. M...

  10. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI. We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication. Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  11. [Raw milk-associated Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezendanner, N; Meyer, B; Gort, M; Müller, P; Zweifel, C

    2009-07-01

    Four hours after the consumption of raw goat milk, three Swiss children came down with emesis and diarrhea in July 2008. First investigations showed that the milk originated from a goat suffering from clinical mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus). In the milk sample from the untreated left udder, Staphylococcus aureus counts reached 5.0 x 10(7) CFU ml(-1). By PCR, the gene for the staphylococcal enterotoxin D was found in isolated strains. The consumption of raw milk is rarely associated with Staphylococcus aureus intoxications. Due to the flora naturally present in raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus normally cannot multiply sufficiently. However, in the present case, high Staphylococcus aureus counts were already present in the milk due to the mastitis of the goat. This amount sufficed to cause a Staphylococcus aureus intoxication in the children. PMID:19565455

  12. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  13. Some effects of alcohol and eye movements on cross-race face learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on visual scanning in cross-race face learning. The eye movements of a group of white British participants were recorded as they encoded a series of own-and different-race faces, under alcohol and placebo conditions. Intoxication reduced the rate and extent of visual scanning during face encoding, reorienting the focus of foveal attention away from the eyes and towards the nose. Differences in encoding eye movements also varied between own-and different-race face conditions as a function of alcohol. Fixations to both face types were less frequent and more lingering following intoxication, but in the placebo condition this was only the case for different-race faces. While reducing visual scanning, however, alcohol had no adverse effect on memory, only encoding restrictions associated with sober different-race face processing led to poorer recognition. These results support perceptual expertise accounts of own-race face processing, but suggest the adverse effects of alcohol on face learning published previously are not caused by foveal encoding restrictions. The implications of these findings for alcohol myopia theory are discussed. PMID:24417742

  14. Hemodiafiltration: A Novel Approach for Treating Severe Amitriptyline Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Ozayar, Esra; Degerli, Semih; Gulec, Handan

    2012-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant overdose is one of the most common cause of serious drug poisonings. Sometimes amitriptyline intoxication can be difficult to treat with standard treatments. At that case hemodiafiltration (HD) can be an eligible choice. We report a successful treatment of severe case using hemodiafiltration in addition to the supportive measures. Management with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, alkalinization and supportive care is the common approach and not enough for patients i...

  15. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  16. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  17. Subjective Beliefs, Deterrence, and the Propensity to Drive While Intoxicated

    OpenAIRE

    Yiqun Chen; Frank Sloan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates causal effects of changes in subjective probabilities of being pulled over and involved in accidents if driving while intoxicated on individuals’ drinking and driving choices. We also examine how hypothetical changes in perceptions of sanction severity affect drunk driving by experiments randomizing the harshness of punishments. We find that higher perceived risks of being pulled over and involved in accidents deter drinking and driving. However, deterrence is limited ...

  18. Catatonic syndrome associated with lead intoxication: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Modabbernia, Mohammad Jafar; Mirsafa, Ali Reza; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Pilehroodi, Farhad; Shirazi, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about catatonia associated with lead intoxication. Case presentation A retired printing house worker man presented with one week history of refusal to eat and mutism. He was treated with possible diagnosis of catatonia with administration of Lorazepam 3 mg P.O. daily. Significant improvement occurred after 48 hours. In further examinations, there was no evidence of physical and mental disorders while impairment in neuropsychiatry test, identification of Dohle body...

  19. Optic atrophy and cerebral infarcts caused by methanol intoxication: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the MRI findings of cerebral and optic pathway damage in the acute and subacute stages of methanol intoxication. In the acute stage, CT and MRI showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrosis of the corpus striatum and infarcts in the anterior and middle cerebral arterial territories. MRI in the subacute stage demonstrated atrophy of the optic chiasm and prechiasmatic optic nerves in addition to the cerebral infarcts. The patient survived, with total blindness. (orig.)

  20. MR Imaging of brain changes from carbon-monoxide intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five cases of carbon-monoxide intoxication were studied with MR imaging. The main MR findings were discussed and compared with CT results. MR imaging demonstrated SNC lesion sooner and better than CT-its images corresponding to the anatomic-pathological patterns described in literature.However, sever MR limitations-i.e. the very long execution time and the difficult monitoring of the patients-prevent this methodology from being more extensively employed in this kind of pathology

  1. Progesterone intoxication inducing marked sedation in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumeaux, Marc P; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Hung, Germaine C; Taylor, Susan M

    2010-10-01

    A 3-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented for sudden onset of severe lethargy and loss of balance a few hours after potentially ingesting capsules containing progesterone. Elevated serum progesterone was confirmed. Supportive care and time resulted in complete resolution of the clinical signs with no long-term complications or recurrence of clinical signs noticed after 1-month follow-up. This is the first description of progesterone intoxication inducing neurological signs in a cat. PMID:20817586

  2. Use of Intravenous N-Acetyl Systein in Paracetamol Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Latif Duran; Bülent Şişman; Canan Doğruel; Türker Yardan; Ahmet Baydın; Yücel Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to present our clinical experiences of intravenous (IV) N-Acetyl cystein administration in patients admitted to our emergency department with paracetamol intoxication.Material and Methods: This study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2009, in the Ondokuz Mayis University Medical Faculty Hospital, Emergency Service, and the hospital records of adult patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were examined retrospectively. Fifty three patients ...

  3. Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, R; Patrick, S D; Ballard, J O

    1986-04-30

    An in vitro system which expresses all enzyme activities related to vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of blood clotting factors was prepared from livers of rats overdosed with warfarin, difenacoum and dicumarol respectively. In this system, the activities of the two pathways that are known to produce active reduced vitamin K1 cofactor for the carboxylation reaction were measured. Also the ability of high concentrations of vitamin K1 to overcome inhibition of clotting factor synthesis was studied. In the systems prepared from livers of warfarin and difenacoum intoxicated rats, pathway I was inactive. Vitamin K epoxide reductase was also inactive which strongly suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the activity of pathway I in vivo. Reduction of vitamin K1 by pathway II bypassed the inactive pathway I and resulted in carboxylation activity. This pathway therefore mediates the antidotic effect of vitamin K1 in the coumarin intoxicated liver. In the in vitro system prepared from dicumarol intoxicated livers the activity of pathway I was not significantly affected. Dicumarol however was a strong inhibitor when added to liver microsomes in vitro. PMID:2424118

  4. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  5. An analysis of dynamic CT curves of renal transplants with rejection and cyclosporin A intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early differential diagnosis between transplant rejection and cyclosporin intoxication is often difficult, although it is important for treatment. We carried out dynamic CT on 48 occasions in patients with normal function, with acute tubular necrosis, rejection and cyclosporin A intoxication. Analysis of the timedensity of the cortex showed significantly slower enhancement with cyclosporin A intoxication than during rejection. The peak and the arterial curve were also delayed in cyclosporin A intoxication. This evidence of reduced cortical perfusion during cyclosporin A intoxication can be explained by the results of modern pathophysiological studies. In principle, it is possible to distinguish between cyclosporin A intoxication and rejection by means of dynamic CT, but for its routine use the nephrotoxicity of the contrast medium must be taken into account. (orig.)

  6. A Rare Cause of Metabolic Acidosis: Fatal Transdermal Methanol Intoxication in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudak Bal, Zumrut; Can, Fulya Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Murat; Gokalp, Gamze; Yavascan, Onder; Aksu, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, occipital lobe were detected by computed tomography of the brain. The patient died after 7 days.Although methanol intoxication occurs predominantly in adults, it must be considered in children with high-anion gap metabolic acidosis. This case report demonstrates that fatal transdermal methanol intoxication can occur in children, and it is the second report in the English literature of transdermal methanol intoxication in an infant. PMID:26196361

  7. Visual attention to advertising under the influence of alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Jeppesen, Heine

    An eye-tracking experiment is reported in which the effects of alcohol intoxication on visual attention were tested. Based on findings from the psychopharmacological literature, it was hypothesised that the salience of visual elements in complex advertisements would be amplified, whereas...... the processing of conceptual information would be impaired. The results indicate that the visual salience of logos (either brand and corporate) is selectively increased under the influence of alcohol whilst other pictorial elements (representations of products or human models) are unaffected. Processing...

  8. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu; Gökçen Başaranoğlu; Yaşar Gökhan Gül; Mehmet Toptaş; Sevim Baltalı; Bengü Özütürk

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females) were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of t...

  9. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Behavior and Sensation-Seeking Disposition in a College Population Receiving Routine Care at Campus Health Services Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Mundt, Marlon P.; Balousek, Stacey L.; Wilson, Ellen L.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents stemming from alcohol-impaired driving are the leading cause of injury and death among college students. Research has implicated certain driver personality characteristics in the majority of these motor vehicle crashes. Sensation seeking in particular has been linked to risky driving, alcohol consumption, and driving while intoxicated. This study investigated the effect of sensation-seeking on self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior in a college student population while adju...

  10. Summary of the 2014 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Morris, Niya L; Cannon, Abigail R; Shults, Jill A; Curtis, Brenda; Casey, Carol A; Sueblinvong, Viranuj; Persidsky, Yuri; Nixon, Kimberly; Brown, Lou Ann; Waldschmidt, Thomas; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Kovacs, Elizabeth J; Choudhry, Mashkoor A

    2015-12-01

    On November 21, 2014 the 19th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Chicago Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, Illinois. The meeting focused broadly on inflammatory cell signaling responses in the context of alcohol and alcohol-use disorders, and was divided into four plenary sessions focusing on the gut and liver, lung infections, general systemic effects of alcohol, and neuro-inflammation. One common theme among many talks was the differential roles of macrophages following both chronic and acute alcohol intoxication. Macrophages were shown to play significant roles in regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and viral infection following alcohol exposure in the liver, lungs, adipose tissue, and brain. Other work examined the role of alcohol on disease progression in a variety of pathologies including psoriasis, advanced stage lung disease, and cancer. PMID:26520175

  11. Experimental study on therapy of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation in acute soman intoxication in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-qing; MU Shi-jie; ZHANG Xiao-di; CHEN Rui; XIA Ai-jun; LIANG Xin; HAI Chun-xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapy effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation(UBIO) on blood AChe activity and lung injury due to acute soman intoxication in rabbits. Methods :Forty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group and UBIO therapy group. Blood AChe activity and artery blood gas were analyzed 2 h after intoxication. ACP and AKP activities in BALF were determined respectively. Results:Blood AChe activity in intoxication group was lower than that in normal control group (P<0. 05). BALF ACP and AKP activities in intoxication group were higher than that in normal control group. Blood AChe activities in UBIO therapy group increased and were higher than that in intoxication and routine therapy groups. Compared with intoxication group, BALF ACP and AKP activities were decreased (P<0.05) in UBIO therapy group,while artery blood pH, PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: UBIO therapy can elevate blood AChe activity and alleviate lung injury induced by soman intoxication. So it may be a new way to treat acute soman intoxication.

  12. [Management of acute intoxication with paracetamol--Polish Medical Society, Section of Clinical Toxicology position statement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Wojciech; Groszek, Barbara; Burda, Piotr; Wiśniewski, Marek; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents Polish Medical Society, Section of Clinical Toxicology position statement on the prehospital and hospital management in case of suspicion of intoxication with paracetamol. PMID:23243910

  13. Alcoholic hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookala S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916 termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here.

  14. Alcohol and HIV sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasteh, Kamyar; Des Jarlais, Don C; Perlis, Theresa E

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed data from 6341 injection drug users (IDUs) entering detoxification or methadone maintenance treatment in New York City between 1990 and 2004 to test the hypothesis that alcohol use and intoxication is associated with increased HIV sexual risk behaviors. Two types of associations were assessed: (1) a global association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the 6 months prior to the interview and at-risk drinking in that period, defined as more than 14 drinks per week for males or 7 drinks per week for females), and (2) an event-specific association (i.e., the relationship between HIV sexual risk behaviors during the most recent sex episode and alcohol intoxication during that episode). Sexual risk behaviors included multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex. After adjusting for the effects of other variables, at-risk-drinkers were more likely to report multiple sex partners and engaging in unprotected sex with casual sex partners (both global associations). IDUs who reported both they and their casual partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode were more likely to engage in unprotected sex (an event-specific association). We also observed two significant interactions. Among IDUs who did not inject cocaine, moderate-drinkers were more likely to report multiple partners. Among self-reported HIV seropositive IDUs, when both primary partners were intoxicated during the most recent sex episode they were more likely to engage in unprotected sex. These observations indicate both global and event-specific associations of alcohol and HIV sexual-risk behaviors. PMID:18242009

  15. The effects of alcohol on driver performance in a decision making situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.; Schwartz, S. H.; Stein, A. C.; Hogge, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The results are reviewed of driving simulator and in-vehicle field test experiments of alcohol effects on driver risk taking. The objective was to investigate changes in risk taking under alcoholic intoxication and relate these changes to effects on traffic safety. The experiments involved complex 15 minute driving scenarios requiring decision making and steering and speed control throughout a series of typical driving situations. Monetary rewards and penalties were employed to simulate the real-world motivations inherent in driving. A full placebo experimental design was employed, and measures related to traffic safety, driver/vehicle performance and driver behavior were obtained. Alcohol impairment was found to increase the rate of accidents and speeding tickets. Behavioral measures showed these traffic safety effects to be due to impaired psychomotor performance and perceptual distortions. Subjective estimates of risk failed to show any change in the driver's willingness to take risks when intoxicated.

  16. The Role of Race/Ethnicity in Alcohol-attributable Injury in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Liu, Xianfang C.; Cerda, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of injuries worldwide are attributable to alcohol consumption, and US estimates indicate that the drinking patterns of racial/ethnic groups vary considerably. The authors reviewed evidence from 19 publications regarding racial/ethnic differences in overall alcohol-attributable injury as well as percent blood alcohol content positivity for injury deaths in the United States. They found that Native Americans evidence higher rates of alcohol-attributable motor vehicle crash fatality, suicide, and falls compared with other racial/ethnic groups; conversely, Asians evidence lower rates of alcohol-attributable injury than other racial/ethnic groups. The rate of alcohol positivity and intoxication among Hispanics is disproportionately high relative to estimates of alcohol use. Black subgroups also evidence higher rates of alcohol positivity than would be expected given estimates of alcohol use, including for alcohol positivity among drivers of fatally injured black children and homicide. These findings highlight the continued need for public health focus on Native American populations with respect to alcohol consumption and injury. Further, the disparity in alcohol-attributable injury mortality among black and Hispanic groups relative to their reported rates of alcohol consumption is an overlooked area of research. The authors review potential social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-attributable injuries and identify directions for further research on these patterns. PMID:21930592

  17. Optical Marking of Alcohol Induced Hemoglobin Modification

    CERN Document Server

    Vlokh, R; Moroz, O; Nastishin, Yu; Dudok, K; Dudok, T; Grinchishin, N; Nechiporenko, I; Hul, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that conformational modifications of Hb induced by ethanol consumption can be visualized in optical spectra studying oxygenation kinetics of hemoglobin or mixing hemoglobin with Cibacron blue dye. Better dye affinity of blood proteins extracted from alcoholised rats with respect to those from non-alcoholised ones confirms that ethanol and its metabolites induce structural pathologies in blood protein molecules. The detected changes for the case of the posterity of intoxicated animals may be explained as a post-translation modification, as well as a disturbance of the structure and function of tissue cellular gene mechanism for the blood creation. It is established that alcohol intake during first four months leads to the decrease of fractional weight of oxyhemoglobin and to the increase of methemoglobin amount in blood. Further alcohol consumption is accompanied by recovering of the normal level of hemoglobin derivatives in blood. Normalization of the fractional weight of hemoglobin derivati...

  18. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A, Bagheri M, Ahmadi S. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child. Iranian Journal of ChildNeurology 2012;6(1:35-38.Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication. References:1. Nazari H. Clinical approach to methadone toxication.Quarterly journal of Addiction 2007;2:18-20.2. Plummer JL, Gourlay GK, Cherry DA, Cousins MJ.Estimation of methadone clearance: application in themanagement of cancer pain. Pain 1988 Jun;33(3:313-22.3. Davies D, DeVlaming D, Haines C. Methadoneanalgesia for children with advanced cancer. PediatrBlood Cancer 2008 Sep;51(3:393-7.4. Riascos R, Kumfa P, Rojas R, Cuellar H, Descartes F.Fatal methadone intoxication in a child. Emerg Radiol2008 Jan;15(1:67-70.5. Binchy JM, Molyneux EM, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside.BMJ 1994 May 21;308(6940:1335-6.6. Li L, Levine B, Smialek JE. Fatal methadone poisoningin children: Maryland 1992-1996. Subst Use Misuse2000 Aug;35(9:1141-8.7. Milroy CM, Forrest AR. Methadone deaths: atoxicological analysis. J Clin Pathol 2000 Apr;53(4:277-81.8. Afzali S, Jafari MR. One year study of chest X-raychanges in opiate-poisoned patients in Hamadan. JQom Uni Med Sci 2010; 4(2:3-7.9. Zamani N, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Mostafazadeh B. Hallmarksof opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Trop Doct2010 Oct; 40(4:220-2.10. Besharat S, Besharat M, Akhavan Masouleh A, JabbariA, Yazdi HR. Opium intoxication in children under 5years old, Golestan- Iran (2006-07. J Gorgan Uni MedSci Spring 2010;12(1:85-9.11. Izadi Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, Sharafi SE. Fatalpoisoning cases admitted to the emergency departmentof poisoning, Noor Hospital, Isfahan. J Legal Med IslRep Iran 2003;9(31:122-26.12. Boushehri B, Yekta Z, Zareei-Kheirabad A, Kabiri SH

  19. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic. PMID:26802685

  20. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D; Hipskind, Philip A; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T; Hunt, Stephen P; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" in Volterra, Italy, May 6-9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol-related behaviors in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory, indicating a role of the urocortin 1 receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropeptide Y receptor system in the modulation of behaviors associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  1. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. PMID:25293549

  2. New Direction Treatment in Antidote Treatment of OPC Intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effect of organophosphorus compounds (OPC) is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), enzyme which plays an important physiological role in the cholinergic nervous system. The drug therapy on intoxication with OPC included mainly combination of cholinesterase reactivators and cholinolytics. There is no single AChE reactivator having the ability to sufficiently reactivate inhibited enzyme due to the high variability of chemical structure of the inhibitors. The classic oximes have antidote effect against intoxication with sarin, Vx and tabun, but are not effective against soman. HI-6 (Bulgarian ampoule form Toxidin) has an effect against sarin, soman and Vx, and to a lesser degree against tabun. In order to improve the treatment of poisoning with highly toxic OPC, in ours laboratory we synthesized a variety of mono- and dioximes. We use different numbers of pyridinium or heterocyclic rings, different length and shape of the connecting chain between pyridinium or pyridinium-heterocyclic rings; different number and position of the oxime groups at the pyridinium rings and others. The investigations of some authors and our research showed that the compounds which present a combination between HI-6 and TMB-4 have a better antidote activity against tabun intoxications. The important finding of this study is that we synthesized complex compounds, reactivators of cholinesterase activity (including HI-6) with AMP / ATP and polycarboxilats, which have prolonged action in organism compared with original oximes. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that they are eliminated more slowly. The antidotal efficacy of these compounds after soman poisoning in rats was similar like that of the original oximes. The same tendency showed and the other pharmacological (blood pressure, EKG, breathing, neuromuscular transmission), and biochemical (ChE) investigations. (author)

  3. Radioimmunoassay of serum digoxin levels in digitalis intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For 101 hospitalized patients where clinical symptoms of a glucosidine intoxication as a consequence of oral digoxin treatment were noted, serum digoxin levels were determined using a RIA kit of the Boehringer company (I-125 tracer, solid phase tube separation technique) on a fasted stomach prior to oral drug administration. An ECG was performed simultaneously and in addition kidney function parameters and electrolyte levels were determined. An anamnesis and clinical examination of the patients were also conducted. Interferences in the RIA method and gastro-intestinal illness resulting in changes in resorption behaviour were excluded. The group of patients showed collectively an average serum digoxin level of 2.9 +- 0.9 ng/ml with a range from 1.8 to 6.8 ng/ml, which was statistically significantly higher than the average value for 101 patients receiving long-term oral medication but without symptoms of glycosidine intoxication. According to the manufacture's specifications for the RIA kit, values > 2.0 ng/ml are considered as toxic, with values between 1.6 and 2.0 ng/mg falling into a ''grey zone''. A correlation was found between toxic serum values with changes in ECG pattern and subjective clinical symptoms of intoxication. A limitation of kidney function was responsible for the high serum glycoside levels in 62% of the patients. It was shown that the differing response of patients towards digitalis medication, above all in the case of long-term therapy, warrants an RIA determination of serum glycoside values in order to adjust the digoxin dose to individual requirements. (orig./MG)

  4. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or...

  5. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  6. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  7. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  8. Drug- or Alcohol-Facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape in Relationship to Mental Health among a National Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is a well-established risk factor for mental health disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, most studies have focused on forcible rape tactics and have not distinguished these from tactics that involve drug or alcohol intoxication. The authors' aim was to examine correlates of PTSD and depression in a…

  9. The Relationship Between the Quantity of Alcohol Consumed and the Severity of Sexual Assaults Committed by College Men

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O

    2003-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that intoxicated perpetrators may act more violently than other perpetrators, although empirical findings have been mixed. Past research has focused on whether or not alcohol was consumed, rather than the quantity consumed, and this may explain these inconsistent findings. The authors hypothesized that the quantity of alcohol consumed would have a curvilinear relationship to the severity of the assault. Data were collected from 113 college men who reported that they...

  10. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences in Adjudicated College Women

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Thompson, Alysha D.; Huchting, Karen; Lac, Andrew; Buckley, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    College students who violate campus alcohol policies (adjudicated students) are at high risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences and for undermining campus life. Further, college women may be especially at risk due to differential intoxication effects and sexual consequences experienced mainly by female students. Research on interventions for adjudicated students, especially adjudicated females, has been limited. One hundred and fifteen college women who received a sanction...

  11. Alcohol Attenuates Activation in the Bilateral Anterior Insula during an Emotional Processing Task: A Pilot Study †

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Claudia B.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C; Robinson, Shannon K.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol acutely reduces agitation and is widely used in social situations, but the neural substrates of emotion processing during its intoxication are not well understood. We examine whether alcohol's social stress dampening effect may be via reduced activity in the cortical systems that subserve awareness of bodily sensations, and are associated with affective distress. Methods: Blood oxygen level-dependent activation was measured through 24 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessio...

  12. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Stórá, Tormódur

    2009-01-01

    25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods of...... increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role....

  13. Core features of suicide. Gender, age, alcohol and other putative risk factors in a low-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stora, T.; Wang, August Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    25-64 years, unmarried, divorced and alcohol intoxicated. The main conclusion was that a low-incidence population of suicide population confirmed some supposed core features of the suicide phenomenon. Others, related to age and psychiatric disorders, were only partially confirmed. In periods of...... increase, the most vulnerable were the young and middle-aged males, unmarried, divorced, and alcohol played a crucial role Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10...

  14. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed. PMID:26915054

  15. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  16. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  17. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14466 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  18. Haemodialysis followed by continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration in lithium intoxication; a model and a case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meertens, John H J M; Jagernath, Danny R; Eleveld, Douglas J; Zijlstra, Jan G; Franssen, Casper F M

    2009-01-01

    For severe lithium intoxication haemodialysis is recommended to lower serum lithium levels rapidly. Frequently, serum lithium levels rebound after dialysis and repeated dialysis is needed. This is the first report of an adult patient with severe lithium intoxication who underwent haemodialysis (HD)

  19. A Test of Cognitive Dissonance Theory to Explain Parents' Reactions to Youths' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that parents reduce control and support in response to youths' drinking. Why they react this way, however, is still unknown. From cognitive dissonance theory, we derived hypotheses about parents' reactions. We used a longitudinal, school-based sample of 494 youths (13 and 14 years, 56% boys) and their parents. General Linear…

  20. The Structural Configurations of Alcohol in Denmark: Policy, Culture, and Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains based on...... liberalization. However, in the 1990s, a particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication had emerged, raising public awareness and call for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this rupture did not mean a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture, and industry...

  1. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  2. OCCURRENCE OF INTOXICATION BY TOXIC PLANTS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Junior Getter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxic plants are those that by means of contact or ingestion, provoke damage to human and animal health, same times causing death. This study has as purpose, to realize an analysis of the accidents occurs with toxicant plants in Brazil. Many control centers, are working to diminish the cases, that Just during the 1991 to 2000, registered a total of 14774 cases of intoxication and poisoning (I/P in the country. The result show that male is most committed, the age who most show the cases of poisoning is between 01-09 years old, this age prevailed on all country regions. The urban areas is where most occurs often. In the biggest part of the registers the intoxication was accidentally when children’s are playing game with the plants. On this period the number of death were of about 48 cases, a surprise was that the northeast region show almost 50% of the cases. Although wait of the control Center and the scientific community to realize a educative, looking for the sensibilization of the society.

  3. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijona Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol. Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice.

  4. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  5. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts A severe form of alcohol withdrawal called delirium tremens can cause: Agitation Fever Seeing or feeling things ... watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may include: Monitoring of blood pressure, body ...

  6. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  7. Indicators of Club Management Practices and Biological Measurements of Patrons’ Drug and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Music Dance Events in nightclubs attract patrons with heavy alcohol/drug use. Public health concerns are raised from risks related to these behaviors. Practices associated with increased risk in these club settings need to be identified. Objectives The relationship between club management practices and biological measures of patrons’ alcohol/drug use is examined. Methods Observational data from 25 events across 6 urban clubs were integrated with survey data (N=738 patrons, 42.8% female) from patrons exiting these events, 2010–2012. Five indicators of club management practices were examined using mixed model regressions: club security, bar crowding, safety signs, serving intoxicated patrons, and isolation. Results Analyses revealed that serving intoxicated patrons and safety signs were related to less substance use. Specifically, serving intoxicated patrons was related to heavy alcohol and drug use at exit, while safety signs were marginally related to less exit drug use. Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate observable measures in nightclubs provide important indicators for alcohol/drug use, suggesting practices to target. Study strengths include the use of biological measures of substance use on a relatively large scale. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24832721

  8. The influence of behavioural and health problems on alcohol and drug use in late adolescence - a follow up study of 2 399 young Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratberg Grete H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both early alcohol debut, behavioural and health problems are reported to enhance adolescence substance use. This prospective study investigate the influence of behavioural and health problems on adolescents' alcohol and drug use. Method Prospective population based cohort study of 2 399 adolescents attending the Young-HUNT study, aged 13-15 at baseline in 1995/97, and 17-19 at follow-up 4 years later. Exposure variables were self reported conduct problems, attention problems, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and muscular pain and tension. Outcome variables at follow-up were frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models, influence of gender and drinking status at baseline were controlled for by stratification. Results At follow-up 19% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more frequently. Baseline conduct problems (OR 2.2, CI 1.7-3.0 and attention problems (OR 1.5, CI 1.2-2.0 increased the risk for frequent alcohol use at follow-up in the total population. Girls who had experienced alcohol-intoxications at baseline showed strong association between baseline problems and frequent alcohol use at follow-up. Conduct problems (OR 2.5, CI 1.3-4.8, attention problems (OR 2.1, CI 1.2-3.4, anxiety/depressive symptoms (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.1 and muscular pain and tension (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9 all were associated with frequent alcohol use among early intoxicated girls. 14% of the students had tried cannabis or other drugs at follow-up. Conduct problems at baseline increased the odds for drug use (OR 2.6, CI 1.9-3.6. Any alcohol intoxications at baseline, predicted both frequent alcohol use (boys OR 3.6, CI 2.4-5.2; girls OR 2.8, CI 1.9-4.1, and illegal drug use (boys OR 4.7; CI 3.2-7.0, girls OR 7.7, CI 5.2-11.5 within follow-up. Conclusions Conduct problems in high-school more than doubles the risk for both frequent alcohol use and initiation of drug use later in adolescence

  9. Clinical report on 62 cases of acute dimethyl sulfate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Xia, J; Wang, Q W

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-two cases of accidental acute intoxication from the inhalation of dimethyl sulfate (DMS) are reported. To facilitate clinical evaluation and treatment, as well as identification of capacity for physical labor, a grading system was established according to the history of exposure to DMS, symptoms and signs of respiratory mucosal irritation, findings on chest radiographs, and abnormalities of leukocyte count. Emergency treatment included prophylactic use of glucocorticoids, supplemental oxygen, sedatives, and antibiotics for prevention and treatment of laryngeal and pulmonary edema, pulmonary infections, and other complications. Follow-up studies for 2-12 years have found only mild to moderate impairment in ventilatory capacity in eight cases, with no abnormal findings in ECG, chest films, and routine blood tests. Nearly all patients have resumed their usual work. PMID:3364423

  10. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma. PMID:27337286

  11. Possible fatal acetaminophen intoxication with atypical clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Chiarotti, Marcello; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Carbone, Arnaldo; Valerio, Luca

    2013-09-01

    Acetaminophen or paracetamol, a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic, is known to elicit severe adverse reactions when taken in overdose, chronically at therapeutic dosage or, sporadically, following single assumptions of a therapeutic dose. Damage patterns including liver damage and, rarely, acute tubular necrosis or a fixed drug exanthema. We present a case of fatal acetaminophen toxicity with postmortem blood concentration 78 μg/mL and unusual clinical features, including a visually striking and massive epidermolysis and rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial ischemia. This case is compared with the most similar previous reports in terms of organ damage, clinical presentation, and cause of death. We conclude that a number of severe patterns of adverse effects to acetaminophen are emerging that were previously greatly underestimated, thus questioning the adequacy of the clinical spectrum traditionally associated with acetaminophen intoxication and leading to the need to review this spectrum and the associated diagnostic criteria. PMID:23822653

  12. ApproachtoAcuteIronIntoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Özgül

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In adults, the main causes of iron poisoning are intake suicide attempts and an overdose of iron during pregnancy. The severity of intoxication depends on the amount of iron. When serum iron level exceeds the iron binding capacity of the body, free radicals occurs, leading to lipid peroxidation and cellular membrane damage. In iron poisoning, especially the liver, heart, kidney, lung, and hematologic systems are affected negatively. Acute iron poisoning can cause serious complications resulting in death. Clinical, laboratory observation and early treatment are important. In this case report, we examined to approach the acute iron poisoning with the occasion of high-dose iron intake for suicide attempt. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 107-9ntakeforsuicideattempt. (Journal of theTurkishSocietyIntensiveCare 2011; 9: 107-9

  13. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  14. Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chia-Chu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfactant in a suicide attempt. Metabolic acidosis, refractory respiratory failure, and shock developed during hospitalization. Despite aggressive supportive care, the patient died in the hospital. Conclusion The toxicokinetics of glyphosate surfactant is complicated. Respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia, elevated creatinine, and hyperkalemia are poor prognostic factors if presented. Physicians should consider using hemodialysis early to improve the outcome of patients with glyphosate surfactant intoxication.

  15. Suicidal chemistry: combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakovic, Marija; Nestic, Marina; Mayer, Davor

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we present a rare case of suicidal intoxication with carbon monoxide produced via reaction of formic and sulphuric acid with additional toxic effect of formic acid. The deceased was a 22-year-old men found dead in the bathroom locked from the inside. A bucket filled with liquid was found next to him, together with an almost empty canister labeled "formic acid" and another empty unlabeled canister. The postmortem examination revealed corrosive burns of the face, neck and chest, cherry-pink livor mortis, corrosive injury to the oropharyngeal area and trachea, subpleural petechiae, 100 mL of blood in stomach and superficial erosions of stomach mucosa. Toxicology analysis revealed 30% of carboxyhemoglobin in the femoral blood and the presence of the formic acid in various samples. Quantitative analysis of formic acid was performed by measuring methyl ester derivative of formic acid by using headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The highest concentration of formic acid was measured in the lungs (0.55 g/kg), gastric content (0.39 g/L), and blood (0.28 g/L). In addition, it was established that content of the unlabeled canister had a pH value of 0.79 and contained sulphuric ions. Morphological and toxicology findings suggested that the main route of exposure to formic acid was inhalation of vapors with a possible ingestion of only small amount of liquid acid. The cause of death was determined to be combined intoxication with carbon monoxide and formic acid. PMID:26041513

  16. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  17. A way of handling Taxus baccata intoxications in forensic laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dziadosz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the possibility of handling Taxus baccata intoxications by the use of an LC–MS/MS method for the direct confirmation of taxine B. A simple and fast preparation procedure of a methanol yew leaves’ extract was applied. This extract made the LC–MS/MS taxine B/isotaxine B optimization possible by the use of its continuous infusion. The analyses were performed with an Agilent 1100 Series HPLC-API 2000™ LC–MS/MS system. The following mass-transitions were monitored in the positive MRM mode: 584.4/194.1 and 584.4/107.2. A Zorbax SB-C18, 4.6 × 50 mm, 5 micron column maintained at 45 ± 1 °C was used for the separation. 20 μL of a prepared sample was injected into the HPLC and eluted with a mobile phase consisting of A: CH3OH and B: 50 mL 0.1 M CH3COONH4 + 50 mL CH3CN + 900 mL H2O + 1 mL CH3COOH (A:B = 7:3, v/v. The flow rate was 0.3 mL/min and a single LC–MS/MS run was completed in 20 min. The biological material was extracted with Extrelut® NT 3 extraction tubes. In fatalities, where a T. baccata intoxication was indicated by the presence of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol in biological material, taxine B/isotaxine B was also identified in the appropriate post-mortem specimens.

  18. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KAHVECİ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the standard effective treatment method. Herein we report a 23-year-old woman with high dose carbamazepine overdose treated with high efficiency hemodialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion. We also discuss a comparison of the methods used for carbamazepine intoxication.

  19. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Baelum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection...... with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken......, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution....

  20. Cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoholic patients have been known to have brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. However, recent studies have reported bilateral signal hyperintensities of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in liver failure, findings that are typically associated with manganese intoxication. The present study compared brain atrophy on T1-weighted MRI, signal intensity ratios of the globus pallidus on T1-weighted MRI, whole blood manganese levels, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) IQ parameters between alcoholics with and without liver cirrhosis, to investigate cognitive dysfunction, MRI findings and manganese levels in alcoholics. Pallidal hyperintensity was visually identified in 80% of alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. In addition, a significant correlation was seen between pallidal signal intensity (P.S.I.) ratio and blood manganese level. However, no significant correlations were found between pallidal signal intensity ratio and any of the WAIS-R parameters. These findings suggest that no direct connection exists between cognitive dysfunction and pallidal hyperintensity in alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis. We confirmed that brain MRI in alcoholics could detect pallidal signal hyperintensity, suggesting severe liver dysfunction. In addition to diagnosis, brain MRI is useful for therapeutic psychoeducation to alcoholic patients with liver cirrhosis, visualizing the severe liver dysfunction. (author)

  1. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W; King, Andrea C

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol's effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol's effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  2. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  3. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction ... No one knows what causes problems with alcohol. Health experts think that ... Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in a baby born to a mother whose pregnancy was complicated by alcohol consumption. A broader term ...

  6. Factors Shaping the Decision of College Students to Walk or Drive under the Influence of Alcohol: A Test of Rational Choice Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley; Monk-Turner, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Rational Choice theory was tested to better understand the differences in behaviour regarding walking and driving under the influence of alcohol. Methods: Students at a residential college campus in Virginia were surveyed. Findings: Results show that students were less likely to walk or drive while intoxicated if they believed such behaviour…

  7. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  8. CT and MR manifestations of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the CT and MR manifestations of methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy and to improve the diagnosing value of CT and MRI. Methods: 40 patients with methyl alcohol intoxication were collected in this study, in which CT scan was performed on 40 cases and MRI on 4 cases. All CT and MRI radiological data of brain were retrospectively studied. Results: 13 of 40 cases showed abnormal findings on brain CT and MRI. The most common manifestation (6/13, 46%)was hypodensity in frontal parietal white matter and external capsule-putamen on CT, which showed long or short T1 and long T2 on MR. Hemorrhage in right putamen was found only in 1 patient (1/13,7%). CT showed low density inbilateral external capsule in 4 cases (4/13,31%), in which MR showed long or short T1 and long T2. Low density lesions in subcortical white matter of bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, cingulate gyms and insular lobes were found in 2 patients (2/13,15%). The more severe clinic manifestation, the more obvious brain lesion CT and MRI showed. Conclusion: Brain CT and MR manifestations have great diagnostic value of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy. MRI was more sensitive and better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication. (authors)

  9. Confronting death from drug self-intoxication (DDSI): prevention through a better definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Smith, Gordon S; Caine, Eric D; Kapusta, Nestor D; Hanzlick, Randy L; Larkin, G Luke; Naylor, Charles P E; Nolte, Kurt B; Miller, Ted R; Putnam, Sandra L; De Leo, Diego; Kleinig, John; Stack, Steven; Todd, Knox H; Fraser, David W

    2014-12-01

    Suicide and other self-directed violence deaths are likely grossly underestimated, reflecting inappropriate classification of many drug intoxication deaths as accidents or unintentional and heterogeneous ascertainment and coding practices across states. As the tide of prescription and illicit drug-poisoning deaths is rising, public health and research needs would be better satisfied by considering most of these deaths a result of self-intoxication. Epidemiologists and prevention scientists could design better intervention strategies by focusing on premorbid behavior. We propose incorporating deaths from drug self-intoxication and investigations of all poisoning deaths into the National Violent Death Reporting System, which contains misclassified homicides and undetermined intent deaths, to facilitate efforts to comprehend and reverse the surging rate of drug intoxication fatalities. PMID:25320874

  10. Efficacy of chelating agents for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelating agents (8102, 7601, 811, 7603, 8307, DTPA) were tested for treatment of acute uranium intoxication in rats. All phenolic chelating agents distinctively increased removal of uranium when they were injected immediately after intoxication of uranyl nitrate. 8102 was the best of them on removing uranium. After a single i.m. injection of 8102 at dose of 500 mg/kg, the excretion of uranium in the urine was 2.9 times higher than that for control, and the retention of uranium in kidneys was their 29%. When 8102 was administered 1 h before and up to 4 h after intoxication, it markedly increased the removal of uranium. When 8102 was administered to rats 1 h before intoxication, the histological lesion in kidneys was only a slight hydropic degeneration of the tubule epithelial cells. On the contrary, there wa a severe necrosis of the tubule epithelial cells in kidneys for controls

  11. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication.

  12. Alcohol Dose Effects on Brain Circuits During Simulated Driving: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meda, Shashwath A; Calhoun, Vince D.; Astur, Robert S.; Turner, Beth M.; Ruopp, Kathryn; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated remains a major public health hazard. Driving is a complex task involving simultaneous recruitment of multiple cognitive functions. The investigators studied the neural substrates of driving and their response to different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality driving simulator. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate spatially independent and temporally correlated driving-related...

  13. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-18FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal

  14. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu KAHVECİ; Zeynep KUBİLAY; Ebru AŞICIOĞLU; Hakkı ARIKAN; KOÇ, Mehmet; Serhan TUĞLULAR; Çetin ÖZENER

    2011-01-01

    Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the stand...

  15. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Uysalol, Metin; Uysalol, Ezgi Paslı; SARAÇOĞLU, GAMZE VAROL; Kayaoğlu, Semra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female) who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis. Results...

  16. Mulberry Fruit Mitigates Alcohol Neurotoxicity and Memory Impairment Induced by Chronic Alcohol Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To date, the therapeutic strategy efficacy against memory impairment induced by alcohol intoxication is still limited. The novel therapeutic strategy which is easy to approach, less toxic and less cost is required. Based on the role of oxidative stress in memory impairment induced by alcohol, the neuroprotective effect of substance possessing antioxidant has gained much attention. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of Morus alba fruits, substance possessing antioxidant, on spatial memory and brain damage in hippocampus. Approach: Male Wistar rats were induced alcoholism by increasing the alcohol concentration in drinking water gradually increased to 30% within 15-week period. Then, the alcoholic rats were orally given mulberry fruits powder at doses of 2, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 14 days. The memory was assessed using Morris water maze after single administration and every 7 days until the end of the experimental period and at the end of experiment, hippocampus was isolated and determined the neuron density. In addition, the evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and Malondialdehyde (MDA level were also performed. Results: Our results showed that all doses of mulberry fruits enhanced spatial memory and neurons density in hippocampus. The suppression of both AChE activity and MDA level were also observed. These results suggested that the neuroprotection of mulberry fruits might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress damage while the cognitive enhancing effect might occur partly via the increased hippocampal neuron density and the suppression of AChE activity. Conclusion: Mulberry fruits can protect against brain damage and memory impairment induced by alcoholism. Therefore, mulberry fruits may be served as natural resource for developing food supplement against alcoholism. However, further researches about possible active ingredient and pharmacokinetic are required before moving forward

  17. Paneth cells: histochemical and morphometric study in control and Solanum glaucophyllum intoxicated rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CN Zanuzzi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a critical roll in host defence. One specialised cell type involved in this function is the Paneth cell, which secretes many substances with antimicrobial properties in response to different stimuli. Under pathological conditions, changes in the Paneth cell number, morphology and location as well as in granule number, morphology and composition have been reported. In the normal animal, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 participates in the maintenance of mineral homeostasis, immunomodulation and cell proliferation and differentiation. Solanum glaucophyllum, a calcinogenic plant containing high levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is responsible for a condition known as enzootic calcinosis in ruminants, characterised by loss of body condition and mineralization of soft tissues. Using and established rabbit model, this study analyses the changes that rabbit Paneth cells undergo during intoxication with S. glaucophyllum. Male New Zealand white rabbits were experimentally intoxicated with S. glaucophyllum for 15 or 30 days. Lectin, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were carried out on Paneth cells from samples of jejunum. SBA, DBA and WGA lectins bound to Paneth cellsgranules in both normal and intoxicated rabbits, with more heterogenity in the labelling of granules from intoxicated rabbits. Paneth cells in both groups were immunonegative for lysosyme. A time and dose-dependent increase in the size and number of Paneth cells was found in both intoxicated groups.We suggest that the changes described in these cells may be directly or indirectly induced by S. glaucophyllum intoxication.

  18. Reduced survival after isoprenaline/dopamine in d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, A E; te Biesebeek, J D; Vleeming, W; Wemer, J; Meulenbelt, J; de Wildt, D J

    1996-02-01

    1. Respiratory and cardiovascular failure are principle toxic effects of beta-blocker overdose. Respiratory arrest is the primary cause of death in beta-blocker intoxicated rats. 2. The effect of beta-adrenoceptor agonists on respiratory and cardiovascular failure in beta-blocker overdose was investigated in a model of acute d,l-propranolol (30 mg kg-1 h-1) intoxication in spontaneously breathing rats. 3. Neither the aselective, hydrophilic beta-agonist isoprenaline (10, 25, 50 micrograms kg-1 min-1), nor the beta 1-selective, lipophilic beta-agonist flerobuterol (1, 3, 10 microgram kg-1 min-1) and the beta 2-selective, lipophilic beta-agonist clenbuterol (10, 25, 50 micrograms kg-1 min-1) had any beneficial effect on cardiovascular and respiratory variables or survival time in d,l-propranolol intoxicated spontaneously breathing rats. 4. Isoprenaline (10 micrograms kg-1 min-1) had no favourable effect on haemodynamic and respiratory variables in artificially ventilated d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats either. 5. Addition of dopamine to isoprenaline resulted in a significant reduction of survival time, primarily caused by a decreased in mean arterial blood pressure, in artificially ventilated d,l-propranolol intoxicated rats. Addition of glucagon to isoprenaline did not affect survival time. 6. Artificial ventilation is the most important supportive measure in d,l-propranolol intoxication in the rat. PMID:8645502

  19. Comparison between patient characteristics and cranial MR findings in chronic thinner intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Kato, Akira; Yoshikai, Tomonori; Kudo, Sho [Department of Radiology, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima (Japan); Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Endoh, Koichi [Department of Psychiatry, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan); Takashima, Yuki [Department of Neurology, Hizen National Hospital, Saga (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Chronic thinner intoxication is one of the most serious social problems among teenagers and young adults in Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients with thinner intoxication who had positive MR findings. During the past 4 years, cranial MR imaging of 85 patients (51 males and 34 females) with chronic thinner intoxication was done at a national psychiatric hospital. The MR imaging was performed on a 1.0-T scanner with use of standard pulse sequences including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The established characteristic MR findings of chronic thinner intoxication were observed in 8 of the 85 patients: 4 males and 4 females. The female patients tended toward emaciation and were approximately 5 years younger than the male patients. Six of the 8 patients had severe neurological symptoms such as cerebellar ataxia and decreased visual acuity. In contrast, only 3 of 77 (4%) patients with normal MR findings had mild neurological abnormalities such as tremor. If patients with chronic thinner intoxication have significant neurological symptoms, MR imaging should be performed for evaluation of brain abnormalities. Emaciated female patients may be particularly vulnerable to neurological damage caused by thinner intoxication. (orig.)

  20. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and

  1. Mixing alcohol with artificially sweetened beverages: Prevalence and correlates among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Mixing alcohol with diet beverages, as compared to mixing the same amount of alcohol with a regular beverage, is associated with greater intoxication. This may occur because diet mixers increase alcohol absorption rates. Thus, it is plausible that the use of diet mixers may increase the risk of alcohol-related harms. The current study sought to (1) determine the rate/frequency of use in among college students, (2) examine the relationship between mixing alcohol with diet beverages and alcohol-related problems, above typical alcohol use and sensation seeking, and (3) explore key traits (gender, restricting food while drinking, and body mass index [BMI]) that may characterize users. Participants were 686 (73% female) undergraduate students who completed self-reports of alcohol use (including diet mixer use), alcohol-related problems, eating behaviors while drinking, sensation seeking, and demographic information. Results revealed that about 36% of the sample reported consuming alcohol with diet mixers, and users typically consumed this beverage at least once a month. Students who reported mixing alcohol with diet beverages experienced more alcohol-related problems. And, the more frequently one consumed this beverage, the more problems were reported. These associations were found after controlling for typical level of alcohol use and sensation seeking. No differences were observed between user-status on gender, eating behaviors while drinking, and BMI. Our findings suggest that mixing alcohol with diet beverages could be a risk factor for experiencing more alcohol-related harms. Further research is needed to understand this relationship, as it may help guide intervening efforts aimed to reduce alcohol-related risks. PMID:27344010

  2. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties. PMID:27041394

  3. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  4. Chelation therapy for metal intoxication: comments from a thermodynamic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Alonso, Miriam Crespo; Toso, Leonardo; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Chelation therapy plays a prominent role in the clinical treatment of metal intoxication. In this paper the principal causes of metal toxicity are exposed, and the chemical and biomedical requisites of a chelating agent are sketched. The chelating agents currently in use for scavenging toxic metal ions from humans belong to few categories: those characterized by coordinating mercapto groups, by oxygen groups, poliaminocarboxylic acids, and dithiocarbamates. Considering that the complex formation equilibria have been studied for less than 50% of chelators in use, some reflections on the utility of stability constants are presented, together with an evaluation of ligands under the stability profile. The competition between endogenous and toxic target metal ions for the same chelating agent is furthermore examined. A thorough examination of stability constant databases has allowed to select, for each toxic metal, the ligands distinguished by the best pMe values. Even though this selection does not consider the biomedical requisites of a chelating agent, it gives a clear picture both of the pMe values that can be attained, and of the most appropriate chelators for each metal ion. PMID:23895193

  5. Oxycodone intoxication in an infant: accidental or intentional exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Barry; Moore, Karla A; Aronica-Pollak, Patricia; Fowler, David F

    2004-11-01

    A case is presented of a 10 month old male who went into cardiac arrest at a local store. The infant subsequently expired and was autopsied at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland. The only remarkable finding was the detection of oxycodone in the postmortem specimens; the blood and liver oxycodone concentrations were 0.6 mg/L and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively. Oxycodone was identified and quantitated by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection and confirmed by full scan electron ionization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was oxycodone intoxication, and the manner of death was homicide. The key toxicologic question in this case was whether or not it was reasonable for the infant to be exposed to oxycodone exclusively through breast milk or through an alternate source. It was concluded that, at best, there were serious concerns about the likelihood of drug exposure through consumption of breast milk. PMID:15568714

  6. Impairment of autophagy: From hereditary disorder to drug intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At first, the molecular mechanism of autophagy was unveiled in a unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), followed by the discovery that the basic mechanism of autophagy is conserved in multicellular organisms including mammals. Although autophagy was considered to be a non-selective bulk protein degradation system to recycle amino acids during periods of nutrient starvation, it is also believed to be an essential mechanism for the selective elimination of proteins/organelles that are damaged under pathological conditions. Research advances made using autophagy-deficient animals have revealed that impairments of autophagy often underlie the pathogenesis of hereditary disorders such as Danon, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. On the other hand, there are many reports that drugs and toxicants, including arsenic, cadmium, paraquat, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induce autophagy during the development of their toxicity on many organs including heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver. Although the question as to whether autophagic machinery is involved in the execution of cell death or not remains controversial, the current view of the role of autophagy during cell/tissue injury is that it is an important, often essential, cytoprotective reaction; disturbances in cytoprotective autophagy aggravate cell/tissue injuries. The purpose of this review is to provide (1) a gross summarization of autophagy processes, which are becoming more important in the field of toxicology, and (2) examples of important studies reporting the involvement of perturbations in autophagy in cell/tissue injuries caused by acute as well as chronic intoxication

  7. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  8. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R H Rockett

    Full Text Available The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice.To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system.This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008-2010, and derived from NCHS's Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files.Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman's rho = 0.38; p<0.01. Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016-1.110. Region, too, was a

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  10. Increase of baclofen intoxications : risks involved and management

    OpenAIRE

    Arbouw, M.E.L.; Hoge, H L; Meulenbelt, J.; Jansman, F.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen has been increasingly used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). We present a patient with AWS and psychiatric comorbidity who ingested 700 mg of baclofen. ICU admission was necessary for ventilatory support and symptomatic treatment. The patient was dismissed without sequelae.

  11. Adult Consequences of Late Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jim McCambridge; John McAlaney; Richard Rowe

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background The effects of alcohol intoxication (drunkenness), dependence (habitual, compulsive, and long-term drinking), and the associated biochemical changes, have wide-ranging health and social consequences, some of which can be lethal. Worldwide, alcohol causes 2.5 million deaths (3.8% of total) and 69.4 million (4.5% of total) of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Unintentional injuries alone account for about one-third of the 2.5 million deaths, whereas neuro-psych...

  12. Effects of meal composition on blood alcohol level, psychomotor performance and subjective state after ingestion of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, F; Hammersley, R; Millar, K

    1998-12-01

    Moderating effects of meal composition on psychomotor performance impairment and feelings after alcohol were examined in a between-subjects design. Fifty-one male volunteers fasted or received either a high carbohydrate (85% energy) or a high protein (94% energy) meal. Alcohol was administered at a dose to achieve a blood alcohol level (BAL) of 60 mg/100 ml, as a placebo. Subjects performed a dual task of primary tracking and secondary reaction time and a five-choice reaction time task. Feelings were also assessed by rating. The high carbohydrate meal reduced BAL at peak and 2 h after drinking, but a high protein meal had no significant effect. Although performance was impaired by alcohol, neither meal significantly reduced impairment and there was no effect of meal type on performance in the placebo condition. However, alcohol increased rated intoxication and the high carbohydrate meal reduced this effect. Subjects who had consumed high protein meals had more negative affect 2 h after alcohol than did subjects who had consumed high carbohydrate meals or fasted. It is concluded that there is only a weak relationship between BAL and performance impairment and food has only limited effects on impairment, although it reduces BAL. PMID:9920688

  13. The great recession and employee alcohol use: A U.S. population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study to examine broadly the overall net change in U.S. population estimates of alcohol use related to a recession-The Great Recession-among individuals who remain employed. The alcohol variables included drinker status, usual frequency and quantity of alcohol use, frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication, as well as contextual assessments of the frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the workday and after work. The moderating influence of gender, race, and age also was explored. Data for this repeated cross-sectional study were obtained from 2 national telephone surveys of U.S. workers. The first survey occurred prior to the Great Recession (2002-2003; N = 2,501), whereas the second survey occurred during and after the official end of the Great Recession (2008-2011; N = 2,581). The results revealed that the recession was related to a higher proportion of drinkers among middle-aged employees, but not among young employees. Gender and race did not moderate the relation of the recession to drinker status. Among drinkers, the recession was not related to usual alcohol use (frequency and quantity), but was positively related to the frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication. Further, the recession had a differential relation to the contextual alcohol measures. It was negatively related to the frequency and quantity of workday alcohol use, but was positively related to the frequency and quantity of afterwork alcohol use. Among drinkers, gender, race, and age did not moderate the relation of the recession to alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692295

  14. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  15. Complex plastic changes in the neuropeptide Y system during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olling, J D; Ulrichsen, J; Christensen, D Z;

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic ethanol treatment induces prominent changes in brain neuropeptide Y (NPY). The purpose of the present study was to explore ethanol effects at a deeper NPY-system level, measuring expression of NPY and its receptors (Y1, Y2, Y5) as well as NPY receptor binding and...... intoxication and in functional binding in the DG and NeoCx during intoxication and at 16 hr and in PirCx during intoxication and at 1 week. Thus this study shows that ethanol intoxication and withdrawal induce complex plastic changes in the NPY system, with decreased/increased gene expression or binding...

  16. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  17. The effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Schouppe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown detrimental effects of alcohol on post-error adjustments. In contrast to previous studies, which focused on only one aspect of post-error adaptive behavior, we compared the effect of alcohol and placebo on post-error slowing, post-error reduction of interference and post-error improvement of accuracy. Moreover, we used a between-subjects design (N = 45 comparing a control condition to both an alcohol and an alcohol-placebo condition as to disentangle physiological and expectancy effects of alcohol. In a standard Stroop congruency task, we found that intoxicated participants as well as participants with the incorrect belief of being intoxicated showed significant decreased post-error slowing compared to a control group. Furthermore, we found evidence for a condition-independent post-error increase of interference and post-error decrease of accuracy. The underlying mechanisms of the post-error adaptation effects are discussed in terms of the orienting account (Notebaert et al., 2009.

  18. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  20. The Mt. Diwata study on the Philippines 1999--assessing mercury intoxication of the population by small scale gold mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drasch, G; Böse-O'Reilly, S; Beinhoff, C; Roider, G; Maydl, S

    2001-02-21

    The region of Diwalwal, dominated by Mt. Diwata, is a gold rush area on Mindanao (Philippines) where approximately 15000 people live. The fertile plain of Monkayo is situated downstream, where people grow crops such as rice and bananas; locally caught fish is eaten frequently. The ore is dug in small-scale mines and ground to a powder by ball-mills while still in Diwalwal. The gold is then extracted by adding liquid mercury (Hg), forming gold-amalgam. To separate the gold from the Hg, in most cases the amalgam is simply heated in the open by blow-torches. A high external Hg burden of the local population must be assumed. To evaluate the internal Hg burden of the population and the extent of possible negative health effects, 323 volunteers from Mt. Diwalwal, Monkayo and a control group from Davao were examined by a questionnaire, neurological examination and neuro-psychological testing. Blood, urine and hair samples were taken from each participant and analyzed for total Hg. A statistical evaluation was possible for 102 workers (occupationally Hg burdened ball-millers and amalgam-smelters), 63 other inhabitants from Mt. Diwata ('only' exposed from the environment), 100 persons, living downstream in Monkayo, and 42 inhabitants of Davao (serving as controls). The large volume of data was reduced to yes/no decisions. Alcohol as a possible bias factor was excluded (level of alcohol consumption and type, see Section 4.4). Each factor with a statistically significant difference of at least one exposed group to the control group was included in a medical score (0-21 points). In each of the exposed groups this score was significantly worse than in the control group (median control, 3; downstream, 9; Mt. Diwata, non-occupational exposed, 6; Hg workers, 10). In comparison to the surprisingly high Hg concentration in blood (median, 9.0 microg/l; max, 31.3) and in hair (2.65 microg/g; max, 34.7) of the control group, only the workers show elevated levels: Hg-blood median 11

  1. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this Section Genetics of Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol Use Disorder Problem drinking that becomes severe is given the medical diagnosis of “alcohol use disorder” or AUD. Approximately 7.2 percent or ...

  2. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  5. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  6. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  8. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins January 23 Event registration opens today; new teacher resources... New & Noteworthy August 22, 2016 Fact Sheet: ... Events Sep 15 National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Nov 11 Frontiers in Addiction Research ...

  9. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  10. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  11. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

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    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  12. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  13. REACTIVITY AND ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION CELLULAR TESTS OF THE FIRST TIME DIAGNOSTED SOCIALLY ADOPTED PATIENTS WITH INFILTRATIVE LUNG TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to assess the endogenous intoxication degree and reactivity condition of an organism by calculation the blood leukocyte indexes and their influence assessment for the outcome of first time diagnosed infiltrative lung tuberculosis for the revealed socially safe patients. Case-records of 260 patients were analysed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were: first time diagnosed and confirmed diagnosis of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis; age at least 18 years; socially adopted patients (the patients taking official or informal work place, the constant income in a family, a residence, a registration. Exception criteria were: extra pulmonary or other forms of lung tuberculosis at the patient; existence of a serious somatic illness; HIV infection; existence of malignant new growths; mental diseases; the social disadaptation (homeless persons who aren’t working, released from jails or being under examination, abusing alcohol in the form of hard drinkings and accepting drugs. All patients included in research were divided into two groups: first (main — patients with a failure in quantity the 66, second (group of comparison — patients with a favourable outcome of infiltrative tuberculosis of lungs, in number of 194. Failure criterion was the existence (preservation of a disintegration lung cavity confirmed by the last X-ray picture. According patients blood test results the intoxication leukocyte index (ILI, with Kalf-Kalif formula, an blood leukocytes shift index (BLSI, an organism resistance index (ORI, a Dashtayants nuclear index was carried out. Followly the Spirmen correlation analysis with Statistica 6.0 software package was estimated. As a result of research the following data were obtained. The Dashtayants nuclear index high level at primary blood test has the strongest impact on development of infiltrative lungs tuberculosis failure in patients; the ILI and BLSI high levels at the time of the beginning of

  14. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  15. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  16. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  17. The Trouble with Drink:Intoxication, (In)Capacity and the Evaporation of Consent to Sex

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Feminists have analysed the problematic way in which rape law has evolved in the shadow of the mind/body dualism. This paper will extend this analysis to the problems arising when consent to sex is “intoxicated consent”. One central question is the whether consent is a state of mind or a set of actions or behaviours, performed in certain way, to signify consent. Whether one believes consent to be a state of mind or an action, adding intoxication to the mix renders the problem yet more intract...

  18. 8102 and 7601 as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phenolic chelating agents, 8102 and 7601, as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate (100-500 mg/kg) intoxication was examined. The results show that after intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg of uranyl nitrate per kg, all the control rats died at 3rd and 4th days and exhibited acute renal tubular necrosis and protein casts. 8102 and 7601 could promote the animals survival and reduce the histologic lesion of kidneys in rats intoxicated with uranyl nitrate (100-350 mg/kg). 8102 is more effective than 7601

  19. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A;

    2013-01-01

    seen. Being a female and having a low educational level were risk factors for "poor knowledge on pesticides" and a "risky behavior when handling pesticides." Females reported more symptoms of intoxication. The gender differences on knowledge and handling practices might explain why females report more......This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...

  20. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  1. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO2, runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  2. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  3. Acute Alcohol Effects on Contextual Memory BOLD Response: Differences Based on Fragmentary Blackout History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Schnyer, David M.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual memory, or memory for source details, is an important aspect of episodic memory and has been implicated in alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts (FB). Little is known, however, about how neural functioning during contextual memory processes may differ between individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts. This study examined whether neural activation during a contextual memory task differed by history of fragmentary blackout and acute alcohol consumption. Methods Twenty-four matched individuals with (FB+; n = 12) and without (FB−; n = 12) a history of FBs were recruited from a longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks and completed a laboratory beverage challenge followed by two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions under no alcohol and alcohol [breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) = 0.08%] conditions. Task performance and brain hemodynamic activity during a block design contextual memory task were examined across 48 fMRI sessions. Results Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the contextual memory task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns after alcohol intoxication. A significant FB group by beverage interaction emerged in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex with FB− individuals showing greater BOLD response after alcohol exposure (p blackouts. PMID:22420742

  4. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  5. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  6. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findi...

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Maria Paoletti; Ileana Atzeni; Marisa Orrù; Monica Pilloni; Alessandro Loddo; Martina Zirone; Maria Francesca Marotto; Pierina Zedda; Maria Francesca Fais; Emanuela Stochino Loi; Graziella Boi; Gian Benedetto Melis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS)-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages ...

  8. Another family with acute vitamin D intoxication: another cause of familial hypercalcaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, R B; Johnson, J K

    1986-01-01

    Acute vitamin D intoxication from an unknown source occurred in a family consisting of a grandmother, mother, father and four children aged 14, 11, 8 and 1 1/2 years old. The clinical presentation and response to treatment (which included a diphosphonate preparation and cholestyramine) are described.

  9. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  10. Brain MR finding of β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of β - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide

  11. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schaer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  12. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  13. THE ROLE OF ALCOHOL INVOLVEMENT IN MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Deliverska

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is regularly consumed by individuals in social settings. However, overindulgence can lead to impaired judgment and physical harm. Patients who have sustained alcohol - related injuries are frequently treated in departments of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery. This study exams the association between alcohol consumption and maxillofacial trauma treated at the Department of Maxillofacial surgery - 'St. Anna' Hospital in Sofia for 5 years period. Materials and methods: A minimum dataset was collected prospectively by maxillofacial staff after the first examination of an emergency referral. Information was entered on to a designed database and analysed for a 5-year period. Different data for the victims including age, sex, ethnic group, social status, type of fractures, mode of injury, and treatment delivered was gathered and analyzed. Results: A total of 94 patients were identified to have alcohol-related injuries. More than 4/5 were male of which almost 70% are between 17 and 50 years old. Assault was the most often cause of trauma, followed by motor vehicle accident and fall as third reason for injuries. Other etiologies differ and were presented by fewer cases.Conclusion: The maxillofacial region is by far the most frequently selected target in assault in adults. There is a casual link between alcohol intoxication and injury. Alcohol-related injuries continued to be the main problem in young male adults involved in fights. Significant problem are road accidents caused by alcohol-influenced drivers. Therefore we believe that there should be public awareness to educate these people for the harmful effect of drinking.

  14. The protective role of Melatonin on small intestine after Thioacetamide Intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of melatonin (MT), a very potent and efficient endogenous free radical scavenger, against the toxic effect induced by thioacetamide (TAA) on structures of small intestine in rats. Melatonin acts as primary nonenzymatic antioxidant and protects the tissue from oxidative damage. Thioacetamide, which was originally used as a fungicide, is proposed hepatotoxin commonly used to induce liver cirrhosis in rats and other species. However, very little attention has been dealt with the effects of TAA on the intestinal cells and there functions. It was therefore of interest to study the aging variation in the sequenced response responses of injury caused by TAA and regeneration capacity of recovery after using melatonin. For this purpose male Wistar rats aging 1, 3 and 12 months are arranged in three main groups (15 rats for each group). Each main group then divided into: (1) control group, (2) intoxicated group (a single high dose 300 mg/kg/body weight of TAA) and (3) treated group, administered the same dose of thioacetamide with melatonin (5mg/kg/body weight) daily injected orally for four weeks. Histological investigation of TAA intoxication revealed a highest grade of pathological alterations manifested by changes of width and length of most villi in ileum of all intoxicated groups. The epithelial cells lining the top of the villi were denuded in ileum sections of newly weaned and young intoxicated animals, while they appeared degenerated with exposed lamina propria in ileum sections of adult group. There was also an increase in the number of goblet cells in most villi and in crypts of Lieberkuhn of intestinal cells. Mitotic figures were observed obviously in the crypts of onset ileum cells of intoxicated animals. Lymphocytic infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa were more obvious in the intestinal cell of young intoxicated groups. However, congestion and dilatation of blood vessels were more pronounced in ileum sections of

  15. Morphine protects against methylmercury intoxication: a role for opioid receptors in oxidative stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Costa-Malaquias

    Full Text Available Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could

  16. The influence of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on oxygen free radicals metabolism in rabbits with soman intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. Methods: One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group, UBIO therapy group and combined therapy group. After 14 d, the concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT)and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum were determined respectively. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of MDA and activity of CAT in the intoxication group were significantly higher (P < 0. 05 ), but SOD, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05). After UBIO or combined therapy, serum MDA level was significantly lower in comparison with intoxication group (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T AOC were higher than intoxication group(P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an obvious oxygen free radical injury in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. UBIO can improve the antioxidation ability of rabbits and may be applied to treat acute soman intoxication as adjunctive therapy.

  17. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  18. Hemodialysis for methyl alcohol poisoning: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek B Kute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors. Hemodialysis (HD is the best method to rapidly remove both toxic acid metabolites and parent alcohols, and it plays a fundamental role in treating severely poisoned patients. This retrospective study was carried out on 91 patients with detectable serum methanol levels who underwent HD. Because toxic alcohol levels were not immediately available, the initial diagnosis and treatment was based on clinical history with evidence of toxic alcohol intake, presence of high anion metabolic acidosis and/or end organ damage. Patients received bicarbonate, ethanol, according to clinical features and blood gases. Patients underwent HD in the setting of known methanol ingestion with high anion gap metabolic acidosis, or evidence of end-organ damage, regardless of methanol level. HD prescription included large surface area dialyzer (≥1.5 m2, blood flow rate of 250-350 mL/min and dialysate flow rate of 500 mL/min for 4-6 h. Between 9 and 11 July 2009, 91 males with mean age 40 ± 8.5 years underwent HD, and 13 patients required a second HD session. Patients consumed 100-500 mL illicit liquors, and symptoms appeared six and 60 h later. Clinical features were gastro-intestinal symptoms (83.5%, visual disturbances (60.4%, central nervous system symptoms (59.3% and dyspnea (43.9%. Before HD, mean pH was 7.11 ± 0.04 (range 6.70- 7.33 and mean bicarbonate levels were 8.5 ± 4.9 mmol/L (range 2-18. Three patients died due to methanol intoxication. Mortality was associated with severe metabolic acidosis (pH ≤ 6.90, ventilator requirement and coma/seizure on admission (P < 0.001. Timely HD, bicarbonate, ethanol and supportive therapy can be life-saving in methanol intoxication.

  19. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  20. The structural configurations of alcohol in Denmark: Policy, culture, and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Magelund Krarup, Troels

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes recent developments in Danish alcohol policy, culture, and industry. It reveals cross-sector dynamics and complexities that are often downplayed in existing literature. It traces how a stable “structural configuration” emerged in the 1960s-1980s between the three domains......, based on liberalization. A particular adolescent alcohol culture of intoxication, however, emerged in the 1990s, raising public awareness and calls for policy intervention. Contrary to what may have been expected, this did not represent a break with the liberal alcohol configuration in policy, culture......, and industry, but an increased segregation of adolescent consumption from adult consumption, exposing the former to severe legal and moral regulation. This analysis of historic-structural dynamics helps explain why adolescent drinking is dependent on more than isolated causal links such as between...

  1. Fetal alcohol effects in alcoholic veteran patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, P V; Henschel, C E; Ngo, T A; Walters, E E; Worobec, T G

    1998-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is often associated with severe physical and neuropsychiatric maldevelopment. On the other hand, some offspring of women who drank during pregnancy appear to be affected in minimal ways and function relatively well within society. We questioned whether this effect of prenatal alcohol in the adult is generally minimal. To bear on this, we determined whether we could distinguish alcohol-exposed from nonexposed individuals in a population of male veterans, selected because of both their accepted level of function within society (e.g., honorable discharge from the military) and their admission to an alcohol treatment unit (thus, a greater likelihood of parental alcoholism, because of its familial aggregation). Consecutively admitted alcoholics (cases; n = 77) with likely maternal alcohol ingestion during their pregnancy or the first 10 years of life were matched with alcoholics with no maternal alcohol exposure during these periods (controls; n = 161). Each subject completed questionnaires regarding personal birthweight, alcohol, drug, educational and work histories, and family (including parental) alcohol and drug histories. We measured height, weight, and head circumference; checked for facial and hand anomalies; and took a frontal facial photograph, from which measurements of features were made. Data were analyzed by univariate statistics and stepwise logistic regression. No case had bona fide fetal alcohol syndrome. With univariate statistical analyses, the cases differed from the controls in 10 variables, including duration of drinking, width of alae nasae, being hyperactive or having a short attention span, and being small at birth. By stepwise logistic regression, the variables marital status, small size at birth, duration of drinking, and the presence of a smooth philtrum were marginally (the first two) or definitely (the last two) significant predictors of case status. Analysis of only the 37 cases in whom maternal prenatal drinking was

  2. Domestic violence and alcohol use: Security measures of compulsory treatment and a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragišić-Labaš Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is one among a number of factors in the etiology of violent crime which includes domestic violence. Domestic violence usually designates: violence between partners (spouses and violence towards children and elderly parents. The aim of this article is to highlight the impact of alcohol abuse (intoxication and alcohol dependence on domestic violence, but also to emphasize the multifactoriality of this relation, the economic damage that society suffers and the society´s very role with regard to the alcohol-crime relation. Presented are also different research projects and statistical data regarding the prevalence of this phenomena, together with three case studies that involved violent behavior towards the spouse, children and parents. The offenders received an order of compulsory treatment of alcoholism in a psychiatric institution and have been treated and observed for two years (psychotherapy and support clubs. The literature and the experiences of psychotherapeutic practice lead to a conclusion that prevention of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is indeed one of the factors that play a significant role in reducing the rate of violent crime, especially of domestic violence.

  3. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Karen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%, Spanish (59.6% and British (61.4% samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%. In those drinking 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08% was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife.

  4. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  6. Alcohol: A Women's Health Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... itself can cause serious long-term health consequences. Alcohol in Women’s Lives: Safe Drinking Over a Lifetime ... much, and how often to drink. What Are Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism? Alcohol abuse is a pattern ...

  7. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  8. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages...... volume is estimated under the current tax regime. Between six to eight percent of consumers are expected to adopt low alcohol wine alternatives as part of their alcoholic beverage portfolio. Consumers of cask wine and light beer are more likely and consumers of medium-full strength beer and spirits...

  9. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  10. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  11. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  13. Alcohol and Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  14. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  16. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  17. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this ... saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while ...

  18. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a woman drinks while pregnant. Alcohol can disrupt fetal development at any stage during a pregnancy—including at ... Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... pregnancy can disrupt normal development of the face and the brain. In fact, ...

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  1. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkinson, C.A.; Yuan, Q.; et al. The influence of GABrA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and ... Articles examine different sources of stress, such as childhood abuse and ... stress influences the development of alcohol abuse and dependence, and ...

  2. Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Dry

    Full Text Available We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N = 56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%, employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention; the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory; Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding; the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization; the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function; and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function. Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.

  3. Alcohol and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yinglan; Song Jingyu; Jin Junshuo; Zhong Xiuhong; Ren Xiangshan; Liu Shuangping

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To study the relationship between alcohol and atherosclerosis (AS).Methods The paper reviewed the mechanism of the alcohol leading to AS from four aspects such as the introduction of alcohol and AS, imbalance of oxidationantioxidation system, oxygen free radical (OFR) and endothelium cell (EC) apoptosis, apoptosis and AS.Results Excessive alcohol could lead to imbalance of oxidation-antioxidation system, and increase OFR, in the meanwhile, OFR could lead to EC apoptosis,which could lead to AS.

  4. Alterations in affective behavior during the time course of alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadayian, Analía G; Busso, María J; Feleder, Carlos; Cutrera, Rodolfo A

    2013-09-15

    Alcohol hangover is a temporary state described as the unpleasant next-day effects after binge-like drinking. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. Affective behavior is impaired during the acute phase of alcohol intoxication; however, no reports indicate if similar effects are observed during withdrawal. The aim of this work was to study the time-extension and possible fluctuations in affective behavior during a hangover episode. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8g/kg BW) (hangover group). Anxiety, fear-related behavior and despair phenotype were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2h up to 20h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Also, anhedonia signs and pain perception disabilities were studied. Mice exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior during 4h and 14h after hangover onset when evaluated by the elevated-plus maze and open field test respectively (phangover animals by the increase of freezing and decrease of line crossings and rearing frequency during 16h after hangover onset (phangover mice during 14h (pHangover mice showed a significant decrease in pain perception when tested by tail immersion test at the beginning of hangover (phangover affective impairments. This study shows the long lasting effects of hangover over the phase of ethanol intoxication. PMID:23850352

  5. Alcohol and liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalia Osna

    2009-01-01

    @@ Liver is a primary site of ethanol metabolism, which makes this organ susceptible to alcohol-induced damage.Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has many manifestations and complicated pathogenesis. In this Topic Highlight, we included the key reviews that characterize new findings about the mechanisms of ALD development and might be of strong interest for clinicians and researchers involved in liver alcohol studies.

  6. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  7. Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Alcohol and pregnancy 3:07 Drinking alcohol while you are pregnant ... birth defects. Learn about the dangers of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Stanford Prematurity Research Center Launch 3:25 Newborn ...

  8. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  9. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  10. Psychogenic Polydipsia: The Result, or Cause of, Deteriorating Psychotic Symptoms? A Case Report of the Consequences of Water Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Gill; MacDara McCauley

    2015-01-01

    Water intoxication is a rare condition characterised by overconsumption of water. It can occur in athletes engaging in endurance sports, users of MDMA (ecstasy), and patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. This case outlines water intoxication in a patient with psychogenic polydipsia. When the kidney's capacity to compensate for exaggerated water intake is exceeded, hypotonic hyperhydration results. Consequences can involve headaches, behavioural changes, muscular weakness, twitching, ...

  11. An exploration of nurses experience of alcohol related violence and caring for intoxicated patients in Accident and Emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Locker, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the violence that Accident and Emergency nurses encounter. Current literature and health policies emphasis the seriousness and prevalence of violent attacks on nurses in A&E. There is also a push towards a new Government agenda based on Zero-tolerance. The study adopted a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. It contained six participants who were asked about their experiences of violence encountered in the A&E department. They were also asked to lo...

  12. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Long-Term Outcome in Patients With Acetaminophen Intoxication: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication is a common cause of hepatic toxicity and life-threatening hepatic failure. However, few studies have investigated the possible association between APAP intoxication and acute kidney injury (AKI). We constructed a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationship between APAP intoxication and the risk of AKI.We identified patients with APAP intoxication and selected a comparison cohort that was 1:4 frequency matched according to age, sex, and year of APAP intoxication diagnosis from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1998 to 2010. We analyzed the risks of AKI for patients with APAP intoxication by using Cox proportional hazards regression models.In this study, 2914 patients with APAP intoxication and 11,656 controls were included. The overall risks of developing AKI were 2.41-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication compared with the comparison cohort. After we excluded APAP intoxication patients with coexisting AKI and hepatic failure/hepatitis, the overall risks of developing AKI were still 2.22-fold in the patients with APAP intoxication. There were 2 patients who had end-stage renal disease (ESRD) following APAP intoxication-related AKI. Limitations include retrospective review, selection bias, and absence of data on detail medications used, laboratory investigations and dosage of APAP intoxication.Our long-term cohort study results showed that AKI is a possible adverse effect among patients with APAP intoxication, regardless of whether patients have presented with hepatic toxicity. However, additional studies are necessary to clarify whether such patients can progress to ESRD. PMID:26579812

  13. Phenytoin intoxication with no symptoms correlated with serum drug level: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcil, Mucahit; Duman, Ali; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Kapci, Mucahit; Akoz, Ayhan; Canakci, Selcuk Eren; Ozluer, Yunus Emre

    2015-01-01

    In high-dose intake of phenytoin, which is used frequently to treatepilepsy, nystagmus, diplopia, nausea-vomiting, lethargy, confusion, seizure, and coma can be observed. In recent studies on phenytoin intoxication, in which seizure and coma were observed in drug levels greater than 50 ug/mL. The serum phenytoin level of apatient, who consumed approximately 100 pcs of 100 mg phenytoin tablets in an effort to commit suicide, and who had no pathological finding in her neurologic examination, was 124 ug/mL. High drug level and the absence of toxic effect (or the absence of toxic effect correlated with the drug level) indicates that cytochrome P450 is functioning, but there can be a mutation in the MDR1 gene. In our case study, we report on phenytoin intoxication in a patient having a high level of phenytoin but no symptoms correlated with serum drug level, as supported by the findings in the literature. PMID:26966493

  14. Intravenous lipid emulsion and dexmedetomidine for treatment of feline permethrin intoxication: a report from 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ceccherini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of feline permethrin intoxication are described. The cause of intoxication is the application of canine permethrin spot-on product (Advantix®, Bayer by the owners. Principal clinical guidelines recommends the use of anticonvulsant drugs to treat seizures or neurological symptoms after initial stabilization and dermal decontamination. The use of lipid emulsion had an increasing interest in the last decade for treatment of toxicosis caused by lipophilic drugs as reported in human and in veterinary medical practices. All cats presented in this study, were treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE at variable dosages, and dexmedetomidine was also administered by intravenous way. No adverse reaction such as thrombophlebitis, overload circulation or others was noticed during and after administration of ILE. Dexmedetomidine was proved to be helpful in tranquillizing the cats. All cats were discharged in good condition faster than other cases treated without their use.

  15. The ultra-structural survey of Aloe Vera extract on photoreceptor layer after methanol intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    M Bahramian; A. Amiri; A zarenezhad; M mard khoshnood; E zarenezhad; Esfandiari, A

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: The photoreceptor layer is a main part of the retina. The Aloe Vera has antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the ultra-structure of the photoreceptor layer of male rats under the effect of methanol intoxication and protective effects of Aloe Vera extract against the methanol toxicity. Methods: The present experimental study was conducted on 30 adult male wistar rats in three groups of ten: as control, methanol intoxica...

  16. Chronic motor neuron disease possibly related to intoxication with organochlorine insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, R G; Resende, L A; Silva, M D; Camargo, A

    1993-07-01

    We report on two patients with a history of chronic exposure to organochlorine insecticides who developed clinical and electromyographic signs and symptoms of chronic motor neuron disease. Measurements of aldrin, lindane and heptachlor confirmed the intoxication. We emphasize the importance of searching for toxic and environmental factors in cases of motor neuron disease especially in Third World countries, where workers usually wear no adequate protective equipment. PMID:7690513

  17. Behavioral and Neurological Foundations for the Moral and Legal Implications of Intoxication, Addictive Behaviors and Disinhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Leeman, Robert F.; Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2009-01-01

    Disinhibition and addictive behaviors are related and carry moral implications. Both typically involve diminished consideration of negative consequences, which may result in harm to oneself or others. Disinhibition may occur on state and trait levels, and addictive substances may elicit disinhibitory states, particularly when intoxication is reached. Data suggest that trait disinhibition and addictions may be conceptualized as involving misdirected motivation with underlying biological bases ...

  18. Molecular mechanisms of in vivo metal chelation: implications for clinical treatment of metal intoxications.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Ole; Aaseth, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Successful in vivo chelation treatment of metal intoxication requires that a significant fraction of the administered chelator in fact chelate the toxic metal. This depends on metal, chelator, and organism-related factors (e.g., ionic diameter, ring size and deformability, hardness/softness of electron donors and acceptors, route of administration, bioavailability, metabolism, organ and intra/extracellular compartmentalization, and excretion). In vivo chelation is not necessarily an equilibri...

  19. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats

    OpenAIRE

    So, K. L.; Buijzer, E.; Gommers, Diederik; Kaisers, U; Genderen, Perry; Lachmann, Burkhard

    1998-01-01

    textabstractParaquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung ...

  20. The Anion Gap is a Predictive Clinical Marker for Death in Patients with Acute Pesticide Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Hyo; Park, Samel; Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Su-Yeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pesticide formulation includes solvents (methanol and xylene) and antifreeze (ethylene glycol) whose metabolites are anions such as formic acid, hippuric acid, and oxalate. However, the effect of the anion gap on clinical outcome in acute pesticide intoxication requires clarification. In this prospective study, we compared the anion gap and other parameters between surviving versus deceased patients with acute pesticide intoxication. The following parameters were assessed in 1,058 patients with acute pesticide intoxication: blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, lactic acid, liver enzymes, albumin, globulin, and urate), urinalysis (ketone bodies), arterial blood gas analysis, electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) HCO3 (-), Ca(++)), pesticide field of use, class, and ingestion amount, clinical outcome (death rate, length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, and seriousness of toxic symptoms), and the calculated anion gap. Among the 481 patients with a high anion gap, 52.2% had a blood pH in the physiologic range, 35.8% had metabolic acidosis, and 12.1% had acidemia. Age, anion gap, pesticide field of use, pesticide class, seriousness of symptoms (all P < 0.001), and time lag after ingestion (P = 0.048) were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. Among these, age, anion gap, and pesticide class were significant risk factors for death in a multiple logistic regression analysis (P < 0.001). In conclusions, high anion gap is a significant risk factor for death, regardless of the accompanying acid-base balance status in patients with acute pesticide intoxication. PMID:27366016

  1. Morphine intoxication in renal failure; the role of morphine-6-glucuronide.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, R; Joel, S; Slevin, M.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with impaired renal function may experience severe and prolonged respiratory depression when treated with morphine. This has been attributed to accumulation of the drug during renal failure. Three patients are described who had classical signs of intoxication with morphine in the absence of measurable quantities of morphine in the plasma. The observed clinical effect is attributed to accumulation of the pharmacologically active metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide, which is usually rena...

  2. “Herbal seizures” – atypical symptoms after ibogaine intoxication: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Lorenz; Kasper, Burkhard S.; Schwarze, Bernd; Gschossmann, Juergen M.; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Helge H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Misuse of various new psychotropic substances such as ibogaine is increasing rapidly. Knowledge of their negative side effects is sparse. Case presentation We present a case of intoxication with the herbal substance ibogaine in a 22-year-old white man. After taking a cumulative dose of 38 g (taken in two doses), he developed visual memories, nausea and vomiting. He developed a generalized tonic–clonic seizure with additional grand mal seizures. He was treated with midazolam and l...

  3. Fatal intoxication caused by the application of the multiple transdermals patchs of fentanyl

    OpenAIRE

    Serghini, Issam; Qamouss, Youssef; Zoubir, Mohamed; Lalaoui, Jaafar Salim; Boughalem, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-phenyl-N-(1-2-phenylethyl-4-piperidyl)propanamide) is a potent synthetic narcotic analgesic. He has an analgesic effect 100 times greater than that of morphine. The use of transdermal fentanyl delivrery systems has increased over recent years especially in patients with chronic pain who are already treated with high doses of morphine or it is derivate. However, many cases of fentanyl intoxication through a variety of transderrmal systems have been reported. This paper reports a fa...

  4. Hematobiochemical and pathological alterations due to chronic chlorpyrifos intoxication in indigenous chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Ara Begum

    2015-01-01

    Results: A significant (P < 0.01 increase of Hb, TEC, TLC, and heterophil percent and decrease of lymphocyte percent was observed. Serum ALP, AST, ALT, and uric acid increased significantly and CHE values decreased significantly in CPF treated birds. The protein level remained similar. Uric acid level was found to be increased significantly in the treated group. The results indicate that chronic CPF intoxication produces hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in treated birds.

  5. Involvement of oxygen metabolism during radiation or intoxication by a radiomimetic drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firstly, we present a review of former works, dealing with the beneficial effects of hypoxia on the radiosensitivity of tissues and whole animals, as well as on the biochemical basis of the oxygen-derived free radical effect. Then, we describe our recent method aiming at hematopoietic restauration by a short-term treatment after chlormethine intoxication, and also present the principle of on-going in vitro experiments using some oxidases

  6. Failure of Brand Intoxication with the Mediating Effect of Ad Skepticism

    OpenAIRE

    Khuhro, Rafique Ahmed; Bhutto, Niaz Ahmed; Sarki, Irshad Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Brands still have not intoxicated the all segments of customers, yet there are people who have motivations to escape from brand. This study explores the mediating role of ad skepticism between self-image congruency, product knowledge and brand escapism motivation. The other purpose is to see the direct relation of product knowledge and self-image congruency on brand escapism motivation. A Study of 267mobile phone users is conducted, who use iconic and less iconic mobile phone brands. Proposed...

  7. Retrospective analysis of the intoxication cases followed in an intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Taş, Nilay; Yağan, Özgür; YANCAR DEMİR, Esra; MUTLU, Tuğçe; ENGİNYURT, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    Intoxications occur accidentally or due to suicide attempts and some cases are evaluated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients older than 18 years old who were admitted to our second level intensive care unit from emergency department between 2010-2013. All the patients with prediagnosis of poisoning who were admitted to ICU were evaluated with respect to their demographic properties, etiology of poisoning, substance that exposured, Glasgow Coma Scale ...

  8. Acute heroin intoxication in a baby chronically exposed to cocaine and heroin: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pichini Simona; Vall Oriol; Palomeque Antonio; de la Torre Rafael; Civit Ester; Simó Marta; Fríguls Bibiana; Joya Xavier; Garcia-Algar Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Acute intoxication with drugs of abuse in children is often only the tip of the iceberg, actually hiding chronic exposure. Analysis using non-conventional matrices such as hair can provide long-term information about exposure to recreational drugs. Case presentation We report the case of a one-month-old Caucasian boy admitted to our pediatric emergency unit with respiratory distress and neurological abnormalities. A routine urine test was positive for opiates, suggesting...

  9. Hepatoprotective potential of three sargassum species from Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Hira; Viqar Sultana; Jehan Ara; Syed Ehteshamul-Haque; Mohammad Athar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum variegatum (S. variegatum), Sargassum tenerrimum (S. tenerrimum) and Sargassum binderi occurring at Karachi coast against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen intoxication in rats. Methods: Sargassum species were collected at low tide from Buleji beach at Karachi coast. Effect of ethanol extracts of Sargassum spp., on lipid parameter, serum glucose and kidney function was examined. Liver ...

  10. [The subclinical course of a paracetamol intoxication: pitfall for patient and clinician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, W A; Schellens, J H M; Becker, H E; de Haan, L; van Westrhenen, R

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old man took 20 grams of paracetamol during a hospital stay in the department of psychiatry. It was not until 60 hours later that therapy with acetylcysteine was initiated. Paracetamol intoxication has a long latency period. If there is no intervention, severe hepatic damage can develop within three days. Even after a few days have passed it is still advisable to start treating the patient with acetylcysteine. PMID:22753188

  11. Evaluation of Patients with Paracetamol Intoxication Who Admitted to Emergency Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kıvanç Karaman; Mücahit Avcil; Sibelnur Avcil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of demographic and clinical features on follow-up period and laboratory parameters in patients with paracetamol intoxication who were admitted to our emergency department. Materials and Methods: One hundred sixty-four patients, who were admitted to the emergency department at Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine between April 2013 and April 2015, were retrospectively evaluated and a total of 44 patients who have ingested paracetamol were...

  12. Suicide Attempts with Drug Intoxication in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Uzkeser, Mustafa; Saritemur, Murat; Ayhan AKÖZ; Bayramoğlu, Atıf; EMET, Mücahit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insufficient data are available comparing medical costs, hospitalization or admission rate, and drugs used for the treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant women admited to the emergency department (ED) due to suicide attempts following drug intoxication. We sought to evaluate these differences in our ED. Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional study; hence we attempted to follow all pregnant and non-pregnant women who were admitted in our ED at Ataturk University, Erzurum-T...

  13. Water intoxication presenting as maternal and neonatal seizures: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman Timothy H; Hamilton Mark

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We present an unusual case of fitting in the mother and newborn child, and the challenges faced in the management of their hyponatraemia due to water intoxication. Case presentation A previously well 37-year-old, primigravid Caucasian woman presented with features mimicking eclampsia during labour. These included confusion, reduced consciousness and seizures but without a significant history of hypertension, proteinuria or other features of pre-eclampsia. Her serum sodiu...

  14. Profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse and association with death

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Margarete dos Reis; Aroldo Gavioli; Flavia Antunes; Michele Cristina Santos Silvino; Natalina Maria da Rosa; Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to characterize the profile of users intoxicated by drugs of abuse reported to a center of information and toxicological assistance and related this to the occurrence of deaths. Methods: study of case series reported in the 2010-2011 biennium after active case finding. Data were obtained from epidemiological records filed in the center and submitted to univariate analysis, with chi-squared test and Fischer test. Results: three hundred and thirty nine cases were found, most were me...

  15. Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice. PMID:24329706

  16. Somatomedin activity before and after chelation therapy in lead-intoxicated children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatomedin activity was measured in 21 lead-intoxicated children to determine whether plumbism interferes with the processes of statural (bone) growth. Somatomedin activity was measured both by the rabbit coastal cartilage bioassay and by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin-C. Compared to values in normal children, both the bioassay and radioimmunoassay somatomedin activity was increased. The degree of body lead burden was so extensive that the 21 study children required chelation therapy. Following EDTA or BAL + EDTA chelation therapy, the overall somatomedin activity of these children with plumbism further increased significantly. In contrast, measures of body lead burden--including blood lead levels--decreased after treatment in all lead-intoxicated youngsters. We conclude that plumbism is associated with increased somatomedin activity. Hence the increased somatomedin activity may explain why clinical experience fails to find any long-term deleterious effect of saturnism on statural (bone) growth. Possible mechanisms underlying the increased somatomedin activity in the lead-intoxicated children remain to be defined

  17. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, K L; de Buijzer, E; Gommers, D; Kaisers, U; van Genderen, P J; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Paraquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung injury due to paraquat intoxication was characterized. In a second group of rats, 72 h after paraquat intoxication, the animals underwent mechanical ventilation and only those animals in which the arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) decreased to below 20 kPa (150 mmHg) received exogenous surfactant (200 mg x kg(-1) body weight). Within 3 days the rats in group 1 developed progressive respiratory failure, demonstrated not only by impaired gas exchange and lung mechanics but also by increased minimal surface tension and increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In group 2, intratracheal surfactant administration increased Pa,O2/FI,O2 significantly within 5 min (14.4+/-2.4 kPa (108+/-18 mmHg)) to (55.2+/-53 kPa (414+/-40 mmHg)) and sustained this level for at least 2 h. It is concluded that intratracheal surfactant administration is a promising approach in the treatment of severe respiratory failure caused by paraquat poisoning. PMID:9727775

  18. Intoxication of a Young Girl Reveals the Pitfalls of GHB Rapid Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Linda G; Andrews, Louise M; Slooff, Valerie D; de Wildt, Saskia N; Koch, Birgit C P

    2016-02-01

    The authors discuss the case of a 14-year-old girl who was transferred to the ICU of our hospital with ethanol intoxication (3.3 g/L), loss of consciousness (E5M3V1), and severe amnesia on recovery that was suspected of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) intoxication. STAT toxicology screening may be necessary, when sexual assault under GHB intoxication is suspected. Therefore, the initial analysis of a urine sample was performed with a new enzymatic assay analysis for GHB. The enzymatic assay reported a GHB concentration of 26 mg/L, which is above the cut-off value of 10 mg/L. This cut-off value is to differentiate endogenous and exogenous levels because low levels of GHB occur naturally in the body. However, confirmation of these results by gas chromatography, which is common practice to confirm a positive GHB, gave a negative result. This discrepancy is probably contributed to interference of ethanol with the assay. This is a substantial downside of the GHB rapid screening, since the combination of GHB and ethanol is common. It is therefore advised to confirm that the positive GHB results are lower than 50 mg/L by gas chromatography, when using the rapid screening. This way the false-positive results and consequent inappropriate social and legal actions may be avoided. PMID:26327308

  19. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. → Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. → Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. → Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  20. Polypharmacy May Be the Cause of Acute Lithium Intoxication at the Second Day of Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tursun Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is frequently used as a mood stabilizer in patients with mood disorders. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index and high toxicity. Predisposing factors for intoxication are advanced age, diet disturbances, comorbid medical conditions affecting heart, kidneys or central nervous system and polypharmacy. CASE REPORT: Here we present a case of a 74-year-old woman with a history of Parkinson’s disease, hypertension and bipolar disorder. She was using quetiapine, valsartan with hydrochlorothiazide and levodopa with carbidopa. She presented with altered mental status and muscle rigidity. The patient was admitted with acute lithium intoxication after her second dose of treatment. Blood lithium level increased to 3.58 mEq/L. The woman was hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Intensive Care Unit. With hydration, her symptoms resolved and her lithium level returned to normal after 118 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Prescribing physicians and emergency room physicians should be aware of conditions which may cause a decreased threshold for intoxication.

  1. A fatal intoxication related to MDPV and pentedrone combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liveri, Katerina; Constantinou, Maria A; Afxentiou, Maria; Kanari, Popi

    2016-08-01

    This is a case report of a fatal intoxication in Cyprus related to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) intake combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances. A 42- year old man with a history of serious psychiatric illness was found unresponsive in his bed. Seized materials were also found close to his body. The forensic autopsy reported myocardial infarction due to multidrug intoxication. Toxicology screening in blood and urine was applied. Biological specimens were analysed by enzyme immunoassay procedure and GC/MS. MDPV, pentedrone and etizolam detected and quantitated in blood and urine. Other drugs quantitated in blood were also olanzapine, mirtazapine, and ephedrine. This was the first fatal case reported in Cyprus associated with new psychoactive substances. Additionally, this was the first case reported to Early Warning System of the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Abuse (EMCDDA), related to multidrug intoxication, attributed to the consumption of cathinones, designer benzodiazepines, and other drugs. PMID:26930452

  2. Struggling to survive: the experiences of women sexually assaulted while intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmakis, Karen A

    2011-06-01

    Approximately half of all sexual assault cases involve substance abuse or misuse, yet no studies have focused specifically on women who were under the influence of a substance when assaulted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women who were sexually assault while under the influence of a substance. A phenomenological approach was used to gather data using individual, in-depth interviews with women following a sexual assault while intoxicated. Interviews were conducted using open-ended and probing questions to explore participants' life experiences from childhood to the present. The study uncovered a continuous struggle to survive among the participants. Five themes including previous victimization, substance misuse, struggling with feelings, finding support, and struggling to break the cycle were found. This research revealed lives complicated by substance misuse and histories of victimization. Intoxication raises vulnerability and risk for sexual assault. Effective nursing interventions designed to address the women's history of victimization and substance misuse may benefit women sexually assaulted while intoxicated. PMID:21635677

  3. [Yellow oat grass intoxication in horses: Pitfalls by producing hay from extensive landscapes? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockisch, F; Aboling, S; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin-D intoxication by yellow oat grass is often reported under the syndrome of enzootic calcinosis in ruminants in the upper regions of the Alps. The intake of Trisetum flavescens in ruminants and horses induces calcification of soft tissue, including vessels, tendons and ligaments, lung, heart and kidneys. Clinical symptoms, including a reluctance to move, inappetence, body-weight loss and impaired organ function, are frequently observed. To date, there are only a very few case reports about yellow-oat-grass intoxication in horses. The present case report describes Vitamin-D intoxication by yellow oat grass in a riding stable in Thuringia, Germany. The horses, which were fed hay with a 50% contamination of Trisetum flavescens, displayed symptoms, including inappetence, body-weight loss, colic, polydipsia and polyuria. The hay, contaminated with Trisetum flavescens, was harvested from an extensively cultivated landscape according to the European Fauna-Flora-Habitat (FFH)-directive. The present case report demonstrates the pitfalls in producing hay from extensively used landscapes and indicates some peculiarities of Vitamin-D metabolism in horses. PMID:26346225

  4. Somatomedin activity before and after chelation therapy in lead-intoxicated children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohn, R.D.; Hill, J.R.; Shelton, J.E.

    1982-11-01

    Somatomedin activity was measured in 21 lead-intoxicated children to determine whether plumbism interferes with the processes of statural (bone) growth. Somatomedin activity was measured both by the rabbit coastal cartilage bioassay and by radioimmunoassay of somatomedin-C. Compared to values in normal children, both the bioassay and radioimmunoassay somatomedin activity was increased. The degree of body lead burden was so extensive that the 21 study children required chelation therapy. Following EDTA or BAL + EDTA chelation therapy, the overall somatomedin activity of these children with plumbism further increased significantly. In contrast, measures of body lead burden--including blood lead levels--decreased after treatment in all lead-intoxicated youngsters. We conclude that plumbism is associated with increased somatomedin activity. Hence the increased somatomedin activity may explain why clinical experience fails to find any long-term deleterious effect of saturnism on statural (bone) growth. Possible mechanisms underlying the increased somatomedin activity in the lead-intoxicated children remain to be defined.

  5. A Family Clustered Nitrite Intoxication Investigation in Gaoxin District, Suzhou, China, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In April, 2013, a Suzhou Hospital reported a nitrite intoxication patient in coma as well as 2 family members with the similar symptom 5 days ahead. We investigated the event to identify the cause, source and possible pollution ways of the contamination.We defined case as any person living in YSHY community who has cyanosis and with at least one of the following symptoms: dizziness, headache, fatigue, tachycardia, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain or diar-rhea during April 15 to April 25, 2013. We searched for case by interviewing community residents and reviewing clinics' medical records; information was then retrospectively collected on the patient's food history, cooking procedures and food sources.We identified 3 nitrite intoxication cases, 1 male and 2 female from a family. The interval time between dinner and onset was < 1 hour. Retrospective survey showed 'sugar stir and mix asparagus' on April 17 and 'scrambled asparagus' on April 21 were suspected foods. Both suspected dishes had 'sugar' added, sourced from a clean-up of a neighboring rental house. Nitrite was detected in a vomitus sample, the 'sugar' and two leftover food samples.This family clustered nitrite intoxication was induced by using unidentified nitrite as sugar to cook dishes. We recommend sodium nitrite should be dyed with bright colors to avoid mistaking it for plain salt or sugar, health departments strengthen food hygiene propaganda to improve people's recognition of food safety, and to alert them the dangerous of eating unidentified or unknown source food.

  6. Effects of phytate on thyroid gland of rats intoxicated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek Mostafa; Salama, Afrah F; El Nimr, Tarek M; El Gamal, Doaa M

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous occupational and environmental toxins. The objective of the present study is to examine the potential prophylactic effects of phytic acid (PA) on thyroid hormones of male rats intoxicated with Cd. The male albino rats were divided into five groups: group I (control) was fed with the basal diet, group II was intoxicated with Cd in drinking water, groups III, IV, and V were intoxicated with Cd in drinking water and fed with the diet containing 3.5, 7, and 10 g of PA/kg, respectively. The results indicated that the serum calcium, iron (Fe), and total Fe binding capacity levels and serum T3 and T4 in Cd-treated rats of group II were decreased when compared with the control group, while PA-administered groups with Cd showed a significant improvement when compared with the Cd-treated rats only. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased in Cd-treated rats compared with the control group, while the addition of PA in diet decreased the high levels of TSH. These results indicated a prophylactic effect of PA against Cd-induced toxicity in rats. PMID:23796758

  7. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  8. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR)4 (1) and MoO2(OR)2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  9. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caputo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD with sodium oxybate (SMO or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA, exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as “street drug”; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD.

  10. A Brief Up-Date of the Use of Sodium Oxybate for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Fabio; Vignoli, Teo; Tarli, Claudia; Domenicali, Marco; Zoli, Giorgio; Bernardi, Mauro; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) with sodium oxybate (SMO) or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was introduced in Italy and Austria more than 20 years and 15 years ago, respectively, and it is now widely employed to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and to maintain alcohol abstinence. These indications derive from its similar structure to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), exerting an ethanol-mimicking effect, because it binds to GABAB receptors. Craving for, and abuse of, SMO remain a controversial issue; even though these unfavorable effects are evident in poly-drug addicted patients and in those with psychiatric diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. In addition, despite cases of severe intoxication and deaths being widely documented when GHB is used as "street drug"; its clinical use remains safe. Thus, the aim of the present review is to examine the role of SMO in the treatment of AUD, its possible implications in reducing alcohol consumption, and cases of abuse, and severe intoxication due to SMO during its clinical use in the treatment of AUD. PMID:26959045

  11. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  12. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  13. The enigma of fetal alcohol neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, John W; Wozniak, David F; Farber, Nuri B; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Bittigau, Petra; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2002-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects of ethanol on the human fetal brain (fetal alcohol syndrome, FAS) have been recognized for three decades, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we discovered that a single episode of ethanol intoxication lasting for several hours can trigger a massive wave of apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat or mouse brain. The window of vulnerability coincides with the developmental period of synaptogenesis, also known as the brain growth-spurt period, which in rodents is a postnatal event, but in humans extends from the sixth month of gestation to several years after birth. We propose that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist and gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)mimetic properties of ethanol are responsible for its apoptogenic action, in that we have found that other drugs that block NMDA glutamate receptors or mimic GABA at GABA(A) receptors also trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Our findings have clinical significance, not only because they can explain the reduced brain mass and neurobehavioral disturbances associated with the human FAS, but because many agents in the human environment, other than ethanol, have NMDA antagonist or GABAmimetic properties. Such agents include drugs that may be abused by pregnant mothers [phencyclidine (angel dust), ketamine (Special K), nitrous oxide (laughing gas), barbiturates, benzodiazepines], and many medicinals used in obstetric and pediatric neurology (anticonvulsants), and anesthesiology (all general anesthetics are either NMDA antagonists or GABAmimetics). PMID:12108574

  14. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day 12 hours ago Areas of Interest Scientists & Researchers Certificates of Confidentiality Data and Safety Monitoring Guidelines NIAAA-Funded Research Centers Clinicians Helping Patients Who Drink Too Much Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Youth Clinical Trials ...

  15. Alcohol and Violence in the Emergency Room: A Review and Perspectives from Psychological and Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cherpitel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to present a focused review of the scientific literature on the effect of alcohol consumption on violence related-injuries assessed in the emergency room (ER and to show how psychological and behavioral sciences could lead to a better understanding of the factors contributing to alcohol-related injuries in the ER. We retrieved published literature through a detailed search in Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE with Full Text PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PUBMed and SocINDEX with Full Text for articles related to emergency rooms, medical problems and sociocognitive models addressing alcohol intoxication articles. The first search was conducted in June 2011 and updated until August 2013. Literature shows that compared to uninjured patients; injured ones have a higher probability of: (i having an elevated blood-alcohol concentration upon arrival at the ER; (ii reporting having drunk alcohol during the six hours preceding the event; and (iii suffering from drinking-related consequences that adversely affect their social life. The main neurocognitive and sociocognitive models on alcohol and aggression are also discussed in order to understand the aetiology of violence-related injuries in emergency rooms. Suggestions are made for future research and prevention.

  16. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.

  17. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle E. Arias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the relationship of eating disorder (ED symptoms with the severity of alcohol use among adolescents in treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUDs. Method: A sample consisted of 177 adolescents who participated in outpatient AOSUD treatment programs in Connecticut. Chi square tests, one-way ANOVAs and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to describe the prevalence and correlates of any eating disorders, and the related symptoms. Multivariate regression was used to test the associations between ED symptoms and alcohol consumption. Results: 26.4% of the participants had at least one ED symptom, with the highest number of symptoms occurring in females. The number of ED symptoms was associated with increases in the number of times that they became intoxicated in the year before entering treatment, the number of alcohol-related social problems, and the number of alcohol-related physical symptoms after taking into consideration the effects of age and gender. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of EDs is high in adolescents with AOSUDs, with the number of ED symptoms correlating with increased alcohol consumption. Further studies on the course and treatment of adolescents with AOSUDs and symptoms of EDs are warranted.

  18. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  19. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  20. Les intoxications majeures du chat d'après les données du C.N.I.T.V de Lyon 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Mailland, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Les intoxications du chat représentent 21,2% des appels traités par le C.N.I.T.V en 2008 et 2009. Plus des deux tiers des intoxications certaines du chat sont d'origine domestique. Ces données mettent en évidence le groupe des polluants comme principale source d'intoxication (32,2% des intoxications certaines). Les hydrocarbures (12,6%) sont les principaux représentants de ce groupe avec notamment le white-spirit, produit domestique le plus en cause (4,3%). Notre étude montre que les plantes ...

  1. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.; Thomas, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol consumption have long been known; however, a formal description and clinical diagnosis of these effects was not introduced until 1973. Since then, the distinction of the wide range of effects that can be induced by prenatal alcohol exposure, and, consequently, the terminology to describe these effects has continued to evolve. Although much progress has been made in understanding the consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure, challenges still remain in p...

  3. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  4. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2013-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit i...

  5. Children of alcoholics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-01-01

    The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and ...

  6. Diagnostic post-mortem des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques‎ : intérêts et limites de l’autopsie. Etude de 23 cas d’intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Goube, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic des intoxications chez les carnivores domestiques repose sur la confrontation d’éléments épidémiologiques, cliniques, nécropsiques et analytiques après exclusion d’autres étiologies. Une autopsie rigoureuse et méthodique suivie d’une description lésionnelle est essentielle et à portée de tout praticien qui choisit alors les prélèvements pertinents pour l’analyse toxicologique. Basée sur des données épidémiologiques et l’étude de 23 cas recueillis auprès des ENV, cette thèse présent...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  8. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  9. Treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, B

    1994-01-01

    Special problems in the treatment of alcoholism are discussed. Risk groups, for instance children of alcoholics, should be identified as early as possible so that special attention can be paid to them. Treatment motivation plays a very central role, and motivating a patient for long-term treatment often is the most difficult part of the work. For alcohol dependent alcoholics, total abstinence should be the goal of treatment. To achieve this, psychotherapy consisting of supportive, behavioral and dynamic elements is recommended. To achieve effective therapy it should be carried out for a considerable length of time. PMID:8032164

  10. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  11. Morphology of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harets V.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological state of embryonic liver under the influence of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication was studied. We found that values of the hepatofetal index in the groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au had significant differences as compared to the group exposed to lead intoxication, but did not differ significantly from the control group and made up 0,086±0,001 and 0,083±0,001, respectively. Value of the relative area of blood vessels in groups Pb+Ag and Pb+Au was 13.08±0.53% and 16.83±0.53%, respectively, which had no significant difference as compared to control group, but differed from the value of lead intoxication group. Under the influence of silver citrate on a background of lead intoxication the relative area of hematopoietic cells was 52,5±0,95%; this indicates to modification action of silver on haematopoiesis. Thus, injection of silver and gold citrates prevents negative effect of lead on morphometric parameters of embryonic liver, relative area of blood vessels and hematopoietic cells. Experiment results showed protective effect of silver and gold citrates on a background of lead intoxication during hepatogenesis.

  12. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh-Ling Kuo

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H (VHH domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5 was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10 led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable.

  13. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George A; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB) agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H) (VHH) domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5) was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10) led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable. PMID:21629663

  14. Clinical profile and outcome of children presenting with poisoning or intoxication: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S; Poudel, P; Shah, D; Bhatta, N K; Dutta, A K; Shah, G S; Bhurtyal, K K; Agrawal, B; Shrivastava, M K; Singh, M K

    2009-09-01

    Poisoning is a common preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Most of the poisoning in children less than 5 years of age is accidental. Objective of the study was to study the clinical profile and outcome of childhood poisoning and intoxication. This was a retrospective study done in patients who were admitted in pediatric wards and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences with history of ingestion of poison or intoxication or envenomation firom January 2005 to June 2008. The data collected were analyzed with SPSS 12.0 software. There were 122 children enrolled in study. Male: female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age of presentation was 5.8 years. Among 122 patients, 43.4% received pre-referral treatment in the form of gastric lavage, atropine etc. Organophosphorus poisoning was the commonest poisoning seen in 55 (45.1%) patients followed by hydrocarbon 12 (9.8%), mushroom 10 (8.2%) and organochlorine 10 (8.2%) poisoning. During treatment, 50.0% received antidotes. 55.7% received antibiotics, gastric lavage and anticonvulsants were required in 43.4% and 13.9% respectively. Overall survival was 87.4%. The time interval between intoxication and presentation to hospital, mean Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and presence of coma (GCS cases. In conclusion, organophosphorus is the commonest agent involved in childhood poisoning. Overall, the outcome is good with 87.4% survival in our hospital. The time gap between the poisoning and presentation to hospital and presence of coma predict mortality. PMID:20334063

  15. Effect of MDR1 gene polymorphisms on mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Kwon, Jun-Tack; Lee, Sun-hyo; el Park, Sam; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is a fatal herbicide following acute exposure. Previous studies have suggested that multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) might help remove paraquat from the lungs and the kidney. MDR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are involved in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MDR1 SNPs were associated with the mortality in paraquat intoxicated patients. We recruited 109 patients admitted with acute paraquat poisoning. They were genotyped for C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MDR1 gene. Their effects on mortality of paraquat intoxicated patients were evaluated. Overall mortality rate was 66.1%. Regarding the C1236T of the MDR1 gene polymorphism, 21 (19.3%) had the wild type MDR1 while 88 (80.7%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the C3435T MDR1 gene polymorphism, 37(33.9%) patients had the wild type, 23 (21.1%) had heterozygous mutation, and 49 (45.0%) had homozygous mutation. Regarding the G2677T/A MDR1 gene polymorphism, 38 (34.9%) patients had the wild type, 57 (52.3%) had heterozygous mutation, and 14 (12.8%) had homozygous mutation. None of the individual mutations or combination of mutations (two or three) of MDR1 SNP genotypes altered the morality rate. The mortality rate was not significantly different among SNP groups of patients with MDR1 SNPs have no effect on the mortality rate of paraquat intoxicated patients. PMID:27545861

  16. Role of galectin-3 in classical and alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Ana-Cristina Docan; Sun, Richard; Choi, Hyejeong; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2012-12-15

    Inflammatory macrophages have been implicated in hepatotoxicity induced by the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP). In these studies, we characterized the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication and evaluated the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in macrophage activation. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to wild-type mice resulted in the appearance of two distinct subpopulations of CD11b(+) cells in the liver, which expressed high or low levels of the monocyte/macrophage activation marker Ly6C. Whereas CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages exhibited a classically activated proinflammatory phenotype characterized by increased expression of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase, and CCR2, CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages were alternatively activated, expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. APAP intoxication was also associated with an accumulation of Gal-3(+) macrophages in the liver; the majority of these cells were Ly6C(hi). APAP-induced increases in CD11b(+)/Ly6C(hi) macrophages were significantly reduced in Gal-3(-/-) mice. This reduction was evident 72 h post APAP and was correlated with decreased expression of the classical macrophage activation markers, inducible NO synthase, IL-12, and TNF-α, as well as the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2. Conversely, numbers of CD11b(+)/Ly6C(lo) macrophages increased in livers of APAP-treated Gal-3(-/-) mice; this was associated with increased expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers Ym1 and Fizz1, increased liver repair, and reduced hepatotoxicity. These data demonstrate that both classically and alternatively activated macrophages accumulate in the liver following APAP intoxication; moreover, Gal-3 plays a role in promoting a persistent proinflammatory macrophage phenotype. PMID:23175698

  17. FastStats: Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Alcohol Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... alcoholic liver disease deaths: 18,146 Number of alcohol-induced deaths, excluding accidents and homicides: 29,001 ...

  18. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  19. Tetracycline in uranyl nitrate intoxication: Its action on renal damage and U retention in bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In acute intoxication, uranium (U) not only inhibits bone formation but its excretion in urine also causes renal damage. The former effect is ameliorated by tetracycline (TC), probably due to its chelation property, which might also prevent U deposition in bone. Chemical determination of U incorporated in bone and a histological study of the kidneys were performed on animals injected with U and then treated with TC. The results showed that TC was unable to prevent the binding of U to bone while it exacerbated U-induced renal damage

  20. A safe strategy to decrease fetal lead exposure in a woman with chronic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiba, Adi; Hu, Howard; Zheng, Amin; Kales, Stefanos N

    2010-08-01

    During pregnancy skeletal lead is mobilized by maternal bone turnover and can threaten fetal development. The exact strategy suggested to women of childbearing age, who were chronically exposed to lead, and, thus, have high bone lead burden, is not well established. We describe 4 years of follow-up of a 29-year-old woman with chronic lead intoxication. We (a) advised her to delay conception until 'toxicological clearance', (b) treated her with multiple courses of lead chelator, DMSA, and (c) prescribed oral calcium. Patient had low blood lead and protoporphyrin level during pregnancy until delivery. Delaying conception, lead chelation, and calcium supplementation can decrease fetal exposure. PMID:20459344