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  1. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  2. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result of another disease, such as Parkinson's disease, alcoholism and diabetes. Problems can affect either part ...

  3. Laser puncture therapy of nervous system disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anishchenko, G.; Kochetkov, V.

    1984-08-29

    The authors discuss experience with treatment of nervous system disorders by means of laser-puncture therapy. Commenting on the background of the selection of this type of treatment, they explain that once researchers determined the biological action of laser light on specific nerve receptors of the skin, development of laser apparatus capable of concentrating the beam in the millimeter band was undertaken. The devices that are being used for laser-puncture are said to operate in the red helium-neon band of light. The authors identify beam parameters that have been selected for different groups of acupuncture points of the skin, and the courses of treatment (in seconds of radiation) and their time intervals. They go on to discuss the results of treatment of over 800 patients categorized in a group with disorders of the peripheral nervous system and a second group with disorders of the central nervous system.

  4. HCV-Related Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Monaco; Sergio Ferrari; Alberto Gajofatto; Gianluigi Zanusso; Sara Mariotto

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with a wide spectrum of extrahepatic manifestations, affecting different organ systems. Neurological complications occur in a large number of patients and range from peripheral neuropathy to cognitive impairment. Pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for nervous system dysfunction are mainly related to the upregulation of the host immune response with production of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and cryoglobulins. Alternative mecha...

  5. Studies on central nervous system serotonin receptors in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Goodwin, G M

    1991-01-01

    The evidence from studies of central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) receptors is reviewed and the role of these in the pathogenesis of mood disorders is discussed. Clinical evidence indicates that 5-HT function is abnormal in mood disorders. 5-HT precursors and selective inhibitors of 5-HT uptake are effective antidepressives and inhibition of 5-HT synthesis can block the action of antidepressives. Studies of 5-HT in experimental animals after chronic administration of antidepressive treatments suggest that intact 5-HT neurons are necessary for the action of these treatments. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes have recently been identified and the effects of chronic antidepressive treatment on some receptor subtypes function in experimental animals have been established. The increasing availability of powerful new in vivo imaging techniques like single photon emission tomography (SPET), and positron emission tomography (PET) may make possible a more direct examination of 5-HT receptor function in patients suffering from mood disorders. PMID:2029163

  6. Regional research priorities in brain and nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Vijayalakshmi; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Goya, Rodolfo G; Mansour, Hader; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Russell, Vivienne Ann; Xin, Yu

    2015-11-19

    The characteristics of neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders in low- and middle-income countries are unique and the burden that they have will be different from country to country. Many of the differences are explained by the wide variation in population demographics and size, poverty, conflict, culture, land area and quality, and genetics. Neurological, psychiatric, developmental and substance-use disorders that result from, or are worsened by, a lack of adequate nutrition and infectious disease still afflict much of sub-Saharan Africa, although disorders related to increasing longevity, such as stroke, are on the rise. In the Middle East and North Africa, major depressive disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder are a primary concern because of the conflict-ridden environment. Consanguinity is a serious concern that leads to the high prevalence of recessive disorders in the Middle East and North Africa and possibly other regions. The burden of these disorders in Latin American and Asian countries largely surrounds stroke and vascular disease, dementia and lifestyle factors that are influenced by genetics. Although much knowledge has been gained over the past 10 years, the epidemiology of the conditions in low- and middle-income countries still needs more research. Prevention and treatments could be better informed with more longitudinal studies of risk factors. Challenges and opportunities for ameliorating nervous-system disorders can benefit from both local and regional research collaborations. The lack of resources and infrastructure for health-care and related research, both in terms of personnel and equipment, along with the stigma associated with the physical or behavioural manifestations of some disorders have hampered progress in understanding the disease burden and improving brain health. Individual countries, and regions within countries, have specific needs in terms of research priorities. PMID:26580328

  7. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-05-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders.

  8. Towards a 'systems'-level understanding of the nervous system and its disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2013-11-01

    It is becoming clear that nervous system development and adult functioning are highly coupled with other physiological systems. Accordingly, neurological and psychiatric disorders are increasingly being associated with a range of systemic comorbidities including, most prominently, impairments in immunological and bioenergetic parameters as well as in the gut microbiome. Here, we discuss various aspects of the dynamic crosstalk between these systems that underlies nervous system development, homeostasis, and plasticity. We believe a better definition of this underappreciated systems physiology will yield important insights into how nervous system diseases with systemic comorbidities arise and potentially identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  9. A practical guide for the diagnosis of primary enteric nervous system disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäppi, M G; Staiano, A; Milla, P J;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques and repo......OBJECTIVE: Primary gastrointestinal neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of enteric nervous system (ENS) disorders that continue to cause difficulties in diagnosis and histological interpretation. Recently, an international working group published guidelines for histological techniques...

  10. [Nervous system disorders induced by occupational exposure to aluminium compounds: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sińczuk-Walczak, H

    2001-01-01

    This is a review of the literature on the effect of aluminum (Al) and its compounds on the nervous system. The role of aluminum in etiology of some degenerative diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or dementia, is presented. The special attention was turned to the effects of aluminum on the nervous system functions in persons occupationally exposed to metal-containing dusts and fumes, manifested mostly by neurobehavioral disorders and changes in the brain bioelectric functions and less frequently pronounced by clinical neurological symptoms.

  11. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  12. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  13. Clinical Proton MR Spectroscopy in Central Nervous System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Öz, G.; Alger, J; Barker, P; Bartha, R.; Bizzi, A.; Boesch, C.; Bolan, P.; Brindle, K; Cudalbu, C.; Dincer, A.; Dydak, U; Emir, U.; Frahm, J.; González, R.; Gruber, S

    2014-01-01

    A large body of published work shows that proton (hydrogen 1 [(1)H]) magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has evolved from a research tool into a clinical neuroimaging modality. Herein, the authors present a summary of brain disorders in which MR spectroscopy has an impact on patient management, together with a critical consideration of common data acquisition and processing procedures. The article documents the impact of (1)H MR spectroscopy in the clinical evaluation of disorders of the cen...

  14. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  15. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF IMMUNE IMBALANCE AND AUTOIMMUNITY IN NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS (NSDs)

    OpenAIRE

    SINGH Vijendra K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the role of immune imbalance and autoimmunity has been experimentally demonstrated in nervous system disorders (NSDs) that include Alzheimer’s disease, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), tics and Tourette’s syndrome, schizophrenia, and some other NSDs. And yet, these NSDs are never counted as autoimmune diseases. Deriving from the rapidly expanding knowledge of neuro-immunology and auto-immune diseases, for example multiple scle-rosis (MS), the author of this mini-r...

  16. Hirschsprung disease: a developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Sonja J; Stamp, Lincon; Hao, Marlene M; Young, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), which is also called congenital megacolon or intestinal aganglionosis, is characterized by an absence of enteric (intrinsic) neurons from variable lengths of the most distal bowel. Because enteric neurons are essential for propulsive intestinal motility, infants with HSCR suffer from severe constipation and have a distended abdomen. Currently the only treatment is surgical removal of the affected bowel. HSCR has an incidence of around 1:5,000 live births, with a 4:1 male:female gender bias. Most enteric neurons arise from neural crest cells that emigrate from the caudal hindbrain and then migrate caudally along the entire gut. The absence of enteric neurons from variable lengths of the bowel in HSCR results from a failure of neural crest-derived cells to colonize the affected gut regions. HSCR is therefore regarded as a neurocristopathy. HSCR is a multigenic disorder and has become a paradigm for understanding complex factorial disorders. The major HSCR susceptibility gene is RET. The penetrance of several mutations in HSCR susceptibility genes is sex-dependent. HSCR can occur as an isolated disorder or as part of syndromes; for example, Type IV Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by deafness and pigmentation defects as well as intestinal aganglionosis. Studies using animal models have shown that HSCR genes regulate multiple processes including survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Research into HSCR and the development of enteric neurons is an excellent example of the cross fertilization of ideas that can occur between human molecular geneticists and researchers using animal models. WIREs Dev Biol 2013, 2:113-129. doi: 10.1002/wdev.57 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:23799632

  17. A Role of Ginseng and Its Constituents in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokot, Natasya Trivena; Kairupan, Timothy Sean; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Runtuwene, Joshua; Kapantow, Nova Hellen; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the Panax genus of the Araliaceae family, has been used in China, Korea, and Japan as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Ginseng is recorded to have exhibited a wide variety of beneficial pharmacological effects and has become a popular and worldwide known health supplement and drug. The protective effects of ginseng on central nervous system are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are concisely introduced. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of ginseng on central nervous system, mainly focused on the neuroprotection properties of ginseng, memory, and learning enhanced properties, and the effects on neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Thus, ginseng and its constituents are of potential merits in the treatment of cerebral disorders. PMID:27630732

  18. Addressing Neuroplastic Changes in Distributed Areas of the Nervous System Associated With Chronic Musculoskeletal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, René; Higgins, Johanne; Bourbonnais, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Present interventions utilized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation are guided, in large part, by a biomedical model where peripheral structural injury is believed to be the sole driver of the disorder. There are, however, neurophysiological changes across different areas of the peripheral and central nervous systems, including peripheral receptors, dorsal horn of the spinal cord, brain stem, sensorimotor cortical areas, and the mesolimbic and prefrontal areas associated with chronic musculoskeletal disorders, including chronic low back pain, osteoarthritis, and tendon injuries. These neurophysiological changes appear not only to be a consequence of peripheral structural injury but also to play a part in the pathophysiology of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Neurophysiological changes are consistent with a biopsychosocial formulation reflecting the underlying mechanisms associated with sensory and motor findings, psychological traits, and perceptual changes associated with chronic musculoskeletal conditions. These changes, therefore, have important implications in the clinical manifestation, pathophysiology, and treatment of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal rehabilitation professionals have at their disposal tools to address these neuroplastic changes, including top-down cognitive-based interventions (eg, education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness meditation, motor imagery) and bottom-up physical interventions (eg, motor learning, peripheral sensory stimulation, manual therapy) that induce neuroplastic changes across distributed areas of the nervous system and affect outcomes in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. Furthermore, novel approaches such as the use of transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be utilized to help renormalize neurological function. Comprehensive treatment addressing peripheral structural injury as well as neurophysiological changes occurring across

  19. Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Brain and Nervous System KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain and Nervous System Print ... is quite the juggler. Anatomy of the Nervous System If you think of the brain as a ...

  20. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Kushki

    Full Text Available Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1 examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2 characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature during a baseline (movie watching and anxiety condition (Stroop task in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17 and children with ASD (n = 12. The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1 signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2 ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  1. Investigating the autonomic nervous system response to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushki, Azadeh; Drumm, Ellen; Pla Mobarak, Michele; Tanel, Nadia; Dupuis, Annie; Chau, Tom; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of anxiety symptoms in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a challenging task due to the symptom overlap between the two conditions as well as the difficulties in communication and awareness of emotions in ASD. This motivates the development of a physiological marker of anxiety in ASD that is independent of language and does not require observation of overt behaviour. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using indicators of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for this purpose. Specially, the objectives of the study were to 1) examine whether or not anxiety causes significant measurable changes in indicators of ANS in an ASD population, and 2) characterize the pattern of these changes in ASD. We measured three physiological indicators of the autonomic nervous system response (heart rate, electrodermal activity, and skin temperature) during a baseline (movie watching) and anxiety condition (Stroop task) in a sample of typically developing children (n = 17) and children with ASD (n = 12). The anxiety condition caused significant changes in heart rate and electrodermal activity in both groups, however, a differential pattern of response was found between the two groups. In particular, the ASD group showed elevated heart rate during both baseline and anxiety conditions. Elevated and blunted phasic electrodermal activity were found in the ASD group during baseline and anxiety conditions, respectively. Finally, the ASD group did not show the typical decrease in skin temperature in response to anxiety. These results suggest that 1) signals of the autonomic nervous system may be used as indicators of anxiety in children with ASD, and 2) ASD may be associated with an atypical autonomic response to anxiety that is most consistent with sympathetic over-arousal and parasympathetic under-arousal.

  2. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke. PMID:26238742

  3. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Anzalone, M; Calabrese, F; Milazzo, M; Capuana, M; Italia, A; Occhipinti, S; Marotta, F

    2015-09-01

    A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders.

  4. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Anzalone, M; Calabrese, F; Milazzo, M; Capuana, M; Italia, A; Occhipinti, S; Marotta, F

    2015-09-01

    A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders. PMID:25390799

  5. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  6. MicroRNA in central nervous system trauma and degenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2011-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs leading to their translational inhibition or sometimes degradation. MiRNAs are predicted to control the activity of at least 20-30% of human protein-coding genes. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord. Although we are currently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of gene regulators is involved in neurological biological functions, a growing body of exciting evidence suggests that miRNAs are important regulators of diverse biological processes such as cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Moreover, miRNAs are key modulators of both CNS development and plasticity. Some miRNAs have been implicated in several neurological disorders such as traumatic CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, several studies suggested the possibility of miRNA involvement in neurodegeneration. Identifying the roles of miRNAs and their target genes and signaling pathways in neurological disorders will be critical for future research. miRNAs may represent a new layer of regulators for neurobiology and a novel class of therapeutic targets for neurological diseases.

  7. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  8. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Central Nervous System with High-Dose Methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J. Twist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD is a frequent complication of intestinal transplantation and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is currently no consensus on optimal therapy. Recurrent PTLD involving the central nervous system (CNS represents a particularly difficult therapeutic challenge. We report the successful treatment of CNS PTLD in a pediatric patient after liver/small bowel transplantation. Initial immunosuppression (IS was with thymoglobulin, solucortef, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. EBV viremia developed 8 weeks posttransplantation, and despite treatment with cytogam and valganciclovir the patient developed a polymorphic, CD20+, EBV+ PTLD with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Following treatment with rituximab, the lymphadenopathy resolved, but a new monomorphic CD20−, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD mesenteric mass emerged. Complete response of this PTLD was achieved with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP chemotherapy; however, 4 months off therapy he developed CNS PTLD (monomorphic CD20−, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD of the brain and spine. IS was discontinued and HD-MTX (2.5–5 gm/m2/dose followed by intrathecal HD-MTX (2 mg/dose ×2-3 days Q 7–10 days per cycle was administered Q 4–7 weeks. After 3 cycles of HD-MTX, the CSF was negative for malignant cells, MRI of head/spine showed near-complete response, and PET/CT was negative. The patient remains in complete remission now for 3.5 years after completion of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Conclusion. HD-MTX is an effective therapy for CNS PTLD and recurrent PTLD that have failed rituximab and CHOP chemotherapy.

  9. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.

    2008-01-01

    Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte

  10. Dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system in patients with temporomandibular disorder: a pupillometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Monaco

    Full Text Available The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS was recently investigated in Temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Several authors argue that in subjects with TMD there is a dysregulation of ANS. Recent literature support that Pupillometry is a simple non-invasive tool to study ANS. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TMD and ANS activity using pupillometry recording in Infrared light at rest Mandible Position (RP; Infrared light at Forced Habitual Occlusion (FHO; Yellow-green light at RP; Yellow-green light at FHO. Forty female subjects were enrolled: 20 case patients showed TMD based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD, and 20 control patients, aged matched, had no signs or symptoms of TMD. Statistical analysis was performed on average pupil size. Ratio between pupil size in FHO and RP (FHO/RP ratio and yellow-green and infrared (light/darkness ratio lighting were carried out. Within group differences of pupil size and of "ratio" were analyzed using a paired t test, while differences of pupil size between groups were tested using an unpaired t test. Statistical comparisons between groups showed no significant differences of absolute values of pupil dimension in RP and FHO, both in yellow-green and in infrared lighting. In addition, there were no significant differences within groups comparing RP and FHO in yellow-green light. In within group comparison of pupil size, differences between RP and FHO were significant in infrared conditions. Control subjects increased, whereas TMD patients decreased pupil size at FHO in infrared lightening. FHO/RP ratio in darkness and light/darkness ratio in RP were significantly different between groups. Taken together, these data suggest that TMD subjects have an impairment of the sympathetic-adrenergic component of the ANS to be activated under stress. The present study provides preliminary pupillometric data confirming that adrenergic function is dysregulated in patients with

  11. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    R Nassen; Donald, K; Walker, K.; S Paruk; M Vujovic; Duncan, W.; Laughton, B; B Moos

    2014-01-01

    HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS) sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood) and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for...

  12. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult histiocytic disorders with central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Van Den Neste, Eric; Boudou, Pascaline; Haroche, Julien; Wechsler, Bertrand; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Amoura, Zahir; Guillevin, Remy; Savatovski, Julien; Azar, Nabih; Piette, Jean-Charles; Leblond, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    We postulated that high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by peripheral autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might help to control refractory central nervous system (CNS) histiocytic disorders. Six patients with histiocytic CNS involvement were treated in this way. Two patients achieved non-active disease status, although one relapsed at 84 months. Two patients had regressive disease, one of whom progressed at 21 months. One patient had progressive disease at 14 months. One patie...

  13. ADAMTS expression and function in central nervous system injury and disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Paul E.; Howell, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The components of the adult extracellular matrix in the central nervous system form a lattice-like structure that is deposited as perineuronal nets, around axon initial segments and as synapse-associated matrix. An abundant component of this matrix is the lecticans, chondroitin sulfate-bearing proteoglycans that are the major substrate for several members of the ADAMTSs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family. Since lecticans are key regulators of neural plasticity, ADAMTS cleavage of lecticans would likely also contribute to neuroplasticity. Indeed, many studies have examined the neuroplastic contribution of the ADAMTSs to damage and recovery after injury and in central nervous system disease. Much of this data supports a role for the ADAMTSs in recovery and repair following spinal cord injury by stimulating axonal outgrowth after degradation of a glial scar and improving synaptic plasticity following seizure-induced neural damage in the brain. The action of the ADAMTSs in chronic diseases of the central nervous system appears to be more complex and less well-defined. Increasing evidence indicates that lecticans participate in synaptic plasticity in neurodegenerative disease states. It will be interesting to examine how ADAMTS expression and action would affect the progression of these diseases. PMID:25622912

  14. Management of mental health disorders and central nervous system sequelae in HIV-positive children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nassen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive children and adolescents are at increased risk of both central nervous system (CNS sequelae and mental disorders owing to a number of factors, including the impact of HIV infection on the brain, social determinants of health (e.g. poverty and orphanhood and psychosocial stressors related to living with HIV. Every effort should be made to identify perinatally HIV-infected children and initiate them on antiretroviral therapy early in life. HIV clinicians should ideally screen for mental health and neurocognitive problems, as part of the routine monitoring of children attending antiretroviral clinics. This guideline is intended as a reference tool for HIV clinicians to support the early identification, screening and management of mental health disorders and/or CNS impairment in children and adolescents. This guideline covers mental disorders (section 1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (section 2 among children and adolescents.  

  15. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  16. DISORDERS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN THE CARDIOLOGY PRACTICE: FOCUS ON THE ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Akhmedova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV in patients with ischemic heart disease, a life-threatening heart rhythm disorders, as well as diabetes mellitus (DM is considered. A significant association between the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and death from cardiovascular causes is identified. The reactions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS can serve as a precipitating factor of arrhythmias in patients with heart disorders. Analysis of HRV at rest is the main and informative method for determination of the ANS disorders. HRV decreases greatly in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and DM, predicting a high risk of death. The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiac autonomic neuropathy, with the development of "silent" ischemia and painless myocardial infarction. Autonomic regulation of the heart rate should be assessed for early diagnosis and prevention of complications in the form of sudden death.

  17. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  18. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  19. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  20. Larval nervous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords......, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence...

  1. The Nervous System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

    2006-01-01

    For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts. With this in mind, the authors developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to…

  2. Mitochondria and the central nervous system: searching for a pathophysiological basis of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio L. Streck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Methodology: We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Results: Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Conclusions: Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects.

  3. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  4. Interactions between synthetic drugs used in treatment of selected central nervous system disorders and dietary supplements and herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of interaction between dietary supplements, herbal drugs and synthetic drugs increases when patients are treated chronically, e.g. due to impairment of central nervous system (CNS – depression, psychotic disorders, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. On the basis of scientific literature, there was shown that simultaneous intake of antidepressants, antipsychotic drugs and herbal drugs or dietary supplements containing: St. John’s wort, valerian root, ginkgo biloba leaf, hops, and food ingredients: dietary fiber or folic acid, may lead to interactions. Dietary fiber supplementation should be applied carefully during treatment of Parkinson’s disease and in case of Alzheimer disease treatment – supplements containing ginkgo biloba leaf can increase the risk of interaction. Knowledge of these interactions is essential in effective treatment of this illness. However this area of science should be verified constantly due to growing number of new products registered as a supplements – often with complex composition.

  5. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  6. Nervous System Problems and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 505 Nervous System Problems and Dementia WHAT ARE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROBLEMS? WHAT ARE THE ... of AIDS these were all called “HIV-Associated Dementia.” However, a broader range of problems is showing ...

  7. Your Brain and Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Brain & Nervous System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Brain & Nervous System Print A A A Text Size What's in ... spinal cord and nerves — known as the nervous system — that let messages flow back and forth between ...

  8. Ultra-sensitive molecular MRI of cerebrovascular cell activation enables early detection of chronic central nervous system disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since endothelial cells can be targeted by large contrast-carrying particles, molecular imaging of cerebrovascular cell activation is highly promising to evaluate the underlying inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebrovascular cell activation can reveal CNS disorders in the absence of visible lesions and symptoms. To this aim, we optimized contrast carrying particles targeting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and MRI protocols through both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although, pre-contrast MRI images failed to reveal the ongoing pathology, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypoperfusion-triggered CNS injury in vascular dementia, unmasked amyloid-induced cerebrovascular activation in Alzheimer's disease and allowed monitoring of disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Moreover, contrast-enhanced MRI revealed the cerebrovascular cell activation associated with known risk factors of CNS disorders such as peripheral inflammation, ethanol consumption, hyperglycemia and aging. By providing a dramatically higher sensitivity than previously reported methods and molecular contrast agents, the technology described in the present study opens new avenues of investigation in the field of neuro-inflammation. (authors)

  9. Autonomic nervous system and lipid metabolism: findings in anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messina Vincenzo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To correlate lipid metabolism and autonomic dysfunction with anxious-depressive spectrum and eating disorders. To propose the lipid index (LI as a new possible biomarker. Methods 95 patients and 60 controls were enrolled from the University Psychiatry Unit of Catania and from general practitioners (GPs. The patients were divided into four pathological groups: Anxiety, Depression, Anxious-Depressive Disorder and Eating Disorders [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR official/appendix criteria]. The levels of the cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoproteins A and B were determined. The LI, for each subject, was obtained through a mathematical operation on the values of the cholesterol and triglycerides levels compared with the maximum cut-off of the general population. The autonomic functioning was tested with Ewing battery tests. Particularly, the correlation between heart rate variability (HRV and lipid metabolism has been investigated. Results Pathological and control groups, compared among each other, presented some peculiarities in the lipid metabolism and the autonomic dysfunction scores. In addition, a statistically significant correlation has been found between HRV and lipid metabolism. Conclusions Lipid metabolism and autonomic functioning seem to be related to the discussed psychiatric disorders. LI, in addition, could represent a new possible biomarker to be considered.

  10. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Tatsuya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis within the human body, is altered during the menstrual cycle of women with different degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Sixty-two women in their 20s to 40s with regular menstrual cycles participated in this study. All subjects were examined during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by means of heart-rate variability (HRV power spectral analysis during supine rest. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. The subjects were categorized in three groups, Control, PMS, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD groups, depending on the severity of premenstrual symptomatology. Results No intramenstrual cycle difference in any of the parameters of HRV was found in the Control group, which had no or a small increase in premenstrual symptoms. In contrast, Total power and high frequency power, which reflect overall autonomic and parasympathetic nerve activity, respectively, significantly decreased in the late luteal phase from the follicular phase in the PMS group. As for the PMDD group, which had more severe symptoms premenstrually, heart-rate fluctuation as well as all components of the power

  11. A systematic review of the effects of shoes and other ankle or foot appliances on balance in older people and people with peripheral nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, J.M.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Postema, K.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify and review all publications on effects ankle and/or foot appliances (AFA) on balance in older people (> 60 years) and patients with peripheral nervous system disorders (PNSD). These two groups account for the majority of the population with deteriorated bal

  12. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  13. Functional autonomic nervous system profile in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kushki, Azadeh; Brian, Jessica; Dupuis, Annie; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Background Autonomic dysregulation has been recently reported as a feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the nature of autonomic atypicalities in ASD remain largely unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize the cardiac autonomic profile of children with ASD across four domains affected in ASD (anxiety, attention, response inhibition, and social cognition), and suggested to be affected by autonomic dysregulation. Methods We compared measures of autonomic cardiac regulat...

  14. Overview of the Autonomic Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reversible or progressive. Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system is the part of ... they connect with. Function of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system controls internal body processes ...

  15. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  16. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  17. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD. PMID:26248474

  18. Social functioning and autonomic nervous system sensitivity across vocal and musical emotion in Williams syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Anna; Ng, Rowena; Crivelli, Davide; Neumann, Dirk; Arnold, Andrew J; Woo-VonHoogenstyn, Nicholas; Lai, Philip; Trauner, Doris; Bellugi, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Both Williams syndrome (WS) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with unusual auditory phenotypes with respect to processing vocal and musical stimuli, which may be shaped by the atypical social profiles that characterize the syndromes. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity to vocal and musical emotional stimuli was examined in 12 children with WS, 17 children with ASD, and 20 typically developing (TD) children, and related to their level of social functioning. The results of this small-scale study showed that after controlling for between-group differences in cognitive ability, all groups showed similar emotion identification performance across conditions. Additionally, in ASD, lower autonomic reactivity to human voice, and in TD, to musical emotion, was related to more normal social functioning. Compared to TD, both clinical groups showed increased arousal to vocalizations. A further result highlighted uniquely increased arousal to music in WS, contrasted with a decrease in arousal in ASD and TD. The ASD and WS groups exhibited arousal patterns suggestive of diminished habituation to the auditory stimuli. The results are discussed in the context of the clinical presentation of WS and ASD.

  19. Neuroprotective action of lithium in disorders of the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Tso CHIU; De-Maw CHUANG

    2011-01-01

    Substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence of neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of lithium suggests that it may also have considerable potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. Lithium's main mechanisms of action appear to stem from its ability to inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity and also to induce signaling mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This in turn alters a wide variety of downstream effectors, with the ultimate effect of enhancing pathways to cell survival. In addition, lithium contributes to calcium homeostasis. By inhibiting Nmethyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, for instance, it suppresses the calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. By inhibiting the activity of phosphoinositol phosphatases, it decreases levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate,. a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. These mechanisms allow therapeutic doses of lithium to protect neuronal cells from diverse insults that would otherwise lead to massive cell death. Lithium, moreover, has been shown to improve behavioral and cognitive deficits in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, and Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since lithium is already FDA-approved for the treatment of bipolar disorder, our conclusions support the notion that its clinical relevance can be expanded to include the treatment of several neurological and neurodegenerative-related diseases.

  20. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  1. How can music influence the Autonomic Nervous System response in patients with severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eRiganello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC. In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF and Sample Entropy (SampEn of Heart Rate Variability (HRV parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e. Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg and Boccherini in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS patients.The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty’s semiology studies.The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky’s music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky’s music.Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics.These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way.

  2. How Can Music Influence the Autonomic Nervous System Response in Patients with Severe Disorder of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganello, Francesco; Cortese, Maria D; Arcuri, Francesco; Quintieri, Maria; Dolce, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    Activations to pleasant and unpleasant musical stimuli were observed within an extensive neuronal network and different brain structures, as well as in the processing of the syntactic and semantic aspects of the music. Previous studies evidenced a correlation between autonomic activity and emotion evoked by music listening in patients with Disorders of Consciousness (DoC). In this study, we analyzed retrospectively the autonomic response to musical stimuli by mean of normalized units of Low Frequency (nuLF) and Sample Entropy (SampEn) of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) parameters, and their possible correlation to the different complexity of four musical samples (i.e., Mussorgsky, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, and Boccherini) in Healthy subjects and Vegetative State/Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (VS/UWS) patients. The complexity of musical sample was based on Formal Complexity and General Dynamics parameters defined by Imberty's semiology studies. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups for SampEn during the listening of Mussorgsky's music and for nuLF during the listening of Boccherini and Mussorgsky's music. Moreover, the VS/UWS group showed a reduction of nuLF as well as SampEn comparing music of increasing Formal Complexity and General Dynamics. These results put in evidence how the internal structure of the music can change the autonomic response in patients with DoC. Further investigations are required to better comprehend how musical stimulation can modify the autonomic response in DoC patients, in order to administer the stimuli in a more effective way. PMID:26696818

  3. The nervous systems of cnidarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Westfall, J A

    1995-01-01

    Cnidarians have simple nervous systems and it was probably within this group or a closely-related ancestor that nervous systems first evolved. The basic plan of the cnidarian nervous system is that of a nerve net which, at some locations, has condensed to form nerve plexuses, or circular...... specialized neurons that we find in higher animals today. The primitive nervous system of cnidarians is strongly peptidergic: from a single sea anemone species Anthopleura elegantissima, we have now isolated 16 different novel neuropeptides. These peptides are biologically active and cause inhibitions...... that the peptides are located in neuronal dense-cored vesicles associated with both synaptic and non-synaptic release sites. All these data indicate that evolutionarily "old" nervous systems use peptides as transmitters. We have also investigated the biosynthesis of the cnidarian neuropeptides. These neuropeptides...

  4. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  5. The Possible Role of Transplacentally-Acquired Antibodies to Infectious Agents, With Molecular Mimicry to Nervous System Sialic Acid Epitopes, as Causes of Neuromental Disorders: Prevention and Vaccine Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Nahmias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proof of causality of most neuromental disorders (NMD's is largely unavailable. Lessons from four-decade investigations of the epidemiology, immunology, pathogenesis, prevention and therapy of perinatal infectious agents, which invade directly the nervous system, have led us to propose a new indirect effect hypothesis: maternal transplacentally-acquired antibodies, to agents with epitope molecular mimicry with the developing nervous system, can cross the fetus/infant's blood–nervous system barriers to cause NMD's, clinically manifest years later.

  6. Altered autonomic nervous system activity as a potential etiological factor of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi Tatsuya; Kimura Tetsuya; Ushiroyama Takahisa; Matsumoto Tamaki; Moritani Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms occurring during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and abating shortly following the beginning of menses. Although PMS is widely recognized, its etiopathogenesis is not yet understood. The present study investigates whether the activity of the autonomic nervous system, which plays a vital role in orchestrating physiological homeostasis with...

  7. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion......Anatomy, serotonergic nervous system, neurons, invertebrates, phylogeny, development, apical ganglion...

  8. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  9. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  10. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Regeneration in the aging peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Michio Wendell

    2014-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), aging is associated with a number of disorders, including a decline in regenerative capacity after injury. Although this decline has been observed in both rodents and humans for decades, the cellular and molecular underpinnings of this defect have remained elusive. As such, the goal of this thesis was to elucidate, at least in part, how aging impinges on axonal regeneration.

  12. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging findings in central nervous system monomorphic B cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder before and after treatment and comparison with primary B cell central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Purakal, Alixandra; Pytel, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the MRI features of monomorphic central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS PTLD), including diffusion-weighted and susceptibility-weighted sequences before and after treatment and to compare the imaging findings with those of primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma (PCNS BCL). Retrospective review of the brain MRI characteristics in patients with pathology proven monomorphic CNS PTLD and PCNS BCL was performed. In particular, the enhancement, diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. In addition, the diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI features after treatment for CNS PTLD were evaluated. A total of 12 lesions in six patients with CNS PTLD and 12 lesions in nine patients with PCNS BCL were identified on MRI. Among the CNS PTLD lesions with post-contrast images, 80 % demonstrated peripheral enhancement. All of the CNS PTLD lesions contained foci of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) and the average mean ADC values and ratios were 0.892 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.082 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 1.19 (standard deviation: 0.15), respectively. On the other hand, 75 % of the PCNS BCL displayed diffuse enhancement, two cases (16.7 %) contained ITSS, and the mean ADC values and ratios were 0.721 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.093 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s), and 0.99 (standard deviation: 0.17), respectively. Thus, the presence of heterogeneous lesions with ITSS that do not necessarily have as extensive restricted diffusion as PCNS BCL is suggestive of CNS PTLD in the appropriate clinical setting. The preliminary data in this series suggests that diffusion-weighted imaging may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring treatment response, in which successful treatment of CNS PTLD may result in increased ADC values. In addition, foci of susceptibility effect in CNS PTLD tend to persist or increase over the course of

  13. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  14. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  15. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  16. Increased membrane turnover in the brain in cutaneous anthrax without central nervous system disorder: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir, Yasar; Firat, Ahmet K; Kayabas, Uner; Alkan, Alpay; Yetkin, Funda; Karakas, Hakki M; Yologlu, Saim

    2012-07-01

    Cutaneous anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis contacting the skin, is the most common form of human anthrax. Recent studies implicate the presence of additional, possibly toxin-related subtle changes, even in patients without neurological or radiological findings. In this study, the presence of subtle changes in cutaneous anthrax was investigated at the metabolite level using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Study subjects were consisted of 10 patients with cutaneous anthrax without co-morbid disease and/or neurological findings, and 13 healthy controls. There were no statistical differences in age and gender between two groups. The diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax was based on medical history, presence of a typical cutaneous lesion, large gram positive bacilli on gram staining and/or positive culture for B. anthracis from cutaneous samples. Brain magnetic resonance imaging examination consisted of conventional imaging and single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed by using point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (TR: 2000ms, TE: 136ms, 128 averages). Voxels of 20mm×20mm×20mm were placed in normal-appearing parietal white matter to detect metabolite levels. Cerebral metabolite peaks were measured in normal appearing parietal white matter. N-acetyl aspartate/creatine and choline/creatine ratios were calculated using standard analytical procedures. Patients and controls were not statistically different regarding parietal white matter N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios (p=0.902), a finding that implicates the conservation of neuronal and axonal integrity and neuronal functions. However, choline/creatine ratios were significantly higher in patient groups (p=0.001), a finding implicating an increased membrane turnover. In conclusion, these two findings point to a possibly anthrax toxins-related subtle inflammatory reaction of the central nervous system at the cellular level. PMID:22543072

  17. Aging changes in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article/004023.htm Aging changes in the nervous system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The brain and nervous system are your body's central control center. They control ...

  18. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  19. Lipidomics: The Function of Vital Lipids in Embryogenesis Preventing Autism Spectrum Disorders, Treating Sterile Inflammatory Diatheses with a Lymphopoietic Central Nervous System Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Tallberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The central role performed by billions of vital central nervous system (CNS lipids “lipidomics” in medical physiology is usually overlooked. A metabolic deficiency embracing these vital lipids can form the aetiology for a variety of diseases. CNS lipids regulate embryogenesis, cell induction, mental balance by preventing autism spectrum disorders, depression, burn-out syndromes like posttraumatic stress disease PTSD, by guarding normal immunity, treating sterile inflammatory diatheses with a titanium containing lymphopoietic CNS lipid component. The propaganda driving for unphysiological fat-free diets is dangerous and can cause serious health problems for a whole generation. This article presents a broad list of various mental and motor bodily functions of which the healthy function depends on these vital CNS lipids. A rigorous fat-free diet can provoke these metabolic lipid deficiencies but they can fortunately be compensated by dietary supplementation, but not by pharmacologic treatment.

  20. The Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad A.; Sood, Manu R.

    2008-01-01

    The enteric nervous system is an integrative brain with collection of neurons in the gastrointestinal tract which is capable of functioning independently of the central nervous system (CNS). The enteric nervous system modulates motility, secretions, microcirculation, immune and inflammatory responses of the gastrointestinal tract. Dysphagia,…

  1. Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Madalena; Jessica K Lerch

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor (GC/GR) interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences (e.g., anti-inlfammatoryvs. pro-inlfammatory) can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system (CNS) injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new ifndings on gender speciifc immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.

  2. Glucocorticoids and nervous system plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Madalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor (GC/GR interactions alter numerous aspects of neuronal function. These consequences (e.g., anti-inflammatory vs. pro-inflammatory can vary depending on the duration of GC exposure or central nervous system (CNS injury model. In this review we discuss how GC/GR interactions impact neuronal recovery after a central or peripheral nerve injury and discuss how GC exposure duration can produce divergent CNS neuronal growth responses. Finally we consider how new findings on gender specific immune cell responses after a nerve injury could intersect with GC/GR interactions to impact pain processing.

  3. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Bermingham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein–protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe epilepsy also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions.

  4. LGI proteins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Linde; Aunin, Eerik; Meijer, Dies; Bermingham, John R

    2013-01-01

    The development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these processes. They are secreted proteins consisting of an LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domain and a so-called epilepsy-associated or EPTP (epitempin) domain. Both domains are thought to function in protein-protein interactions. The first LGI gene to be identified, LGI1, was found at a chromosomal translocation breakpoint in a glioma cell line. It was subsequently found mutated in ADLTE (autosomal dominant lateral temporal (lobe) epilepsy) also referred to as ADPEAF (autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features). LGI1 protein appears to act at synapses and antibodies against LGI1 may cause the autoimmune disorder limbic encephalitis. A similar function in synaptic remodelling has been suggested for LGI2, which is mutated in canine Benign Familial Juvenile Epilepsy. LGI4 is required for proliferation of glia in the peripheral nervous system and binds to a neuronal receptor, ADAM22, to foster ensheathment and myelination of axons by Schwann cells. Thus, LGI proteins play crucial roles in nervous system development and function and their study is highly important, both to understand their biological functions and for their therapeutic potential. Here, we review our current knowledge about this important family of proteins, and the progress made towards understanding their functions. PMID:23713523

  5. The peculiarities of neurological disorders of the nervous system of the persons engaged in the work with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiarities of neurological disorders of the persons engaged in the work with ionizing radiation as well as objective and additional methods of investigation with principles of medical correction of neurological deficiency in these persons are featured

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the central nervous system, after renal transplantation with a discrepancy in viral load between peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Marijke Nynke; van der Zanden, Adri; Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; Sanders, Jan Stephan; de Vries, Peter Alexander Marcel

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old female developed an EpsteinBarr virus (EBV)-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the central nervous system (CNS), 14 years after renal transplantation. One year prior to presentation, the patients treatment regimen was altered from cyclosporine, azathioprine

  7. What Are the Parts of the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system: The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerve fibers that ...

  8. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate...

  9. Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation for Central Nervous System Disorders – Recent Progress and Perspective for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the transplanted BMSC significantly promote functional recovery after CNS damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with CNS disorders. In this review, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy as the scientifically proven entity in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. The BMSC have the ability to alter their gene expression profile and phenotype in response to the surrounding circumstances and to protect the neurons by producing some neurotrophic factors. They also promote neurite extension and rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. The BMSC can be expanded in vitro using the animal serum-free medium. Pharmacological modulation may accelerate the in vitro proliferation of the BMSC. Using in vivo optical imaging technique, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation in order to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in the future.

  10. pH responsive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor variants with implications for treating Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelman, Pete; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    Systemic injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has yielded encouraging results in treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Making G-CSF a viable AD therapeutic will, however, require increasing G-CSF's ability to stimulate neurons within the brain. This objective could be realized by increasing transcytosis of G-CSF across the blood brain barrier (BBB). An established correlation between G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) binding pH responsiveness and increased recycling of G-CSF to the cell exterior after endocytosis motivated development of G-CSF variants with highly pH responsive G-CSFR binding affinities. These variants will be used in future validation of our hypothesis that increased BBB transcytosis can enhance G-CSF therapeutic efficacy. Flow cytometric screening of a yeast-displayed library in which G-CSF/G-CSFR interface residues were mutated to histidine yielded a G-CSF triple His mutant (L109H/D110H/Q120H) with highly pH responsive binding affinity. This variant's KD, measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), increases ∼20-fold as pH decreases from 7.4 to below histidine's pKa of ∼6.0; an increase 2-fold greater than for previously reported G-CSF His mutants. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) enabled expression and purification of soluble, bioactive G-CSF triple His variant protein, an outcome inaccessible via Escherichia coli inclusion body refolding. This purification and bioactivity validation will enable future identification of correlations between pH responsiveness and transcytosis in BBB cell culture model and animal experiments. Furthermore, the library screening and CFPS methods employed here could be applied to developing other pH responsive hematopoietic or neurotrophic factors for treating CNS disorders. PMID:25877663

  11. Exercise and the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Levine, Benjamin D

    2013-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays a crucial role in the cardiovascular response to acute (dynamic) exercise in animals and humans. During exercise, oxygen uptake is a function of the triple-product of heart rate and stroke volume (i.e., cardiac output) and arterial-mixed venous oxygen difference (the Fick principle). The degree to which each of the variables can increase determines maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max). Both "central command" and "the exercise pressor reflex" are important in determining the cardiovascular response and the resetting of the arterial baroreflex during exercise to precisely match systemic oxygen delivery with metabolic demand. In general, patients with autonomic disorders have low levels of V˙O2max, indicating reduced physical fitness and exercise capacity. Moreover, the vast majority of the patients have blunted or abnormal cardiovascular response to exercise, especially during maximal exercise. There is now convincing evidence that some of the protective and therapeutic effects of chronic exercise training are related to the impact on the autonomic nervous system. Additionally, training induced improvement in vascular function, blood volume expansion, cardiac remodeling, insulin resistance and renal-adrenal function may also contribute to the protection and treatment of cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic disorders. Exercise training also improves mental health, helps to prevent depression, and promotes or maintains positive self-esteem. Moderate-intensity exercise at least 30 minutes per day and at least 5 days per week is recommended for the vast majority of people. Supervised exercise training is preferable to maximize function capacity, and may be particularly important for patients with autonomic disorders. PMID:24095123

  12. Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Misha DP Luyer; Quirine Habes; Richard van Hak; Wim Buurman

    2011-01-01

    Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut barrier integrity. Activation of the pathway is possible via electrical or via pharmacological interventions, but is also achieved in a physiological manner by ingestion of dietary lipids. Administration of dietary lipids has been shown to be very effective in reducing the inflammatory cascade and maintaining intestinal barrier integrity in several experimental studies. This beneficial effect of nutrition on the inflammatory inflammatory response and intestinal barrier integrity opens new therapeutic opportunities for treatment of certain gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, this neural feedback mechanism provides more insight in the relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut. Here, we will discuss the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system on the inflammatory response and gut barrier function and the potential benefit in a clinical setting.

  13. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  14. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Papais Alvarenga, Marcos; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2015-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients’ demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=<0.001). This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  15. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Maria Papais-Alvarenga

    Full Text Available The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO among multiple sclerosis (MS cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%, increasing in Mestizos (8% and Africans (15.4%-27.5% living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian. The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%, NMO (11.8%, other NMO syndromes (6.5%, CIS (3.5%, ADEM (1.0%, and acute encephalopathy (0.4%. Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS score (r=0.374; p=<0.001. This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs. Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  16. Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Czaja; Michele Fornaro; Stefano Geuna

    2012-01-01

    Most researchers believe that neurogenesis in mature mammals is restricted only to the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the central nervous system. In the peripheral nervous system, neurogenesis is thought to be active only during prenatal development, with the exception of the olfactory neuroepithelium. However, sensory ganglia in the adult peripheral nervous system have been reported to contain precursor cells that can proliferate in vitro and be induced to differentiate into neurons. The occurrence of insult-induced neurogenesis, which has been reported by several investigators in the brain, is limited to a few recent reports for the peripheral nervous system. These reports suggest that damage to the adult nervous system induces mechanisms similar to those that control the generation of new neurons during prenatal development. Understanding conditions under which neurogenesis can be induced in physiologically non-neurogenic regions in adults is one of the major challenges for developing therapeutic strategies to repair neurological damage. However, the induced neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system is still largely unexplored. This review presents the history of research on adult neurogenesis in the peripheral nervous system, which dates back more than 100 years and reveals the evidence on the under estimated potential for generation of new neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system.

  17. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  18. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  19. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  20. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Azer Samy A; AlEshaiwi Sarah M; AlGrain Hala A; AlKhelaif Rana A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “...

  1. Insulin in the nervous system and the mind: Functions in metabolism, memory, and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hwan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Major conclusions: Implications for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dementia, and mood disorders are discussed in the context of brain insulin action. Intranasal insulin may have potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related metabolic disorders.

  2. Brain Facts: A Primer on the Brain and Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Joseph, Ed.

    This booklet describes only a glimpse of what is known about the nervous system, brain disorders, and the exciting avenues of research that promise new therapies for many of the most devastating neurological and psychiatric diseases. The neuron, brain development, sensation and perception, learning and memory, movement, advances and challenges in…

  3. Peripheral nervous system involvement in chronic spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankisi, Hatice; Pugdahl, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Upper motor neuron disorders are believed to leave the peripheral nervous system (PNS) intact. In this study we examined whether there is evidence of PNS involvement in spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Twelve subjects with chronic low cervical or thoracic SCI were included...

  4. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  5. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.

  6. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  7. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  8. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Nervous System Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your nervous system healthy Page Content On this page: What is ... healthy? Eating, Diet, and Nutrition What is my nervous system and what does it do? Your nervous system ...

  9. Sonic hedgehog signaling during nervous system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Peng Xie

    2008-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in embryonic development and organ formation.Sonic hedgehog signaling participates in nervous system development,regulates proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,controls growth and targeting of axons,and contributes to specialization of oligodendrocytes.For further studies of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and for the development of new drugs in the treatment of nervous system diseases,it is beneficial to understand these mechanisms.

  10. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  11. Novel markers identify nervous system components of the holothurian nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2014-01-01

    Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available. In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with an...

  12. Gait Rehabilitation Device in Central Nervous System Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement of patient's lower limbs. However the assistance for the movement of the lower limbs is a serious hard labor for therapists. Therefore, research into and development of various gait rehabilitation devices is currently underway to identify methods to alleviate the physical burden on therapists. In this paper, we introduced the about gait rehabilitation devices in central nervous system disease.

  13. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  14. 3D printed nervous system on a chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blake N; Lancaster, Karen Z; Hogue, Ian B; Meng, Fanben; Kong, Yong Lin; Enquist, Lynn W; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-04-12

    Bioinspired organ-level in vitro platforms are emerging as effective technologies for fundamental research, drug discovery, and personalized healthcare. In particular, models for nervous system research are especially important, due to the complexity of neurological phenomena and challenges associated with developing targeted treatment of neurological disorders. Here we introduce an additive manufacturing-based approach in the form of a bioinspired, customizable 3D printed nervous system on a chip (3DNSC) for the study of viral infection in the nervous system. Micro-extrusion 3D printing strategies enabled the assembly of biomimetic scaffold components (microchannels and compartmented chambers) for the alignment of axonal networks and spatial organization of cellular components. Physiologically relevant studies of nervous system infection using the multiscale biomimetic device demonstrated the functionality of the in vitro platform. We found that Schwann cells participate in axon-to-cell viral spread but appear refractory to infection, exhibiting a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.4 genomes per cell. These results suggest that 3D printing is a valuable approach for the prototyping of a customized model nervous system on a chip technology. PMID:26669842

  15. Sex-related differences in auditory processing in adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A magnetoencephalographic study

    OpenAIRE

    Tesche, Claudia D.; Kodituwakku, Piyadasa W.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Houck, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to substantial amounts of alcohol in utero display a broad range of morphological and behavioral outcomes, which are collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Common to all children on the spectrum are cognitive and behavioral problems that reflect central nervous system dysfunction. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of variables such as sex on alcohol-induced brain damage. The goal of the current research was to utilize magneto...

  16. The Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marmiroli, PL; Cavaletti, GA

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervo...

  17. Comparative anatomy of the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Stefan

    2011-11-16

    This short review aims to point out the general anatomical features of the autonomic nervous systems of non-mammalian vertebrates. In addition it attempts to outline the similarities and also the increased complexity of the autonomic nervous patterns from fish to tetrapods. With the possible exception of the cyclostomes, perhaps the most striking feature of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system is the similarity between the vertebrate classes. An evolution of the complexity of the system can be seen, with the segmental ganglia of elasmobranchs incompletely connected longitudinally, while well developed paired sympathetic chains are present in teleosts and the tetrapods. In some groups the sympathetic chains may be reduced (dipnoans and caecilians), and have yet to be properly described in snakes. Cranial autonomic pathways are present in the oculomotor (III) and vagus (X) nerves of gnathostome fish and the tetrapods, and with the evolution of salivary and lachrymal glands in the tetrapods, also in the facial (VII) and glossopharyngeal (IX) nerves.

  18. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  19. Therapeutic Application of Electric Fields in the Injured Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Niels; Song, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nervous system injuries, both in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system are a major cause for pain, loss-of-function, and impairment of daily life. As nervous system injuries commonly heal slowly or incompletely, new therapeutic approaches may be required.

  20. Performance measures of alcohol-induced impairment: towards a practical ignition-interlock system for motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Ida, Takayuki

    2009-12-01

    Performance-based alcohol screening devices may help reduce road traffic accidents, but there is a shortage of easy-to-use performance tests available. To address this issue, four recently developed rapid, computerized, easily implementable performance tests, Spiral for iPhone and Spiral for Mac (psychomotor tests), and the Modified Mental Rotation and Catch the Rabbit tests (cognitive tests), were assessed, testing participants at predrink baseline and then during three progressive amounts of alcohol intake. Analyses showed all tests were performed statistically significantly less accurately at 0.11% blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) than at 0.00% BAC, as were all tests except Spiral for iPhone at 0.06% BAC. These results indicate the suitability of all of these tests for measuring alcohol-induced impairment, and some potential for use as a practical performance-based alcohol screening device. PMID:20178284

  1. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  2. 慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍患者甲状腺激素水平分析%A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF THYROID HORMONES LEVEL IN THE CHRONIC ALCOHOL-INDUCED MENTAL DISORDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智勇; 吴小立; 王继辉; 张晋碚

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate thyroid hormones level of the chronic alcohol - induced mental disorders. Methods: A total of 79 patients, who met diagnostic criteria of CCMD -3 for the chronic alcohol - induced mental disorder and were hospitalized in department of psychiatry from January 2004 to July 2011. On the pre - treatment thyroid hormones level of 79 patients and 79 normal peoples were detected and analyzed. Results: There were significant difference in T3 level between the chronic alcohol -induced mental disorders group and normal group( 2. 056 ±s 0. 399 vs. 2. 208 ±s 0. 412, P 0. 05) in other indexs of thyroid hormones level. Conclusion: There were often exist the reduction of the T3 thyroid hormone level in the chronic alcohol - induced mental disorders, but the thyroid function often been able to maintain normal in these patients.%目的:调查慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍患者的甲状腺激素水平.方法:回顾性分析2004年1月-2011年7月在广州市中山大学附属第三医院住院的诊断为慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍的患者共79例,分析其甲状腺激素水平,并与正常人群进行比较.结果:与正常对照组相比,慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍患者组13水平(2.056±s0.399vs.2.208±s 0.412,P0.05).结论:在慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍的患者中往往存在13水平的下降,但此类患者的甲状腺功能却能保持基本正常.

  3. Nervous system examination on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azer Samy A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web 2.0 sites such as YouTube have become a useful resource for knowledge and are used by medical students as a learning resource. This study aimed at assessing videos covering the nervous system examination on YouTube. Methods A research of YouTube was conducted from 2 November to 2 December 2011 using the following key words “nervous system examination”, “nervous system clinical examination”, “cranial nerves examination”, “CNS examination”, “examination of cerebellum”, “balance and coordination examination”. Only relevant videos in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each video, the following information was collected: title, author/s, duration, number of viewers, number of posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. Using criteria comprising content, technical authority and pedagogy parameters, videos were rated independently by three assessors and grouped into educationally useful and non-educationally useful. Results A total of 2240 videos were screened; 129 were found to have relevant information to nervous system examination. Analysis revealed that 61 (47% of the videos provided useful information on the nervous system examination. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 0.2 and mainly covered examination of the whole nervous system (8 videos, 13%, cranial nerves (42 videos, 69%, upper limbs (6 videos, 10%, lower limbs (3 videos, 5%, balance and co-ordination (2 videos, 3%. The other 68 (53% videos were not useful educationally; scoring (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 3.0. The total viewers of all videos was 2,189,434. Useful videos were viewed by 1,050,445 viewers (48% of total viewers. The total viewership per day for useful videos was 1,794.5 and for non-useful videos 1,132.0. The differences between the three assessors were insignificant (less than 0.5 for the mean and 0.3 for the SD. Conclusions Currently, YouTube provides an adequate resource

  4. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  5. The evolution of the serotonergic nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hay-Schmidt, A

    2000-01-01

    The pattern of development of the serotonergic nervous system is described from the larvae of ctenophores, platyhelminths, nemerteans, entoprocts, ectoprocts (bryozoans), molluscs, polychaetes, brachiopods, phoronids, echinoderms, enteropneusts and lampreys. The larval brain (apical ganglion) of spiralian protostomes (except nermerteans) generally has three serotonergic neurons and the lateral pair always innervates the ciliary band of the prototroch. In contrast, brachiopods, phoronids, echi...

  6. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  7. LGI proteins in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kegel (Linde); E. Aunin (Eerik); D.N. Meijer (Dies); J.R. Bermingham Jr (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe development and function of the vertebrate nervous system depend on specific interactions between different cell types. Two examples of such interactions are synaptic transmission and myelination. LGI1-4 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated proteins) play important roles in these process

  8. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  9. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  10. [Autonomic nervous system in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, M

    2001-08-01

    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia have a primary role in determining the early functional and later anatomic changes at the level of the autonomic pathways controlling the circulation, and besides in directly influencing cardiac and vascular cellular targets and feed-back baroreceptor system sensitivity to neurohumoral modulation in patients with diabetes mellitus. The basic mechanisms of dysfunction and damage, and the clinical and prognostic value of diabetic cardiovascular dysautonomia are discussed together with the diagnostic apparatus and the possible therapeutic approaches.

  11. 58例酒精所致精神障碍MRI表现的回顾性研究%MRI image analysis of alcohol-induced psychiatric disorder: a report of 58 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹孔才; 张晓娟; 龚飞中

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨酒精所致精神障碍MRI表现,并评价颅脑MRI检查在酒精所致精神障碍诊断中的价值.方法 搜集本院临床确认58例酒精所致精神障碍患者的临床及影像学资料.结果 58例患者均有长期嗜酒史,酒精所致精神障碍在临床上主要表现为不同程度的精神及意识障碍.MRI表现有多种表现形式,分别为胼胝体变性11例(18.97%)、韦尼克(Wernicke)脑病2例(3.45%)、广泛皮层性脑萎缩33例,其中合并脑室扩大28例(53.45%)、小脑变性2例(3.45%)、脑白质脱髓鞘10例(17.2%),以上MR改变合并双侧基底节区、半卵圆中心多发或单发腔隙性脑梗死灶12例(20.69%).结论 酒精所致精神障碍在影像上有多种不同的表现形式,主要表现为广泛皮层性脑萎缩合并脑室扩大;胼胝体变性为MRI重要表现,MRI检查有助于临床诊断及预后疗效观察.%Objective To investigate MRI characteristics of alcohol-induced psychiatric disorder and to evaluate the value of brain MRI in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorder caused by alcohol.Methods The clinical manifestations and images of 58 cases with alcohol-induced psychiatric disorder were collected and analyzed.Results 58 patients have long-term alcohol abuse and alcohol-induced psychiatric disorder with the major clinical manifestations of varying degrees of mental disturbance of coneciousness.MRI findings manifested in many forms,respectively,11 cases (18.97%) with degeneration of corpus callosum,2 cases (3.45%) with Wernicke encephalopathy,33 cases with extensive cortical brain atrophy,combined with ventricular dilatation in 28 cases (53.45%) and cerebella degeneration in 2 cases (3.45%) and white matter demyelination in 10 patients (17.2%),12 cases (20.69%) with multiple or single lacunar lesion in bilateral basal ganglia and centrum semiovale.Conclusion Alcohol-induced psychiatric disorder may have a variety of different forms in the MR image

  12. 乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的研究%Research of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梦心; 何柯新; 麦静雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore changes of blood cell parameters in alcohol-induced mental disorders ,so as to provide a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .Methods 120 cases of healthy people and 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were selected in our hospital from February 2011 to August 2013 ,the 113 cases of alcohol-induced mental disorders were taken to be research group ,and the 120 cases of healthy people were taken to be control group .Then blood cell parameters were measured by Mindray BC-6800 Automated Hematology Analyzer ,and then the results of the both groups were analyzed and compared .Results There were significant differ-ence of RBC ,Hb ,HCT ,PLT ,MPV ,LYMPH # ,MCV、MCH、RDW、NEUT # and MONO # between alcohol-in-duced mental disorders and healthy people ,and there were no statistically significant difference in MCHC and WBC between two groups .Conclusion MCV and MCHC level can be used as a monitoring parameter for alcohol-induced mental disorders .%目的:探讨乙醇所致精神障碍患者血细胞参数的变化,从而为乙醇所致精神障碍患者提供一个实验室参考指标。方法选取广州医科大学附属脑科医院2011年2月至2013年8月收治的113例乙醇所致精神障碍患者(患者组)和120例健康体检者(健康对照组),分别检测两组血细胞参数指标,并对两组数据进行分析和比较。结果乙醇所致精神障碍患者血液红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞压积(HCT)、血小板(PLT)、平均血小板容积(MPV)、淋巴细胞计数(LYMPH#)明显降低,平均红细胞体积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白含量(MCH)、红细胞分布宽度、中性粒细胞计数和单核细胞计数明显升高,平均血红蛋白浓度和白细胞无明显变化。结论红细胞的MCV、MCH 的检测可以作为乙醇所致精神障碍的一个监测指标。

  13. Nonviral Gene Therapy of the Nervous System: Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xue-Feng; Fan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation has been widely used to efficiently transfer foreign genes into the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and thus plays an important role in gene therapeutic studies on some brain disorders. A lot of work concerning electroporation is focused on gene transfer into rodent brains. This technique involves an injection of nucleic acids into the brain ventricle or specific area and then applying appropriate electrical field to the injected area. Here, we briefly introduced the advantages and the basic procedures of gene transfer into the rodent brain using electroporation. Better understanding of electroporation in rodent brain may further facilitate gene therapeutic studies on brain disorders.

  14. Risk factors and disposition in development of the nervous system infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nešić Ljiljana; Čanović Predrag; Mijailović Željko; Đoković Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Although well protected, brain is not resistant to infection agents. Acute infections of our nervous system appear more often in children and in persons who have medical history data about previous disorders, especially disorders of the nervous system. It is difficult to list possible risk factors which can be responsible for the appearance of infections of CNS and the resulting conditions. It is often difficult or impossible to determine what previous neural damage was (trauma,...

  15. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  16. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  17. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-01

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  18. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  19. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brizzi, Kate T.; Lyons, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial ag...

  20. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  1. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  2. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  3. CONTROL STUDY BETWEEN RISPERIDONE ORAL SOLUTION AND OLANZAPINE FOR ALCOHOL -INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER%利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽莉; 吕浩; 杨建立

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍的疗效和安全性.方法:将68例男性酒精所致精神障碍患者随机分为利培酮口服液治疗组和奥氮平治疗组.采用阳性与阴性症状量表( PANSS)评定临床疗效;采用治疗副反应量表( TESS)评定药物不良反应.结果:利培酮口服液与奥氮平两组疗效差异无显著性.利培酮口服液主要不良反应为锥外系反应,奥氮平为体重增加.结论:利培酮口服液与奥氮平治疗酒精所致精神障碍疗效及耐受性均好,可根据用药对象对不良反应的耐受等情况进行选择.%Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone oral solution and olanzapine in the treatment of alcohol - induced mental disorder. Methods: Sixty - eight male patients with alcohol - induced mental disorder were randomly divided into risperidone oral solution group and olanzapine group. Clinical effect was evaluated by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ,and the adverse drug reactions were assessed with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale ( TESS) . Results: No significant differences were observed in the clinical effect of the two groups. The main side effect experienced by the olanzapine group was body weight gain, while the resperidone oral solution group showed extrapyramidal responses. Conclusion: Both olanzapine and risperidone oral solution are safe and effective for the treatment of alcohol - induced mental disorder,and can be clinically selected according to patients' tolerance of the side effects.

  4. Atopic dermatitis and the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    Due to the narrow associations between the skin, immune system, and nervous system, nerve endings are very important in the pathophysiology of inflammatory dermatoses and especially in atopic dermatitis. Many neurotransmitters and nerve growth factors that are released in blood or skin are involved in neurogenic inflammation, which dramatically enhance the inflammation induced by immune cells. During times of stress, their release is highly enhanced. In atopic dermatitis lesions, there are many specific changes in skin neurobiology and neurophysiology. These interesting data suggest that novel therapeutic possibilities can be imagined.

  5. Changing trends in nervous system diseases among hospitalized children in the Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zou; Nong Xiao; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends of nervous system diseases among hospitalized children and the risk factors of death. METHOD: The disease was statistically classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Health Problem (ICD10). The retrospective investigation includes demographic characteristics, as well as categories and fatality rates for nervous system diseases. All data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of nervous system diseases among inpatients in all wards was 2.4% (2 537/ 107 250) between January 1993 and December 1999, and 3.6% (6 082/170 619) between January 2000 and December 2006. The first ten patterns of various etiologic forms of nervous system diseases were identical-epilepsies and seizures, infections of the central nervous system, autoimmune and demyelination disorders, cerebral palsy, motor unit disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, extra-pyramidal disorders, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, and headache. Epilepsies and seizures took first place in both year groups, with 29.4% and 35%, respectively. Bacterial infections were responsible for the majority of cranial infections in both year groups, with 78.9% and 63.6% respectively. The death rate in the year group January 2000 to December 2006 was significantly less than in the year group January 1993 to December 1999 (X2= 27.832, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among all nervous system diseases, epilepsies and seizures were among the most common, with the lowest fatality rate.

  6. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  7. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  8. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  9. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  10. Extracellular vesicles round off communication in the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Vivian; Ruiz-Cañada, Catalina; Wendler, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Functional neural competence and integrity require interactive exchanges among sensory and motor neurons, interneurons and glial cells. Recent studies have attributed some of the tasks needed for these exchanges to extracellular vesicles (such as exosomes and microvesicles), which are most prominently involved in shuttling reciprocal signals between myelinating glia and neurons, thus promoting neuronal survival, the immune response mediated by microglia, and synapse assembly and plasticity. Such vesicles have also been identified as important factors in the spread of neurodegenerative disorders and brain cancer. These extracellular vesicle functions add a previously unrecognized level of complexity to transcellular interactions within the nervous system. PMID:26891626

  11. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  12. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  13. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  14. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. Roles of kinins in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negraes, Priscilla D; Trujillo, Cleber A; Pillat, Micheli M; Teng, Yang D; Ulrich, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous pathway involved in many biological processes. Although primarily related to blood pressure control and inflammation, its activation goes beyond these effects. Neurogenesis and neuroprotection might be stimulated by bradykinin being of great interest for clinical applications following brain injury. This peptide is also an important player in spinal cord injury pathophysiology and recovery, in which bradykinin receptor blockers represent substantial therapeutic potential. Here, we highlight the participation of kinin receptors and especially bradykinin in mediating ischemia pathophysiology in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, we explore the recent advances on mechanistic and therapeutic targets for biological, pathological, and neural repair processes involving kinins. PMID:25839228

  16. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  17. Glycosaminoglycans and Glycomimetics in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáire Rowlands

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in the construction of synthetic glycans, selective targeting of the extracellular matrix (ECM as a potential treatment for a wide range of diseases has become increasingly popular. The use of compounds that mimic the structure or bioactive function of carbohydrate structures has been termed glycomimetics. These compounds are mostly synthetic glycans or glycan-binding constructs which manipulate cellular interactions. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are major components of the ECM and exist as a diverse array of differentially sulphated disaccharide units. In the central nervous system (CNS, they are expressed by both neurons and glia and are crucial for brain development and brain homeostasis. The inherent diversity of GAGs make them an essential biological tool for regulating a complex range of cellular processes such as plasticity, cell interactions and inflammation. They are also involved in the pathologies of various neurological disorders, such as glial scar formation and psychiatric illnesses. It is this diversity of functions and potential for selective interventions which makes GAGs a tempting target. In this review, we shall describe the molecular make-up of GAGs and their incorporation into the ECM of the CNS. We shall highlight the different glycomimetic strategies that are currently being used in the nervous system. Finally, we shall discuss some possible targets in neurological disorders that may be addressed using glycomimetics.

  18. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  19. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    OpenAIRE

    T. E. Popova; N. A. Shnayder; M. M. Petrova; T. Ya. Nikolaeva; E. A. Kantimirova; N.V. Isaeva; V. A. Shnayder; Yu. S. Panina; A. V. Dyuzhakova; S. K. Dyuzhakov

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE) associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chro...

  20. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  1. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-03-07

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought.

  2. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  3. Antihypertensive drugs and the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Colle, Sara; Morello, Fulvio; Rabbia, Franco; Milan, Alberto; Naso, Diego; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2007-11-01

    Hypertension has been associated with several modifications in the function and regulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Although it is unclear whether this dysfunction is primary or secondary to the development of hypertension, these alterations are considered to play an important role in the evolution, maintenance, and development of hypertension and its target organ damage. Several pharmacological antihypertensive classes are currently available. The main drugs that have been clearly shown to affect SNS function are beta-blockers, alpha-blockers, and centrally acting drugs. On the contrary, the effects of ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is), AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and diuretics on SNS function remain controversial. These properties are pharmacologically and pathophysiologically relevant and should be considered in the choice of antihypertensive treatments and combination therapies in order to achieve, beyond optimal blood pressure control, a normalization of SNS physiology and the most effective prevention of target organ damage. PMID:18030057

  4. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  6. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  7. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  8. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  9. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  10. Efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER tablets in the treatment of alcohol induced mental disorder%帕利哌酮治疗酒精所致精神障碍患者疗效与安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锋; 张慧英

    2014-01-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of paliperidone ER in the treatment of alcohol induced mental disorder .Meth-ods:32 patients with abnormal liver function who were diagnosed with alcohol induced mental disorder , were treated with paliperidone ER for 8 weeks.The efficacy and safety were assessed by using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS),Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) ,ALT and AST respectively at baseline and at the end of week 2,4 and 8.Results:(1) 28 cases completed actually, 4 ca-ses were off;(2)Scores of PANSS, TESS, ALT and AST all decreased significantly compared with the baseline (P<0.01);(3)The ef-fective rate and response rate were 75.0%and 92.9%respectively in the group;(4)After the treatment, liver function of the all 28 pa-tients returned to normal during the observation period , then continued to treat with paliperidone ER for 4-8 weeks, Liver function abnor-mal has not been happening again .Conclusion:Paliperidone ER might have good efficacy and afety in treating patients with mental disor-ders due to use of alcohol , and it had no significant increase in liver damage of patients with alcohol induced mental disorde .%目的:探讨帕利哌酮治疗酒精所致精神障碍患者的疗效以及安全性。方法:对32例伴有肝功能异常的酒精所致精神障碍患者单一应用帕利哌酮治疗,采用自身对照的方法在治疗前及治疗后第2、4、8周分别采用PANSS量表进行疗效评定,并以TESS量表及ALT、AST值进行安全性分析。结果:(1)实际完成28例,脱落4例;(2)治疗后PANSS、TESS量表及ALT、AST分值均有显著下降(P<0.01);(3)显效率75.0%,有效率92.9%;(4)28例患者经治疗在观察期间肝功能恢复正常后,继续予帕利哌酮维持治疗4~8周,均未再次发生肝功能异常现象。结论:帕利哌酮是治疗酒精所致精神障碍患者安全有效的药物,且无明显加重酒精所致精神障碍患者肝脏损害的现象。

  11. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  12. A gene catalogue of the amphioxus nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Èlia Benito-Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    The elaboration of extremely complex nervous systems is a major success of evolution. However, at the dawn of the post-genomic era, few data have helped yet to unravel how a nervous system develops and evolves to complexity. On the evolutionary road to vertebrates, amphioxus occupies a key position to tackle this exciting issue. Its “simple” nervous system basically consists of a dorsal nerve cord and a diffuse net of peripheral neurons, which contrasts greatly with the complexity...

  13. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  14. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  15. Alcohol--Induced Polyelectrolyte-Surfactant Complex Coacervate Systems: Characterization and Applications in Enzyme and Protein Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati Moshtaghin, Mahboubeh

    The focus of this thesis is to achieve a better understanding of the newly discovered surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervate (SPCC) systems induced by fluoroalcohol/acid as well as short chain aliphatic alcohol; and to elucidate their applications in extraction and enrichment of proteins and enzyme. We have discovered that fluoroalcohols and --acids induce complex coacervation and phase separation in the aqueous mixtures of oppositely charged anionic polyelectrolytes; specifically, sodium salts of polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid and cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) over a broad range of concentrations of mole fractions of the oppositely charged amphiphiles. Accordingly, these new classes of coacervators will significantly broaden the scope and facilitate engineering of new coacervate phases. Toward these goals, we have inspected the formation of surfactant-polyelectrolyte complex coacervates in the presence of fluoroalcohols namely hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and Trifluoroethanol (TFE). Furthermore, the extent of coacervation as a function of concentrations the system components, and charge ratios of the oppositely charged amphiphiles has been investigated. Polyelectrolytes are considered to be milder reagents, as compared to surfactants, regarding proteins denaturation. This highlights the importance of a detailed investigation of the efficiency of our coacervate systems for extraction and preconcentration of proteins and enzymes, especially, when the biological activity of the extracted proteins needs to be maintained based on the objectives mentioned above, the results of the investigations have been organized in four chapters. In Chapter II, the phase behavior of the FA-SPCC will be investigated. The objective is to examine the phase behavior and phase properties with respect to the extent of coacervation in different solution conditions. In particular, the effects of different solution variables such as concentration

  16. 81例遗传代谢病患儿神经系统损害和症状分析%Analysis of impaired nervous system and symptoms in 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何大可; 张建明; 邵新华; 宋小青; 吴静; 顾学范

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨遗传代谢病患儿神经系统损害的临床特征.方法 回顾总结81例遗传代谢病患儿的临床表现、生化指标及影像学等辅助检查资料,结合串联质谱、气相质谱、酶学检查等特殊检查予以综合分析.结果 81例遗传代谢病患儿中,甲基丙二酸血症14例,甲基丙二酸血症伴同型半胱氨酸血症5例,丙酸血症4例,枫糖尿病3例,鸟氨酸氨甲酰转移酶缺乏症2例,戊二酸血症1例,瓜氨酸血症1例,精氨酸血症1例,苯丙酮尿症3例,生物素酶缺乏症1例,糖原累积症17例,黏多糖病1例,脑白质营养不良4例,肝豆状核变性24例.主要临床表现有惊厥、意识障碍、运动发育落后、发育倒退、智能低下、喂养困难、呕吐;头颅CT或磁共振成像显示脑发育不良、脑软化、脑白质异常信号,脑电图显示慢波或(癎)样活动.结论 遗传代谢病患儿常以惊厥、发育落后、发育倒退、意识障碍、智能低下等神经系统表现而就诊,对患儿应尽早予遗传代谢病筛查以得到早期诊断及合理治疗而改善预后.%Objective To analyse the clinical characteristics of nervous system of children with inherited metabolic disorders. Methods The clinical manifestations, biochemical parameters and imaging data of 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders were retrospectively reviewed, and were comprehensively analysed on the basis of findings of tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymological examinations. Results Among the 81 children with inherited metabolic disorders, there were 14 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 5 cases of methylmalonic acidemia with hotnocysteinuria, 4 cases of propionic acidemia, 3 cases of maple syrup urine disease, 2 cases of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, 1 case of glutaric acidemia, 1 case of citrullinemia, 1 case of argininemia, 3 cases of phenylketonuria, 1 case of biotinidase deficiency, 17 cases of glycogenosis

  17. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system.

  18. Radioenzymatic and immunhistochemical demonstration of mono-amine oxidase in different mammals with regard to degenerative disorders of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme of the outer mitochondrial membrane, is involved in the degradation of biogenic amines. Its role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters in the brain like catecholamines and serotonin is of special importance. Pharmacological interests in neurological and psychiatric disorders require detailed investigations, especially through the discovery of two MAO-subtypes (MAO-A and MAO-B). Thus MAO-inhibitors offer the possibility of specific medical therapies. Activity of MAO-subtypes in several animal species and different tissues including human brain was determined biochemically via a radioenzymatic method. Examination was carried out for mode of action of both subtypes and response to several substrates and inhibitors. Aim was a survey about distinctive characteristics of MAO-A and MAO-B in one species as well as to others. Furthermore investigations about neuronal and glial distribution took place by histochemical and immuncyto-chemical methods. The histochemical method, which proofs the advantage to clear off pharmacological questions was carried out in the locus coeruleus of Meriones unguiculatus. Monoclonal antibodies against both MAO-subtypes were applied in the human brainstem and compared to polyclonal antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The most striking outcome was a lack of MAO in the neurons of substantia nigra, although TH-antibodies gave positive results. Hence questions remain open to explain the beneficial effect MAO-B-inhibitor l-deprenyl in dopamine-neuron degenerative disorders affecting substantia nigra. In particular the results require rethinking of the roles of MAO-A and MAO-B in human brain and the mode and site of action of drugs affecting their efficacy. Furthermore biochemical MAO-models in animals and their transferability to pharmacology in humans should be applied with limitations. This work is a further development of techniques applicable for human post mortem brain analysis. 152 refs., 21 figs

  19. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  20. Gap junctions in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R; Giaume, C; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    Synapses are classically defined as close connections between two nerve cells or between a neuronal cell and a muscle or gland cell across which a chemical signal (i.e., a neurotransmitter) and/or an electrical signal (i.e., current-carrying ions) can pass. The definition of synapse was developed by Charles Sherrington and by Ramon y Cajal at the beginning of this century and refined by John Eccles and Bernard Katz 50 years later; in this collection of papers, the definition of synapses is discussed further in the chapter by Mike Bennett. who provided the first functional demonstration of electrical transmission via gap junction channels between vertebrate neurons. As is evidenced by the range of topics covered in this issue, research dealing with gap junctions in the nervous system has expanded enormously in the past decade, major findings being that specific cell types in the brain expresses specific types of connexins and that expression patterns coincide with tissue compartmentalization and function and that these compartments change during development.

  1. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  2. Controlling Underwater Robots with Electronic Nervous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We are developing robot controllers based on biomimetic design principles. The goal is to realise the adaptive capabilities of the animal models in natural environments. We report feasibility studies of a hybrid architecture that instantiates a command and coordinating level with computed discrete-time map-based (DTM neuronal networks and the central pattern generators with analogue VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration electronic neuron (aVLSI networks. DTM networks are realised using neurons based on a 1-D or 2-D Map with two additional parameters that define silent, spiking and bursting regimes. Electronic neurons (ENs based on Hindmarsh–Rose (HR dynamics can be instantiated in analogue VLSI and exhibit similar behaviour to those based on discrete components. We have constructed locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs with aVLSI networks that can be modulated to select different behaviours on the basis of selective command input. The two technologies can be fused by interfacing the signals from the DTM circuits directly to the aVLSI CPGs. Using DTMs, we have been able to simulate complex sensory fusion for rheotaxic behaviour based on both hydrodynamic and optical flow senses. We will illustrate aspects of controllers for ambulatory biomimetic robots. These studies indicate that it is feasible to fabricate an electronic nervous system controller integrating both aVLSI CPGs and layered DTM exteroceptive reflexes.

  3. Diabetes and the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, B; Srinivasan, S

    2007-12-01

    Diabetes is associated with several changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and associated symptoms such as nausea, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and constipation. The pathogenesis of altered GI functions in diabetes is multifactorial and the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in this respect has gained significant importance. In this review, we summarize the research carried out on diabetes-related changes in the ENS. Changes in the inhibitory and excitatory enteric neurons are described highlighting the role of loss of inhibitory neurons in early diabetic enteric neuropathy. The functional consequences of these neuronal changes result in altered gastric emptying, diarrhoea or constipation. Diabetes can also affect GI motility through changes in intestinal smooth muscle or alterations in extrinsic neuronal control. Hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the pathophysiology of these ENS changes. Antioxidants to prevent or treat diabetic GI motility problems have therapeutic potential. Recent research on the nerve-immune interactions demonstrates inflammation-associated neurodegeneration which can lead to motility related problems in diabetes. PMID:17971027

  4. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  5. Functional State of Puberty Aged Hockey Players’ Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shichavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article estimates age-specific indexes of nervous system, responsible for juveniles’ speed qualities, training in Children and Youth Ice Hockey School. The received data justifies the necessity for individual approach to each hockey player, considering his age peculiarities and, respectively the functioning of the nervous system in the course of training organization.

  6. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation of the nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, D; Han, Yong-Chang; Rani, M R;

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the production of chemokines by resident glial cells of the nervous system. We describe studies in two distinct categories of inflammation within the nervous system: immune-mediated inflammation as seen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) or multiple sclerosis...

  7. Plasticity and Neural Stem Cells in the Enteric Nervous System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, Karl-Herbert; Van Ginneken, Chris; Copray, Sjef

    2009-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a highly organized part of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the whole gastrointestinal tract by several interconnected neuronal networks. The ENS changes during development and keeps throughout its lifespan a significant capacity to adapt to microenv

  8. Methyl-CpG binding proteins in the nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping FAN; Leah HUTNICK

    2005-01-01

    Classical methyl-CpG binding proteins contain the conserved DNA binding motif methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD), which preferentially binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides. These proteins serve as transcriptional repressors,mediating gene silencing via DNA cytosine methylation. Mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) have been linked to the human mental retardation disorder Rett syndrome, suggesting an important role for methyl-CpG binding proteins in brain development and function. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in studying the diverse functions of MeCP2 as a prototype for other methyl-CpG binding proteins in the development and function of the vertebrate nervous system.

  9. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Roberto E; Caccuri, Roberto; Quarracino, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well. PMID:27556379

  10. Electrical stimuli in the central nervous system microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna M; Koppes, Abigail N; Hardy, John G; Schmidt, Christine E

    2014-07-11

    Electrical stimulation to manipulate the central nervous system (CNS) has been applied as early as the 1750s to produce visual sensations of light. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) are being applied in the clinic to treat a wide array of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries. This review describes the history of electrical stimulation of the CNS microenvironment; recent advances in electrical stimulation of the CNS, including DBS to treat essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and depression; FES for the treatment of spinal cord injuries; and alternative electrical devices to restore vision and hearing via neuroprosthetics (retinal and cochlear implants). It also discusses the role of electrical cues during development and following injury and, importantly, manipulation of these endogenous cues to support regeneration of neural tissue. PMID:25014787

  11. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  12. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; LIU Ai-fen; MA Lin; YAN Chuan-zhu; ZHAO Yu-ying; SHAN Pei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare and difficult entity.Here we represented the clinical and pathological features of a patient with little response to steroid before definite diagnosis.The 50-year-old male had a fluctuating disease course for more than 3 years.He presented visual disorders,seizure,cognitive impairment,hypersomnia,unsteady gait,dysphasia,dysphagia,and incontinence.Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple,supratentorial and infratentorial abnormal signals,while cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral angiography were normal.Magnetic resonance spectrum showed a decrease of N-acetyl-aspartate.Brain biopsy revealed nongranulomatous lymphatic vasculitis with reactive gliosis,cicatrization,demyelination and focal hemorrhages.

  13. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  14. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.

    2014-07-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  15. An analysis of factors inlfuencing drinking relapse among paitents with alcohol-induced psychiatric and behavioral disorders%酒精所致的精神和行为障碍患者复饮影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣斌; 王丽丽; 谢映红

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paitents with alcohol-induced psychiatric and behavioral disorders have higher drinking relapse rates atfer treatment when compared to those without these disorders. Aim: To investigate factors influencing drinking relapse among patients with alcohol-induced psychiatric and behavioral disorders and provide guidance for rehabilitative intervention for those being treated for substance use disorders. Methods: Paitents were randomly assigned into either the study group or the control group. We used Chi-square test to analyze their general demographics, drinking history, and hospitalizaitons. Factors inlfuencing the relapse were analyzed by logisitc regression analyses. Results: The univariate analysis showed that factors included ethnicity, level of education, occupation, marital status, duration of psychiatric symptoms and deception about alcohol use; multivariate analysis showed that marital status, duration of psychiatric symptoms, and deception about alcohol use were correlated with relapse among paitents with psychiatric and behavioral disorders. Conclusions: For paitents who were single, psychiatric symptoms were more likely to occur between the ifrst and iftfh year of alcohol consumpiton, and those who were decepitve about their alcohol use were more likely to have a relapse than those who were not.%背景:酒精所致精神行为障碍患者与不伴有精神行为障碍者相比,接受治疗后复饮率较高。目标:探讨酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者出现复饮的影响因素,为因物质使用障碍而接受治疗的患者提供康复干预的依据。方法:患者被分为研究组或对照组。采用卡方检验分析一般人口学资料、饮酒史和住院情况。患者复饮的影响因素采用logistic回归分析。结果:单因素分析显示酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者复饮的影响因素有民族、文化程度、职业、婚姻、出现精神症状的时限以及隐瞒酒精使用等;多因

  16. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  17. Mechanosensitivity in the enteric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The enteric nervous system (ENS autonomously controls gut muscle activity. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN initiate reflex activity by responding to mechanical deformation of the gastrointestinal wall. MEN throughout the gut primarily respond to compression or stretch rather than to shear force. Some MEN are multimodal as they respond to compression and stretch. Depending on the region up to 60% of the entire ENS population responds to mechanical stress. MEN fire action potentials after mechanical stimulation of processes or soma although they are more sensitive to process deformation. There are at least two populations of MEN based on their sensitivity to different modalities of mechanical stress and on their firing pattern. 1 Rapidly, slowly and ultra-slowly adapting neurons which encode compressive forces. 2 Ultra-slowly adapting stretch-sensitive neurons encoding tensile forces. Rapid adaptation of firing is typically observed after compressive force while slow adaptation or ongoing spike discharge occurs often during tensile stress (stretch. All MEN have some common properties: they receive synaptic input, are low fidelity mechanoreceptors and are multifunctional in that some serve interneuronal others even motor functions. Consequently, MEN possess processes with mechanosensitive as well as efferent functions. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that MEN sense and control muscle activity at the same time as servo-feedback loop. The mechanosensitive channel(s or receptor(s expressed by the different MEN populations are unknown. Future concepts have to incorporate compressive and tensile-sensitive MEN into neural circuits that controls muscle activity. They may interact to control various forms of a particular motor pattern or regulate different motor patterns independently from each other.

  18. Is There Anything "Autonomous" in the Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasia-Filho, Alberto A.

    2006-01-01

    The terms "autonomous" or "vegetative" are currently used to identify one part of the nervous system composed of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and gastrointestinal divisions. However, the concepts that are under the literal meaning of these words can lead to misconceptions about the actual nervous organization. Some clear-cut examples indicate…

  19. Epilepsy in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmunity and inflammation have been implicated as causative factors of seizures and epilepsy. Autoimmune disorders can affect the central nervous system as an isolated syndrome or be part of a systemic disease. Examples of systemic autoimmune disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatic arthritis, and Sjögren syndrome. Overall, there is a 5-fold increased risk of seizures and epilepsy in children with systemic autoimmune disorders. Various etiologic factors have been implicated in causing the seizures in these patients, including direct inflammation, effect on blood vessels (vasculitis), and production of autoantibodies. Potential treatments for this autoimmune injury include steroids, immunoglobulins, and other immune-modulatory therapies. A better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases could lead to targeted treatments and better outcomes. PMID:25510945

  20. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  1. The role of the autonomic nervous system in Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eHawksley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder, consisting of multiple involuntary movements (motor tics and one or more vocal (phonic tics. It affects up to one percent of children worldwide, of whom about one third continue to experience symptoms into adulthood. The central neural mechanisms of tic generation are not clearly understood, however recent neuroimaging investigations suggest impaired cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical activity during motor control. In the current manuscript, we will tackle the relatively under-investigated role of the peripheral autonomic nervous system, and its central influences, on tic activity. There is emerging evidence that both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity influences tic expression. Pharmacological treatments which act on sympathetic tone are often helpful: for example, Clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist is often used as first choice medication for treating TS in children due to its good tolerability profile and potential usefulness for co-morbid attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. A general elevation of sympathetic tone is reported in patients with TS compared to healthy people, however this observation may reflect transient responses coupled to tic activity. Thus the presence of autonomic impairments in patients with TS remains unclear. Effect of autonomic afferent input to cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit will be discussed schematically. We additionally review how TS is affected by modulation of central autonomic control through biofeedback and Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS. Biofeedback training can enable a patient to gain voluntary control over covert physiological responses by making these responses explicit. Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. VNS, achieved through an

  2. The Human Sympathetic Nervous System Response to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Andrew C.; Diedrich, Andre; Paranjape, Sachin Y.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, Rose Marie; Lane, Lynda D.; Shiavi, Richard; Robertson, David

    2003-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important part of the autonomic (or automatic) nervous system. When an individual stands up, the sympathetic nervous system speeds the heart and constricts blood vessels to prevent a drop in blood pressure. A significant number of astronauts experience a drop in blood pressure when standing for prolonged periods after they return from spaceflight. Difficulty maintaining blood pressure with standing is also a daily problem for many patients. Indirect evidence available before the Neurolab mission suggested the problem in astronauts while in space might be due partially to reduced sympathetic nervous system activity. The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether sympathetic activity was reduced during spaceflight. Sympathetic nervous system activity can be determined in part by measuring heart rate, nerve activity going to blood vessels, and the release of the hormone norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter discharged from active sympathetic nerve terminals, so its rate of release can serve as a marker of sympathetic nervous system action. In addition to standard cardiovascular measurements (heart rate, blood pressure), we determined sympathetic nerve activity as well as norepinephrine release and clearance on four crewmembers on the Neurolab mission. Contrary to our expectation, the results demonstrated that the astronauts had mildly elevated resting sympathetic nervous system activity in space. Sympathetic nervous system responses to stresses that simulated the cardiovascular effects of standing (lower body negative pressure) were brisk both during and after spaceflight. We concluded that, in the astronauts tested, the activity and response of the sympathetic nervous system to cardiovascular stresses appeared intact and mildly elevated both during and after spaceflight. These changes returned to normal within a few days.

  3. The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Komuro, Issei

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.

  4. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  5. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  6. Analysis of Autonomic Nervous System Functional Age and Heart Rate Variability in Mine Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasicko T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy working conditions and many unpropitious factors influencing workers health participate in development of various health disorders, among other autonomic cardiovascular regulation malfunction. The aim of this study is to draw a comparison of autonomic nervous system functional age and heart rate variability changes between workers with and without mining occupational exposure.

  7. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  8. Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Tani, M; Jensen, J;

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether...

  9. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  10. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  11. The eye and visual nervous system: anatomy, physiology and toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    McCaa, C S

    1982-01-01

    The eyes are at risk to environmental injury by direct exposure to airborne pollutants, to splash injury from chemicals and to exposure via the circulatory system to numerous drugs and bloodborne toxins. In addition, drugs or toxins can destroy vision by damaging the visual nervous system. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the eye and visual nervous system and includes a discussion of some of the more common toxins affecting vision in man. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2.

  12. Genetic heterogeneity of hereditary diseases of nervous system: problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary disorders of the nervous system is one of the largest group of human monogenic disorders with high-grade genetic heterogeneity and clinical polymorphism. The main types of genetic heterogeneity and their possible causes are explained by giving typical examples of different nosological forms. The basic problems and feasible solution of medico-genetic counseling and education of high-risk families in case of genetic heterogeneity are discussed.

  13. Genetic heterogeneity of hereditary diseases of nervous system: problems and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    E. L. Dadali; Ginter, E. K.; A. B. Polyakov

    2012-01-01

    A hereditary disorders of the nervous system is one of the largest group of human monogenic disorders with high-grade genetic heterogeneity and clinical polymorphism. The main types of genetic heterogeneity and their possible causes are explained by giving typical examples of different nosological forms. The basic problems and feasible solution of medico-genetic counseling and education of high-risk families in case of genetic heterogeneity are discussed.

  14. [Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomous nervous system dysfunction. Review of different syndromes and their treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B P; Blanc, J J

    1999-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system was poorly known to cardiologists until recently. Advances in the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope have initiated intense cardiological research into this subject. This type of syncope does not cover by far all dysfunctions of this system, all or nearly all of which have vasoplegic or bradycardic components. The aim of this article is to review the disorders of the autonomous nervous system which may interest every day practice of the cardiologist. The diagnostic advances and new treatments will require a further update of this review in the months or years to come. PMID:10065281

  15. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  16. Cytokines and Myelination in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmitz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin abnormalities that reflect damage to developing and mature brains are often found in neurological diseases with evidence of inflammatory infiltration and microglial activation. Many cytokines are virtually undetectable in the uninflamed central nervous system (CNS, so that their rapid induction and sustained elevation in immune and glial cells contributes to dysregulation of the inflammatory response and neural cell homeostasis. This results in aberrant neural cell development, cytotoxicity, and loss of the primary myelin-producing cells of the CNS, the oligodendrocytes. This article provides an overview of cytokine and chemokine activity in the CNS with relevance to clinical conditions of neonatal and adult demyelinating disease, brain trauma, and mental disorders with observed white matter defects. Experimental models that mimic human disease have been developed in order to study pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms, but have shown mixed success in clinical application. However, genetically altered animals, and models of CNS inflammation and demyelination, have offered great insight into the complexities of neuroimmune interactions that impact oligodendrocyte function. The intracellular signaling pathways of selected cytokines have also been highlighted to illustrate current knowledge of receptor-mediated events. By learning to interpret the actions of cytokines and by improving methods to target appropriate predictors of disease risk selectively, a more comprehensive understanding of altered immunoregulation will aid in the development of advanced treatment options for patients with inflammatory white matter disorders.

  17. Guidelines on surgery of the thoracic sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Balsalobre, Ramón; Moreno Mata, Nicolás; Ramos Izquierdo, Ricard; Aragón Valverde, Francisco Javier; Molins López-Rodo, Laureano; Rivas de Andrés, Juan José; García Fernández, José Luis; Cañizares Carretero, Miguel Ángel; Congregado Loscertales, Miguel; Carbajo Carbajo, Miguel

    2011-02-01

    Thoracic sympathetic nervous system (TSNS) surgery has increased in importance in the last few years, generating great expectations among the general population and the scientific community. This has been due to the excellent results obtained by videothoracoscopy-assisted thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of essential hyperhidrosis and other TSNS disorders. This minimally invasive surgical technique has been shown to be effective, and with a low morbidity it is accepted as one of the best therapeutic options for the treatment of palmar and bilateral axillary hyperhidrosis and the number of patients consulting with the intention of having the operation has increased considerably. Although compensatory sweating, which is occasionally intense, often occurs after the surgery, this and other secondary effects of the technique are well tolerated by patients. The current evidence on TSNS and the treatment of essential hyperhidrosis is based on observational studies, making it difficult to compare series and draw conclusions. There has been much discussion on standardising the technique, defining the most favourable levels for clipping, and choosing the type of denervation with least secondary effects. This has led to the need to draw up these guidelines which should clarify and standardise the criteria for managing patients with disorders of TSNS. PMID:21342743

  18. Glial biomarkers in human central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Gwenn A; Campbell, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. GLIA 2016;64:1755-1771. PMID:27228454

  19. Intranasal treatment of central nervous system dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Frey, William H; Craft, Suzanne; Danielyan, Lusine; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-10-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing modern medicine is how to deliver a given drug to a specific target at the exclusion of other regions. For example, a variety of compounds have beneficial effects within the central nervous system (CNS), but unwanted side effects in the periphery. For such compounds, traditional oral or intravenous drug delivery fails to provide benefit without cost. However, intranasal delivery is emerging as a noninvasive option for delivering drugs to the CNS with minimal peripheral exposure. Additionally, this method facilitates the delivery of large and/or charged therapeutics, which fail to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, for a variety of growth factors, hormones, neuropeptides and therapeutics including insulin, oxytocin, orexin, and even stem cells, intranasal delivery is emerging as an efficient method of administration, and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases with CNS involvement, such as obesity, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, seizures, drug addiction, eating disorders, and stroke. PMID:23135822

  20. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiretrovirals in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Andrea; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    HIV-positive patients may be effectively treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and such a strategy is associated with striking immune recovery and viral load reduction to very low levels. Despite undeniable results, the central nervous system (CNS) is commonly affected during the course of HIV infection, with neurocognitive disorders being as prevalent as 20-50 % of treated subjects. This review discusses the pathophysiology of CNS infection by HIV and the barriers to efficacious control of such a mechanism, including the available data on compartmental drug penetration and on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. In the reviewed articles, a high variability in drug transfer to the CNS is highlighted with several mechanisms as well as methodological issues potentially influencing the observed results. Nevirapine and zidovudine showed the highest cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma ratios, although target concentrations are currently unknown for the CNS. The use of the composite CSF concentration effectiveness score has been associated with better virological outcomes (lower HIV RNA) but has been inconsistently associated with neurocognitive outcomes. These findings support the CNS effectiveness of commonly used highly antiretroviral therapies. The use of antiretroviral drugs with increased CSF penetration and/or effectiveness in treating or preventing neurocognitive disorders however needs to be assessed in well-designed prospective studies.

  1. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  2. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  3. Nervous system in the fibrillar theory of Giorgio Baglivi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurak, N

    2000-01-01

    The drafts, epistles, headwords, and conceptual basis known as the fibrillar theory of Giorgio Baglivi, published in his book entitled De fibra motrice et morbosa, were analyzed in an attempt to re-evaluate Baglivi's contribution, generally considered quite modest, to the development of scientific thought on the nervous system functions. The analysis revealed Baglivi's identification of the reflex organization, vegetative nervous system function, and neural aspect of the vasomotor function to be surprisingly valuable. I believe that the lucidity and genuine contemporariness of Baglivi's standpoints arise the question of the historical precedence in the discovery of these functions (it is usually attributed to F.X. Bichat for vegetative nervous system, and to Claude Bernard for vasomotor nerves). In the light of these facts, the need of an expert revision of the history of discovering nervous system functions is suggested. PMID:11624709

  4. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  6. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  7. Lysophospholipids and their receptors in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), two of the best-studied lysophospholipids, are known to influence diverse biological events, including organismal development as well as function and pathogenesis within multiple organ systems. These functional roles are due to a family of at least 11 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named LPA(1-6) and S1P(1-5), which are widely distributed throughout the body and that activate multiple effector pathways initiated by a range of heterotrimeric G proteins including G(i/o), G(12/13), G(q) and G(s), with actual activation dependent on receptor subtypes. In the central nervous system (CNS), a major locus for these signaling pathways, LPA and S1P have been shown to influence myriad responses in neurons and glial cell types through their cognate receptors. These receptor-mediated activities can contribute to disease pathogenesis and have therapeutic relevance to human CNS disorders as demonstrated for multiple sclerosis (MS) and possibly others that include congenital hydrocephalus, ischemic stroke, neurotrauma, neuropsychiatric disorders, developmental disorders, seizures, hearing loss, and Sandhoff disease, based upon the experimental literature. In particular, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya, Novartis Pharma, AG) that becomes an analog of S1P upon phosphorylation, was approved by the FDA in 2010 as a first oral treatment for MS, validating this class of receptors as medicinal targets. This review will provide an overview and update on the biological functions of LPA and S1P signaling in the CNS, with a focus on results from studies using genetic null mutants for LPA and S1P receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22884303

  8. An Electerophisioligic Study Of Autonomic Nervous System In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorolahi Moghaddam H

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in diabetics can occur apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and sometimes leads to complaints which may be diagnosed by electrodiagnostic methods. Moreover glycemic control of these patients may prevent such a complications."nMaterials and Methods: 30 diabetic patients were compared to the same number of age and sex-matched controls regarding to electrophysiologic findings of autonomic nervous system. Symptoms referable to autonomic disorder including nightly diarrhea, dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, nausea, and mouth dryness were recorded in all diabetic patients. Palmar and plantar SSR and expiration to inspiration ratio (E: I and Valsalva ratio were recorded in all diabetics and control individuals by electromyography device. In addition NCS was performed on two sensory and two motor nerves in diabetic patients."nResults: There was no relation between age of diabetics and abnormal D: I ratio, Valsalva ratio and degree of electrophysiologic autonomic impairment. Also no relation between peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment was found. Plantar SSR was absent in 80% of diabetics with orthostatic hypotension (p~ 0.019. Palmar and plantar SSR were absent in many diabetics in comparison to control group (for palmar SSR p~ 0.00 and for plantar SSR p< 0.015. There was no relation between diabetes duration since diagnosis and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment."nConclusion: According to the above mentioned findings diabetic autonomic neuropathy develops apart from peripheral sensorimotor polyneuropathy and probably with different mechanisms. Remarkable absence of palmar SSR in diabetics with orthostatic hypotension can be due to its sympathetic origin. Absence of any relation between diabetes duration and electrophysiologic autonomic impairment can be due to late diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or no pathophysiologic relation between chronic

  9. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  10. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  11. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  13. Role of neuroactive steroids in the peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cosimo eMelcangi; Silvia eGiatti; Marzia ePesaresi; Donato eCarabrese; Nico eMitro; Donatella eCaruso; Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Höke, Ahmet; Brushart, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration in the peripheral nervous system offers unique opportunities and challenges to medicine. Compared to the central nervous system, peripheral axons can and do regenerate resulting in functional recovery, especially if the distance to target is short as in distal limb injuries. However, this regenerative capacity is often incomplete and functional recovery with proximal lesions is limited. Furthermore, regeneration of axons to the appropriate targets remains a challenge with inappro...

  15. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Tong-hui; Gao, Hong-Wen; Fang, Xue-Dong; Yang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons, enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sen...

  16. Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in primary Sjogren's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Barendregt, Pieternella; Bent, Martin; Raaij-van den Aarssen, V.J.; Meiracker, Anton; Vecht, C. J.; Heijde, G.L.; Markusse, H M

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Involvement of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) has been reported, but its prevalence in neurologically asymptomatic patients is not well known. OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and neurophysiological features of the peripheral nervous system in patients with primary SS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 39 (38 female) consecutive patients with primary SS, aged 20-81 years (mean 50), with a disease duration of 1-30 years (mean 8) were stu...

  17. Role of Neuroactive Steroids in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Giatti, Silvia; Pesaresi, Marzia; Calabrese, Donato; Mitro, Nico; Caruso, Donatella; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Several reviews have so far pointed out on the relevant physiological and pharmacological role exerted by neuroactive steroids in the central nervous system. In the present review we summarize observations indicating that synthesis and metabolism of neuroactive steroids also occur in the peripheral nerves. Interestingly, peripheral nervous system is also a target of their action. Indeed, as here reported neuroactive steroids are physiological regulators of peripheral nerve functions and they ...

  18. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  19. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  20. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C.; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M.; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R.; Peterson, Phillip K.

    2015-01-01

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  1. Global research priorities for infections that affect the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Chandy C; Carabin, Hélène; Montano, Silvia M; Bangirana, Paul; Zunt, Joseph R; Peterson, Phillip K

    2015-11-19

    Infections that cause significant nervous system morbidity globally include viral (for example, HIV, rabies, Japanese encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, dengue virus and chikungunya virus), bacterial (for example, tuberculosis, syphilis, bacterial meningitis and sepsis), fungal (for example, cryptococcal meningitis) and parasitic (for example, malaria, neurocysticercosis, neuroschistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths) infections. The neurological, cognitive, behavioural or mental health problems caused by the infections probably affect millions of children and adults in low- and middle-income countries. However, precise estimates of morbidity are lacking for most infections, and there is limited information on the pathogenesis of nervous system injury in these infections. Key research priorities for infection-related nervous system morbidity include accurate estimates of disease burden; point-of-care assays for infection diagnosis; improved tools for the assessment of neurological, cognitive and mental health impairment; vaccines and other interventions for preventing infections; improved understanding of the pathogenesis of nervous system disease in these infections; more effective methods to treat and prevent nervous system sequelae; operations research to implement known effective interventions; and improved methods of rehabilitation. Research in these areas, accompanied by efforts to implement promising technologies and therapies, could substantially decrease the morbidity and mortality of infections affecting the nervous system in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26580325

  2. Holothurian Nervous System Diversity Revealed by Neuroanatomical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A; Lázaro-Peña, María I; Vázquez-Figueroa, Lionel D; Díaz-Balzac, Roberto J; García-Arrarás, José E

    2016-01-01

    The Echinodermata comprise an interesting branch in the phylogenetic tree of deuterostomes. Their radial symmetry which is reflected in their nervous system anatomy makes them a target of interest in the study of nervous system evolution. Until recently, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has been hindered by a shortage of neuronal markers. However, in recent years several markers of neuronal and fiber subpopulations have been described. These have been used to identify subpopulations of neurons and fibers, but an integrative study of the anatomical relationship of these subpopulations is wanting. We have now used eight commercial antibodies, together with three antibodies produced by our group to provide a comprehensive and integrated description and new details of the echinoderm neuroanatomy using the holothurian Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867) as our model system. Immunoreactivity of the markers used showed: (1) specific labeling patterns by markers in the radial nerve cords, which suggest the presence of specific nerve tracts in holothurians. (2) Nerves directly innervate most muscle fibers in the longitudinal muscles. (3) Similar to other deuterostomes (mainly vertebrates), their enteric nervous system is composed of a large and diverse repertoire of neurons and fiber phenotypes. Our results provide a first blueprint of the anatomical organization of cells and fibers that form the holothurian neural circuitry, and highlight the fact that the echinoderm nervous system shows unexpected diversity in cell and fiber types and their distribution in both central and peripheral nervous components.

  3. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  4. Psychic blindness or visual agnosia: early descriptions of a nervous disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reports on three early contributions to the understanding of visual agnosia as a syndrome sui generis. The authors of the respective papers worked in different fields such as physiology, ophthalmology, and neurology, and, although they were not in direct contact with each other, their results converged upon a consistent view of a nervous disorder that they called psychic blindness.

  5. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  6. 星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效%Curative Effect of Stellate Ganglion Block on Function Disorders of Autonomic Nervous System in Perimenopause Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 马杰; 张海泉; 张宝琴; 赵树华; 房丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨星状神经节阻滞治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定症状的疗效.方法 对30例主要表现自主神经系统功能不稳定症状如失眠、眩晕、心悸,皮肤感觉异常等的围绝经期患者.采用前入路星状神经节阻滞(Stellate Canglion Block,SGB)每日1次,左右交替进行,每10次为1个疗程,均治疗2个疗程.观察血中E2,FSH的水平及自主神经系统功能不稳定症状改善情况.结果 运用星状神经阻滞法治疗后,围绝经期患者自主神经系统功能不稳定症状明显改善,血中E2水平显著升高,FSH下降(P<0.05).结论 星状神经节阻滞可以治疗围绝经期自主神经系统功能不稳定,其症状明显缓解或消失.%[ Objective] To observe the curative effect of stellate ganglion block on function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women. [ Methods ] 30 perimenopause women with function disorders of autonomic nervous system were collected, which the symptoms included insomnia, vertigo, palpitation and paresthesia. The patients were given anterior approach stellate ganglion block (SGB) once a day, alternating left and right, 10 times was one course, and all patients were treated for two courses. The levels of E2 and FSH in blood, and improvement of disorders symptoms of autonomic nervous system were observed. [ Results] After SGB treatment, symptoms of function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women improved significantly, level of blood E2 increased significantly, whereas FSH level decreased (P < 0.05). [ Conclusion ] SGB has good effect on the function disorders of autonomic nervous system in perimenopause women, the symptoms are significantly alleviated or disappeared.

  7. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  8. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884

  9. Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and paediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Corinne A

    2014-06-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and practice and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to practice. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding practice may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout paediatrics, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it.

  10. 慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍男性患者性激素水平分析%A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF GONADAL HORMONE LEVELS IN THE MALE CHRONIC ALCOHOL-INDUCED MENTAL DISORDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟智勇; 吴小立; 甘照宇; 张晋碚

    2012-01-01

    目的:调查男性慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍患者的性激素水平并分析其与精神症状之间的关系.方法:回顾性分析2004年1月-2012年2月在广州市中山大学附属第三医院住院的诊断为慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍的男性患者共85例,分析其性激素水平并与患者精神症状进行相关分析.结果:与正常对照组相比,慢性酒精中毒所致精神障碍组患者的睾酮水平明显降低(19.78±s 12.68 vs 25.97±s 18.76),雌激素水平明显升高(111.62±s65·91 vs 92.94±s 54.13),两组比较有统计学差异(P0.05).睾酮和雌激素水平与简明精神病评定量表中忧郁焦虑因子之间有相关性,且雌激素与忧郁焦虑因子分呈负相关(P 0. 05) in other indexs of gonadal hormones level. Correlation was found between testosterone and estrogen levels with the depression anxiety factor in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. The level of estrogen and depression factor scores were negatively correlated(P < 0. 05). Conclusion-. The testosterone level was reduced and the estrogens was increased in the chronic alcohol - induced mental disorders. However, the increase of estrogen might play a protective role to mood disorder in these patients.

  11. Clinical analysis on 9 cases of nervous system disorder caused by Heat stroke%热射病致神经系统损害9例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美红; 鞠小宁; 周庆博; 孙琳; 尚伟; 许继平; 毕建忠

    2015-01-01

    目的:总结热射病致神经系统病变的临床、神经电生理特点、影像学表现及预后。方法对2010年7、8月和2013年7、8月在本院住院的9例热射病患者的临床、神经电生理特点、影像学特点及预后进行回顾性分析。结果9例患者中男7例、女2例,发病年龄47~87岁,均在发病6 h内就诊。所有患者入院时体温在39.8℃~42.5℃,均有意识和多脏器功能障碍,其中急性脑梗死2例,周围神经病变3例,急性呼吸衰竭2例,肺部感染9例,DIC 1例,急性心肌损害8例,心律失常3例,横纹肌溶解症3例,急性肝损害8例,急性肾损害6例,消化道出血4例,代谢性酸中毒1例,代谢性碱中毒2例,水电解质紊乱9例。行颅脑MRI扫描显示,弥漫脑回肿胀6例,新发脑梗死2例,呈非对称性点状梗死灶。给予降温、补液、抗凝、降低颅内压及对症治疗,死亡1例,好转8例。1年后随访基本痊愈2例;神经功能改善显著4例,病残程度1~2级;神经功能改善进步1例,病残程度3级;1例神经功能无变化,病残程度5级。结论热射病易导致意识障碍和多器官功能衰竭,中枢神经系统损害以弥漫性脑肿胀多见,可见脑小血管闭塞所致的梗死,也可伴有周围神经损伤,严重者会遗留持久的神经功能障碍。%Objective To summarize the clinical characteristics , nerve electrophysiological features , imaging manifestations and prognosis of nervous system disorder caused by heat stroke. Methods A retrospective study was un⁃dertaken on clinical, nerve electrophysiological and imaging characteristics and prognosis of 9 patients who had heat Stroke and received treatment during July and August in 2010 and 2013 at the Second Hospital of Shandong University. Results There were seven males and two females, aged from 47 to 87 years, among 9 patients. All cases are admitted within 6 hours and their Core body

  12. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Valcin, Jennifer A.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases. PMID:26473939

  13. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  14. Heterotopic ossification after central nervous system trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, M. P.; Torres, S. J.; Mehta, S; Ahn, J

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a disorder of aberrant bone formation affecting one in five patients sustaining a spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury. Ectopic bone forms around joints in characteristic patterns, causing pain and limiting movement especially around the hip and elbow. Clinical sequelae of neurogenic heterotopic ossification include urinary tract infection, pressure injuries, pneumonia and poor hygiene, making early diagnosis and treatment clinically compel...

  15. Directional Spread of Alphaherpesviruses in the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn W. Enquist

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses are pathogens that invade the nervous systems of their mammalian hosts. Directional spread of infection in the nervous system is a key component of the viral lifecycle and is critical for the onset of alphaherpesvirus-related diseases. Many alphaherpesvirus infections originate at peripheral sites, such as epithelial tissues, and then enter neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS, where lifelong latency is established. Following reactivation from latency and assembly of new viral particles, the infection typically spreads back out towards the periphery. These spread events result in the characteristic lesions (cold sores commonly associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV and herpes zoster (shingles associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV. Occasionally, the infection spreads transsynaptically from the PNS into higher order neurons of the central nervous system (CNS. Spread of infection into the CNS, while rarer in natural hosts, often results in severe consequences, including death. In this review, we discuss the viral and cellular mechanisms that govern directional spread of infection in the nervous system. We focus on the molecular events that mediate long distance directional transport of viral particles in neurons during entry and egress.

  16. Types of neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B

    2000-07-01

    This paper, written for the symposium in honour of more than 40 years' contribution to autonomic research by Professor Geoffrey Burnstock, highlights the progress made in understanding the organisation of the enteric nervous system over this time. Forty years ago, the prevailing view was that the neurons within the gut wall were post-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic pathways. This view was replaced as evidence accrued that the neurons are part of the enteric nervous system and are involved in reflex and integrative activities that can occur even in the absence of neuronal influence from extrinsic sources. Work in Burnstock's laboratory led to the discovery of intrinsic inhibitory neurons with then novel pharmacology of transmission, and precipitated investigation of neuron types in the enteric nervous system. All the types of neurons in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine of the guinea-pig have now been identified in terms of their morphologies, projections, primary neurotransmitters and physiological identification. In this region there are 14 functionally defined neuron types, each with a characteristic combination of morphological, neurochemical and biophysical properties. The nerve circuits underlying effects on motility, blood flow and secretion that are mediated through the enteric nervous system are constructed from these neurons. The circuits for simple motility reflexes are now known, and progress has been made in analysing those involved in local control of blood flow and transmucosal fluid movement in the small intestine.

  17. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura A Struzyna; James P Harris; Kritika S Katiyar; H Isaac Chen; D KacyCullen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following ner-vous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways – the long-distance ifbers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals – is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regenera-tion rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engi-neered “living scaffolds”, which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a deifned, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration – mimicking key developmental mechanisms– or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  18. Restoring nervous system structure and function using tissue engineered living scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Struzyna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue engineering is premised on the integration of engineered living tissue with the host nervous system to directly restore lost function or to augment regenerative capacity following nervous system injury or neurodegenerative disease. Disconnection of axon pathways - the long-distance fibers connecting specialized regions of the central nervous system or relaying peripheral signals - is a common feature of many neurological disorders and injury. However, functional axonal regeneration rarely occurs due to extreme distances to targets, absence of directed guidance, and the presence of inhibitory factors in the central nervous system, resulting in devastating effects on cognitive and sensorimotor function. To address this need, we are pursuing multiple strategies using tissue engineered "living scaffolds", which are preformed three-dimensional constructs consisting of living neural cells in a defined, often anisotropic architecture. Living scaffolds are designed to restore function by serving as a living labeled pathway for targeted axonal regeneration - mimicking key developmental mechanisms- or by restoring lost neural circuitry via direct replacement of neurons and axonal tracts. We are currently utilizing preformed living scaffolds consisting of neuronal clusters spanned by long axonal tracts as regenerative bridges to facilitate long-distance axonal regeneration and for targeted neurosurgical reconstruction of local circuits in the brain. Although there are formidable challenges in preclinical and clinical advancement, these living tissue engineered constructs represent a promising strategy to facilitate nervous system repair and functional recovery.

  19. Postnatal Development of the Mouse Enteric Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Jaime Pei Pei

    2016-01-01

    Owing to over three decades of research, we now have a good understanding of the genetic and molecular control of enteric nervous system (ENS) development during embryonic and prenatal stages. On the other hand, it has only just become clear that a substantial process of ENS maturation occurs after birth (Hao et al. 2013a). During postnatal stages, in addition to genetic influences, ENS development is also potentially affected by the external environment. Thus it is possible that manipulating certain environmental factors could help prevent or reduce motility disorders. However the genetic and environmental factors that regulate postnatal ENS development remain unknown. Researchers have used a variety of animal models that are easy to manipulate genetically or experimentally, and have short gestational periods, to understand the development of the ENS. Notably, due to the availability of mouse models for several human enteric neuropathies, many studies have used the mature and developing murine ENS as a model. Here, I will discuss recent advances in knowledge about postnatal development of the murine ENS, and highlight future directions for this emerging research field. PMID:27379641

  20. Exclusive expression of MeCP2 in the nervous system distinguishes between brain and peripheral Rett syndrome-like phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Paul D; Guy, Jacky; Selfridge, Jim; Kamal, Bushra; Bahey, Noha; Tanner, Elizabeth; Gillingwater, Thomas H.; Jones, Ross A.; Christopher M Loughrey; McCarroll, Charlotte S.; Mark E S Bailey; Bird, Adrian; Cobb, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a severe genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene. MeCP2 protein is highly expressed in the nervous system and deficiency in the mouse central nervous system alone recapitulates many features of the disorder. This suggests that RTT is primarily a neurological disorder, although the protein is reportedly widely expressed throughout the body. To determine whether aspects of the RTT phenotype that originate in non-neuronal tissues might have bee...

  1. 126例使用酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者的脑电图分析%Analysis of electroencephalogram in 126 cases with ethyl alcohol-induced mental and behavioural disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨使用酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者的脑电图变化及其与饮酒量、饮酒史和临床类型的关系。方法回顾性分析126例使用酒精所致精神和行为障碍患者的住院资料。结果126例患者中脑电图正常66例(正常组),异常60例(异常组),正常组饮酒量为125~800 g/d,平均饮酒量(295.2±94.6)g/d,异常组饮酒量为130~875 g/d,平均饮酒量(299.0±94.0)g/d,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。饮酒史正常组为2~36年,平均饮酒史(17.2±9.02)年,异常组3~45年,平均饮酒史(21.0±9.6)年,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两组震颤谵妄、遗忘综合征发生情况比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05). The normal group had history of alcohol intake as 2~36 years, with the average time as (17.2±9.02) years, and the abnormal group had history of alcohol intake as 3~45 years, with the average time as (21.0±9.6) years. The difference between the two groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). The difference of occurrence of delirium tremens and amnestic syndrome between the two groups had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Ethyl alcohol-induced mental and behavioural disorders shows diffuse damage to brain function and tissue. Electroencephalogram is related with classification of clinical manifestations, while not with drinking amount and history of alcohol intake.

  2. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  3. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  4. Psychoneuroimmunology--cross-talk between the immune and nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Kern, Simone

    2007-05-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively new field of study that investigates interactions between behaviour and the immune system, mediated by the endocrine and nervous systems. The immune and central nervous system (CNS) maintain extensive communication. On the one hand, the brain modulates the immune system by hardwiring sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves (autonomic nervous system) to lymphoid organs. On the other hand, neuroendocrine hormones such as corticotrophin-releasing hormone or substance P regulate cytokine balance. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and immune system-mediated disease.

  5. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of......

  6. The clinical differentiation of nervous and muscular locomotor disorders of sheep in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, C A

    1995-06-01

    Many of the nervous and muscular locomotor disorders that affect sheep throughout Australia are commonly referred to as "staggers" syndromes. The range of clinical signs displayed by sheep suffering these disorders is sufficiently diverse to enable each syndrome to be graded into one of 5 progressive clinical groups. The first group, the limb paresis syndromes, includes the primary myopathies associated with the ingestion of Ixiolaena brevicompta, Malva parviflora, and Trachymene ochracea, as well as selenium and Vitamin E disorders, Paroo virus staggers, congenital progressive muscular dystrophy, humpy back, hypocalcaemic muscle weakness, Tribulus terrestris staggers and tetanus. The second group is characterised by limb paresis with knuckling of the fetlocks, and includes the plant-associated toxicities of Romulea rosea, Stachys arvensis, Trachyandra divaricata, and Tribulus micrococcus, together with haloxon toxicity, enzootic ataxia (copper deficiency), and the probably genetic disorders of segmental axonopathy, neuroaxonal dystrophy, and degenerative thoracic myelopathy. Other locomotor disorders that fit more loosely into this group are listerial myelitis (post-dipping staggers), vitamin A deficiency, cervico-thoracic vertebral subluxation Stypandra glauca toxicity, Ipomoea spp toxicity, ivermectin toxicity, and botulism. The third group, the falling syndromes, includes the probably genetic disorders of thalamic cerebellar neuropathy, cerebellar abiotrophy, and globoid cell leucodystrophy, together with Swainsona spp toxicity. The fourth group, the falling syndromes, includes the plant associated toxicities of phalaris staggers, perennial rye grass staggers and nervous ergotism (Claviceps paspali).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Gyrosonics a Novel Stimulant for Autonomic Nervous System

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Gyrosonics refers to novel audio binaural stimulus that produces rotational perceptions of sound movement in head at a particular predetermined frequency. Therapeutic effect observed with this is considered to be associated with modification of arousal of autonomic nervous system. The heart rate variability (HRV), non-invasive measure of autonomic nervous system, has been measured for group of 30 subjects for pre- and post- gyrosonic installation. The time- and frequency- domain analysis of HRV results show overall decrease in sympathetic response and increase in para- sympathetic response due to listening of gyro sonics.

  8. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  9. Altered balance in the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B M; Mehlsen, J; Behnke, K

    1988-01-01

    .05). Heart-rate response to inspiration was greater in non-medicated schizophrenics compared to normal subjects (P less than 0.05), whereas no difference was found between medicated and non-medicated schizophrenics. The results show that the balance in the autonomic nervous system is altered in schizophrenic...... patients with a hyperexcitability in both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic division. Our study has thus indicated a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system per se and the previous interpretations of attentional orienting responses in schizophrenia is questioned. Medication with neuroleptics......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic nervous function in schizophrenic patients. Twenty-eight patients (29 +/- 6 years) diagnosed as schizophrenics and in stable medication were included, together with ten schizophrenic patients (25 +/- 5 years) who were unmedicated. Eleven...

  10. [Pharmacological correction of central nervous system function in exposure to Coriolis acceleration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkishchenko, N N; Dimitriadi, N A; Molchanovskiĭ, V V

    1986-01-01

    Healthy volunteers with a low vestibular tolerance were exposed to Coriolis acceleration. Potassium orotate, pyracetame and riboxine were used as prophylactic measures against disorders in the function of the vestibular apparatus and higher compartments of the higher nervous system. The central nervous function was assessed with respect to the spectral power of electroencephalograms, short-term memory and mental performance. Potassium orotate given at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day during 12-14 days as well as pyracetame given at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight/day during 3 or 7 days increased significantly statokinetic tolerance and produced a protective effect on the central nervous function against Coriolis acceleration.

  11. Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of statins in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Amelia J; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Arora, Devinder S; Grant, Gary D; McDermott, Catherine M; Perkins, Anthony V; Davey, Andrew K

    2014-11-10

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly referred to as statins, are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidaemia, in addition to providing primary and secondary prevention against cardiovascular disease and stroke. Statins' effects on the central nervous system (CNS), particularly on cognition and neurological disorders such as stroke and multiple sclerosis, have received increasing attention in recent years, both within the scientific community and in the media. Current understanding of statins' effects is limited by a lack of mechanism-based studies, as well as the assumption that all statins have the same pharmacological effect in the central nervous system. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the molecular mechanisms contributing to statins' possible effects on cognitive function, neurodegenerative disease, and various neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, depression and CNS cancers. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic differences between statins and how these may result in statin-specific neurological effects are also discussed.

  12. High-resolution sonography of the peripheral nervous system. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, Siegfried [Innsbruck Medical University (Austria). Section for Diagnostic and Interventional Sonography; Bodner, Gerd (eds.) [St. Bernards Hospital (Gibraltar)

    2008-07-01

    Since the first edition of this book, sonography of the peripheral nervous system has evolved further. Not only has knowledge of the sonographic features of common neurological disorders deepened, but constant research has led to the application of sonography in the diagnosis and guided treatment of disorders that were not previously accessible. This second, revised edition reflects these ongoing developments in various ways: many state of the art high-resolution images are included, the text has been adapted to reflect the current state of the literature, and information is presented using a more modern layout. Anatomic/sonographic correlation is considered in depth, and examination technique with modern sonography equipment is explained. This book provides a practical, clinically oriented overview of all aspects of sonographic diagnosis and interventional therapy of the peripheral nervous system and will be of value to all with an interest in this field. (orig.)

  13. Hydrogen sulfide and nervous system regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cheng-fang; TANG Xiao-qing

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in regulation of neurotoxicity,neuroprotection,and neuromodulator,as well as its therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2001 to August 2011.The search terms were “hydrogen sulfide”,“neuron”,and “neurodegenerative disorders”.Study selection Articles regarding the regulation of neuronal function,the protection against neuronal damage and neurological diseases,and their possible cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with H2S were selected.Results The inhibited generation of endogenous H2S is implicated in 1-methy-4-phenylpyridinium ion,6-OHDA,and homocysteine-triggered neurotoxicity.H2S elicits neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease models as well as protecting neurons against oxidative stress,ischemia,and hypoxia-induced neuronal death.H2S offers anti-oxidant,anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects,as well as activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channels.H2S regulates the long-term potentiation (LTP) and GABAB receptors in the hippocampus,as well as intracellular calcium and pH homeostasis in neurons and glia cells.Conclusions These articles suggest that endogenous H2S may regulate the toxicity of neurotoxin.H2S not only acts as a neuroprotectant but also serves as a novel neuromodulator.

  14. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilov, V. N., E-mail: vnshumilov@rambler.ru; Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com; Syryamkin, M. V., E-mail: maximus70sir@gmail.com [National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 36 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  15. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilov, V. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Syryamkin, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  16. Modelling of pathologies of the nervous system by the example of computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper puts forward principles of action of devices operating similarly to the nervous system and the brain of biological systems. We propose an alternative method of studying diseases of the nervous system, which may significantly influence prevention, medical treatment, or at least retardation of development of these diseases. This alternative is to use computational and electronic models of the nervous system. Within this approach, we represent the brain in the form of a huge electrical circuit composed of active units, namely, neuron-like units and connections between them. As a result, we created computational and electronic models of elementary nervous systems, which are based on the principles of functioning of biological nervous systems that we have put forward. Our models demonstrate reactions to external stimuli and their change similarly to the behavior of simplest biological organisms. The models possess the ability of self-training and retraining in real time without human intervention and switching operation/training modes. In our models, training and memorization take place constantly under the influence of stimuli on the organism. Training is without any interruption and switching operation modes. Training and formation of new reflexes occur by means of formation of new connections between excited neurons, between which formation of connections is physically possible. Connections are formed without external influence. They are formed under the influence of local causes. Connections are formed between outputs and inputs of two neurons, when the difference between output and input potentials of excited neurons exceeds a value sufficient to form a new connection. On these grounds, we suggest that the proposed principles truly reflect mechanisms of functioning of biological nervous systems and the brain. In order to confirm the correspondence of the proposed principles to biological nature, we carry out experiments for the study of processes of

  17. Berberine Promotes Axonal Regeneration in Injured Nerves of the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ah Mi; Heo, Hwon; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid component of Coptidis Rhizoma (goldenthread) extract, has been reported to have therapeutic potential for central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia, and schizophrenia. We have previously shown that berberine promotes the survival and differentiation of hippocampal precursor cells. In a memory-impaired rat model induced by ibotenic acid injection, the survival of pyramidal and granular cells was greatly increased in the ...

  18. Neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid in central nervous system lesions consequent to peripheral nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Tomassoni; Francesco Amenta; Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli; Carla Ghelardini; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Alessandra Pacini; Seyed Khosrow Tayebati

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for tre...

  19. The renin-angiotensin system and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1977-04-01

    One of several factors affecting the secretion of renin by the kidneys is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic input is excitatory and is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the membranes of the juxtaglomerular cells. Stimulation of sympathetic areas in the medulla, midbrain and hypothalamus raises blood pressure and increases renin secretion, whereas stimulation of other parts of the hypothalamus decreases blood pressure and renin output. The centrally active alpha-adrenergic agonist clonidine decreases renin secretion, lowers blood pressure, inhibits ACTH and vasopressin secretion, and increases growth hormone secretion in dogs. The effects on ACTH and growth hormone are abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine into the third ventricle, whereas the effect on blood pressure is abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine in the fourth ventricle without any effect on the ACTH and growth hormone responses. Fourth ventricular phenoxybenzamine decreases but does not abolish the inhibitory effect of clonidine on renin secretion. Circulating angiotensin II acts on the brain via the area postrema to raise blood pressure and via the subfornical organ to increase water intake. Its effect on vasopressin secretion is debated. The brain contains a renin-like enzyme, converting enzyme, renin substrate, and angiotensin. There is debate about the nature and physiological significance of the angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the brain, and about the nature of the angiotensin I and angiotensin II that have been reported to be present in the central nervous system. However, injection of angiotensin II into the cerebral ventricles produces drinking, increased secretion of vasopressin and ACTH, and increased blood pressure. The same responses are produced by intraventricular renin. Angiotensin II also facilitates sympathetic discharge in the periphery, and the possibility that it exerts a similar action on the adrenergic neurons

  20. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined

  1. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  2. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  3. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the nervous system of Hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Dockray, G J; Schot, L P

    1982-01-01

    FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been localized in different parts of the hydra nervous system. Immunoreactivity occurs in nerve perikarya and processes in the ectoderm of the lower peduncle region near the basal disk, in the ectoderm of the hypostome and in the ectoderm of the tentacles...

  4. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  5. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  6. Cancer of the Brain and Other Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Show More Cancer and the Brain Figure: Brain Anatomy Click to enlarge. There are many types of brain and spinal cord tumors. Together, the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). The tumors may be either benign (not ...

  7. Assessment and study of changes psychosomatic state of the vegetative nervous system of patients with rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova A.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aims. The study aimed an identifying of signs of the vegetative nervous system and detailed study of the psychological characteristics of patients with rosacea. Materials and methods. The study included 60 patients with different clinical forms of rosacea at the age from 26 to 56 years and a control group of 60 relatively healthy persons. The assessment of emotional status is carried out with the survey, Test of accentuations of temperament, Diagnostic Questionnaire Quality of Life Index (DILQ, The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, reduced multifactorial questionnaire for the study of personality. Vegetative nervous system was investigated using vegetative Kerdo index, Wayne and Solovyova tables and a special questionnaire for signs of vegetative disorders. Conclusions. Syndrome revealed the presence of vegetative-vascular dysfunction in patients with rosacea with a predominance of parasympathetic tone of the autonomic nervous system. Severity of psychoemotional disorders had no direct relationship to the severity of rosacea. But patients with advanced disease had a tighter self-control on the background of increased excitability and stronger internal emotional stress. Those patients were compared with a group of patients with earlier stage disease, which may provoke functional impairments and in case of long existence-the formation of psychosomatic disorders. This comprehensive assessment of vegetative and emotional status is included in the algorithm for evaluation of patients with rosacea and will successfully complement traditional therapy.

  8. Effects of erythropoietin and its receptor on nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wang; Wei Zhou

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) on nervous system, and its possible mechanism.DATA SOURCES: By inputting the key words "erythropoietin ,nervous system", we performed a search of Medline for English articles, which were published during September 1996 to August 2006, about EPO and EPOR in nervous system.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly, literatures were chosen for treatment group and control group and those obviously non-randomized studies were excluded. The full texts of the left literatures were searched. Inclusive criteria: ① Randomized controlled study. ②Experimental or clinical studies (parallel control group included). ③Treatment group was recombinant human erythropoietin(rHuEPO)-treated group. Exclusive criteria: repetitive study.DATA EXTRACTION: A number of 380 randomized or non-randomized articles about the effect of EPO on nervous system were collected, and 49 experiments or clinical trials met the inclusive criteria. Among 331 exclusive articles, 237 were non-randomized or repetitive studies and 94 were review articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: Forty-nine experiments or clinical trials confirmed that EPO and EPOR were expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system(PNS) of gnawer, primate and human being; rHuEPO had obvious neuroprotective effects on brain hypoxia, brain ischemia, experimental intracranial hemorrhage, brain trauma, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sensory neuropathy, distal axonopathy, experimental diabetic neuropathy and acute spinal injury models. Its mechanism maybe involve anti-excitatory toxicity, preventing the production of nitric oxide (NO), lessening inflammatory reaction, resisting apoptosis, maintaining vascular integrity, promoting angiogenesis, promoting the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and progenitor cells and so on. Exogenous EPO could be

  9. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  10. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  11. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States. PMID:11856998

  12. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  13. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  14. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chronic herpes encephalitis, which is characterized by dysfunction of the limbic system and by a long-term course with exacerbations. CIDP is a dysimmune disease leasing to peripheral nervous system involvement, which belongs to a class of myelinopathies. The paper describes two clinical cases of a concurrence of chronic PILE and CIDP in middle-aged men who have symptomatic status epilepticus and iatrogenic complications. It characterizes difficulties in diagnosis and the clinical features of chronic herpes infection involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. The given clinical cases suggest that not only neurologistsand epileptologists, but also resuscitation specialists and ngiosurgeons should be particularly alert to the pathology in question.

  15. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane N Aldworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  16. Temporal encoding in a nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldworth, Zane N; Dimitrov, Alexander G; Cummins, Graham I; Gedeon, Tomáš; Miller, John P

    2011-05-01

    We examined the extent to which temporal encoding may be implemented by single neurons in the cercal sensory system of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. We found that these neurons exhibit a greater-than-expected coding capacity, due in part to an increased precision in brief patterns of action potentials. We developed linear and non-linear models for decoding the activity of these neurons. We found that the stimuli associated with short-interval patterns of spikes (ISIs of 8 ms or less) could be predicted better by second-order models as compared to linear models. Finally, we characterized the difference between these linear and second-order models in a low-dimensional subspace, and showed that modification of the linear models along only a few dimensions improved their predictive power to parity with the second order models. Together these results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

  17. Imaging of the autonomic nervous system: focus on cardiac sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2003-12-01

    Symptoms or signs of abnormal autonomic nervous system function occur commonly in several neurological disorders. Clinical evaluations have depended on physiological, pharmacological, and neurochemical approaches. Recently, imaging of sympathetic noradrenergic innervation has been introduced and applied especially in the heart. Most studies have used the radiolabeled sympathomimetic amine, (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. Decreased uptake or increased "washout" of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine-derived radioactivity is associated with worse prognosis or more severe disease in hypertension, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and diabetes mellitus. This pattern may reflect a high rate of postganglionic sympathetic nerve traffic to the heart. Many recent studies have agreed on the remarkable finding that all patients with Parkinson's disease and orthostatic hypotension have a loss of cardiac sympathetic innervation, whereas all patients with multiple system atrophy, often difficult to distinguish clinically from Parkinson's disease, have intact cardiac sympathetic innervation. Because Parkinson's disease entails a postganglionic sympathetic noradrenergic lesion, the disease appears to be not only a movement disorder, with dopamine loss in the nigrostriatal system of the brain, but also a dysautonomia, with noradrenaline loss in the sympathetic nervous system of the heart. As new ligands are developed, one may predict further discoveries of involvement of components of the autonomic nervous system in neurological diseases.

  18. Alcohol-Induced Developmental Origins of Adult-Onset Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Emilie R; Washburn, Shannon E; Golding, Michael C; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure may impair growth, development, and function of multiple organ systems and is encompassed by the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Research has so far focused on the mechanisms, prevention, and diagnosis of FASD, while the risk for adult-onset chronic diseases in individuals exposed to alcohol in utero is not well explored. David Barker's hypothesis on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) suggests that insults to the milieu of the developing fetus program it for adult development of chronic diseases. In the 25 years since the introduction of this hypothesis, epidemiological and animal model studies have made significant advancements in identifying in utero developmental origins of chronic adult-onset diseases affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and psychobehavioral systems. Teratogen exposure is an established programming agent for adult diseases, and recent studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure correlates with adult onset of neurobehavioral deficits, cardiovascular disease, endocrine dysfunction, and nutrient homeostasis instability, warranting additional investigation of alcohol-induced DOHaD, as well as patient follow-up well into adulthood for affected individuals. In utero epigenetic alterations during critical periods of methylation are a key potential mechanism for programming and susceptibility of adult-onset chronic diseases, with imprinted genes affecting metabolism being critical targets. Additional studies in epidemiology, phenotypic characterization in response to timing, dose, and duration of exposure, as well as elucidation of mechanisms underlying FASD-DOHaD inter relation, are thus needed to clinically define chronic disease associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. These studies are critical to establish interventional strategies that decrease incidence of these adult-onset diseases and promote healthier aging among individuals affected with FASD.

  19. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso; Ana Claudia Lyon; Stanley de Almeida Araújo; Juliana Márcia Ribeiro Veloso; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Antônio Lucio Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseas...

  1. Regulation of sympathetic nervous system function after cardiovascular deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasser, E. M.; Moffitt, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Humans subjected to prolonged periods of bed rest or microgravity undergo deconditioning of the cardiovascular system, characterized by resting tachycardia, reduced exercise capability, and a predisposition for orthostatic intolerance. These changes in cardiovascular function are likely due to a combination of factors, including changes in control of body fluid balance or cardiac alterations resulting in inadequate maintenance of stroke volume, altered arterial or venous vascular function, reduced activation of cardiovascular hormones, and diminished autonomic reflex function. There is evidence indicating a role for each of these mechanisms. Diminished reflex activation of the sympathetic nervous system and subsequent vasoconstriction appear to play an important role. Studies utilizing the hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rat, an animal model of deconditioning, evaluated the potential role of altered arterial baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. These studies indicate that HU results in blunted baroreflex-mediated activation of both renal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity in response to a hypotensive stimulus. HU rats are less able to maintain arterial pressure during hemorrhage, suggesting that diminished ability to increase sympathetic activity has functional consequences for the animal. Reflex control of vasopressin secretion appears to be enhanced following HU. Blunted baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation appears to involve altered central nervous system function. Baroreceptor afferent activity in response to changes in arterial pressure is unaltered in HU rats. However, increases in efferent sympathetic nerve activity for a given decrease in afferent input are blunted after HU. This altered central nervous system processing of baroreceptor inputs appears to involve an effect at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Specifically, it appears that tonic GABAA-mediated inhibition of the RVLM is enhanced after HU. Augmented inhibition apparently

  2. Introduction to 'Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the 'Cambrian explosion' arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to discuss

  3. Introduction to 'Homology and convergence in nervous system evolution'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hirth, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The origin of brains and central nervous systems (CNSs) is thought to have occurred before the Palaeozoic era 540 Ma. Yet in the absence of tangible evidence, there has been continued debate whether today's brains and nervous systems derive from one ancestral origin or whether similarities among them are due to convergent evolution. With the advent of molecular developmental genetics and genomics, it has become clear that homology is a concept that applies not only to morphologies, but also to genes, developmental processes, as well as to behaviours. Comparative studies in phyla ranging from annelids and arthropods to mammals are providing evidence that corresponding developmental genetic mechanisms act not only in dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior axis specification but also in segmentation, neurogenesis, axogenesis and eye/photoreceptor cell formation that appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom. These data are supported by recent studies which identified Mid-Cambrian fossils with preserved soft body parts that present segmental arrangements in brains typical of modern arthropods, and similarly organized brain centres and circuits across phyla that may reflect genealogical correspondence and control similar behavioural manifestations. Moreover, congruence between genetic and geological fossil records support the notion that by the 'Cambrian explosion' arthropods and chordates shared similarities in brain and nervous system organization. However, these similarities are strikingly absent in several sister- and outgroups of arthropods and chordates which raises several questions, foremost among them: what kind of natural laws and mechanisms underlie the convergent evolution of such similarities? And, vice versa: what are the selection pressures and genetic mechanisms underlying the possible loss or reduction of brains and CNSs in multiple lineages during the course of evolution? These questions were addressed at a Royal Society meeting to discuss

  4. [Pathology of the nervous system in conscripts with drug abuse in past medical history: symptomatology, diagnostics methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Kovalenko, A P; Efimtsev, A Iu; Tarumov, D A; Petrov, A D; Lisianskiĭ, D A

    2014-08-01

    Authors examined 60 female and male patients (average age 25.8±2.7 years) with confirmed diagnosis - drug abuse. Average duration of drug abuse was approximately 9±3.3 years. At the moment of examination patients had been fully in remission for 3 weeks. The following non-invasive procedures were undertaken: stimulation electroneuromyogrphy and brain MRI. Received results showed that drug abuse leads to diffuse lesion of the nervous system, which manifests itself as vegetative disorders, scattered neurological symptoms, polyneuropathy. Authors gave recommendations in the field of military examination with the aim of detection of nervous disorders caused by drug abuse.

  5. Mesoscopic organization reveals the constraints governing Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Pan

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges in biology is to understand how activity at the cellular level of neurons, as a result of their mutual interactions, leads to the observed behavior of an organism responding to a variety of environmental stimuli. Investigating the intermediate or mesoscopic level of organization in the nervous system is a vital step towards understanding how the integration of micro-level dynamics results in macro-level functioning. The coordination of many different co-occurring processes at this level underlies the command and control of overall network activity. In this paper, we have considered the somatic nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, for which the entire neuronal connectivity diagram is known. We focus on the organization of the system into modules, i.e., neuronal groups having relatively higher connection density compared to that of the overall network. We show that this mesoscopic feature cannot be explained exclusively in terms of considerations such as, optimizing for resource constraints (viz., total wiring cost and communication efficiency (i.e., network path length. Even including information about the genetic relatedness of the cells cannot account for the observed modular structure. Comparison with other complex networks designed for efficient transport (of signals or resources implies that neuronal networks form a distinct class. This suggests that the principal function of the network, viz., processing of sensory information resulting in appropriate motor response, may be playing a vital role in determining the connection topology. Using modular spectral analysis we make explicit the intimate relation between function and structure in the nervous system. This is further brought out by identifying functionally critical neurons purely on the basis of patterns of intra- and inter-modular connections. Our study reveals how the design of the nervous system reflects several constraints, including

  6. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Dahlberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New, practical models of central nervous system regeneration are required and should provide molecular tools and resources. We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual in the chordate phylum. We investigated the timing and sequence of events during nervous system regeneration in this organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed techniques for reproducible ablations and for imaging live cellular events in tissue explants. Based on live observations of more than 100 regenerating animals, we subdivided the regeneration process into four stages. Regeneration was functional, as shown by the sequential recovery of reflexes that established new criteria for defining regeneration rates. We used transgenic animals and labeled nucleotide analogs to describe in detail the early cellular events at the tip of the regenerating nerves and the first appearance of the new adult ganglion anlage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of regeneration was found to be negatively correlated with adult size. New neural structures were derived from the anterior and posterior nerve endings. A blastemal structure was implicated in the formation of new neural cells. This work demonstrates that Ciona intestinalis is as a useful system for studies on regeneration of the brain, brain-associated organs and nerves.

  7. [Molecular physiology of glycine receptors in nervous system of vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Glycine receptor is the anion-selective channel, providing fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. Together with the nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA and serotonin (5-HT3R) receptors, it belongs to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptors. It has been cloned one beta and four alpha subunits of glycine receptor, which are specifically distributed in different areas of the nervous system. Due to their specific molecular properties and distribution, different subunits ensure important physiological functions: from control of motor activity and regulation of neuronal differentiation to sensory information processing and modulation of pain sensitivity. In this review we briefly describe main functions of these transmembrane proteins, their distribution and molecular architecture. Special attention is paid to recent studies on the molecular physiology of these receptors, as well as on presenting of molecular domains responsible for their modulation and dysfunction. PMID:25508361

  8. Pathophysiology of Resistant Hypertension: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Tsioufis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RH is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the characteristics of patients with RH, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and aldosterone excess are covering a great area of the mosaic of RH phenotype. Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity is present in all these underlying conditions, supporting its crucial role in the pathophysiology of antihypertensive treatment resistance. Current clinical and experimental knowledge points towards an impact of several factors on SNS activation, namely, insulin resistance, adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, cyclic intermittent hypoxaemia, aldosterone effects on central nervous system, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors dysregulation. The further investigation and understanding of the mechanisms leading to SNS activation could reveal novel therapeutic targets and expand our treatment options in the challenging management of RH.

  9. Expression and function of aquaporins in peripheral nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-hui MA; Hong-wen GAO; Xue-dong FANG; Hong YANG

    2011-01-01

    The expression and role of the aquaporin (AQP) family water channels in the peripheral nervous system was less investigated. Since 2004, however, significant progress has been made in the immunolocalization, regulation and function of AQPs in the peripheral nervous system. These studies showed selective localization of three AQPs (AQP1, AQP2, and AQP4) in dorsal root ganglion neurons,enteric neurons and glial cells, periodontal Ruffini endings, trigeminal ganglion neurons and vomeronasal sensory neurons. Functional characterization in transgenic knockout mouse model revealed important role of AQP1 in pain perception. This review will summarize the progress in this field and discuss possible involvement of AQPs in peripheral neuropathies and their potential as novel drug targets.

  10. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focused on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. Ov...... HSV-PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection considering the subtle nature of HME....

  11. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Giannotti, Fosca; Pedreschi, Dino; Pentland, Alex (Sandy); Lukowicz, Paul; Kossmann, Donald; Crowley, James; Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    International audience We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous Sys- tem (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide soci- ety, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and...

  12. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  13. Modeling of the human nervous system via Petri networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haja, Andriantsilavo

    2013-01-01

    Actually, no one can clear up exactly how the neuron network of the human brain works. The anatomical maps abound but those functional, are poorly understood and little produced. It falls to computational Scientists to find the way to use Informatics in Neurology. The contribution of this article is to propose three principles of modeling. The first approach relies on the brain and nervous systems: making the analogy between the brain areas (their relationships) and Petri Nets (PN). The visio...

  14. Central nervous system infection caused by Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Jehad; Saad, Mustafa; Samnani, Imran; Lee, Prescott; Moorman, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Morganella morganii is very rare. We describe a 38-year-old female patient with frontal brain abscess caused by M morganii who was unsuccessfully treated. We also review all reported cases of Morganella CNS infections with an emphasis on treatment modalities and outcomes. Aggressive surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial therapy can lead to cure, but the mortality rate for these infections remains high.

  15. Neuronal Chemokines: Versatile Messengers In Central Nervous System Cell Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; Jong, E.K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas many reports describe chemokine expression in astrocytes and microglia and their role in the migration of leuko...

  16. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  17. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  18. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  19. Neurotrophic effects of neudesin in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Ying; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Neudesin (neuron-derived neurotrophic factor; NENF) was identified as a neurotrophic factor that is involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. It is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and its neurotrophic activity is exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Neudesin is also an anorexigenic factor that suppresses food intake in the hypothalamus. It is a member of the membrane-associated progesterone rece...

  20. Allocation of Computational Resources in the Nervous System.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Santiago

    2006-01-01

    The nervous system integrates past information together with predictions about the future in order to produce rewarding actions for the organism. This dissertation focuses on the resources underlying these computations, and the task-dependent allocation of these resources. We present evidence that principles from optimal coding and optimal estimation account for overt and covert orienting phenomena, as observed from both behavioral experiments and neuronal recordings. First, we review ...

  1. Damage to the Enteric Nervous System in Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanovic, Srdan; Lamb, Damian P.; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation of the intestine causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through effects on the enteric nervous system. While these changes may be reversed with healing, permanent damage may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and post-enteritis irritable bowel syndrome. Since little information exists, we induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and used immunocytochemistry to examine the number and distribution of enteric neurons at ti...

  2. Simultaneous central nervous system complications of C. neoformans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Higera Calleja, Jesus; Mitre, Vicente Gijón; Ramos, Guillermo Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The most common neurological manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is meningitis. Other less common manifestations include parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) granulomatous disease, hydrocephalus and stroke. C. neoformans is often suspected in immunodepressed patients, but it can be easily overlooked in otherwise healthy patients. This paper provides a detailed clinical description of a patient without immunosupression who developed multiple simultaneous neurological manifestations after the infection with C. neoformans. PMID:21577360

  3. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  4. Effects of lymphoma on the peripheral nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, R A; Britton, T.; Richards, M

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system abnormalities occur in 5% of patients with lymphoma and have a wide differential diagnosis. Herpes zoster is the commonest cause. Vinca alkaloids are the only drugs used in lymphoma which commonly cause neuropathy. Compression or infiltration of nerve roots by lymphoma is a rare presenting feature but becomes more common with advanced disease. Radiation plexopathy does not usually develop until at least 6 months after irradiation and can be difficult to distinguish f...

  5. Spontaneous electrical activity recorded from the aphid central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dan-Thanh T.; Blacker, Melissa J.; Goodchild, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst many classes of insecticides target the insect central nervous system (CNS), their effects in the CNS of pest aphids have not been demonstrated. In this report, we describe an electrophysiological method for recording spontaneous neuronal activity from the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus). Using extracellular recording electrodes and two analysis methods (threshold and template search), spontaneous spike activity was shown to exhibit sensitivity to the neuroexcitatory insect...

  6. Herpesvirus Transport to the Nervous System and Back Again

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, and pseudorabies virus are neurotropic pathogens of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily of the Herpesviridae. These viruses efficiently invade the peripheral nervous system and establish lifelong latency in neurons resident in peripheral ganglia. Primary and recurrent infections cycle virus particles between neurons and the peripheral tissues they innervate. This remarkable cycle of infection is the topic of this review. In addition, some of the dist...

  7. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors

  8. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, Irfan A. [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Mehler, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mehler@einstein.yu.edu [Rosyln and Leslie Goldstein Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Institute for Brain Disorders and Neural Regeneration, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States); Rose F. Kennedy Center for Research on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY 10461 (United States)

    2011-09-13

    Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization) and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  9. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  10. Epigenetics, Nervous System Tumors, and Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F. Mehler

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances have begun to elucidate how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are responsible for establishing and maintaining cell identity during development and adult life and how the disruption of these processes is, not surprisingly, one of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we describe the major epigenetic mechanisms (i.e., DNA methylation, histone and chromatin modification, non-coding RNA deployment, RNA editing, and nuclear reorganization and discuss the broad spectrum of epigenetic alterations that have been uncovered in pediatric and adult nervous system tumors. We also highlight emerging evidence that suggests epigenetic deregulation is a characteristic feature of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, which are thought to be present in a range of nervous system tumors and responsible for tumor maintenance, progression, treatment resistance, and recurrence. We believe that better understanding how epigenetic mechanisms operate in neural cells and identifying the etiologies and consequences of epigenetic deregulation in tumor cells and CSCs, in particular, are likely to promote the development of enhanced molecular diagnostics and more targeted and effective therapeutic agents for treating recalcitrant nervous system tumors.

  11. Gross anatomy and development of the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, Martin; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain, the brainstem, the cerebellum, and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) made up of the different nerves arising from the CNS. The PNS is divided into the cranial nerves III to XII supplying the head and the spinal nerves that supply the upper and lower limbs. The general anatomy of the PNS is organized according to the arrangement of the fibers along the rostro-caudal axis. The control of the development of the PNS has been unravelled during the last 30 years. Motor nerves arise from the ventral neural tube. This ventralization is induced by morphogenetic molecules such as sonic hedgehog. In contrast, the sensory elements of the PNS arise from a specific population of cells originating from the roof of the neural tube, namely the neural crest. These cells give rise to the neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, the autonomic ganglia and the paraganglia including the adrenergic neurons of the adrenals. Furthermore, the supportive glial Schwann cells of the PNS originate from the neural crest cells. Growth factors as well as myelinating proteins are involved in the development of the PNS.

  12. Neuritin, a neurotrophic factor in nervous system physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Zhou, J

    2014-04-01

    Neuritin (also known as candidate plasticity gene 15, cpg15) is an activity-induced glycosylphosphatidylinositol- anchored axonal protein and is mainly expressed in the brain. Neuritin mRNA expression is modulated by neurotrophic factors, synaptic activity, hormones, sensory experience, and electroconvulsive seizure therapy. Neuritin has several effects in the nervous system, such as promoting neurite outgrowth, modulating neurite outgrowth during neuronal differentiation, protecting motor neuron axons, promoting dendritic growth, shaping dendritic arbors of target neurons, regulating synaptic plasticity, stabilizing active synapses, promoting synaptic maturation and neuronal migration, promoting the development and maturation of visual cortical neurons, regulating apoptosis of proliferative neurons, and regenerating peripheral nerve and spinal axons. Neuritin is also implicated in cerebral ischemia, depression, and cognitive function in schizophrenia, and it upregulates transient outward K(+) currents in neurons, suggesting that neuritin may be a potential therapeutic target in peripheral and central nervous system diseases. This review focuses on the expression, distribution, and physiological functions of neuritin in the nervous system. PMID:24350851

  13. Functional roles of neuropeptides in the insect central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D. R.

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project we can begin to appreciate the extent of the complexity in the components involved in signal transfer and modulation in the nervous system of an animal with reasonably complex behavior. Of all the different classes of signaling substances utilized by the nervous system, the neuropeptides are the most diverse structurally and functionally. Thus peptidergic mechanisms of action in the central nervous system need to be analyzed in the context of the neuronal circuits in which they act and generalized traits cannot be established. By taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetics and the presence of identifiable neurons, it has been possible to interfere with peptidergic signaling in small populations of central neurons and monitor the consequences on behavior. These studies and experiments on other insects with large identifiable neurons, permitting cellular analysis of signaling mechanisms, have outlined important principles for temporal and spatial action of neuropeptides in outputs of the circadian clock and in orchestrating molting behavior. Considering the large number of neuropeptides available in each insect species and their diverse distribution patterns, it is to be expected that different neuropeptides play roles in most aspects of insect physiology and behavior.

  14. Perturbed autonomic nervous system function in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, Nicholas; Argyrakopoulou, Georgia; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is characterized by the clustering of various common metabolic abnormalities in an individual and it is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Its prevalence in the general population is approximately 25%. Central fat accumulation and insulin resistance are considered as the common denominators of the abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome have autonomic nervous system dysfunction characterized by predominance of the sympathetic nervous system in many organs, i.e. heart, kidneys, vasculature, adipose tissue, and muscles. Sympathetic nervous system activation in metabolic syndrome is detected as increased heart rate and blood pressure, diminished heart rate variability, baroreceptor dysfunction, enhanced lipolysis in visceral fat, increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and high urine or plasma catecholamine concentrations as well as turnover rates. The augmented sympathetic activity in individuals with metabolic syndrome worsens prognosis of this high-risk population. The mechanisms linking metabolic syndrome with sympathetic activation are complex and not clearly understood. Whether sympathetic overactivity is involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome or is a consequence of it remains to be elucidated since data from prospective studies are missing. Intervention studies have demonstrated that the autonomic disturbances of the metabolic syndrome may be reversible.

  15. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Dierckx, Bram

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory rate, digestion, and perspiration. It is divided into two partially antagonistic systems: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic or vagal nervous system. In general, the vagal syste...

  16. Distribution of feline lymphoma in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Maria Teresa; Motta, Luca; Calò, Pietro

    2016-10-01

    In cats, lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the most common neoplasm affecting the spinal cord and the second most common intracranial tumour. Although lymphoma commonly develops in the spinal cord as a part of a multicentric process, a primary form may occur. Lymphoma can exhibit a wide range of morphological patterns, including intraparenchymal brain mass, lymphomatosis cerebri, intravascular lymphoma, lymphomatous choroiditis and meningitis, extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary lymphoma in the spinal cord, or neurolymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves. Lymphoma may occur as a paraneoplastic disorder associated with peripheral neuropathies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are the techniques of choice for morphological assessment of nervous system lesions in vivo. However, biopsy should be performed to achieve a definitive diagnosis. Knowledge of the different morphological patterns expressed by lymphoma in the nervous system of cats allows veterinary clinicians to suspect lymphoma and to arrange appropriate diagnostic procedures, including immunophenotype and clonality studies, along with therapeutic protocols and prognostic evaluations. PMID:27687936

  17. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  18. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  19. [Nervous disorders and pithiatism in French soldiers during the Great War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauran, L

    1995-01-01

    Nervous disorders due to war are known since antiquity. From 1915 young physicians wrote theses about this problem in military psychiatry. The question of hysteria breed many difficulties. Physicians of the time make a remarkable nosographical work during the sessions of the neurologic and of the psychiatric French societies, so as in their feature articles. Babinsky's term of "pithiatisme" comes back into medical vocabulary of WW I. The "torpillage" (a kind of electrical treatment), impels sharp controversies, but reveals to be a precious mean against malingering. Prs and Drs P. Marie, J. Déjerine, A. Léri, A. Souques, H. Claude, J. Froment, Cl. Vincent, H. Meige, G. Roussy, J. Lhermitte, G. Ballet and Babinski, mentioned their applied treatment, from psychotherapy to electricity, going by injections of bromide serum or isolation. Hysterical disorders were very important by number during this "drôle de guerre". They finally admit that they are bound to emotion.

  20. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  1. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  2. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  3. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents on nervous system: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khazdair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50 of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  4. The effects of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents on nervous system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Rezaee, Ramin; M Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Saffron or Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) has been widely used as a medicinal plant to promote human health, especially in Asia. The main components of saffron are crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. The median lethal doses (LD50) of C. sativus are 200 mg/ml and 20.7 g/kg in vitro and in animal studies, respectively. Saffron has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of a wide range of disorders including coronary artery diseases, hypertension, stomach disorders, dysmenorrhea and learning and memory impairments. In addition, different studies have indicated that saffron has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, antigenotoxic and cytotoxic activities. Antitussive effects of stigmas and petals of C. sativus and its components, safranal and crocin have also been demonstrated. The anticonvulsant and anti-Alzheimer properties of saffron extract were shown in human and animal studies. The efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of mild to moderate depression was also reported in clinical trial. Administration of C. sativus and its constituents increased glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. It also interacts with the opioid system to reduce withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, in the present article, the effects of C. sativus and its constituents on the nervous system and the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Our literature review showed that C. sativus and its components can be considered as promising agents in the treatment of nervous system disorders.

  5. Features of new realization forms of the prevention and correction of nervous and psychosomatic disorders in the personnel of the Kombinat and Spetsatom industrial associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of the clinic of boundary nervous-mental disorders (BNMD) in the Chernobyl' NPP personnel in the third period (from 1986, November up to 1988) of extremal situation development were studied to create the adequate and effective therapeutic-preventive measures. Analysis of the stress factors in extremal and postextermal situations shows the increase in load on psychology adaptation systems in postextremal situation. Differential system of the realization forms and methods necessary preventive and therapeutic-rehabilitation measures was developed

  6. [AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ITS IMBALANCE IN NEURO INTENSIVE CARE UNIT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popugaev, K A; Lubnin, A Yu; Zabelin, M V; Samoylov, A S

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides homeostasis due to the innervation of the secretory glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Higher centers of the ANS (primarily the hypothalamus, some centers of the brain stem and limbic system) form a integrative network, which plays a key role in coordinating the functioning of the endocrine, immune system and other parts of the central nervous system. Intracranial centers of the ANS are responsible for the consciousness, behavioral, emotional, and other components of the higher nervous activity. Thus, the significance of the ANS can't be overestimated. At the same time today in neurointensive care there are no clear criteria for ANS dysfunction, we don't have universally recognized monitoring facilities for ANS and approaches to targeted therapy of its disorders. This paradox is even more important as in the pathogenesis of some critical conditions such as neurogenic pulmonary edema, stunned myocardium, cardiomyopathy Takotsubo lies precisely ANS imbalance. This review devoted to the ANS and some problems associated with its imbalance. PMID:27468506

  7. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen Shang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K, Akt (protein kinase B, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system.

  8. Effect of Probiotics on Central Nervous System Functions in Animals and Humans: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiying; Lee, In-Seon; Braun, Christoph; Enck, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To systematically review the effects of probiotics on central nervous system function in animals and humans, to summarize effective interventions (species of probiotic, dose, duration), and to analyze the possibility of translating preclinical studies. Literature searches were conducted in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Only randomized controlled trials were included. In total, 38 studies were included: 25 in animals and 15 in humans (2 studies were conducted in both). Most studies used Bifidobacterium (eg, B. longum, B. breve, and B. infantis) and Lactobacillus (eg, L. helveticus, and L. rhamnosus), with doses between 109 and 1010 colony-forming units for 2 weeks in animals and 4 weeks in humans. These probiotics showed efficacy in improving psychiatric disorder-related behaviors including anxiety, depression, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, and memory abilities, including spatial and non-spatial memory. Because many of the basic science studies showed some efficacy of probiotics on central nervous system function, this background may guide and promote further preclinical and clinical studies. Translating animal studies to human studies has obvious limitations but also suggests possibilities. Here, we provide several suggestions for the translation of animal studies. More experimental designs with both behavioral and neuroimaging measures in healthy volunteers and patients are needed in the future. PMID:27413138

  9. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  10. Epilepsy associated with systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

    2013-03-01

    Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders-and specifically factors predisposing these patients-are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

  11. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2750 Duffel (Belgium); Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Altena, R. van [Tuberculosecentrum Beatrixoord, Dilgtweg 5, 9751 ND Haren (Netherlands); Laridon, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Coeman, V. [Department of Radiology, AZ St-Jan, Ruddershove 10, 8000 Brugge (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  12. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  13. Obesity and the Activity of the Autonomic Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    ÇOLAK, Ramis

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the autonomic nervous system functions of obese people. The study group consisted of 30 healthy obese people (20 female, 10 male, age range 18-58, median 37.6±9.7 years of age) and the control group consisted of 30 healthy nonobese people (18 female, 12 male, age range 17- 56, median 34.4±7.5 years). Each function was tested by non-invasive applications (orthostatic test, isometric exercise test, Valsalva ratio test, 30/15 ratio test, heart rate...

  14. Nervous system disease associated with dominant cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation sensitivity has been demonstrated in the following neurological diseases: sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease, familial non-specific dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis. Family studies in many cases give data consistent with dominant genetics, as does cell fusion analysis in the one disease so studied. In no case was there an absolute association between radiosensitivity and a given neurological disease. It is proposed that the underlying mutations are in genes controlling facets of nervous or immune system differentiation and development. 15 references, 2 tables

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy in traumas to the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, P. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1983-01-01

    The results of cerebrospinal fluid scintigraphy in 48 patients who had undergone trauma to the nervous system were studied. This method has gained rather insufficient acceptance in the diagnosis of this disease, in fact, it was helpful in detecting a high percentage of pathologic changes (80 per cent). Their type and localization structure was as follows: Narrowing of the spinal CSF space in 25 patients and 1 suspective; encephalonasal fistula - 3 patients; blockade of the lateral pathway of the CSF to the brain convexity - 4 patients; pathologic CSF circulation; dilatation of the convex brain cysterns with disturbances at the resorption site - 3 patients; combined spino-encephalic lesion - 1 patient.

  16. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  17. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  18. [When prions use the systems of communication between the immune system and the peripheral nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorban, Gauthier; Antoine, Nadine; Defaweux, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Prion disease pathogenesis has been largely studied since the inter-species transmissibility of the infectious protein (PrPSc), the oral uptake as natural route of infection and the exceptional implication in a problem of public health were highlighted. Two sequential preclinical stages are observed before the development of irreversible and fatal lesions in the central nervous system: the lymphoinvasion and the neuroinvasion. The first is characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc within lymphoid tissues and the second by PrPSc scattering the peripheral nervous system towards the central nervous system. The mechanisms involved in the communication between the immune and the peripheral nervous system are still debated. Recent studies even suggest that neuroinvasion can occur through the hematogenous route, independently of the peripheral nervous system. This review analyses (i) the role of immune cells, implicated in prion pathogenesis: dendritic cells as PrPSc vehicle, follicular dendritic cells as PrPSc accumulator and nerve fibres as PrPSc driver and (ii) the respective relations they maintain with peripheral nerve fibres to migrate to the brain. PMID:20619163

  19. Culturing and expansion of "clinical grade" precursors cells from the fetal human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, Maurizio; Profico, Daniela; Projetti-Pensi, Massimo; Muzi, Gianmarco; Sgaravizzi, Giada; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2013-01-01

    NSCs have been demonstrated to be very useful in grafts into the mammalian central nervous system to investigate the exploitation of NSC for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To push cell therapy in CNS on stage of clinical application, it is necessary to establish a continuous and standardized, clinical grade (i.e., produced following the good manufacturing practice guidelines) human neural stem cell lines. In this chapter, we illustrate some of the protocols routinely used into our GMP cell bank for the production of "clinical grade" human neural stem cell lines.

  20. Diverse roles of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2010-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), upon activation by Ca(2+) or other physiologically relevant polycationic molecules, performs diverse functions in the brain. The CaSR is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterized by a robust increase in its...... membrane excitability of neurons and glia and affects myelination, olfactory and gustatory signal integration, axonal and dendritic growth, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormonal-neuronal migration. Insofar as the CaSR is a clinically important therapeutic target for parathyroid disorders, development of its...

  1. CXCL12 Signaling in the Development of the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithal, Divakar S.; Banisadr, Ghazal; Miller, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are small, secreted proteins that have been shown to be important regulators of leukocyte trafficking and inflammation. All the known effects of chemokines are transduced by action at a family of G protein coupled receptors. Two of these receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, are also known to be the major cellular receptors for HIV-1. Consideration of the evolution of the chemokine family has demonstrated that the chemokine Stromal cell Derived Factor-1 or SDF1 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are the most ancient members of the family and existed in animals prior to the development of a sophisticated immune system. Thus, it appears that the original function of chemokine signaling was in the regulation of stem cell trafficking and development. CXCR4 signaling is important in the development of many tissues including the nervous system. Here we discuss the manner in which CXCR4 signaling can regulate the development of different structures in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the different strategies employed to achieve these effects. PMID:22270883

  2. The effect of octopamine on the locust stomatogastric nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Octopamine (OA is a prominent neuromodulator of invertebrate nervous systems, 33 influencing multiple physiological processes. Among its many roles in insects are the 34 initiation and maintenance of various rhythmic behaviors. Here, the neuromodulatory 35 effects of OA on the components of the locust stomatogastric nervous system (STNS 36 were studied, and one putative source of OA modulation of the system was identified. 37 Bath application of OA was found to abolish the endogenous rhythmic output of the 38 fully isolated frontal ganglion (FG, while stimulating motor activity of the fully 39 isolated hypocerebral ganglion (HG. OA also induced rhythmic movements in a 40 foregut preparation with intact HG innervation. Complex dose-dependent effects of 41 OA on interconnected FG-HG preparations were seen: 10-5M OA accelerated the 42 rhythmic activity of both the HG and FG in a synchronized manner, while 10-4M OA 43 decreased both rhythms. Intracellular stimulation of an identified octopaminergic 44 dorsal unpaired median (DUM neuron in the subesophageal ganglion (SEG was 45 found to exert a similar effect on the FG motor output as that of OA application. Our 46 findings suggest a mechanism of regulation of insect gut patterns and feeding-related 47 behavior during stress and times of high energy demand.

  3. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10-5M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  4. The Homeopathic Preparation Nervoheel N Can Offer an Alternative to Lorazepam Therapy for Mild Nervous Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lodewijk van den Meerschaut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an open-label, prospective non-randomized cohort study, we compared the effectiveness and tolerability profiles of the homeopathic remedy Nervoheel N with those of the benzodiazepine, lorazepam, in 248 patients with insomnia, distress, anxieties, restlessness or burnout and similar nervous conditions (‘mild nervous disorders’. Patients were treated with Nervoheel N or lorazepam at the recommended doses for a maximum of 4 weeks. Dose variations were allowed if in the patient's best interest. Treatment effects were evaluated by the practitioner in a dialogue with the patient at the start of treatment, after 2 weeks and after maximally 4 weeks of treatment. Tolerability data were recorded as adverse events. At baseline, lorazepam patients were on average slightly older and there was a somewhat greater percentage of men in this group than in the Nervoheel group. Both treatment groups reported significant symptomatic improvements of similar magnitude during the course of the study. The sum of symptom scores improved by 4.4 points with Nervoheel N and by 4.2 points with lorazepam. The differences between the treatment groups were not significant. All differences between treatments were within 10% of the maximum score ranges, demonstrating non-inferiority of Nervoheel N. Both treatments were well tolerated, with few adverse events and very good self-assessed tolerability ratings by the patients. Thus, in patients who opt for a homeopathic treatment regimen for the short-term relief of mild nervous disorders, the effects of Nervoheel N are non-inferior to those of lorazepam.

  5. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  6. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions.

  7. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  8. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T1-weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were not as good as T2-weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  9. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  10. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  11. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  12. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  13. Radiobiology of Radiosurgery for the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santacroce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Leksell radiosurgery is defined as “the delivery of a single, high dose of irradiation to a small and critically located intracranial volume through the intact skull.” Before its birth in the early 60s and its introduction in clinical therapeutic protocols in late the 80s dose application in radiation therapy of the brain for benign and malignant lesions was based on the administration of cumulative dose into a variable number of fractions. The rationale of dose fractionation is to lessen the risk of injury of normal tissue surrounding the target volume. Radiobiological studies of cell culture lines of malignant tumors and clinical experience with patients treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy helped establishing this radiobiological principle. Radiosurgery provides a single high dose of radiation which translates into a specific toxic radiobiological response. Radiobiological investigations to study the effect of high dose focused radiation on the central nervous system began in late the 50s. It is well known currently that radiobiological principles applied for dose fractionation are not reproducible when single high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered. A review of the literature about radiobiology of radiosurgery for the central nervous system is presented.

  14. Signaling mechanisms regulating myelination in the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jared T.Ahrendsen; Wendy Macklin

    2013-01-01

    The precise and coordinated production of myelin is essential for proper development and function of the nervous system.Diseases that disrupt myelin,including multiple sclerosis,cause significant functional disability.Current treatment aims to reduce the inflammatory component of the disease,thereby preventing damage resulting from demyelination.However,therapies are not yet available to improve natural repair processes after damage has already occurred.A thorough understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate myelin generation will improve our ability to enhance repair.In this review,we summarize the positive and negative regulators of myelination,focusing primarily on central nervous system myelination.Axon-derived signals,extracellular signals from both diffusible factors and the extracellular matrix,and intracellular signaling pathways within myelinating oligodendrocytes are discussed.Much is known about the positive regulators that drive myelination,while less is known about the negative regulators that shift active myelination to myelin maintenance at the appropriate time.Therefore,we also provide new data on potential negative regulators of CNS myelination.

  15. The human sympathetic nervous system: its relevance in hypertension and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Esler, Murray

    2012-05-01

    Evidence assembled in this review indicates that sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is crucial in the development of heart failure and essential hypertension. This takes the form of persistent and adverse activation of sympathetic outflows to the heart and kidneys in both conditions. An important goal for clinical scientists is translation of the knowledge of pathophysiology, such as this, into better treatment for patients. The achievement of this 'mechanisms to management' transition is at different stages of development with regard to the two disorders. Clinical translation is mature in cardiac failure, knowledge of cardiac neural pathophysiology having led to the introduction of beta-adrenergic blockers, an effective therapy. With essential hypertension perhaps we are on the cusp of effective translation, with recent successful testing of selective catheter-based renal sympathetic nerve ablation in patients with resistant hypertension, an intervention firmly based on the demonstration of activation of the renal sympathetic outflow. Additional evidence in this regard is provided by the results of pilot studies exploring the possibility to reduce blood pressure in resistant hypertensives through electrical stimulation of the area of carotid baroreceptors. Despite the general importance of the sympathetic nervous system in blood pressure regulation, and the specific demonstration that the blood pressure elevation in essential hypertension is commonly initiated and sustained by sympathetic nervous activation, drugs antagonizing this system are currently underutilized in the care of patients with hypertension. Use of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs is waning, given the propensity of this drug class to have adverse metabolic effects, including predisposition to diabetes development. The blood pressure lowering achieved with carotid baroreceptor stimulation and with the renal denervation device affirms the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in

  16. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system.

  17. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  18. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  19. Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders—and specifically factors predisposing these patients—are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

  20. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rajda; Zsófia Majláth; Dániel Pukoli; László Vécsei

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in ...

  1. [Construction of nervous system relative protein and gene secondary database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pan; Chen, Xinhao; Liu, Xiangming

    2007-10-01

    Along with the rapid research of neural molecular biology, abundant data are produced so that the collection and coordination of high-throughout data about nervous system relative proteins and genes are imperative. Through analyzing the biological primary databases maintained by NCBI and RCSB as the main data source and designing a new data model, a local specialized secondary database is constructed, which mainly includes nucleotide sequences, protein sequences and protein structures, and is established on Sun Blade 2000 System and Oracle 9i. All programs are developed by Java technology. A method of web information automatic retrieval with XML is proposed for sequence data collection and submission to the database. JSP + JavaBean technology is used to support data promulgation on Internet. The establishment of this database provides an excellent platform for the research of neural molecular biology and the pathogenesis of related diseases. PMID:18027688

  2. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  3. Alcohol-induced steatosis in liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-induced fatty liver (steatosis) was believed to result from excessive generation of reducing equivalents from ethanol metabolism, thereby enhancing fat accumulation. Recent findings have revealed a more complex picture in which ethanol oxidation is still required,but specific transcription as well as humoral factors also have important roles. Transcription factors involved include the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1)which is activated to induce genes that regulate lipid biosynthesis. Conversely, ethanol consumption causes a general down-regulation of lipid (fatty acid) oxidation, a reflection of inactivation of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) that regulates genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. A third transcription factor is the early growth response-1 (Egr-1), which is strongly induced prior to the onset of steatosis. The activities of all these factors are governed by that of the principal regulatory enzyme, AMP kinase. Important humoral factors, including adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), also regulate alcohol-induced steatosis. Their levels are affected by alcohol consumption and by each other. This review will summarize the actions of these proteins in ethanol-elicited fatty liver. Because steatosis is now regarded as a significant risk factor for advanced liver pathology, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms in its etiology is essential for development of effective therapies.

  4. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer to the central nervous system: therapeutic and research applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Goodhead, Lucy; Prat, Christine; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2006-01-01

    The management of disorders of the nervous system remains a medical challenge. The key goals are to understand disease mechanisms, to validate therapeutic targets, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer can meet these goals and vectors based on lentiviruses have particularly useful features. Lentiviral vectors can deliver 8 kb of sequence, they mediate gene transfer into any neuronal cell type, expression and therapy are sustained, and normal cellular functions in vitro and in vivo are not compromised. After delivery into the nervous system they induce no significant immune responses, there are no unwanted side effects of the vectors per se to date, and manufacturing and safety testing for clinical applications are well advanced. There are now numerous examples of effective long-term treatment of animal models of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, motor neuron diseases, lysosomal storage diseases, and spinal injury, using a range of therapeutic genes expressed in lentiviral vectors. Significant issues remain in some areas of neural gene therapy including defining the optimum therapeutic gene(s), increasing the specificity of delivery, regulating expression of potentially toxic genes, and designing clinically relevant strategies. We discuss the applications of lentiviral vectors in therapy and research and highlight the essential features that will ensure their translation to the clinic in the near future. PMID:16409120

  5. [Autonomic nervous system as a source of biomarkers in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouclet, Hélène; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Flamant, Mathurin; Coron, Emmanuel; Neunlist, Michel; Derkinderen, Pascal; Rouaud, Tiphaine

    2012-07-01

    No validated biomarker is yet available for Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical PD symptoms include dopa-responsive motor symptoms and dopa-resistant non motor symptoms. Some of the non motor symptoms begin during the premotor stage, like constipation, hyposmia or REM-sleep disorders. Dementia, gait disorders and dysarthria occur in later stages of the disease. PD pathology extends well beyond the substantia nigra. It affects autonomic and non autonomic nuclei in the brainstem and in the medulla, the olfactory bulb and the peripheral autonomic nervous system. Alpha-synuclein aggregates, called Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, are detectable in these structures at early stages. The study of the enteric nervous system (ENS) displays the Lewy pathology in living patients through the digestive biopsies. Minor salivary glands analysis could be a good marker as well, but this needs confirmation. An anatomopathologic PD biomarker would be interesting at different stages of PD: for the positive diagnosis, to follow the progression and to develop neuroprotective treatments.

  6. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  7. Development of the nervous system in hatchlings of Spadella cephaloptera (Chaetognatha), and implications for nervous system evolution in Bilateria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Verena; Perez, Yvan; Müller, Carsten H G; Lacalli, Thurston; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2011-06-01

    Chaetognaths (arrow worms) play an important role as predators in planktonic food webs. Their phylogenetic position is unresolved, and among the numerous hypotheses, affinities to both protostomes and deuterostomes have been suggested. Many aspects of their life history, including ontogenesis, are poorly understood and, though some aspects of their embryonic and postembryonic development have been described, knowledge of early neural development is still limited. This study sets out to provide new insights into neurogenesis of newly hatched Spadella cephaloptera and their development during the following days, with attention to the two main nervous centers, the brain and the ventral nerve center. These were examined with immunohistological methods and confocal laser-scan microscopic analysis, using antibodies against tubulin, FMRFamide, and synapsin to trace the emergence of neuropils and the establishment of specific peptidergic subsystems. At hatching, the neuronal architecture of the ventral nerve center is already well established, whereas the brain and the associated vestibular ganglia are still rudimentary. The development of the brain proceeds rapidly over the next 6 days to a state that resembles the adult pattern. These data are discussed in relation to the larval life style and behaviors such as feeding. In addition, we compare the larval chaetognath nervous system and that of other bilaterian taxa in order to extract information with phylogenetic value. We conclude that larval neurogenesis in chaetognaths does not suggest an especially close relationship to either deuterostomes or protostomes, but instead displays many apomorphic features. PMID:21671921

  8. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  9. Primary central nervous system lymphoma a report of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanath, D; Ramesh, C; Babu, K G; Rao, C R; Swamy, K

    1996-06-01

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare neoplasm of B cell origin and constitute less than 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Histology is mainly of high grade and intermediate type. Although NHL is known to be highly sensitive to both irradiation and cytotoxic drugs, being a curable malignancy, the therapeutic results remain disappointing. Clinical observations on nine cases of PCNSL seen in one of the major cancer centres in India is presented in this paper. Radiotherapy combined with Chemotherapy although yielded encouraging initial response in these patients, the long term response was unsatisfactory with median survival for these patients being only 19 months. This warrants an alternative therapeutic approach to improve the dismal prognosis of PCNSL. PMID:8979473

  10. Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:27313404

  11. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This revie......, methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline), drugs that suppress appetite (phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine) and drugs used in Alzheimer's disease (donepezil and rivastigmine).......The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This review...... of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  12. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  13. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  15. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawat Srichatrapimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic.

  16. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  17. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  18. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  19. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed.

  20. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Izadi; Arman Ishaqi; Mohammad Ali Ishaqi; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari; Fatemeh Rahamaty; Abdolali Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  1. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment,general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza; Izadi; Annan; Is’haqi; Mohammad; Ali; Is’haqi; Nematollah; Jonaidi; Jafari; Fatemeh; Rahamaty; Abdolali; Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers.Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system,which may require in-patient care.Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.An overview of the available evidence in the field is.therefore,Urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.In November 2013,data were collected from PubMed,Scopus,and Web of knowledge(1980 to2013) including books,reviews,and peer-reviewed literature,Works pertained to pre-travel care,interventions,vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved.Here we provide information on pre-travel care,vaccination,chronic nervous system disorders,and post-travel complications.Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps,and state-of-the-art research are made.Given an increasing number of international travellers,novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections.Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications,detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness.Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,further research is required for vaccine development,state-of-the-art laboratory tests,and genetic engineering of vectors.

  2. A neurochemical map of the developing amphioxus nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candiani Simona

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphioxus, representing the most basal group of living chordates, is the best available proxy for the last invertebrate ancestor of the chordates. Although the central nervous system (CNS of amphioxus comprises only about 20,000 neurons (as compared to billions in vertebrates, the developmental genetics and neuroanatomy of amphioxus are strikingly vertebrate-like. In the present study, we mapped the distribution of amphioxus CNS cells producing distinctive neurochemicals. To this end, we cloned genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes and/or transporters of the most common neurotransmitters and assayed their developmental expression in the embryo and early larva. Results By single and double in situ hybridization experiments, we identified glutamatergic, GABAergic/glycinergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurons in developing amphioxus. In addition to characterizing the distribution of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the developing amphioxus CNS, we observed that cholinergic and GABAergic/glycinergic neurons are segmentally arranged in the hindbrain, whereas serotonergic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons are restricted to specific regions of the cerebral vesicle and the hindbrain. We were further able to identify discrete groups of GABAergic and glutamatergic interneurons and cholinergic motoneurons at the level of the primary motor center (PMC, the major integrative center of sensory and motor stimuli of the amphioxus nerve cord. Conclusions In this study, we assessed neuronal differentiation in the developing amphioxus nervous system and compiled the first neurochemical map of the amphioxus CNS. This map is a first step towards a full characterization of the neurotransmitter signature of previously described nerve cell types in the amphioxus CNS, such as motoneurons and interneurons.

  3. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[18F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[18F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[11C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [123I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [18F]fluorometaraminol, [11C]phenylephrine and meta-[76Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[18F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility for cardiac neuronal imaging. (orig.)

  4. Connexin32 expression in central and peripheral nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Scherer, S.S.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennslylvania, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations have been identified in the gap junction gene, connexin32 (Cx32), in patients affected with the X-linked form of the demyelinating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX). Gap junctions composed of Cx32 are present and developmentally regulated in a wide variety of tissues. In peripheral nerve, our immunohistochemical analysis localized Cx32 to the noncompacted myelin of the paranodal regions and the Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, where previous studies describe gap junctions. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in rat spinal cord. Analysis of Cx32 expression in various regions of rat CNS during development shows that the amount of Cx32 mRNA and protein increases as myelination increases, a pattern observed for other myelin genes. Studies in the PNS provide additional evidence that Cx32 and myelin genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level; Cx32 and peripheral myelin gene PMP-22 mRNAs are expressed in parallel following transient or permanent nerve injury. Differences in post-translational regulation of Cx32 in the CNS and PNS may be indicated by the presence of a faster migrating form of Cs32 in cerebrum versus peripheral nerve. Studies are currently underway to determine the unique role of Cx32 in peripheral nerve.

  5. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  6. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kang, Ik Won; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Soo; Sim, Bo Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  7. PET and SPET tracers for mapping the cardiac nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Oliver; Halldin, Christer [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The human cardiac nervous system consists of a sympathetic and a parasympathetic branch with (-)-norepinephrine and acetylcholine as the respective endogenous neurotransmitters. Dysfunction of the cardiac nervous system is implicated in various types of cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In vivo assessment of the distribution and function of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic neurones with positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) can be achieved by means of a number of carbon-11-, fluorine-18-, bromine-76- and iodine-123-labelled tracer molecules. Available tracers for mapping sympathetic neurones can be divided into radiolabelled catecholamines, such as 6-[{sup 18}F]fluorodopamine, (-)-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoronorepinephrine and (-)-[{sup 11}C]epinephrine, and radiolabelled catecholamine analogues, such as [{sup 123}I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxyephedrine, [{sup 18}F]fluorometaraminol, [{sup 11}C]phenylephrine and meta-[{sup 76}Br]bromobenzylguanidine. Resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyl transferase simplifies the myocardial kinetics of the second group. Both groups of compounds are excellent agents for an overall assessment of sympathetic innervation. Biomathematical modelling of tracer kinetics is complicated by the complexity of the steps governing neuronal uptake, retention and release of these agents as well as by their high neuronal affinity, which leads to partial flow dependence of uptake. Mapping of cardiac parasympathetic neurones is limited by a low density and focal distribution pattern of these neurones in myocardium. Available tracers are derivatives of vesamicol, a molecule that binds to a receptor associated with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Compounds like (-)-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol display a high degree of non-specific binding in myocardium which restricts their utility

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Ju, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI.

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI

  10. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation - An international primary central nervous system lymphoma study group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); G. Illerhaus (Gerald); K. Jahnke (Kristoph); A. Korfe (Agniezka); L. Fischer (Lutz); K. Fritsch (Kristina); O. Kuittinen (Outi); S. Issa (Samar); C.A.G.M. Montfort (Kees); M.J. van den Bent (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAutologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, the

  11. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug.

  12. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug. PMID:25554482

  13. Development of the rhopalial nervous system in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the development of the nervous system in the rhopalium, a medusa-specific sensory structure, in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) using confocal microscopy. The rhopalial nervous system appears primarily ectodermal and contains neurons immunoreactive to antibodies against tyrosinated tubulin, taurine, GLWamide, and FMRFamide. The rhopalial nervous system develops in an ordered manner: the presumptive gravity-sensing organ, consisting of the lithocyst and the touch plate, differen...

  14. Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2012-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (...

  15. Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Eijk, L.T.G.J. van; Zwaag, J.; Wildenberg, J. van den; Sweep, F.C.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. However, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system are regarded as systems that cannot b

  16. Ethanol Exposure Alters Protein Expression in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mason

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure during development can result in variable growth retardation and facial dysmorphology known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Although the mechanisms underlying the disorder are not fully understood, recent progress has been made that alcohol induces aberrant changes in gene expression and in the epigenome of embryos. To inform the gene and epigenetic changes in alcohol-induced teratology, we used whole-embryo culture to identify the alcohol-signature protein profile of neurulating C6 mice. Alcohol-treated and control cultures were homogenized, isoelectrically focused, and loaded for 2D gel electrophoresis. Stained gels were cross matched with analytical software. We identified 40 differentially expressed protein spots (P<0.01, and 9 spots were selected for LC/MS-MS identification. Misregulated proteins include serotransferrin, triosephosphate isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N. Misregulation of serotransferrin and triosephosphate isomerase was confirmed with immunologic analysis. Alteration of proteins with roles in cellular function, cell cycle, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was induced by alcohol. Several misregulated proteins interact with effectors of the NF-κB and Myc transcription factor cascades. Using a whole-embryo culture, we have identified misregulated proteins known to be involved in nervous system development and function.

  17. A distributed architecture for activating the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, David; Guiraud, David; Souquet, Guillaume

    2009-04-01

    We present a new system for functional electrical stimulation (FES) applications based on networked stimulation units. They embed an advanced analog circuit, which provides multipolar and multiphasic stimulation profiles, and digital circuits, which ensure safety, locally executed programmed profiles, and communication with the master controller. This architecture is thus based on distributed stimulation units (DSU) that need only a two-wire bus to communicate, regardless of the number of poles of each DSU-driven electrode. This structure minimizes the required bandwidth between master and distributed units, increases the safety and stimulation features and decreases the complexity of the surgical approach. We have successfully tested this network-based stimulation architecture on benchtop stimulators. This original approach allows broad exploration of all possible methods to stimulate peripheral nerves, particularly in the goal of restoring the motor function. It provides a powerful research device to determine the optimal, least aggressive and the most efficient way to activate the peripheral nervous system using an implanted FES system that is less invasive than other existing devices.

  18. A Case of Primary T-Cell Central Nervous System Lymphoma: MR Imaging and MR Spectroscopy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    G. Manenti; Di Giuliano, F.; Bindi, A.; Liberto, V.; V. Funel; Garaci, F. G.; Floris, R.; Simonetti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are mainly B-cells lymphomas. A risk factor for the development of PCNSL is immunodeficiency, which includes congenital disorders, iatrogenic immunosuppression, and HIV. The clinical course is rapidly fatal; these patients usually present signs of increased intracranial pressure, nausea, papilledema, vomiting, and neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms. PCNSL may have a characteristic appearance on CT and MR imaging. DWI sequences and MR s...

  19. Psychobiology of PTSD in the Acute Aftermath of Trauma: Integrating Research on Coping, HPA Function and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD sympto...

  20. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. Primary outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for primary central nervous system lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous system progression or relapse of systemic lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival

  1. Temperature dependence of temporal resolution in an insect nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, A; Ronacher, B

    2002-05-01

    The vast majority of animals are poikilotherms, and thus face the problem that the temperature of their nervous systems rather smoothly follows the temperature changes imposed by their environment. Since basic properties of nerve cells, e.g., the time constants of ion channels, strongly depend on temperature, a temperature shift likely affects the processing of the temporal structure of sensory stimuli. This can be critical in acoustic communication systems in which time patterns of signals are decisive for recognition by the receiver. We investigated the temperature dependence of the responses of locust auditory receptors and interneurons by varying the temperature of the experimental animals during intracellular recordings. The resolution of fast amplitude modulations of acoustic signals was determined in a gap detection paradigm. In auditory receptors and local (second order) interneurons, temporal resolution was improved at higher temperatures. This gain could be attributed to a higher precision of spike timing. In a third-order neuron, a rise in temperature affected the interactions of inhibition and excitation in a complex manner, also resulting in a better resolution of gaps in the millisecond range. PMID:12012097

  2. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Fosca; Alex,; Pentland,; Lukowicz, Paul; Kossmann, Donald; Crowley, James; Helbing, Dirk; 10.1140/epjst/e2012-01688-9

    2013-01-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining, and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level.Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across ...

  3. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z; Carvalho, João E; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once - in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position - either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  4. Kalrn plays key roles within and outside of the nervous system

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    Mandela Prashant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human KALRN gene, which encodes a complex, multifunctional Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor, has been linked to cardiovascular disease, psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. Examination of existing Kalrn knockout mouse models has focused only on neuronal phenotypes. However, Kalirin was first identified through its interaction with an enzyme involved in the synthesis and secretion of multiple bioactive peptides, and studies in C.elegans revealed roles for its orthologue in neurosecretion. Results We used a broad array of tests to evaluate the effects of ablating a single exon in the spectrin repeat region of Kalrn (KalSRKO/KO; transcripts encoding Kalrn isoforms containing only the second GEF domain can still be produced from the single remaining functional Kalrn promoter. As expected, KalSRKO/KO mice showed a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and a passive avoidance deficit. No changes were observed in prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle or tests of depression-like behavior. Growth rate, parturition and pituitary secretion of growth hormone and prolactin were deficient in the KalSRKO/KO mice. Based on the fact that a subset of Kalrn isoforms is expressed in mouse skeletal muscle and the observation that muscle function in C.elegans requires its Kalrn orthologue, KalSRKO/KO mice were evaluated in the rotarod and wire hang tests. KalSRKO/KO mice showed a profound decrease in neuromuscular function, with deficits apparent in KalSR+/KO mice; these deficits were not as marked when loss of Kalrn expression was restricted to the nervous system. Pre- and postsynaptic deficits in the neuromuscular junction were observed, along with alterations in sarcomere length. Conclusions Many of the widespread and diverse deficits observed both within and outside of the nervous system when expression of Kalrn is eliminated may reflect its role in secretory granule function and its expression outside of the nervous system.

  5. Overexpression of mutant amyloid-β protein precursor and presenilin 1 modulates enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Kendra L; Lutz, Brianna M; Urquhart, Siri A; Rebel, Andrew A; Zhou, Xudong; Manocha, Gunjan D; Sens, MaryAnn; Tuteja, Ashok K; Foster, Norman L; Combs, Colin K

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder histologically characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) protein accumulation and activation of associated microglia. Although these features are well described in the central nervous system, the process and consequences of Aβ accumulation in the enteric nervous system have not been extensively studied. We hypothesized that Aβ also may accumulate in the enteric nervous system and lead to immune cell activation and neuronal dysfunction in the digestive tract not unlike that observed in diseased brain. To test this hypothesis, ileums of the small intestine of thirteen month old AβPP/PS1 and C57BL/6 (wild type) mice were collected and analyzed using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, cytokine arrays, and ELISA. AβPP/PS1 mice demonstrated no differences in intestinal motility or water absorption but elevated luminal IgA levels compared to wild type mice. They also had increased protein levels of AβPP and the proteolytic enzyme, BACE, corresponding to an increase in Aβ1-40 in the intestinal lysate as well as an increase in both Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in the stool. This correlated with increased protein markers of proinflammatory and immune cell activation. Histologic analysis localized AβPP within enteric neurons but also intestinal epithelial cells with elevated Aβ immunoreactivity in the AβPP/PS1 mice. The presence of AβPP, Aβ, and CD68 immunoreactivity in the intestines of some patients with neuropathologically-confirmed AD are consistent with the findings in this mouse model. These data support the hypothesis that in AD the intestine, much like the brain, may develop proinflammatory and immune changes related to AβPP and Aβ. PMID:25408221

  6. The Intrinsic Electrophysiological Properties of Mammalian Neurons: Insights into Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Rodolfo R.

    1988-12-01

    This article reviews the electroresponsive properties of single neurons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). In some of these cells the ionic conductances responsible for their excitability also endow them with autorhythmic electrical oscillatory properties. Chemical or electrical synaptic contacts between these neurons often result in network oscillations. In such networks, autorhytmic neurons may act as true oscillators (as pacemakers) or as resonators (responding preferentially to certain firing frequencies). Oscillations and resonance in the CNS are proposed to have diverse functional roles, such as (i) determining global functional states (for example, sleep-wakefulness or attention), (ii) timing in motor coordination, and (iii) specifying connectivity during development. Also, oscillation, especially in the thalamo-cortical circuits, may be related to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review proposes that the autorhythmic electrical properties of central neurons and their connectivity form the basis for an intrinsic functional coordinate system that provides internal context to sensory input.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

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    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  8. Evaluation system for minor nervous dysfunction by pronation and supination of forearm using wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iramina, Keiji; Kamei, Yuuichiro; Katayama, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    We developed a simple, portable and easy system to the motion of pronation and supination of the forearm. This motion was measured by wireless acceleration and angular velocity sensor. The aim of this system is evaluation of minor nervous dysfunction. It is for the screening of the developmental disorder child. In this study, in order to confirm the effectiveness of this system, the reference curve of the neuromotor development was experimentally obtained. We studied 212 participants (108 males, 104 females) aged 7 to 12 years attending the kindergarten school. We could obtain the reference curve of the neuromotor development using this system. We also investigated the difference of neuromotor function between normally developed children and a ADHD child. There is a possibility that abnormality of the minor nervous dysfunction can be detected by using this system. PMID:22256040

  9. Effects of hyperthermia on the peripheral nervous system: a review.

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    Haveman, J; Van Der Zee, J; Wondergem, J; Hoogeveen, J F; Hulshof, M C C M

    2004-06-01

    The present paper overviews the current knowledge about effects of hyperthermia at temperatures used in clinical oncology on the peripheral nervous system. From the experimental studies it may be concluded that the heat sensitivity of the nerve is determined by the sensitivity of the nerve vasculature. These studies show that in order to avoid induction of severe neuropathy, application of heat to the peripheral nerves should not be in excess of doses of 30 min at 44 degrees C or equivalent. Using modern equipment for application of loco-regional hyperthermia the incidence of even mild neurological complications is very low. In hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) neurotoxicity is an often-mentioned side effect, this is in spite of the fact that in all studies a relatively mild hyperthermic temperature is used that, based on the experimental studies, should be well tolerated by the nerves and other normal tissues in the limbs. It seems that the neurotoxicity observed after HILP results from thermal enhancement of drug toxicity, very probably combined with effects of a high tourniquet pressure that is used to isolate the blood flow in the leg. Whole body hyperthermia (WBH), using anesthesia and appropriate monitoring to avoid cardiovascular stress is at present considered a safe procedure. Still in the recent past cases of neuropathy after treatment have been described. When chemotherapy, and notably cisplatin, is administered before or during hyperthermia there are several clinical and experimental observations that indicate a limited tolerance of the peripheral nervous tissue in such case. Also previous radiotherapy may limit the tolerance of nerves to hyperthermia, notably when radiation is applied with a large field size. Experimental studies show that combined treatment with radiation and heat leads to enhancement of effects of radiation (enhancement ratio approximately 1.5 at 60 min at 44 degrees C). A clear contraindication for the application of

  10. Cancer stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, G J

    2005-12-01

    Malignant tumours intrinsic to the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most difficult of neoplasms to treat effectively. The major biological features of these tumours that preclude successful therapy include their cellular heterogeneity, which renders them highly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the propensity of the component tumour cells to invade, diffusely, the contiguous nervous tissues. The tumours are classified according to perceived cell of origin, gliomas being the most common generic group. In the 1970s transplacental administration of the potent neurocarcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), enabled investigation of the sequential development of brain and spinal neoplasms by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The significance of the primitive cells of the subependymal plate in cellular origin and evolution of a variety of glial tumours was thereby established. Since then, the development of new cell culture methods, including the in vitro growth of neurospheres and multicellular tumour spheroids, and new antigenic markers of stem cells and glial/neuronal cell precursor cells, including nestin, Mushashi-1 and CD133, have led to a reappraisal of the histological classification and origins of CNS tumours. Moreover, neural stem cells may also provide new vectors in exciting novel therapeutic strategies for these tumours. In addition to the gliomas, stem cells may have been identified in paediatric tumours including cerebellar medulloblastoma, thought to be of external granule cell neuronal derivation. Interestingly, while the stem cell marker CD133 is expressed in these primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuronal/glial 2 (NG2), which appears to denote increased proliferative, but reduced migratory activity in adult gliomas, is rarely expressed. This is in contrast to the situation in the histologically similar supratentorial PNETs. A possible functional 'switch' between

  11. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  12. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  13. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

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    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  14. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  15. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danju Tso; Randall D. McKinnon

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through trau-matic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this ifeld needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate pa-tient-speciifc replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as ifbroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms ifbroblasts into the ifnal graft-able cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efifciency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  16. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

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    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  17. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  18. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  19. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  20. Transduction patterns of pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Azzouz, Mimoun; Walmsley, Lucy E; Askham, Zoe; Wilkes, Fraser J; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a non-primate-based lentiviral vector based on the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) for efficient gene transfer to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously we have demonstrated that pseudotyping lentiviral vectors with the rabies virus glycoprotein confers retrograde axonal transport to these vectors. In the present study we have successfully produced high-titer EIAV vectors pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins from Rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) serotypes (Indiana and Chandipura strains); rabies virus [various Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth ERA strains and challenge virus standard (CVS)]; Lyssavirus Mokola virus, a rabies-related virus; and Arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These vectors were delivered to the striatum or spinal cord of adult rats or muscle of neonatal mice by direct injection. We report that the lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with envelopes from the VSV Indiana strain, wild-type ERA, and CVS strains resulted in strong transduction in the striatum, while Mokola- and LCMV-pseudotyped vectors exhibited moderate and weak transduction, respectively. Furthermore ERA- and CVS-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors demonstrated retrograde transport and expression in distal neurons after injection in brain, spinal cord, and muscle. The differences in transduction efficiencies and retrograde transport conferred by these envelope glycoproteins present novel opportunities in designing therapeutic strategies for different neurological diseases. PMID:14741783

  1. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  2. Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Krishan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are rare in the general population and are invariably secondary to primary focus elsewhere, usually in the lung or intestine. Except for people with longstanding diabetes, they are most frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or after organ transplantation. Due to the lack of inflammatory response, neuroradiological findings are often nonspecific and are frequently mistaken for tuberculous meningitis, pyogenic abscess or brain tumor. Intracranial fungal infections are being identified more frequently due to the increased incidence of AIDS patients, better radiological investigations, more sensitive microbiological techniques and better critical care of moribund patients. Although almost any fungus may cause encephalitis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most frequently seen, followed by aspergillosis and candidiasis. The biology, epidemiology and imaging features of the common fungal infections of the CNS will be reviewed. The radiographic appearance alone is often not specific, but the combination of the appropriate clinical setting along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance may help to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  3. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

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    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  4. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Central Nervous System: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yang, Kook Hee; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). Reported herein is a case of SFT of CNS in a 63-year-old female patient who had confused mentality, without other neurological deficit. The brain MRI showed an ovoid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was surgically removed grossly and totally, and the pathologic diagnosis was SFT. At 55 months after the surgery, the tumor recurred at the primary site and at an adjacent area. A second operation was thus done, and the tumor was again surgically removed grossly and totally. The pathologic diagnosis was the same as the previous, but the Ki-67 index was elevated. Ten months later, two small recurring tumors in the right frontal skull base were found in the follow-up MRI. It was decided that radiation therapy be done, and MRI was done again 3 months later. In the follow-up MRI, the size of the recurring mass was found to have decreased, and the patient did not manifest any significant symptom. Follow-up will again be done 18 months after the second surgery. PMID:26605270

  5. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus caused by central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kong, Doo Sik; Seol, Ho Joon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il

    2011-09-01

    The development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities has increased the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in malignant tumor patients. Hydrocephalus can result from CNS metastasis and frustrate cancer treatment. The authors sought to investigate the outcomes and the roles of ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) in patients with CNS metastasis. The medical records of 50 consecutive patients who underwent VPS for hydrocephalus related to CNS metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Data included features of primary malignancies, CNS involvement, clinical course and surgical outcome. Median patient age was 55.0 years (range 25-77), and 30 female and 20 male patients were included in the study. At the time of VPS, 10 patients had parenchymal metastases only and 40 patients had leptomeningeal seeding (LMS). Symptom improvement was observed postoperatively in 40 patients (80%), mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale change was from 37.8 to 46.0, and median survival from VPS was 3.0 months (2 days to 54 months). A ventricular opening pressure of >30 cmH(2)O (HR 6.44, 95% CI 1.26-32.9, P = 0.02) and further cancer treatment after VPS (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42, P Hydrocephalus in CNS metastasis requiring VPS is commonly associated with LMS. VPS is an effective palliative measure and an adequate cancer treatment after VPS may provide the best means of improving survival.

  6. Central nervous system infections in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vengamma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurological infections constitute an uncommon, but important aetiological cause requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU. In addition, health-care associated neurological infections may develop in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU for other indications. Central nervous system infections can develop as complications in ICU patients including post-operative neurosurgical patients. While bacterial infections are the most common cause, mycobacterial and fungal infections are also frequently encountered. Delay in institution of specific treatment is considered to be the single most important poor prognostic factor. Empirical antibiotic therapy must be initiated while awaiting specific culture and sensitivity results. Choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy should take into consideration the most likely pathogens involved, locally prevalent drug-resistance patterns, underlying predisposing, co-morbid conditions, and other factors, such as age, immune status. Further, the antibiotic should adequately penetrate the blood-brain and blood- cerebrospinal fluid barriers. The presence of a focal collection of pus warrants immediate surgical drainage. Following strict aseptic precautions during surgery, hand-hygiene and care of catheters, devices constitute important preventive measures. A high index of clinical suspicion and aggressive efforts at identification of aetiological cause and early institution of specific treatment in patients with neurological infections can be life saving.

  7. Systematic review of central nervous system anomalies in incontinentia pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Snežana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the central nervous system (CNS types of anomalies and to consider the possibility to include CNS anomalies in Incontinentia pigmenti (IP criteria. The analyzed literature data from 1,393 IP cases were from the period 1993–2012. CNS anomalies were diagnosed for 30.44% of the investigated IP patients. The total number of CNS types of anomalies per patient was 1.62. In the present study there was no significantly higher number of anomalies per patient in females than males. The most frequent CNS types of anomalies were seizures, motor impairment, mental retardation, and microcephaly. The most frequently registered CNS lesions found using brain imaging methods were brain infarcts or necrosis, brain atrophies, and corpus callosum lesions. IKBKG exon 4–10 deletion was present in 86.00% of genetically confirmed IP patients. The frequency of CNS anomalies, similar to the frequency of retinal anomalies in IP patients, concurrent with their severity, supports their recognition in the list of IP minor criteria.

  8. Modulation of Autonomous Nervous System activity by gyrosonic stimulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghatak, S K; Choudhuri, R; Bandopadhaya, S

    2010-01-01

    A novel audio binaural stimulus that generates rotational perceptions of sound movement in brain at a particular predetermined frequency is referred as gyrosonics. The influence of gyrosonics on autonomic nervous system of healthy subjects has been examined by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in time- and frequency- domain. The M-lagged Poincare plot shows that the parameters SD1, SD2 and ratio SD12 (SD1/SD2) increases with lagged number M, and M-dependence is well described by Pade' approximant $\\chi \\frac{1+\\beta M}{1+\\gamma M}$ where values of $\\chi$, $\\beta$ and $ \\gamma$ depend on parameters SD1,SD2 and SD12. The values of these parameters for different M are augmented after gyrosonic stimulation. The slope and magnitude of curvature of SD1 and SD12 vs M plot increase considerably due to stimulation. The DFA analysis exhibits decrease in value of exponent $\\alpha$ due to stimulation. This stimulation results slower Heart rate, higher values of the standard deviation SD and the root-mean squared suc...

  9. Effects of radiation on development, especially of the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, S.P.; D' Amato, C.J.

    1980-12-01

    Humans and other organisms are exposed to ionizing radiations from a variety of natural and man-made sources. Radiation may cause mutations and chromosome abnormalities, cell-killing, alterations and transformations in cell growth, and carcinogenetic changes. This paper considers principally the cell-killing and nonlethal cell alterations in developing laboratory mammals and humans, especially the nervous system, that follow irradiation and often lead to malformation and disturbed function, but at certain stages to restitution of the injury. Most of what researchers know about the mechanisms of these radiation effects in man is derived from animal experiments, especially with rats. The few observations in humans have corresponded closely to them. Researchers illustrate the cellular effects and malformative results with an example of cell-killing in the developing cortex of a human fetus exposed to therapeutic radiation in utero; a current timetable of the malformative and other effects of radiation on rats during development from which expectations of human effects might be extrapolated; examples of hydrocephalus produced in rats; low-dose alterations of nerve cells in rats; and a microcephalic Japanese boy exposed in utero to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima in 1945.

  10. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis. PMID:27056851

  11. Motor execution detection based on autonomic nervous system responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggered assistance has been shown to be a successful robotic strategy for provoking motor plasticity, probably because it requires neurologic patients’ active participation to initiate a movement involving their impaired limb. Triggered assistance, however, requires sufficient residual motor control to activate the trigger and, thus, is not applicable to individuals with severe neurologic injuries. In these situations, brain and body–computer interfaces have emerged as promising solutions to control robotic devices. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of a body–machine interface to detect motion execution only monitoring the autonomic nervous system (ANS) response. Four physiological signals were measured (blood pressure, breathing rate, skin conductance response and heart rate) during an isometric pinching task and used to train a classifier based on hidden Markov models. We performed an experiment with six healthy subjects to test the effectiveness of the classifier to detect rest and active pinching periods. The results showed that the movement execution can be accurately classified based only on peripheral autonomic signals, with an accuracy level of 84.5%, sensitivity of 83.8% and specificity of 85.2%. These results are encouraging to perform further research on the use of the ANS response in body–machine interfaces. (paper)

  12. Growth Cone Biomechanics in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Koch, Daniel; Rosoff, Will; Geller, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of an axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth-cone mediated guidance. We have investigated neurite outgrowth, traction forces and cytoskeletal substrate coupling on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that the biomechanics of DRG neurons are dramatically different from hippocampal, with DRG neurons displaying relatively large, steady traction forces and maximal outgrowth and forces on substrates of intermediate stiffness, while hippocampal neurons display weak, intermittent forces and limited dependence of outgrowth and forces on substrate stiffness. DRG growth cones have slower rates of retrograde actin flow and higher density of localized paxillin (a protein associated with substrate adhesion complexes) compared to hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate coupling in DRG growth cones.

  13. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  14. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krithika; Rangarajan; Chandan; J; Das; Atin; Kumar; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist.Imaging plays a vital role,the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling.The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly re-warding,given the availability of excellent pharmaco-logical regimen.The availability of numerous magnetic resonance(MR)sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist.However,the plethora of se-quences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating,and often confusing as well as time con-suming.While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection,we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics.In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences(T1,T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium),and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences(Diffusion,Perfusion,Susceptibili-ty imaging,MR Spectroscopy).This patterned approachis intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge.The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference.

  15. Prevalence of peripheral nervous system complications after major heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Armando; de Rino, Francesca; Boveri, Maria Claudia; Picozzi, Anna; Franceschi, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated 374 consecutive patients from May 2013 to April 2014 who underwent major cardiac surgery. Each patient had an interview and a neurological clinical examination during the rehabilitation period. Patients with possible peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications underwent further electrodiagnostic tests. Among 374 patients undergoing major heart surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, valvular heart surgery, ascending aortic aneurysm repair) 23 (6.1 %) developed 34 new PNS complications. We found four brachial plexopathies; four carpal tunnel syndromes; five critical illness neuropathies; three worsening of pre-existing neuropathies; two involvement of X, one of IX and one of XII cranial nerves; three peroneal (at knee), one saphenous, two median (at Struthers ligament), six ulnar (at elbow) mononeuropathies; two meralgia parestheticas. Diabetes is a strong risk factor for PNS complications (p = 0.002); we could not find any other relationship of PNS complications with clinical conditions, demographic data (gender, age) or type of surgical intervention. The mononeuropathies of right arms can be related to ipsilateral vein cannulation; position of body and stretching from chest wall retraction may be the cause of mononeuropathies of left arms (more frequent); the use of saphenous vein and position of the limbs may be the cause of mononeuropathies of the legs; surgical and anesthetical procedures can injure cranial nerves; respiratory failure and infection during the first days after surgery can cause critical illness neuropathies. Careful preoperative assessment and intraoperative management may reduce the risk of long-term PNS complications after cardiac surgery.

  16. Epigenetics in the nervous system: An overview of its essential role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role that epigenetic mechanisms play in phenomena such as cellular differentiation during embryonic development, X chromosome inactivation, and cancers is well-characterized. Epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated to be the mediators of several functions in the nervous system such as in neuronal-glial differentiation, adult neurogenesis, the modulation of neural behavior and neural plasticity, and also in higher brain functions like cognition and memory. Its particular role in explaining the importance of early life/social experiences on adult behavioral patterns has caught the attention of scientists and has spawned the exciting new field of behavioral epigenetics which may hold the key to explaining many complex behavioral paradigms. Epigenetic deregulation is known to be central in the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders which underscore the importance of understanding these mechanisms more thoroughly to elucidate novel and effective therapeutic approaches. In this review we present an overview of the findings which point to the essential role played by epigenetics in the vertebrate nervous system.

  17. [State of the autonomic nervous system after induced abortion in the lst trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuleva, L P; Gatina, G A; Kuz'mina, T I; Solov'eva, A D

    1990-04-01

    The autonomic nervous system has been examined in 271 patients with a history of first-trimester induced abortion. It was ascertained that induced abortion affected the autonomic nervous system, thus impairing adaptive potentials and entailing the onset or aggravation of preexisting autonomic vascular dystonia. PMID:2378404

  18. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  19. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  20. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  1. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  2. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  3. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  4. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  5. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  6. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  7. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  8. Of Scaredy Cats and Cold Fish: The autonomic nervous system and behaviour in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Dierckx (Bram)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The autonomic nervous system regulates the body’s internal functions. The goal of this regulation is to maintain bodily homeostasis in a changing external environment. The autonomic nervous system acts largely independent of volition and controls heart rate, respiratory

  9. Doppler colour flow mapping of fetal intracerebral arteries in the presence of central nervous system anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); R. Heydanus (Rogier); P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe adjunctive role of Doppler colour flow mapping in the evaluation of intracerebral morphology and arterial blood flow in the presence of normal and abnormal central nervous system morphology was determined. A total of 59 fetuses with suspected central nervous system pathology between

  10. International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, D.N.; Perry, A.; Burger, P.; Ellison, D.W.; Reifenberger, G.; Deimling, A. Von; Aldape, K.; Brat, D.; Collins, V.P.; Eberhart, C.; Figarella-Branger, D.; Fuller, G.N.; Giangaspero, F.; Giannini, C.; Hawkins, C.; Kleihues, P.; Korshunov, A.; Kros, J.M.; Lopes, M. Beatriz; Ng, H.K.; Ohgaki, H.; Paulus, W.; Pietsch, T.; Rosenblum, M.; Rushing, E.; Soylemezoglu, F.; Wiestler, O.; Wesseling, P.

    2014-01-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neur

  11. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  12. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog.

  13. [The structure of the initial inputs into the metasympathetic nervous system of the rat uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheriavykh, L E; Skopichev, V G; Nozdrachev, A D

    1999-01-01

    Different populations of sympathetic neurons exerting modulating influence on neurons of nervous plexuses of proper metasympathetic nervous system of the uterus in albino laboratory rats were detected using the method on retrograde transport of fluorescent marker primulin. Following the injection of the marker into uterovaginal plexus, labelled neurons were found as aggregations in caudal mesenterial sympathetic ganglia, ganglia of coeliac plexus, renal ganglia and ganglia of coeliac trunk. The structure of nervous paths of external control of uterus functioning was analysed. PMID:10709194

  14. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  15. Pharyngeal pumping continues after laser killing of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.; Horvitz, H.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Using a laser microbeam to kill specific subsets of the pharyngeal nervous system of C. elegans, we found that feeding was accomplished by two separately controlled muscle motions, isthmus peristalsis and pumping. The single neuron M4 was necessary and sufficient for isthmus peristalsis. The MC neurons were necessary for normal stimulation of pumping in response to food, but pumping continued and was functional in MC- worms. The remaining 12 neuron types were also unnecessary for functional pumping. No operation we did, including destruction of the entire pharyngeal nervous system, abolished pumping altogether. When we killed all pharyngeal neurons except M4, the worms were viable and fertile, although retarded and starved. Since feeding is one of the few known essential actions controlled by the nervous system, we suggest that most of the C. elegans nervous system is dispensable in hermaphrodites under laboratory conditions. This may explain the ease with which nervous system mutants are isolated and handled in C. elegans.

  16. The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in central nervous system activity and mental disorders [Rola oksytocyny i wazopresyny w czynności ośrodkowego układu nerwowego i w zaburzeniach psychicznych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójciak, Paweł

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin and vasopressin, “peptides of love and fear”, except for their classic role in control of labor and breastfeeding and blood pressure regulation, are also implicated in various processes like sexual behaviours, social recognition and stress response. These hormones seems to be essential for appropriate and beneficial social interactions, play a very important role in maternal care and closeness, promote general trust and cooperation and prolong social memory. They also play a very important role in modulating fear and anxiety response, especially by regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and amygdala activity by its projections to the brain stem and hypothalamic structures. Both hormones, particularly oxytocin, appears to be activating sexual behaviour or is responsible for increased sexual arousal. Evidence from clinical trials suggests their potential role in pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, autism and addiction together with possible therapeutic use in the above conditions. In schizophrenia, patients with higher peripheral oxytocin levels showed less severe positive, general and social symptoms and better prosocial behaviours. Literature suggests that exogenous oxytocin may be effective as an adjunctive therapy for that illness. Some data suggest that naturally occurring autoantibodies reacting with oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in depression, eating disorders and conduct disorder genesis.

  17. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  18. Nervous and muscle system development in Phascolion strombus (Sipuncula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Bromham, Lindell; Noonan, Erin; Degnan, Bernard M

    2005-10-01

    Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we present the first immunocytochemical data on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the musculature in the sipunculan Phascolion strombus. Myogenesis of the first anlagen of the body wall ring muscles occurs synchronously and not subsequently from anterior to posterior as in segmented spiralian taxa (i.e. annelids). The number of ring muscles remains constant during the initial stages of body axis elongation. In the anterior-posteriorly elongated larva, newly formed ring muscles originate along the entire body axis between existing myocytes, indicating that repeated muscle bands do not form from a posterior growth zone. During neurogenesis, the Phascolion larva expresses a non-metameric, paired, ventral nerve cord that fuses in the mid-body region in the late-stage elongated larva. Contrary to other trochozoans, Phascolion lacks any larval serotonergic structures. However, two to three FMRFamide-positive cells are found in the apical organ. In addition, late larvae show commissure-like neurones interconnecting the two ventral nerve cords, while early juveniles exhibit a third, medially placed FMRFamidergic ventral nerve. Although we did not find any indications for cryptic segmentation, certain neuro-developmental traits in Phascolion resemble the conditions found in polychaetes (including echiurans) and myzostomids and support a close relationship of Sipuncula and Annelida. PMID:16133569

  19. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October 1976 to August 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and follow-up data were registered. RESULTS: Eight patients presented NPCM. The observed NPCM prevalence was 3.8%. One patient presented the subacute form of PCM and the other seven presented the chronic form of the disease. The parenchymatous form of NPCM occurred in all patients. 60% of the patients who proceeded from the north/ northeast region of Minas Gerais State developed NPCM. The neurological involvement of a mother and her son was observed. NPCM patients exhibited demographical and clinical profiles similar to what is described in the literature. When NPCM cases were compared to PCM patients, there were differences in relation to origin and positive PCM family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the clinical view that the neurological findings are extremely important in the evaluation of PCM patients. Despite the limitations of this study, the differences in relation to patient's origins and family history point to the need of further studies to determine the susceptibility factors involved in the neurological compromise.

  20. The pleiotropic effects of erythropoietin in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, M; Cavallaro, E; Floccari, F; Sturiale, A; Aloisi, C; Trimarchi, M; Corica, F; Frisina, N

    2003-03-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hydrophobic sialoglycoproteic hormone produced by the kidney and responsible for the proliferation, maturation, and differentiation of the precursors of the erythroid cell line. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is used to treat different types of anemia, not only in uremic patients but also in newborns with anemia of prematurity, in patients with cancer-related anemia or myeloproliferative disease, thalassemias, bone marrow transplants, or those with chronic infectious diseases. The pleiotropic functions of Epo are well known. It has been shown that this hormone can modulate the inflammatory and immune response, has direct hemodynamic and vasoactive effects, could be considered a proangiogenic factor because of its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor, and its ability to stimulate mitosis and motility of endothelial cells. The multifunctional role of Epo has further been confirmed by the discovery in the central nervous system of a specific Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) system. Both Epo and EpoR are expressed by astrocytes and neurons and Epo is present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, novel functions of Epo, tissue-specific regulation, and the mechanisms of action have been investigated. In this review we have tried to summarize the current data on the role of Epo on brain function. We discuss the different sites of cerebral expression and mechanisms of regulation of Epo and its receptor and its role in the development and maturation of the brain. Second, we discuss the neurotrophic and neuroprotective function of Epo in different conditions of neuronal damage, such as hypoxia, cerebral ischemia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the consequent possibility that rHuEpo therapy could soon be used in clinical practice to limit neuronal damage induced by these diseases. PMID:12638727

  1. IgG-index predicts neurological morbidity in patients with infectious central nervous system diseases

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    Deisenhammer Florian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis assessment of patients with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS may still pose a challenge. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the prognostic value of basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters in patients with bacterial meningitis, viral meningoencephalitis and leptomeningeal metastases were evaluated. Methods White blood cell count, CSF/serum glucose ratio, protein, CSF/serum albumin quotient and Immunoglobulin indices for IgG, IgA and IgM were analyzed in 90 patients with bacterial meningitis, 117 patients with viral meningoencephalitis and 36 patients with leptomeningeal metastases in a total of 480 CSF samples. Results In the initial spinal tap, the IgG-index was the only independent predictor for unfavorable outcome (GOS Conclusion The present study suggests that in infectious CNS diseases an elevated IgG-Index might be an additional marker for the early identification of patients at risk for neurological morbidity.

  2. linical characteristics of nosocomial infections of patients with acute central nervous system infections treated in ICU

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    Olgica Gajović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nosocomial infections in patients with acute infection of central nervous system (ACNS infections. The study included 1,686 patients admitted to the ICU. Of 1,686 patients, 936 (55.5% had ACNS infection. Nosocomial infections was confirmedin 221 (23.6% patients with ACNS infection. The most common risk factors for ICU-acquired nosocomial infections were consciousness disorder, mechanical ventilation and nasogastric tube. The coagulase – negative Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolated pathogen (285 isolates, 56.5%. Results suggest that a persistently high level of therapeutic activity and persistently depressed consciousness after the ICU admission are associatedwith the occurrence of hospital-acquired infection in critically ill patients hospitalized at a medical ICU.

  3. White paper on guidelines concerning enteric nervous system stem cell therapy for enteric neuropathies⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alan J.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Stamp, Lincon; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Metzger, Marco; Hotta, Ryo; Young, Heather M.; Andrews, Peter W.; Thapar, Nikhil; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Bondurand, Nadege; Bornstein, Joel C.; Chan, Wood Yee; Cheah, Kathryn; Gershon, Michael D.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Hofstra, Robert M.W.; Just, Lothar; Kapur, Raj P.; King, Sebastian K.; McCann, Conor J.; Nagy, Nandor; Ngan, Elly; Obermayr, Florian; Pachnis, Vassilis; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Sham, Mai Har; Tam, Paul; Berghe, Pieter Vanden

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts’ views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function. We also highlight obstacles that must be overcome in order to progress from successful preclinical studies in animal models to ENS stem cell therapies in the clinic. PMID:27059883

  4. Electroporation Transfection as an Effective Tool to Trace Transplanted NSCs in Adult Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周畅; 温哲钘; 王志萍; 郭行; 史冬梅; 左焕琮; 谢佐平

    2004-01-01

    Neural stem cells, which are clonogenic cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, are currently considered as powerful candidates for cell replacement therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. A key issue is whether stem cells can survive, migrate and differentiate following transplantation into the adult central nervous system. This research shows that enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmid electroporation transfected neural stem cells can functionally differentiate in vitro and that most of the EGFP-positive cells can survive and migrate towards the damaged areas when transplanted into the brain of a Parkinson's disease model rat. The results suggest an effective and maneuverable tracing tool to detect whether transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells function in the adult brain in vivo.

  5. Chronic meningitis and central nervous system vasculopathy related to Epstein Barr virus

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    Anil Kumar B Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic active Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection causes a wide spectrum of manifestation, due to meningeal, parenchymal and vascular involvement. An 11-year-old boy presented with chronic headache, fever and seizures of 18 months duration. His magnetic resonance imaging Brain showed fusiform aneurysmal dilatations of arteries of both the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed persistent lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised proteins and low sugar with positive polymerase chain reaction for EBV. He later developed pancytopenia due to bone marrow aplasia, with secondary infection and expired. From clinical, imaging and CSF findings, he had chronic lymphocytic meningitis with vasculopathy, which was isolated to the central nervous system. He later had marrow aplasia probably due to X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder related to EBV infection. Vasculopathy, especially diffuse fusiform aneurysmal dilatation associated with chronic EBV infection, is rare, but has been described, similar to our case report.

  6. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

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    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  7. Risk factors and disposition in development of the nervous system infections

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    Nešić Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although well protected, brain is not resistant to infection agents. Acute infections of our nervous system appear more often in children and in persons who have medical history data about previous disorders, especially disorders of the nervous system. It is difficult to list possible risk factors which can be responsible for the appearance of infections of CNS and the resulting conditions. It is often difficult or impossible to determine what previous neural damage was (trauma, anoxic damages etc. from those appearing during infections of CNS. All-inclusive anamnestic research reduces the possibility of approximate judgments. Material and methods. The research was based on the retrospective analysis of medical documentation of 275 patients. All patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis. The first group consisted of 125 patients who were treated for acute virus encephalitis, the second group consisted of 125 patients who were treated for acute bacterial meningoencephalitis and the third group consisted of 25 patients who were treated for cerebritis. Discussion. In our studies sample, the youngest patient was 3 years old and the oldest was 87 years old. The highest number of patients with virus infection of the CNS was in the group under 25 years of age (45.6%. The highest number of patients with bacterial infections of the CNS and cerebritis was in the group of patients over 45 years of age (64%, 37%. Conclusion. Risk factors were more present in bacterial infections of the nervous system and cerebrit thanin virus infection of CNS. In virus infections of the CNS, 28% of patients had some risk factor, most often-chronic ethylism, diabetes mellitus and acquired heart diseases. In bacterial infections of the CNS, 64% of patients had some predisposed factor. The most frequent factor of risk in these patients were chronic otitis (21.6% and craniotrauma (14.4%. In cerebritis, risk factors were present in 76

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Preparation (Hp-4 against Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

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    P. Padmanabhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals include both Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS.When free radicals are produced in a regulated manner in a healthy human body it is scavenged efficiently by antioxidant defense system. But excess generation of pro-oxidants by continuous chain reaction in the form of ROS and RNS cause several human diseases. The shift of the balance in the favour of pro-oxidants results in a condition called “oxidative stress”. Alcohol is primarily metabolized in the liver to generate ROS and RNS, leading to diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis. Alcohol induced damage is associated with oxidative stress. The excess generation of prooxidants and reduced antioxidant levels provide an effective model of Hepatotoxicity which is noteworthy. Recent trend is to discover polyherbal formulation of medicinal plants which have hepatoprotective function. In the present study 80% alcoholic extract of leaves of Aloe vera, Bacopa monniera, Moringa oleifera and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were utilized to prepare Herbal Preparation or HP-4.Further the hepatoprotective effects of HP-4 was tested in alcohol induced Hepatotoxicity in mice. Silymarin is a well known hepatoprotective drug was used as a standard for comparison. Biochemical and histopathological studies provided ample evidence that HP-4 provided a hepatoprotective role in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity which was comparable to drug Silymarin. The presence of phytochemicals in HP-4 provided a synergistic, supra-additive and co-operative effects in the hepatoprotective function in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity mice model.

  9. Autonomic nervous system mediated effects of food intake. Interaction between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis focused on the autonomic nervous system mediated interactions between the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems in response to food intake and on potential consequences of failure of these interactions. The effects of food intake on cardiovascular parameter

  10. Report: Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity caused by metal poisoning: Brain as a target organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syeda Rubina; Zaidi, Syed Raza Ali; Batool, Madeeha; Bhatti, Amanat Ali; Durrani, Arjumand Iqbal; Mahmood, Zaid

    2015-07-01

    People relate the neural disorders with either inheritance or psychological violence but there might be some other reasons responsible for the ailment of people that do not have such a background. The present study explains the chronic effect of heavy toxic metals on nervous system. During experimentation, rabbits used as laboratory animals, were given test metals in their diet. Concentration of metals given to them in the diet was less than their tolerable dietary intake. Behavioral changes were observed during experimentation. Periodic increase in the metal concentration was seen in the blood sample of rabbits. They were slaughtered after a period of eight months of slow poisoning. Histological examination of brain tissues was performed. The brain samples were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to find the retention of heavy metals in mammalian brain. Concentration of lead, mercury and cadmium in the blood samples of occupationally exposed people and patients with neurological disorders at the time of neurosurgery was determined by using the same techniques. During circulation, toxic metals passes through the nerve capillaries to settle down in the brain. Heavy metals cross the blood brain barrier and 'may retain themselves in it. Brain tumors and biopsy samples of patients with neurological disorder were also analyzed to relate neurotoxicity and heavy metal poisoning. Results obtained shows that lead, mercury and cadmium retain themselves in the brain for longer period of time and are one of the causes of neurotoxicity.

  11. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  12. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

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    Frezza Eldo E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17 is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. Methods The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma, 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma,. Results A number of neuroectodermal (21% and meningeal tumours (4% were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. Conclusion The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

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    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  14. Central nervous system activity ofIllicium verum fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Chouksey; Neeraj Upmanyu; RS Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum(I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system.Methods:TheTLC andHPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum.Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study.The powdered material was successively extracted withn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using aSoxhlet extractor.Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines.TheCNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity.The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each.The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight.The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol.Results:Toxicity studies reported2000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic doseIntraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantlyalter muscles coordination activity.The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts.Conclusions:The observation suggested that the extracts ofI. verum possess potentCNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination.

  15. Sperm protein 17 is expressed in human nervous system tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved protein that was originally isolated from a rabbit epididymal sperm membrane and testis membrane pellet. It has recently been included in the cancer/testis (CT) antigen family, and shown to be expressed in multiple myeloma and ovarian cancer. We investigated its immunolocalisation in specimens of nervous system (NS) malignancies, in order to establish its usefulness as a target for tumour-vaccine strategies. The expression of Sp17 was assessed by means of a standardised immunohistochemical procedure [(mAb/antigen) MF1/Sp17] in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded surgical specimens of NS malignancies, including 28 neuroectodermal primary tumours (6 astrocytomas, 16 glioblastoma multiforme, 5 oligodendrogliomas, and 1 ependymoma), 25 meningeal tumours, and five peripheral nerve sheath tumours (4 schwannomas, and 1 neurofibroma),. A number of neuroectodermal (21%) and meningeal tumours (4%) were found heterogeneously immunopositive for Sp17. None of the peripheral nerve sheath tumours was immunopositive for Sp17. The expression pattern was heterogeneous in all of the positive samples, and did not correlate with the degree of malignancy. The frequency of expression and non-uniform cell distribution of Sp17 suggest that it cannot be used as a unique immunotherapeutic target in NS cancer. However, our results do show the immunolocalisation of Sp17 in a proportion of NS tumour cells, but not in their non-pathological counterparts. The emerging complex function of Sp17 makes further studies necessary to clarify the link between it and immunopositive cells

  16. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

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    Morton G. Burt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AIx, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002 independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54. Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001 but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12. We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies.

  17. Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Morton G.; Mangelsdorf, Brenda L.; Stranks, Stephen N.; Mangoni, Arduino A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been clarified. The aim was to investigate whether changes in autonomic nervous system activity could underlie an association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D and arterial stiffness. A total of 49 subjects (age = 60 ± 8 years, body mass index = 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2, 25 hydroxy vitamin D = 69 ± 22 nmol/L) underwent measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, plasma metanephrines and 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Subjects with 25 hydroxy vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/L were restudied after 200,000 International Units 25 hydroxy vitamin D. Plasma metanephrine was positively associated with AIx (p = 0.02) independent of age, sex, smoking and cholesterol and negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.002) independent of age, sex and season. In contrast, there was no association between baroreflex sensitivity and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (p = 0.54). Treatment with vitamin D increased 25 hydroxy vitamin D from 43 ± 5 to 96 ± 24 nmol/L (p < 0.0001) but there was no significant change in plasma metanephrine (115 ± 25 vs. 99 ± 39 pmol/L, p = 0.12). We conclude that as plasma metanephrine was negatively associated with 25 hydroxy vitamin D and positively with AIx, it could mediate an association between these two variables. This hypothesis should be tested in larger interventional studies. PMID:27649235

  18. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  19. Autopsy Proven Peripheral Nervous System Neurolymphomatosis Despite Negative Bilateral Sural Nerve Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo eRamirez-Zamora; Sarkis Gibran eMorales Vidal; Jasvinder eChawla; Jose eBiller

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Neurolymphomatosis (NL) refers to a lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves associated with central nervous system (CNS) or systemic lymphoma, or alternatively, neurodiagnostic evidence of nerve enhancement and/or enlargement beyond the dural sleeve in the setting of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) or systemic lymphoma. NL is a rare complication of systemic cancer with heterogeneous clinical presentations and an elusive diagnosis. Diagnosis usually requires ...

  20. Pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on tonic and phasic signaling from the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal locomotion, feeding, and circulatory systems. In some systems, the muscle itself generates rhythmic contractions. In others, rhythms are generated by the nervous system or by interactions between the nervous system and muscles. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeding occurs via rhythmic contractions (pumping) of the pharynx, a neuromuscular feeding organ. Here, we use pharmacology, optogenetics, genetics, and electrophysiology to investigate the roles of the nervous system and muscle in generating pharyngeal pumping. Hyperpolarization of the nervous system using a histamine-gated chloride channel abolishes pumping, and optogenetic stimulation of pharyngeal muscle in these animals causes abnormal contractions, demonstrating that normal pumping requires nervous system function. In mutants that pump slowly due to defective nervous system function, tonic muscle stimulation causes rapid pumping, suggesting tonic neurotransmitter release may regulate pumping. However, tonic cholinergic motor neuron stimulation, but not tonic muscle stimulation, triggers pumps that electrophysiologically resemble typical rapid pumps. This suggests that pharyngeal cholinergic motor neurons are normally rhythmically, and not tonically active. These results demonstrate that the pharynx generates a myogenic rhythm in the presence of tonically released acetylcholine, and suggest that the pharyngeal nervous system entrains contraction rate and timing through phasic neurotransmitter release. PMID:26976078