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Sample records for alcoholic cirrhosis relation

  1. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P;

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This decrease seems to be due to decreased liver function, decreasing hepatic blood flow, and increased portosystemic shunting. Oral testosterone loading may therefore be of prognostic significance in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis....

  2. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick;

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140....

  3. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  4. Is iron overload in alcohol-related cirrhosis mediated by hepcidin?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tariq Iqbal; Azzam Diab; Douglas G Ward; Matthew J Brookes; Chris Tselepis; Jim Murray; Elwyn Elias

    2009-01-01

    In this case report we describe the relationship between ferritin levels and hepcidin in a patient with alcohol-related spur cell anemia who underwent liver transplantation. We demonstrate a reciprocal relationship between serum or urinary hepcidin and serum ferritin, which indicates that inadequate hepcidin production by the diseased liver is associated with elevated serum ferritin. The ferritin level falls with increasing hepcidin production after transplantation. Neither inflammatory indices (IL6) nor erythropoietin appear to be related to hepcidin expression in this case. We suggest that inappropriately low hepcidin production by the cirrhotic liver may contribute substantially to elevated tissue iron stores in cirrhosis and speculate that hepcidin replacement in these patients may be of therapeutic benefit in the future.

  5. Increased circulating leptin in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to release and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, JJ; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Leptin is a cytokine peptide that decreases appetite and thereby food intake and increases energy expenditure. It is produced in fat cells, but recent animal experiments have shown expression of leptin in modified stellate hepatic cells. Because a change in circulating leptin in cirrhosis could...... be caused by an altered production rate, altered disposal rate, or both, the present study was undertaken to identify regions of leptin overflow into the blood stream and regions of leptin extraction. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16) and control patients without liver disease (n = 12) were studied...... during catheterization with elective blood sampling from different vascular beds. Blood samples for leptin determination (radioimmunoassay) were taken simultaneously from artery/hepatic vein, artery/renal vein, artery/iliac vein, and artery/cubital vein. Patients with cirrhosis had significantly...

  6. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in relation to liver function in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick;

    1983-01-01

    affected liver function (no. = 18) had significantly (P less than 0.05) raised serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH when compared with both controls and patients with severely affected liver function (no. = 13). Serum concentrations of testosterone, FSH, and LH in the latter group showed......Serum concentrations of oestrone, oestradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than 0.01) raised in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (no. = 42) compared with age-matched controls (no. = 20......). No significant difference was observed when comparing serum testosterone concentrations. Patients were divided into three groups in accordance with the severity of liver cirrhosis, using biochemical and clinical criteria. Patients with the best-preserved liver function (no. = 11) and patients with moderately...

  8. Colchicine for alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis or cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug. Several randomized clinical trials have addressed the question whether colchicine has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic as well as non-alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis. The objectives were to assess the efficacy of colchicine...... evaluated in randomized trials on mortality, liver related mortality, liver related complications, liver fibrosis markers, liver histology, alcohol consumption, quality of life, and health economics in patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fibrosis or cirrhosis....

  9. Muscle hematoma: A critically important complication of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiyo Sugiyama; Akifumi Akai; Noriyoshi Yamakita; Tsuneko Ikeda; Keigo Yasuda

    2009-01-01

    An iliopsoas hematoma can occur either spontaneously or secondary to trauma or bleeding tendency due to hemophilia and anticoagulant therapy. Although liver cirrhosis is commonly associated with coagulopathy, iliopsoas hematoma is very rare. We herein, present a case of bilateral iliopsoas hematoma in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis, and review the literature on muscle hematoma associated with cirrhosis. A 56-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis was admitted in a state of shock with anemia. The cause of anemia could not be detected, and the patient was treated conservatively. The site of bleeding was not detected with either gastroduodenal endoscopy or upper abdominal computed tomography, the latter of which did not include the iliopsoas muscle. He died on the 10th day of admission and bilateral iliopsoas hematomas were found on autopsy. An iron stain was positive in the iliopsoas muscle. Eight cases of muscle hematoma associated with cirrhosis, including the present case, were found in a review of the literature. Four of these cases involved the rectus abdominis muscle, 3 involved the iliopsoas muscle and 1 involved combined muscles. Alcoholic cirrhosis accounted for 75% of the cases. One case (12.5%) was associated with virus-related cirrhosis, and another with combined virus-and alcohol-related cirrhosis. The mortality rate was 75% despite early diagnosis and low risk scores for cirrhosis. Muscle hematoma in patients with cirrhosis isclosely related to alcoholism, and the mortality rate of the condition is extremely high. In conclusion, muscle hematoma should be recognized as an important complication of cirrhosis.

  10. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingso, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction......, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls...... is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild...

  11. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    on the relationship between liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption is included. The conclusion is that the total level of alcohol consumption as well as the specific beverages - beer, wine and spirits - contributes to liver cirrhosis mortality, but the present study also reveals that directly addressing......Empirical evidence gives strong support to a close association between liver cirrhosis mortality and the intake of alcohol and most often a log-linear relationship is assumed in the econometric modeling. The present analysis investigates for unit roots in a panel data set for sixteen European...... countries - covering the period 1970-2006 - where both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis seem best described as trend-stationary variables. Therefore a fixed effects model including individual trends is applied in the analysis but also a more flexible non-linear functional form with fewer restrictions...

  12. Lower risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis in wine drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte;

    2002-01-01

    for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from......Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk...... with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total...

  13. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity in alcoholic cirrhosis: relations to hemodynamics and humoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, Jens S; Henriksen, Jens H;

    2007-01-01

    In cirrhosis, arterial vasodilatation leads to central hypovolemia and activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems. As the liver disease and circulatory dysfunction may affect baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), we assessed BRS in a large group of patients with cirrh...

  14. An empirical analysis of the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    The question whether intake of alcohol is associated with liver cirrhosis mortality is analyzed using aggregate data for alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries. The empirical analysis gives support to a close association between cirrhosis...

  15. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P;

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10......-13 years 23 patients (16%) developed cirrhosis. Twelve of 110 patients with normal or slightly increased amounts of parenchymal fibronectin in the initial biopsy specimen developed cirrhosis, whereas eight out of 27 patients with moderately increased amounts and three out of five with significantly...

  16. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, J H

    1987-01-01

    Liver haemodynamics and liver function were measured in 34 alcoholic cirrhotic men before entry and after 12 months (median) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg t.i.d.). Comparing data at entry with those at follow-up in the total patie...

  17. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P;

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  18. The clinical course of alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter; Lash, Timothy L; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    , peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, epilepsy, diabetes, and cancer. METHODS: This was a registry-based nationwide historical cohort study. We included 10,650 Danish citizens diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis at age 45-69 years in 1994-2014 and 43...

  19. Nutritional therapy in cirrhosis or alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fialla, Annette D; Israelsen, Mads; Hamberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis are often malnourished and have a superimposed stress metabolism, which increases nutritional demands. We performed a systematic review on the effects of nutritional therapy vs. no intervention for patients with cirrhosis or alcoh......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis are often malnourished and have a superimposed stress metabolism, which increases nutritional demands. We performed a systematic review on the effects of nutritional therapy vs. no intervention for patients with cirrhosis...... or alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: We included trials on nutritional therapy designed to fulfil at least 75% of daily nutritional demand. Authors extracted data in an independent manner. Random-effects and fixed-effect meta-analyses were performed and the results expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence...... analysis. Fixed-effect analysis suggested that nutrition prevented overt hepatic encephalopathy (0.73; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.96) and infection (0.66; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.98, respectively), but the results were not confirmed in random-effects analyses. CONCLUSION: Our review suggests that nutritional therapy may...

  20. Orthotopic Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Van Thiel, David; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Todo, Satoru; Marsh, J. Wallis; Koneru, Babu; Staschak, Sandee; Stieber, Andrei; Gordon, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen patients with Laennec's cirrhosis underwent orthotopic liver transplantation between 1963 and the end of 1979. The first eight patients died perioperatively or within two months, but four of the next seven patients had long survival; three are still alive after 11 to 14 years. After the introduction of cyclosporine therapy, 41 more patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were treated with liver transplantation from 1980 to June 1987. The one-year survival is 73.2%, and, after one to three years, 28 (68%) of the recipients are living. Of the 35 patients in the combined old and new series who lived for six months or longer, only two returned to alcohol abuse. Social and vocational rehabilitation has been the rule in these recipients who were selected primarily because of urgency of need, because they or their families insisted on treatment, and because they and their families thereby committed themselves to long-standing programs of alcoholism care. PMID:3050180

  1. Influence of ethanol on development of hyperplastic nodules in alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde; Eriksen, J

    1987-01-01

    The type of cirrhosis was blindly evaluated in follow-up liver biopsies performed on 106 alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis. The median time interval from entry to follow-up liver biopsy was 31 mo (range, 3-44 mo). Patients were stratified into four groups according to their maximal......% in those who consumed an excessive amount. In conclusion, alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis develop hyperplastic nodules during follow-up, the rate and prevalence of which is significantly related to the amount of ethanol consumed during follow-up. Ethanol consumption may inhibit hepatocellular...... proliferation in alcoholic men with micronodular cirrhosis....

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in cirrhosis relates to liver dysfunction rather than aetiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikkel Malham; S(o)ren Peter J(o)rgensen; Peter Ott; J(o)rgen Agnholt; Hendrik Vilstrup; Mette Borre; Jens F Dahlerup

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To examine the vitamin D status in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis compared to those with primary biliary cirrhosis.METHODS:Our retrospective case series comprised 89 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 34 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis who visited our outpatient clinic in 2005 and underwent a serum vitamin D status assessment.RESULTS:Among the patients with alcoholic cirrhosis,85% had serum vitamin D levels below 50 nmol/L and 55% had levels below 25 nmol/L,as compared to 60% and 16% of the patients with primary biliary cirrhosis,respectively (P < 0.001).In both groups,serum vitamin D levels decreased with increasing liver disease severity,as determined by the Child-Pugh score.CONCLUSION:Vitamin D deficiency in cirrhosis relates to liver dysfunction rather than aetiology,with lower levels of vitamin D in alcoholic cirrhosis than in primary biliary cirrhosis.

  3. Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis Leading to Spontaneous Muscle Hematoma: An Event Fraught with Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Mangla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is associated with both potentiating and antagonizing hemostatic states. Liver cirrhosis is an independent causal factor for many bleeding complications. The long-term effects of alcohol abuse coupled with advanced liver cirrhosis are additive in favor of bleeding. We report the case of a patient with a history of alcohol abuse who presented with liver cirrhosis and nontraumatic muscle hematoma diagnosed as a spontaneous hematoma of the gastrocnemius muscle. He was managed conservatively with infusions of fresh frozen plasma and platelets, which resulted in resolution of the hematoma. The pathogenesis of ‘spontaneous' muscle hematoma remains anecdotal, but since it is reported in patients on anticoagulant therapy or with hemostatic disorders, it is hypothetically related to severely deranged coagulation. Here we review the relevant literature pertaining to the pathogenesis, presentation and treatment options available for treating this often fatal complication of bleeding diatheses.

  4. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels predict survival and are related to haemodynamics in alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian; Andersen, Ove; Krag, Aleksander;

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation may be implicated in the haemodynamic deterioration and in the development of complications in patients with cirrhosis. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a marker of low-grade inflammation, and predicts outcomes in patients at risk of ischaemic heart disease....... Proinflammatory cytokines reflect immune activation and have been found to be elevated in cirrhosis. We investigated a possible association between markers of inflammation and splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics, complications and survival in patients with cirrhosis....

  5. Clinical Characteristics in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis Induced by HBV Infection and Combined with Mild Alcohol Intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of clinical and biochemical characteristics between patients with liver cirrhosis induced by HBV infection combined with and without mild alcohol intake. Methods Data of patients with liver cirrhosis who were hospitalized in the First Hospital Afifliated to Xinjiang Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: patients with liver cirrhosis induced by HBV infection and combined with mild alcohol intake, patients with HBV-related cirrhosis, and patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis. Biochemical detections including liver function, fasting lipid proifles, lipoprotein, kidney function, glucose, uric acid and regular blood tests were carried out and results were compared among three groups. Data were analyzed through STATA software and co-variant analysis. Results Total of 2 350 patients with liver cirrhosis were included, 732 patients had cirrhosis induced by HBV infection combined with mild alcohol intake, 1 316 patients had HBV-related liver cirrhosis, 302 patients had alcohol-related cirrhosis. The highest mean level of white cell count, mean corpuscular volume,γ-glutamyltranspeptidase and uric acid were observed in HBV infection combined with mild alcohol intake group. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that HBV infection, excessive alcohol intake, male and age were risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Conclusions HBV infection combined with mild alcoholic-related liver cirrhosis group showed the highest oxidative stress compared with alcoholic liver cirrhosis group, which suggested that mild alcohol intake may increase the incidence of liver cirrhosis in HBV infected patients and may not increase the incidence of HCC.

  6. Multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo Ryang Kim; Yoshitake Hayashi; Hirotsugu Ikawa; Kenji Ando; Keiji Mita; Shuichi Fuki; Michiie Sakamoto; Yoshihiro Kanbara; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Masatoshi Kudo

    2007-01-01

    We describe a rare case of the transformation of a dysplastic nodule into well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a 56-year-old man with alcoholrelated liver cirrhosis. Ultrasound (US) disclosed a 10 mm hypoechoic nodule and contrast enhanced US revealed a hypovascular nodule, both in segment seven.US-guided biopsy revealed a high-grade dysplastic nodule characterized by enhanced cellularity with a high N/C ratio, increased cytoplasmic eosinophilia,and slight cell atypia. One year later, the US pattern of the nodule changed from hypoechoic to hyperechoic without any change in size or hypovascularity. US-guided biopsy revealed well-differentiated HCC of the same features as shown in the first biopsy, but with additional pseudoglandular formation and moderate cell atypia.Moreover, immunohistochemical staining of cyclaseassociated protein 2, a new molecular marker of well-differentiated HCC, turned positive. This is the first case of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis from a dysplastic nodule to well-differentiated HCC within one year in alcohol-related liver cirrhosis.

  7. Alcoholic Cirrhosis Increases Risk for Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lisbet; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Deleuran, Bent;

    2015-01-01

    IRR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.26-1.92), celiac disease (aIRR, 5.12; 95% CI, 2.58-10.16), pernicious anemia (aIRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.50-3.68), and psoriasis (aIRR, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.32-4.97). There was no increase in the incidence rate for rheumatoid arthritis (aIRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.15); the incidence rate......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcoholic cirrhosis is associated with hyperactivation and dysregulation of the immune system. In addition to its ability to increase risk for infections, it also may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases. We studied the incidence of autoimmune diseases among patients...... (controls) of the same sex and age. The incidence rates of various autoimmune diseases were compared between patients with cirrhosis and controls and adjusted for the number of hospitalizations in the previous year (a marker for the frequency of clinical examination). RESULTS: Of the 24,679 patients...

  8. Development of risky varices in alcoholic cirrhosis with a well-maintained nutritional status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirayuki; Enomoto; Yoshiyuki; Sakai; Yoshinori; Iwata; Ryo; Takata; Nobuhiro; Aizawa; Naoto; Ikeda; Kunihiro; Hasegawa; Chikage; Nakano; Takashi; Nishimura; Kazunori; Yoh; Akio; Ishii; Tomoyuki; Takashima; Hiroki; Nishikawa; Hiroko; Iijima; Shuhei; Nishiguchi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the nutritional status between alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients and hepatitis C virus(HCV)-related cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension.METHODS: A total of 21 patients with compensated cirrhosis(14 with HCV-related cirrhosis and seven with alcoholic cirrhosis) who had risky esophageal varices were investigated. In addition to physical variables, including the body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, and arm-muscle circumference, the nutritional status was also assessed using the levels of pre-albumin(pre-ALB), retinol-binding protein(RBP) and non-protein respiratory quotient(NPRQ) measured with an indirect calorimeter.RESULTS: A general assessment for the nutritional status with physical examinations did not show a significant difference between HCV-related cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis. However, the levels of pre-ALB and RBP in alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients were significantly higher than those in HCV-related compensated cirrhotic patients. In addition, the frequency of having a normal nutritional status(NPRQ ≥ 0.85 and ALB value > 3.5 g/d L) in alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients was significantly higher than that in HCV-related compensated cirrhotic patients.CONCLUSION: According to our small scale study, alcoholic compensated cirrhotic patients can develop severe portal hypertension even with a relatively well-maintained liver function and nutritional status compared with HCV-related cirrhosis.

  9. Peritoneoscopy of alcoholic liver cirrhosis in comparison with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitadai,Masahiro

    1985-04-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneoscopic findings of 39 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC were compared with those of 95 patients with non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis (NALC. They were selected from 245 patients with liver cirrhosis subjected to peritoneoscopy in the 7 year period from 1975 to 1981. Out of the 95 NALC patients, 24 had hepatitis B surface antigen. The ALC patients had nodules which varied in size (61%, large depressions (69%, and a markedly rounded edge of the liver (33% more often than NALC patients (18, 43 and 3%, respectively. Nodularity differed between the right and left lobes in ALC (41% more often than in NALC (16%. Interstitial reddish markings and patchy nodules were, however, more frequent in NALC (51 and 28%, respectively than in ALC (8 and 5%, respectively. Lymphatic vesicles were observed both in ALC (85% and NALC (78%. In conclusion, the peritoneoscopic features which suggested ALC were the coexistence of nodules of various sizes, large depressions and a markedly dull edge of the liver. Interstitial reddish markings and patchy nodules were more indicative of NALC than ALC.

  10. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo

    1983-01-01

    Antinuclear antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.01) in 143 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in 64 patients with alcoholic steatosis and in 94 controls. Smooth muscle antibodies were significantly more prevalent (p less than 0.05) in patients with alcoholic steatosis ...

  11. Colchicine for alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    The majority of liver fibrosis and liver cirrhosis cases in the Western World is caused by alcohol and hepatotoxic viruses. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic medication. Several randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether colchicine has any efficacy in patients...... with alcoholic as well as non-alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis....

  12. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    concentration than controls with a low alcohol intake (detected between carbohydrate deficient transferrin in artery and liver vein or artery and renal vein, either in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 11) or in controls (n = 8......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns...

  13. The contribution of alcohol, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver to cerebral cortical damage in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kril, J J

    1995-03-01

    The relative roles of alcohol toxicity, thiamine deficiency and cirrhosis of the liver in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage are unclear. Brain shrinkage and neuronal loss from four regions of the cortex was determined in 22 alcoholics with the Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), cirrhosis of the liver or neither of these complications and compared to 22 age-matched non-alcoholic controls. Brain shrinkage was most marked in those alcoholics with WKS. Neuronal loss occurred only from the superior cortex and was of equal magnitude in all alcoholic subgroups. In an animal model of alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, neuronal loss from the cerebral cortex occurred in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, those cells which contained the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin appeared to be preferentially damaged in this model.

  14. Transient and etiology-related transcription regulation in cirrhosis prior to hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frédérique Caillot; Céine Derambure; Paulette Bioulac-Sage; Arnaud Fran(c)ois; Michel Scotte; Odile Goria; Martine Hiron; Maryvonne Daveau; Jean-Philippe Salier

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To search for transcription dysregulation that could (1) differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-free from HCC-related cirrhosis (2) differentiate HCCfree cirrhosis related to HCV from that related to alcohol intake.METHODS: Using microarray analysis, we compared transcript levels in HCC-free cirrhosis (alcoholism: 7;hepatitis C: 7), HCC-associated cirrhosis (alcoholism:10; hepatitis C: 10) and eight control livers. The identified transcripts were validated by qRT-PCR in an independent cohort of 45 samples (20 HCCfree cirrhosis; 15 HCC-associated cirrhosis and 10 control livers). We also confirmed our results by immunohistochemistry.transcripts which differentiated between alcoholicrelated cirrhosis, HCV-related cirrhosis and control livers. They mainly corresponded to down-regulation.Dysregulation of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT-3) was found along with related changes in STAT-3 targets which occurred in an etiology-dependent fashion in HCC-free cirrhosis.In contrast, in HCC, such transcription dysregulations were not observed.CONCLUSION: We report that transcriptional dysregulations exist in HCC-free cirrhosis, are transiently observed prior to detectable HCC onset and may be appear like markers from cirrhosis to HCC transition.

  15. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  16. Human leucocyte antigens in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Dietrichson, O;

    1980-01-01

    No significant differences in the frequencies of HLA-B8, -B40, and other HLA-A, -B, and -C phenotypes were found among patients with histologically verified alcoholic cirrhosis compared with normal controls when the p values were multiplied by the number of comparisons. This was found both...... in the present study of 45 patients and in the combined data of this and three other similar studies. However, these findings do not rule out that alcoholic cirrhosis might be associated with HLA factors (for example. HLA-D/DR antigens) controlling immune responses....

  17. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place re...... with strong evidence of a significantly positive relationship between alcohol consumption and the development in liver diseases; this is in accordance with many other micro studies.......Since the 1960s wine consumption has decreased dramatically in especially the Southern European countries whereas the countries in the northern parts of Europe have experienced a substitution from beer and spirits toward wines. In this sense there has been a process of convergence taking place...... regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. Colchicine for alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver fibrosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and hepatotropic viruses cause the majority of liver cirrhosis cases in the Western World. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic medication. Several randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether colchicine has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic or non-alcoholic...

  20. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingsø, Jens

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction......, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls...... is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild...

  1. Escherichia coli Eyelid Abscess in a Patient with Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stratton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli is a rare cause of ocular infections and has not yet been reported as a cause of an ocular abscess. We describe the case of a 47-year-old woman with a history of alcoholic cirrhosis who presented with painful left lower eyelid swelling that did not improve with oral antibiotics. The abscess was drained and cultures were positive for E. coli. Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk for developing E. coli bacterial infections, but to our knowledge this is the first case of an E. coli eyelid abscess reported in the literature.

  2. TO STUDY AND EVALUATE DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN PATIENTS OF ALCOHOLIC AND NON-ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cardiovascular dysfunction is the major component of morbidity in patients of liver cirrhosis and a cardinal prognostic indicator in patients undergoing liver transplantation. The constellation of hyperdynamic circulation, peripheral vasodilation and volume overload alters the systolic and diastolic dysfunction leading to cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM. In this study, we evaluated and compared the diastolic dysfunction among alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients. AIMS 1 To Study the Prevalence of Diastolic Dysfunction in Alcoholic & Non-Alcoholic Cirrhotics and Controls. 2 To Compare the Diastolic functional status between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional case control study was conducted in 100 male cirrhotic patients consisting of alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhotic subjects with age matched 50 controls in Pt. JNM Medical College & Dr. BRAM Hospital, Raipur. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was assessed using echocardiographic parameters. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The range, median, standard deviation and statistical significance were calculated. Most of the data is analysed by Student Ttest, Mann Whitney U test, while the data with frequency distribution is analysed by Fisher’s exact. With p value 1. CONCLUSION Our study showed that patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis have higher occurrence of DD (49% and 46% respectively than controls owing to alterations in the myocardial contractile and relaxation function. It also shows that although DD is a frequent event in cirrhosis, it is usually of mild degree and does not correlate with severity of liver dysfunction. There were no significant differences in diastolic parameters between alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis concluding that alcohol likely plays a non-significant role in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhotics.

  3. Autoantibodies, histocompatibility antigens and testosterone in males with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Bahnsen, M;

    1981-01-01

    Titres and immunoglobulin classes of autoantibodies were examined in 69 male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and the findings were related to particular human leucocyte antigens and serum concentration of testosterone. Both anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and smooth muscle antibodies (SMA......) were significantly more prevalent in patients with cirrhosis than in sex- and age-matched controls. Antimitochondrial antibodies and liver cell membrane antibody were found in 4% of the patients, and in none of the controls, but this difference was not significant. Patients with HLA-B8 and/or HLA-B12...

  4. Circulating Lipids Are Associated with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis and Represent Potential Biomarkers for Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Wong, Gerard; Rahman, Khairunnessa; Huynh, Kevin; Barlow, Christopher K; Duly, Alastair M P; Haber, Paul S; Whitfield, John B; Seth, Devanshi

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is the greatest cause of death related to alcohol and a major public health problem. While excessive alcohol intake results in hepatosteatosis in most individuals, this can progress in some to more severe forms of liver disease including fibrosis and cirrhosis. An ongoing challenge in the management of alcoholic liver disease is the identification of liver injury early in the disease process such that intervention strategies can prevent serious long term outcomes. Given that excessive alcohol consumption results in dysregulation of lipid metabolism we applied lipid profiling technology to characterise and compare serum lipid profiles from excessive chronic drinkers with no liver disease to those with advanced alcoholic cirrhosis. In a cohort of 59 excessive drinkers (31 with liver cirrhosis and 28 with no evidence of liver disease) we used electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry to measure over 300 individual lipid species in serum, including species of the major phospholipid, sphingolipid, glycerolipid and sterol classes. Six of the 25 lipid classes and subclasses were significantly associated with alcoholic liver cirrhosis; these included dihexosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, alkylphosphatidylcholine, lysoalkylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and free cholesterol. Multivariate classification models created with only clinical characteristics gave an optimal model with an AUC of 0.847 and an accuracy of 79.7%. The addition of lipid measurements to the clinical characteristics resulted in models of improved performance with an AUC of 0.892 and accuracy of 81.8%. The gain in AUC and accuracy of the combined models highlight the potential of serum lipids as markers of liver injury in alcoholic liver disease.

  5. Hepatic venous oxygen content in alcoholic cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Widding, A

    1987-01-01

    Blood gas analyses and hepatic blood flow were determined during hepatic vein catheterization in order to establish a possible hypoxic component in alcoholic liver disease. Fifty-six patients (9 non-cirrhotic liver disease, 14 cirrhosis Child-Turcotte class A, 23 class B, 10 class C) and 10 control...

  6. Ultrasonography for diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Semenistaia, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    parameters for assessing cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease encompass among others liver size, bluntness of the liver edge, coarseness of the liver parenchyma, nodularity of the liver surface, size of the lymph nodes around the hepatic artery, irregularity and narrowness of the inferior vena...... cava, portal vein velocity, and spleen size.Diagnosis of cirrhosis by ultrasound, especially in people who are asymptomatic, may have its advantages for the prognosis, motivation, and treatment of these people to decrease their alcohol consumption or become abstinent.Timely diagnosis of alcoholic......SP), EMBASE (OvidSP), and the Science Citation Index Expanded to 8 January 2015. We applied no language limitations.We screened study references of the retrieved studies to identify other potentially relevant studies for inclusion in the review and read abstract and poster publications. SELECTION CRITERIA...

  7. CD14 promoter polymorphism in Chinese alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Chen Chao; Heng-Cheng Chu; Wei-Kuo Chang; Hsin-Hung Huang; Tsai-Yuan Hsieh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of the CD14 promoter and the occurrence of alcoholic cirrhosis and alcoholic pancreatitis, and to challenge the conclusion made earlier that the patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis of liver are two different subpopulations.METHODS: Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, we determined the polymorphism of CD14 gene and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene 2 (ALDH 2) in 335 alcoholic patients with different organ complications i.e., cirrhosis of liver (n = 100), acute pancreatitis (n = 100), esophageal cancer (n = 82) and avascular necrosis of hip joint (AVN) (n = 53)and 194 non-alcoholic controls in a Chinese group.RESULTS: The results showed that the carriage of T allele was not different among alcoholic patients with cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic patients with other complication and non-alcoholic controls. On the other hand, the carriage of the C allele was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for esophageal cancer (0.79 vs 0.60,P<0.001), alcoholic AVN (0.79 vs 0.65, P<0.025) and nonalcoholic controls (0.79 vs 0.68, P<0.025). Furthermore,when only subjects with ALDH2 1-1 genotype were examined, the C allele frequency was significantly more prevalent for alcoholic pancreatitis than for alcoholic liver cirrhosis (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.025), esophageal cancer (0.82 vs 0.61, P<0.01), alcoholic AVN (0.82 vs 0.64,P<0.01) and non-alcoholic controls (0.82 vs 0.69, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The C allele may be associated with some mechanism, which is important in the pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis, and that alcoholic patients with acute pancreatitis and cirrhosis of liver are probably two different subpopulations.

  8. Gut microbiota-related complications in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Such, José; Sanz, Yolanda; Francés, Rubén

    2014-11-14

    Gut microbiota plays an important role in cirrhosis. The liver is constantly challenged with commensal bacteria and their products arriving through the portal vein in the so-called gut-liver axis. Bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen through the intestinal wall and to mesenteric lymph nodes is facilitated by intestinal bacterial overgrowth, impairment in the permeability of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and deficiencies in local host immune defences. Deranged clearance of endogenous bacteria from portal and systemic circulation turns the gut into the major source of bacterial-related complications. Liver function may therefore be affected by alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and a role for commensal flora has been evidenced in the pathogenesis of several complications arising in end-stage liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy, splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The use of antibiotics is the main therapeutic pipeline in the management of these bacteria-related complications. However, other strategies aimed at preserving intestinal homeostasis through the use of pre-, pro- or symbiotic formulations are being studied in the last years. In this review, the role of intestinal microbiota in the development of the most frequent complications arising in cirrhosis and the different clinical and experimental studies conducted to prevent or improve these complications by modifying the gut microbiota composition are summarized.

  9. Testosterone and alcoholic cirrhosis. Epidemiologic, pathophysiologic and therapeutic studies in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1988-01-01

    risk of cirrhotic patients treated with anabolic-androgenic steroids does not disclose any significant difference compared with placebo treatment (relative risk 0.98; 95% confidence limits 0.77-1.22). Seldom, but serious, side-effects of oral testosterone treatment can not be excluded.......The present review summarizes the pathogenic mechanisms leading to variation of plasma testosterone concentrations, consequences of hypoandrogenization and hyperoestrogenization, and effects of oral testosterone treatment in men with alcoholic cirrhosis. These patients have normal median plasma...

  10. Prognostic value of the monoethylglycinexylidide test in alcoholic cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhise Satish

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The existing conventional liver function tests (LFTs are indirect, inferior and have limited prognostic value. Therefore, the monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX test, which provides a direct measure of the actual functional state of the liver, is proposed as a real-time liver function test. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the MEGX test in cirrhosis by comparing it with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP, the Mayo end stage liver disease (MELD and discriminant function (DF scores. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Satara, India during the period of January 2005 to June 2006 and included 79 adult alcoholic cirrhotic patients. The serum specimen from each patient was analyzed using conventional LFTs and the MEGX test. The prognostic scores-CTP, MELD and DF scores were calculated and statistical analyses was performed. Results: Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, the MELD score and MEGX 60 showed excellent sensitivity and specificity. The comparison of area under ROC curves showed that MELD and MEGX 60 had superior prognostic accuracy when compared to other scores. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for corresponding cutoff values clearly differentiated between patients with different survival times. Conclusion: The MEGX test has shown more sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than CTP and DF scores in determining cases with the possibility of three- and six-month survival. Thus, it can be concluded that MEGX test alongwith MELD, is an effective prognostic tool in the hands of clinicians for predicting short-term survival.

  11. The outcome of critical illness in decompensated alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavli, M; Strøm, T; Carlsson, M;

    2012-01-01

    with the Child-Pugh score. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in a university-affiliated ICU. Eighty-seven adult patients with decompensated liver alcoholic cirrhosis were admitted from January 2007 to January 2010. RESULTS: The patients were severely ill with median scores......: SAPS II 60, SOFA (day 1) 11, APACHE II 31, and Child-Pugh 12. Receiver operating characteristic curves area under curve was 0.79 for APACHE II, 0.83 for SAPS II, and 0.79 for SOFA (day1) compared with 0.59 for Child-Pugh. In patients only in need of mechanical ventilation, the 90-day mortality was 76......, SAPS II, and SOFA were better at predicting mortality than the Child-Pugh score. With three or more organ failures, the ICU mortality was > 90%. APACHE II > 30, SAPS II > 60, and SOFA at day 1 > 12 were all associated with a mortality of > 90%. Referral criteria of patients suffering from decompensated...

  12. Pleomorphic hepatocellular carcinoma following consumption of hypericum perforatum in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampri, Evangeli S; Ioachim, Elli; Harissis, Haralampos; Balasi, Eufemia; Mitselou, Antigoni; Malamou-Mitsi, Vasiliki

    2014-02-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) often develops in patients with underlying liver disease, yet HCC with syncytial giant cells (SGCs) is extremely rare. Herein, we report a 55-year-old man with a 6-year history of alcoholic cirrhosis who during his regular checkup presented with marked elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Clinical examination and imaging analyses revealed a tumor-like lesion in segment 4 of the liver, which was removed by limited wedge resection. Histological analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining indicated pleomorphic and atypical nodules, with some SGCs, embedded within the boundaries of the neoplastic lesion. The adjacent liver parenchyma showed microvesicular steatosis, pericellular fibrosis, and moderate hemosiderin accumulation (grade 2, as determined by Prussian blue iron stain) in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells but no copper accumulation (as determined by orcein stain). Immunohistochemical analysis showed hepatocyte antigen-positive staining for the neoplastic cells and SGCs. The diagnosis was made for cirrhosis-related HCC with SGCs. The previous reports of pleomorphic HCC have featured osteoclast-like (i.e., mesenchymal type) giant cells, making this case of epithelial type giant cells very rare. The patient's 6-month history of hypericum perforatum/St John's wort self-medication may have prompted the cirrhosis or HCC progression or the unusual SGC manifestation.

  13. Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also affect liver function. Viral Hepatitis Vaccination and Screening All people with cirrhosis should consider vaccination against ... reduce the likelihood of bleeding. Bleeding in the stomach or esophagus requires an immediate upper endoscopy. This ...

  14. Type and etiology of liver cirrhosis are not related to the presence of hepatic encephalopathy or health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björnsson Einar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic encephalopathy has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (QoL in liver cirrhosis. There are scarce and conflicting data on whether type or etiology of liver cirrhosis could be related to hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the impact of cirrhosis etiology on hepatic encephalopathy and whether hepatic encephalopathy affects health-related QoL among patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies. Methods A total of 156 cirrhotic patients were prospectively evaluated for the presence of hepatic encephalopathy according to the West-Haven criteria as well as by means of two psychometric tests. Patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis or cirrhosis due to mixed hepatocellular/cholestatic etiologies were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose levels were also measured. QoL was evaluated by means of a validated questionnaire (SF-36. Results Diabetes mellitus was more common in patients with hepatocellular cirrhosis compared to those with cholestatic cirrhosis but the two groups did not differ in cirrhosis severity or the prevalence of hepatic encephalopathy (p > 0.05. The groups of patients with cirrhosis due to alcohol, hepatitis C, or cholestatic liver disease did not differ in severity of liver cirrhosis or the prevalence of hepatic encephalopathy (p > 0.05. Patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies did not differ in any SF-36 domain (p > 0.05. In multivariate analysis, performance at neuropsychological testing was independently related only to age, diabetes mellitus, and the Child-Pugh score whereas the SF-36 physical component summary only to the Child-Pugh score and hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion Cirrhosis etiology does not seem to be related to hepatic encephalopathy or health-related QoL. Cognitive impairment is associated mainly with age, liver disease severity and diabetes mellitus.

  15. [Gender difference of clinical features in Japanese patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Osamu; Ohata, Mitsuru; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Kenichi; Nakajima, Hisato; Yamauchi, Masayoshi

    2003-02-01

    Gender difference of alcohol intake and laboratory data was investigated in 165 Japanese patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Mean age of first drinking and habitual drinking were higher in female. Duration of drinking was shorter in female. Although cumulative alcohol intake was larger in male, mean daily alcohol intake did not differ in both gender. Moreover, daily alcohol intake adjusted to body weight was significantly larger in female. Body mass index, serum levels of total protein, albumin and cholinesterase were significantly decreased in female. Platelet counts on admission did not differ in both gender. However, it was significantly increased in female after one month abstinence. C reactive protein, ammonia and serum levels of total bilirubin were significantly higher in female as compared to male. In conclusion, female alcoholics seems to progress to liver cirrhosis earlier because of high daily alcohol intake adjusted to body weight, poor nutritional condition and inflammation caused by endotoxin.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 in Turkish alcoholics: lack of association with alcoholism and alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Sezgin; Tekin, Fatih; Salman, Esin; Altintoprak, Ender; Coskunol, Hakan; Akarca, Ulus Salih

    2015-05-17

    No data exists regarding the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene polymorphisms in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics. We studied the polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes in alcoholic cirrhotics and compared the results with non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers. Overall, 237 subjects were included for the study: 156 alcoholic patients (78 cirrhotics, 78 non-cirrhotic alcoholics) and 81 healthy volunteers. Three different single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping methods were used. ADH1C genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The identified ADH1C genotypes were named according to the presence or absence of the enzyme restriction sites. ADH1B (Arg47Hys) genotyping was performed using the allele specific primer extension method, and ALDH2 (Glu487Lys) genotyping was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using two allele-specific primer pairs. For ADH1B, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 97.4%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. For ADH1C, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 47%, 36.3% and 45%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups for ADH1B and ADH1C (p>0.05). All alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects (100%) had the allele *1 for ALDH2. The obtained results for ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH gene polymorphisms in the present study are similar to the results of Caucasian studies. ADH1B and ADH1C genetic variations are not related to the development of alcoholism or susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis. ALDH2 gene has no genetic variation in the Turkish population.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 in Turkish alcoholics: lack of association with alcoholism and alcoholic cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Vatansever

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available No data exists regarding the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene polymorphisms in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics. We studied the polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes in alcoholic cirrhotics and compared the results with non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers. Overall, 237 subjects were included for the study: 156 alcoholic patients (78 cirrhotics, 78 non-cirrhotic alcoholics and 81 healthy volunteers. Three different single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping methods were used. ADH1C genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The identified ADH1C genotypes were named according to the presence or absence of the enzyme restriction sites. ADH1B (Arg47Hys genotyping was performed using the allele specific primer extension method, and ALDH2 (Glu487Lys genotyping was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using two allele-specific primer pairs. For ADH1B, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 97.4%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. For ADH1C, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 47%, 36.3% and 45%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups for ADH1B and ADH1C (p>0.05. All alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects (100% had the allele *1 for ALDH2. The obtained results for ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH gene polymorphisms in the present study are similar to the results of Caucasian studies. ADH1B and ADH1C genetic variations are not related to the development of alcoholism or susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis. ALDH2 gene has no genetic variation in the Turkish population.

  18. Plasma YKL-40: a new potential marker of fibrosis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J S; Møller, S; Price, P A

    1997-01-01

    YKL-40 is released or extracted in the hepatosplanchnic system and to localize YKL-40 in liver tissue. METHODS: Plasma YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 25 patients with liver diseases (alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 20), chronic active hepatitis (n = 2), cirrhosis of unknown aetiology (n = 2......), and fatty liver (n = 1) and in 18 subjects with normal liver function during a haemodynamic investigation with catheterization of liver vein and the femoral artery. Immunohistochemical studies of the localization of YKL-40 in cryostal liver biopsy specimens were obtained from eight other patients...... with alcoholic liver disease. RESULTS: Plasma YKL-40 was significantly increased in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (median, 523 micrograms/l; P

  19. Survival of patients with alcoholic and cryptogenic cirrhosis without liver transplantation: a single center retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanayake Sudul

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no recent data addressing the long term survival of cirrhosis patients without transplantation, but with the availability of optimal pharmacological and endoscopic therapies. We compared the long term transplant free survival of alcoholic (AC and cryptogenic (CC cirrhosis patients in a setting where liver transplantation was, until very recently, not available. AC and CC patient details were extracted from our database, maintained since 1995. For those who had not attended clinics within the past 4 weeks, the patient or families were contacted to obtain survival status. If deceased, cause of death was ascertained from death certificates and patient records. Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results Complete details were available in 549/651 (84.3% patients (AC 306, CC 243. Mean follow up duration (SD (months was 29.9 (32.6. 82/96 deaths (85.4% among AC and 80/94 deaths (85.1% among CC were liver related. Multivariate analysis showed age at diagnosis and Child’s class predicted overall survival among all groups. The median survival in Child’s class B and C were 53.5 and 25.3 months respectively. Survival was similar among AC and CC. Among AC survival was improved by abstinence [HR = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.40-1.00] and was worse with diabetes [HR=1.59 (95% CI: 1.02- 2.48] irrespective of alcohol status. Conclusions The overall survival of AC was similar to CC. Death in both groups were predominantly liver related, and was predicated by age at diagnosis and Child class. Among AC, presence of diabetes and non-abstinence from alcohol were independent predictors for poor survival.

  20. Elevated nitric oxide and 3',5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C(i)ntia Siqueira; Miguel Carneiro de Moura; Ana J(u)lia Pedro; Paula Rocha

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum levels of nitric oxide (NO') and plasma levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (Cgmp) and total glutathione (GSH) are altered in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to examine their correlation with the severity of liver disease.METHODS: Twenty-six patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were studied. Serum levels of NO· and plasma levels of cGMP and GSH were measured in 7 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A) and 19 patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B and C).The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was evaluated. Sixteen healthy volunteers served as controls.Liver enzymes and creatinine levels were also tested.RESULTS: NO· and cGMP levels were higher in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (NO·: 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 11.70 ± 2.74; 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 7.26 ± 2.47 μmol/L, respectively;P < 0.001) and (cGMP: 20.12 ± 6.62 vs 10.14 ± 2.78;20.12 ± 6.62 vs 4.95 ± 1.21 pmol/L, respectively; P <0.001). Total glutathione levels were lower in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (16.04 ± 6.06 vs 23.01 ± 4.38 or 16.04 ± 6.06 vs 66.57 ± 26.23 μmol/L,respectively; P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between NO· and cGMP levels in all patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A significant negative correlation between reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide and the MELD score was found in all cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role for oxidative stress in alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which is more significant in decompensated patients with higher levels of NO· and cGMP and lower GSH levels than in compensated and control patients. Altered mediator levels in decompensated patients may influence the hemodynamic changes in and progression of liver disease.

  1. ALCOHOLIC VERSUS NONALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS IN A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL OF EMERGENCY THERAPY OF BLEEDING VARICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Marshall J.; Isenberg, Jon I.; Wheeler, Henry O.; Haynes, Kevin S.; Jinich-Brook, Horacio; Rapier, Roderick; Vaida, Florin; Hye, Robert J.; Orloff, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that portal-systemic shunts be avoided in alcoholic cirrhotics because survival rate is allegedly lower in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. We examined this issue in a randomized controlled trial. Methods 211 unselected, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and bleeding esophageal varices were randomized to endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) (n=106) or emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) (105). Treatment was initiated within 8 hours. EST failure was treated by rescue PCS. 10-yr follow-up was 96%. Results Results strongly favored EPCS over EST (p<0.001). Among EPCS patients, 83% were alcoholic and 17% nonalcoholic. Outcomes were (1) permanent control of bleeding 100% vs. 100%; (2) 5-yr survival 71% vs.78%; (3) encephalopathy 14% vs. 19%; (4) yearly charges $38,300 vs. $43,000. Conclusions EPCS results were similar in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhotics. EPCS is an effective first line emergency treatment in all forms of cirrhosis, including alcoholic. PMID:21195430

  2. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  3. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokines (IL-1α, IL-6 and Hepatocyte Growth Factor in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

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    Andrzej Prystupa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the activity of interleukin-1α, interleukin-6, and hepatocyte growth factor protein (HGF in serum of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods. Sixty patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis treated in various hospitals were randomly enrolled. The stage of cirrhosis was assessed according to the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system. The control group consisted of ten healthy persons without liver disease, who did not drink alcohol. Additionally, the group of alcoholics without liver cirrhosis was included in the study. The activity of interleukin-1α, interleukin-6, and HGF in blood plasma of patients and controls was measured using the sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique with commercially available quantitative ELISA test kits. Results. Higher concentrations of HGF protein were demonstrated in patients with Child class B and Child class C liver cirrhosis, compared to controls and alcoholics without liver cirrhosis. Moreover, significantly higher concentrations of HGF protein were found in patients with Child class C liver cirrhosis compared to patients with Child class A liver cirrhosis p<0.05. The concentrations of interleukin-1α in patients with Child class B and Child class C liver cirrhosis were significantly higher in comparison with controls. Significantly higher concentrations of interleukin-6 were demonstrated in Child class C, compared to Child class A.

  5. [Studies on the mechanism of elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in alcoholic liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizono, Kenji; Oita, Tatsuo; Eto, Masaaki; Bito, Sanae; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Kasakura, Shinpei

    2002-03-01

    We measured serum PIVKA-II concentrations in 18 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease was diagnosed by the history of ethanol intake of more than 900 ml/day for over 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed histologically. Infections with hepatitis B and C viruses were ruled out by assaying serum virus markers. No tumor was detected in liver by ultrasonography and computed tomography during observation period. None of the patients studied were positive for alpafetoprotein (AFP). Eight out of 18 (44.4%) patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis showed elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. In contrast, only eight out of 93 (8.6%) patients with nonalcholic liver cirrhosis had elevated serum PIVKA-II levels. PIVKA-II is well known as a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rates of positive PIVKA-II found in alcoholic liver cirrhosis approached its rates in HCC. However, the time course for the elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels was different each other in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and HCC. In HCC, serum PIVKA-II "levels" continued to elevate until therapy. In contrast, its elevation was transient and its levels returned to baseline in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The values of ALT (GPT), gamma-GTP, and ALP correlated poorly with serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To investigate the mechanism by which elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis occurred, we studied the effect of vitamin K on production of PIVKA-II and AFP by hepatocytes. Hepatocytes(Alexander PLC/PRF/F cell line) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of vitamin K (Kaytwo, Eisai, Tokyo). Vitamin K had no effect on AFP production. In contrast, PIVKA-II production was inhibited by addition of vitamin K in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, elevation of serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was suppressed by administration of vitamin K (Kaytwo) to these patients. Taken

  6. Clinical course of alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter; Ott, Peter; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2010-01-01

    The clinical course of alcoholic cirrhosis, a condition with a high mortality, has not been well described. We examined prevalence, risk, chronology, and mortality associated with three complications of cirrhosis: ascites, variceal bleeding, and hepatic encephalopathy. We followed a population......-risks methods. At diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis, 24% of patients had no complications, 55% had ascites alone, 6% had variceal bleeding alone, 4% had ascites and variceal bleeding, and 11% had hepatic encephalopathy. One-year mortality was 17% among patients with no initial complications, 20% following...... variceal bleeding alone, 29% following ascites alone, 49% following ascites and variceal bleeding (from the onset of the later of the two complications), and 64% following hepatic encephalopathy. Five-year mortality ranged from 58% to 85%. The risk of complications was about 25% after 1 year and 50% after...

  7. Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espfrito Santo

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    Patricia Lofego Goncalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years. The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%, chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %, HCV alone (14.5% and in association with alcoholism (8.6% (total, 23.1 %, and HBV alone (13.1% and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%. The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8% and other causes (6.0%. The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001 with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052. CONCLUSION: Alcoholism, HCV and HBV are the main factors associated with liver cirrhosis in the state of Espirito Santo. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection reduced the age of patients at the time of liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

  8. Outcomes of liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis versus patients with cirrhosis due to alcoholic liver disease.

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    Bhagat, Vishal; Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Nudo, Carmine G; Schiff, Eugene R; Tzakis, Andreas; Regev, Arie

    2009-12-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming a common cause of liver cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation (LT). Cardiovascular complications related to metabolic syndrome and NASH recurrence in the transplanted liver may affect the outcome of LT in these patients. We compared the outcomes of LT for NASH cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (ETOH) in a large transplant center. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent LT for cryptogenic cirrhosis with the NASH phenotype (the NASH group) or ETOH (the ETOH group) at the University of Miami from January 1997 to January 2007. There was no significant difference in survival between the NASH and ETOH groups, despite a trend toward lower survival in the former (P = 0.1699). Sepsis was the leading cause of posttransplant death in both groups, and it was followed by cardiovascular causes in the NASH group (26% versus 7% in the ETOH group, P = 0.21) and malignancies in the ETOH group (29% versus 0% in the NASH group, P = 0.024). Recurrent steatohepatitis (33% versus 0%, P < 0.0001) and acute rejection (41% versus 23%, P < 0.023) were significantly more frequent in the NASH group than in the ETOH group. There was no difference in graft failure between the groups (24% in the NASH group versus 18% in the ETOH group, P = 0.3973). In conclusion, despite a numerical trend favoring the ETOH group, there were no statistically significant differences in posttransplant survival and cardiovascular mortality between the NASH and ETOH groups. Acute rejection and recurrent steatohepatitis were significantly more frequent in the NASH group but did not lead to higher rates of retransplantation.

  9. Budd-Chiari like syndrome in decompensated alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Robles-Medranda; Hannah Lukashok; Beatriz Biccas; Vera L Pannain; Homero S Fogaca

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of pseudo-Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a patient with decompensated alcoholic liver disease is reported.Although clinical and radiological findings suggested Budd-Chiari Syndrome, the liver biopsy revealed micronodular cirrhosis and absence of histological signs of hepatic outflow obstruction.

  10. The PNPLA3 rs738409 148M/M genotype is a risk factor for liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhosis but shows no or weak association in hepatitis C cirrhosis.

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    Hans Dieter Nischalke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An isoleucine>methionine mutation at position 148 in the PNPLA3 gene (p.I148M, rs738409 has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for liver damage in steatohepatitis. Here, we studied whether the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism also affects predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: We compared distributions of PNPLA3 genotypes in 80 and 81 Caucasian patients with alcoholic and hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated HCC to 80 and 81 age- and sex-matched patients with alcohol-related and HCV-related cirrhosis without HCC, respectively. PNPLA3 genotypes in 190 healthy individuals from the same population served as reference. Potential confounders obesity, diabetes, HCV genotype and HBV co-infection were controlled by univariate and multivariate logistic regression with forward variable selection. RESULTS: PNPLA3 genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all study groups. The frequency of the 148M allele was significantly (p<0.001 increased in alcoholic cirrhosis with (53.7% and without HCC (36.2% but was not different between healthy controls (22.9% and patients with cirrhosis (25.3%; p = 0.545 and HCC (30.2%; p = 0.071 due to hepatitis C. HCC risk was highest in 148M/M homozygous patients with alcoholic liver disease (odds ratio (OR 16.8 versus healthy controls; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.68-42.43, p<0.001. Finally, multivariate regression confirmed 148M/M homozygosity (OR 2.8; 95%-CI: 1.24-6.42; p = 0.013 as HCC risk factor in alcoholic cirrhosis. In HCV-related cirrhosis only HCV genotype 1 was confirmed as a HCC risk factor (OR 4.2; 95%-CI: 1.50-11.52; p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: The PNPLA3 148M variant is a prominent risk factor for HCC in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while its effects are negligible in patients with cirrhosis due to HCV. This polymorphism provides an useful tool to identify individuals with particularly high HCC risk in patients with alcoholic liver disease that

  11. Of liver, whisky and plants: a requiem for colchicine in alcoholic cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Loria, Paola

    2002-04-01

    Colchicine decreases liver fibrosis in experimental and human disease, but a meta-analysis recently concluded that colchicine should not be used for liver fibrosis or cirrhosis irrespective of the aetiology. In this issue, Cortez-Pinto et al. confirm such negative conclusions in their series of 55 outpatients with biopsy-proven alcoholic cirrhosis followed for a median of 3.5 years. Although well tolerated, colchicine did not affect either the annual incidence rate of complications or liver function tests. Current treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis includes correction of nutritional deficiencies, exogenous administration of antioxidants (notably S-adenosylmethionine and polyenylphosphatidylcholine), and liver transplantation. In the future, preventive/therapeutic strategies will include campaigns to decrease alcohol abuse aimed at subjects genetically prone to develop alcoholic liver injury, prevention of liver fibrosis via inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchange, stimulation of apoptosis of stellate cells, antagonism of cytokines involved in liver injury, degradation of extracellular matrix, and reversal of ethanol-induced inflammatory and fibrotic changes via increased nitric oxide levels. On the grounds that it renders the hepatocyte more vulnerable to necrosis, steatosis has a key role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. Conditions associated with insulin resistance have been recognized as risk factors for chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the alcoholic. This suggests that, through steatosis, insulin resistance could be a co-factor of alcoholic liver disease. Were such a hypothesis confirmed, it would unify our view of the pathogenesis of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, with all its inherent therapeutic implications.

  12. Does an association exist between chronic pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis in alcoholic subjects?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luis Aparisi; Luis Sabater; Juan Del-Olmo; Juan Sastre; MigueI-Angel Serra; Ricardo Campello; Daniel Bautista; Abdalla Wassel; José-Manuel Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the possible association between chronic pancreatitis (CP) and liver cirrhosis (LC) of alcoholic etiology, after excluding any other causes. METHODS: One hundred and forty consecutive alcoholic patients were subdivided into three groups: CP (η = 53), LC (η = 57), and asymptomatic alcoholic (n = 30). Clinical, biochemical and morphological characteristics, Child-Pugh index, indocyanine green test, and fecal pancreatic elastase-1 test were assessed. RESULTS: In patients with cirrhosis, major clinical manifestations of CP such as pancreatic pain and steatorrhea, as well as imaging alterations of CP such as calcifications, duct dilation and pseudocysts were absent; insulin-dependent diabetes was present in 5.3% of cases, and elastase-1 test was altered in only 7%, and severely altered in none. In patients with CP, clinical characteristics of cirrhosis such as ascites, encephalopathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were present in one case, Child-Pugh grade > A in 5.7%, and altered indocyanine green test in 1.9% cases. In asymptomatic alcoholism, there was only a non-coincident alteration of elastase-1 test and indocyanine test in 14.8% and 10%, respectively, but other characteristics of cirrhosis or CP were absent. An inverse correlation (r=-0.746) between elastase-1 test and indocyanine test was found in alcoholic patients. CONCLUSION: There is a scarce coincidence in clinical and morphological alterations among patients with CP or LC of alcoholic etiology, but an inverse correlation between pancreatic and liver function tests. These findings support that these alcoholic diseases evolve in a different manner and have different etiopathogenesis.

  13. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C MARKERS IN ALCOHOLICS WITH AND WITHOUT CLINICALLY EVIDENT HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

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    OLIVEIRA Luiz Carlos Marques de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the frequency of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections in 365 alcoholics by determining, by ELISA, the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. Fifty patients were cirrhotics and 315 had no evidence of hepatic cirrhosis; of the latter HBsAg was assessed in all, anti-HBc and anti-HBs in 130, and anti-HCV in 210. Among the alcoholics the frequencies of HBsAg (1.9%, anti-HBc (28.3% and anti-HCV (3.8% were higher (p<0.001 than among the controls (N=17,059, 0.4%, 4.0% and 0.4% respectively. The frequency of positive HBsAg was higher (p<0.001 in the cirrhotic patients (8.0% than in alcoholics without cirrhosis (0.95% and in controls (0.4%, and similar between the latter; of anti-HBc in alcoholics without cirrhosis (28.5% was similar in cirrhotics patients (28.0% and higher (p<0.001 than in the controls (4.0%; of anti-HBs in alcoholics without cirrhosis (20.8% was similar to that of the cirrhotic patients (10.0%, and the anti-HCV was similar between alcoholics with (6.0% and without cirrhosis (3.3% and higher (p<0.001 than in controls (0.4%. We concluded that: a alcoholics with or without cirrhosis have similar frequencies of infection with HBV and HCV between them, and higher than in nonalcoholics; b alcoholics without cirrhosis had a frequency of HBV active infection (HBsAg+ which was similar to the controls, whereas among those who progressed to cirrhosis this frequency was significantly higher, what suggests that HBV may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis in a few alcoholic individuals.

  14. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the RASGRF2 Gene Is Associated with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Pastor, Isabel; Chamorro, Antonio-Javier; Laso, Francisco-Javier; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Marcos, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms in the RAS gene family are associated with different diseases, which may include alcohol-related disorders. Previous studies showed an association of the allelic variant rs26907 in RASGRF2 gene with higher alcohol intake. Additionally, the rs61764370 polymorphism in the KRAS gene is located in a binding site for the let-7 micro-RNA family, which is potentially involved in alcohol-induced inflammation. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the association between these two polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Methods We enrolled 301 male alcoholic patients and 156 healthy male volunteers in this study. Polymorphisms were genotyped by using TaqMan® PCR assays for allelic discrimination. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the inheritance model. Results The A allele of the RASGRF2 polymorphism (rs26907) was significantly more prevalent among alcoholic patients with cirrhosis (23.2%) compared to alcoholic patients without ALD (14.2%). This difference remained significant in the group of patients with alcohol dependence (28.8% vs. 14.3%) but not in those with alcohol abuse (15.1% vs. 14.4%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the A allele of this polymorphism (AA or GA genotype) was associated with alcoholic cirrhosis both in the total group of alcoholics (odds ratio [OR]: 2.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32–4.11; P = 0.002) and in the group of patients with alcohol dependence (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.50–6.20; P = 0.001). Allelic distributions of the KRAS polymorphism (rs61764370) did not differ between the groups. Conclusions To our knowledge, this genetic association study represents the first to show an association of the RASGRF2 G>A (rs26907) polymorphism with ALD in men, particularly in the subgroup of patients with AD. The findings suggest the potential relevance of

  15. TO FIND THE PREVALENCE OF AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH NON ALCOHOLIC HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

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    Deepak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT: Autonomic neuropathy has been reported in patients wit h alcoholic liver disease but information on its occurrence in patients with n on-alcoholic liver disease is contradictory. To make the things more clear the present study was conducted to assess autonomic functions in patients with non-alcoholic liver disease and its relationships with the severity of liver damage. Autonomic function using five standard test s was examined in 50 cirrhotics. The extent of autonomic dysfunction was determined in the patie nts and a comparison between the characteristics of patients with and without autonom ic neuropathy was made. Out of 50 patients 35 (70% were found to have autonomic neuro pathy The alteration of the parasympathetic function [20 out of 35(57%] was sign ificantly more frequent than that of sympathetic function [15(43%]. The prevalence of aut onomic neuropathy was more (80% in patients with Child-Pugh grade C cirrhosis as compare d to those having Child-Pugh grade B cirrhosis (54%. The results were clinically signif icant but statistically insignificant (p>0.05. It was seen that out of total 50 cases of non alcoholi c cirrhosis, the majority (68% were due to hepatitis C infection. A high prevalence of abnormali ties in both sympathetic and parasympathetic function tests, and a poor relationshi p with liver function parameters, has been found in patients with non-alcoholic chronic l iver disease.

  16. Gut microbiota, cirrhosis and alcohol regulate bile acid metabolism in the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridlon, Jason M.; Kang, Dae-Joong; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the complex role of the bile acid-gut microbiome axis in health and disease processes is evolving rapidly. Our focus revolves around the interaction of the gut microbiota with liver diseases, especially cirrhosis. The bile acid pool size has recently been shown to be a function of microbial metabolism of bile acid and regulation of the microbiota by bile acids is important in the development and progression of several liver diseases. Humans produce a large, conjugated hydrophilic bile acid pool, maintained through positive-feedback antagonism of FXR in intestine and liver. Microbes use bile acids, and via FXR signaling this results in a smaller, unconjugated hydrophobic bile acid pool. This equilibrium is critical to maintain health. The challenge is to examine the manifold functions of gut bile acids as modulators of antibiotic, probiotic and disease progression in cirrhosis, metabolic syndrome and alcohol use. Recent studies have shown potential mechanisms explaining how perturbations in the microbiome affect bile acid pool size and composition. With advancing liver disease and cirrhosis, there is dysbiosis in the fecal, ileal and colonic mucosa, in addition to a decrease in bile acid concentration in the intestine due to the liver problems. This results in a dramatic shift toward the Firmicutes, particularly Clostridium cluster XIVa and increasing production of deoxycholic acid (DCA). Alcohol intake speeds up these processes in the subjects with and without cirrhosis without significant FXR feedback. Taken together, these pathways can impact intestinal and systemic inflammation while worsening dysbiosis. The interaction between bile acids, alcohol, cirrhosis and dysbiosis is an important relationship that influences intestinal and systemic inflammation, which in turn determines progression of the overall disease process. These interactions and the impact of commonly used therapies for liver disease can provide insight into the pathogenesis

  17. Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy

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    Madhumita Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure.

  18. Detection of alcohol consumption in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis during the evaluation process for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Johann-Martin; Greif-Higer, Gertrud; Kaufmann, Thomas; Beutel, Manfred E

    2012-11-01

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is a commonly accepted indication for liver transplantation (LT). Any alcohol consumption is considered a contraindication for LT. However, the assessment of abstinence in everyday practice mostly relies on patient self-reporting, which must be considered highly unreliable. After consumption, ethanol is eliminated by alcohol dehydrogenase, with methanol accumulating in the blood. Methanol, which is known to be a sensitive and specific indicator for recent alcohol consumption, has not been used for verifying alcohol consumption in LT assessments yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using methanol testing to identify recent alcohol consumption in LT candidates during routine and short-notice appointments. We compared methanol and ethanol measurements with self-reported alcohol consumption for 41 patients with ALC during the evaluation process before they were accepted onto the waiting list. In 32 of the 92 blood samples drawn from these 41 patients during the study, a relapse was detected by the methanol test. Both the ethanol test results and the self-reported data were positive in only 3 cases. Thus, the methanol test identified 29 additional cases of alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the methanol test discovered recent alcohol consumption in 5 of 10 transplant patients when both self-reported data and ethanol test results were negative. As a part of blood alcohol analysis, the methanol test is more sensitive than self-reporting and ethanol testing for the detection of recent alcohol consumption. Also, short-notice appointments for blood alcohol analysis reveal more cases of alcohol relapse than routine, long-term appointments. The measurement of methanol as a sensitive screening test for recent alcohol consumption should be implemented both in law and in daily, routine practice. Liver Transpl 18:1310-1315, 2012. © 2012 AASLD.

  19. Transient and 2-Dimensional Shear-Wave Elastography Provide Comparable Assessment of Alcoholic Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Detlefsen, Sönke; Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol abuse causes half of all deaths from cirrhosis in the West, but few tools are available for noninvasive diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. We evaluated 2 elastography techniques for diagnosis of alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis; liver biopsy with Ishak score...... and collagen-proportionate area were used as reference. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 199 consecutive patients with ongoing or prior alcohol abuse, but without known liver disease. One group of patients had a high pretest probability of cirrhosis because they were identified at hospital liver...... clinics (in Southern Denmark). The second, lower-risk group, was recruited from municipal alcohol rehabilitation centers and the Danish national public health portal. All subjects underwent same-day transient elastography (FibroScan), 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (Supersonic Aixplorer), and liver...

  20. Serum Concentrations of Selected Heavy Metals in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis from the Lublin Region in Eastern Poland

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    Andrzej Prystupa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO report, alcohol is the third most significant health risk factor for the global population. There are contrary reports about heavy metals concentrations in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of selected heavy metals in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis living in the eastern part of Poland according to cirrhosis stage. The participants came from various hospitals of the Lublin region were enrolled. The study group included 46 male and 16 female patients. The control group consisted of 18 healthy individuals without liver disease. High Performance Ion Chromatography was used to determine the concentrations of metal ions (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Mn, and Pb in serum samples. The concentrations of copper, zinc, nickel, and cobalt were found to be significantly lower in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. The serum concentration of cadmium was significantly higher in patients with advanced alcoholic liver cirrhosis compared to the control group. We hypothesize that disorders of metabolism of heavy metals seem to be the outcome of impaired digestion and absorption, which are common in cirrhosis, improper diet, environmental and occupational exposure.

  1. Sexual dysfunction in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S B; Gluud, C

    1985-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction in men with alcoholic cirrhosis was investigated in young (less than 56 years) outpatients with steady female partners. Sixty-one per cent (11/18) claimed sexual dysfunction, with erectile dysfunction and/or reduced sexual desire being the most common symptoms. Comparing patients...... not significantly different comparing alcoholic cirrhotic men to chronic alcoholic men without overt liver disease (matched for duration of alcoholism, age and duration of partnership) and to insulin-dependent diabetic men (matched for age and duration of partnership). However, all groups had a significantly (p...... less than 0.025) raised prevalence of sexual dysfunction when compared to men without chronic disease (matched for age and duration of partnership)....

  2. Hepatitis B and A virus antibodies in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Henriksen, J

    1982-01-01

    Sera from 74 alcoholics with cirrhosis and 63 alcoholics with steatosis were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, to hepatitis B core antigen, and to hepatitis A virus by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant difference between the two groups...... of alcoholics could be found concerning the prevalence of these antibodies. The total group of patients had antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B core antigen, or both, significantly (p less than 0.001) more often (26%) than sex- and age-matched controls (4%). No significant difference...... suggest that hepatitis B virus does not play a major role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease, but longitudinal studies are needed to solve this problem. The reason for the increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus in these patients is unknown....

  3. Increased circulating calcitonin in cirrhosis. Relation to severity of disease and calcitonin gene-related peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schifter, S; Møller, S

    2000-01-01

    circulating plasma concentrations of CT in patients with cirrhosis in relation to the severity of disease and the plasma level of CGRP. Moreover, the kinetics of CT was evaluated for different organ systems by determination of arteriovenous extraction. Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte...... control (12.1 v 6.9 pmol/L, P Turcotte score was found (P

  4. Deceptive prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikonda, P. R.; Spillert, C. R.; Koneru, B.; Ponnudurai, R.; Wilson, D. J.; Lazaro, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that perioperative hemorrhage, in the hepatoportal area, results from a coagulopathy. This study determined if this could be quantitated by a modified recalcification time (MRT) test developed in our laboratory. Unlike prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT), the MRT is performed with whole blood to ensure the role of blood cells and chemicals (particularly tissue factor, a potent procoagulant) in the coagulation process. Candidates for liver transplantation (n = 11) were studied. Samples (5 mL) of citrated venous blood were obtained from the patients. Aliquots (1 mL) from these samples were divided into groups of vials labeled C, S, and E. Groups C and S received 20 microL saline and group E, 20 microL of saline containing 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B5W). Vial C was incubated for 10 minutes and vials S and E for 120 minutes, all at 37 degrees C. Then, the MRT was determined on 300 microL of blood from each vial after adding 40 microL of 0.1M calcium chloride. Mean MRT values (minutes +/- standard deviation) for C (MRTC), for S (MRTS), and for E (MRTE) were compared with like values from healthy controls (n = 29). Despite prolonged PT and APTT values, MRT values were shortened in patients with cirrhosis. This hypercoagulability detected by the MRT exonerates a hemorrhagic coagulopathy and possibly implicates widened and thinned gaps in the walls of the portal venous tributaries as the cause of perioperative hemorrhage. PMID:8667440

  5. PNPLA3 I148M (rs738409) genetic variant and age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for alcoholic cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burza, Maria Antonella; Molinaro, Antonio; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Rotondo, Claudia; Attilia, Fabio; Ceccanti, Mauro; Ferri, Flaminia; Maldarelli, Federica; Maffongelli, Angela; De Santis, Adriano; Attili, Adolfo Francesco; Romeo, Stefano; Ginanni Corradini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Environmental and genetic factors contribute to alcoholic cirrhosis onset. In particular, age at exposure to liver stressors has been shown to be important in progression to fibrosis in hepatitis C individuals. However, no definite data on the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption are available. Moreover, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) variant has been associated with alcoholic cirrhosis, but only in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M variant on alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. Methods A total of 384 at-risk alcohol drinkers were retrospectively examined. The association among age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption, PNPLA3 I148M variant and cirrhosis incidence was tested. Results A higher incidence of alcoholic cirrhosis was observed in individuals with an older (≥24 years) compared with a younger (<24) age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (P-value < 0.001). Moreover, PNPLA3 148M allele carriers showed an increased incidence of cirrhosis (P-value < 0.001). Both age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 148M allele were independent risk factors for developing cirrhosis (H.R. (95% C.I.): 2.76 (2.18–3.50), P-value < 0.001; 1.53(1.07–2.19), P-value = 0.021 respectively). The 148M allele was associated with a two-fold increased risk of cirrhosis in individuals with a younger compared with an older age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption (H.R. (95% C.I.): 3.03(1.53–6.00) vs. 1.61(1.09–2.38). Conclusions Age at onset of at-risk alcohol consumption and PNPLA3 I148M genetic variant are independently associated with alcoholic cirrhosis incidence. PMID:24102786

  6. Influence of the CXCL1 rs4074 A allele on alcohol induced cirrhosis and HCC in patients of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Dieter Nischalke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CXCL1 (CXC chemokine-ligand-1 is a ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 2 expressed on hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Thus, CXCL1 might contribute to HSC activation and fibrogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the CXCL1 rs4074 polymorphism on the occurrence of alcohol induced liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODS: The study involved 458 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (170 with HCC, 115 alcoholics without liver disease and 342 healthy controls. All subjects were genotyped for the CXCL1 rs4074 polymorphism and CXCL1 serum levels of 132 patients were measured. In vitro CXCL1 secretion in TLR-transfected cell lines were studied by ELISA. RESULTS: Distribution of the CXCL1 genotypes (GG/GA/AA was 159/219/80 in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, 52/44/19 in alcoholic controls and 158/140/44 in healthy controls. Patients with alcohol-induced cirrhosis were significantly more often carriers of the CXCL1 rs4074 A allele (65.3% than alcoholics without liver disease (54.8%, OR=1.55; 95%CI=1.025-2.350; p=0.04 and healthy controls (53.8%, OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.212-2.151; p=0.001. Accordingly, the frequency of the CXCL1 rs4074 A allele was significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients than in the subjects without cirrhosis (41.4% vs. 33.9%, OR=1.38, 95% CI:1.14-1.66, p=0.001. Furthermore cirrhotic carriers of the CXCL1 rs4074 A allele had significantly higher CXCL1 serum levels than carriers of the GG genotype. In contrast to sera from healthy controls, sera from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis induced CXCL1 secretion in TLR2- (p=0.016 and TLR4- (p=0.008 transfected HEK293 cells. This finding indicates that sera from patients with alcoholic cirrhosis contain soluble ligands that can induce CXCL1 production via stimulation of TLRs. CONCLUSION: The enhanced CXCL1 serum levels in carriers of the rs4074 A allele together with their increased frequency in patients with alcohol induced cirrhosis

  7. No effect of long-term oral testosterone treatment on liver morphology in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde; Eriksen, J

    1987-01-01

    duration of 30 months demonstrated a significant (p less than 0.01) increase in the prevalence of macronodular cirrhosis (from 6 to 51%) and a significant (p less than 0.01) decrease in the prevalence of alcoholic hepatitis (to 21%) and of fatty liver (to 52%). Testosterone treatment did not significantly...... Budd-Chiari's syndrome. The degree of fatty liver and of alcoholic hepatitis in follow-up liver specimens were significantly (p less than 0.002) higher among patients who consumed ethanol during follow-up than in patients who abstained (76 versus 22% and 30 versus 6%). In conclusion, this study does......The effect of oral testosterone treatment (200 mg tid) on liver morphology was examined in a double-blind, placebo controlled study including men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 126). Liver biopsies obtained before randomization showed micronodular cirrhosis in 119 patients (94%), alcoholic hepatitis...

  8. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Wasan, Kishor M; Ribeyre, Charles; Ibrahim, Fady; McNeill, John H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored. PMID:26322116

  9. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, Jens S; Krag, Aleksander

    2010-01-01

    of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). BRS is reduced at exposure to chronic hypoxia such as during sojourn in high altitudes. In this study, we assessed the relation of BRS to pulmonary dysfunction and cardiovascular characteristics and the effects of hyperoxia. Forty-three patients with cirrhosis and 12 healthy...... to presence of HPS, Pa(O(2)), Dl(CO), or Child-Turcotte score, but BRS correlated with metabolic and hemodynamic characteristics. After 100% oxygen inhalation, BRS and the QT interval remained unchanged in the cirrhotic patients. In conclusion, BRS is significantly reduced in patients with cirrhosis compared...

  10. Clinical Analysis in 75 Patients with Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis of Hepatitis and Alcoholic Cirrhosis%75例肝炎肝硬化及酒精性肝硬化失代偿期临床比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽进; 韦杏; 陈自仁; 吴朝文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe clinical manifestion of decompensated liver cirrhosis of hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis. Methods 75 patients with decompensateed liver cirrhosis was chosen, 38 cases of decompensated liver cirrhosis of hepatitis, and 37 cases of decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis. Then platelet,liver function,coagulative function and complication were examined. Results The data of decompensateed liver cirrhosis of platelet, liver function, coagulative function and complication were worse than those of alcoholic cirrhosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion The condition of patient with liver cirrhosis was worse than that of alcoholic cirrhosis, and the prognosis of liver cirrhosis was bad.%目的 比较肝炎肝硬化(viral cirrhosis,VC)失代偿期及酒精性肝硬化(alcoholic cirrhosis,AC)失代偿期临床特征.方法 选择38例为VC患者,37例AC患者,观察两组患者血小板(PLT)、肝功能[谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、总胆红素(TBil)、胆碱酯酶(ChE)]、凝血功能[凝血酶原时间(PT)、凝血活酶时间(APTT)、凝血酶时间(TT)、血浆纤维蛋白原(FIB)]及并发症等,并进行比较分析.结果 VC组患者PLT、ALT、AST、ChE、TBil、PT、APTT、TT、FIB及并发症等项目均较AC组较差.结论 VC失代偿期患者较AC失代偿期病情重,预后差.

  11. Nutritional status of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis undergoing liver transplantation: time trends and impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Ashwani K; Kamath, Patrick S; Francisco Ziller, Nickie; DiCecco, Sara; Shoreibah, M; Kremers, Walter; Charlton, Michael R; Heimbach, Julie K; Watt, Kymberly D; Shah, Vijay H

    2013-08-01

    Alcoholic cirrhotics evaluated for liver transplantation are frequently malnourished or obese. We analyzed alcoholic cirrhotics undergoing transplantation to examine time trends of nutrition/weight, transplant outcome, and effects of concomitant hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nutrition and transplant outcomes were reviewed for alcoholic cirrhosis with/without HCV/HCC. Malnutrition was defined by subjective global assessment. Body mass index (BMI) classified obesity. A total of 261 patients receiving transplants were separated (1988-2000, 2001-2006, and 2007-2011) to generate similar size cohorts. Mean BMI for the whole cohort was 28 ± 6 with 68% classified as overweight/obese. Mean BMI did not vary among cohorts and was not affected by HCV/HCC. While prevalence of malnutrition did not vary among cohorts, it was lower in patients with HCV/HCC (P graft/patient survival was 90% and not impacted by time period, HCV/HCC, or malnutrition after adjusting for demographics and model end-stage liver disease (MELD). Alcoholic cirrhotics undergoing transplantation are malnourished yet frequently overweight/obese. Among patients selected for transplantation, 1-year post-transplant graft/patient survival is excellent, have not changed over time, and do not vary by nutrition/BMI. Our findings support feasibility of liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhotics with obesity and malnutrition.

  12. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenbach, Johan P; Ivana Kulhánová; Matthias Bopp; Carme Borrell; Patrick Deboosere; Katalin Kovács; Caspar W N Looman; Mall Leinsalu; Pia Mäkelä; Pekka Martikainen; Gwenn Menvielle; Maica Rodríguez-Sanz; Jitka Rychtaříková; Rianne de Gelder

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background People have consumed alcoholic beverages throughout history, but, globally, about three million people die from alcohol-related causes every year. Alcohol consumption, particularly in higher amounts, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (diseases of the heart and/or blood vessels), liver cirrhosis (scarring of the liver), injuries, and many other fatal and nonfatal health problems. Alcohol also affects the well-being and health of people around those who dri...

  13. Presence of alcoholic steatohepatitis, but no selective histological feature, indicates an increased risk of cirrhosis and premature death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semb, Synne; Neermark, Søren; Dam-Larsen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    in patients with alcoholic pure fatty liver and the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed during 1976-1987 were identified. Data were collected from medical records, the Danish National Patient Registry and the Registry of Causes of Death......OBJECTIVE: The prognostic impact of early stages of histologically confirmed alcoholic liver disease is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the risk of cirrhosis and premature death, and identify prognostic markers, in patients with biopsy-proven alcoholic steatohepatitis - and to compare prognosis...... of histological and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five patients with fatty liver and 111 with steatohepatitis were followed for median 13 and 9.7 years, respectively. There was a significantly higher risk of developing cirrhosis amongst patients with steatohepatitis compared to both...

  14. Hepatic intestinal uptake and release of catecholamines in alcoholic cirrhosis. Evidence of enhanced hepatic intestinal sympathetic nervous activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Ring-Larsen, H; Christensen, N J

    1987-01-01

    during hepatic vein catheterisation in order to determine both flux rates. In alcoholic cirrhosis plasma concentrations of endogenous NA and adrenaline (A) were significantly above control values (NA: median 2.4 v 1.7 nmol/l, p less than 0.02; A: 0.38 v 0.19 nmol/l, p less than 0.01). Whole body...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  16. Primary biliary cirrhosis-specific autoantibodies in first degree relatives of Greek primary biliary cirrhosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros A Zografos; Nikolaos Gatselis; Kalliopi Zachou; Christos Liaskos; Stella Gabeta; George K Koukoulis; George N Dalekos

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence and significance of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Greek PBC patients.METHODS:The presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays,dot-blot assays,and molecularly based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 101 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of 44 PBC patients.In order to specify our results,the same investigation was performed in 40 healthy controls and in a disease control group consisting of 40 asy.mptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of patients with other autoimmune liver diseases namely,autoimmune hepatitis-1 or primary sclerosing cholangitJs (AIH-1/PSC).RESULTS:AMA positivity was observed in 19 (only 4 with abnormal liver function tests) FDRs of PBC patients and none of the healthy controls.The prevalence of AMA was significantly higher in FDRs of PBC patients than in AIH-1/PSC FDRs and healthy controls [18.8%,95% confidence interval (CI):12%-28.1% vs 2.5%,95% CI:0.1%-14.7%,P =0.01; 18.8%,95% CI:12%-28.1% vs 0%,95% CI:0%-10.9%,P =0.003,respectively].PBC-specific ANA positivity was observed in only one FDR from a PSC patient.Multivariate analysis showed that having a proband with PBC independently associated with AMA positivity (odds ratio:11.24,95% CI:1.27-25.34,P =0.03) whereas among the investigated comorbidities and risk factors,a positive past history for urinary tract infections (UTI)was also independently associated with AMA detection in FDRs of PBC patients (odds ratio:3.92,95% CI:1.25-12.35,P =0.02).CONCLUSION:In FDRs of Greek PBC patients,AMA prevalence is significantly increased and independently associated with past UTI.PBC-specific ANA were not detected in anyone of PBC FDRs.

  17. Noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations in various vascular beds in patients with cirrhosis. Relation to haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1981-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) concentrations were related to various haemodynamic parameters in fifteen patients with cirrhosis. In supine position at rest plasma NA and A in peripheral venous blood were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in normal subjects. Mean...

  18. Experience in the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension in alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Željka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Portal hypertension (PH is hemodynamical abnormality associated with the most serious complications of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC: ascites, varices and variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of portal hypertension, especially of upper gastrointestinal bleedings in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. Methods. A total of 237 patients with ALC were observed in a 3-year period. Results. A total of 161 patients (68% were hospitalized because of PH elements: 86 (36.3% had upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 75 (31.7% were decompensated. Only 76 (32% of the patients had icterus. General mortality was 85 (36%. According to the source of bleeding, 61 (71% patients bled from varices, and 25 (29% from other sources with existing varices but non-incriminated for bleeding in 16 (64% of those patients. Active bleeding or stigmata of recent bleeding were found in 63 (73% cases. Endoscopic treatment of variceal bleeding along with octreotide applied in 20 (32.78% patients, just octreotide in 32 (52.46%, and octreotid plus balloon tamponade in 9 (14.75%. According to Child-Pugh classification, 25 (29% of the bleeding patients were in class A, score 5.4; 43 (50% in class B, score 7.8; and 18 (21% in class C, score 10.9. Average hemoglobin level was 93 g/L, hematocrit 0.27, AST 71.52 U/L (normal to 37 U/L, ALT 37.74 U/L (normal to 40 U/L. Until this bleeding episode, 41 (47% of the patients already bled. In the decompensated patients 3 (4% were in Child Pugh class A, score 6; 42 (56% in class B, score 8.3; and 30 (40% in class C, score 10.6. Until this decompensation episode, 7 (9.3% patients already bled. Conclusion. Patients with ALC need early detection of varices, primary and secondary profilaxis of variceal bleeding and adequate therapy of ascites. When bleeding occurs, patients need urgent upper endoscopy and intensive treatment.

  19. Increase of S-100 protein-positive stellate cells in the anterior pituitary of chronic alcoholic patients with fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa T

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects 40 years old were used as controls in a study of stellate cells (S-100 protein-containing cells, or S-100 cells in subjects with chronic alcoholism and fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis. S-100 cells were sparsely found in the adenohypophysis of control subjects, and these cells sometimes formed small clusters. However, in chronic alcoholics with fatty liver or fatty cirrhosis, the number of stellate cells in the anterior pituitary tended to be 17 times higher than it was in the control group. No increase in the number of S-100 positive cells that constitute the large and small follicles in the intermediate pituitary. The physiological function of the S-100 protein has not yet been identified. The fact that an increase in prolactin-secreting and growth hormone-secreting cells, as well as a decrease in gonadotrophs were observed in the hypophysis of alcoholics suggests that the function of stellate cells may be closely related to these phenomena. Our results also imply that the stellate cells found in the anterior and intermediate pituitary differ in function although they both produce S-100 proteins.

  20. Potential therapeutic application of intravenous autologous bone marrow infusion in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takafumi; Okumoto, Kazuo; Haga, Hiroaki; Nishise, Yuko; Ishii, Rika; Sato, Chikako; Watanabe, Hisayoshi; Okada, Akio; Ikeda, Motoki; Togashi, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao; Kawata, Sumio

    2011-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the application and efficacy of autologous bone marrow infusion (ABMi) for improvement of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC). Five subjects and 5 control patients with ALC who had abstained from alcohol intake for 24 weeks before the study were enrolled. Autologous bone marrow cells were washed and injected intravenously, and the changes in serum liver function parameters, and the level of the type IV collagen 7S domain as a marker of fibrosis, were monitored for 24 weeks. The distribution of activated bone marrow was assessed by indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy. The number of cells infused was 8.0±7.3×10(9) (mean±standard error). The serum levels of albumin and total protein and the prothrombin time were significantly higher during the follow-up period after ABMi than during the observation period in treated patients, whereas no such changes were observed in the controls. In the patients who received ABMi, the Child-Pugh score decreased in all 3 who were classified as class B; the serum levels of type IV collagen 7S domain improved in 4 of the 5 patients; and bone marrow scintigraphy demonstrated an increase of indium-111-chloride uptake in 3 of the 4 patients tested. ABMi for patients with ALC helps improve liver function parameters in comparison with observation during abstinence and ameliorates the degree of fibrosis in terms of serum markers and bone marrow activation in most cases.

  1. Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life in Outpatients with Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Askgaard, Gro; Timm, Hans Bording;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cirrhosis may lead to a poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which should be taken into consideration when addressing the cirrhotic outpatient. Methods. Prospective cohort study evaluating predictors of HRQOL in outpatients with cirrhosis. Patients with overt hepatic...... encephalopathy at baseline were excluded. HRQOL was evaluated at baseline using the six point Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire. Predictors of low quality of life scores (...

  2. Increased circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Schifter, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1991-01-01

    with minor disorders (59 vs. 46 pmol/l, p less than 0.01), as well as with 232 healthy persons (37 pmol/l, p less than 0.0001). Moreover, circulating CGRP increased significantly with the severity of cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte group A, 56; group B, 59; group C, 71 pmol/l; p less than 0.025). No significant...

  3. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Møller, S; Schifter, S;

    2001-01-01

    , vasoactivity was manipulated by inhalation of oxygen. STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS: In 20 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 12 controls we determined COMP(art) (stroke volume relative to pulse pressure), cardiac output, plasma volume, systemic vascular resistance, central circulation time, plasma...... catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; p

  4. Weight loss during cirrhosis is related to the etiology of liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Rezende Anastácio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Malnutrition is widely described in patients waiting for liver transplantation (LTx. However, risk factors associated with weight loss during liver disease have not yet been well studied. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess weight loss and its risk factors during liver disease and up to the first appointment after transplantation. Patients who underwent LTx were retrospectively assessed for weight loss during liver disease while on the waiting list for LTx. The usual weight of the patients before disease and their weight on the first outpatient appointment after transplant were considered. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical variables were collected to assess risk factors using a linear regression analysis. We retrospectively evaluated 163 patients undergoing LTx between 1997 and 2008. RESULTS: Patients lost in average 7.7 ± 12.4 kg while ill. Variables independently associated with weight loss by multiple linear regression analyses were as follows: former smoker (P = 0.03, greater body mass index (P<0.01, overweight before liver disease (P = 0.02 and indication for LTx (P = 0.01. Among these indications, patients with alcoholic cirrhosis had lost significantly more weight (P<0.01, and those with hepatitis C virus (P = 0.01 and autoimmune hepatitis (P = 0.02 had lost significantly less weight. CONCLUSIONS: Patients experienced weight loss during liver disease independent of age, sex, schooling and income; however, the etiology of liver disease was related to weight loss.

  5. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia in patients with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Nanda, Mohit; Das, Ashim; Das, Reena; Bhansali, Anil; Chawla, Yogesh

    2004-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is emerging as an important cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis. Obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia are important risk factors for NASH. The presence of these risk factors in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis may suggest NASH as an aetiology of cirrhosis in them. Twenty-five patients of cryptogenic cirrhosis were compared with 18 patients of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis and primary biliary cirrhosis for the presence of obesity, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. Patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis were found to have a significantly higher body - mass index increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus and lower high-density lipoprotein compared to the controls. Increased body weight and diabetes mellitus may play a role in the causation of cirrhosis in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis.

  6. Benefits of nucleos(t)ide analog treatments for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koichi; Honda; Masataka; Seike; Kazunari; Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection induces progressive liver disease. Before nucleos(t)ide analogs(NUCs) became established as a safe and effective treatment for hepatitis B,it was difficult to suppress the activity of the hepatitis B virus(HBV). Currently,many patients withhepatitis or cirrhosis associated with HBV are treated with NUCs for an extended period of time,and the effects,benefits,and limitations of these treatments have been apparent. This article reviews HBV-related cirrhosis,its natural course and survival,histological improvement after NUC treatments,treatment effects for decompensated cirrhosis,the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) after NUC treatments,and the efficacy of NUC treatments before and after the treatment of patients for HBV-related HCC. Of particular interest are the histological improvements,including regression of fibrosis,that have been achieved with NUC treatments. Liver function of patients with decompensated cirrhosis has significantly improved regardless of the type of NUC applied,and treatment with NUCs has reduced the incidence of HCC in cirrhotic patients. However,cirrhosis remains the strongest risk factor for HCC occurrence following NUC treatments,and the long-term cumulative incidence of HCC after NUC treatments remains high. When recurrence does occur,it is important to reconsider the treatment modality according to the degree of improved liver function that was achieved.

  7. Benefits of nucleos(t)ide analog treatments for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Koichi; Seike, Masataka; Murakami, Kazunari

    2015-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection induces progressive liver disease. Before nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) became established as a safe and effective treatment for hepatitis B, it was difficult to suppress the activity of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Currently, many patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis associated with HBV are treated with NUCs for an extended period of time, and the effects, benefits, and limitations of these treatments have been apparent. This article reviews HBV-related cirrhosis, its natural course and survival, histological improvement after NUC treatments, treatment effects for decompensated cirrhosis, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after NUC treatments, and the efficacy of NUC treatments before and after the treatment of patients for HBV-related HCC. Of particular interest are the histological improvements, including regression of fibrosis, that have been achieved with NUC treatments. Liver function of patients with decompensated cirrhosis has significantly improved regardless of the type of NUC applied, and treatment with NUCs has reduced the incidence of HCC in cirrhotic patients. However, cirrhosis remains the strongest risk factor for HCC occurrence following NUC treatments, and the long-term cumulative incidence of HCC after NUC treatments remains high. When recurrence does occur, it is important to reconsider the treatment modality according to the degree of improved liver function that was achieved.

  8. Diurnal variation and dispersion in QT interval in cirrhosis: relation to haemodynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    with cirrhosis, undergoing a haemodynamic investigation. 24-h 12 lead Holter monitoring provided information on QT and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Mean QT(C) was above upper normal limit (440 ms(1/2)) in eleven patients (47%) and significantly higher than in controls (441 vs 400 ms(1/2), p...=0.03-0.001). No diurnal variation of QT(disp) was found in cirrhosis. Heart rate variability was reduced with a significant relation to central hypovolaemia (r=0.55, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-four hours QT(C) is prolonged in a substantial fraction of patients with cirrhosis, but with normal...... diurnal variation. The combination of long QT(C) and normal QT(disp) suggests delayed myocyte repolarisation on the cellular level, rather than temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the myocardial wall....

  9. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p low 24-h arterial blood pressure were a high...

  10. Autonomic dysfunction in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are frequently associated with signs of circulatory dysfunction and peripheral polyneuropathy, which includes defects of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction, which is seen in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and increases...

  11. Signal profile on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis induced in rats: correlation with transporter expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Natsuko [Diagnostic Imaging Medical Affairs, Medical Affairs, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd., Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    To compare the transporter expression and signal profile on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhotic liver induced in rats, and investigate the correlation of the transporter expression and fibrosis rate in both diseases. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups of 12: TAA (cirrhosis), NASH 7- and 10-week, and control groups. Each group was divided into two subgroups: Group 1 for MRI and Group 2 for transporter examinations. The relative enhancement of the TAA group was significantly lower than those of other groups (p < 0.01). The T{sub max} and T{sub 1/2} of the NASH 10-week group was significantly prolonged in comparison with the TAA group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the oatp1 expression, whereas the mrp2 expression of the TAA group was significantly higher than those of other groups (p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between the fibrosis rate and oatp1 expression, whereas a paradoxical correlation was found between the fibrosis rate and mrp2 expression (NASH: negative correlation, r = 0.91, p < 0.01; TAA: positive correlation, r = 0.85, p < 0.01). Our findings showed that the mrp2 expression in cirrhosis increases in comparison with NASH, and there was a paradoxical correlation between the fibrosis rate and mrp2 expression. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic significance of nitrates and nitrites and L-arginine, in development of hepatorenal syndrome in patients with end stage alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickovic, Vanja; Kocic, Gordana; Bjelakovic, Goran; Pavlovic, Radmila; Stojanovic, Ivana; Katanic, Radoslav; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Djindjic, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) represents a complication of the end-stage liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to analyze concentrations of nitrates and nitrites (NO2 + NO3) and L-arginine in patients with liver cirrhosis and HRS as a possible predictive marker for the development of HRS. The research was performed in a group of 28 patients with cirrhosis and HRS, a group of 22 patients suffering from cirrhosis without HRS and a control group comprised of 42 healthy voluntary blood donors. In patients with end-stage alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with HRS, the concentrations of NO2 + NO3 increased and correlated with the degree of cirrhosis progression, compared to patients without HRS and significantly higher compared to the control group. The level of NO2 + NO3 was in a positive correlation with the degree of liver damage de Ritis coefficient (HRS = 0.72; cirrhosis: = 0.55; control = -0.10). Significant positive correlation was found between NO2 + NO3 concentration and inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (HRSC = 0.75; cirrhosis = 0.70, control = -0.25). The correlation between NO2 + NO3 concentration and creatinine concentration in patients with HRS was significantly higher compared to patients without HRS (HRS = 0.82; cirrhosis = 0.32; control = -0.25). By using binary regression analysis, on the basis of clinical criteria of HRS diagnosis, the strongest independent positive predictor for HRS development was NO2 + NO3, associated with 45.02 times higher incidence of HRS, compared to arginine (12.7 times higher incidence), creatinine (13.1 times higher incidence), and AST/ALT ratio (10.55 higher incidence of HRS). Since the determination of NO2 + NO3 represents a reliable and easily applicable method, it may be used as an early predictive marker for HRS development.

  13. Unexplained Findings of Kayser-Fleischer-Like Rings in a Patient with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahreema Jawairia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC is defined as cirrhosis occurring in an individual without an identifiable cause of liver disease, such as excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis infection, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic intake of medications that could induce cirrhosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson’s disease, or any other rare cause of cirrhosis according to the clinical context. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a common cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now recognized as the most common cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis. A biopsy specimen is also important for detecting histological advanced disease, which may be clinically silent and undetected by liver-related tests or diagnostic imaging. We are presenting an unusual case of a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis found to have Kayser-Fleischer-like rings without evidence of Wilson’s disease.

  14. Unexplained findings of kayser-fleischer-like rings in a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawairia, Mahreema; Subhani, Miral; Siddiqui, Ghulam; Prasad, Apsara; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) is defined as cirrhosis occurring in an individual without an identifiable cause of liver disease, such as excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis infection, hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic intake of medications that could induce cirrhosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson's disease, or any other rare cause of cirrhosis according to the clinical context. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a common cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now recognized as the most common cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis. A biopsy specimen is also important for detecting histological advanced disease, which may be clinically silent and undetected by liver-related tests or diagnostic imaging. We are presenting an unusual case of a patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis found to have Kayser-Fleischer-like rings without evidence of Wilson's disease.

  15. Predictors of esophageal varices in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zen-cai

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All patients with liver cirrhosis are recommended to undergo an evaluation of esophageal varices (EV to assess their risk of bleeding. Predicting the presence of EV through non-invasive means may reduce a large number of unnecessary endoscopies. This study was designed to develop a predictive model for varices in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Methods The retrospective analysis was performed in 146 patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. The data were assessed by univariate analysis and a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In addition, the receiver operating characteristic curves were also applied to calculate and compare the accuracy of the model and other single parameters for the diagnosis of esophageal varices. Results We found the prevalence of EV in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis to be 74.7%. In addition, platelet count, spleen width, portal vein diameter and platelet count/spleen width ratio were significantly associated with the presence of esophageal varices on univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis revealed that only the spleen width and portal vein diameter were independent risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of regression function (RF model, which was composed of the spleen width and portal vein diameter, was higher than that of the platelet count. With a cut-off value of 0.3631, the RF model had an excellent sensitivity of 87.2% and an acceptable specificity of 59.5% with an overall accuracy of 80.1%. Conclusion Our data suggest that portal vein diameter and spleen width rather than platelet count may predict the presence of varices in patients with Hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis, and that the RF model may help physicians to identify patients who would most likely benefit from screenings for EV.

  16. Arterial blood pressure is closely related to ascites development in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vilar Gomez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arterial blood pressure (BP is a reliable marker of circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. There are no prospective studies evaluating the association between different levels of arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between arterial BP and ascites development in compensated cirrhotic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 402 patients with compensated HCV-related cirrhosis were prospectively followed during 6 years to identify ascites development. At baseline, patients underwent systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP measurements. Any history of arterial hypertension was also recorded. The occurrence of events such as bleeding, hepatocellular carcinoma, death and liver transplantation prior to ascites development were considered as competing risk events. RESULTS: Over a median of 156 weeks, ascites occurred in 54 patients (13%. At baseline, MAP was significantly lower in patients with ascites development (75.9 mm/Hg [95%CI, 70.3-84.3] than those without ascites (93.6 mm/Hg [95% CI: 86.6-102.3]. After adjusting for covariates, the 6-year cumulative incidence of ascites was 40% (95%CI, 34%-48% for patients with MAP<83.32 mm/Hg. In contrast, cumulative incidences of ascites were almost similar among patients with MAP values between 83.32 mm/Hg and 93.32 mm/Hg (7% [95% CI: 4%-12%], between 93.32 mm/Hg and 100.31 mm/Hg (5% [95% CI: 4%-11%] or higher than 100.31 mm/Hg (3% [95% CI: 1%-6%]. The MAP was an independent predictor of ascites development. CONCLUSIONS: The MAP is closely related to the development of ascites in compensated HCV-related cirrhosis. The risk of ascites development increases in 4.4 fold for subjects with MAP values <83.32 mm/Hg.

  17. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;

    1994-01-01

    As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins...... an increase in very low levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, even in patients with cirrhosis with advanced disease, but the clinical benefits remain to be demonstrated....

  18. Uterus neuroendocrine tumor - a severe prognostic factor in a female patient with alcoholic cirrhosis undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Ruxandra Diana; Niculae, Andrei; Peride, Ileana; Vasilescu, Florina; Bratu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Mischianu, Dan Liviu Dorel; Jinga, Mariana; Checheriţă, Ionel Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    There is increased evidence that end-stage renal disease patients, especially the hemodialyzed population, may present various unexpected forms of complications, contributing to a poor prognosis. Furthermore, neuroendocrine tumors, rarely encountered in daily practice, present in dialyzed individuals can significantly exacerbate the inflammatory condition with negative impact on patients' quality of life. We present an unusual case of uterus neuroendocrine tumor with multiple metastases in a 49-year-old female hemodialyzed patient with a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis and uterus fibromatous. Multiple endoscopic techniques (e.g., upper endoscopy, colonoscopy, upper and lower echoendoscopy), histological evaluation of biopsy samples from involved areas (the operatory piece) were performed in order to complete and refine the diagnosis.

  19. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  20. Changes in alcohol-related inpatient care in Stockholm County in relation to socioeconomic status during a period of decline in alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Diderichsen, Finn

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol sales in Stockholm County decreased by 18 per cent from 1976 to 1981. The socioeconomic status of inpatients treated for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis was studied by linking data from the National Housing and Population Censuses in ...

  1. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (EPO) is produced in the liver during fetal life, but after birth the production shifts to the kidneys. The liver maintains a production capacity of 10% of the total EPO-production, but can be up-regulated to 100%. Previous studies have demonstrated both elevated...... and reduced concentrations of EPO in cirrhosis. Increased EPO concentrations could be expected due to anemia, hypoxia, renal hypoperfusion, or EPO-mediated hepatoprotective mechanisms. In contrast, poor hepatic production capacity may cause reduced EPO concentrations in cirrhosis. In the present paper we...... aimed to study hepatic and renal venous concentrations of EPO in relation to the severity of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 24 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and eight age-matched healthy controls. All had a full catheterization performed with the determination of EPO concentrations...

  2. Reduced baroreflex sensitivity and pulmonary dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhosis: effect of hyperoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Iversen, J.S.; Krag, A.

    2010-01-01

    matched controls underwent hemodynamic and pulmonary investigations. BRS was assessed by cross-spectral analysis of variabilities between blood pressure and heart rate time series. A 100% oxygen test was performed with the assessment of arterial oxygen tensions (Pa(O(2))) and alveolar-arterial oxygen......Patients with cirrhosis exhibit impaired regulation of the arterial blood pressure, reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and prolonged QT interval. In addition, a considerable number of patients have a pulmonary dysfunction with hypoxemia, impaired lung diffusing capacity (Dl(CO)), and presence...

  3. 酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病的诱因分析%Analysis of Precipitating Factors of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉泉

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病的诱因的特点。方法选取我院2010年10月至2015年10月收治的24例酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病患者,分析临床资料,并就发病诱因与同期的77例非酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病患者进行对比分析。结果酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病的常见诱因有:感染(58.3%)、消化道出血(33.3%)、电解质紊乱(29.2%)、高蛋白饮食(25.0%)、医源性因素(16.7%)、肾功能不全(16.7%)、便秘(12.5%);与非酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病患者相比,感染的发生率更高(P <0.05)。结论酒精性肝硬化并发肝性脑病诱因较多,其中感染发生率高,需要积极防治。%Objective To analyze the features of precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis.Methods 24 patients with hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrho-sis were selected from October 2010 to October 2015.The clinical data of precipitating factors were analyzed,compared with those of 77 patients with hepatic encephalopathy in non-alcoholic cirrhosis.Results The common precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis consist of infection(58.3%),gastrointestinal bleeding(33.3%),electrolyte disorders(29. 2%),high-protein diet(25.0%),iatrogenic factors(16.7%),renal dysfunction(16.7%)and constipation(12.5%).The incidence of infection is significantly higher than that of hepatic encephalopathy in non-alcoholic cirrhosis(P<0.05).Conclusion There are many precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy in alcoholic cirrhosis.And the high infection rate is worth at-tention among them.

  4. Current Treatment and Research of Alcoholic Cirrhosis%酒精性肝硬化治疗现状和研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚朝光

    2012-01-01

    酒精性肝硬化是一种由长期过量饮酒所导致的肝细胞硬化,临床表现主要为倦怠乏力、腹痛、下肢水肿等.随着近几年对酒精性肝硬化机制研究的深入,其治疗方法主要集中在戒酒治疗、营养支持治疗、药物治疗、手术治疗和中医药治疗几个方面.相信随着科学技术的进步,医学工作者将进一步阐明酒精性肝硬化的发病机制,发现更有效的治疗方法.%Alcoholic cirrhosis is a disease with sclerosis of the liver cells caused by a long-term excessive drinking. Its clinical manifestations include malaise and fatigue,abdominal pain,lower extremity edema etc. . With the deepening of research about alcoholic cirrhosis mechanism in recent years, its treatment is mainly concentrated in alcohol abstinence treatment,nutrition therapy,drug treatment,surgery and Chinese medicine treatment. It's believed that with the advancement of science and technology, medical scientists will further clarify the pathogenesis of alcoholic cirrhosis and find more effective treatment.

  5. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption.

  6. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p blood pressures and heart rate, pertinent variables were included in a multivariate regression model. This model revealed that independent determinants of a low 24-h arterial blood pressure were a high...... post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...

  7. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and liver cirrhosis-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, Luis Calzadilla; Gomez, Eduardo Vilar; Almeida, Linnet Alonso; Soler, Enrique Arus; Perez, Luis Blanco

    2013-06-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has gained wide acceptance for predicting survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation. The strength of this score remains in the mathematical formula derived from a multivariate Cox regression analysis; it is a continuous scale and lacks a ceiling or a floor effect with a wide range of discrimination. It is based on objective, reproducible, and readily available laboratory data and the wide range of samples which have been validated. Liver cirrhosis complications such as ascites, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and variceal bleeding were not considered in the MELD score underestimating their direct association with the severity of liver disease. In this regard, several recent studies have shown that clinical manifestations secondary to portal hypertension are good prognostic markers in cirrhotic patients and may add additional useful prognostic information to the current MELD. We review the feasibility of MELD score as a prognostic predictor in patients with liver cirrhosis-related complications.

  8. Treatment of Patients With HCV Related Cirrhosis: Many Rewards With Very Few Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Aghemo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV is aimed at the persistent eradication of the virus, the so-called sustained virological response (SVR, with the aim ultimately being to prevent the development of liver-related complications and improve patients’ survival. Patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis are the group most likely to benefit from viral clearance, as several retrospective studies have shown liver complications rates to be positively modified by the achievement of a SVR. Whether these benefits rely on viral clearance or on the histological improvements seen following successful interferon (IFn-based therapies has recently been a matter for debate, as studies have shown cirrhosis to regress in some patients with a SVR. Whatever the mechanisms, cirrhosis has the uncanny ability to be both a dominant indication for therapy, as well as one of the strongest baseline factors associated with reduced efficacy of any IFn-based regimen. This has led to the development of alternative treatment strategies, such as low dose pegylated IFn (PegIFn monotherapy, that unfortunately has proven to be of limited efficacy. For this reason regimens able to clear the virus without relying on the broad antiviral effect of IFN are eagerly awaited.

  9. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M;

    1994-01-01

    As growth hormone possesses anabolic properties that are active on protein metabolism, and thus of potential benefit to patients with chronic liver disease, we determined the metabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) its specific binding proteins......, and liver function. Twenty consecutive patients with cirrhosis were randomized to recombinant human growth hormone (Norditropin, 4 I.U. twice daily) subcutaneously for 6 weeks (n = 10) or conventional medical treatment (n = 10). The serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in the recombinant...... human growth hormone group increased after 3 (p growth factor-I during the treatment period was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). The AUCIGF-I was significantly larger...

  10. Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking and Alcohol-related Health Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA-FANG ZHANG; YUN-XIA LU; XIAO-XIA QIU; YA FANG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between drinking environment, attitudes and situation and alcohol-related health problems. Methods A sample of 2327 respondents was randomly collected from Wuhan, Hubei Province in China by a face-to-face interview. The structural equation modeling analysis was performed for the data collected. Results Both parents' drinking behaviors and respondents' drinking situation strongly impacted the alcohol-related problems and diseases. Friends' or peers' drinking behaviors influenced the respondents' drinking attitudes and behaviors. Males experienced more alcohol-related problems and diseases than females. Conclusions Comparatively, parents' drinking behaviors exert the most significant influence on drinkers. Therefore, it is beneficial to restrict parents' drinking behaviors for the offsprings and the whole society, and an intensive professional education in early motherhood is also necessary for Chinese women.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Hepatitis Cirrhosis%酒精性肝硬化与肝炎肝硬化的超声诊断对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂芹

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较酒精性肝硬化(Alcoholic liver cirrhosis,ALC)和肝炎肝硬化(liver cirrhosis,LC)的超声表现。方法选取我院就诊的84例肝硬化患者,随机分为ALC组(n=42)和LC组(n=42)。对比两组超声表现。结果 ALC组左肝厚径和右肝斜径大于LC组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。但门静脉主干内径和脾脏厚度与LC组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。ALC组形态失常、不规则回声增强、弥漫回声增强、腹水和肝被膜锯齿状发生率显著低于LC组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论超声能有效鉴别酒精性肝硬化与肝炎肝硬化,可作为鉴别诊断的依据之一。%Objective To compare the ultrasonic manifestation of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) and hepatitis cirrhosis (LC).Methods 84 patients who were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis treated in our hospigal were randomly divided into ALC group (n=42) and LC group (n=42). The ultrasonic manifestation of two groups were compared.Results The left hepatic thickness and the right hepatic oblique diameter of ALC group were significantly higher than that of LC group(P0.05). The incidence rate of form of abnormal, irregular echo enhancement, diffuse echo enhancement, ascites and liver capsule with serrated in ALC group were signiifcantly lower than LC group (P<0.05). Conclusion The differential diagnosis of ultrasound in alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis cirrhosis is effective, which can be used as one of the basis of differential diagnosis.

  12. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S;

    1999-01-01

    The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP...... in the femoral artery blood was significantly higher than in the group of patients with normal liver function (median 145 microg/l, 95% CI 98-195 versus 57 microg/l, 95% CI 42-92, p...-92) and the hepatic vein (median 45 microg/l, 95% CI 40-70, pliver function. In this group we also observed a significantly higher concentration of PINP in femoral artery blood (median 60 microg/l, 95% CI 45-87) as compared with that in renal vein (median 50 microg/l, 95% CI...

  13. Alcohol Related Problems and the Hispanic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Louis S.

    1977-01-01

    Although Hispanic women report high rates of abstinence, more Hispanic men report alcohol related problems than Anglos, Blacks, or Asians and report more heavy drinking. Yet little has been done to develop or fund culturally specific alcoholism prevention, treatment and rehabilitation programs for the Hispanics. (NQ)

  14. Risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in cryptogenic cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Benevides Leite

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In about 10% of patients with chronic liver disease, it is not possible to identify an etiologic factor. These cases are called cryptogenic cirrhosis. Currently, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is being considered as a possible etiologic factor for a significant segment of patients that presents with cryptogenic cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for NASH in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, in order to verify if there is a causal relationship between them. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, with evaluation of the demographic and laboratorial data of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis. They were compared with data obtained from a group with NASH and a group with alcoholic and/or hepatitis C (HCV cirrhosis. RESULTS: Forty seven patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis were evaluated, 47 with NASH and 196 with HCV and/or alcoholic cirrhosis. The mean age of patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis was 52 years, while in those with NASH it was 46.4 years (P = 0,041. The group with cryptogenic cirrhosis had 23 female and 24 male patients. Of the patients who presented with NASH, 68.1% were female. Of the patients who presented with alcoholic/HCV cirrhosis, 64.8% were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. In cryptogenic cirrhosis patients, the following prevalences could be observed: impaired fasting glycemia - 68.2%; obesity - 27.5%; total hypercholesterolemia - 27.9%; low HDL levels - 58.1% (women - 81%; men - 36.4%; hypertriglyceridemia - 16.3%. The results seen in cryptogenic cirrhosis patients showed statistical similarity with the results of the NASH group regarding fasting glycemia (62.8% and male HDL levels (53.8%. The comparison with the alcoholic/HCV cirrhosis group showed statistical differences regarding fasting glycemia (45.2%, hypercholesterolemia (13.3% and female HDL levels (50.8%. CONCLUSIONS: It is not possible to establish a causal relationship between

  15. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and hepatocellular carcinoma in alcoholic cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edmondo; Falleti; Davide; Bitetto; Carlo; Fabris; Annarosa; Cussigh; Elisabetta; Fontanini; Ezio; Fornasiere; Elisa; Fumolo; Sara; Bignulin; Sara; Cmet; Rosalba; Minisini; Mario; Pirisi; Pierluigi; Toniutto

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between vitamin D re-ceptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Two-hundred forty patients who underwent liver transplantation were studied. The etiologies of liver disease were hepatitis C (100 patients), hepatitis B (37) and alcoholic liver disease (103). A group of 236 healthy subjects served as controls. HCC in the explanted liver was detected in 80 patients. The following single nucle-otide gene polymorphisms of the VDR w...

  16. Alcohol-related brain damage in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia M Erdozain

    Full Text Available Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area (BA 9 from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics.

  17. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Related Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver in Young Males: First Report of Two Cases from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun Al-Mahtab

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a diagnosis of exclusion. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has demonstrated persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in serum and liver tissue of HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, HBsAg-negative cirrhosis, and HBsAg-negative HCC patients. The entity of occult HBV infection is well established. We report two patients with occult HBV related decompensated cirrhosis of liver for the first time from Bangladesh. The first patient is a young male with jaundice and hepato-splenomegaly. The second patient is also a young male with ascites. Both had altered liver function tests. Diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis of liver was established in both cases and in both the etiology was identified by PCR to be occult HBV infection. In areas with high prevalence of HBV, a diagnosis of "cryptogenic" cirrhosis based on HBsAg testing alone is not adequate. The so called "cryptogenic" but actually occult HBV cirrhotics are suitable candidates for antiviral treatment. Occult HBV infection must be considered in all patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis of liver in areas where HBV infection is prevalent.

  18. Are the opportunities to prevent alcohol related liver deaths in the UK in primary or secondary care? A retrospective clinical review and prospective interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Nick

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deaths from liver cirrhosis have increased at least 8 fold since the 1970's in the UK and further increases are anticipated, whereas in the rest of Europe liver deaths are decreasing. In the UK, we urgently need strategies to detect those who misuse alcohol and are at risk of developing alcoholic liver disease before they get to that point. One potential strategy is to screen admissions to hospital with alcohol related conditions for evidence of alcohol misuse. Surprisingly, there has been no research into the important question of where the opportunities are to detect those who misuse alcohol – primary or secondary care. We attempted to answer this firstly by conducting a retrospective analysis of the medical notes of 94 patients diagnosed with alcohol induced liver cirrhosis between 1st January 1995 and 31st December 2000 at Southampton General Hospital with the purpose of identifying admissions to hospital prior to a diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. In the second part of the study, we interviewed patients with alcoholic liver disease about their contact with health services. Results Before diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease, 33% (31/94 of the patients had had an admission to hospital for an alcohol related condition. There was a mean of 7 years and 1 month (SD 6 years 3 months between the first alcohol-related admission and presentation with alcoholic liver disease (in those who had had admissions. The commonest reason for alcohol related admission was falls/fractures/injuries, followed by non-variceal gastro-intestinal bleeds. Patients with alcoholic liver disease who were interviewed had seen their General Practitioner on average at least 2 times per year. Conclusion Most patients who develop alcohol-induced cirrhosis do not have an admission to hospital with an alcohol related condition before developing alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, if we screen patients admitted to hospital with alcohol related

  19. Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT as risk factors of alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and portal vein thrombosis, in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Mario; Pasta, Francesca; Pasta, Linda

    2015-08-15

    The thrombophilic genetic factors (THRGFs), PAI-1 4G-4G, MTHFR 677TT, V Leiden 506Q and Prothrombin 20210A, were studied as risk factors in 865 Caucasian patients with liver cirrhosis, consecutively enrolled from June 2008 to January 2014. A total of 582 HCV, 80 HBV, 94 alcohol, (82 with more than one etiologic factor) and 191 cryptogenic patients with liver cirrhosis had been consecutively enrolled; 243 patients showed portal vein thrombosis (PVT). At least one of the above THRGFs was present in 339/865 patients (39.2%). PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT were the most frequent THRGFs, statistically significant in patients with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, and PVT: respectively 24 and 28, 50 and 73, and 65 and 83 (all chi-square tests>3.84, and p valuesPAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT, as dependent variable, confirmed the independent significant relationship of these THRGFs with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and PVT. PAI 1 and MTHFR 677 genotypes, deviated from those expected in populations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (all p valuesPAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT in patients with alcohol, cryptogenic liver cirrhosis, and PVT, in a Caucasian population. In conclusion, thrombo and fibro-genetic mechanisms of PAI-1 4G-4G and MTHFR 677TT, could have a role in the development of liver cirrhosis, mainly in patients without HCV and HBV, and PVT.

  20. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikolski, Steven G., E-mail: skikolski@ucsd.edu; Aryafar, Hamed, E-mail: haryafar@ucsd.edu; Rose, Steven C., E-mail: scrose@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C., E-mail: acroberts@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Kinney, Thomas B., E-mail: tbkinney@ucsd.edu [University of California San Diego Health Sciences, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  1. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  2. Urinary growth hormone (U-GH) excretion and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Grønbaek, M; Main, K;

    1993-01-01

    Basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels are elevated and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in serum are suppressed in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary GH (U-GH) excretion and IGF-1 concentrations in patients with cirrhosis...... and to correlate these both to clinical and biochemical characteristics and survival rate. Urinary GH excretion, IGF-1, and other biochemical parameters were measured in 36 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while in the control group of 34 healthy individuals only U-GH excretion was measured. U-GH excretion...... was significantly higher in patients than in the healthy controls (p U-GH excretions were found in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (p

  3. Pulmonary and intestinal permeabilities in alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis; Permeabilites pulmonaire et intestinal dans la cirrhose hepatique alcoolique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Botton, S.; Huglo, B.; Canva-Delacambre, V.; Colombel, J.F.; Beauchat, V.; Ziegels, P.; Prangere, T.; Steinling, M.; Machandise, X.; Wallaert, B. [Services de Medecine Nucleaire, des Maladies de l`Appareil Digestif et de Pneumologie, CHU de Lille, 59037 Lille Cedex (France)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate simultaneously the intestinal permeability (IP), usually normal, and the pulmonary permeability, (PP) rather rarely studied, in patients afflicted with hepatic cirrhosis of alcoholic (HCA) origin. Thirty five non-smoker patients, afflicted with HCA, proved by biopsy, without pulmonary pathology and with normal pulmonary scanography were subject to our investigation. The pre-graft hepatic examination contained also respiratory functional explorations as well as bronchi-alveolar clearance (BAC) explorations. After inhalation of the DTPA-{sup 99m}Tc aerosols, a 20 min dynamical study in posterior-front condition was achieved. After exponential matching on the activity/time curve of the right lung, the half life (T{sub 1/2} in min) and the Residual Activity at 10 min (RA in %) were calculated. The PI were than estimated and on the basis of urinary activity of EDTA-{sup 51}Cr obtained on 24 h and expressed in % of the uptake activity, according to the Bjarnasson`s technique. The results were compared (significant non-parametric tests if p < 0.05) with the normal values obtained earlier in control persons. The PI (2.39% {+-} 2.20) has not significantly increased vs controls (1.74% {+-} 0.81). The PP has significantly increased in the patients: 65.9 min {+-} 35.2 vs 85.2 min {+-} 20.8 (p = 0.05) for the T{sub 1/2} and 87.1% {+-} 6.7 vs 92.8% {+-} 2.6 (p < 0.002) for RA. It is significantly correlated with the total number of cells (r = -0.379) and with the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.351) in the BAC. For the first time an enhanced PP was observed in HCA, correlated with the increase in the number of cells at BAC

  4. Acquired chronic hepatocerebral degeneration due to cirrhosis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Síndrome hepatocerebral crónico secundario a cirrosis por esteatohepatitis no alcohólica

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and objective: acquired chronic hepatocerebral degeneration, acquired hepatolenticular degeneration or pseudo-Wilson is an infrequent disorder with a hepatic origin. Cases in the literature are scarce and it is frequently confused with hepatic encephalopathy and Wilson's disease. The aim of this essay is to report a patient suffering from this disorder due to cirrhosis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Case report: we present a 54-year-old man diagnosed from cirrhosis grade B9 ...

  5. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  6. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in cirrhosis: relations to systemic and splanchnic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Gülberg, V; Henriksen, Jens Henrik;

    1995-01-01

    haemodynamics. METHODS: Endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 were measured in samples from a hepatic vein and the femoral artery in 42 patients with cirrhosis, eight hypertensive controls and 10 normotensive controls. RESULTS: Hepatic venous endothelin-1 was significantly higher in the patients with cirrhosis, mean 21...

  7. Active Peptic Ulcer Disease in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus-Related Cirrhosis: The Role of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dore

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM: The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease in cirrhosis remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of H pylori infection and portal hypertension gastropathy in the prevalence of active peptic ulcer among dyspeptic patients with compensated hepatitis C virus (HCV-related cirrhosis.

  8. Impact of delayed diagnosis time in estimating progression rates to hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Wang, Wenbin; Shi, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Delay of the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and its treatment to avert cirrhosis, is often present sincethe early stage of HCV progression is latent. Current methods to determine the incubation time to HCV-related cirrhosis and the duration time from cirrhosis to subsequent events (e.g. complications or death) used to be based on the time of liver biopsy diagnosis and ignore this delay which led to an interval censoring for the first event time and a double censoring for the subsequent event time. To investigate the impact of this delay in estimating HCV progression rates and relevant estimating bias, we present a correlated two-stage progression model for delayed diagnosis time and fit the developed model to the previously studied hepatitis C cohort data from Edinburgh. Our analysis shows that taking the delayed diagnosis into account gives a mildly different estimate of progression rate to cirrhosis and significantly lower estimated progression rate to HCV-related death in comparison with conventional modelling. We also find that when the delay increases, the bias in estimating progression increases significantly.

  9. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Algorithms, Screens, Toolkits Provider Education Provider Education Home Conferences and Events Online Courses (CME) Journal Articles Browse by Topic Publications and Products Web Resources About ...

  10. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

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    ... Education Home Conferences and Events Online Courses (CME) Journal Articles Browse by Topic Publications and Products Web Resources About Us More Health Care Veterans Health Administration Health Benefits Health Benefits Home Apply for VA Care Apply ...

  11. Gene regulations in HBV-related liver cirrhosis closely correlate with disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seram; Kim, Soyoun

    2007-09-30

    Liver cirrhosis (LC) is defined as comprising diffuse fibrosis and regenerating nodules of the liver. The biochemical and anatomical dysfunction in LC results from both reduced liver cell number and portal vascular derangement. Although several studies have investigated dysregulated genes in cirrhotic nodules, little is known about the genes implicated in the pathophysiologic change of LC or about their relationship with the degree of decompensation. Here, we applied cDNA microarray analysis using 38 HBsAg-positive LC specimens to identify the genes dysregulated in HBV-associated LC and to evaluate their relation to disease severity. Among 1063 known cancer- and apoptosis-related genes, we identified 104 genes that were significantly up- (44) or down- (60) regulated in LC. Interestingly, this subset of 104 genes was characteristically correlated with the degree of decompensation, called the Pugh-Child classification (20 Pugh-Child A, 10 Pugh-Child B, and 8 Pugh-Child C). Patient samples from Pugh-Child C exhibited a distinct pattern of gene expression relative to those of Pugh-Child A and B. Especially in Pugh-Child C, genes encoding hepatic proteins and metabolizing enzymes were significantly down-regulated, while genes encoding various molecules related to cell replication were up-regulated. Our results suggest that subsets of genes in liver cells correspond to the pathophysiologic change of LC according to disease severity and possibly to hepatocarcinogenesis.

  12. Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life in Outpatients with Cirrhosis: Results from a Prospective Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Thiele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cirrhosis may lead to a poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL, which should be taken into consideration when addressing the cirrhotic outpatient. Methods. Prospective cohort study evaluating predictors of HRQOL in outpatients with cirrhosis. Patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy at baseline were excluded. HRQOL was evaluated at baseline using the six point Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire. Predictors of low quality of life scores (<4 points and mortality were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results. In total, 92 patients were included (mean age 61 years, 59% male. Nineteen patients died (mean duration of follow-up 20 months. The mean Child-Pugh score was 6.9. Twenty percent had a poor HRQOL judged by the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire score and 45% had covert hepatic encephalopathy. The only predictors of poor HRQOL were the Child-Pugh score (β=0.45;P=0.013, nonalcoholic etiology of cirrhosis (β=−2.34;P=0.009, and body mass index (β=−0.20;P=0.023. The body mass index predicted poor HRQOL independently of the presence of ascites and albumin level. Conclusions. The body mass index was associated with a low HRQOL. This suggests that malnutrition may be an important target in the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  13. Implicit and explicit cognitions related to alcohol use in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1; N

  14. Implicit and explicit: cognitions related to alcohol use in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1: N

  15. Autoimmune Hepatitis-related Cirrhosis: Clinical Features and Effectiveness of Immunosuppressive Treatment in Chinese Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ni Li; Huan Ma; Lu Zhou; Jie Zhang; Li-Ping Guo; Shu-Qian Li; Yi-Qi Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background:The long-term outcomes of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) given the immunosuppressive treatment are considered to be preferable.However,little is known about the response of AIH patients with cirrhosis to immunosuppressive treatment.We assessed the effects of immunosuppressive therapy in Chinese AIH patients with cirrhosis from a tertiary hospital.Methods:Patients with a clinical diagnosis of AIH January 2000 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.Two-hundred and fourteen patients who were followed up and satisfied the simplified AIH criteria were included in the study.Among these patients,87 presented with cirrhosis when initially diagnosed for AIH.Immunosuppressive treatments were employed in 57 AIH patients who did not present with cirrhosis and 39 patients who presented with cirrhosis.Initial responses to immunosuppressive treatment of patients with and without cirrhosis were analyzed.Independent risk factors were assessed for predicting the prognosis of patients.The t-test and Cox regression statistical analysis were used.Results:In total,96 AIH patients including 39 with cirrhosis and 57 without cirrhosis underwent immunosuppressive therapy.The overall complete remission after initial immunosuppressive treatment was achieved in 81/96 patients (84.4%),whereas 9/96 (9.4%) achieved incomplete response,and 6/96 (6.3%) occurred treatment failure.Compared to noncirrhotic patients,patients who presented with cirrhosis responded to treatment to a comparable extent regarding complete response (noncirrhosis 50/57 [87.7%] vs.cirrhosis 31/39 [79.5%],P =0.275),incomplete remission (noncirrhosis 4/57 [7.0%] vs.cirrhosis 5/39 [12.8%],P =0.338),and treatment failure (noncirrhosis 3/57 [5.3%] vs.cirrhosis 3/39 [7.7%],P =0.629).Importantly,the remission rate was comparable (54/57 [94.7%] and 36/39 [92.3%],P =0.629) for noncirrhotic and cirrhotic patients after immunosuppressive therapy.Compared to patients who maintained

  16. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis-Related Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Three Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The association between primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is uncommon; only fourteen such case reports have been described. In this report, three patients who developed AIHA on the basis of PBC underwent successful therapy with corticosteroids and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA. Patient 3 was more complicated, suffering from PBC, Evans syndrome, Sjögren syndrome and Klinefelter syndrome simultaneously. This has not previously been reported in the world literature. Review of all fifteen cases showed that there is a prominent occurrence sequence that AIHA might take place on the basis of PBC. With sufficient doses of corticosteroids or immunosuppressant therapy, besides hemolysis under effective control, liver function also improved. According to the criteria of secondary AIHA, we may call them PBC-related AIHA. Thus, patients with PBC with serum bilirubin levels rising suddenly should undergo screening for associated hemolysis. Recommended treatment for PBC-related AIHA includes sufficient doses of corticosteroids to control the hemolysis in the acute phase, and immunosuppressant or adequate dose of UDCA to maintain therapy. These case reports have been increasing in recent years, so further reserch is needed to illustrate the incidence and natural courses of these two organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

  17. Correlates of alcohol-related regretted sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Borsari, Brian

    2012-12-01

    The prevalence of alcohol-related regretted sex in college students warrants a better understanding of the characteristics of students who report such experiences. Therefore, the present study examined correlates of regretted sexual experiences involving alcohol use among 2 specific high-risk college student samples: students mandated to alcohol intervention (n = 522) and volunteer 1st-year students transitioning to college (n = 481). Results indicated that alcohol-related regretted sex occurred at similar rates in mandated and volunteer students, with approximately 25% of the students reporting at least 1 occurrence in the past month. Women were more likely to report alcohol-related regretted sex compared with men. The belief that alcohol use would result in "liquid courage" was associated with alcohol-related regretted sex among college students, even after accounting for greater alcohol use and problem alcohol use behaviors. These findings have significant implications for intervention efforts and future research.

  18. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  19. The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrolijk Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC fatigue is a major clinical problem. Abnormal amino acid (AA patterns have been implicated in the development of fatigue in several non-hepatological conditions but for PBC and PSC no data are available. This study aimed to identify abnormalities in AA patterns and to define their relation with fatigue. Methods Plasma concentrations of tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in plasma of patients with PBC (n = 45, PSC (n = 27, chronic hepatitis C (n = 22 and healthy controls (n = 73. Fatigue and quality of life were quantified using the Fisk fatigue severity scale, a visual analogue scale and the SF-36. Results Valine, isoleucine, leucine were significantly decreased in PBC and PSC. Tyrosine and phenylalanine were increased (p Conclusion In patients with PBC and PSC, marked abnormalities in plasma AA patterns occur. Normal tyrosine concentrations, compared to increased concentrations, may be associated with fatigue and diminished quality of life.

  20. Initial steroid-free immunosuppression after liver transplantation in recipients with hepatitis c virus related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perdita Wietzke-Braun; Felix Braun; Burckhart Sattler; Giuliano Ramadori; Burckhardt Ringe

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Steroids can increase hepatitis C virus (HCV)replication. After liver transplantation (LTx), steroids are commonly used for immunosuppression and acute rejection is usually treated by high steroid dosages. Steroids can worsen the outcome of recurrent HCV infection. Therefore,we evaluated the outcome of HCV infected liver recipients receiving initial steroid-free immunosuppression.METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing LTx received initial steroid-free immunosuppression. Indication for LTx included 7 patients with HCV related cirrhosis. Initial immunosuppression adjusted to trough levels in the target range of 10-15 μg/L during the first 3 mo and 5-10 μg/L thereafter. Manifestations of acute rejection were verified histologically.RESULTS: Patient and graft survival of 30 patients receiving initial steroid-free immunosuppression was 86% and 83% at 1 and 2 years. Acute rejection occurred in 8/30 patients,including 1 HCV infected recipient. All HCV-infected patients had HCV genotype Ⅱ (1b). HCV seropositivity occurred within the first 4 mo after LTx. The virus load was not remarkably increased during the first year after LTx. Histologically, grafts had no severe recurrent hepatitis.CONCLUSION: From our experience, initial steroid-free immunosuppression does not increase the risk of acute rejection in HCV infected liver recipients. Furthermore, none of the HCV infected patients developed serious chronic liver diseases. It suggests that it may be beneficial to avoid steroids in this particular group of patients after LTx.

  1. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  2. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences.

  3. Serum 1H-NMR metabolomic fingerprints of acute-on-chronic liver failure in intensive care unit patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Amathieu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute-on-chronic liver failure is characterized by acute deterioration of liver function in patients with compensated or decompensated, but stable, cirrhosis. However, there is no accurate definition of acute-on-chronic liver failure and physicians often use this term to describe different clinical entities. Metabolomics investigates metabolic changes in biological systems and identifies the biomarkers or metabolic profiles. Our study assessed the metabolomic profile of serum using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H-NMR spectroscopy to identify metabolic changes related to acute-on-chronic liver failure. PATIENTS: Ninety-three patients with compensated or decompensated cirrhosis (CLF group but stable liver function and 30 patients with cirrhosis and hospitalized for the management of an acute event who may be responsible of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF group, were fully analyzed. Blood samples were drawn at admission, and sera were separated and stored at -80°C until (1H-NMR spectral analysis. Using orthogonal projection to latent-structure discriminant analyses, various metabolites contribute to the complete separation between these both groups. RESULTS: The predictability of the model was 0.73 (Q(2 Y and the explained variance was 0.63 (R(2 Y. The main metabolites that had increased signals related to acute-on-chronic liver failure were lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, glutamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and creatinine. High-density lipids were lower in the ALCF group than in CLF group. CONCLUSION: A serum metabolite fingerprint for acute-on-chronic liver failure, obtained with (1H-NMR, was identified. Metabolomic profiling may aid clinical evaluation of patients with cirrhosis admitted into intensive care units with acute-on-chronic liver failure, and provide new insights into the metabolic processes involved in acute impairment of hepatic function.

  4. Association of liver cirrhosis related IgA nephropathy with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambokis, Georgios; Christou, Leonidas; Stefanou, Dimitrios; Arkoumani, Evdokia; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

    2007-11-21

    A high incidence of IgA nephropathy has been reported in patients with liver cirrhosis, though, clinically evident nephrotic syndrome is very uncommon. Impaired hepatic clearance of circulating IgA immune complexes and subsequent deposition in renal glomeruli has been considered principally in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis associated IgA nephropathy. Here we report on a patient with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and splenic vein thrombosis, who presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed findings consistent with IgA nephropathy. Lower endoscopy showed features of portal hypertensive colopathy. Following initiation of propranolol and anticoagulant treatment to reduce portal pressure, a gradual decrease of proteinuria and hematuria to normal range was noted. The potential pathogenetic role of portal hypertension in the development of IgA nephropathy in cirrhotic patients is discussed.

  5. Association of liver cirrhosis related IgA nephropathy with portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A high incidence of IgA nephropathy has been reported in patients with liver cirrhosis, though, clinically evident nephrotic syndrome is very uncommon. Impaired hepatic clearance of circulating IgA immune complexes and subsequent deposition in renal glomeruli has been considered principally in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis associated IgA nephropathy. Here we report on a patient with cryptogenic liver cirrhosis and splenic vein thrombosis, who presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy showed findings consistent with IgA nephropathy. Lower endoscopy showed features of portal hypertensive colopathy. Following initiation of propranolol and anticoagulant treatment to reduce portal pressure, a gradual decrease of proteinuria and hematuria to normal range was noted. The potential pathogenetic role of portal hypertension in the development of IgA nephropathy in cirrhotic patients is discussed.

  6. Nutritional status in relation to lifestyle in patients with compensated viral cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumikazu Hayashi; Chika Momoki; Miho Yuikawa; Yuko Simotani; Etsushi Kawamura; Atsushi Hagihara; Hideki Fujii

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the nourishment status and lifestyle of non-hospitalized patients with compensated cirrhosis by using noninvasive methods.METHODS:The subjects for this study consisted of 27 healthy volunteers,59 patients with chronic viral hepatitis,and 74 patients with viral cirrhosis,from urban areas.We assessed the biochemical blood tests,anthropometric parameters,diet,lifestyle and physical activity of the patients.A homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value of ≥2.5 was considered to indicate insulin resistance.We measured height,weight,waist circumference,arm circumference,triceps skin-fold thickness,and handgrip strength,and calculated body mass index,arm muscle circumference (AMC),and arm muscle area (AMA).We interviewed the subjects about their dietary habits and lifestyle using health assessment computer software.We surveyed daily physical activity using a pedometer.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to identify the relevant factors for insulin resistance.RESULTS:The rate of patients with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.5 (which was considered to indicate insulin resistance)was 14 (35.9%) in the chronic hepatitis and 17 (37.8%)in the cirrhotic patients.AMC (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 104.9% ± 10.7%,P =0.021; control vs cirrhosis,111.9% ± 10.5% vs 102.7% ± 10.8%,P =0.001) and AMA (%) (control vs chronic hepatitis,128.2% ± 25.1% vs 112.2% ±22.9%,P =0.013; control vs cirrhosis,128.2% ±25.1% vs 107.5% ± 22.5%,P =0.001) in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were significantly lower than in the control subjects.Handgrip strength (%) in the cirrhosis group was significantly lower than in the controls (control vs cirrhosis,92.1%± 16.2% vs 66.9% ± 17.6%,P < 0.001).The results might reflect a decrease in muscle mass.The total nutrition intake and amounts of carbohydrates,protein and fat were not significantly different amongst

  7. CT and MRI findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction after variceal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.K., E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.co [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeon Ju (Korea, Republic of); Park, G.; Kim, C.S.; Han, Y.M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University Hospital and Medical School, Jeon Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Aim: To present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction. Materials and methods: Sixteen consecutive patients (14 men and two women) who had been diagnosed with cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction after variceal bleeding based on the results of dynamic CT (n = 15) and MRI (n = 8) were included in this study. Five patients had histopathological confirmation via liver transplantation (n = 2) and percutaneous biopsy (n = 3). Images were analyzed for the enhancement pattern, signal intensities, location, and configuration of the lesions. Results: Most of the lesions were depicted as multifocal discrete or clustered nodules with some irregular patchy areas (size range 3-28 mm). They were predominantly found in subcapsular area or caudate lobe. Most nodular lesions were seen as hypoattenuating (hypointense) nodules with rim enhancement during dynamic CT or MRI. On T2-weighted images, nodular lesions were predominantly seen as target appearing hyperintense nodules. On follow-up images (range 2-24 months), most of the lesions disappeared or decreased in size. Conclusion: CT and MRI can be used to demonstrate characteristic findings of cirrhosis-related benign nodules with ischaemia or infarction. Rapid resolution of the nodules at follow-up imaging can also be helpful for diagnosing these lesions.

  8. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  9. Longitudinal relations between cognitive bias and adolescent alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Tim; Larsen, Helle; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To prospectively predict the development of adolescent alcohol use with alcohol-related cognitive biases, and to predict the development of alcohol-related cognitive biases with aspects of impulsivity. Methods: Data were used from a two-year, four-wave online sample of 378 Dutch young

  10. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that...

  11. CLINICAL CO RELATION BETWEEN ARTERIAL VERSUS VENOUS AMMONIA LEVELS IN HEPATIC ENCEPHLOPATHY IN CIRRHOSIS OF LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Hepatic encephalopathy is a reversible neuropsychiatry state that complicates liver disease. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy in chronic liver is function is widely accepted to be due to failure of hepatic clearance of toxins products from gut exact toxin involved remains controversial but ammonia is thought to be an important factor. Ammonia levels help both in diagnosis and serve as a guide in treatment. Diagnosis of Hepatic Encephalopathy can be done based on clinical criteria and the severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy can be graded by West Haven Criteria. This criterion is the simplest grading of Hepatic Encephalopathy based on clinical findings. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To correlate between Ammonia levels and clinical severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhosis of liver and correlate between Arterial versus venous ammonia levels with severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy. RESULTS: Male patients had higher incidence than females. Severity of hepatic encephalopathy was graded by West Haven grading. Arterial total ammonia and venous ammonia was correlated with the clinical severity of HE. Of the 50 patients 3 had grade 1, 18 had grade 2, 22 had grade 3 and 7 had grade 4. Arterial and venous ammonia levels co related with severity of HE. The highest level of arterial ammonia was seen in grade 3 and grade 4.It was seen that other lab parameters also increased with severity of HE. But were not significant. Serum albumin was inversely co related with severity of HE. CONCLUSIONS: Arterial total ammonia correlated better with the severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy as compared to venous ammonia levels. Venous total ammonia did not correlate with severity of Hepatic Encephalopathy and with arterial ammonia levels.

  12. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  14. Chronic alcoholics without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or cirrhosis do not lose serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K G; Halliday, G M; Kril, J J; Harper, C G

    1996-02-01

    Despite the considerable evidence that alcoholics have perturbation of serotonergic function, there is little pathological evidence for alcohol directly affecting the nervous system. The present study aims to assess neuronal loss that occurs as a consequence of alcohol neurotoxicity in the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). To that end, the brains of eight alcoholics and eight age-matched control cases were carefully screened to eliminate serious liver disease, the sequela of thiamine deficiency, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), and other pathological abnormalities. Brains were formalin-fixed for 2 weeks, cut, and then immunohistochemically stained using a monoclonal PH8 antibody specific for the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase. The morphology of the serotonin-synthesizing neurons and their average size was similar in all cases. However, there was a reduction in the staining intensity of the reaction product in the DRN serotonergic neurons of most alcoholics. Neuronal counts on spaced serial sections revealed that there were an estimated average total of 106,100 +/- 19,500 serotonergic neurons in the DRN of alcoholics and 108,300 +/- 11,800 in the DRN of controls, indicating that in most alcoholics there is no reduction in the number of these neurons. Therefore, the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the serotonergic system, in the absence of WKS or liver disease, seems to be functional rather than neuropathological.

  15. Portal Hypertensive Duodenopathy Manifesting as “Kissing” Duodenal Ulcers in a Nigerian with Alcoholic Cirrhosis: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderemi Oluyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple duodenal ulcers are an uncommon finding in portal hypertensive duodenopathy (PHD. They represent a potential source of clinically significant bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal system in patients with cirrhosis. As this particular ulcer entity in relation to PHD has no distinguishing symptoms aside from those relating to the consequent bleeding, most of them are found either on routine endoscopic screening for cirrhotics or on endoscopic examination for cause(s of bleeding in this patient population. The case documented below highlights many of the aspects of pathogenesis, associations, and consequences of this unique endoscopic finding in cirrhotic patients.

  16. Recurrence of graft steatosis after liver transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis in recently commenced liver transplant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, Rohan C; Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; Liyanage, Chandika Anuradha Habarakada; Gunetilleke, Bhagya; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) seems to recur in at least one third of patients transplanted for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related cirrhosis. While, NASH recurrence does not seem to affect overall graft and patient survival up to 10 years, cardiovascular and infection-related morbidity and mortality seem to be increased in these patients. This report looks at the graft histology in patients who were transplanted for NASH-related cirrhosis after short-term follow up. We report a high prevalence of recurrent NAFLD in liver grafts post-transplant among five patients. The degree of steatosis noted among the recipients is alarming.

  17. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

  18. Arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hillingsø, Jens; Christensen, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although low arterial oxygen tension (Po2) has been claimed to occur in one to two thirds of patients with cirrhosis, hypoxaemia appears to be rare in clinical practice. AIMS: To assess the frequency of arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis in relation to clinical and haemodynamic......%, 96%, 96%, and 93% (NS). So2 was below the lower limit of 92% in 0%, 9%, 7%, and 24% (p arterial carbon dioxide tension, a low systemic vascular...... resistance, and a low indocyanine green clearance (p arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis is about 22% in patients without encephalopathy, but it varies from 10-40% depending on the degree of hepatic dysfunction. Arterial hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis of differing...

  19. Alcohol-related Problems in Vagrant People in Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Almaguer Barroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: irresponsible alcohol consumption is one of the most common problems in vagrant people.Objective: to identify alcohol-related problems in residents of the Care Center for People with Vagrant Behavior in Havana.Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. A questionnaire for identifying alcohol-related disorders was administered to 80 vagrants admitted to the center between June and August 2012.Results: it was demonstrated that alcohol consumption in subjects who participated in the research is quite common. Only 21.25% of these people do not suffer from alcohol-related problems, just a similar percent are at-risk drinkers and 57.5 % has physical and physiological problems and probable alcohol dependence.Conclusion: consumption of alcoholic beverages is common in the study population; hence strategies to reduce its negative effects on personal, professional, family and social life of these people must be implemented.

  20. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  1. The insulin like growth factor system in cirrhosis. Relation to changes in body composition following adrenoreceptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Karen; Hobolth, Lise; Juul, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are low in cirrhosis and are related to liver dysfunction. Metabolic disturbances include malnutrition with altered body composition and osteopenia. Since the effects of IGF-I may be associated to changes in body composition and bone mineral...... content (BMC) in cirrhotic patients, we investigated the relations between changes in the IGF-system and body composition and the effects of long-term alpha- and beta-blockade. DESIGN: The study was designed as a combined cross-sectional and prospective randomised controlled study of 62 patients...

  2. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    risk of alcohol-related health conditions such as alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis , pancreatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, is increased...specificity to screen for EAU important? While detailed efforts have been made to construct interview formats that correctly quantify alcohol intake , such as...members. Epidemiological Review, 20(1), 57-70. Hussain, T. & Lokhandwala, M. F. (1997). Dopamine-1 receptor G- protein coupling and the

  3. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh eKlein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research; and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol.Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages.

  4. Chronic alcoholism in the absence of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and cirrhosis does not result in the loss of serotonergic neurons from the median raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K G; Halliday, G M; Kril, J J; Harper, C G

    1996-09-01

    Previous studies have identified alcohol, thiamine deficiency and liver disease as contributing to the neuropathology of alcohol-related brain damage. In order to examine the effects of alcohol toxicity and thiamine deficiency on serotonergic neurons in the median raphe nucleus (MnR), alcoholic and previously published Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) cases without liver disease, were compared with age-matched non-alcoholic controls. While there was no difference between the estimated number of serotonergic neurons in either controls or alcoholics without WKS (means of 63,010 +/- 8,900 and 59,560 +/- 8,010 respectively), a substantial loss of serotonergic neurons was previously found in WKS cases (mean of 19,050 +/- 13,140). Further analysis revealed a significant difference in the maximum daily alcohol consumption between these groups. However, analysis of covariance showed that the number or serotonergic neurons in the MnR did not correlate with the amount of alcohol consumed. Therefore, our results suggest that cell loss in the MnR can be attributed to thiamine deficiency rather than alcohol per se.

  5. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Wasan, Kishor M.; Ribeyre, Charles; Ibrahim, Fady; McNeill, John H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs) are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrh...

  6. Gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Makoto; Miyoshi, Makoto; Yamashita, Hayato

    2015-11-07

    The gut microbiota has the capacity to produce a diverse range of compounds that play a major role in regulating the activity of distal organs and the liver is strategically positioned downstream of the gut. Gut microbiota linked compounds such as short chain fatty acids, bile acids, choline metabolites, indole derivatives, vitamins, polyamines, lipids, neurotransmitters and neuroactive compounds, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones have many biological functions. This review focuses on the gut microbiota and host metabolism in liver cirrhosis. Dysbiosis in liver cirrhosis causes serious complications, such as bacteremia and hepatic encephalopathy, accompanied by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability. Gut dysbiosis in cirrhosis and intervention with probiotics and synbiotics in a clinical setting is reviewed and evaluated. Recent studies have revealed the relationship between gut microbiota and host metabolism in chronic metabolic liver disease, especially, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, and with the gut microbiota metabolic interactions in dysbiosis related metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Recently, our understanding of the relationship between the gut and liver and how this regulates systemic metabolic changes in liver cirrhosis has increased. The serum lipid levels of phospholipids, free fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid have significant correlations with specific fecal flora in liver cirrhosis. Many clinical and experimental reports support the relationship between fatty acid metabolism and gut-microbiota. Various blood metabolome such as cytokines, amino acids, and vitamins are correlated with gut microbiota in probiotics-treated liver cirrhosis patients. The future evaluation of the gut-microbiota-liver metabolic network and the intervention of these relationships using probiotics

  7. Does protracted antiviral therapy impact on HCV-related liver cirrhosis progression?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Tarantino; Antonio Gentile; Domenico Capone; Vincenzo Basile; Marianna Tarantino; Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Alberto Cuocolo; Paolo Conca

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the outcomes of patients with compensated hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis.METHODS: Twenty-four grade A5 and 11 grade A6 of Child-Pugh classification cirrhotic patients with active virus replication, treated for a mean period of 31.3 ±5.1 mo with moderate doses of interferon-alpha and ribavirin, were compared to a cohort of 36 patients with similar characteristics, without antiviral treatment.Salivary caffeine concentration, a liver test of microsomal function, was determined at the starting and thrice in course of therapy after a mean period of 11 ± 1.6 mo,meanwhile the resistive index of splenic artery at ultra sound Doppler, an indirect index of portal hypertension,was only measured at the beginning and the end of study.RESULTS: Eight out of the 24 A5- (33.3%) and 5 out of the 11 A6- (45.45%) treated-cirrhotic patients showed a significant improvement in the total overnight salivary caffeine assessment. A reduction up to 20% of the resistive index of splenic artery was obtained in 3 out of the 8 A5- (37.5%) and in 2 out of the 5 A6- (40%)cirrhotic patients with an improved liver function, which showed a clear tendency to decrease at the end of therapy. The hepatitis C virus clearance was achieved in 3 out of the 24 (12.5%) A5- and 1 out of the 11 (0.091%) A6-patients after a median period of 8.5 mo combined therapy. In the cohort of non-treated cirrhotic patients, not only the considered parameters remained unchanged, but 3 patients (8.3%) had a worsening of the Child-Pugh score (P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: A prolonged antiviral therapy with moderate dosages of interferon-alpha and ribavirin shows a trend to stable liver function or to ameliorate the residual liver function, the entity of portal hypertension and the compensation status at acceptable costs.

  8. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Moure-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.

  9. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies.

  10. Identification and clinical significance of an elevated level of serum aminoacylase-1 autoantibody in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaomin; Hong, Yu; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Long, Jiang; Li, Hai; Zhang, Bei; Chen, Suhong; Liu, Qiqi; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Xiaoming; Ou, Xiaojuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is prevalent worldwide and can develop into liver cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. Early discrimination of liver cirrhosis from chronic hepatitis is critical for effective treatment and optimal prognosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a panel of cellular proteins that can be recognized by autoantibodies in patient serum for hepatitis B virus (HBV)‑related liver cirrhosis. Twenty‑two candidate autoantigens screened using a serum proteomics assay in our previous study were assessed retrospectively in 443 participants, comprising 89 patients with HBV‑related liver cirrhosis, 89 patients with CHB, and 265 healthy controls. The levels of autoantibodies against the candidate autoantigens were measured by protein microarrays containing the candidate antigen proteins. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the diagnostic accuracy. The present study determined that seven of the 22 candidate autoantibodies differed significantly in serum level between HBV‑related liver cirrhosis and CHB (P0.7. The seven autoantibodies recognized aminoacylase‑1 (ACY1), histidine triad nucleotide‑binding protein 1, insulin‑like growth factor 2 mRNA‑binding protein 2, heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, peroxiredoxin 3, apoptosis‑inducing factor and regucalcin. Among these, the ACY1 autoantibody had the highest value for discriminating HBV‑related liver cirrhosis from CHB, with an AUC value of 0.872 (95% confidence interval: 0.810‑0.934, PHBV‑related liver cirrhosis from CHB.

  11. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Nicole J; Draper, Brian; Withall, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  12. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  13. Lacosamide as add-on treatment of focal symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Romigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of epileptic seizures in the presence of hepatic disease is not uncommon in clinical practice. Selecting an appropriate AED for patients affected by liver failure who have new-onset epileptic seizures can be challenging. We describe a 64-year-old man affected by liver cirrhosis. The patient developed partial epilepsy with secondary generalization because of an intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parieto-occipital regions. After the neurosurgery procedure, seizures reappeared and were initially managed with levetiracetam. After one month, the patient experienced clusters of seizures while on stable treatment with levetiracetam. Pregabalin as add-on was not tolerated; therefore, he received a low dose of phenobarbital as add-on treatment. The patient developed hepatic encephalopathy. Phenobarbital was immediately stopped, and oral lacosamide was added. A rapid recovery of encephalopathy with a 6-month seizure freedom was obtained. The patient died 6 months later because of progressive impairment of liver function. Lacosamide may represent an alternative to other AEDs in patients with liver failure; however, further prospective evaluation of its efficacy and safety in this clinical setting is needed.

  14. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  15. Histamine and H3 receptor in alcohol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, Pertti; Nuutinen, Saara

    2011-01-01

    Data from rat models for alcohol preference and histidine decarboxylase knockout (HDC KO) mice suggest that brain histamine regulates alcohol-related behaviors. Histamine levels are higher in alcohol-preferring than in alcohol-nonpreferring rat brains, and expression of histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) is different in key areas for addictive behavior. H(3)R inverse agonists decrease alcohol responding in one alcohol-preferring rat line. Conditioned place preference induced by alcohol is stronger in HDC KO mice than in control mice. The HDC KO mice display a weaker stimulatory response to acute alcohol than the wild-type (WT) mice. In male inbred C57BL/6 mice the H(3)R antagonist ciproxifan inhibits ethanol-evoked stimulation of locomotor activity. Ciproxifan also potentiates the ethanol reward, but does not alone result in the development of place preference. At least in one rat model developed to study alcohol sensitivity high histamine levels are characteristic of the alcohol-insensitive rat line, and lowering brain histamine with a HDC inhibitor increases alcohol sensitivity in the tilting plane test. However, the motor skills of HDC KO mice do not seem to differ from those of the WT mice. Current evidence suggests that the histaminergic system is involved in the regulation of place preference behavior triggered by alcohol, possibly through an interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Histamine may also interact with dopamine in the regulation of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical motor pathway and cerebellar mechanisms, which may be important in different motor behaviors beyond alcohol-induced motor disturbances. H(3)R ligands may have significant effects on alcohol addiction.

  16. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  17. Transient elastography for diagnosis of stages of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2015-01-01

    fibrosis in people with liver diseases. Transient elastography is a non-invasive method for assessing and staging hepatic fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for diagnosis and staging hepatic fibrosis in people with alcoholic liver disease when compared...... with liver biopsy. To identify the optimal cut-off values for differentiating the five stages of hepatic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled and Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies Registers, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), and the Science Citation...... Index Expanded (last search August 2014). SELECTION CRITERIA: Diagnostic cohort and diagnostic case-control study designs that assessed hepatic fibrosis in participants with alcoholic liver disease with transient elastography and liver biopsy, irrespective of language or publication status. The study...

  18. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ''bad'' and ''dangerous'' in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ''good'' and ''safe'' in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors.

  19. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  20. Evaluation of alcohol outlet density and its relation with violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laranjeira Ronaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.

  1. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  2. Relation between self-concept and students alcohol drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.

  3. High arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline and elevated circulating calcitonin gene related peptide but not to activated vasoconstrictor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren; Schifter, S

    2001-01-01

    catecholamines, renin activity, endothelin-1, and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) at baseline and during oxygen inhalation. RESULTS: COMP(art) was significantly increased in cirrhotic patients compared with controls (1.32 v 1.06 ml/mm Hg; padrenaline levels (r=-0.......001) and central circulation time (r=-0.49; padrenaline (-16%; p... to COMP(art) disappeared. The relation of COMP(art) to CGRP and circulatory variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Elevated arterial compliance in cirrhosis is related to low adrenaline, high CGRP, and systemic hyperdynamics but not to indicators of the activated vasoconstrictor systems (noradrenaline...

  4. 乙型肝炎后肝硬化与酒精性肝硬化患者临床特征的比较及防治%Comparison with Alcoholic Cirrhosis Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Cirrhosis and Hepatitis B Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林铭华

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析乙型肝炎后肝硬化与酒精性肝硬化患者临床特征及防治措施。方法方便抽取2012年6月—2015年10月入住该院的74例乙型肝炎后肝硬化患者(A组)与56例酒精性肝硬化患者(B组)作为研究对象,对两组患者的临床资料进行分析,比较两组患者的临床特征以及并发症。结果酒精性肝硬化患者的食欲减退、腹胀、肝掌、蜘蛛痣、黄疸、肝肿大、肝性脑病、急性胰腺炎、胆石症、肝源性糖尿病的发生率分别为80.36%、46.43%、48.21%、58.93%、66.07%、23.21%、26.79%、12.50%、42.86%、19.64%,显著高于乙型肝炎后肝硬化患者;且两组患者的AST/ALT、GGT、ALP水平差异有统计学意义,P﹤0.05。结论为保证治疗效果,应结合乙型肝炎后肝硬化与酒精性肝硬化患者的临床特征,对其实施针对性防治措施。%Objective To analyze the clinical features and preventive measures of hepatitis b cirrhosis and alcoholic cir-rhosis. Methods Convenient selection from June 2012 to October 2015, 74 patients with hepatitis b cirrhosis (group A) and 56 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (group B) were selected as the study subjects, the clinical data of two groups of patients analysis, the clinical features and complications of the two groups were compared. Results In patients with alcoholic cirrho-sis anorexia, abdominal distension,liver palms, spider nevus, jaundice, hepatomegaly, hepatic encephalopathy, acute pancre-atitis, cholelithiasis, hepatic diabetes incidence was 80.36%, 46.43%, 48.21%, 58.93%, 66.07%, 23.21%, 26.79%, 12.50%, 42.86%, 19.64%respectively, significantly higher than that of patients with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B;And the levels of AST/ALT, GGT and ALP were significantly different between the two groups,P<0.05. Conclusion In order to ensure the treatment effect, the clinical characteristics of patients with cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis should be combined, and the control measures

  5. College Women and Alcohol: A Relational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to college women's drinking. For women, drinking is often a way of making friends and establishing intimate relationships. Peer influence is a strong persuader. College women who are careless in using alcohol may encounter additional problems like increased stress, depression, and sexual dysfunction. (SM)

  6. The acid-labile subunit of the ternary insulin-like growth factor complex in cirrhosis: relation to liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Juul, A; Becker, U;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In the circulation, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is bound in a trimeric complex of 150 kDa with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS). Whereas circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are reported to be low in patients with chronic liver failure, the level...... of ALS has not been described in relation to hepatic dysfunction. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure circulating and hepatic venous concentrations of ALS in relation to hepatic function and the IGF axis. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with cirrhosis (Child class A/B/C:5/10/10) and 30...... controls with normal liver function were studied. During a haemodynamic investigation, blood samples were collected from the hepatic vein and femoral artery, and the plasma concentrations of ALS, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were determined. RESULTS: Hepatic venous and arterial concentrations of ALS were...

  7. [Efficacy of lamivudine monotherapy and combination therapy with adefovir dipivoxil for patients with hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-Yu; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Lin; Ying, Ling-Jun; Yang, Yi-da

    2011-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of Lamivudine (LAM) monotherapy and combination therapy with Adefovir Dipivoxil (ADV) for patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) -related decompensated cirrhosis for 2 years. A total of 115 patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis were erolled in this study, among 60 patients were treated with LAM combined with ADV and 55 were treated with LAM. The liver and kidney functions, HBV DNA, HBV-M, AFP, Ultrasond or CT scan of liver were tested every 1-3months. the treatment efficacy was evaluated by month 12 and 24. By month 12, the HBV DNA negative rates of combination therapy group and LAM monotherapy group were 51.1% (45 cases) and 47.5% (40 cases) respectively, by month 24 the rates were 86.7% and 60.0% respectively. By month 24 the HBeAg negative rates of combination therapy group and LAM monotherapy group were 43.5% and 30.0% respectively, with significant difference existed between the two therapy groups (P values is less than 0.05). By month 24, the ALT normalization rates of the two groups were 88.9% and 72.5% respectively. Viral breakthrough happened in 2 cases (4.4%) by month 12 and 3 cases (6.7%) by month 24 in LAM and ADV combination group, but no viral resistance observed. Viral breakthrough happened in 9 cases (22.5%) by month 12 and 15 cases (37.5%) by month 24 in LAM monotherapy group with viral resistance observed in 7 cases (17.5%) by month 12 and 13 cases (32.5) by month 24. Significant difference existed between the two groups (P is less than 0.05). Improvement of liver function was more obviously in the combination group. The accumulative total mortality or liver transplantation rate were 16.7% and 20.0% respectively in combination therapy group and LAM monotheapy group. No renal dysfunction observed in both groups. LAM combined with ADV is better choice for patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis as compared to LAM monotherapy.

  8. Liver Cirrhosis: A Seven Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Paul Tran

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of 121 patients who were found to have liver cirrhosis on liver biopsy in 1981 was assessed seven years later. The etiology of the cirrhosis was alcoholic in 52%, cryptogenic in 29.8%, hepatitis B-related in 9.1% and miscellaneous in 9.1%. In 1981, jaundice was present in 55 patients (45.8%, ascites in 52 (43%, gastrointestinal bleeding in 25 (20.7% and encephalopathy in 10 (8.3%. During the following seven years an additional 20 patients developed ascites, 15 gastrointestinal bleeding, 32 encephalopathy and three hepatocellular carcinoma. The mortality race was 43.8% at five years and 53.7% at seven years. The principal cause of death was liver failure (40%, followed by nonliver causes (32.3% and gastrointestinal bleeding (13.9%. One patient died of hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients who survived seven years had fewer complications when seen in 1981 than those who died during this period (P<0.025. It is concluded that, in Toronto, cirrhosis is often caused by ethanol abuse and hepatitis B infection; that it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; and that the number of complications when the patient is first seen may be a useful indicator of prognosis. Since many cases of cirrhosis are preventable, the authors suggest that efforts directed towards prevention of cirrhosis may be more rewarding than those directed towards therapy.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of splenic hamartoma in a patient with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis and portal hypertension: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Nobutaka Tanaka; Yoshio Suzuki; Motoki Nagai; Takatoshi Furuya; Yukihiro Nomura; Jimpei Ishii; Masakazu Nobori

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture is a rare complication of splenic hamartoma. A review of the literature revealed only four such cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous rupture of splenic hamartoma associated with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.A 53-year-old woman, who was followed up for aortic dissection and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis, was referred with sudden left chest and shoulder pain. An abdominal ultrasound showed intraabdominalbleeding, and computed tomography indicated rupture of a splenic tumor. Emergent splenectomy was carried out. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the 13th postoperative day.Pathology revealed the tumor to be a ruptured splenic hamartoma. The non-tumorous splenic parenchyma revealed congestive changes. We consider that the presence of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension are risk factors for spontaneous rupture of the splenic hamartoma.

  10. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  11. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  12. Alcohol Related Endocrine Disorders and Alcoholic Liver Disease%酒精相关内分泌障碍及肝脏疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 盛利霞; 汤宜朗

    2015-01-01

    目的:介绍酒精所致的内分泌障碍及酒精性肝病(ALD)的机制及治疗进展。方法:对近年文献进行复习。结果:本文对酒精对内分泌系统的影响及所致的功能障碍(尤其是对 HPA 轴、HPT 轴及性腺轴的影响)的机制、治疗的进展,酒精性肝病的发生机制、分类及治疗进展进行了介绍。结论:酒精可导致内分泌系统功能障碍及肝功能障碍,酒精引起的障碍早期或可通过戒酒逆转,但晚期病变(如肝硬化)则很难逆转。对晚期患者,除戒酒之外,支持治疗是主要的手段。%Objective:To review the updates on alcohol-related endocrine disorders and alcoholic liver disease mechanism and treatment. Methods:Literature review and hand-picked literature. Results:We review the mechanism(especially the influence on the HPA axis,the HPT axis and the gonad axis)and treatment of alcohol related endocrine disorders,and the mechanism,classification and treatment of alcoholic liver disease(ALD). Conclusion:Alcohol can cause endocrine disorders and liver damage. While some dis-orders are reversible by stop drinking,some(such as cirrhosis)are not. For advanced or patients in terminal stage,in addition to stop-ping drinking,supportive care plays an important role.

  13. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  14. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) - III

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions - III (NESARC-III) is a nationally representative survey of 46,500 adult Americans that collected...

  15. Next-Generation Sequence Analysis of Genes Associated with Obesity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Cirrhosis in Extreme Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Glenn S.; Chu, Xin; Wood, G. Craig; Gerhard, Genevieve M.; Benotti, Peter; Petrick, Anthony T.; Gabrielsen, Jon; Strodel, William E.; Still, Christopher D.; Argyropoulosa, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in or near several loci that are associated with the risk of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We hypothesized that missense variants in GWAS and related candidate genes may underlie cases of extreme obesity and NAFLD-related cirrhosis, an extreme manifestation of NAFLD. Methods We performed whole-exome sequencing on 6 Caucasian patients with extreme obesity [mean body mass index (BMI) 84.4] and 4 obese Caucasian patients (mean BMI 57.0) with NAFLD-related cirrhosis. Results Sequence analysis was performed on 24 replicated GWAS and selected candidate obesity genes and 5 loci associated with NAFLD. No missense variants were identified in 19 of the 29 genes analyzed, although all patients carried at least 2 missense variants in the remaining genes without excess homozygosity. One patient with extreme obesity carried 2 novel damaging mutations in BBS1 and was homozygous for benign and damaging MC3R variants. In addition, 1 patient with NAFLD-related cirrhosis was compound heterozygous for rare damaging mutations in PNPLA3. Conclusions These results indicate that analyzing candidate loci previously identified by GWAS analyses using whole-exome sequencing is an effective strategy to identify potentially causative missense variants underlying extreme obesity and NAFLD-related cirrhosis. PMID:24081230

  16. Low-dose intermittent interferon-alpha therapy for HCV-related liver cirrhosis after curative treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy of low-dose intermittent interferon (JFN) therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related compensated cirrhosis who had received curative treatment for primary hepatocellular carcinoma (NCC).METHODS: We performed a prospective case controlled study. Sixteen patients received 3 MIU of natural IFN-alpha intramuscularly 3 times weekly for at least 48 wk (IFN group). They were compared with 16 matched historical controls (non-JFN group).RESULTS: The cumulative rate of first recurrence of HCC was not significantly different between the IFN group and the non-IFN group (0% vs 6.7% and 68.6% vs 80% at 1-and 3-year, P=0.157, respectively).The cumulative rate of second recurrence was not also significantly different between the IFN group and the non-IFN group (0% vs 6.7% and 35.9% vs 67% at 1-and 3-year, P=0.056, respectively). Although the difference in the Child-Pugh classification score between the groups at initial treatment of HCC was not significant, the score was significantly worse at the time of data analysis in the non-IFN group than IFN group (7.19±1.42 vs 5.81±0.75, P=0.0008). The cumulative rate of deviation from objects of any treatment for recurrent HCC was also higher in the non-IFN group than IFN group (6.7% and 27% vs 0 and 0% at 1- and 3-year, P=0.048, respectively).CONCLUSION: Low-dose intermittent IFN-alpha therapy for patients with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis after curative HCC treatment was effective by making patients tolerant to medical or surgical treatment for recurrent HCC in the later period of observation.

  17. Early Alcohol Initiation Increases Risk Related to Drinking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…

  18. Intelligence in relation to later beverage preference and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....

  19. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to measurements of hepatic function and hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Tage-Jensen, Ulrik Viggo; Rubinstein, E;

    1984-01-01

    elimination capacity, indocyanine green clearance, hepatic blood flow and wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure. Hepatic scan score correlated directly (rho = 0.38, p less than 0.05) to IgA concentrations; wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure correlated directly to IgG concentrations (rho = 0.35, p less than 0...

  20. Liver haemodynamics and function in alcoholic cirrhosis. Relation to testosterone treatment and ethanol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1987-01-01

    , testosterone-treated patients did not differ significantly from placebo-treated patients regarding any of the measured variables. No significant relationships could be demonstrated between ethanol consumption and liver haemodynamics and liver function, but the number of patients consuming more than 100 g......, the improvement may be due to reduced ethanol consumption....

  1. [Clinical application of neuroimaging to alcohol-related dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Sakurai, Hideki; Toyama, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is one of the most common dementing disorders in middle-aged people and occurs in heavy drinkers who are estimated to be 10 - 15 % of the adult men in a community. While the concept of ARD is multifactorial and includes all cognitive deficits in alcoholics, the central clinical manifestations are exemplified by Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome, characterized by amnesia and disorientation that is caused by thiamine deficiency along with excessive alcohol consumption. Antemortem detection of intracranial changes has been made possible by MRI and many studies have revealed that alcoholics have atrophic changes in frontal lobe, cerebellum, medial temporal lobe and hippocampus. However, these brain regions are vulnerable to excessive alcohol and seem to be independent of cognitive deficits in alcoholics. This review shows the regional differences in gray matter volumes between cognitively normal alcoholics and patients with KS. By employing a 3-dimensional MRI method for voxel-based morphometry that enables an automated, unbiased, comprehensive assessment, we demonstrate that parahippocampal/hippocampal atrophy is specific to KS and thalamic atrophy and the third ventricle enlargement are more severe in patients with KS than in cognitively normal alcoholics.

  2. the denver tube Combined with antiviral drugs In the treatment of HBV-related Cirrhosis with Refractory ascites:a Report of three Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jin Wang; Li-qin Shi; Qing-chun Fu; Liu-da Ni; Feng Zhou; Jin-wei Chen; Cheng-wei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of nucleos(t)ide antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis can signiifcantly improve the prognosis. But those patients with refractory ascites possibly deteriorate due to the complications of ascites before any beneift from anti-viral drugs could be observed. Therefore, it is important to ifnd a way to help the patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and refractory ascites to receive the full beneifts from antiviral therapy. Peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) using Denver tube enables ascites to continuously bypass into systemic circulation, thereby reducing ascites and albumin input and improving quality of life. We report herein 3 cases of decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites, PVS using Denver tube was combined with lamivudine for antiviral treatment before and after. Then, ascites was alleviated significantly or disapeared and viral responsed well. All patients achieved a satisfactory long-term survival from 6.7 to 14.7 years. It was suggested that the Denver shunt could be used as an adjuvant method to antiviral drugs for decompensated HBV-related cirrhosis with refractory ascites to help the patients reap the full beneifts and maximize efifcacy of antiviral treatment.

  3. Increased circulating pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with cirrhosis: relation to cardiovascular dysfunction and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Gøtze, J P; Fuglsang, S;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis. This study was undertaken to relate plasma concentrations of cardiac peptides reflecting early ventricular dysfunction (pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) to markers...

  4. Personality and alcohol-related outcomes among mandated college students: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined three alcohol-perception variables (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs) as mediators of the predictive effects of four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of mandated college students (n=875). Our findings replicated several findings of a previous study of incoming freshman college students (Hustad et al., in press) in that impulsivity and hopelessness had direct effects on alcohol-related problems, sensation seeking and impulsivity had indirect effects on alcohol-related outcomes via college-related alcohol beliefs, and college-related alcohol beliefs predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We discuss the implications of our findings for global college student interventions as well as personality-targeted interventions.

  5. Alcohol effects on family relations: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaldo, Amanda Márcia Dos Santos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results show that the problems caused by alcohol abuse impose profound suffering to family members, which contributes to high levels of interpersonal conflict, domestic violence, parental inadequacy, child abuse and negligence, financial and legal difficulties, in addition to clinical problems associated to it.

  6. Alcohol-Related Aviation Accidents Involving Pilots With Previous Alcohol Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Drug Abuse/Alcohol and Drug Related Offenses The pilot’s failure to maintain sufficient altitude above the surface of water during an intentional...vely.and.has.made.tremendous.strdes.n.develop- ng.programs.to.help.plots.wth.substance.abuse. ssues .. Per.“Alcohol.Rehabltaton.of.Arlne.Plots... ssues . rEfErENCEs 1 .. Natonal.Transportaton.Safety.Board,.Safety.Rec- ommendaton.A-07-41 ..(2007) . 2 .. Avaton.Safety.Research.Act.of.1988,.Publ

  7. Salford alcohol assertive outreach team: a new model for reducing alcohol-related admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Neill R; Houghton, Natalie; Nadeem, Haitham; Bell, Jackie; McDonald, Suzanne; Glynn, Noel; Scarfe, Christopher; Mackay, Bev; Rogers, Anthony; Walters, Melanie; Smith, Martin; McDonald, Andrew; Dalton, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alcohol-related admissions are increasing. A significant number of these admissions are attributable to a small number of complex patients with other comorbidities who do not engage well with mainstream services. Assertive outreach teams have been used in the field of psychiatry to engage patients who are poorly compliant. This study examines whether an alcohol assertive outreach team (AAOT) can engage with this group and reduce hospital admissions. Design The AAOT is a multidiscipl...

  8. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  9. Smoking and risk of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie Kamstrup; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Alcohol is the most acknowledged risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause of liver cirrhosis even though a few studies have suggested the opposite. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of smoking on alcoholic liver...... cirrhosis and liver cirrhosis in general. Materials and methods. The authors used data from the Copenhagen City Heart Study including a cohort of 9889 women and 8590 men from the Danish general population. Smoking and covariates were assessed at four consecutive examinations in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991...... of liver cirrhosis occurred during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) of alcoholic liver cirrhosis was 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 9.4 for women and 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.0 for men smoking >10 g of tobacco per day compared with never-smokers. For liver cirrhosis, corresponding HRs were 2.2, 95% CI...

  10. Event-Related Oscillations in Alcoholism Research: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2012-01-12

    Alcohol dependence is characterized as a multi-factorial disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental liabilities across development. A variety of neurocognitive deficits/dysfunctions involving impairments in different brain regions and/or neural circuitries have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcoholism. Several neurobiological and neurobehavioral approaches and methods of analyses have been used to understand the nature of these neurocognitive impairments/deficits in alcoholism. In the present review, we have examined relatively novel methods of analyses of the brain signals that are collectively referred to as event-related oscillations (EROs) and show promise to further our understanding of human brain dynamics while performing various tasks. These new measures of dynamic brain processes have exquisite temporal resolution and allow the study of neural networks underlying responses to sensory and cognitive events, thus providing a closer link to the physiology underlying them. Here, we have reviewed EROs in the study of alcoholism, their usefulness in understanding dynamical brain functions/dysfunctions associated with alcoholism as well as their utility as effective endophenotypes to identify and understand genes associated with both brain oscillations and alcoholism.

  11. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey....

  12. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  13. Blood platelet and monocyte activations and relation to stages of liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anatol Panasiuk; Janusz Zak; Edwina Kasprzycka; Katarzyna Janicka; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Blood platelets (plt) and monocytes are the cells that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver damage and liver cirrhosis (LC). In this paper, the analysis of mutual relationship between platelets and monocytes activation in LC was conducted.METHODS: Immunofluorescent flow cytometry was usedto measure the percentage of activated platelet populations(CD62P, CD63), the percentage of plt-monocyte aggregates (pma) (CD41/CD45), and activated monocytes (CD11b, CD14, CD16) in the blood of 20 volunteers and 40 patientswith LC. Platelet activation markers: sP-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF4), beta-thromboglobulin (βTG) and monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1) were measured and compared in different stages of LC.RESULTS: Platelet activation with the increase in bothβTG serum concentration and elevation of plt population(CD62P and CD63 as well as MIF CD62P and CD63) is elevated as LC develops and thrombocytopenia rises. There is a positive correlation between medial intensityof fluorescence (MIF) CD62P and MIF CD63 in LC. We did not show any relationship between monocyte activation and pma level. SP-selectin concentration correlates positively with plt count and pma, and negatively with stage of plt activation and MIF CD62P and MIF CD63. There was no correlation between MCP-1 concentration andpit, monocyte activation as well as pma level in LC. CD16 monocytes and MIF CD16 populations are significantlyhigher in the end stage of LC. A positive correlation occurs between the value of CD11b monocyte population andMIF CD14 and MIF CD16 on monocytes in LC.CONCLUSION: Platelet and monocyte activation plays an important role in LC. Platelet activation stage does not influence monocyte activation and production of plt aggregates with monocytes in LC. With LC development, thrombocytopenia may be the result of plt consumption in platelet-monocyte aggregates.

  14. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    then combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption......BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium...... and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one subanalysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 g/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.97-1.71; OR>0-

  15. Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis C and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage liver disease due to hepatitis C (HCV and cirrhosis from alcohol (ALD are the commonest indications for liver transplantation in the western countries. Up to one third of HCV-infected transplant candidates have a history of significant alcohol intake prior to transplantation. However, there are few data available about the possible interaction between alcohol and HCV in the post-transplant setting. Patients with both HCV and alcohol are more likely to die on the waiting list than those with ALD and HCV alone. However, after transplantation, non-risk adjusted graft and patient survival of patients with HCV + ALD are comparable to those of patients with HCV cirrhosis or ALD cirrhosis alone. In the short and medium term HCV recurrence after transplant in patients with HCV + ALD cirrhosis does not seem more aggressive than that in patients with HCV cirrhosis alone. A relapse in alcohol consumption in patients with HCV + ALD cirrhosis does not have a major impact on graft survival. The evidence shows that, as is currently practiced, HCV + ALD as an appropriate indication for liver transplantation. However, these data are based on retrospective analyses with relatively short follow-up so the conclusions must be treated with caution.

  16. Oxidative damage, pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-α and c-myc in chronic HCV-related hepatitis and cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Farinati; Romilda Cardin; Marina Bortolami; Maria Guido; Massimo Rugge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether a correlation exists between oxidative DNA damage occurring in chronic HCV-relatecl hepatitis and expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TGF-α and c-myc.METHODS: The series included 37 patients with chronic active HCV-related hepatitis and 11 with HCV-related compensated cirrhosis. Eight-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in liver biopsies was quantified using an electrochemical detector. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-αand c-myc in liver specimens was detected by semiquantitative comparative RT-PCR.RESULTS: TNF-α levels were significantly higher in hepatitis patients than in cirrhosis patients (P=0.05).IL-1β was higher in cirrhosis patients (P=0.05). A significant correlation was found between TNF-α and staging (P=0.05) and between IL-1β levels and grading (P= 0.04). c-myc showed a significantly higher expression in cirrhosis patients (P=0.001). Eight-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were significantly higher in cirrhosis patients (P=0.05) and in HCV genotype 1. (P=0.03).Considering all patients, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels were found to be correlated with genotype (P=0.04)and grading (P=0.007). Also multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation among the number of DNA adducts, TNF-α expression and HCV genotype (P= 0.02).CONCLUSION: In chronic HCV-related liver damage, oxidative DNA damage correlates with HCV genotype, grading and TNF-α levels. As HCV-related liver damage progresses, TNF-α levels drop while IL-1β and c-myc levels increase, which may be relevant to liver carcinogenesis.

  17. Effect of sustained virological response on long-term clinical outcome in 113 patients with compensated hepatitis C-related cirrhosis treated by interferon alpha and ribavirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term clinical benefit of sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) cirrhosis treated by antiviral therapy using mostly ribavirin plus interferon either standard or pegylated. METHODS: One hundred and thirteen patients with uncomplicated HCV biopsy-proven cirrhosis, treated by at least one course of antiviral treatment ≥ 3 mo and followed ≥ 30 mo were included. The occurrence of clinical events [hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), decompensation and death] was compared in SVR and non SVR patients. RESULTS: Seventy eight patients received bitherapy and 63 had repeat treatments. SVR was achieved in 37 patients (33%). During a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, clinical events occurred more frequently in non SVR than in SVR patients, with a significant difference for HCC (24/76 vs 1/37, P = 0.01). No SVR patient died while 20/76 non-SVR did (P = 0.002), mainly in relation to HCC (45%).CONCLUSION: In patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, SVR is associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of HCC and mortality during a follow-up period of 7.7 years. This result is a strong argument to perform and repeat antiviral treatments in patients with compensated cirrhosis.

  18. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  19. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  20. Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Choudhary, Mona; Dayal, Prabhoo; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. Evidence Acquisition We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms “alcohol and dementia”, “alcohol and cognitive impairment”, and “alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff” mentioned in the title of the published papers. A total of 131 studies showed up. Appropriate studies were shortlisted and included (n = 72). Cross-references if relevant were considered from the selected studies. Eligible articles were fully read by the authors and the results were compiled. Results The prolonged and excessive use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional brain damage, leading to ARD. The cognitive deficits are most frequently observed in domains of visuospatial functions, memory and executive tasks, with a potential of partial recovery if abstinence is maintained. However, there are doubts regarding the etiopathogenesis, nosological status, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for ARD, due to difficulty in assessment and various confounding factors. Conclusions With growing cohort of young and middle-aged people, there is a probable risk of upsurge of ARD. Presently, there are dilemmas over the diagnosis of independent ARD. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management of ARD through further systematic studies. PMID:27818965

  1. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born......-related individuals and inter-sibling analyses were compared. FINDINGS: A lower educational status was associated with a higher rate of alcohol-related outcomes, especially among the youngest (aged 28-37 years) and individuals born 1970-79. Compared with the cohort analyses, the associations attenuated slightly...... in the inter-sibling analysis. For example, in the cohort analysis, females with a basic school education born 1970-79 had an increased rate of alcohol-related non-somatic morbidity and mortality [hazard rate ratio (HR) = 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.27-5.02] compared to those with a vocational...

  2. Alcohol expectancies mediate and moderate the associations between Big Five personality traits and adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediation and moderation effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the Five-Factor Model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, alcohol use during the week and at the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive alcohol expectancies mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and alcohol expectancies to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  3. Clinical and pathological features of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, Natalie M; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Harper, Clive G

    2011-05-01

    One of the sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse is malnutrition. Importantly, a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) can result in the acute, potentially reversible neurological disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). When WE is recognized, thiamine treatment can elicit a rapid clinical recovery. If WE is left untreated, however, patients can develop Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a severe neurological disorder characterized by anterograde amnesia. Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) describes the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on human brain structure and function in the absence of more discrete and well-characterized neurological concomitants of alcoholism such as WE and KS. Through knowledge of both the well-described changes in brain structure and function that are evident in alcohol-related disorders such as WE and KS and the clinical outcomes associated with these changes, researchers have begun to gain a better understanding of ARBD. This Review examines ARBD from the perspective of WE and KS, exploring the clinical presentations, postmortem brain pathology, in vivo MRI findings and potential molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions. An awareness of the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on human behavior and brain structure can enable clinicians to improve detection and treatment of ARBD.

  4. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  5. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  6. Hepatic expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and p53 protein in HBV or HCV cirrhosis in relation to dysplastic liver cell changes and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, J; Petraki, K; Kavantzas, N; Rapti, I; Kountouras, D; Hadziyannis, S

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate hepatic expression of the nuclear proliferative marker Ki-67 and the p53 oncoprotein in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV cirrhosis in relation to dysplastic liver cell changes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied needle liver biopsies from 107 patients with cirrhosis and no HCC (52 HBV, 55 HCV) who had been assessed for protocol studies, and 57 cirrhotic patients with HCC (40 HBV, 17 HCV). We evaluated small and large cell dysplastic changes along with the expression of Ki-67 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The labelling index (LI) was defined as the proportion (%) of positive-stained nuclei of the 500 measured. Large and small cell dysplastic changes were observed in 12 and 9% of specimens respectively. Only small cell changes were associated with Ki-67 expression. Ki-67 LI was 5.50 +/- 5.7 in cirrhosis (13.90 +/- 3.84 in those with small cell dysplastic changes vs 4.64 +/- 4.98 in those without, P cirrhosis with HCC (P cirrhosis. Expression of p53 was observed in 30% of the non-tumorous and in 53% of the neoplastic tissue obtained from patients with HCC, with no differences between HCV and HBV. Ki-67 and p53 expression was associated with the tumour grade (P < 0.001). Our observations clearly demonstrate the association between the proliferation activity and the morphological changes in the cirrhotic liver from the non-dysplastic to dysplastic lesion to HCC. They also support the hypothesis that p53 alterations are a rather late event in carcinogenesis and related to HCC grade. And finally, they suggest that the final steps of hepatocarcinogenesis are common and independent of the aetiology of the chronic viral infection.

  7. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fone David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics

  8. Interferon plus ribavirin and interferon alone in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma:A prospective study on patients with HCV related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Azzaroli; Antonio Colecchia; Constance Mwangemi; Davide Festi; Enrico Roda; Massimo Derenzini; Giuseppe Mazzella; Esterita Accogli; Giovanni Nigro; Davide Trerè; Silvia Giovanelli; Anna Miracolo; Francesca Lodato; Marco Montagnani; Mariarosa Tamé

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of interferon (IFN) with or without ribavirin in preventing or delaying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)related cirrhosis. Data on the preventive effect of IFN plus ribavirin treatment are lacking.METHODS: A total of 101 patients (62 males and 39 females,mean age 55.1±1.4 years) with histologically proven HCV related liver cirrhosis plus compatible biochemistry and ultrasonography were enrolled in the study. Biochemistry and ultrasonography were performed every 6 mo. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy was performed on all detected focal lesions. Follow-up lasted for 5 years. Cellular proliferation,evaluated by measuring Ag-NOR proteins in hepatocytes nuclei, was expressed as AgNOR-Proliferative index (AgNOR-PI) (cut-off = 2.5). Forty-one patients (27 males,14 females) were only followed up after the end of an yearly treatment with IFN-alpha2b (old treatment control group = OTCG). Sixty naive patients were stratified according to sex and AgNOR-PI and then randomized in two groups:30 were treated with IFN-alpha2b + ribavirin (treatment group = TG), the remaining were not treated (control group = CG). Nonresponders (NR) or relapsers in the TG received further IFN/ribavirin treatments after a 6 mo of withdrawal.RESULTS: AgNOR-PI was significantly lowered by IFN (P<0.001). HCC incidence was higher in patients with AgNOR-PI>2.5 (26% vs3%, P<0.01). Two NR in the OTCG,none in the TG and 9 patients in the CG developed HCC during follow-up. The Kaplan-Mayer survival curves showed statistically significant differences both between OTCG and CG (P<0.004) and between TG and CG (P<0.003).CONCLUSION: IFN/ribavirin treatment associated with retreatment courses of NR seems to produce the best results in terms of HCC prevention. AgNOR-PI is a useful marker of possible HCC development.

  9. Clinical profile of patients with nascent alcohol related seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE in the same. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG and at least computed tomography (CT scan. Results: A total of 27 patients (27% who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001. Twenty-two patients (22% had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029. One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest. Conclusion: CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures. IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1% who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.

  10. Human serum fetuin A/α2HS-glycoprotein level is associated with long-term survival in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, comparison with the Child-Pugh and MELD scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohászka Zoltán

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentration of fetuin A/α2HS-glycoprotein (AHSG is a good indicator of liver cell function and 1-month mortality in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. We intended to determine whether decreased serum AHSG levels are associated with long-term mortality and whether the follow-up of serum AHSG levels can add to the predictive value of the Child-Pugh (CP and MELD scores. Methods We determined serum AHSG concentrations in 89 patients by radial immunodiffusion. Samples were taken at the time of enrolment and in the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and the 12th month thereafter. Results Forty-one patients died during the 1-year follow-up period, 37 of them had liver failure. Data of these patients were analysed further. Deceased patients had lower baseline AHSG levels than the 52 patients who survived (293 ± 77 vs. 490 ± 106 μg/ml, mean ± SD, p Conclusion Serum AHSG concentration is a reliable and sensitive indicator of 1-year mortality in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis that compares well to the predictive value of CP score and may further improve that of MELD score.

  11. Nutritional status evaluation before and after treatment in cases of alcoholic liver cirrhosis with different body constitution%酒精性肝硬化不同体质患者治疗前后营养状况评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿林; 王葽; 何婷婷; 张萍; 王立福; 王丽苹; 周坤; 肖小河; 李永纲

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对酒精性肝硬化患者中的湿热体质、血瘀体质两种主要体质类型进行中西医结合治疗,判断同种治疗方法对酒精性肝硬化不同体质营养状况的改善情况。方法:通过计算136例酒精性肝硬化患者《中医体质量表》得分情况,统计酒精性肝硬化患者136例中医体质分布,分析其中主要的体质类型即湿热体质、血瘀体质患者的营养状况,包括测定体重指数、三头肌皮褶厚度(triceps skin fold, TSF)、上臂肌围(mid-arm muscle circumference, MAMC)及上臂围( mid-arm circumference , MAC)、血液白蛋白、淋巴细胞总数,对数据结果进行统计分析,比较其差异,均予以黄连解毒汤为主方进行中西医结合治疗,分析治疗前后营养状况差异情况。结果:酒精性肝硬化出现频率较高的中医体质为湿热体质、血瘀体质,经相同的中西医结合治疗后,湿热体质与血瘀体质部分营养状况有所改善,其差异具有统计学意义。结论:尽管同为酒精性肝硬化,但患者因为体质状态的不同(湿热体质状态;血瘀体质状态),经相同的治疗后,其营养状况的改善也有所不同,其差异具有统计学意义,表明辨识体质进行更有针对性的个体化治疗有助于提高治疗效果。%Objective: To compare the nutritional status of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis based on different TCM constitution, investigate the relationship between improvement of nutritional status and different body constitution .Methods: To distinguish different types of TCM constitution by constitution survey scales , analyzing nutritional status distribution characteris-tics of 136 cases of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis , different constitution were evaluated with various indexes , including body mass index ( BMI ) , triceps skin fold ( TSF ) , mid-arm muscle circumference ( MAMC ) , mid-arm circumference

  12. Chemokine system polymorphisms,survival and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence in patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Nahon; Angela Sutton; Pierre Rufat; Chantal Simon; Jean-Claude Trinchet; Liliane Gattegno; Michel Beaugrand; Nathalie Charnaux

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To explore the influence of polymorphisms in genes encoding for the chemokines Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1)/CXCL12 and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2,or for the chemokine receptor CCR5 on the risks of liver-related death and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients.METHODS:SDF-1 3'A,MCP-1 (-2518) and CCR5-⊿32 polyrnorphisms,SDF-1α,Regulated upon Activation Normal T cells Expressed and Secreted (RANTES)/CCL5 and MCP-1 serum levels were determined in 120 HCV-infected patients,included at time of cirrhosis diagnosis and prospectively followed-up.RESULTS:During follow-up,23/120 (19.1%) patients died and 47/120 (39.1%) developed HCC.Carriers and noncarriers of each genetic marker had similar baseline characteristics estimating the severity of liver disease.The occurrence of death or HCC during follow-up was similar among carriers and noncarriers of each polymorphism.There was no association between the carriage of mutated alleles and chernokine serum levels and the latter were not associated with the risks of death or HCC.CONCLUSION:This study suggests the lack of association of SDF-1 3'A,MCP-1 (-2518),CCRS-⊿32 polymorphisms with death and HCC occurrence in cirrhotic HCV-infected patients.

  13. Serum C-reactive protein predicts early mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, ShaoMing; Waili, Yulituzi; Qi, XiaoTing; Chen, YueMei; Lou, YuFeng; Chen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether CRP could serve as a potential surrogate marker for 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis (HBV-DeCi).This was a retrospective cohort study that included 140 patients with HBV-DeCi. All patients were followed up for 1-month. A panel of clinical and biochemical variables were analyzed for potential associations with outcomes using multiple regression models.The serum CRP was significantly higher in nonsurviving patients than in surviving patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CRP levels (odds ratio: 1.047, P = 0.002) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.370, P = 0.001) were independent predictors for mortality.Serum CRP is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 1-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-DeCi.

  14. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...

  15. A Novel Fibrosis Index Comprising a Non-Cholesterol Sterol Accurately Predicts HCV-Related Liver Cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydreborg, Magdalena; Lisovskaja, Vera; Lagging, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Liver biopsy is invasive and thus entails a risk of complications as well as a potential risk of sampling error. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic tools are preferential. The aim of the pres......Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Liver biopsy is invasive and thus entails a risk of complications as well as a potential risk of sampling error. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic tools are preferential. The aim...... significance for liver fibrosis in 278 patients originally included in a multicenter phase III treatment trial for chronic HCV infection. A stepwise multivariate logistic model selection was performed with liver cirrhosis, defined as Ishak fibrosis stage 5-6, as the outcome variable. A new index, referred...... of cirrhosis was 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). The index was validated in a separate cohort of 83 patients and the AUROC for this cohort was similar (0.90; 95% CI: 0.82-0.98). In conclusion, the new index may complement other methods in diagnosing cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection....

  16. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  17. Presence and consequence of tooth periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    -related complications. METHODS: A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width. Predictors of periapical radiolucency and the association...... interval [CI] 1.43-6.79) and severe periodontitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.04-15.20). Also old age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19) and smoking (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.02-17.62) were predictors. However, cirrhosis etiology (alcoholic vs nonalcoholic) or severity (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score) were not predictors...

  18. Portal vein thrombosis: Etiology and clinical outcome of cirrhosis and malignancy-related non-cirrhotic, non-tumoral extrahepatic portal venous obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of portal vein thrombosis are unclear. Portal venous thrombosis presentation differs in cirrhotic and tumor-related versus non-cirrhotic and non-tumoral extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO). Non-cirrhotic and non-tumoral EHPVO patients are young and present with well tolerated bleeding.Cirrhosis and tumor-related portal vein thrombosis patients are older and have a grim prognosis. Among the 118 patients with portal vein thrombosis, 15.3% had cirrhosis, 42.4% had liver malignancy (primary or metastatic), 6% had pancreatitis (acute or chronic), 5% had hypercoagulable state and 31.3% had idiopathy,12% had hypercoagulable state in the EHPVO group.

  19. Increased circulating pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with cirrhosis: relation to cardiovascular dysfunction and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Gøtze, J P; Fuglsang, Stefan;

    2003-01-01

    subjects (1.8 v 2.3; NS). Circulating proBNP and BNP were related to severity of liver disease (Child score, serum albumin, coagulation factors 2, 7, and 10, and hepatic venous pressure gradient) and to markers of cardiac dysfunction (QT interval, heart rate, plasma volume) but not to indicators......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiac dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis. This study was undertaken to relate plasma concentrations of cardiac peptides reflecting early ventricular dysfunction (pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)) to markers...... of severity of liver disease, cardiac dysfunction, and hyperdynamic circulation in patients with cirrhosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Circulating levels of proBNP and BNP were determined in 51 cirrhotic patients during a haemodynamic investigation. RESULTS: Plasma proBNP and BNP were significantly increased...

  20. Evaluating alcohol related birth defects in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) are yet undocumented among past communities, although alcohol is the leading cause of non-heritable birth defects in the US today. We evaluate potential ARBD at Newton Plantation, Barbados (ca. 1660-1820), where earlier studies suggest frequent, community......-wide consumption of lead-tainted rum by enslaved Africans. Skeletons excavated in 1997-1998 (n= 45) were examined for congenital anomalies, using clinical/experimental descriptions to differentially diagnose possible ARBD. Enamel lead data served as a proxy for developmental exposure to tainted rum in a subsample...

  1. Endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-receptor levels in portal and hepatic vein of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis receiving elective transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebicka, Jonel; Krag, Aleksander; Gansweid, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In cirrhosis portal hypertension can promote bacterial translocation and increase serum endotoxin levels. Vice versa, endotoxin aggravates portal hypertension by induction of systemic and splanchnic vasodilation, and by triggering hepatic inflammatory response via tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα......). However, the hepatic elimination of endotoxin in cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension, in the absence of acute complications, has not been investigated so far....

  2. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.

  3. Alcohol Dependence and Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Mann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a disabling condition that has a high prevalence, but in Europe only a small fraction of the people diagnosed with alcohol abuse and dependence are treated, representing the widest treatment gap, as compared with other mental disorders. Early diagnosis and monitoring of alcoholic liver disease (ALD is still insufficiently solved. Although ALD is the most common cause for liver disease in the Western world, it largely remains underestimated and underdiagnosed for many reasons. The recent introduction of non-invasive elastographic techniques such as transient elastography (TE has significantly improved the early diagnosis of alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC. As demonstrated in the literature, inflammation-associated liver stiffness (LS rapidly decreases during alcohol detoxification, and is also directly correlated to change in LS in both abstinent and relapsing patients. Newly published data show that LS could be used to monitor and validate hepatoprotective effects during nalmefene usage. Nalmefene is an opioid system modulator that diminishes the reinforcing effects of alcohol, helping the patient to reduce drinking. Three randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallelgroup Phase III studies were designed to assess the efficacy and safety of nalmefene in reducing alcohol consumption. Patients with a high or very high drinking risk level (DRL at baseline and randomisation show a clinically significant effect from nalmefene treatment, which is generally well tolerated. Moreover, reduced alcohol consumption supported by nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support may indeed help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap.

  4. Soluble CD163, a marker of Kupffer cell activation, is related to portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, H; Sandahl, T D; Mortensen, C;

    2012-01-01

    , as a biomarker for portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 concentration and the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) by liver vein catheterisation in 81 cirrhosis patients (Child-Pugh CP-A: n = 26, CP-B: n = 29, CP-C: n = 26) and 22 healthy subjects. We also measured...... their cardiac output (CO), cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Liver status was examined by Child-Pugh and MELD-score. RESULTS: In cirrhosis, sCD163 concentration was nearly three times higher than in controls (4.7 ± 2.5 vs. 1.6 ± 0.5 mg/L, P ...CD163 > 3.95 mg/L (upper normal limit) predicted HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg with a positive predictive value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating sCD163 originating from activated Kupffer cells is increased in cirrhosis with increasing Child-Pugh score and with increasing HVPG, and it is an independent predictor...

  5. 差异基因功能在酒精性肝硬化发病机制中的研究%Analysis of differentially expressed genes in alcoholic live cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 王文多; 陈颖; 张沛怡

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨差异基因功能在酒精性肝硬化发病机制中的作用.方法 取酒精性肝硬化及健康对照两组人外周血RNA,应用基因芯片测得两组间差异基因.随机方差模型计算每个基因的显著性水平(P value),按照P<0.05筛选,获得显著性表达的差异基因.结果 两组间共发现差异表达的基因1008个,显著性表达的上调基因188个,下调基因210个.差异基因共表达网络的节点基因为:mapk8、cxcr3、pdgfrb、calml5.结论 酒精性肝硬化的发生是一个多基因参与的复杂过程.差异基因参与调控的生物学过程包括:细胞凋亡、生物信号传导、碱基切除修补、核糖核酸酶代谢、脂质代谢吸收、免疫应答等.%Objective To analyze the function of differentially expressed genes in alcoholic live cirrhosis.Methods The total RNA of peripheral blood was extracted from two groups of ten subjects.Microarrays were utilized to detect differentially expressed genes.According to gene values,significance level (P values) with a random variance model,combining the GO and KEGG database,node genes in network were obtained and analyzed.Results A total of 1008differentially expressed genes were discovered.Up-regulation genes were 188,down-regualtion genes were 210.In coexpression network of genes,the node genes modulating the network were mapk8,cxcr3,pdgfrb,calml5.Conclusion In the course of the alcoholic liver cirrhosis,we found the genes involved in numerous biology functions such as apoptosis process,immune response,base excision repair,riboflavin metabolism,valine,leucine and isoleucine degradation,fat digestion and absorption.The discovery will provide valuable directions to diagnosis and treatment of alcoholic live cirrhosis.

  6. Natural history of major complications in hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis evaluated by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Etsushi Kawamura; Takashi Tanaka; Shuhei Nishiguchi; Susumu Shiomi; Daiki Habu; Takehiro Hayashi; Ai Oe; Jin Kotani; Hirotaka Ishizu; Kenji Torii; Joji Kawabe; Wakaba Fukushima

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the correlation between the porto-systemic hypertension evaluated by portal shunt index (PSI) and life-threatening complications, Including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver failure (Child-Pugh stage progression),and esophagogastric varices.METHODS: Two hundred and twelve consecutive subjects with HCV-related cirrhosis (LC-C) underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy. They were allocated into three groups aocording to their PSI: group Ⅰ, PSI≤10%; group Ⅱ, 10%<PSI<30%;and group Ⅲ, 30%≤PSI. Of these, selected 122 Child-Pugh stage A (Child A) subjects were included in analysis (a mean follow-up period of 5.9±5.4 years, range 6 mo-21 years).RESULTS: No significant correlation between PSI and cumulative probability of HCC Incidence was observed.Cumulative probability of Child A to B progression was tended to be higher in group Ⅲ than in group Ⅰ, and significantly higher in group Ⅲ than in group Ⅱ (62% vs 34%, 62% vs 37%; P = 0.060, <0.01; respectively).Cumulative probability of varices tended to be higher In group Ⅲ than in group Ⅰ (31% vs 12%, P = 0.090). On multivariate analyses, significant correlation between PSI and Child A to B progression was observed, and no significant correlation between PSI and HCC incidence or varices progression was observed.CONCLUSION: Patients with LC-C of Child A will progress to Child B rapidly after their PSI reaches 30% or higher.PSI can be used to predict occult progressive porto-systemic shunting and liver failure non-invasively. It indicates that PSI may play an important role in follow-up of the portosystemic hypertension gradient for outpatients with LC unlike hepatic venous catheterization.

  7. Disease-specific health-related quality of life and its determinants in liver cirrhosis patients in Lithuania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jolanta Sumskiene; Linas Sumskas; Dalius Petrauskas; Limas Kupcinskas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate disease-specific quality of life (QOL) in liver cirrhosis patients and to compare it with those of a healthy population. Also an important objective was to assess whether QOL in liver cirrhosis patients differs by age and gender, by type and severity of disease.METHODS: The case group of 131 liver cirrhosis patients was selected. The control group of 262 was enrolled from a healthy population according to the scheme of case-control study. Clinical, demographic,laboratory data were collected. QOL was measured with a specific chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ),which was translated and validated in Lithuanian.QOL scores were compared between groups by age,gender, type and severity of disease. Cronbach's alpha statistics calculation was used for evaluation of internal consistency reliability. Student's t test or ANOVA were used for evaluation hypothesis about probability equation.RESULTS: QOL was significantly lower in liver cirrhosis patients than in healthy population (59.5 ± 18.3 vs 85.3± 12.3, P < 0.001). The significant QOL differences between case and control groups were observed in domains of worry and abdominal symptoms, the smaller differences-in emotional functions and systematic symptom domains. Significantly worse QOL was in observed patients with increased clinical severity of the disease measured by Child-Pugh class. Age, gender and etiology of disease had an insignificant effect on QOL in cirrhotic patients.CONCLUSION: QOL was significantly impaired in all CLDQ domains in liver cirrhosis patients. Increase in severity of disease was the major factor associated with poorer QOL.

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  9. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  10. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes.

  11. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  12. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A;

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found betwee...... in the 'lymph-imbalance' theory of ascites formation, whereas a 'fluid equilibrium' theory seems to be too simple, especially with respect to explain protein sequestration in the peritoneal cavity....

  13. The role of alcohol perceptions as mediators between personality and alcohol-related outcomes among incoming college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, John T P; Pearson, Matthew R; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian

    2014-06-01

    After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of paroxetine in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Almdal, T P; Bjerrum, K;

    1991-01-01

    In a 14-day multiple-dose study the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine was investigated in 12 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and in 6 subjects without liver disease. The dose of 20-30 mg paroxetine daily was adjusted to the reduction in liver function, as assessed by the galactose elimination capa...

  15. 3-Dimensional liver volume assessment in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis during long-term oral nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, In Hee; Moon, Jin Chang; Seo, Seung Young; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Dae Ghon; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the effect of long-term oral nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) therapy on liver volume change in patients with suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis. METHODS We reviewed the data of naïve patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis, who had taken oral NUCs therapy, between 2003 and 2007 at Chonbuk University Hospital. We analyzed two consecutive sets of abdominal computerized tomography scans-one at the time of treatment initiation and another at the second-year follow-up. Liver volume was calculated by 3-dimensional liver extraction volumetry program. RESULTS A total of 55 patients (34 males) were included. There was 114.3 mL ± 167.8 mL (12.9% ± 17.9%) of increase in liver volume during the two years of NUCs therapy (993.8 mL ± 242.8 mL at baseline vs 1108.1 mL ± 263.3 mL at two-year follow-up, P Turcotte-Pugh grade and model for end-stage liver disease score improvement without virological breakthrough. In multiple linear regression analysis, delta albumin and delta alanine aminotransferase levels showed a significant association with the increase in liver volume (P = 0.002 and 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSION Long-term oral NUCs therapy in patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis lead to significant increase in liver volume assessed with 3-dimensional liver extraction volumetry program. PMID:28127203

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  17. Viusid, a nutritional supplement, increases survival and reduces disease progression in HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis: a randomised and controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Rodriguez, Yoan; Torres Gonzalez, Ana; Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Arus Soler, Enrique; Martinez Perez, Yadina; Yasells Garcia, Ali; Abreu Vazquez, Maria del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Viusid is a nutritional supplement with recognised antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties which could have beneficial effects on cirrhosis-related clinical outcomes such as survival, disease progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of viusid in patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis. Design A randomised double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in a tertiary care academic centre (National Institute of Gastroenterology, Havana, Cuba). The authors randomly assigned 100 patients with HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis to receive viusid (three oral sachets daily, n=50) or placebo (n=50) during 96 weeks. The primary outcome of the study was overall survival at 96 weeks, and the secondary outcomes included time to disease progression, time to HCC diagnosis, time to worsening of the prognostic scoring systems Child–Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease, and time to a new occurrence or relapse for each one of the main clinical complications secondary to portal hypertension at 96 weeks. Results Viusid led to a significant improvement in overall survival (90%) versus placebo (74%) (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.92; p=0.036). A similar improvement in disease progression was seen in viusid-treated patients (28%), compared with placebo-treated patients (48%) (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.89; p=0.044). However, the beneficial effects of viusid were wholly observed among patients with Child–Pugh classes B or C, but not among patients with Child–Pugh class A. The cumulative incidence of HCC was significantly reduced in patients treated with viusid (2%) as compared with placebo (12%) (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.90; p=0.046). Viusid was well tolerated. Conclusions The results indicate that treatment with viusid leads to a notable improvement in overall clinical outcomes such as survival, disease progression and development of HCC in patients with HCV-related

  18. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...... likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel. Arterial compliance; Central vascular filling; Chyperdynamic circulation; Kidney function, Nitric oxide; Blood pressure regulation; Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; Sympathetic nervous system; Vasodilatation...

  19. Mutations at Nucleotide 1762, 1764 and 1766 of Hepatitis B Virus X Gene in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatitis B-Related Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Salarneia (BSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a DNA virus with high tendency toward hepatic tissue. There are currently about 3 million HBV-infected people and 350 to 400 million chronic carriers of this virus in the world. X protein plays a role in the over-expression of oncogenes, carcinogenicity of liver cells and overlaps with the basal core promoter of the virus. Mutations at specific nucleotides of this region increase viral replication and liver disease progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of mutations at nucleotides 1762, 1764 and 1766 of HBV X gene in patients with chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-related cirrhosis. Methods: In this study, 102 patients including 68 chronic hepatitis patients and 34 patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis were enrolled. After DNA extraction, HBV X gene was amplified and sequenced using Semi Nested-PCR. Obtained gene sequences were compared with the standard sequence of HBV virus X gene available in the gene bank (Okamoto AB033559. Then, the mutations in the gene X of HBV were identified. Results: Comparison of the standard sequence with sequences obtained from patients showed the presence of A1762T / G1764A mutation in 12 chronic (17.64% and 13 cirrhotic (38.23% patients. Also, C1766G / G1764T mutations were found in 8.23% of chronic patients and 17.64% of cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: A1762T / G1764A mutations in the overlapping region of the basal core promoter with gene X C-terminal may lead to liver disease progression from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, by changing the amino acid sequence of the X protein.

  20. Alcohol-related changes in the intestinal microbiome influence neutrophil infiltration, inflammation and steatosis in early alcoholic hepatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandran, Abhishek; Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Ambade, Aditya; Kodys, Karen; Catalano, Donna; Ward, Doyle V.; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol-induced intestinal dysbiosis disrupts homeostatic gut-liver axis function and is essential in the development of alcoholic liver disease. Here, we investigate changes in enteric microbiome composition in a model of early alcoholic steatohepatitis and dissect the pathogenic role of intestinal microbes in alcohol-induced liver pathology. Materials and methods Wild type mice received a 10-day diet that was either 5% alcohol-containing or an isocaloric control diet plus a single binge. 16S rDNA sequencing defined the bacterial communities in the cecum of alcohol- and pair-fed animals. Some mice were treated with an antibiotic cocktail prior to and throughout alcohol feeding. Liver neutrophils, cytokines and steatosis were evaluated. Results Acute-on-chronic alcohol administration induced shifts in various bacterial phyla in the cecum, including increased Actinobacteria and a reduction in Verrucomicrobia driven entirely by a reduction in the genus Akkermansia. Antibiotic treatment reduced the gut bacterial load and circulating bacterial wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that bacterial load suppression prevented alcohol-related increases in the number of myeloperoxidase- (MPO) positive infiltrating neutrophils in the liver. Expression of liver mRNA tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and circulating protein monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were also reduced in antibiotic-treated alcohol-fed mice. Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis measured by Oil-Red O staining was significantly reduced in antibiotic treated mice. Genes regulating lipid production and storage were also altered by alcohol and antibiotic treatment. Interestingly, antibiotic treatment did not protect from alcohol-induced increases in serum aminotransferases (ALT/AST). Conclusions Our data indicate that acute-on-chronic alcohol feeding alters the microflora at multiple taxonomic levels and identifies loss of Akkermansia as an

  1. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Water, Erik; Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

  2. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    test and later a muscle biopsy. Levels of GLUT4 total protein and mRNA content were determined in muscle biopsies by polyclonal antibody labelling and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: GLUT4 protein content in the cirrhosis group was not different from that of the controls, but at variance......: In cirrhosis GLUT4 protein content was quantitatively intact, while limiting glucose tolerance. This indicates loss of redundancy of the major glucose transport system, possibly related to the markedly decreased expression of its gene. Hyper-insulinemia may be a primary event. Our findings implicate...

  3. New vasoactive peptides in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Goetze, Jens Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis have substantial circulatory imbalance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilating forces. The study of circulatory vasoactive peptides may provide important pathophysiological information. This study aimed to assess concentrations, organ extraction and relations...... to haemodynamic changes in the pro-peptides copeptin, proadrenomedullin and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four cirrhotic patients and 15 controls were characterized haemodynamically during a liver vein catheterization. Copeptin, proadrenomedullin...... found no extraction of copeptin, proadrenomedullin or proANP over the liver. Copeptin correlated with portal pressure (R=0·50, P

  4. Recurring alcohol-related care between 1998 and 2007 among people treated for an alcohol-related disorder in 1997: A register study in Stockholm County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kåreholt Ingemar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inpatient care for alcohol intoxication is increasing in Sweden, especially among young women. Since it is well known that alcohol disorder is a chronic relapsing illness, this study examines the extent to which people return for more care. Method All inpatients with alcohol-related diagnoses in Stockholm County during 1997 were followed prospectively to 2007 through registers. The proportion reappearing for the same diagnosis, other alcohol-related inpatient, or outpatient care each year after baseline, as well as the number of years the inpatients reappeared were calculated (n = 2735. Three diagnoses were examined separately; alcohol dependence, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol intoxication. Results Three out of five inpatients with an alcohol diagnoses reappeared for more alcohol-related inpatient care during the following decade. The proportion returning was largest the year after baseline and then decreased curvilinearly over time. The inclusion of outpatient care increased proportions, but did not change patterns. Of those with an alcohol dependence diagnosis at baseline 42 percent returned for more alcohol-related inpatient care the first, 28 percent the fifth, and 25 percent the tenth year. Corresponding proportions for harmful use and intoxication were smaller. One in five among those with an alcohol dependence returned for more than five of the ten years. Ordered logistic regressions confirmed that besides diagnosis, age and gender were independently related to the number of years returning to care. Conclusions While middle-aged males with alcohol dependence were in a revolving door, young female inpatients with intoxication diagnosis returned to a comparably lower degree.

  5. Correlación ecológica entre consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y mortalidad por cirrosis hepática en México Ecological correlation between alcohol use and cirrhosis mortality in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ NARRO-ROBLES

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la correlación entre consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y mortalidad por cirrosis hepática. Material y métodos. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación ecológica entre el conjunto de variables que integran el patrón de consumo de bebidas alcohólicas investigadas en la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones en 1993 y la mortalidad por cirrosis hepática, en el periodo 1971-1993 en las ocho regiones en que fue dividido el país. Para determinar el nivel de correlación se utilizaron los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Resultados. Solamente se encontró correlación significativa con la prevalencia de bebedores de bebidas destiladas, pulque y cerveza; con esta última la correlación fue negativa. Conclusiones. Aunque se considera que el consumo de pulque es limitado, llama la atención su asociación con la mortalidad por cirrosis hepática. La correlación negativa con la cerveza se interpreta en el sentido de que el consumo de esta bebida no es buen indicador de alcoholismo. Los resultados, aunque sin ser definitivos, muestran la necesidad de efectuar una acción de intervención efectiva en las entidades federativas con exceso de consumo de bebidas destiladas y pulque.Objective. To determine the correlation between alcohol consumption and mortality from liver cirrhosis in Mexico. Material and methods. Analysis of the ecological correlation between the patterns of alcohol consumption determined by the National Addiction Survey in 1993 and mortality by liver cirrhosis, in the period between 1971-1993, in the eight regions in which the country was divided. To determine level of correlation, the Pearson and Spearman coefficients were calculated. Results. Significant correlations were only found with the prevalence of spirits and pulque drinkers; with beer drinkers the correlation was negative. Conclusions. The correlation with pulque is interesting, since pulque consumption is considered to be low scale in

  6. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Herd

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  7. Community mobilization and the framing of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, Denise

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.

  8. Dermatomyositis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in an elderly female patient with hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuyuki Toshikuni; Rikako Torigoe; Mikio Mitsunaga; Akiyoshi Omoto; Koji Nakashima

    2006-01-01

    A 79-year-old female patient with hepatitis C virusrelated liver cirrhosis was diagnosed as having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a diameter of 2.0 cm. She refused therapy for HCC. Nine months after the diagnosis, she developed dermatomyositis when the HCC enlarged to a diameter of 6.0 cm. She underwent therapy for dermatomyositis, and then transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for HCC. Although the manifestations of dermatomyositis improved and entire tumor necrosis was achieved, she died of pneumonia 2 mo after the treatment of HCC. HCC and/or chronic hepatitis C virus infection might be involved in the pathogenesis of dermatormyositis.

  9. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, Helmer; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... (plasma minus ascitic fluid) oncotic pressure (rlin = 0.74, P less than 0.001) but significantly higher than that (P less than 0.005), indicating a 'non-equilibrium' in the splanchnic Starling forces. The results point to a multivariate genesis and perpetuation of cirrhotic ascites as laid down...

  10. Muscle GLUT4 in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter; Andersen, Per Heden; Lund, Sten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates 50-80% of whole body glucose uptake, but its relation to the frequent glucose intolerance in patients with liver cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Thirty patients and seven healthy controls underwent a 2-h oral glucose toleran...

  11. Predictive value of D-dimer for portal vein thrombosis after portal hypertension surgery in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the predictive value of D-dimer as a predictive indicator of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after portal hypertension surgery in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in 52 patients who had undergone surgery for portal hypertension in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis.Changes in perioperative dynamic D-dimer were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of D-dimer were calculated, and ROC curves were analyzed.RESULTS: The D-dimer levels in the group developing postoperative PVT was significantly higher than those in the group not developing PVT (P = 0.001), and the ROC semi-quantitative and qualitative analysis of D-dimer showed a moderate predictive value in PVT (semiquantitative value Az = 0.794, P = 0.000; qualitative analysis: Az = 0.739, P = 0.001).CONCLUSION: Dynamic monitoring of D-dimer levels in patients with portal hypertension after surgery can help early diagnosis of PVT, as in cases where the D-dimer levels steadily increase and exceed 16 μg/mL, the possibility of PVT is very high.

  12. 乙型肝炎肝硬化抗病毒治疗研究进展%Progress in the antiviral treatment of HBV-related cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英男; 吴昊

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major global public health problems. Every year,about 3% of the chronic hepatitis B patients develop cirrhosis. Without efficient anti-viral treatment, these patients may develop decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Antiviral treatment, including interferon (IFN) and nucleos (t) ide analogues (NUCs) is important in the cirrhotic patients. IFN can suppress HBV replication and mediate the immunologic function with considerable side effects. It can only be used in well-compensated cirrhosis. NUCs include lamivudine (LAM) , adefovir dipivoxil ( ADV) , enteccavir (ETV) , telbivudine (TEB) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate ( TDF). They can suppress HBV replication and reduce the long-term complications. They have fewer side effects, but are easy to develop drug resisitance. This review focused on the recent progress in the antiviral treatment of HBV-related cirrhosis.%慢性乙肝病毒感染是全世界主要的公共卫生问题之一,每年有约3%的慢性乙型肝炎患者发展为肝硬化.若无有效的抗病毒治疗手段,这些乙肝患者会发展为失代偿期肝硬化或肝细胞癌.对于肝硬化患者,干扰素(interferon,IFN)和核苷类似物[nucleos(t)ide analogues,NUCs]是重要的抗病毒药物.IFN能抑制乙肝病毒复制并调节免疫功能,但不良反应较大,仅可用于情况较好的代偿期肝硬化患者;NUCs包括拉米夫定、阿德福韦酯、恩替卡韦、替比夫定及替诺福韦酯,能够抑制病毒复制,减少肝硬化患者远期并发症的发生,不良反应小但容易发生病毒耐药.本文对乙肝肝硬化的抗病毒治疗新进展作一综述.

  13. Khat chewing and cirrhosis in Somaliland: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa D. Mahamoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Khat chewing is common especially among men in East Africa and Yemen. It is generally viewed by the populace as a benign social custom. Several studies of ethnic Somali immigrants to Western countries suggest an association between khat chewing and hepatotoxicity, but the risk of hepatotoxicity related to khat chewing within African settings is not documented.Aim: To identify and describe liver disease without evidence of alcohol exposure or infectious etiology in khat chewers.Settings: A university-affiliated teaching hospital in Somaliland.Methods: Cases of cirrhosis of unknown cause were identified from the clinical practice of Al Hayatt Hospital in Borama, Somaliland, during 14 months beginning December 2012.Results: Eight Somali men aged 27–70 years living in Somaliland were identified with cirrhosis of otherwise unknown cause. All chewed khat habitually for many years (15–128 bundles per day times years of use. A liver biopsy of one man was consistent with khat hepatotoxicity. Four of the eight men died during the study period.Conclusion: Khat chewing may be associated with health consequences including severe hepatotoxicity with cirrhosis.

  14. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  15. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population.

  16. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  17. Presence and consequence of tooth periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren; Schwartz, Kristoffer; Kongstad, Johanne; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Periapical radiolucency is the radiographic sign of inflammatory bone lesions around the apex of the tooth. We determined the prevalence and predictors of periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis and the association with systemic inflammation status and cirrhosis-related complications. Methods A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width. Predictors of periapical radiolucency and the association with systemic inflammation markers and cirrhosis-related complications were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Periapical radiolucency was present in one or more teeth in 46% of the patients. Strong predictors were gross caries (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–6.79) and severe periodontitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.04–15.20). Also old age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.19) and smoking (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.02–17.62) were predictors. However, cirrhosis etiology (alcoholic vs nonalcoholic) or severity (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score) were not predictors. The patients with periapical radiolucency had higher C-reactive protein (15.8 mg/L vs 8.1 mg/L, P=0.02) and lower albumin contents (25 g/L vs 28 g/L, P=0.04) than those without. Furthermore, the patients with periapical radiolucency had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis-related complications such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and/or variceal bleeding (46% vs 27%, P=0.05). Conclusion Periapical radiolucency is often present as an element of poor oral health status and likely has an adverse clinical significance, which should motivate diagnostic and clinical attention to the findings. PMID:27695370

  18. Therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine on coagulation disorder and accompanying intractable jaundice in hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang-Mei Li; Hong-Zhi Yang; Wei-Bing Guan; Qian-Shan Ke; Min Dai; He-Ping Xie; Shi-Jun Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of new traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy on coagulation disorder and accompanying intractable jaundice in HBV-related liver cirrhosis patients.METHODS: Using stratified random sampling according to fibrinogen (Fib) levels, 145 liver cirrhosis patients due to hepatitis B complicated by coagulation disorder were treated. Of them, 70 in research group were treated with TCM by "nourishing yin, cooling blood and invigorating blood circulation" and Western medicine, 75 in control group were treated with conventional Western medicine. The indexes of liver function, coagulation function and bleeding events were observed and compared.RESULTS: The prothrombin time (PT) was shorter and the fibrinogen (Fib) level was higher in the research group than in the control group (Fib = 1.6-2.0 g/L, 1.1-1.5 g/L, and ≤ 1.0 g/L). The total bilirubin (TBIL) level was significantly lower in the research group than in the control group, except for the subgroup of FIB ≤ 1.0 g/L.CONCLUSION: TCM therapy can improve coagulation ruction and decrease TBIL.

  19. Alcoholism Counselor Trainees: Some Changes in Job Related Functioning Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuja, Andris T.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Following an intense training program, 41 alcoholism counselor trainees were evaluated on changes in five parameters of job related functioning. Supervisor ratings indicated positive changes in trainee's clinical competence, utilization in alcoholism work, personal involvement in alcoholism work, degree of assigned responsibilities, and overall…

  20. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  1. Combined detection of liver stiffness and C-reactive protein in patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver cirrhosis, with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Li-Na; Yan, Ting-Ting; Lu, Zhen-Hui; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xia; Ding, Xiang-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of combined detection of liver stiffness (LS) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC). A total of 156 cases of previously untreated patients with HBV-related LC were classified into the LC group [LC without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and the HCC group (LC with HCC). Comparative analyses of LS and serum CRP level were conducted between these two groups. LS values and serum CRP levels were found to be significantly higher in the HCC group compared with those in the LC group (PHBV-related HCC, improve the identification of patients with AFP-negative HCC and help distinguish HCC from LC.

  2. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens H Henriksen; Soren Moller

    2006-01-01

    Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system,sympathetic nervous system, release of vasopressin),and resistance to vasopressors. The vasodilatory state is mediated through adrenomedullin, calcitonin generelated peptide, nitric oxide, and other vasodilators,and is most pronounced in the splanchnic area.This constitutes an effective (although relative)counterbalance to increased arterial blood pressure.This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most likely includes the combination of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction in parallel.

  3. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  4. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  5. The cardiorenal link in advanced cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2012-01-01

    A considerable number of patients with advanced cirrhosis develop a hepatorenal syndrome. The pathogenesis involves liver dysfunction, splanchnic vasodilatation, and activation of vasoconstrictive systems. There are now several observations that indicate a relation between the renal failure...

  6. Aftercare Guidelines for Drug and Alcohol Program Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-21

    including cirrhosis , alcohol related cancer, pancreatitis, etc.) every year. It is, without a doubt, one of the world’s most abused substances. Who...injured cells and strengthen their defenses against other diseases. Usually, a high protein , low carbohydrate diet will be recommended to control the...after intake of sugar and then a rapid plunge. If their erratic blood sugar level is not controlled, alcoholics suffer chronic symptoms of depression

  7. Relationship between retinopathy and cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Dayi Selcuk; Sozmen Bulent; Unsal Belkis; Maden Ahmet; Pasa Eser; Aslan S. Leyla

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate ophthalmic disorders with special attention to retinopathy in cirrhotic patients. Vitamin A deficiency-related ophthalmopathy, xerophthalmia, and color blindness may be documented in cirrhosis due to various etiologies. Retinopathy is an obscure feature of cirrhosis. METHODS: Thirty-two cirrhotic patients, who were followed up by Clinics of Gastroenterology, Izmir Ataturk Teaching and Research Hospital, were enrolled to the study. Associated systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension were excluded. Thirty-two healthy volunteers took part as the control subjects. All participants had ophthalmologic examination in the same hospital. RESULTS: Five (15.6%) of the cirrhotic subjects had soft exudate in the retina. None of the control subjects had retinopathy (P<0.05). Intraocular pressure (IOP) measured for both eyes were also significantly lower in the cirrhotics (P<0.05 vs P = 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of other ophthalmic pathologies. The ophthalmic findings did not show up any differences according to the etiology of cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Soft exudates may develop in cirrhotic patients probably due to loss of synthetic function of liver and hemodynamic effects of portal hypertension. Retinopathy must be sought in cirrhosis because of its severe morbidity.

  8. SNP- and haplotype analysis of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol-dependent patients and alcohol-related suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Peter; Preuss, Ulrich W; Koller, Gabrielle; Bondy, Brigitta; Soyka, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that disturbances of the central serotonergic system are involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. Recent studies have indicated that a newly identified second isoform of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene (TPH2) is preferentially involved in the rate limiting synthesis of neuronal serotonin. Genetic variations in the TPH2 gene have been associated with an increased risk for major depression and suicidal behavior. We performed single SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism), linkage disequilibrium and haplotype studies on 353 alcohol-dependent patients of whom 102 individuals had a history of at least one suicide attempt and 305 healthy controls with 20 SNPs covering the entire gene region of TPH2. Neither single SNP-, nor haplotype analysis could detect significant associations with alcohol dependence and/or suicidal behavior among alcohol-dependent patients. One major haplotype block of strong linkage disequilibrium between introns 5 and 8 of the TPH2 gene has been found in alcoholics and controls, which is in concordance with recent reports. In conclusion, our results suggest that single SNPs, respectively, haplotypes of the TPH2 gene are unlikely to play a major role in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence or the alcoholism-related phenotype suicidal behavior. Further analysis are needed to confirm these results.

  9. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  10. Relative Mortality among Criminals in Norway and the Relation to Drug and Alcohol Related Offenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Methods Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000–2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15–69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992–1999 period. Results Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Conclusion Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women. PMID:24223171

  11. The roles of alcohol-related self-statements in social drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P; Young, R M

    1987-10-01

    Recent literature showed that expectancies or cognitions have been proposed as a major factor in influencing the amount of alcohol an individual consumes and the behavioral consequences following consumption. However, how alcohol expectancies influence alcohol consumption is unclear; this paper reports two studies of the relationship. Study I examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related positive and negative self-statements in 110 social drinkers. The results showed that, in a nondrinking situation, the alcohol expectancies and variables measuring consumption and alcohol-related problems were correlated. Also, subjects who perceived their "alcoholic sets" as negative consumed more than those who perceived theirs as positive. Study II investigated changes in self-statement responding in 8 light and 8 heavy drinkers in a "normal" pub drinking situation. The results showed that alcohol-dependent self-statements in the light drinkers were relatively stable across time and between drinking and nondrinking environments. However, the alcohol-dependent self-statements of heavy drinkers became more negative during the drinking session. Furthermore, the degree and nature of such changes appeared to be related to alcohol-associated problems and consumption.

  12. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.

  13. Outcome after liver transplantation for NASH cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, S M; deVera, M E; Fontes, P; Shaikh, O; Ahmad, J

    2009-04-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) associated cirrhosis is an increasing indication for liver transplant (LT). The aim of this study was to determine outcome and poor predictive factors after LT for NASH cirrhosis. We analyzed patients undergoing LT from 1997 to 2008 at a single center. NASH was diagnosed on histopathology. LT recipients with hepatitis C, alcoholic or cholestatic liver disease and cryptogenic cirrhosis acted as matched controls. Ninety-eight LT recipients were identified with NASH cirrhosis. Compared to controls, NASH patients had a higher BMI (mean 32.3 kg/m2), and were more likely to be diabetic and hypertensive. Mortality after transplant was similar between NASH patients and controls but there was a tendency for higher earlier mortality in NASH patients (30-day mortality 6.1%, 1-year mortality 21.4%). Sepsis accounted for half of all deaths in NASH patients, significantly higher than controls. NASH patients > or =60 years, BMI > or =30 kg/m2 with diabetes and hypertension (HTN) had a 50% 1-year mortality. In conclusion, patients undergoing LT for NASH cirrhosis have a similar outcome to patients undergoing LT for other indications. The combination of older age, higher BMI, diabetes and HTN are associated with poor outcome after LT. Careful consideration is warranted before offering LT to these high-risk patients.

  14. Cryptogenic cirrhosis in the region where obesity is not prevalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideyuki Kojima; Shinya Sakurai; Masahiko Matsumura; Norie Umemoto; Masahito Uemura; Hiroyo Morimoto; Yasuhiro Tamagawa; Hiroshi Fukui

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies have demonstrated that obesity is the common feature of cryptogenic cirrhosis (CC) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is little information on CC in the region where obesity is not prevalent.METHODS: The clinical features, and the liver-related morbidity and mortality of CC were analyzed in Japan where the prevalence of obesity is low. Among 652 cirrhotic patients, we identified 29 patients (4.4%) with CC.Of these, 24 CC patients who were followed up for more than 6 months were compared in a case-control study with age-, sex-, and Child-Pugh score-matched controls having cirrhosis of viral etiology.RESULTS: Obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), diabetes mellitus,and hypertriglyceridemia were more frequent, and the visceral fat area was larger in the CC patients than in the controls. The indices of insulin resistance were higher and the serum aminotransferase levels were lower in the CC patients than in the controls. Logistic regression analysis identified the elevated hemoglobin A1c, BMI ≥ 25kg/m2, and normal aminotransferase levels as independent predictors of CC. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate in the CC than in the controls in contrast to the similar cumulative probability of liverrelated morbidity between those groups.CONCLUSION: CC more frequently presents with the clinical features suggestive of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis compared with controls even in the region where obesity is not prevalent. The lower occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and higher survival rate may indicate an indolent clinical course in CC as compared with viral cirrhosis.

  15. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    improves long-term survival, these patients should always be considered for liver transplantation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium ...-free water excretion most likely caused by an increased vasopressin secretion. Patients with cirrhosis mainly develop hypervolaemic hyponatraemia. Current evidence does not support routine use of vaptans in the management of hyponatraemia in cirrhosis....

  16. Concurrent liver hodgkin lymphoma and nodular regenerative hyperplasia on an explanted liver with clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis at university hospital fundación santa fe de bogotá.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Barrera, L; Vera, A; Andrade, R

    2014-01-01

    Liver involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is well documented. However, secondary liver failure to this neoplastic process is rare and usually presents late in the course of the disease. We present a case of a HL associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) diagnosed on an explanted liver from a 53-year-old patient with clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E) showed abnormal liver architecture with hepatocytes nodules highlighted by reticulin stain with absent fibrosis on the trichrome stain. The portal spaces had diffuse infiltration by Reed-Sternberg cells positive for CD15, CD30, and latent membrane protein (LMP) on immunohistochemical studies. The patient also had a concurrent hilar lymph node biopsy that also showed HL involvement. Liver failure as the initial presentation of Hodgkin' lymphoma is rare. We believe that more research about the utility of performing liver biopsies in patients candidates for transplantation with noncirrhotic hepatic failure is needed in order to establish the etiology and the optimal treatment.

  17. Concurrent Liver Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia on an Explanted Liver with Clinical Diagnosis of Alcoholic Cirrhosis at University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is well documented. However, secondary liver failure to this neoplastic process is rare and usually presents late in the course of the disease. We present a case of a HL associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH diagnosed on an explanted liver from a 53-year-old patient with clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E showed abnormal liver architecture with hepatocytes nodules highlighted by reticulin stain with absent fibrosis on the trichrome stain. The portal spaces had diffuse infiltration by Reed-Sternberg cells positive for CD15, CD30, and latent membrane protein (LMP on immunohistochemical studies. The patient also had a concurrent hilar lymph node biopsy that also showed HL involvement. Liver failure as the initial presentation of Hodgkin’ lymphoma is rare. We believe that more research about the utility of performing liver biopsies in patients candidates for transplantation with noncirrhotic hepatic failure is needed in order to establish the etiology and the optimal treatment.

  18. The manipulation of alcohol-related interpretation biases by means of Cognitive Bias Modification - Interpretation (CBM-I)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Hutschemaekers, M.H.M.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alcohol abuse and misuse is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs). The present study tested whether alcohol-related IBs can be trained, and whether this has an effect on alcohol-related association

  19. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  20. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes that come from drinking alcohol can make people do stupid or embarrassing things, like throwing up or peeing on themselves. Drinking also gives people bad breath, and no one enjoys a hangover. ...

  1. Agreeableness and Alcohol-Related Aggression: The Mediating Effect of Trait Aggressivity

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Cameron A.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating effect of trait aggressivity on the relation between agreeableness and alcohol-related aggression in a laboratory setting. Participants were 116 healthy male social drinkers between 21 and 30 years of age. Agreeableness and trait aggressivity were measured using the Big Five Inventory and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, respectively. Following the consumption of an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, participants completed a modified version ...

  2. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE IN MARITAL RELATIONS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY WITH COUPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Ramos Feijó; Ana Regina Noto; Eroy Aparecida da Silva; Danilo Polverini Locatelli; Mário Lázaro Camargo; Carla Ferreira de Paula Gebara

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative and descriptive study aimed to understand the relation between the alcohol consumption and the violence expansion, in the relationship of couples made up by, at least, one partner with alcohol dependence. Semi-structured interviews with 10 couples were done, which were transcribed and submitted to the content analysis. All the couples reported marital violence related to alcohol use. Violence, mainly verbal and physical ones, was committed by both partners and it became worse...

  3. Acquired chronic hepatocerebral degeneration due to cirrhosis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Síndrome hepatocerebral crónico secundario a cirrosis por esteatohepatitis no alcohólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burgos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: acquired chronic hepatocerebral degeneration, acquired hepatolenticular degeneration or pseudo-Wilson is an infrequent disorder with a hepatic origin. Cases in the literature are scarce and it is frequently confused with hepatic encephalopathy and Wilson's disease. The aim of this essay is to report a patient suffering from this disorder due to cirrhosis from non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Case report: we present a 54-year-old man diagnosed from cirrhosis grade B9 of the Child Pugh classification. He progressively developed a picture with bradylalia, mild postural and action tremor and spatial and temporal disorientation. Further studies demonstrated an increase of the values of hepatic transaminases and a hiperintensity in the basal nuclei in the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and radiological data established the diagnosis of hepatocerebral degeneration. Conclusions: acquired chronic hepatocerebral degeneration is a disorder rarely reported in the literature that it is usually confused with other diseases. We alert about the need of having this diagnosis into account with patients developing neurological symptoms after hepatic disease.Fundamento y objetivo: el síndrome hepatocerebral crónico, también denominado degeneración hepatolenticular crónica adquirida (DHCA o pseudo-Wilson, es un trastorno poco frecuente de origen hepático. Los casos recogidos en la literatura son escasos y frecuentemente es confundido con la encefalopatía hepática y con la enfermedad de Wilson. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un paciente que sufre este trastorno de forma secundaria a una cirrosis por esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Caso clínico: se trata de un varón de 54 años diagnosticado de cirrosis en grado funcional de Child-Pugh B9 que presentó un cuadro progresivo de bradilalia, temblor postural y de acción leve y, en ocasiones, desorientación temporoespacial. Los estudios complementarios

  4. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.

  5. N-acetylcysteine Prevents Alcohol Related Neuroinflammation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ricardo; Bandiera, Solange; Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Caletti, Greice; Quincozes-Santos, André; Elisabetsky, Elaine; Gomez, Rosane

    2017-03-16

    Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days. Rats were treated, from day 31 to 34, with NAC (60 or 90 mg/kg) or saline, intraperitoneally, once daily. Rats were sacrificed at day 35, trunk blood was collected and the frontal cortex and hippocampus dissected for assessment of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10. NAC prevented the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokine in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. No changes were observed on serum cytokines. We conclude that NAC protects against inflammation induced by chronic (30 days) alcohol ingestion followed by 5 days cessation in two rat brain areas. Because inflammation has been documented and associated with craving and relapse in alcoholics, the data revealed by this study points to the validity of NAC clinical evaluation in the context of alcohol detoxification and withdrawal.

  6. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE IN MARITAL RELATIONS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY WITH COUPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ramos Feijó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative and descriptive study aimed to understand the relation between the alcohol consumption and the violence expansion, in the relationship of couples made up by, at least, one partner with alcohol dependence. Semi-structured interviews with 10 couples were done, which were transcribed and submitted to the content analysis. All the couples reported marital violence related to alcohol use. Violence, mainly verbal and physical ones, was committed by both partners and it became worse due to increase of amount of alcohol ingestion. Other relational and professional difficulties, associated to continuous use of alcohol, were reported, in addition to the history of substance use and violence in the origin families of the participants. This study makes evident the complexity of the marital violence associated to the alcohol dependence, which must be considered for the prevention programs, interventions and the couple guiding – as a system that requires full attention.

  7. Arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hillingsø, J; Christensen, E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although low arterial oxygen tension (Po2) has been claimed to occur in one to two thirds of patients with cirrhosis, hypoxaemia appears to be rare in clinical practice. AIMS: To assess the frequency of arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis in relation to clinical and haemodynamic......%, 96%, 96%, and 93% (NS). So2 was below the lower limit of 92% in 0%, 9%, 7%, and 24% (p arterial carbon dioxide tension, a low systemic vascular...... resistance, and a low indocyanine green clearance (p arterial hypoxaemia in cirrhosis is about 22% in patients without encephalopathy, but it varies from 10-40% depending on the degree of hepatic dysfunction. Arterial hypoxaemia in patients with cirrhosis of differing...

  8. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539).

  9. Alcohol consumption and emotional problems related to diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Clarissa Cordeiro Alves Arrelias; Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti; Jefferson Thiago Gonela; Liudmila Miyar; Rosana Cristina Franco

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el uso de alcohol y los problemas emocionales de pacientes con diabetes. La muestra de conveniencia fue constituida por 82 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 en dos centros de extensión universitaria, en 2010. Para recogida de datos fueron utilizados los instrumentos Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test y el Problem Areas in Diabetes . Los resultados mostraron que 93,9% de los pacientes presentaron bajo riesgo para uso de alcohol y 21,9% clasificaron lo...

  10. Relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3 signalling mediates stress-related alcohol preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Walker

    Full Text Available Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs, providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3 prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT and Rxfp3 knockout (KO (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol.

  11. Fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cauch-Dudek, K; Abbey, S; Stewart, D; Heathcote, E

    1998-01-01

    Background—Fatigue is a frequent and debilitating symptom in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). 
Aims—To study fatigue in relation to sleep, depression, and liver disease severity. 
Methods—Patients with PBC completed validated self report questionnaires measuring fatigue, sleep quality, depression, and functional capacity. Verbally reported fatigue and observer rated measure of depression and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) use were recorded. Liver biochemistry and ...

  12. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  13. Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 10 Genes on the Risk of Liver Cirrhosis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Corchado

    Full Text Available Analysis of the contribution of genetic (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10 promotor genes and of classical factors (age, alcohol, immunodepression, antirretroviral therapy on the risk of liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency (HIV-hepatitis C (HCV virus coinfected patients.Ninety one HIV-HCV coinfected patients (50 of them with chronic hepatitis and 41 with liver cirrhosis and 55 healthy controls were studied. Demographic, risk factors for the HIV-HCV infection, HIV-related (CD4+ T cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV viral load and HCV-related (serum ALT concentration, HCV viral load, HCV genotype characteristics and polymorphisms at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF- α and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10 promotor genes were studied.Evolution time of the infection was 21 years in both patients' groups (chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The group of patients with liver cirrhosis shows a lower CD4+ T cell count at the inclusion in the study (but not at diagnosis of HIV infection, a higher percentage of individuals with previous alcohol abuse, and a higher proportion of patients with the genotype GG at position -238 of the TNF-α promotor gene; polymorphism at -592 of the IL-10 promotor gene approaches to statistical significance. Serum concentrations of profibrogenic transforming growth factor beta1 were significantly higher in healthy controls with genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene. The linear regression analysis demonstrates that the genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene was the independent factor associated to liver cirrhosis.It is stressed the importance of immunogenetic factors (TNF-α polymorphism at -238 position, above other factors previously accepted (age, gender, alcohol, immunodepression, on the evolution to liver cirrhosis among HIV-infected patients with established chronic

  14. Interventions for alcohol-related offending by women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurran, Mary; Riemsma, Rob; Manning, Nathan; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2011-08-01

    Treatment programmes specifically for women offenders are under-developed. A systematic review of studies that could inform interventions for alcohol-related offending by women is reported. Three questions were addressed: 1) What is the most up to date knowledge of 'what works' with females who commit alcohol-related offences? 2) What are the identifiable risk-needs factors for non-alcohol dependent women who commit offences involving alcohol misuse? 3) Are there differences between male and female alcohol-related offending? Four studies addressed the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions; three addressed identifiable risk-needs; and 19 addressed differences between male and female offenders' alcohol-related offending. Heterogeneity of these studies precluded meta-analyses, and so a narrative synthesis method was used. There is insufficient evidence to answer the question of what treatment works with women who commit alcohol-related offences. Drunk-driving is most widely studied, and women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Alcohol increases the likelihood of violence for both men and women, and, while the mechanisms whereby alcohol increases the likelihood of violence are likely the same in men and women, the effect may be moderated by gender-associated issues. Again, women offenders appear to have more psychosocial problems than men. Implications for developing interventions are discussed.

  15. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  16. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  17. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Relation of Caregiver Alcohol Use to Unintentional Childhood Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Damashek, Amy; Williams, Natalie A.; Sher, Kenneth; Peterson, Lizette

    2008-01-01

    Objective The present study used a case-crossover design to investigate the association of caregiver alcohol consumption and supervision to children's injury occurrence and severity. Method A community sample of 170 mothers of toddlers was interviewed biweekly about their children's daily injuries for a period of 6 months. Results Proximal caregiver-reported alcohol use predicted higher likelihood of injury occurrence and higher injury severity, whereas caregiver-reported supervision predicte...

  19. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality following involuntary job loss

    OpenAIRE

    Eliason, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between involuntary job loss and alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality. Swedish-linked employee-employer data were used to identify all establishment closures during 1990–1999, as well as the employees who were laid off and a comparison group. These data were merged with information on alcohol-attributable deaths and hospital admissions from the Causes of Death Register and the National Patient Register. The associations between j...

  20. Antioxidant status in alcohol-related diabetes mellitus in Beninese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, A; Moutairou, K; Girard, A; Fatoke, M; Prost, J; Ahissou, H; Djrolo, F; Avode, G; Amoussou-Guenou, D; Hichami, A; Khan, N A

    2005-12-24

    In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant status in diabetes mellitus, related or not to alcohol consumption. A total of 38 type 1, 48 type 2 and 42 alcohol-related diabetic patients were selected. Total antioxidant status was assessed through the oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the plasma and the determination of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were determined and the lipid peroxydation was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Plasma total antioxidant capacity was more decreased in alcohol-related diabetes than that in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, regardless of the complications (retinopathy and renal failure). Plasma vitamin E concentrations were significantly decreased whereas those of vitamin C increased in all of the diabetic patients compared to the controls, irrespective to the complications. In addition, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced in all the patients (type 1, type 2 and alcohol-related), irrespective to the complications. Glutathione reductase activity was diminished in type 1 and alcohol-related, but not in type 2, diabetic patients. Glutathione (GSH) concentrations significantly decreased in all diabetic patients with a significant decrease in alcohol-related diabetic patients. Excessive alcohol consumption appears as an oxidative aggravating factor in diabetes mellitus. Besides, alcohol-related diabetes highly resembles to type 1 diabetes as far as the antioxidant parameters are concerned.

  1. Development and validation of the alcohol-related God locus of control scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Thomas S; Goggin, Kathy; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2006-03-01

    Control beliefs and spirituality appear to be important factors in recovery from alcoholism. However, the integration of these two constructs has received little attention, and the relationship of spiritually related control beliefs to recovery remains unclear. Currently no measures exist to specifically assess these beliefs. To address this need, the Alcohol-Related God Locus of Control scale (AGLOC) was developed. This 12-item self-report measure assesses perceptions of God/Higher Power's role in recovery from alcoholism. The AGLOC was administered to 144 recovering alcoholics attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution with one factor related to attributions of God control over initial cessation of drinking (Cessation) and the other factor related to attributions of God control over one's continued maintenance of sobriety (Maintenance). Both subscales and the overall scale demonstrated adequate to high internal consistency. Demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, the total AGLOC scale and the Cessation subscale were significantly but moderately correlated with spirituality (both frequency and importance), and independent of perceptions of internal control over drinking. Maintenance subscale scores were inversely associated with internal drinking-related scores and were not associated with spiritual importance or frequency of spiritual practice. Findings support the utility of this instrument for the assessment of alcohol-related God/Higher Power locus of control beliefs in an alcoholic population and suggest the importance of further research on changes in alcohol-related God control beliefs throughout the course of recovery.

  2. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  3. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  4. [Trans-Cultural Prevention of Alcohol-Related Disorders in Elderly Immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, I; Frank, F

    2015-09-01

    In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176).

  5. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.; Haan, de H.A.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumpt

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  7. Cirrhosis: A Patient's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are explained in the list of terms. Definition of commonly used terms in cirrhosis These are ... Plain Language Surviving Spouses & Dependents Adaptive Sports Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery ...

  8. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ordinarily removed by the liver, a condition called hepatic encephalopathy Edema and ascites. Liver failure causes fluid buildup ... first evidence that a person has developed cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy. A failing liver cannot remove toxins from the ...

  9. Alcohol Related Disorders in Asia Pacific Region: Prevalence, Health Consequences and Impacts on the Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Monzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Asia Pacific (AP region, the exact picture of the alcohol use problems has remained relatively obscure. In this study, the profile of alcohol consumption and alcohol related disorders in AP countries are presented.     Methods: Official statistics on average alcohol consumption (alcohol per capita consumption, APC, alcohol related health variables, income group and alcohol policy of countries geographically related to Asia and Oceania continents were extracted from the 2014 edition of World Health Organization report on global status of alcohol and health. Results: The data of 57 AP countries were analyzed. Two-third of the countries did not establish comprehensive national monitoring systems (NMSs. Median of total APC in people aged 15 years and older was 2.4 (1-4.6 L during 2003 to 2005, while this indicator was 2.8 (1-5.5 L during 2008 to 2010 which accounts for about 0.4 L (in median increase in consumption. In 13 countries which were mostly located in South-east Asia and the Pacific region, APC was higher than average global consumption. Comparing the countries with and without total ban policy, the countries with total ban policy had significantly lower APC (P = 0.003, higher rate of abstainers (P = 0.002 and lower rate of alcohol related disorders (P < 0.001. Higher APC and higher rates of alcohol related disorders were observed in higher income countries. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in AP region is comparatively lower than global average. However, the status of some countries in Southeast Asia and Pacific region is alarming and needs serious attention. Moreover, establishment of comprehensive NMSs, proper data registry and holistic harm reduction and rehabilitation programs for users should receive meaningful governmental and public support.

  10. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to Assess Situation-Level Predictors of Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Merrill, Jennifer E; Monti, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) has afforded several important advances in the field of alcohol research, including testing prominent models of alcohol abuse etiology in "high resolution." Using high-tech methods for signaling and/or assessment, such as mobile electronic diaries, personal data assistants, and smartphones, EMA approaches potentially can improve understanding of precipitants of drinking, drinking patterns, and consequences. For example, EMA has been used to study complex drinking patterns and dynamic predictors of drinking in near-real time. Compared with other methods, EMA can better sample and capture changes in these phenomena that occur in relatively short time frames. EMA also has several potential applications in studying the consequences of alcohol use, including physical, interpersonal, behavioral, and legal problems. However, even with all these potential capabilities, EMA research in the alcohol field still is associated with some limitations, including the potential for measurement reactivity and problems with acceptability and compliance. Despite these limitations, electronically based EMA methods are versatile and are capable of capturing data relevant to a variety of momentary influences on both alcohol use and consequences. Therefore, it will be exciting to fully realize the potential of future applications of EMA technologies, particularly if the associated costs can be reduced.

  11. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  12. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  13. Representações sociais sobre cirrose hepática alcoólica elaboradas por seus portadores Representaciones sociales sobre cirrosis hepática alcohólica elaboradas por sus portadores Social representations on alcoholic liver cirrhosis elaborated by its carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Gomes Rocha

    2007-12-01

    cambio de actitud del profesional de la salud para humanizar el cuidado y minimizar el sufrimiento de estos pacientes.The abuse of the alcohol can take the alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis, problem of public health and high social cost. It was objectified to apprehend the representations on alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis elaborated by its carriers. Methodology: descriptive, exploratory study, with qualitative approach developed in two public institutions in the city of Fortaleza-CE (Brazil. Fifteen citizens with diagnosis of alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis had participated. It was applied a half structured interview, and used the technique of thematic analysis of content. Results: Five categories had emerged, however we will show three of them: Conceptions on cirrhosis, Perceptions on cirrhosis, and Consequences of the cirrhosis, which showed the cirrhosis represented as illness that destroys, and causes death. Living had been observed, permeated by difficulties, mainly, emotional social and economics. Conclusions: Consequently, the need arises for a change of attitude by the health professional to humanize the care, and thereby minimize the suffering of these patients.

  14. Etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guang-jun; FENG Bo; RAO Hui-ying; WEI Lai

    2013-01-01

    Background The etiological spectrum of cirrhosis has changed over the years,but our knowledge of it is limited.The present study aimed to investigate the etiological features of cirrhosis inpatients and their variation in the past 18 years in Beijing.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all patients with cirrhosis diagnosed for the first time in Peking University People's Hospital from January 1,1993,to October 25,2010.Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0.Results A total of 2119 cirrhosis inpatients were included in this study:1412 (66.6%) male and 707 (33.4%) female.Chronic hepatitis B accounted for 58.7%; chronic hepatitis C for 7.6%; chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection for 0.8% (16 cases); alcoholic liver disease for 9.4% (200 cases); and autoimmune diseases for 9.4% (199 cases).In the past 18 years,the percentage of chronic hepatitis B has decreased from 75.2% to 48.7%; alcoholic liver disease has increased from 5.1% to 10.6%; and autoimmune disease has increased from 2.2% to 12.9%.The percentages of chronic hepatitis B and alcoholic liver disease were higher among men,whereas the percentages of chronic hepatitis C,autoimmune diseases and cryptogenic cirrhosis were higher among women.Conclusions Chronic hepatitis B was still the most common etiology of cirrhosis in China,but the percentage has been decreasing.The percentages of alcoholic liver disease and autoimmune diseases have been increasing.The etiological spectrum of cirrhosis inpatients differed significantly according to sex.

  15. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, Vibe G; Mehlsen, Jesper; Knudsen, Gitte M;

    2006-01-01

    by norepinephrine infusion (NE). The severity of liver disease was assessed using the Child-Pugh scale (class A, mild; class B, moderate; class C, severe liver dysfunction).NE increased blood pressure similarly in the controls (27 (24-32) mmHg) and patients with the most severe liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh C, 31 (26.......0+/-2.0 bpm) compared to the controls (21.7+/-2.2 bpm, p=0.001, Tukey' test). Systolic blood pressure fell during head-up tilt only in patients with severe cirrhosis. Our results imply that cerebral autoregulation was impaired in the most severe cases of liver cirrhosis, and that those with impaired cerebral......Cerebral blood flow autoregulation is lost in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. The cause of this is unknown. We determined whether autonomic dysfunction was related to impaired cerebral autoregulation in patients with cirrhosis. Fourteen patients with liver cirrhosis and 11 healthy volunteers...

  16. Implication of the intestinal microbiome in complications of cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mamatha; Arendt, Bianca M; Bhat, Venkat; Renner, Eberhard L; Humar, Atul; Allard, Johane P

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome (IM) is altered in patients with cirrhosis, and emerging literature suggests that this impacts on the development of complications. The PubMed database was searched from January 2000 to May 2015 for studies and review articles on the composition, pathophysiologic effects and therapeutic modulation of the IM in cirrhosis. The following combination of relevant text words and MeSH terms were used, namely intestinal microbiome, microbiota, or dysbiosis, and cirrhosis, encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, variceal bleeding, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma. The search results were evaluated for pertinence to the subject of IM and cirrhosis, as well as for quality of study design. The IM in cirrhosis is characterized by a decreased proportion of Bacteroides and Lactobacilli, and an increased proportion of Enterobacteriaceae compared to healthy controls. Except for alcoholic cirrhosis, the composition of the IM in cirrhosis is not affected by the etiology of the liver disease. The percentage of Enterobacteriaceae increases with worsening liver disease severity and decompensation and is associated with bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose, rifaximin and Lactobacillus-containing probiotics have been shown to partially reverse the cirrhosis associated enteric dysbiosis, in conjunction with improvement in encephalopathy. The IM is altered in cirrhosis, and this may contribute to the development of complications associated with end-stage liver disease. Therapies such as lactulose, rifaximin and probiotics may, at least partially, reverse the cirrhosis-associated changes in the IM. This, in turn, may prevent or alleviate the severity of complications. PMID:27721918

  17. Violence- and alcohol-related acute healthcare visits in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Wilche, Julie Præst; Niclasen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    by simple means. Methods: Registration of all emergencies presented in 15 out of 17 of Greenland's health districts in the period 21 May to 7 June 2010. Results: In the 17-day registration period, 2403 emergencies were registered. In 10% of cases the patients were clinically alcohol intoxicated. When reason...... for presentation were mental or social problems, attempted suicide, accidents, or violence, 24, 50, 15, and 59% respectively were intoxicated. Alcohol intoxication was statistically significantly more often associated with advanced treatment (e.g. evacuation, hospitalisation, or follow up by doctor or nurse...

  18. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss.

  19. Impulsive and reflective processes related to alcohol use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara ePieters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples (for a meta-analysis see Rooke, Hine, & Thorsteinsson, 2008. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that working memory capacity would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = .78 who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility Test (SRC; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT and a Word Association Test (WAT. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. Working memory capacity was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT.Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in

  20. 乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化microRNA表达谱及其诊断价值%MicroRNA expression profiles and its diagnostic value in hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美殷; 魏蓉蓉; 彭亮; 高志良; 黄国良; 王辉云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare miRNA expressions between hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis tissues to identify miRNA markers for diagnosis of hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis .Methods miRNA expression profiling of seven patients with hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis and eleven patients with only hepatitis B was performed using miRNA microarray ,and diagnostic value of miRNAs was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve method .Results Fifteen miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed be-tween hepatitis B related early liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis tissues ,five (miR-625-3p ,miR-325 ,miR-596 ,miR-141 ,miR-339-3p) of which were up-regulated and ten (miR-365 ,miR-362-5p ,miR-193b-5p ,miR-139-5p and others) of which were down-regulated .ROC curve analysis showed that AUC value of miR-139-5p was 0 .994 ,which could be the best miRNA for distinguishing hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis from patients with only hepatitis B .Conclu-sion Our results demonstrate that there might be a specific miRNA expression profile in hepatitis B-related early liv-er cirrhosis and miR-139-5p could be a novel and potential biomarker for hepatitis B-related early liver cirrhosis .%  目的探讨乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化和乙型肝炎microRNA(miRNA)差异表达谱,寻找具有诊断价值的miRNA标志物。方法利用miRNA芯片技术检测7例乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化患者和11例乙型肝炎患者肝组织中miRNA的表达水平。应用 ROC曲线评价各miRNA的诊断价值。结果与单纯肝炎组织相比,伴早期肝硬化的肝炎组织中表达上调超过1.5倍的miRNA有miR-625-3p、miR-325、miR-596等5种,表达下调超过1.5倍的miRNA有miR-365、miR-362-5p、miR-139-5p等10种。 ROC曲线分析结果表明,miR-139-5p诊断乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化的特异性和敏感性最高。结论乙型肝炎伴早期肝硬化组织和乙型肝炎组织相比有其

  1. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  2. Mindfulness decouples the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and drinking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the

  3. The Impact of Reality Television on the Alcohol-Related Beliefs and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Valerie; Cantu, Vanessa C.; Graf, Noreen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study is designed to examine the effects of reality television and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors of Hispanic college students (N = 285). Reality television is a new form of media that is gaining popularity and provides increased exposure to glamorized alcohol use. There is a lack of research studies focused on the impact that reality…

  4. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  5. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  6. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  7. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  8. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  9. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) rang

  10. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  11. Does Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity Moderate Relations Among Perceived Peer Norms for Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Dependence Symptomatology, and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L; Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study examines the relation between peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement and alcohol-dependence symptomatology and whether this relation differs as a function of sexual self-concept ambiguity (SSA). This study also examines the associations among peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and lifetime HIV risk-taking behavior and how these relations are influenced by SSA. Method: Women between ages 18 and 30 years (N = 351; M = 20.96, SD = 2.92) completed an online survey assessing sexual self-concept, peer descriptive norms, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses of interest. Results: There was a significant latent variable interaction between SSA and descriptive norms for peer alcohol use. There was a stronger positive relationship between peer descriptive norms for alcohol and alcohol-dependence symptomatology when SSA was higher compared with when SSA was lower. Both latent variables exhibited positive simple associations with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement directly and indirectly influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors, and the indirect influence was conditional based on SSA. Conclusions: The current findings illustrate complex, nuanced associations between perceived norms, identity-related self-concepts, and risky health behaviors from various domains. Future intervention efforts may be warranted to address both problem alcohol use and HIV-risk engagement among individuals with greater sexual self-concept ambiguity. PMID:25343661

  12. Circulating microRNAs as a Fingerprint for Liver Cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jie Chen

    Full Text Available Sensitive and specific detection of liver cirrhosis is an urgent need for optimal individualized management of disease activity. Substantial studies have identified circulation miRNAs as biomarkers for diverse diseases including chronic liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the plasma miRNA signature to serve as a potential diagnostic biomarker for silent liver cirrhosis.A genome-wide miRNA microarray was first performed in 80 plasma specimens. Six candidate miRNAs were selected and then trained in CHB-related cirrhosis and controls by qPCR. A classifier, miR-106b and miR-181b, was validated finally in two independent cohorts including CHB-related silent cirrhosis and controls, as well as non-CHB-related cirrhosis and controls as validation sets, respectively.A profile of 2 miRNAs (miR-106b and miR-181b was identified as liver cirrhosis biomarkers irrespective of etiology. The classifier constructed by the two miRNAs provided a high diagnostic accuracy for cirrhosis (AUC = 0.882 for CHB-related cirrhosis in the training set, 0.774 for CHB-related silent cirrhosis in one validation set, and 0.915 for non-CHB-related cirrhosis in another validation set.Our study demonstrated that the combined detection of miR-106b and miR-181b has a considerable clinical value to diagnose patients with liver cirrhosis, especially those at early stage.

  13. Reducing Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault in the Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    to be pitted against one another within the confines of a military courtroom. I am convinced that these types of sexual assaults—those driven by...most compelling testimony came from Ms. T herself: She testified that she only drank about two to three alcoholic drinks of Red Bull mixed

  14. Posttreatment Functioning of Alcoholic Patients: Its Relation to Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assessed posttreatment functioning of 429 alcoholic patients selected from five different types of treatment facilities. Substantial improvement in three areas of functioning (drinking, occupational, and psychological) occurred among patients in each program, although there were significant differences among programs in level of functioning at…

  15. Mannose-binding lectin 2 rs11003123 polymor-phism is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepa-titis B-related cirrhosis in the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu-Sen Wang; Jing Kuai; Hao Li; Chun-Guang Wang; Bao-Jie Shi; Lin Zhong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) plays a key role in the host immune response, but whether it is associ-ated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. The present study aimed to identify the association between MBL2 gene polymorphisms and HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis in the Chinese population. METHODS: A single-nucleotide polymorphism of MBL2, rs11003123, was genotyped and analyzed in a case-control study of HBV-related cirrhotic patients with HCC (n=77) and without HCC (n=40). RESULTS: We found that Child-Pugh proifles, model for end-stage liver disease score, and the incidence of encephalopathy were all higher in the non-HCC group (P CONCLUSION: MBL2 rs11003123 polymorphism may be a marker for the risk of HCC occurrence in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis in the Chinese population.

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use.

  17. Alcohol Consumption in University Students: The Relationship Between Personality and Metacognition in Relation to Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ailsa

    2010-01-01

    There are growing concerns over the heavy drinking found in university students in the UK. Metacognitions; the cognitive processes that oversee, monitor and control, cognition, have been related to alcohol use. The personality dimensions, high Neuroticism, high Extraversion and low Conscientiousness have also been related to heavier alcohol consumption. Furthermore, there is evidence that personality, mainly Neuroticism, might be related to metacognition. In this study we use self-report meas...

  18. The management of alcohol-related problems in general practice in north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V K; Malhotra, A K

    1988-07-01

    Twenty-seven general medical practitioners (GPs) were administered WHO semi-structured schedule enquiring "The Management of Alcohol-Related Problems in General Practice". Majority of the GPs had some involvement in each one of the specified alcohol-related problems. The involvement in alcohol and health education had been modest. Involvement in the control and regulatory activities was minimal. None of them felt that they had any role in the development of health and alcohol policy. Treatment response lo three typical situations appeared to be quite appropriate. To regulate production, to market less potent drinks at cheaper rates, to organize public health education programme through mass media were the suggestions made by them. It is suggested that GPs can and should be encouraged in leadership roles in policy decisions regarding the delivery of services, control and regulation of alcohol and research.

  19. Curiosity Killed the Cocktail? Curiosity, Sensation Seeking, and Alcohol-related Problems in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Mullins, Peter M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Blayney, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity, composed of two factors: exploration and absorption, has been previously associated with life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and enhanced positive affect. It also shares some overlap with sensation seeking, which has been linked to alcohol use and other addictive behaviors. The present research explored the association between curiosity and college women’s problematic drinking in the context of sensation seeking. Participants (79 women) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, sensation seeking, alcohol consumption, and consequences related to alcohol consumption. A zero-inflated negative binomial model indicated that curiosity and sensation seeking accounted for unique variance in alcohol-related problems after controlling for drinking. The curiosity factors had opposing relationships to alcohol-related problems: higher scores on absorption were associated with more alcohol related problems whereas higher scores on exploration were associated with fewer alcohol related problems. Should findings be replicated, the curiosity factors may represent additional prevention and intervention targets. Future directions for research about curiosity and drinking and for the inclusion of positive psychology constructs in addictive behaviors research are discussed. PMID:20080358

  20. Curiosity killed the cocktail? Curiosity, sensation seeking, and alcohol-related problems in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Mullins, Peter M; Neighbors, Clayton; Blayney, Jessica A

    2010-05-01

    Curiosity, composed of two factors: exploration and absorption, has been previously associated with life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and enhanced positive affect. It also shares some overlap with sensation seeking, which has been linked to alcohol use and other addictive behaviors. The present research explored the association between curiosity and college women's problematic drinking in the context of sensation seeking. Participants (79 women) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, sensation seeking, alcohol consumption, and consequences related to alcohol consumption. A zero-inflated negative binomial model indicated that curiosity and sensation seeking accounted for unique variance in alcohol-related problems after controlling for drinking. The curiosity factors had opposing relationships to alcohol-related problems: higher scores on absorption were associated with more alcohol-related problems whereas higher scores on exploration were associated with fewer alcohol-related problems. Should findings be replicated, the curiosity factors may represent additional prevention and intervention targets. Future directions for research about curiosity and drinking and for the inclusion of positive psychology constructs in addictive behaviors research are discussed.

  1. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  2. A score model for predicting post-liver trans-plantation survival in HBV cirrhosis-related hepatocellular carcinoma recipients:a single center 5-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Wang; Xin-Hua Chen; Tian-An Jiang; Fen Chen; Shu-Sen Zheng; Xiao Xu; Wei-Lin Wang; Jian Wu; Min Zhang; Yan Shen; Sheng Yan; Hai-Yang Xie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic prediction of liver transplan-tation (LT) guides the donor organ allocation. However, there is currently no satisfactory model to predict the recipients' outcome, especially for the patients with HBV cirrhosis-re-lated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study was to develop a quantitative assessment model for predicting the post-LT survival in HBV-related HCC patients. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-eight LT recipients at the Liver Transplant Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine between 2008 and 2013 were included in this study. Their post-LT prognosis was recorded and multiple risk factors were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses in Cox regression. RESULTS: The score model was as follows: 0.114×(Child-Pugh score)-0.002×(positive HBV DNA detection time)+0.647× (number of tumor nodules)+0.055×(max diameter of tumor nodules)+0.231×lnAFP+0.437×(tumor differentiation grade). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of the scoring model for predict-ing the post-LT survival was 0.887. The cut-off value was 1.27, which was associated with a sensitivity of 72.5% and a speci-ficity of 90.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The quantitative score model for predicting post-LT survival proved to be sensitive and specific.

  3. Splenectomy versus Partial Splenic Embolization for Massive Splenomegaly Secondary to Hepatitis B-Related Liver Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufei Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Both splenectomy (SP and partial splenic embolization (PSE are used to treat massive splenomegaly (MSM secondary to hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis (HB-LC. This retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effects of SP and PSE on these patients. Methods. From July 2004 to January 2012, patients with MSM secondary to HB-LC who underwent SP or PSE were 1 : 1 : 1 matched with similar nonsurgery patients, respectively. Intraoperative situation, hematological indices, liver function, HBV DNA level, HBeAg seroconversion rate, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively were compared. Results. Operative time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion rate, severe pain, postoperative stay, and portal vein thrombosis (PVT rate in the PSE group were significantly superior to the SP group, although SP and PSE were similar in liver function improvement, HBV suppression, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively, and SP even improved WBC and PLT counts higher than PSE. Conclusion. Both SP and PSE are effective in improving liver function, increasing WBC and PLT counts, and suppressing replication of HBV for MSM secondary to HB-LC. Although postoperative improvement in WBC and PLT counts by SP can be higher than PSE, PSE is simple and minimally invasive and has a lower incidence of PVT.

  4. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  5. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M F; Al-Mahtab, M; Rahman, S; Debnath, C R

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Hepatology clinics. It is closely related to the increased frequency of overweight or obesity. It has recognised association with metabolic syndrome. Central obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia are commonest risk factors. Association with hepatitis C genotype 3 is also recognised. NAFLD is an important cause of cyptogenic cirrhosis of liver. It affects all populations and all age groups. Most patients with NAFLD are asymptomatic or vague upper abdominal pain. Liver function tests are mostly normal or mild elevation of aminotranferases. Histological features almost identical to those of alcohol-induced liver damage and can range from mild steatosis to cirrhosis. Two hit hypothesis is prevailing theory for the development of NAFLD. Diagnosis is usually made by imaging tools like ultrasonogram which reveal a bright liver while liver biopsy is gold standard for diagnosis as well as differentiating simple fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Prognosis is variable. Simple hepatic steatosis generally has a benign long-term prognosis. However, one to two third of NASH progress to fibrosis or cirrhosis and may have a similar prognosis as cirrhosis from other liver diseases. Treatment is mostly control of underlying disorders and dietary advice, exercise, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, or cytoprotective agents. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing. So it needs more research to address this problem.

  6. Bezafibrate for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudic, Jelena S; Poropat, Goran; Krstic, Miodrag N;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis is complicated. There are studies suggesting that bezafibrate, alone or in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is effective in the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis, but no systematic review has summarised the evidence yet....

  7. Methotrexate for primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giljaca, Vanja; Poropat, Goran; Stimac, Davor;

    2010-01-01

    Methotrexate has been used to treat patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. The previously prepared version of this review from 2005 showed that methotrexate seemed to significantly increase mortality in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Since...

  8. Behavior of liver cirrhosis at the "Arnaldo Milian Castro" Hospital from July 2007 to March 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Herminia Fajardo González

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver cirrhosis is among the top ten death causes in the developed world and also in Cuba, so it is important to know its clinical and epidemiological characteristics in order to propose appropriate preventive measures. Objective: To describe the behavior of liver cirrhosis in the "Arnaldo Milian Castro" hospital from July 2007 to March 2009. Method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study in all patients with a liver cirrhosis diagnosis that were undergoing follow-up in the hepatology consultation or died from this cause. As part of the study the medical records were consulted and patients in consultation were interviewed. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria there was a final sample of 120 cases: 59 patients are alive and 61 of them died. Results: Groups of people from 40-49 years old (32.5%, male sex (60.8% and white skin (93.3% were predominant. The most frequent death cause was alcoholism (40% especially in men, followed by viral causes (24.16%.The most frequent complication was ascites (53.3%. The main cause of death was upper gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices (52.45%, 44% of the cases presented Child-Pugh B and 46% died within the year after the diagnosis. Conclusion: cirrhosis has a high rate of incidence and prevalence mainly in the male sex due to the high consumption of alcohol and the viral infections that can be related. More comprehensive studies are needed to increase the amount of knowledge on this issue.

  9. Liver cirrhosis and diabetes: Risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical implications and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Garcia-Compean; Joel Omar Jaquez-Quintana; Jose Alberto Gonzalez-Gonzalez; Hector Maldonado-Garza

    2009-01-01

    About 30% of patients with cirrhosis have diabetes mellitus (DM). Nowadays, it is a matter for debate whether type 2 DM in the absence of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for chronic liver disease. DM,which develops as a complication of cirrhosis, is known as "hepatogenous diabetes". Insulin resistance in muscular and adipose tissues and hyperinsulinemia seem to be the pathophysiologic bases of diabetes in liver disease. An impaired response of the islet β-cells of the pancreas and hepatic insulin resistance are also contributory factors. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and hemochromatosis are more frequently associated with DM. Insulin resistance increases the failure of the response to treatment in patients with CHC and enhances progression of fibrosis. DM in cirrhotic patients may be subclinical.Hepatogenous diabetes is clinically different from that of type 2 DM, since it is less frequently associated with microangiopathy and patients more frequently suffer complications of cirrhosis. DM increases the mortality of cirrhotic patients. Treatment of the diabetes is complex due to liver damage and hepatotoxicity of oral hypoglycemic drugs. This manuscript will review evidence that exists in relation to: type 2 DM alone or as part of the metabolic syndrome in the development of liver disease;factors involved in the genesis of hepatogenous diabetes;the impact of DM on the clinical outcome of liver disease; the management of DM in cirrhotic patients and the role of DM as a risk factor for the occurrence and exacerbation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Primary Idiopathic Osteoarthropathy: Could It Be Related to Alcoholism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanal Alnimer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA is a syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of the skin and bony structures at the distal extremities resulting in digital clubbing, periosteal bony reaction, and joint effusion. It can be primary (idiopathic without any clear identifiable etiology as well as secondary to variety of systemic diseases most notably lung pathology. Case Presentation. We describe a rare case of primary idiopathic osteoarthropathy in a male patient who presented with severe pain and tenderness in his legs. His history was significant for long standing alcoholism. Physical examination showed severe fingers and toes clubbing. He reported similar changes in his mother. Clinical and radiological findings were remarkable for distal leg tenderness and diffuse periosteal bony reactions, respectively. Computerized tomography scan failed to show any pathology apart from fatty liver infiltration. In the absence of obesity or diabetes, this was consistent with alcoholic steatosis. He was started on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which dramatically improved his symptoms. Conclusion. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy should be considered in a previously healthy person presenting with bony pain and finger clubbing especially after ruling out the common secondary causes. Moreover, alteration of prostaglandin metabolism secondary to alcoholic consumption might be a contributing factor.

  11. Primary Idiopathic Osteoarthropathy: Could It Be Related to Alcoholism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Suresh; Dawood, Thair

    2017-01-01

    Background. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of the skin and bony structures at the distal extremities resulting in digital clubbing, periosteal bony reaction, and joint effusion. It can be primary (idiopathic) without any clear identifiable etiology as well as secondary to variety of systemic diseases most notably lung pathology. Case Presentation. We describe a rare case of primary idiopathic osteoarthropathy in a male patient who presented with severe pain and tenderness in his legs. His history was significant for long standing alcoholism. Physical examination showed severe fingers and toes clubbing. He reported similar changes in his mother. Clinical and radiological findings were remarkable for distal leg tenderness and diffuse periosteal bony reactions, respectively. Computerized tomography scan failed to show any pathology apart from fatty liver infiltration. In the absence of obesity or diabetes, this was consistent with alcoholic steatosis. He was started on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which dramatically improved his symptoms. Conclusion. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy should be considered in a previously healthy person presenting with bony pain and finger clubbing especially after ruling out the common secondary causes. Moreover, alteration of prostaglandin metabolism secondary to alcoholic consumption might be a contributing factor. PMID:28116207

  12. Bile acid and immunosuppressive therapy in primary biliary cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.J. Wolfhagen (Franciscus)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPrimary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by non-suppurative destruction of interlobular and septal bile ducts, with subsequent liver damage and eventually development of cirrhosis. The disease is relatively rare with an estimated annual incide

  13. Plasma cholecystokinin and its precursors in hepatic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paloheimo, L I; Clemmesen, O; Dalhoff, K

    1997-01-01

    products in plasma. METHODS: The sum of proCCK and its products (both processing intermediates and bioactive fragments) in plasma were measured by a recently developed "processing-independent analysis". Bioactive forms of CCK in plasma were measured using a highly specific radioimmunoassay directed against...... the C-terminal epitope of CCK. RESULTS: In plasma from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis the basal concentration of the total proCCK product was increased. Moreover, a mixed meal increased plasma concentrations of both bioactive CCK (i.e. carboxyamidated an 0-sulfated CCK peptides) and the total...... proCCK product in primary biliary cirrhosis. In contrast, plasma concentrations of bioactive CCK and the total proCCK product were normal in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis-both pre- or postprandially. The fraction of bioactive CCK in plasma from patients with both biliary and alcoholic...

  14. Cirrhosis: CT and MR imaging evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancatelli, Giuseppe [Sezione di Radiologia, Ospedale Specializzato in Gastroenterologia, ' Saverio de Bellis' -IRCCS, 70013 Castellana Grotte (Bari) (Italy) and Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy) and Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]. E-mail: gbranca@yahoo.com; Federle, Michael P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop Street, 15213 Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ambrosini, Roberta [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Lagalla, Roberto [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Carriero, Alessandro [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, ' Maggiore della Carita' University Hospital, ' A.Avogadro' Eastern Piemonte University, Corso Mazzini 18, Novara (Italy); Midiri, Massimo [Sezione di Scienze Radiologiche, Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Mediche e Medicina Legale, Universita di Palermo, Via del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy); Vilgrain, Valerie [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Beaujon, 100 Boulevard du General Leclerc, 92118 Clichy (France)

    2007-01-15

    In this article, we present the CT and MR imaging characteristics of the cirrhotic liver. We describe the altered liver morphology in different forms of viral, alcoholic and autoimmune end-stage liver disease. We present the spectrum of imaging findings in portal hypertension, such as splenomegaly, ascites and varices. We describe the patchy and lacelike patterns of fibrosis, along with the focal confluent form. The process of hepatocarcinogenesis is detailed, from regenerative to dysplastic nodules to overt hepatocellular carcinoma. Different types of non-neoplastic focal liver lesions occurring in the cirrhotic liver are discussed, including arterially enhancing nodules, hemangiomas and peribiliary cysts. We show different conditions causing liver morphology changes that can mimic cirrhosis, such as congenital hepatic fibrosis, 'pseudo-cirrhosis' due to breast metastases treated with chemotherapy, Budd-Chiari syndrome, sarcoidosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein.

  15. A STUDY OF NON ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN PAT IENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to know the relation of no n- alcoholic fatty liver disease (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis & cirrhosis with met abolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 cases were selected. Out of them 30 were non-al coholic steatohepatitis and 30 cirrhosis along with 30 healthy controls. Parameter s of metabolic syndrome and liver function which are waist circumference, blood pressure, fasti ng plasma glucose, total triglycerides, high density lipo- protein cholesterol, total bilirubin, a lanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphotase, total proteins and albumin were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS : All values were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained we re analyzed statistically using the unpaired student ‘t‘test to evaluate the significanc e of differences between the mean values. RESULTS: The values of waist circumference, fasting plasma g lucose, systolic blood pressure, total triglycerides, total bilirubin, alanine-amino -transferase and alkaline phosphotase were raised in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosi s patients. The level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased in non-alcoholi c steatohepatitis and cirrhosis patients. The level of albumin was decreased in cirrhosis pati ents. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our results it may be concluded that metabolic syndrome causes nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  16. Alcohol-specific parenting and adolescents' alcohol-related problems: The interacting role of alcohol availability at home and parental rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de; Vet, R.; Vermulst, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study was to gain more insight into the bi-directionality between alcohol-specific parental factors (i.e., parents' alcohol use, alcohol availability at home, parental rule setting, and frequency and quality of communication about alcohol) and adolescents' alcohol in

  17. Novel strategies to mine alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes by combining existing knowledge framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG RuiJie; LI Xia; JIANG YongShuai; LIU GuiYou; LI ChuanXing; ZHANG Fan; XIAO Yun; GONG BinSheng

    2009-01-01

    High-throughout single nucleotide polymorphism detection technology and the existing knowledge provide strong support for mining the disease-related haplotypes and genes. In this study, first, we apply four kinds of haplotype identification methods (Confidence Intervals, Four Gamete Testa, Solid Spine of LD and fusing method of haplotype block) into high-throughout SNP genotype data to identify blocks, then use cluster analysis to verify the effectiveness of the four methods, and select the alcoholism-related SNP haplotypes through risk analysis. Second, we establish a mapping from haplotypes to alcoholism-related genes. Third, we inquire NCBI SNP and gene databases to locate the blocks and identify the candidate genes. In the end, we make gene function annotation by KEGG, Biocarta, and GO database. We find 159 haplotype blocks, which relate to the alcoholism most possibly on chromosome 1-22, including 227 haplotypes, of which 102 SNP haplotypes may increase the risk of alcoholism. We get 121 alcoholism-related genes and verify their reliability by the functional annotation of biology. In a word, we not only can handle the SNP data easily, but also can locate the disease-related genes precisely by combining our novel strategies of mining alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes with existing knowledge framework.

  18. Novel strategies to mine alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes by combining existing knowledge framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, RuiJie; Li, Xia; Jiang, YongShuai; Liu, GuiYou; Li, ChuanXing; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Gong, BinSheng

    2009-02-01

    High-throughout single nucleotide polymorphism detection technology and the existing knowledge provide strong support for mining the disease-related haplotypes and genes. In this study, first, we apply four kinds of haplotype identification methods (Confidence Intervals, Four Gamete Tests, Solid Spine of LD and fusing method of haplotype block) into high-throughout SNP genotype data to identify blocks, then use cluster analysis to verify the effectiveness of the four methods, and select the alcoholism-related SNP haplotypes through risk analysis. Second, we establish a mapping from haplotypes to alcoholism-related genes. Third, we inquire NCBI SNP and gene databases to locate the blocks and identify the candidate genes. In the end, we make gene function annotation by KEGG, Biocarta, and GO database. We find 159 haplotype blocks, which relate to the alcoholism most possibly on chromosome 1 approximately 22, including 227 haplotypes, of which 102 SNP haplotypes may increase the risk of alcoholism. We get 121 alcoholism-related genes and verify their reliability by the functional annotation of biology. In a word, we not only can handle the SNP data easily, but also can locate the disease-related genes precisely by combining our novel strategies of mining alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes with existing knowledge framework.

  19. A new treatment for cognitive disorders related to in utero exposure to alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Li; Yan Zhang; Feng Zhu; Bin Zhang; Jianying Lin; Chunyang Xu; Wancai Yang; Wei Hao; Ruiling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has detrimental effects on fetal central nervous system development. Maternal alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy significantly affects cognitive functions in offspring, which may be related to changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 5 because it is associated with modulation of synaptic plasticity and impaired learning and memory. In this study, we examined adult offspring in a maternal alcohol consumption model in rats. Y-maze test results showed that in utero exposure to alcohol impairs learning and memory capacities. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 mRNA and protein expressions in the hippocampus of the offspring were significantly elevated, as assayed by quantitative real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR, immunofluorescence, and immuno-precipitation. Our experimental findings strongly suggest that altered cyclin-dependent kinase 5 may mediate impaired learning and memory in adult rats that were exposed to alcohol by maternal consumption while in utero.

  20. Brain serotonin 2A receptor binding: Relations to body mass index, tobacco and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, D.; Frokjaer, V. G.; Haugbol, S.

    2009-01-01

    Manipulations of the serotonin levels in the brain can affect impulsive behavior and influence our reactivity to conditioned reinforcers. Eating, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption are reinforcers that are influenced by serotonergic neurotransmission; serotonergic hypofunction leads...... receptor (5-HT(2A)) in humans, we tested in 136 healthy human subjects if body mass index (BMI), degree of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking was associated to the cerebral in vivo 5-HT(2A) receptor binding as measured with (18)F-altanserin PET. The subjects' BMI's ranged from 18.4 to 42.8 (25...... to increased food and alcohol intake, and conversely, stimulation of the serotonergic system induces weight reduction and decreased food/alcohol intake as well as tobacco smoking. To investigate whether body weight, alcohol intake and tobacco smoking were related to the regulation of the cerebral serotonin 2A...

  1. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  2. 非酒精肝硬化肝性脑病患者血清FT3、FT4、TSH的化学发光分析%Non-alcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy in patients with serum FT3,FT4,TSH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛杰; 刘启波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect of non-alcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy patients serum thyroxine level changes of serum thyroxine in nonalcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy. Methods For screening nonalcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy 60 cases regarded as experimental group and 40 normal subjects as control group,extraction of all participants in the fasting venous blood,using a chemiluminescence assay for the detection of serum thyroxine levels. Results The nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy in patients with FT3,FT4 and TSH three content were lower than the control group,P<0. 01. B group in FT3,FT4 and TSH three content was significantly higher in C group of patients, there is obvious difference between two groups, P<0. 05,with statistical significance. Thyroxine content with cirrhosis level elevation gradually reduced. Non alcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy in patients with Child-Pugh grade is higher, the mortality rate is higher,the worse prognosis. Conclusion The serum thyroxine level changes not only in judging the non-alcoholic cirrhosis hepatic encephalopathy severity and prognosis of great value,but also contribute to the identification,assessment of patients at high risk,so as to improve the efficacy of treatment,improve the prognosis of the patients,improve the survival rate.%目的 通过检测非酒精肝硬化肝性脑病患者游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)、血清促甲状腺素(TSH)的水平变化,探讨血清甲状腺素在非酒精肝硬化肝性脑病中的临床意义.方法 筛选非酒精肝硬化肝性脑病患者60例(实验组)和健康体检者40例(对照组),抽取所有参与者的空腹静脉血,采用化学发光法检测血清FT3、FT4、TSH的水平.结果 实验组非酒精性肝硬化肝性脑病患者FT3、FT4和TSH 3者的含量均低于对照组(P<0.01).B级组在FT3、FT4和TSH 3者的含量明显高于C级组患者(P<0.05).甲状腺素含量随着肝硬

  3. Association between the HFE C282Y, H63D Polymorphisms and the Risks of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 5,758 Cases and 14,741 Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wei-Li; Wang, Feng-Mei; Han, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background Conflicting results have been obtained for the association between two common polymorphisms (C282Y, H63D) of human HFE (hereditary hemochromatosis) gene and the risks of the liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods An updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential role of HFE polymorphisms in the susceptibility to NAFLD, liver cirrhosis and HCC. After retrieving articles from online databases, eligible studies were enrolled according to the selection criteria. Stata/SE 12.0 software was utilized to perform the statistical analysis. Results In total, 43 articles with 5,758 cases and 14,741 controls were selected. Compared with the control group, a significantly increased risk of NAFLD was observed for the C282Y polymorphism in the Caucasian population under all genetic models and for the H63D polymorphism under the allele, heterozygote and dominant models (all OR>1, Passociation0.05). In addition, we found that HFE C282Y was statistically associated with increased HCC susceptibility in the overall population, while H63D increased the odds of developing non-cirrhotic HCC in the African population (all OR>1, Passociation<0.05). Moreover, a positive association between compound heterozygosity for C282Y/H63D and the risk of NAFLD and HCC, but not liver cirrhosis, was observed. Conclusion Our meta-analysis provides evidence that the HFE C282Y and H63D polymorphisms confer increased genetic susceptibility to NAFLD and HCC but not liver cirrhosis. Additional well-powered studies are required to confirm our conclusion. PMID:27657935

  4. The Relative Contribution of Genes and Environment to Alcohol Use in Early Adolescents : Are Similar Factors Related to Initiation of Alcohol Use and Frequency of Drinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelen, E.A.P.; Derks, E.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Willemsen, A.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual dif

  5. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficientl

  6. PPARgamma-PGC-1alpha activity is determinant of alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed Petersen, Rasmus; Benzon Larsen, Signe; Jensen, Ditte Marie

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. One of several proposed mechanisms is that alcohol-related breast cancer is caused by increased sex hormone levels. PPARγ inhibits aromatase transcription in breast adipocytes. We reproduced previously found allele-specific effects...... of the wildtype Pro-allele of PPARG Pro12Ala in alcohol related breast cancer. In transiently transfected cells, transcriptional activation by PPARγ and the PPARγ-PGC-1α complex was inhibited by ethanol. PPARγ 12Ala-mediated transcription activation was not enhanced by PGC-1α, resulting in allele......-specific transcription activation by the PPARγ 12Pro-PGC-1α complex. Our results suggest that PPARγ and PGC-1α activity is an important determinant of alcohol related breast cancer....

  7. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for listing for liver transplantation in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardana, R C; Niriella, M A; Liyanage, C A H; Wijesuriya, S R; Gunathilaka, B; Dassanayake, A S; De Silva, H J

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis B and C are rare in Sri Lanka. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasing in the country. Eighty-one patients referred for liver transplantation (LT) over a period of 18 months were prospectively evaluated. Ninety-two percent (n = 74) were males. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the leading indication for LT (58%, n = 47) followed by alcohol in 27% (n = 33). Hepatitis B and C were not seen in our cases. The liver biochemistry and clinical status of cirrhosis were similar in cryptogenic and alcoholic cirrhotics. Fourteen patients died while waiting for transplant, and nine transplants were performed. Cryptogenic cirrhosis is the leading cause for LT in Sri Lanka.

  8. Successful and Safe Long-Term Standard Antiviral Therapy in a Patient with “Explosive” Immune Response in Course of HCV-Related Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Conca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been recognized to be both a hepato- and lymphotropic virus. HCV lymphotropism represents an essential detail in the pathogenesis of virus-related autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders, ranging from clonal expansion of B-cells with organ and non-organ-specific autoantibody production up to overt non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma along a continuous step-by-step model of B-cell lymphomagenesis, where the intermediated mixed cryoglobulinemia could be considered as a stage of suppressible antigen-driven lymphoproliferation. The HCV long-lasting extrahepatic replicative state generates an abnormal systemic immunological response, including rheumatoid factor (RF and cryo- and non-cryoprecipitable immune complexes, as well as clinical manifestations, comprising dermatitis, polyarthralgias and arthritis, pulmonary disease, aplastic anemia, glomerulonephritis and vasculitis. The mechanism of these extra-hepatic disorders is thought of as linked to immune complex disease, but their pathogenesis is poorly clarified. Immune-suppressive treatment could induce high-level hepatitis C viremia and impair hepatic disease. We report a female patient, whose chronic HCV-related liver cirrhosis with associated explosive, but oligosymptomatic lymphoproliferative immune response, i.e., RF beyond three thousand times the upper of normal range (unr, type II cryoglobulinemia with cryocrit 40% and monoclonal gammopathy IgM-k, has been successfully and safely treated by long-lasting (sixty-six months combined antiviral therapy (pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin, at moderate and tapering dose regimen, prolonged for nearly 24 months after the first viral suppression. At the last follow-up (fifty-one months, the patient was showing very-long term antiviral response, progressive decline of secondary immune activation and absence of significant side-effects. Further research is required to fully verify the real impact on therapeutic choice/regimen.

  9. Etiological profile of cirrhosis of liver from North-East India with reference to their anti-hepatitis A virus seroprevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cirrhosis of liver is common in north - east India. Hepatitis A infection in adults with chronic liver disease can cause acute on chronic liver failure associated with high mortality and morbidity. There have been reports of an epidemiological shift in hepatitis A virus (HAV seroprevalence from South - East Asia and India. This study evaluated the etiological profile and seroprevalence of anti‑HAV IgG in cirrhosis of liver patients. Patients and Methods: 160 hospitalized adult cases of decompensated cirrhosis of liver and 200 healthy controls were assessed for etiology and their anti - HAV Ig G status by commercially available kits. Results : Most common cause of cirrhosis of liver in our region is ethanol related. 95% of cases and 89% of controls were seropositive for anti - HAV IgG (P = 0,181, insignificant difference. All cases above the age of 40 years were seropositive. Seroprevalence between sexes (M 97% and F 83.3% was statistically insignificant. Only age showed a high coefficient of correlation ( r = 0.854, statistically significant, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Alcohol is the most common etiology of cirrhosis of liver in north - east India. Socio - cultural milieu in our part may play a role with alcohol contributing to a major but preventable heath burden. Anti - HAV vaccination in our setting is not indicated routinely to cirrhosis of liver patients as it will not be cost - effective. However, young cirrhotics should be screened for anti - HAV antibody and if negative, may be offered vaccination. Screening should target young chronic liver disease patients in view of reports of decreasing seroprevalence across Asia as compared to one or two decades back

  10. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  11. Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Guertin, Kristin A; Cross, Amanda J; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer and adenoma using serum metabolomics data from two studies. Data on colorectal cancer were obtained from a nested case-control study of 502 US adults (252 cases, 250 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data on colorectal adenoma were obtained from a case-control study of 197 US adults (120 cases, 77 controls) from the Navy Colon Adenoma Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight alcohol consumption-related metabolites identified in a previous analysis: ethyl glucuronide; 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1; 5-alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate; 16-hydroxypalmitate; bilirubin (E,Z or Z,E); cyclo (-leu-pro); dihomo-linoleate (20:2n6); and palmitoleate (16:1n7). We found no clear association between these alcohol consumption-related metabolites and either endpoint. However, we did observe an inverse association between cyclo (-leu-pro) and colorectal adenoma that was only observed in the highest metabolite quantile (OR 4th vs. 1st Quantile = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12-0.78; P-trend = 0.047), but no association for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, there were no adverse associations between alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer or adenoma.

  12. Cryptogenic cirrhosis: a vanishing entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, H G

    2009-11-01

    The diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis (cirrhosis of unknown etiology) has dramatically decreased, following the discovery of hepatitis B virus (1965), hepatitis D virus (1977), hepatitis C virus (1989). Improving the diagnostic criteria for Autoimmune Hepatitis, by devising the scoring system and the recognition of the fact that Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis can progress to cirrhosis (in 8 to 10 years), further reduced the diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis. Establishing the etiology of cirrhosis in the vast majority of the patients has provided numerous options for its prevention and treatment.

  13. Cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Larsen, Fin Stolze; Ott, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the liver is a frequent and dangerous disease that causes numerous clinical contacts due to its complications. Competent and fast clinical decisions are often necessary in the acute setting and a broad clinical approach for the long-term problems due to the co-morbidity. Danish...

  14. Oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard Grønkjær, Lea; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the oral care habits and self-perceived oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as to evaluate the impact of oral health on well-being and the relation to nutritional status. Participants and methods: From October 2012 to May 2013, we...... carried out a prospective study on patients with liver cirrhosis. Questions on oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were answered, and the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) provided information on oral conditions. The findings were compared with The Danish Institute for Health......’ nutritional risk score (P=0.01). Conclusion: Our results showed that cirrhosis patients cared less for oral health than the background population. Their resulting problems may be contributing factors to their nutritional risk and decreased well-being. Oral health problems may thus have adverse prognostic...

  15. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  16. Biomechanics and functionality of hepatocytes in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shan; Song, Zhenyuan; Cotler, Scott J; Cho, Michael

    2014-06-27

    Cirrhosis is a life-threatening condition that is generally attributed to overproduction of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix that mechanically stiffens the liver. Chronic liver injury due to causes including viral hepatitis, inherited and metabolic liver diseases and external factors such as alcohol abuse can result in the development of cirrhosis. Progression of cirrhosis leads to hepatocellular dysfunction. While extensive studies to understand the complexity underlying liver fibrosis have led to potential application of anti-fibrotic drugs, no such FDA-approved drugs are currently available. Additional studies of hepatic fibrogenesis and cirrhosis primarily have focused on the extracellular matrix, while hepatocyte biomechanics has received limited attention. The role of hepatocyte biomechanics in liver cirrhosis remains elusive, and how the cell stiffness is correlated with biological functions of hepatocytes is also unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of hepatocytes are correlated with their functions (e.g., glucose metabolism), and that hepatic dysfunction can be restored through modulation of the cellular biomechanics. Furthermore, our results indicate the hepatocyte functionality appears to be regulated through a crosstalk between the Rho and Akt signaling. These novel findings may lead to biomechanical intervention of hepatocytes and the development of innovative tissue engineering for clinical treatment to target liver cells rather than exclusively focusing on the extracellular matrix alone in liver cirrhosis.

  17. Novel strategies to mine alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes by combining existing knowledge framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High-throughout single nucleotide polymorphism detection technology and the existing knowledge provide strong support for mining the disease-related haplotypes and genes. In this study, first, we apply four kinds of haplotype identification methods (Confidence Intervals, Four Gamete Tests, Solid Spine of LD and fusing method of haplotype block) into high-throughout SNP genotype data to identify blocks, then use cluster analysis to verify the effectiveness of the four methods, and select the alco- holism-related SNP haplotypes through risk analysis. Second, we establish a mapping from haplotypes to alcoholism-related genes. Third, we inquire NCBI SNP and gene databases to locate the blocks and identify the candidate genes. In the end, we make gene function annotation by KEGG, Biocarta, and GO database. We find 159 haplotype blocks, which relate to the alcoholism most possibly on chromosome 1~22, including 227 haplotypes, of which 102 SNP haplotypes may increase the risk of alcoholism. We get 121 alcoholism-related genes and verify their reliability by the functional annotation of biology. In a word, we not only can handle the SNP data easily, but also can locate the disease-related genes pre- cisely by combining our novel strategies of mining alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes with ex- isting knowledge framework.

  18. Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Bakhshi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1 examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2 explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013 identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2, and their personal alcohol use (n = 2. The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base.

  19. Impulsivity and alcohol-related risk among college students: examining urgency, sensation seeking and the moderating influence of beliefs about alcohol's role in the college experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; Miller, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The personality trait of impulsivity is predictive of heavy drinking and consequences among college students. The current study examined how impulsivity-measured via positive urgency, negative urgency, and sensation seeking-and a person's beliefs about the role alcohol plays in the college experience relate to drinking and consequences in a sample of 470 college students (mean age=19 years, 61.3% female, 59.8% White). In support of the hypotheses, sensation seeking independently predicted greater drinking, and both positive urgency and negative urgency predicted greater experience of alcohol-related negative consequences after controlling for consumption level. Moreover, alcohol beliefs moderated the relationship between impulsivity types and alcohol outcomes. Among students high (versus low) in sensation seeking, strong beliefs about alcohol's role in college life were related to significantly greater drinking, and among students high (versus low) in negative urgency, endorsing strong beliefs about alcohol's role in college life were related to greater levels of alcohol-related negative consequences. Overall, findings inform college prevention efforts by highlighting the need to distinguish unique facets of impulsivity and examine how they intersect with students' beliefs about alcohol in college.

  20. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  1. Evaluation of embryonic alcoholism from auditory event-related potential in fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁勇; 王正敏; 屈卫东

    2004-01-01

    @@ Auditory event-related potential (AERP) is a kind of electroencephalography that measures the responses of perception, memory and judgement to special acoustic stimulation in the auditory cortex. AERP can be recorded with not only active but also passive mode. The active and passive recording modes of AERP have been shown a possible application in animals.1,2 Alcohol is a substance that can markedly affect the conscious reaction of human. Recently, AERP has been applied to study the effects of alcohol on the auditory centers of the brain. Some reports have shown dose-dependent differences in latency, amplitude, responsibility and waveform of AERP between persons who have and have not take in alcohol.3,4 The epidemiological investigations show that the central nervous function of the offspring of alcohol users might be also affected.5,6 Because the clinic research is limited by certain factors, several animal models have been applied to examine the influences of alcohol on consciousness with AERP. In the present study, young rats were exposed to alcohol during fetal development and AERP as indicator was recorded to monitor the central auditory function, and its mechanisms and characteristics of effects of the fetal alcoholism on auditory center function in rats were analyzed and discussed.

  2. In verbis, vinum? Relating themes in an open-ended writing task to alcohol behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Robert D; Heim, Derek; Chung, Cindy K; Duffy, John C; Davies, John B; Pennebaker, James W

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol's function as a regulator of emotions has long been denoted in figures of speech, most famously 'in vino, veritas' (in wine, truth). In contrast, we ask whether an individual's self-reported alcohol consumption and related attitudes can be correlated with the words they use to write about alcohol. Participants completed an open-ended essay as part of a survey on alcohol attitudes and behaviors. We used a computerized technique, the Meaning Extraction Method, to summarize the responses into thematic tropes, and correlated these with quantitative measurements of demographics, attitudes and behaviors. Participants were recruited using a random population postal survey in the UK (n=1001). Principal components analysis identified regular co-occurring words, to locate themes in the responses. Seven themes were identified that corresponded to both negative and positive aspects of alcohol consumption ranging from concern for the influence of alcohol on others (e.g., children and family) to participants' own enjoyment of alcohol (e.g., social drinking). Small but significant correlations suggested a relationship between the essay responses and individual consumption patterns and attitudes.

  3. Circulatory abnormalities in cirrhosis with focus on neurohumoral aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Patients with cirrhosis exhibit characteristic hemodynamic changes with a hyperkinetic circulation and an abnormal distribution of the blood volume and neurohumoral regulation. Their plasma and noncentral blood volumes are increased, and the central and arterial blood volume and systemic vascular...... and hyperkinetic circulation in cirrhosis. Various vasodilators such as atrial natriurectic peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and nitric oxide are among potential candidates in the arterial vasodilatation in cirrhosis. Besides enhanced sympathetic nervous activity, activation of the renin......-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and elevated circulating vasopressin, endothelin-1 may also be implicated in the hemodynamic counter-regulation in cirrhosis. Recent research has focused on the assertion that the hemodynamic and neurohumoral abnormalities in cirrhosis are part of a general circulatory dysfunction influencing...

  4. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  5. Reduction of virus burden-induced splenectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis related to hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuro Sekiguchi; Takeaki Nagamine; Hitoshi Takagi; Masatomo Mori

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the hepatitis C virus (HCV) levels and immunological markers in cirrhotic patients after splenectomy.METHODS: HCV RNA titers as well as cellular and humoral immune markers were determined in 20 cirrhotic patients after splenectomy and in 32 cirrhotic controls with an intact spleen. RESULTS: Serum HCV RNA titers were lower in the spienectomized patients than in the controls (186 ± 225 x 103copies/mL vs 541 ± 417x 103 copies/mL, P<0.01). HCV RNA was judged to have been spontaneously eradicated in 4 splenectomized patients, but in none of the controls.Natural killer cell activity was higher in the splenectomized patients than in the controls (41.2 ± 19.3% vs 24.7 ± 15.3%, P< 0.01), and natural killer cell activity was negatively correlated to HCV RNA titers in the spienectomized patients except in those with serotype 2-related infection. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly lower in the splenectomized patients than in the controls.CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that splenectomy may diminish virus burden in cirrhotic patients with HCV infection at least in part, through augmentation of natural killer cell activity.

  6. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  7. Extrahepatic complications to cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    In addition to complications relating to the liver, patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension develop extrahepatic functional disturbances of multiple organ systems. This can be considered a multiple organ failure that involves the heart, lungs, kidneys, the immune systems, and other organ...

  8. Psychopathological profile and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Vincenzo O; Santovito, Daniela; Margari, Francesco; Lozupone, Madia; Minerva, Francesco; Di Gennaro, Carla; Todarello, Orlando; Palasciano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    In some tumors, psychosocial interventions may enhance health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients. The effects of psychological variables on HRQOL in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients have been rarely assessed. The aim of this work is to evaluate the psychopathological profile of HCC and cirrhotic patients and its effect on HRQOL. Twenty-four HCC patients (median age 71, Child A 21, Child B 3), 22 cirrhotic patients (median age 68, Child A 20, Child B 2) and 20 control subjects were included in this study. Each subject completes four questionnaires: medical outcomes study short form-36 (SF-36, HRQOL evaluation); Hamilton-D (quantitative evaluation of depression; positive ≥8); symptom check list 90-revised (SCL 90-R, general psychopathological profile; nine domains, each positive >1); Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS 20) (positive ≥60). SCL 90-R: cirrhotic patients differ from HCC subjects for somatization (SOM) (M ± SD 1.09 ± 0.6 vs 0.65 ± 0.6; p = 0.01) and anxiety (M ± SD 0.85 ± 0.46 vs 0.58 ± 0.38; p = 0.01) items. TAS 20: positive in 50% of HCC patients, in 54% of cirrhotic patients (p = n.s.) and in none of controls. Hamilton-D: higher scores in cirrhotic patients than in the HCC group (86 vs 46%; p = 0.005). SF-36: each item, except bodily pain, is lower in both group of patients in comparison with controls. Pearson correlation analysis shows negative correlations on HRQOL of depression, SOM and anxiety both in cirrhotic and HCC subjects, also of obsessive-compulsive and hostility items in HCC. This is the first report on the psychopathological profile of HCC patients: the results open questions on the role of psychological interventions that may improve HRQOL of patients before treatment and in the follow-up.

  9. Alcohol drinking frequency in relation to subsequent changes in waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Halkjaer, Jytte; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    drinking, drinking on 1, 2-4, 5-6, and 7 d/wk, respectively, compared with men who drank alcohol on alcohol intake or total energy intake did not affect results considerably. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking pattern may...... a prospective cohort study conducted in 1993-1997 (baseline) and 1999-2002 (follow-up) and included 43 543 men and women. Baseline information on alcohol drinking frequency was related to 1) change in waist circumference by linear regression and 2) major gain and major loss in waist circumference (defined...... as waist change in the lowest or highest quintile of waist changes) by polytomous logistic regression, also taking into account amount of alcohol intake. RESULTS: Drinking frequency was inversely associated with changes in waist circumference in women and was unassociated with changes in waist...

  10. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebena Rene

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions

  11. Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, J M; Estruch, R; Salamero, M; Orteu, N; Fernandez-Solà, J; Sacanella, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of chronic ethanol intake on the central nervous system, we studied 40 asymptomatic, well-nourished, chronic alcoholics (mean age, 42.6 +/- 9.1 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects. Studies included neuropsychological testing, visual and short-latency auditory evoked potentials, and morphometric analysis of computed tomography scans. The mean daily ethanol consumption of the alcoholics was 204 gm over an average of 26.4 years. Compared to control subjects, chronic alcoholics exhibited a significant prolongation of the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials, and a prolongation and reduction in the amplitude of the latency of the V wave of short-latency auditory evoked potentials. These abnormalities were related to the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed. Brain morphometric analysis showed that alcoholics had a significantly greater degree of brain shrinkage with age, compared to control subjects. The cortical atrophy index correlated significantly with the lifetime ethanol consumption. Neuropsychological testing in alcoholics compared to controls revealed a significant impairment of frontal skills that was related to age, degree of scholarship, and the presence of frontal atrophy. In conclusion, well-nourished chronic alcoholics exhibited significant brain impairment, as demonstrated by neuropsychological testing, evoked potentials, and brain morphometric analysis, which was correlated with the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed.

  12. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, June M

    2006-01-01

    hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...... of early weaning was 1.47. Elevated relative risks were also associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (1.52) and unwanted pregnancy status (1.59). Other independent predictors were male gender, maternal psychiatric hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnosis, and low parental social status......OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...

  13. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college stud...

  14. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  15. Alcoholic liver disease: The gut microbiome and liver crosstalk

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing ...

  16. Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas developed in the setting of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Julien; Nault, Jean C; Balabaud, Charles; Couchy, Gabrielle; Saint-Paul, Marie-Christine; Azoulay, Daniel; Mehdaoui, Dalila; Luciani, Alain; Zafrani, Elie S; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma is considered to occur exclusively in non-fibrotic livers. It is a heterogeneous entity and a molecular classification is now widely accepted. The most frequent hepatocellular adenoma subtype, namely inflammatory adenoma, harbor somatic activating mutations of genes involved in the interleukin-6 pathway that lead to high C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A expression. The aim of our study was to investigate a series of benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed on cirrhotic livers and characterized by an unequivocal histological diagnosis. We performed a clinical, pathological, and molecular study of 10 benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed in three patients with cirrhosis. Markers allowing hepatocellular adenoma classification were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Samples were sequenced for CTNNB1, HNF1A, IL6ST, GNAS, STAT3, and TERT (promoter) mutations. A control series of 32 classical macronodules developed in cirrhosis related to various etiologies was screened by immunohistochemistry and gene sequencing. The three patients had cirrhosis related to metabolic syndrome and/or alcohol intake; two had a single tumor, while the third developed more than 30 lesions. Microscopic examination showed well-differentiated neoplasms sharing features with inflammatory adenoma including inflammatory infiltrates, sinusoidal dilatation, and dystrophic vessels. Sequencing revealed classical hotspot somatic mutations (IL6ST, n=8; STAT3, n=1; and GNAS, n=1) known to be responsible for IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway activation. Two classical high-grade macronodules demonstrated high serum amyloid A and/or C-reactive protein expression, without gene mutations. Altogether, our findings support the existence of rare inflammatory adenoma developed in cirrhosis.

  17. Acid-base disturbance in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Acid-base disturbances were investigated in patients with cirrhosis in relation to hemodynamic derangement to analyze the hyperventilatory effects and the metabolic compensation. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with cirrhosis and 44 controls were investigated during a hemodynamic study......, and effects of unidentified ions (all Pacid-base disturbances could not be identified. CONCLUSION: Hypocapnic alkalosis is related to disease severity and hyperdynamic systemic circulation in patients with cirrhosis. The metabolic compensation includes...... alterations in serum albumin and water retention that may result in a delicate acid-base balance in these patients....

  18. Interpersonal relating, risk-taking behavior and alcohol use in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, L. de; Haan, H.A. de; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2016-01-01

    Research continues to seek to understand potential underlying mechanisms for alcohol use and problematic patterns of drinking. This chapter explores the association between interpersonal relating as measured with the Person’s Relating to Others Questionnaire Version 3 (PROQ3; Birtchnell et al., Clin

  19. Clinical Presentation and Prevalence of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients with Cryptogenic Cirrhosis and Features of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sorrentino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH may progress to cirrhosis. The prevalence and clinical relevance that spontaneous bacterial peritonitis may have in complicating ascites due to NASH-related cirrhosis have yet to be defined.

  20. Improving Survival in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nath Mukerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in cirrhosis is consequent of decompensation, only treatment being timely liver transplantation. Organ allocation is prioritized for the sickest patients based on Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD score. In order to improve survival in patients with high MELD score it is imperative to preserve them in suitable condition till transplantation. Here we examine means to prolong life in high MELD score patients till a suitable liver is available. We specially emphasize protection of airways by avoidance of sedatives, avoidance of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, elective intubation in grade III or higher encephalopathy, maintaining a low threshold for intubation with lesser grades of encephalopathy when undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy as pre transplant evaluation or transferring patient to a transplant center. Consider post-pyloric tube feeding in encephalopathy to maintain muscle mass and minimize risk of aspiration. In non intubated and well controlled encephalopathy, frequent physical mobility by active and passive exercises are recommended. When renal replacement therapy is needed, night-time Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis may be useful in keeping the daytime free for mobility. Sparing and judicious use of steroids needs to be borne in mind in treatment of ARDS and acute hepatitis from alcohol or autoimmune process.

  1. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  2. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  3. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  4. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  5. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  6. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R. de; Lankveld, C.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in othe

  7. Alcohol dependence and anxiety increase error-related brain activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Lankveld, C.A.A. van; Hulstijn, W.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Verkes, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Detection of errors is crucial for efficient goal-directed behaviour. The ability to monitor behaviour is found to be diminished in patients with substance dependence, as reflected in decreased error-related brain activity, i.e. error-related negativity (ERN). The ERN is also decreased in other

  8. 酒精性肝硬化患者血清TGF-β1水平与脂质过氧化的相关性分析%Study of the Relationship Between of Serum TGF-β1 and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Alcoholic Cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解东涯; 金泽秋; 潘美珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between serum TGF-β1 and SOD, MDA levels in patients with alcoholic cirrho-sis. Method8 Serum TGF-β1) ( with RIA) , serum SOD,MDA(with chemistry) levels were measured in 36 patients with alcoholic cir-rhosis and compared with 35 normal healthy controls. Results Serum TGF-β1), ,MDA levels were significantly higher than those in con-trols (P<0.01). But serum SOD level was markedly lower(P<0.01) ,serum TGF-β1 level was positively correlate with MDA level(r =0.6138,P< 0.01), serum TGF-β1 level was negatively correlated with SOD level(r= - 0.3784 ,P< 0.01). Conclusion Changes of serum TGF-β1,SOD,MDA levels might be of certain clinical value for mornitoring therapeutic effects and prognosis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.%目的:探讨酒精性肝硬化患者血清TGF-β1水平与脂质过氧化的相关性.方法:应用放射免疫分析和化学法对36例酒精性肝硬化患者进行了血清TGF-β1和SOD、MDA检测,并与35名正常健康人作比较.结果:酒精性肝硬化患者血清TGF-β1、MDA水平非常显著地高于正常人组(P<0.01),而血清SOD水平又非常显著地低于正常人组(P<0.01).血清TGF-β1水平与MDA水平呈正相关(r=0.6138,P<0.01),而与SOD水平呈负相关(r=-0.3784,P<0.01).结论:检测酒精性肝硬化患者血清TGF-β1和SOD、MDA水平的变化对于了解病情、观察疗效和病后判断均具有一定的临床实用价值.

  9. Management before hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hisashi; Nakayama; Tadatoshi; Takayama

    2015-01-01

    The global distribution of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) varies markedly among regions, and patients in East Asia and Central Africa account for about 80% of all cases. The risk factors are hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcohol, and etc. The risk of carcinogenesis further increases with progression to hepatic cirrhosis in all liver disorders. Radical treatment of HCC by liver resection without causing liver failure has been established as a safe approach through selection of an appropriate range of resection of the damaged liver. This background indicates that both evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and measures against concomitant diseases such as thrombocytopenia accompanying portal hypertension, prevention of rupture of esophageal varices, reliable control of ascites, and improvement of hypoalbuminemia are important issues in liver resection in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. We review the latest information on perioperative management of liver resection in HCC patients with hepatic cirrhosis.

  10. In vino silentium? Individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors in reporting violence to the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Iain R

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors associated with reporting violent victimization to the police. Factors positively associated with reporting included older age and incident severity (the assailant's use of a weapon, incurring injury that required attendance at an emergency department). Factors negatively associated with reporting included higher educational qualifications, assault in the nighttime economy (NTE), and drinking more than two alcoholic drinks immediately prior to victimization. It is possible that drinkers engage in "moratorium" on reporting violence in the NTE. Recognizing and reducing the acceptability of violence in the NTE may help reduce incidence of alcohol-related violence. Organizations that use police records of violence to inform practice and policy should account for uneven distributions in reporting behavior when analyzing trends in violence.

  11. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, soluble CD14 and plasma lipids in relation to endotoxaemia in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Schütt, C.;

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that gut leakage in persons with chronic alcohol misuse leads to endotoxaemia, which might contribute to the development of alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis. In addition, it was recently shown that the endotoxin-binding capacity of whole blood is reduced...... in these patients. To analyse this phenomenon, we measured the concentration of functionally important endotoxin-binding plasma components which modify the action of endotoxin. In patients with minimal (n = 10), intermediate (n = 9), and cirrhotic alcoholic liver disease (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 11......), plasma endotoxin was determined in a limulus assay. The concentration of lipoproteins was assessed by measuring apolipoproteins, the other factors were directly measured in immunoassays. In the entire group of alcoholics, endotoxin and the concentration of binding factors that are involved in the action...

  12. Specifying the relations between affect and heavy alcohol use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, A M; Hicks, R E; Levy, S A; Curran, P J

    2001-08-01

    Current reformulations of the tension reduction hypothesis posit that only a subset of vulnerable individuals are at risk for drinking in response to negative affect. To further specify this model, this study examined the types of mood and social contexts under which affect and alcohol use are associated. Participants were 74 college students who completed repeated assessments of mood, alcohol use, friendship quality, and social support. A complex pattern of findings supported the moderating influences of gender, friendship factors, and the timing of behavior (i.e., weekends vs. weekdays) on the relation between affect and alcohol use. Young adults with less intimate and supportive friendships, as compared with their peers, showed risk for greater drinking following relative elevations in sadness and hostility. Such drinking episodes, in turn, predicted subsequent elevations in these same negative moods the following week. Gender differences in such a cyclical pattern of affect and alcohol use were found to vary across differing emotional experiences. Recommendations for a more refined theory of affect and alcohol use are discussed.

  13. Alcohol craving in relation to coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gąsior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed at finding any relation between alcohol craving and strategies of coping with stress and satisfaction with life in the addicted. Until now, studies have shown that generalized deficits in coping with stress, and the dominance of avoidance strategies, are significantly related to the increase of the risk of addiction and the course of this disease. This relation, which could link strategies of coping with stress and quality of life with experiencing alcohol craving, has only been explained to a small extent. Also, the role of gender in explaining these relations is ambiguous. Participants and procedure The study was conducted in a group of 550 addicted subjects in out-patient or in-patient treatment (396 men and 114 women. In the present study the following instruments were used: the Craving Typology Questionnaire by Marinotti et al., the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale by Modell et al., the Mini-Cope by Carver et al., SADD by Reistrick et al., and the Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. Statistical correlational analysis and structural equations were applied, namely partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. Results There are two types of links between craving and strategies of coping with stress among the addicted. The first dominating type is pointing at casual link between ineffective strategies of coping with stress and craving. The other weaker type indicates the diminishing influence of effective strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving. Life satisfaction lowers alcohol craving. Conclusions Effective strategies of reacting to stress, together with life satisfaction, protect against increase of alcohol craving. Severity of dependence is an important factor which moderates the influence of strategies of coping with stress on alcohol craving.

  14. Pathogenesis of water and sodium retention in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P Y; Schrier, R W

    1997-06-01

    The pathogenesis of renal sodium and water retention in cirrhosis involves extrarenal mechanisms because when kidneys from cirrhotic patients are transplanted into persons with normal livers, renal sodium and water retention no longer occurs. Cirrhosis is accompanied by portal hypertension, which leads to a hyperdynamic circulatory state. The Peripheral Arterial Vasodilation Hypothesis incriminates a relative underfilling of the arterial vascular compartment, which leads to the same neurohumoral responses that occurs in low cardiac output. Activation of the renain-angiotensin-aldosterone axis and the sympathetic system as well as non-osmotic release of vasopressin are well documented in cirrhosis. This sequence of events results in renal water and sodium retention, failure to escape from the sodium-retaining effect of aldosterone, and renal resistance to atrial natriuretic peptide. Dilutional hyponatremia is the strongest predictor of the occurrence of hepatorenal syndrome. The pathogenesis of the peripheral arterial vasodilation is not completely elucidated, but there is evidence for a major role of nitric oxide (NO). Increased vascular NO production has been demonstrated in cirrhosis. In the rat model of cirrhosis, normalization of vascular NO production with a NOS inhibitor corrects the hyperdynamic circulation, improves sodium and water excretion, and decreases neurohumoral activation. This insight into the mechanism(s) of the peripheral arterial vasodilation in cirrhosis should provide new tools in the treatment of edema and ascites, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis.

  15. Liver cirrhosis as a result of chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhoruk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic hepatitis C in St. Petersburg is 124.4 per 100 000 population. The number of patients with liver cirrhosis is significant.Aim of this study: to examine the demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with cirrhosis in the results of chronic hepatitis C.Materials and methods: 100 patients with cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C in age 31–70 years were included. Patients with infection hepatitis viruses A and B, HIV, alcohol abuse, drug addicts, previously received antiviral therapy were excluded. Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed on the basis clinical, laboratory and instrumental investigations.Results: most patients (86,2% male and 81,7% female are socially adapted. In 23,2% of patients antibodies to hepatitis C virus were first detected simultaneously with the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Medical procedures were the most common route of infection (25,6% male and 57,1% female. Genotype 1 was dominant (65.7%. Viral load over 800 000 IU/ml was detected in 36,7% of patients. ALT activity was normal or not more than 2 upper limit of normal in 59% of patients, AST – 47%. Normal levels of total bilirubin were recorded in 37% of cases.Conclusions: the first detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus at the stage of cirrhosis, absence of jaundice, normal or low cytolytic activity once again confirms the need for screening for markers of hepatitis C virus. Dominance of genotype 1 is probably due on the one hand with features routes of transmission, and the other – with the speed of transformation chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis.

  16. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed.

  17. The Effect of Colour and Size on Attentional Bias to Alcohol-Related Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R.; McCann, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attentional bias plays an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction, and has often been measured with a visual probe task, where reaction times are compared for probes replacing either a substance-related cue or a neutral cue. Systematic low-level differences between image classes are a potential cause of low internal…

  18. Perceptions about Residence Hall Wingmates and Alcohol-Related Secondhand Effects among College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Bush, Elizabeth N.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the secondhand effects among college freshmen of others' alcohol use and related student characteristics, and perceptions about residence hallmates. Participants: The authors surveyed 509 incoming freshmen residing in predominantly freshman residence halls. Methods: The authors administered a Web-based survey 2…

  19. The Relative Importance of Mothers' and Youths' Neighborhood Perceptions for Youth Alcohol Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Maguin, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Prior studies have examined the influence of neighborhood perceptions on youth outcomes, but few studies have examined whose report of neighborhoods, parents' or youths', are most important in predicting youth outcomes. This study addresses the relative associations of youths' and mothers' neighborhood perceptions with youth alcohol use and…

  20. Selected sociodemographic factors and related differences in patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life

  1. The Relation between Mathematics and Working Memory in Young Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mathematics and working memory in young children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Children with FASD and comparison children (4 to 6 years old) completed standardized tests of mathematics and working memory. Children with FASD showed impairments on mathematics (applied…

  2. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  3. Neurophysiological Endophenotypes, CNS Disinhibition, and Risk for Alcohol Dependence and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice Porjesz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2, including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and GABRA2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic

  4. Neurophysiological endophenotypes, CNS disinhibition, and risk for alcohol dependence and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi

    2007-01-01

    Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2), including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and CHRM2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations) helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic findings related to

  5. Hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Troels Malte; Bendtsen, Flemming; Møller, Søren

    2016-01-01

    , diagnosis, including biomarkers, and pathophysiology, will also be covered through a comprehensive, critical reading of the latest literature, encompassing the most recent, updated, international guidelines, reviews and high-impact original literature. Expert commentary: The advances made...... in the understanding of the pathophysiology of HRS and other complications of cirrhosis within the recent decades, have provided the basis for improved diagnostic criteria and the development of treatments that have substantially increased survival rates in cirrhotic patients suffering from these conditions. Focus...... should, in the nearest future, be on continuing this positive development, thus further improving prognosis for cirrhotic patients with HRS....

  6. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Family Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Smyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is a chronic immune-mediated cholestatic liver disease of unknown aetiology which affects mostly women in middle age. Familial PBC is when PBC affects more than one member of the same family, and data suggest that first-degree relatives of PBC patients have an increased risk of developing the disease. Most often, these familial clusters involve mother-daughter pairs, which is consistent with the female preponderance of the disease. These clusters provide evidence towards a genetic basis underlying PBC. However, clusters of nonrelated individuals have also been reported, giving strength to an environmental component. Twin studies have demonstrated a high concordance for PBC in monozygotic twins and a low concordance among dizygotic twins. In conclusion, studies of PBC in families clearly demonstrate that genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors play a role in the development of the disease.

  7. Effect of chlorpromazine or sulpiride and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, T

    1976-10-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted with 20 healthy paid volunteers for the evaluation of the subacute effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and sulpiride, in oral doses used for anxious outpatients, on psychomotor skills related to driving. Psychomotor performance was measured on the 7th and 14th days of treatment at 30, 90 and 150 min after the intake of 0.5 g/kg of an alcoholic or placebo drink. After the neuroleptics alone, reaction and coordination skills, but not attention, were slightly impaired, CPZ differing significantly from the placebo on the 14th day. Both drugs interacted additively with alcohol. The combined administration of CPZ and alcohol led to inaccuracy, a slowing of reactions and impaired proprioception and coordination. The combination of sulpiride and alcohol increased the error rate in the choice reaction test and impaired coordination in the coordination test driven at a free speed. It is concluded that the psychomotor decrement that occurs after 2 weeks of treatment with small doses of CPZ may effect the ability to control a motor vehicle. The concurrent administration of alcohol during treatment with CPZ or sulpiride may cause some extra risk in traffic or occupational life.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  9. Complications of cirrhosis. A 50 years flashback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    In patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, it is largely the frequency and severity of complications relating to the diseased liver, degree of portal hypertension and hemodynamic derangement that determine the prognosis. It can be considered as a multiple organ failure that apart from...... complications such as renal failure precipitating the hepatorenal syndrome. Patients with end-stage liver disease and related complications as for example the hepatopulmonary syndrome can only radically be treated by liver transplantation....

  10. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lofego Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%; hepatitis B or C (26.7%; other (3.8%; and cryptogenic (10.6%. The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  11. Mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Patricia Lofego; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima

    2014-06-01

    To study mortality from liver cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, we reviewed death certificates (DC) from 2000-2010 and medical records of deceased patients with investigation of alcoholism and hepatitis B or C. From a total of 218,410 DC, 3,554 deaths from liver cirrhosis were retrieved. The annual mortality rate was 19.8/100,000 for men and 4.31/100,000 for women, without significant changes after correction for ICD-R98 and R99 and without a significant increase in the annual percentage change. In 49% of death certificates, the aetiology of cirrhosis was defined: of these alcoholism in 81.5% of cases and viral hepatitis in 15.7%. Aetiology was confirmed in 262 reviewed records, including alcoholism (40.5%); hepatitis B or C (26.7%); other (3.8%); and cryptogenic (10.6%). The mean annual potential years of life lost were 5,946 years and 1,739 years for men and women respectively. The mortality rate from cirrhosis in Espírito Santo State is intermediate in relationship to worldwide data; alcoholism and hepatitis B or C were the main aetiologies; probably alcoholism is overestimated and hepatitis B and C viruses are underestimated as causes of cirrhosis registered on death certificates.

  12. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems.

  13. Serelaxin as a potential treatment for renal dysfunction in cirrhosis: Preclinical evaluation and results of a randomized phase 2 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anna M.; Semple, Scott I.; Mungall, Will; Lennen, Ross J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Pellicoro, Antonella; Aucott, Rebecca L.; Severin, Thomas; Saini, Rajnish; Yates, Denise; Dongre, Neelesh; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Webb, David J.; Iredale, John P.; Hayes, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic liver scarring from any cause leads to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and a progressive decline in renal blood flow and renal function. Extreme renal vasoconstriction characterizes hepatorenal syndrome, a functional and potentially reversible form of acute kidney injury in patients with advanced cirrhosis, but current therapy with systemic vasoconstrictors is ineffective in a substantial proportion of patients and is limited by ischemic adverse events. Serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin-2) is a peptide molecule with anti-fibrotic and vasoprotective properties that binds to relaxin family peptide receptor-1 (RXFP1) and has been shown to increase renal perfusion in healthy human volunteers. We hypothesized that serelaxin could ameliorate renal vasoconstriction and renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Methods and findings To establish preclinical proof of concept, we developed two independent rat models of cirrhosis that were characterized by progressive reduction in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and showed evidence of renal endothelial dysfunction. We then set out to further explore and validate our hypothesis in a phase 2 randomized open-label parallel-group study in male and female patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Forty patients were randomized 1:1 to treatment with serelaxin intravenous (i.v.) infusion (for 60 min at 80 μg/kg/d and then 60 min at 30 μg/kg/d) or terlipressin (single 2-mg i.v. bolus), and the regional hemodynamic effects were quantified by phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography at baseline and after 120 min. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in total renal artery blood flow. Therapeutic targeting of renal vasoconstriction with serelaxin in the rat models increased kidney perfusion, oxygenation, and function through reduction in renal vascular resistance, reversal of endothelial dysfunction, and increased activation of the

  14. Quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor beta 1 mRNA in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Xing Chen; You-Ming Li; Chao-Hui Yu; Wei-Min Cai; Min Zheng; Feng Chen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of the transforminggrowth factor beta 1 (TGF- beta 1 ) mRNA in different stagesof alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and its clinical value.METHODS: One hundred and seven male alcoholics weregrouped by clinical findings into four groups: alcoholabusers without liver impairment (n=22 ), alcoholicsteatosis ( n = 30 ); alcoholic hepatitis ( n = 31 ); andalcoholic cirrhosis ( n = 24 ) Using peripheral bloodmononuclear cells(PBMC) as samples the gene expressionof TGF-beta 1 was examined quantitatively by reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and dotblot. There are 34 healthy subjects served as control.RESULTS: The expression of TGF-beta 1 from all ALDpatients was significantly greater than that in controls ( 1. 320± 1.162 vs 0.808±0.276, P<0.001). The differences of theexpressions were significant between the patients from eachgroups ( alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis andalcoholic cirrhosis) and the controls ( 1. 168 ± 0.852, 1.462 ±1.657, 1.329± 0.610 vs 0.808 ± 0.276, P< 0.050). Nosignificant differences of TGF -beta 1 mRNA expression wereobserved between alcohol abusers without liver impairmentand controls. The expressions in patients with alcoholichepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis were significantly greaterthan that in alcohol abusers respectively (1.462 ± 1. 657, 1.329 ± 0. 610 vs 0. 841 ± 0. 706, P < 0. 050). No significantdifferences of TGF -beta 1 mRNA expression were observedbetween alcoholic fatty liver men and alcohol abusers.CONCLUSION: TGF-beta 1 expression level can be a riskfactor for alcoholic liver disease and might be related to theinflammatory activity and fibrosis of the liver in patients .

  15. Epigenetic regulation in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pranoti Mandrekar

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by steatosis or fat deposition in the liver and inflammation, which leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Induction of target genes without involving changes in DNA sequence seems to contribute greatly to liver injury. Chromatin modifications including alterations in histones and DNA, as well as post-transcriptional changes collectively referred to as epigenetic effects are altered by alcohol. Recent studies have pointed to a significant role for epigenetic mechanisms at the nucleosomal level influencing gene expression and disease outcome in ALD. Specifically, epigenetic alterations by alcohol include histone modifications such as changes in acetylation and phosphorylation, hypomethylation of DNA, and alterations in miRNAs. These modifications can be induced by alcohol-induced oxidative stress that results in altered recruitment of transcriptional machinery and abnormal gene expression. Delineating these mechanisms in initiation and progression of ALD is becoming a major area of interest. This review summarizes key epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated by alcohol in the liver. Alterations by alcohol in histone and DNA modifications, enzymes related to histone acetylation such as histone acetyltransferases, histone deacetylases and sirtuins, and methylation enzymes such as DNA methyltransferases are discussed. Chromatin modifications and miRNA alterations that result in immune cell dysfunction contributing to inflammatory cytokine production in ALD is reviewed. Finally, the role of alcohol-mediated oxidative stress in epigenetic regulation in ALD is described. A better understanding of these mechanisms is crucial for designing novel epigenetic based therapies to ameliorate ALD.

  16. Moderating Effects of a Craving Intervention on the Relation between Negative Mood and Heavy Drinking Following Treatment for Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Donovan, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Negative affect is a significant predictor of alcohol relapse, and the relation between negative affect and drinking has been shown to be strongly mediated by alcohol craving. Thus, targeting craving during treatment could potentially attenuate the relation between negative affect and drinking. Method: The current study is a secondary…

  17. Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Justin F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Mirza, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to the scarce research on U.S. college students studying abroad by documenting general and sexual negative alcohol-related risks and factors associated with such risk. The manner of drinking (quantity vs. frequency), pre-departure expectations surrounding alcohol use while abroad, culture-related social anxiety, and…

  18. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  19. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  20. Cognitive biases for social alcohol-related pictures and alcohol use in specific social settings: An event-level study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groefsema, M.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Smit, K.; Luijten, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use occurs mainly among friends, in social contexts, and for social reasons. Moreover, cognitive biases, such as attentional and approach biases, have repeatedly been associated with alcohol use. This study aimed to test whether nondependent drinkers display cognitive biases for

  1. Under-diagnosis of alcohol-related problems and depression in a family practice in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Kenshi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this survey was to assess the accuracy of a family physician's diagnosis of depression and alcoholism. Methods Consecutive new adult patients attending a family practice in Japan between April 2004 and August 2006 were enrolled. Excluded were those with dementia or visual disturbance, and emergency cases. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their complaints and socio-demographics. A research nurse conducted the Japanese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (J-MINI in the interview room. The doctor independently performed usual practice and recorded his own clinical diagnoses. A researcher listed the clinical diagnoses and complaints, including J-MINI or clinically-diagnosed alcoholism and depression, using the International Classifications for Primary Care, Second Edition (ICPC-2 and calculated kappa statistics between the J-MINI and clinical diagnoses. Results Of the 120 adult first-visit patients attending the clinics, 112 patients consented to participate in the survey and were enrolled. Fifty-one subjects were male and 61 female, and the average age was 40.7 ± 13.2 years. Eight alcohol-related disorders and five major depressions were diagnosed using the J-MINI, whereas no cases of alcoholism and eight depressions were diagnosed by the physician. Clinically overlooked patients tended to have acute illnesses like a common cold. Concordance between the clinical and research diagnosis was achieved only for three episodes of Major depression, resulting in a kappa statistic of 0.43. Conclusion Although almost half of the major depressions were identified, all alcoholism was missed. A mental health screening instrument might be beneficial in family practice, especially to detect alcoholism.

  2. Prevalence and related risk factors of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Bakar

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of cigarette, alcohol and substance use and the possible associations between different types of substance use and various risk factors among university students. Methods: A self-assessment questionnaire was administered to 4762 students from Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The risk factors associated with cigarette, alcohol and substance use were investigated with logistic regression analysis. Results: The frequencies of regular or occasional tobacco and alcohol use were 38.6% and 46.3% respectively. The frequency of using substance at least once in life time was 6.3% among students. In the present study, male gender was found to be a statistically significant risk factor associated with all of the three dependent variables. The statistically significant risk factors for using alcohol were studying in college and vocational schools, having a parent with high school and above educational level, having a family income of 1226 USD's and above, having tried tobacco once or a couple of times and using tobacco occasionally or regularly, and having used another substance at least once. Substance use risk was found to be higher in those with higher depression scores, in those who tried tobacco once or a couple of times and who were not using regularly, and who were using tobacco or alcohol occasionally or regularly. Conclusions: The practices and activities of the health center incorporated in the university should be enhanced for the establishment of effective control programs related to tobacco, regular alcohol and substance use.

  3. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  4. [Physical diseases in alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Kojiro

    2015-09-01

    Rapid excessive alcohol drinking frequently causes disturbance of consciousness due to head trauma, brain edema, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hepatic coma and so on, provoked by acute alcohol intoxication. Rapid differential diagnosis and management are extremely important to save a life. On the other hands, the chronic users of alcohol so called alcoholism has many kinds of physical diseases such as liver diseases (i.e., fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic liver cirrhosis and miscellaneous liver disease), diabetes mellitus, injury to happen in drunkenness, pancreas disease (i.e., acute and chronic pancreatitis and deterioration of chronic pancreatitis), gastrontestinal diseases (i.e., gastroduodenal ulcer), and so on. Enough attention should be paid to above mentioned diseases, otherwise they would turn worse more with continuation and increase in quantity of the alcohol. It should be born in its mind that the excessive drinking becomes the weapon threatening life.

  5. Worse or better?-Cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ran; Meng, Qinghua; Li, Juan; Feng, Jiliang; Shi, Hanping

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for about 90% of all malignant tumors of liver, ranking fifth in the worldwide incidence of malignant tumors and the third in fatality. More and more evidences suggest that cancer is a metabolic-related disease. From the analysis of recent clinical research data, we found that as the severity of the cirrhosis aggravated, patients with HCC and end-stage liver cirrhosis had a flat energy metabolism which was better than it in patients with simple end-stage liver cirrhosis. Based on these clinical phenomenon, the major aim of this study is to present a new hypothesis: "compensated liver function mechanism" for patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis, cancer cells may play a role to compensate liver function. In this study, we elaborated relevant content about this novel standpoint combined with tumor energy metabolism reprogramming mechanism and tumor cell origin as well as cell exchange mechanism.

  6. 非酒精性肝硬化肝性脑病患者血清甲状腺激素水平的变化及意义%Thyroid hormone level and clinical significance in non-alcoholic cirrhosis with or without hepatic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程态英; 邵丽萍; 张月玲; 金鑫; 周海燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较非酒精性肝硬化伴或不伴有肝性脑病患者的甲状腺激素水平变化并评价其临床意义.方法:非酒精性肝硬化肝性脑病患者18例,非酒精性肝硬化无肝性脑痛患者30例,正常健康对照者18例,所有患者行甲状腺功能检查,包括四碘甲状腺原氨酸(T4)、三碘甲状腺原氨酸(T3),游离四碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT4)、游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)及促甲状腺素(TSH),以及肝功能检查.分析甲状腺激素水平与肝病严重程度及与肝性脑病的关系.结果:非酒精性肝硬化肝性脑病患者FT3较肝硬化无肝性脑病患者明显降低.肝硬化无肝性脑病患者Child C较Child A和Child B患者FT3降低,肝性脑病患者与肝硬化Child A,Child B和Child C患者比较凝血酶原时间明显延长.结论:非酒精性肝硬化患者血清T3浓度越低,肝功能损害程度越重,在伴有肝性脑病患者T3水平最低,血清T3浓度是判断肝功能的敏感指标.%Objective:To investigate the changes in thyroid hormone levels in non-alcoholic cirrhosis with or without hepatic encephalopathy and their clinical significance. Methods: The levels of T3, T4, FT3, FT4 , TSH and liver function were examined in 18 cases of non-alcoholic cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy, 30 of nonalcoholic cirrhosis without hepatic encephalopathy and 18 healthy individuals. Results; The serum FT3 in patients with hepatic encephalopathy was lower than that in patients without hepatic encephalopathy, and was also lower in Child C than that in Child A and Child B non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients without hepatic encephalopathy. Prothrombin time was longer in Child A and Child B than in Child C non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion: There is a reduction in serum T3 along with severity of liver dysfunction among non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients, particularly in those with hepatic encephalopathy. The level of serum T3 may be useful as a sensitive

  7. Alcohol availability and neighborhood poverty and their relationship to binge drinking and related problems among drinkers in committed relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Christy M; Chartier, Karen G; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T Robert

    2012-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and neighborhood poverty. The 1,784 current drinkers in the survey reported on their binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and other covariates. AOD was defined as the number of alcohol outlets per 10,000 persons and was obtained at the zip code level. Neighborhood poverty was defined as having a low (poverty at the census tract level. We used logistic regression for survey data to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals and tested for differences of associations by sex. Associations of neighborhood poverty with binge drinking were stronger for male than for female drinkers. The association of neighborhood poverty with alcohol-related problems was also stronger for men than for women. We observed no relationships between AOD and binge drinking or alcohol-related problems in this couples survey. Efforts to reduce binge drinking or alcohol-related problems among partners in committed relationships may have the greatest impact if targeted to male drinkers living in high-poverty neighborhoods. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, as well as residence in an impoverished neighborhood are risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) and other relationship conflicts.

  8. Haemostatic balance in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccouche, Héla; Labidi, Asma; Fekih, Monia; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kaabi, Houda; Hmida, Slama; Filali, Azza; Romdhane, Neila B

    2017-03-01

    Despite the prolongation of coagulation tests, recent studies reported an increased frequency of thromboembolic events in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the haemostatic balance in cirrhotic patients through assessing the variation of pro- and anticoagulant factors and evaluating the in-vitro thrombin generation in patients with cirrhosis and in healthy patients. Fifty-one cirrhotic patients with or without thromboembolic events and 50 controls matched by age and sex were enrolled. Procoagulant (factors VII, II, V, VIII, and XII) and inhibitor (protein C, protein S and antithrombin) factor activities were determined. Thrombin generation was measured as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Haemostatic balance was assessed by means of both procoagulant to inhibitor coagulation factor ratios and ETP with to without protein C activation ratios. There were 24 males and 27 females. The mean age was 57.8 years [16-91 years]. Pro and anticoagulant factors were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P < 0.001) except for factor VIII and protein S. In fact factor VIII level was significantly higher in patients than in controls and protein S levels were not significantly different between patients and controls. Almost all the pro to anticoagulant factor ratios were higher in cirrhotics than in controls, especially the factor VIII to protein C ratios which increased significantly from Child Pugh A to C (P < 0.001), the ratio of ETP with to without protein C activator was higher in patients than in controls, but did not reach a significant level (0.8 vs. 0.52) There was no statistically significant difference between Child classes. When comparing patients with history of thrombosis (n = 7) to those matched by age and sex and without history of thrombosis (n = 14), the ratios were not statistically different between the two groups. Haemostatic changes in cirrhosis tend to rebalance the haemostatic system. This state often

  9. Disruption of long-term alcohol-related memory reconsolidation: Role of β-adrenoceptors and NMDA receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte A Wouda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol- related memories are prone to disruption by the β -adrenergicreceptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in the self-administration cages and were reexposed to the alcohol-associated cues for a 20-min retrieval period, immediately followed by a systemic injection of either propranolol, MK801 or saline. Rats were tested for cue-induced alcohol seeking on the following day. Retrieval session, injection and test were repeated on 2 further occasions at weekly intervals. Both propranolol and MK801 administration upon reactivation did not reduce alcohol seeking after the first reactivation test. However, a significant reduction of alcohol seeking was observed over three post-training tests in propranolol treated animals, and MK801 treated animals showed a strong tendency towards reduced alcohol seeking (p=0.06. Our data indicate that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories can be disrupted after a long post-training interval and that particularly β-adrenergic receptors may represent novel targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, in combination with cue-exposure therapies.

  10. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    coated with 3Z Carbowax 20 M. Serum proteins were removed by precipitation with 0.5 M percholoric acid. The clear, protein -free supernatant was...this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...no ethanol, and who according to the history had been two days without any alcohol intake . DISCUSSION The source of the 2,3-butanediol found in the

  11. A case of metabolic syndrome, positive antinuclear antibodies and cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grasso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a common clinical condition often associated with hepatic steatosis and sometimes with mild transaminases and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase increase. We report a case of a 45-years-old female, with mild increase of ALT, who was followed-up in our Department. A liver biopsy was then performed when an atorvastatin-induced ALT flare, as well as a positive antinuclear antibody appearance, occurred. A picture of steatohepatitis with sever fibrosis and cirrhosis was found. A caloric restriction with physical activity as well as the use of metformin were recommended. In the following 6 years the patient develops a decompensated cirrhosis and was referred to a Transplant Unit. This case suggests that non alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis can develop in patients with metabolic syndrome, especially when other cofactors of liver damage, as alcohol, may be superimposed. In non alcoholic steatohepatitis liver biopsy is mandatory to stage the disease. Moreover it is always recommended when different causes may concur to liver damage in the same patient.

  12. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  13. Physiologic and laboratory correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Fang-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown psychological distress in patients with cirrhosis, yet no studies have evaluated the laboratory and physiologic correlates of psychological symptoms in cirrhosis. This study therefore measured both biochemistry data and heart rate variability (HRV analyses, and aimed to identify the physiologic correlates of depression, anxiety, and poor sleep in cirrhosis. Methods A total of 125 patients with cirrhosis and 55 healthy subjects were recruited. Each subject was assessed through routine biochemistry, 5-minutes ECG monitoring, and psychological ratings of depression, anxiety, and sleep. HRV analysis were used to evaluate autonomic functions. The relationship between depression, sleep, and physiologic correlates was assessed using a multiple regression analysis and stepwise method, controlling for age, duration of illness, and severity of cirrhosis. Results Reduced vagal-related HRV was found in patients with severe liver cirrhosis. Severity of cirrhosis measured by the Child-Pugh score was not correlated with depression or anxiety, and only had a weak correlation with poor sleep. The psychological distress in cirrhosis such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia were correlated specifically to increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, increased ratios of low frequency to high frequency power, or reduced nonlinear properties of HRV (α1 exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis. Conclusions Increased serum AST and abnormal autonomic nervous activities by HRV analysis were associated with psychological distress in cirrhosis. Because AST is an important mediator of inflammatory process, further research is needed to delineate the role of inflammation in the cirrhosis comorbid with depression.

  14. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  15. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  16. Early weaning and hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to determine whether lack of breast-feeding or a short duration of breast-feeding during infancy is associated with an elevated risk of hospitalization with alcohol-related diagnoses in adult life. METHOD: The study was a prospective longitudinal birth cohort design...... conducted in a sample of 6,562 men and women, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The sample was divided into two categories based on duration of breast-feeding, as assessed by a physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination. Psychiatric...... hospitalizations with alcohol-related diagnoses according to ICD-8 or ICD-10 were identified in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register in 1999. Nine potential confounders were included as covariates: gender of the cohort member, maternal age, parental social status, maternal prenatal smoking, unwanted pregnancy...

  17. Alcoholism and liver disease in Mexico: genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-11-28

    Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.

  18. Oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard Grønkjær, Lea; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the oral care habits and self-perceived oral health in patients with liver cirrhosis, as well as to evaluate the impact of oral health on well-being and the relation to nutritional status. Participants and methods: From October 2012 to May 2013, we...... carried out a prospective study on patients with liver cirrhosis. Questions on oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were answered, and the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) provided information on oral conditions. The findings were compared with The Danish Institute for Health...... Services Research report on the Danish population’s dental status. Results: One hundred and seven patients participated. Their oral care habits and self-perceived oral health were poorer than the Danish population; the patients had fewer teeth (on average 19 vs. 26, P=0.0001), attended the dentist less...

  19. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV). An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son) and through marriage. We observ...

  20. The Relative Importance of Mothers’ and Youths’ Neighborhood Perceptions for Youth Alcohol Use and Delinquency

    OpenAIRE

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A.; Maguin, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Prior studies have examined the influence of neighborhood perceptions on youth outcomes, but few studies have examined whose report of neighborhoods, parents’ or youths’, are most important in predicting youth outcomes. This study addresses the relative associations of youths’ and mothers’ neighborhood perceptions with youth alcohol use and delinquency. The sample includes 499 mother-child dyads (youth age: 10 to 16 [mean = 13.3; SD = 2]). Structural equation modeling showed that youths’ perc...