WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol-impaired driving behavior

  1. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Behavior and Sensation-Seeking Disposition in a College Population Receiving Routine Care at Campus Health Services Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Mundt, Marlon P.; Balousek, Stacey L.; Wilson, Ellen L.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents stemming from alcohol-impaired driving are the leading cause of injury and death among college students. Research has implicated certain driver personality characteristics in the majority of these motor vehicle crashes. Sensation seeking in particular has been linked to risky driving, alcohol consumption, and driving while intoxicated. This study investigated the effect of sensation-seeking on self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior in a college student population while adju...

  2. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2003-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2003-2012; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2003-2012; All...

  3. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  4. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs. PMID:26087814

  5. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive. PMID:27309028

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Young People Related to Drinking and Driving in Mostar Region, Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Jurić, Mario; Čarapina, Mirela; Gilja, Adriana; Šimić, Goran

    2010-01-01

    The traffic accidents became the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young population groups during the late 60s and early 70s. Among several European countries that are in transition, Bosnia and Herzegovina takes the leading place in fatal traffic accidents. In this study we have investigated knowledge, attitudes and behavior of young people related to alcohol impaired driving. Our aim was to investigate the patterns and behavior among young people that could be useful for public ...

  7. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  8. Aggressive Driving Behavior: Undergraduate Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rungson Chomeya

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main purposes of this research were (1) to study the aggressive driving behavior of graduate students, (2) to develop aggressive driving behavior standard test, (3) to compare the aggressive driving behavior between gender, years of study, academic achievement, driving confidence and driving experience and (4) to study the relationship among aggressive driving behavior, driving confidence, driving experience and accident experience. Approach: The subjects consisted of 4...

  9. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent injuries and deaths from alcohol-impaired driving. The Problem Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of ...

  10. Unsafe driving behaviors and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuinen, M

    1994-04-01

    The medical costs associated with motor vehicle crashes are difficult to measure. Most attempts have used crash data and cost data that are only indirectly related to each other or have followed patients in a few hospitals or trauma centers. These studies produce localized estimates or rough national estimates of limited use to policy makers. The result has been a dependence on more readily available mortality data, such as the Fatal Accident Reporting System, to guide automotive safety efforts. The limitations of mortality data and the increasing sophistication of medical care data bases have resulted in a strong interest in obtaining crash-linked morbidity data. Hence, in 1993, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded the Missouri Department of Health and six other applicants grants to link automotive crash records to statewide ambulance trip, outpatient care, hospitalization and mortality records. By identifying an individual across multiple data sets, states would be able to determine directly the relationship of driver behaviors and crash characteristics to hospitalization rates and other medical outcomes. Examination of hospital pay source information would expose the toll of automotive crashes on public tax dollars. Having recently completed the record linkage phase of this project, Missouri Department of Health staff are beginning to analyze the impact of automotive crashes on health care costs in Missouri. In this report, three unsafe driving behaviors, failure to use a safety device (seatbelts and motorcycle helmets), driving under the influence of alcohol, and speeding, are related to the risk of hospitalization or death, hospital costs, and expected pay source. PMID:8202067

  11. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the pri

  12. Modelling Signal Controlled Traffic Based on Driving Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Wang; Yanyan Chen; Ning Chen

    2015-01-01

    In urban traffic, of particular interest the traffic breakdown which is primarily resulted from the driving behaviors is emerged to respond to the traffic signal. To investigate the influences of driving behaviors on the traffic breakdown, a cellular automaton model has been developed by incorporating a number of driving behaviors typically manifesting during the different stages when the vehicle approaching a traffic light. Numerical simulations have been performed based on a road segment co...

  13. Reaction times of young alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Zoi; Karlaftis, Matthew G; Yannis, George

    2013-12-01

    Young individuals who drive under the influence of alcohol have a higher relative risk of crash involvement; as such, the literature has extensively investigated the factors affecting such involvement through both post-accident surveys and simulator experiments. The effects of differentiated breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) on young driver behavior, however, have been largely unaddressed, mainly as a result of the difficulty in collecting the necessary data. We explore young driver behavior under the influence of alcohol using a driving simulator experiment where 49 participants were subjected to a common pre-defined dose of alcohol consumption. Comparing reaction times before and after consumption allows for interesting insights and suggestions regarding policy interventions. As expected, the results indicate that increased reaction times before consuming alcohol strongly affect post-consumption reaction times, while increased BrAC levels prolong reaction times; a 10% increase in BrAC levels results in a 2% increase in reaction time. Interestingly, individuals with faster alcohol absorption times perform better regardless of absolute BrAC level, while recent meals lead to higher reaction times and regular exercising to lower. PMID:23332180

  14. Perception of the Risks Associated with Impaired Driving and Effects on Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Dionne; Claude Fluet; Denise Desjardins

    2006-01-01

    This research studies the perception of the risks associated with impaired driving-probability of being apprehended or of having an accident-and the relation between the perception of risks and driving behavior. The most important determinants of perceptual biases are age, an accumulation of violations in the year preceding the survey, being a non-drinker, knowledge of the legal alcohol limit for driving, opinion about zero tolerance for impaired driving, and family income. Perceptual biases ...

  15. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  16. Driving Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ignition interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been drinking. Interlocks are effective in reducing re-arrest rates from ...

  18. Don’t Drink and Drive (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    Nearly one-third of fatalities in car crashes are caused by alcohol-impaired driving. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving.  Created: 8/6/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  19. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Xianping; Men Yugang; Yuan Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation a...

  20. Alcohol, simulated driving and deteriorated behavior

    OpenAIRE

    BERTHELON, C; Hirt, S; Nachtergaele, C.; Meskali, M.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratories studies show that alcohol and fatigue are main causes of accidents. However, there is lack of reference measures that could be used to define a dangerous threshold for driving. We thus made an alcohol calibration study which can serve as a base for measuring the effects of different factors on traffic safety. Sixteen participants drank a beverage to obtain 0, 0.3, 0.5, 0,8g of alcohol per liter of blood, then drove a simulator. There were three types of situat...

  1. A Behavioral Solution to the Drunk Driving Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of drunk driving primarily as a failure in the process of operant conditioning, with the inappropriate behavior of the drunk driver resulting from a profound ignorance of the potentially tragic consequences of his behavior. Concludes most effective way to understand consequences is to witness autopsies of drunk driving…

  2. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  3. Drunk - Driving, Relapse Pattern and Risky Driving Behavior Among Participants in a DWI Prevention Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Aavik, Julie Jensen

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of the study was to examine relapse among participants in the DWI Prevention Programme and those who get prison sentence after driving when influenced by alcohol and to examine the participants’ attitudes towards drunk – driving, risk behavior and traffic safety. A direct evaluation of the sentence and penal accomplishment is also examined. The sample of the survey study (see article 1) was 44 from the DWI – sample and 44 from the prison – sample that completed a questionnaire...

  4. Determinants of risky driving behavior: a narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarpour, Saba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) account for great mortality and morbidity rates worldwide, resulting in substantial global burden. Factors contributing to RTC generally fall into three categories: environmental, vehicle, and human, with the human factor being by far the leading determinant. Obtaining an in-depth exploration of driving behavior and factors underpinning risky driving could be of particular importance to facilitate the establishment of effective policies. The present article provide...

  5. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost. PMID:20441810

  6. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xianping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation and retrieving of these video streams has an important role on visual aids for safety and driving behavior assessment. In a vehicle surveillance system, video as a primary data source requires effective ways of retrieving the desired clip data from a database. And data from naturalistic studies allow for an unparalleled breadth and depth of driver behavior analysis that goes beyond the quantification and description of driver distraction into a deeper understanding of how drivers interact with their vehicles. To do so, a model that classifies vehicle video data on the basis of traffic information and its semantic properties which were described by driver’s eye gaze orientation was developed in this paper. The vehicle data from OBD and sensors is also used to annotate the video. Then the annotated video data based on the model is organized and streamed by retrieval platform and adaptive streaming method. The experimental results show that this model is a good example for evidence-based traffic instruction programs and driving behavior assessment.

  7. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bradly T; Correa, Kelly A; Brown, Timothy L; Spurgin, Andrew L; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one's driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving), have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS) depressants (Smith et al., 2002). The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake et al., 2011), further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim(TM)). This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (electroencephalography, ECG). While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009), we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of DREs. Our analyses revealed that (1) specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and (2) the neurocognitive tasks' metrics were able to classify "impaired" vs. "unimpaired" with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in larger studies, our results not only identified

  8. A Spatial Analysis of Driving Behavior in Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Soltani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAfter industrial revolution, driving vehicles became a necessity in fulfilling human needs in different aspects of life. This is a positive phenomenon but is not without negative side effects, such as, for example, accidents, air pollution, traffic jam etc. In many countries, road construction and maintenance is far behind innovations of new vehicles. In many places the road quality or size is not able to bare the traffic load, hence the reason for significant rise in accidents and human life loss in the second half of the twentieth century in developed and developing countries. That is, 1.2 million deaths worldwide are caused by vehicle accidents. Accidents are the first cause of injuries and second cause of death in the population of Iran at ages bellow 40. In vehicle accidents, three factors are involved: human, vehicle and road quality. The human factor is more apparent since it governs the other two. Since the human factor is influenced by social, economic, cultural, political and other environmental aspects, its behavior in driving varies with respect to space and time. Consequently the question addressed in this paper is as follow: is there a correlation between where does the driver live and how his driving behavior is? And how is the driver’s spatial distribution manner when it comes to improper driving behavior on the intra-city routs? The megacity of Isfahan as a touristic city is of concern in this respect. Thus the broader questions are: which are the factors involved in affecting the driving behavior of drivers in Isfahan? What are the patterns which influence driving behaviors and what are the effective factors involved in developing these behaviors? For this purpose, the drivers’ behavior of different sections of the city are evaluated based on different variables and the local roads. Finally, the worst exposed driving behaviors of domestic drivers on domestic roads are identified. Material and Methods This is a

  9. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  10. The background factor of the driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Taishi, Nozomi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors lead to driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers, particularly focusing on the effect of self-reported driving performance, and to investigate the relationship between driving compensation behavior and traffic accidents or violations. After analyzing 237 elderly drivers, the results showed that whereas self-reported driving performances influenced driving compensation behaviors, the relationship between self-reported driving perf...

  11. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Speed is a substantial factor contributing to road safety. Currently, speed reduction is mainly achieved through law enforcement and the implementation of traffic calming measures. An alternative speed reducing approach is to encourage drivers to voluntarily choose an appropriate driving speed....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed-driving...... simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head...

  12. Knowing when to say when: a simple assessment of alcohol impairment.

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, E S; Clarke, S W; Kalsher, M J

    1991-01-01

    The use of writing samples as indices of alcohol impairment was explored. Students at a campus fraternity party wrote a sentence and their signatures before and after consuming alcohol (in beer and mixed drinks). Later, undergraduate and graduate students attempted to discriminate between pre- and postparty handwriting samples. The average percentage of correct discriminations of entrance and exit writing samples was 83.7% for sentences and 67.5% for signatures, and the percentage of correct ...

  13. Factors contributing to anxious driving behavior: The role of stress history and accident severity

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Olsen, Shira A.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Hagewood, J. Houston; Hickling, Edward J.; Hwang, Vivian S.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Although fear and travel avoidance among anxious drivers are well documented, relatively little is known about the behavior of anxious individuals who continue to drive. Previous research has identified three broad domains of anxious driving behavior: exaggerated safety/caution behaviors, anxiety-based performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive driving behaviors. In an effort to explicate factors associated with the development of anxious driving behaviors, associations with objective accid...

  14. Learning driving behavior by timed syntactic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Verwer, S.E.; Weerdt, M.M.; C. Witteveen

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values of onboard sensors into simple events. Instead of the common syntactic pattern recognition approach of sampling the signal values at a fixed rate, we model the time constraints using timed models. ...

  15. Behavioral and neurophysiological signatures of benzodiazepine-related driving impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradly T Stone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem, worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; NHTSA, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004. Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009. Currently, drug recognition experts (law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving, have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS depressants (Smith, Hayes, Yolton, Rutledge, & Citek, 2002. The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake, Michie, Carter, & Jones, 2011, further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim™. This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (EEG, ECG. While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009, we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of drug recognition experts. Our analyses revealed that 1 specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and; 2 the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify impaired vs. unimpaired with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in

  16. Driving Green: Toward the Prediction and Influence of Efficient Driving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, William D.

    Sub-optimal efficiency in activities involving the consumption of fossil fuels, such as driving, contribute to a miscellany of negative environmental, political, economic and social externalities. Demonstrations of the effectiveness of feedback interventions can be found in countless organizational settings, as can demonstrations of individual differences in sensitivity to feedback interventions. Mechanisms providing feedback to drivers about fuel economy are becoming standard equipment in most new vehicles, but vary considerably in their constitution. A keystone of Radical Behaviorism is the acknowledgement that verbal behavior appears to play a role in mediating apparent susceptibility to influence by contingencies of varying delay. In the current study, samples of verbal behavior (rules) were collected in the context of a feedback intervention to improve driving efficiency. In an analysis of differences in individual responsiveness to the feedback intervention, the rate of novel rules per week generated by drivers is revealed to account for a substantial proportion of the variability in relative efficiency gains across participants. The predictive utility of conceptual tools, such as the basic distinction among contingency-shaped and rule governed behavior, the elaboration of direct-acting and indirect-acting contingencies, and the psychological flexibility model, is bolstered by these findings.

  17. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF REAL-WORLD DRIVING BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN LESIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kelsey; Read, Katherine; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with circumscribed brain injuries, such as those caused by stroke or focal trauma, return to driving after a period of acute recovery. These persons often have chronic residual cognitive deficits that may impact on driving safety, but little is known about their driving behavior in the real world. Extant studies tend to rely on driving simulators or controlled on-road drives. These methods of observation are not able to capture the complexities of the typical driving environment...

  18. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  19. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  20. Driving experience, alcohol and monotonous simulated driving: behavioral and subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Laurent; BERTHELON, Catherine; Galy, Edith

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate driving performance during monotonous task and demanding low cognitive resources as a function of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), and driving experience. Monotony is associated to environments characterized by a repetitive way responsible for increase of fatigue and decrease of alertness, cognitive interest, and responsiveness. Alcohol consumption impairs the skills necessary for safe driving and a linear relationship has been demonstrated betwee...

  1. Eco-Driving: Pilot Evaluation of Driving Behavior Changes Among U.S. Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Vu, Alexander; Barth, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Among several strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles, “eco-driving†is one that had not received much attention in the United States (U.S.) until recently. The core of eco-driving programs is to provide drivers with a variety of advice and feedback to minimize fuel consumption while driving. The advice and feedback can be provided through various means including website or brochure, class or training, and in-vehicle driving aids. This study evaluated how an on-bo...

  2. Survey explores teen driving behavior in Central Valley, Los Angeles high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos, Ramona M; Borba, John A; Heck, Katherine E.; Nathaniel, Keith C; Sousa, Carla M

    2009-01-01

    Teenage drivers, particularly new drivers, have higher crash rates than adults. We surveyed 2,144 teenage drivers in California about their driving practices, factors influencing driving behavior, and views on driver education and resources. Teens wanted updated driver education courses and more behind-the-wheel training while learning to drive. They identified parents as their most important resource when learning to drive and also reported that parents were less likely to enforce the rule p...

  3. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGDuan-Ming; SUNHong-Zhang; LIZhi-Hua; PANGui-Jun; YUBo-Ming; LIRui; YINYan-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  4. Eco-Driving with Electric Cars: Effect of Continuous and On-Demand feedback on Driving Behavior and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    BELOUFA, Sabrina; VAILLEAU, Benjamin; BOUCHEIX, Jean-Michel; KEMENY, Andras; Merienne, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of driver behavior has been the purpose of many studies for several years. A new aspect is the introduction of electric vehicles on the car market and the fact drivers are more concerned with their consumptions in EV (Electric Vehicle) due to the lack of the appropriate infrastructures. However, only a few studies focusing on ecological behavior and consumption have been carried out. The primary goal of the present study was to assess empirically the impact of feedback on EV driving ...

  5. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  6. Co-variability in Three Dimensions of Teenage Driving Risk Behavior: Impaired Driving, Risky and Unsafe Driving Behavior, and Secondary Task Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Li, Kaigang; Ehsani, Johnathon; Vaca, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research examined the extent to which teenagers who engaged in one form of risky driving also engaged in other forms and if risky driving measures were reciprocally associated over time. METHODS The data were from waves 1, 2 and 3 (W1, W2 and W3) of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample starting with 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Three measures of risky driving were assessed in autoregressive and cross-lagged analyses: driving while alcohol/drug impaired, Checkpoints Risky Driving Scale (risky and unsafe driving), and secondary task engagement while driving. RESULTS In adjusted auto-regression models the risk variables, demonstrated high levels of stability, with significant associations observed across the three waves. However, associations between variables were inconsistent. DWI at W2 was associated with risky and unsafe driving at W3 (β = 0.21, p driving at W1 was associated with DWI at W2 (β = 0.20, p driving at W2 is associated with secondary task engagement at W3 (β = 0.19, p driving, with prospective associations between the Risky Driving Scale and the other measures, and reciprocal associations between all three variables at some time points. Secondary task engagement, however, appears largely to be an independent measure of risky driving. The findings suggest the importance of implementing interventions that addresses each of these driving risks. PMID:26514232

  7. A conceptual framework for reducing risky teen driving behaviors among minority youth

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez, P; Schlundt, D G; Goldzweig, I; Stinson, N

    2006-01-01

    Teenage drivers, especially males, have higher rates of motor vehicle crashes and engage in riskier driving behavior than adults. Motor vehicle deaths disproportionately impact youth from poor and minority communities and in many communities there are higher rates of risky behaviors among minority youth. In this paper, the authors review the data on teens, risky driving behaviors, and morbidity and mortality. They identify areas in which known disparities exist, and examine strategies for cha...

  8. Analysis on E-consumers’ Purchasing Behavior Based on Data-driving Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lijuan Huang

    2011-01-01

    It is the Internet world with vasty purchasing data sea online that makes research model of e-consumers’ purchasing behavior very different from traditional ones. Firstly this paper proposes three kinds of research models of consumers’ purchasing behavior, and then pointed out that data-driving model is the best one to analyze e-consumers’ purchasing behavior on the Internet. Secondly, it adopts the improved SOFM Neural Network as the tool of data-driving model to detailedly...

  9. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  10. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Bradly T.; Correa, Kelly A.; Brown, Timothy L.; Spurgin, Andrew L.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18–23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugg...

  11. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Yihe Sun; Li Shang; Qin Lv; Kun Li; Yifei Jiang; Jie Wu,

    2011-01-01

    Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (P)HEV fuel efficiency, battery system l...

  12. Employer Behavior in the Face of Union Organizing Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Richard B.; Kleiner, Morris M.

    1990-01-01

    Data from a 1986 survey of employers and a 1982-83 survey of union organizers found that firms' responses to union organizing drives were consistent with the motive of profit maximization and that management opposition has been an important determinant of the decline of unionism. (JOW)

  13. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Gabriela; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P.; Rowe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimen...

  14. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  15. Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men. PMID:23852327

  16. Prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors among young people in Ontario, Canada: Evidence from 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sean; Pek, Simon; Morrish, Jayne; Ruf, Megan

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports on the prevalence of texting while driving and other risky driving behaviors by age and gender in two large samples of youth aged 16-19 years in Ontario, Canada. In Study 1 (N=6133), we found that males reported more frequent texting while driving and speeding than females and, in terms of age, sixteen year olds reported frequent texting while driving than older participants. In Study 2 (N=4450), which was conducted two years later, males again reported more frequent texting while driving, however there was no difference in the rate of talking on the phone while driving among males and females. Participants also reported on experiences that led to a significant reduction in their texting while driving. The most common reasons were the perceived danger of texting while driving, laws and fines against texting while driving, and observing close-calls and accidents experienced by other people. The results of both studies suggest that driving-related risk-taking behaviors co-occur and that young passengers in vehicles, including 14 and 15 year olds, are bystanders to texting while driving. Finally, there was a substantial decline in the prevalence of texting while driving across the studies. In Study 1, 27% of participants reported "sometimes" to "almost always" texting while driving compared to 6% of participants in Study 2. Limitations and implications for public campaigns targeted youth distracted driving are discussed. PMID:26344898

  17. Driving behavior and ergonomics of in-vehicle communicating systems

    OpenAIRE

    PAUZIE, A

    2001-01-01

    In-vehicle systems display information in order to support the driver in his/her activity. This paper describes two main methodologies allowing to investigate driver's behaviour while using these systems : computation of glance frequency and duration toward the implemented screen displaying visual information for the visual strategies and computation of the Driving Activity Load Index for the mental workload. Both evaluation are complementary, being respectively objective and subjectiv...

  18. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Per Backlund; Tom Ziemke; Robert Ramberg; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.; Mikael Lebram

    2013-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone...

  19. Seemingly irrational driving behavior model: The effect of habit strength and anticipated affective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih

    2015-09-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that aberrant driving behaviors are not entirely rational. On the basis of the dual-process theory, this study postulates that drivers may learn to perform irrational aberrant driving behaviors, and these behaviors could be derived either from a deliberate or an intuitive decision-making approach. Accordingly, a seemingly irrational driving behavior model is proposed; in this model, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was adopted to represent the deliberate decision-making mechanism, and habit strength was incorporated to reflect the intuitive decision process. A multiple trivariate mediation structure was designed to reflect the process through which driving behaviors are learned. Anticipated affective reactions (AARs) were further included to examine the effect of affect on aberrant driving behaviors. Considering the example of speeding behaviors, this study developed scales and conducted a two-wave survey of students in two departments at a university in Northern Taiwan. The analysis results show that habit strength consists of multiple aspects, and frequency of past behavior cannot be a complete repository for accumulating habit strength. Habit strength appeared to be a crucial mediator between intention antecedents (e.g., attitude) and the intention itself. Including habit strength in the TPB model enhanced the explained variance of speeding intention by 26.7%. In addition, AARs were different from attitudes; particularly, young drivers tended to perform speeding behaviors to reduce negative feelings such as regret. The proposed model provides an effective alternative approach for investigating aberrant driving behaviors; corresponding countermeasures are discussed. PMID:26056969

  20. Effects of Eccentricity on the Dynamic Behavior for Electromechanical Integrated Toroidal Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In electromechanical integrated toroidal drive, eccentric center errors occur which has important influences on the dynamic behavior of the drive system. Here, the dynamic equations of the drive system with eccentric center are presented. Changes of the natural frequencies and vibrating modes along with eccentric center distance are analyzed. The forced responses of the drive system to eccentric center excitation are investigated. Results show that the eccentric center causes some natural frequencies to increase, and the other natural frequencies to drop. It also causes some vibrations to become weak, and the other vibrations to become strong. The eccentric center has more obvious effects on the dynamic behavior of the planets. The results are useful in design and manufacture of the drive systems.

  1. Insights from Smart Meters. Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors and Characteristics that drive savings in Behavior-Based Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pacific Gas & Electric, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sullivan, Michael [Nexant, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a behavior-based (BB) program. Specifically, we examine a Home Energy Report (HER) program. These programs typically obtain 1% to 3% annual savings, and recent studies have shown hourly savings of between 0.5% and 3%. But what is driving these savings? What types of households tend to be “high-savers”, and what behaviors are they adopting? There are several possibilities: one-time behaviors (e.g., changing thermostat settings); reoccurring habitual behaviors (e.g., turning off lights); and equipment purchase behaviors (e.g., energy efficient appliances), and these may vary across households, regions, and over time.

  2. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. PMID:26047833

  3. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable. PMID:25460097

  4. Volatile cues can drive the oviposition behavior in Odonata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Francesca; Piersanti, Silvana; Rebora, Manuela; Salerno, Gianandrea

    2016-01-01

    Selection for the oviposition site represents the criterion for the behavioral process of habitat selection for the next generation. It is well known that in Odonata the most general cues are detected visually, but laboratory investigations on the coenagrionid Ischnura elegans showed through behavioral and electrophysiological assays that adults were attracted by olfactory cues emitted by prey and that males of the same species are attracted by female odor. The results of the present behavioral and electrophysiological investigations on I. elegans suggest the involvement of antennal olfactory sensilla in oviposition behavior. In particular, I. elegans females laid in the laboratory significantly more eggs in water from larval rearing aquaria than in distilled or tap water. Moreover, the lack of preference between rearing water and tap water with plankton suggests a role of volatiles related to conspecific and plankton presence in the oviposition site choice. I. elegans may rely on food odor for oviposition site selection, thus supporting the predictions of the "mother knows best" theory. These behavioral data are partially supported by electroantennographic responses. These findings confirm a possible role of olfaction in crucial aspects of Odonata biology. PMID:27349728

  5. Ranging behavior drives parasite richness: A more parsimonious hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicca-Marques, Júlio César; Calegaro-Marques, Cláudia

    2016-09-01

    Parasitism is a ubiquitous interspecific interaction that may play an important role in the evolution of hosts and parasites, molding many aspects of their behavior and ecology. Detecting behavioral changes of hosts infected with parasites is not a straightforward task. Extrapolating from individual-level responses to group-level decision-making is still a much more complex challenge. The ranging behavior of hosts that live in social groups is a good example. Many hypotheses of the cause-effect relationship between this behavior and parasite diversity and load have been proposed. For instance, Brockmeyer et al. [2015, Am. J. Primatol. 77:1036-1048] recently suggested that the richness of protozoan parasites influences the daily path length of free-ranging mandrills. We believe that this explanation for the relationship contains several implicit assumptions. Therefore, we offer an alternative, more parsimonious hypothesis in which daily path length is the driver of parasite richness rather than its consequence. Our hypothesis only assumes that ranging farther exposes animals to a richer parasite diversity. We discuss the data required to test these alternative hypotheses and recall empirical evidence and theoretical modeling results supporting or rejecting their assumptions. We also propose a model of the expected outcomes in terms of species richness, load, intensity of infection, and within-group community similarity of non-lethal environmentally transmitted parasites in social animal groups showing distinct patterns of range use. Am. J. Primatol. 78:923-927, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27145909

  6. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  7. Driving behavior correction in human-vehicle interaction based on Dynamic Window Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yue; Alves De Lima, Danilo; Corrêa Victorino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the approach of an applicable safety driving methodology for human drivers with focus on human-vehicle interaction. The approach is based on Dynamic Window Approach (DWA) in cooperation with perception of the obstacles. The human driving behaviors are modelled for the design of controller, refined by referential paths using evasive trajectory model, where linear and angular velocities are limited and corrected by DWA which performed as an obstacle avoidance strategy. Resul...

  8. Raising healthy children: examining the impact of promoting healthy driving behavior within a social development intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kevin P; Fleming, Charles B; Catalano, Richard F; Harachi, Tracy W; Abbott, Robert D

    2006-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of two targeted family sessions focused on driving issues delivered within the context of the Raising Healthy Children project. The Raising Healthy Children project began in the fall of 1993, drawing students in the 1st or 2nd grades from 10 schools. Schools were assigned to an intervention or control condition, and the school-wide, family- and student-focused preventive intervention to address developmentally salient risk and protective factors was delivered during elementary and middle school. The family driving sessions were administered to families in the intervention condition prior to and after teenagers received their driver's license. The first session consisted of a home visit with families designed to help parents and their children improve decision-making skills concerning driving and to develop clear standards and expectations regarding driving-related behavior. A second session, at the time of licensure, was designed to help parents and teens develop a written contract that stated family expectations, a plan for monitoring compliance with these expectations, and consequences for compliance or non-compliance. Consistent with the study's group-randomized design, intervention effects were assessed with multi-level logistic regression models in which students were grouped by their original school assignment. These models assessed specific effects of the driving sessions by adjusting for control variables measured when students were in 8th grade, prior to the driving sessions. Results indicated that students in the intervention group were more likely than students in the control group to report that they had a written driving contract (p = .003, OR = 4.98), and had participated in making the driving rules in the family (p = .025, OR = 1.70). Further, students in the intervention group reported significantly fewer risky behaviors including driving under the influence of alcohol (p = .021, OR = .45) and driving with someone who

  9. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  10. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  11. Effects of fog, driver experience and gender on driving behavior on S-curved road segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wong, S C

    2015-04-01

    Driving on curved roads has been recognized as a significant safety issue for many years. However, driver behavior and the interactions among variables that affect driver performance on curves is complicated and not well understood. Previous studies have investigated various factors that influence driver performance on right- or left-turn curves, but have paid little attention to the effects of foggy weather, driver experience and gender on driver performance on complex curves. A driving simulator experiment was conducted in this study to evaluate the relationships between driving behavior on a continuous S-curve and foggy weather, driver experience and gender. The process of negotiating a curve was divided into three stages consisting of a straight segment, the transition from the straight segment to the S-curve and the S-curve. The experimental results indicated that drivers tended to drive more cautiously in heavy fog, but the driving risk was still increased, especially in the transition stage from the straight segment to the S-curve. The non-professional (NP) drivers were less sensitive to the impending change in the road geometry, and less skilled in both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control than the professional drivers. The NP female drivers in particular were found to be the most vulnerable group in S-curve driving. PMID:25700127

  12. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wenshuo Wang; Junqiang Xi; Huiyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics de...

  13. The learning of longitudinal human driving behavior and driver assistance strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Mark; Möbus, Claus; Tango, Fabio; Pietquin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience Models of the human driving behavior are essential for the rapid prototyping of error-compensating assistance systems. Various authors proposed control-theoretic and production-system models. Here we present machine-learning alternatives to train assistance systems and estimate probabilistic driver models from human behavior traces. We present a partially autonomous driver assistance system based on Markov Decision Processes. Its assistance strategies are trained fro...

  14. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  15. Mental health status, aggression, and poor driving distinguish traffic offenders from non-offenders but health status predicts driving behavior in both groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Alireza Esmaeili,5  Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,81International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, Iran; 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran; 5Police University, Tehran, Iran; 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran; 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, SwitzerlandBackground: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally, driver behavior rather than technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In a previous study, we showed that among young Iranian male traffic offenders, poor mental health status, along with aggression, predicted poor driving behavior. The aims of the present study were twofold, to determine whether this pattern could be replicated among non-traffic offenders, and to compare the mental health status, aggression, and driving behavior of male traffic offenders and non-offenders.Methods: A total of 850 male drivers (mean age =34.25 years, standard deviation =10.44 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Of these, 443 were offenders (52.1% and 407 (47.9% were non-offenders with lowest driving penalty scores applying for attaining an international driving license. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering socio-demographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior.Results: Compared to non-offenders, offenders reported higher aggression, poorer

  16. Youth Personality Factors as Predictors of Risky All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Driving Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, H A; Stoneman, Z

    2016-04-01

    Children and youth account for a disproportionately high number of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) related injuries and deaths. This study explored whether and how youth personality factors such as sensation seeking (including thrill seeking and behavioral intensity) and youth safety consciousness predict risky A TV riding behaviors. Survey information was collected from farm families in Georgia having youth who were active on farms. Data were analyzed from 104 youth between the ages 10 through 14 years who were active users ofATVs. Boys and girls had similar exposure to ATVs. Risky ATV riding behaviors were associated with age but not with gender. Boys and girls were equally likely to drive adult-sized ATVs, drive ATVs on public roads, drive ATVs fast, and carry extra passengers on single-seat ATVs. Boys had higher scores than girls on personality factors like thrill seeking and behavioral intensity. Hierarchical regression revealed that although there were multiple determinants of risky ATV riding behaviors of youth, thrill seeking appeared to be an important factor, which was moderated by safety consciousness. Youth who are low in thrill seeking and have a high level of safety consciousness reported less risky ATV riding behaviors. High thrill seekers were more likely to report indulging in risky ATV riding behaviors regardless of their level of safety consciousness. Our results suggest that personality traits (such as sensation seeking) of the target population should be considered when developing ATV safety interventions, as these traits will likely influence an intervention's level of success. Low thrill seekers would be prime candidates for safety training, as an increase in their safety consciousness may be more likely to result in decreased risky riding behaviors. High thrill seekers may be less amenable to training and will more likely require interventions external to the individual, including legislation, improved ATV safety design, use of crush protection

  17. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. PMID:21376850

  18. The Geography of Deterrence: Exploring the Small Area Effects of Sobriety Checkpoints on Alcohol-Impaired Collision Rates within a City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Samuel; Newby, William

    2011-01-01

    This article examines alcohol-impaired collision metrics around nine sobriety checkpoint locations in Indianapolis, Indiana, before and after implementation of 22 checkpoints, using a pre/post examination, a pre/post nonequivalent comparison group analysis, and an interrupted time series approach. Traffic safety officials used geographical…

  19. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau-Sabatés, Laura; Sala-Roca, Josefina; Jariot-Garcia, Mercè

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers' risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index. There were some differences in the specific risk factors. The variability observed in the speed and distraction and fatigue factors could also be explained by interpersonal and adaptability abilities. Nevertheless the tendency to take risks was explained by stress management and also interpersonal components. Emotional abilities have the weakest relation with alcohol and drugs factor, and in this case the variability observed was explained by the adaptability component. The results obtained highlight the importance take off including emotional abilities in prevention programs to reduce risky driving behaviors. PMID:22269574

  20. Validation of the Driver Stress Inventory in China: Relationship with dangerous driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Perceived stress while driving may affect how critical driving events are handled. The current study validates a Chinese version of the Driver Stress Inventory (DSI) and explores its correlation with dangerous driving behaviors and gender. A sample of 246 drivers completed the Chinese version of the DSI and the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). We also evaluated specific sociodemographic variables and traffic violations (including speeding, violating traffic signs or markings, driving while intoxicated, running a red light, and incurring penalty points). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) verified the DSI's internal structure. The DSI was also validated using questionnaires related to the DBQ, self-reported traffic accidents and violations, and sociodemographic characteristics. First, all of the DSI dimensions were moderately or weakly correlated with the DBQ subscales. Second, aggression, hazard monitoring and fatigue were weakly correlated with minor accidents. Third, drivers who had sped and violated traffic signs during the previous three years reported higher aggression and thrill seeking, while drivers who had violated traffic signs or markings during the previous three years reported decreased hazard monitoring compared with non-offenders. Finally, there were significant gender differences in driver stress. The Chinese version of the DSI will be useful for classifying and diagnosing drivers who may be at an increased risk for stress reactions. PMID:26642077

  1. Experiments and Simulation of Thermal Behaviors of the Dual-drive Servo Feed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; MEI Xuesong; FENG Bin; ZHAO Liang; MA Chi; SHI Hu

    2015-01-01

    The machine tool equipped with the dual-drive servo feed system could realize high feed speed as well as sharp precision. Currently, there is no report about the thermal behaviors of the dual-drive machine, and the current research of the thermal characteristics of machines mainly focuses on steady simulation. To explore the influence of thermal characterizations on the precision of a jib boring machine assembled dual-drive feed system, the thermal equilibrium tests and the research on thermal-mechanical transient behaviors are carried out. A laser interferometer, infrared thermography and a temperature-displacement acquisition system are applied to measure the temperature distribution and thermal deformation at different feed speeds. Subsequently, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the transient thermal behaviors of the boring machine. The complex boundary conditions, such as heat sources and convective heat transfer coefficient, are calculated. Finally, transient variances in temperatures and deformations are compared with the measured values, and the errors between the measurement and the simulation of the temperature and the thermal error are 2 ℃ and 2.5 μm, respectively. The researching results demonstrate that the FEM model can predict the thermal error and temperature distribution very well under specified operating condition. Moreover, the uneven temperature gradient is due to the asynchronous dual-drive structure that results in thermal deformation. Additionally, the positioning accuracy decreases as the measured point became further away from the motor, and the thermal error and equilibrium period both increase with feed speeds. The research proposes a systematical method to measure and simulate the boring machine transient thermal behaviors.

  2. The Effects of Driving Restrictions on Air Quality and Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Carnovale, Maria; GIBSON, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate whether driving restrictions improve air quality.  While Milan's restriction decreases overall air pollution, there is a significant behavioral response that attenuates the effect.  Our study expoits the natural experiment created by an unanticipated court injunction suspending Milan's restriction.  Drivers respond to the restriction with: 1) intertemporal substituion toward the unpriced period; 2) substitution toward exempt vehicles; and 3) spatial substitution toward unpriced ro...

  3. The Role of Personality and Attitudes in Predicting Risky Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Increasing support for the relationship between road traffic violations and accident liability led to research focusing on the determinants of risky driving. In psychology, more recently, a new approach, which is integrating traditional personality trait approach and social cognition approach, has been applied to understand the mechanisms underlying people’s risk-taking behavior in traffic. Following such approach, this study was aimed at measuring personality traits, specific attitudes towar...

  4. Driving Behavior Analysis with Smartphones: Insights from a Controlled Field Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Kehr, Flavius; Zhai, Yudan; Michahelles, Florian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate a mobile application that assesses driving behavior based on in-vehicle acceleration measurements and gives corresponding feedback to drivers. In the insurance business, such applications have recently gained traction as a viable alternative to the monitoring of drivers via "black boxes" installed in vehicles, which lacks interaction opportunities and is perceived as privacy intrusive by policyholders. However, pose uncertainty and other noise-inducing factors make smartphones pot...

  5. Behind the Wheel and on the Map: Genetic and Environmental Associations between Drunk Driving and Other Externalizing Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined three conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidenc...

  6. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: A two-wave panel study

    OpenAIRE

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predictin...

  7. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  8. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms. PMID:26784203

  9. Drivers' Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers' visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers' visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers' visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms. PMID:26784203

  10. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics derived from the driver model are embedded into the advanced driver assistance systems, and the evaluation and verification of vehicle systems based on the driver model are described.

  11. Videosensor for the detection of unsafe driving behavior in the proximity of black spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Andres; Fuentes, Ricardo; Cabello, Enrique; Conde, Cristina; Martin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work. PMID:25347580

  12. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work.

  13. Iranian Version of Manchester Driving Behavior ‎Questionnaire (MDBQ: Psychometric ‎Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi‎

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since the study of driving behavior is of great importance, we conducted this research to ‎investigate the psychometric properties and the factorial structure of the Manchester Driver ‎Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ in Iranian drivers.‎Method: This cross – sectional research was performed on a sample of 800 drivers (of category D and ‎C aged 23- 75 who were referred to Imam Sajjad Centre for drug Addiction Diagnosis. ‎Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, a demographic questionnaire, were ‎conducted to the sample. To analyze data, we used factor analysis, internal consistency ‎‎(Cronbach's’α, split half, and test-retest using SPSS18 Software.‎Results: As a result of reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis by principal component and Varimax rotation, we extracted six factors (willful violations, unintentional errors, advertent errors, deliberate mistakes, unintentional violation, and unintentional mistakes, respectively. The factors reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.75. The test-retest correlations of the DBQ and split- half reliability were 0.56 and 0.77, respectively.Conclusion: The results revealed that the Persian version of the DBQ in category D and C drivers is a ‎valid and reliable tool to assess driving behaviors in Iranian drivers.‎

  14. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population. PMID:27180286

  15. The Predictive Influence of Youth Assets on Drinking and Driving Behaviors in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegerich, Tamara M; Shults, Ruth A; Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K

    2016-06-01

    Drinking and driving among adolescents and young adults remains a significant public health burden. Etiological research is needed to inform the development and selection of preventive interventions that might reduce alcohol-involved crashes and their tragic consequences. Youth assets-that is, skills, competencies, relationships, and opportunities-can help youth overcome challenges, successfully transition into adulthood, and reduce problem behavior. We examined the predictive influence of individual, relationship, and community assets on drinking and driving (DD) and riding with a drinking driver (RDD). We assessed prospective relationships through analysis of data from the Youth Assets Study, a community-based longitudinal study of socio-demographically diverse youth. Results from calculation of marginal models using a Generalized Estimating Equation approach revealed that parent and peer relationship and school connectedness assets reduced the likelihood of both drinking and driving and riding with a drinking driver approximately 1 year later. The most important and consistent asset that influenced DD and RDD over time was parental monitoring, highlighting the role of parental influence extending beyond the immediate teen driving context into young adulthood. Parenting-focused interventions could influence factors that place youth at risk for injury from DD to RDD, complementing other evidence-based strategies such as school-based instructional programs and zero tolerance Blood Alcohol Concentration laws for young and inexperienced drivers. PMID:26779910

  16. Personality and Driving Behavior. The Role of Extraversion and Neuroticism in Drivers' Behavior Toward Bicyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling is associated with a variety of personal and societal benefits and it is an important political agenda to increase the number of bicyclists on the roads. However, bicyclists are vulnerable to aggressive traffic behavior and harassment from drivers, and bicyclists' safety concerns stand out as a barrier against increased bicycling. Even so, research on mechanisms underlying drivers' behavior toward bicyclists is scarce. The present study aimed at exploring the relationship between pe...

  17. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  18. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2013-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among...

  19. Investigating both ends of the driver age spectrum: assessment of driving behavior and evaluation of traffic safety interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenen, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate both ends of the driver age spectrum (i.e., both older and younger drivers). Regarding older drivers, the aim was to investigate driving behavior under neutral and distracting circumstances by investigating specific driving measures and the role of functional abilities in driving. Regarding both older and younger drivers, the aim was to investigate the immediate and extended effects of traffic safety interventions on (socio-cognitive determin...

  20. The contribution of family climate for road safety and social environment to the reported driving behavior of young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Katz-Ben-Ami, Liat

    2012-07-01

    Two studies examined the contribution of the new concept of "family climate for road safety" and several aspects of the social environment to the driving behavior of young drivers. Study 1 (n=120) investigated the effect of the seven dimensions of the family climate for road safety - Modeling, Feedback, Communication, Monitoring, Noncommitment, Messages, and Limits - as well as a general tendency to conform to authority, and peer pressure. Study 2 (n=154) examined the dimensions of family climate for road safety and perceived popularity of reckless driving among peers. The findings indicate associations both between the familial and the social aspects, and between these variables and driving styles, willingness to take risks while driving, reckless driving habits, and personal commitment to safe driving. Positive aspects of the parent-child relationship and high levels of conformity to authority were related to greater endorsement of the careful driving style, whereas family's noncommitment to safety, higher peer pressure, and lower conformity to authority were associated with greater endorsement of the reckless driving style. In addition, positive aspects of the family climate for road safety and lower perceived popularity of reckless driving among friends were associated with more personal commitment to safe driving and a lower tendency for risky driving. The discussion stresses the need to look at the complex set of antecedents of reckless driving among young drivers and addresses the practical implications of the findings for road safety. PMID:22405232

  1. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  2. Matrix quality and disturbance frequency drive evolution of species behavior at habitat boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amanda E; Fahrig, Lenore

    2015-12-01

    Previous theoretical studies suggest that a species' landscape should influence the evolution of its dispersal characteristics, because landscape structure affects the costs and benefits of dispersal. However, these studies have not considered the evolution of boundary crossing, that is, the tendency of animals to cross from habitat to nonhabitat ("matrix"). It is important to understand this dispersal behavior, because of its effects on the probability of population persistence. Boundary-crossing behavior drives the rate of interaction with matrix, and thus, it influences the rate of movement among populations and the risk of dispersal mortality. We used an individual-based, spatially explicit model to simulate the evolution of boundary crossing in response to landscape structure. Our simulations predict higher evolved probabilities of boundary crossing in landscapes with more habitat, less fragmented habitat, higher-quality matrix, and more frequent disturbances (i.e., fewer generations between local population extinction events). Unexpectedly, our simulations also suggest that matrix quality and disturbance frequency have much stronger effects on the evolution of boundary crossing than either habitat amount or habitat fragmentation. Our results suggest that boundary-crossing responses are most affected by the costs of dispersal through matrix and the benefits of escaping local extinction events. Evolution of optimal behavior at habitat boundaries in response to the landscape may have implications for species in human-altered landscapes, because this behavior may become suboptimal if the landscape changes faster than the species' evolutionary response to that change. Understanding how matrix quality and habitat disturbance drive evolution of behavior at boundaries, and how this in turn influences the extinction risk of species in human-altered landscapes should help us identify species of conservation concern and target them for management. PMID:26811754

  3. Study on the Behavior of Solar Array Deployment with Root Hinge Drive Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xilun; LI Xin; XU Kun; YANG Qiaolong; PU Hailing

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a method of using a root hinge drive assembly (RHDA) to control the solar array deployment is provided and a multi-DOF mechanism dynamic model of the system is established.In this way,the root hinge torque can be calculated iteratively.Then taking the predicted torque as a reference,a RHDA is designed for a large multiple-stage packaging and deployable solar array system.The control effect of the drive assembly is validated by ground tests.The test results indicate that the solar arrays can be deployed smoothly,and the deployment velocities are restricted by the drive assembly as expected.During the tests,the RHDA output speed and output torque are obtained.In order to examine the impact force when the yoke is lock-up with a hard stop,dynamics simulations are performed according to the actual behavior.The simulation result indicates that the designed RHDA reduces the impact force significantly and improves the lock-up reliability effectively.

  4. Evacuation plan of the city of almere: simulating the impact of driving behavior on evacuation clearance time

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, H.; Tamminga, G.F.; De Wit, J.; Berg, W

    2010-01-01

    The evacuation clearance time is one of the key indicators in an evacuation plan and is determined by the expected behavior of the endangered residents and roadway network characteristics. The city of Almere has developed an evacuation plan in case of the emergency of a flooding, but assumes a normal driving behavior of the evacuees. In this paper a microscopic S-Paramics simulation framework in an evacuation condition is set up to assess the impact of variations in driving behavior on the ev...

  5. Reducing Risky Driving Behavior: The Impact of an Adolescent Driver Intervention Program With and Without Mandatory Parental Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States is a vehicle-dependent society and allows adolescents to obtain driver’s licenses at age 16 or younger. This study examined the impacts of a driver intervention program on reducing risky driving behaviors among youths who had received their first traffic citation, as well as parental management of driving practices. Participants consisted of 243 youths ages 16 and 17 who were court-ordered to attend the Ohio 4-H CARTEENS (CAR = Caution and Responsibility and TEENS = Teens who volunteer as teachers program with and without parents. Results indicated that risky driving behavior decreased significantly for both groups after the intervention program. Parental management practices, however, increased only for youths attending without parents. Regression analysis indicated that risky driving behavior at Time 1 and levels of parental management (parental control at Time 2 predicted risky driving behavior after completion of the program. Implications of this study include the importance of adolescent driver intervention and prevention programs to teach youths about unsafe driving practices before licensure.

  6. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. PMID:26745271

  7. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Xiong; Bao, S.; Kato, K.; SAYER, J

    2014-01-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realis...

  8. Simulation-based Estimation of Thermal Behavior of Direct Feed Drive Mechanism with Updated Finite Element Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiankun; LI Yanjun; LI Haolin

    2014-01-01

    Linear motors generate high heat and cause significant deformation in high speed direct feed drive mechanisms. It is relevant to estimate their deformation behavior to improve their application in precision machine tools. This paper describes a method to estimate its thermal deformation based on updated finite element(FE) model methods. Firstly, a FE model is established for a linear motor drive test rig that includes the correlation between temperature rise and its resulting deformation. The relationship between the input and output variables of the FE model is identified with a modified multivariate input/output least square support vector regression machine. Additionally, the temperature rise and displacements at some critical points on the mechanism are obtained experimentally by a system of thermocouples and an interferometer. The FE model is updated through intelligent comparison between the experimentally measured values and the results from the regression machine. The experiments for testing thermal behavior along with the updated FE model simulations is conducted on the test rig in reciprocating cycle drive conditions. The results show that the intelligently updated FE model can be implemented to analyze the temperature variation distribution of the mechanism and to estimate its thermal behavior. The accuracy of the thermal behavior estimation with the optimally updated method can be more than double that of the initial theoretical FE model. This paper provides a simulation method that is effective to estimate the thermal behavior of the direct feed drive mechanism with high accuracy.

  9. Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop Regulation at Railway Crossings

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihisa Sato; Motoyuki Akamatsu; Toru Shibata; Shingo Matsumoto; Naoki Hatakeyama; Kazunori Hayama

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicti...

  10. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  11. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessye Almeida Cantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. For this reason, the use of psychometric instruments is fundamental to advancing research in this area. Psychometric instruments are also necessary for clinical care, as they can help conceptualize the disorder and plan adequate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS. Methods: The process consisted of: 1 two translations and back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; 2 development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health; 3 experimental application; and 4 investigation of operational equivalence. RESULTS: The adaptation process is described and a final Brazilian version of the DBS is presented. CONCLUSION: A new instrument is now available to assess the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, facilitating research in this field.

  12. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  13. Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived obesity threats, social support, and college students' eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that perceived vulnerability to obesity negatively predicted healthy eating behavior. In addition, the perceived severity of obesity-related health problems positively predicted women's drive for thinness. Social support played a significant role in explaining health behaviors. Specifically, appraisal by others indirectly predicted college students' healthy eating behavior through increased self-efficacy. Among women, informational support moderated the relationships between both vulnerability and severity on healthy eating behavior. At low levels of support, vulnerability and severity negatively predicted students' healthy eating behavior. Overall, results suggest that messages designed to increase perceived vulnerability and severity may be detrimental when trying to improve people's dietary habits; however, among women certain types of social support may buffer the defensive responses resulting from obesity threats. PMID:20183382

  14. Analysis of the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow based on a modified CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Mei-Ying; Shi, Jing; Liu, Yang

    2016-09-01

    As the global population ages, there are more and more older drivers on the road. The decline in driving performance of older drivers may influence the properties of traffic flow and safety. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of older drivers’ driving behaviors on traffic flow. A modified cellular automaton (CA) model which takes driving behaviors of older drivers into account is proposed. The simulation results indicate that older drivers’ driving behaviors induce a reduction in traffic flow especially when the density is higher than 15 vehicles per km per lane and an increase in Lane-changing frequency. The analysis of stability shows that a number of disturbances could frequently emerge, be propagated and eventually dissipate in this modified model. The results also reflect that with the increase of older drivers on the road, the probability of the occurrence of rear-end collisions increases greatly and obviously. Furthermore, the value of acceleration influences the traffic flow and safety significantly. These results provide the theoretical basis and reference for the traffic management departments to develop traffic management measure in the aging society.

  15. Reducing Risky Driving Behavior: The Impact of an Adolescent Driver Intervention Program With and Without Mandatory Parental Attendance

    OpenAIRE

    James L. Jordan; Kristi S. Lekies; Scott D. Scheer

    2015-01-01

    The United States is a vehicle-dependent society and allows adolescents to obtain driver’s licenses at age 16 or younger. This study examined the impacts of a driver intervention program on reducing risky driving behaviors among youths who had received their first traffic citation, as well as parental management of driving practices. Participants consisted of 243 youths ages 16 and 17 who were court-ordered to attend the Ohio 4-H CARTEENS (CAR = Caution and Responsibility and TEENS = Teens wh...

  16. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  17. Emotional abilities as predictors of risky driving behavior among a cohort of middle aged drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Sabatés, Laura; Sala Roca, Josefina; Jariot, Mercè

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between emotional abilities and the influence of this relationship on self reported drivers’ risky attitudes. The risky driving attitudes and emotional abilities of 177 future driving instructors were measured. The results demonstrate that risky attitudes correlate negatively with emotional abilities. Regression analysis showed that adaptability and interpersonal abilities explained the differences observed in the global risk attitude index...

  18. Use of mobile phones in the behavioral treatment of driving phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, T M; Taylor, P; Pollard, C A

    1992-12-01

    Results of two case studies are presented to illustrate the use of mobile phones with in vivo exposure treatment of refractory driving phobias. Number of miles driven and subjective ratings of anxiety were recorded during a baseline phase and 8 weeks of treatment involving a total of 24 driving practices. One subject's use of a mobile phone increased the number of miles driven alone, but the second subject made little progress and regressed following removal of the phone. These two cases and our experience with other patients suggest that mobile phones can benefit many individuals whose therapeutic progress is impeded by a fear of driving alone, but that phones are counterproductive for certain patients. The potential benefits and disadvantages of using mobile phones are discussed. PMID:1363820

  19. A new car-following model with the consideration of incorporating timid and aggressive driving behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan; He, Hongdi; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new car-following model is proposed with the consideration of the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors on single lane. The linear stability condition with the incorporating timid and aggressive behaviors term is obtained. Numerical simulation indicates that the new car-following model can estimate proper delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density by considering the incorporating the timid and aggressive behaviors. The results also show that the aggressive behavior can improve traffic flow while the timid behavior deteriorates traffic stability, which means that the aggressive behavior is better than timid behavior since the aggressive driver makes rapid response to the variation of the velocity of the leading car. Snapshot of the velocities also shows that the new model can approach approximation to a wide moving jam.

  20. Driver Gaze Behavior Is Different in Normal Curve Driving and when Looking at the Tangent Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Itkonen

    Full Text Available Several steering models in the visual science literature attempt to capture the visual strategies in curve driving. Some of them are based on steering points on the future path (FP, others on tangent points (TP. It is, however, challenging to differentiate between the models' predictions in real-world contexts. Analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN parameters is one useful measure, as the different strategies predict measurably different OKN patterns. Here, we directly test this prediction by asking drivers to either a "drive as they normally would" or b to "look at the TP". The design of the experiment is similar to a previous study by Kandil et al., but uses more sophisticated methods of eye-movement analysis. We find that the eye-movement patterns in the "normal" condition are indeed markedly different from the "tp" condition, and consistent with drivers looking at waypoints on the future path. This is the case for both overall fixation distribution, as well as the more informative fixation-by-fixation analysis of OKN. We find that the horizontal gaze speed during OKN corresponds well to the quantitative prediction of the future path models. The results also definitively rule out the alternative explanation that the OKN is produced by an involuntary reflex even while the driver is "trying" to look at the TP. The results are discussed in terms of the sequential organization of curve driving.

  1. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Past Behavior, Situational Factors, and Self-Identity Factors Drive Indonesian Enterpreneurs to Be Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the factors affecting borrowing intention among young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. About 100 questionnaires were accepted and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM in determining the relationships. The results show that borrowing intention amongst young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community is influenced by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, self identity, situational temptation, and past behavior. The young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community believe that they have complete control of their behavior in borrowing as they perceived to be equipped with the knowledge about the personal financing. In addition, because of their experience in students’ loans since undergraduates’ level, the result explains why situational temptation were found to be a significant predictor. The findings offer implications for researchers and government.

  2. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach’s alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson’s correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  3. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  4. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions. PMID:22749319

  5. The detrimental danger of water-pipe (Hookah transcends the hazardous consequences of general health to the driving behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Wafa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine whether the consumption of tobacco used in Water-Pipe by drivers increases the risk of a motor vehicle collision as a consequence of hypoxia. Design Analytical case–control study. Data sources Seventy exclusive Water-Pipe smokers (Experimental Group - EG - mean age ± SD: 29.47 ± 10.45 years; mean number of weekly WPS, (6.9 ± 3.7; mean duration of WPS (WPS is (7.5 ± 2.1 years - and thirty non-smoker (Control Group – CG; mean age ± SD: 36.33 ± 13.92 years were recruited during 2011 from two Arab villages located in the Galilee, northern Israel. Methods We performed a case–control study exclusively among Water-Pipe smokers with an appropriate non smokers control group. Demographic questionnaire, Pulse Oxymeter for blood oxygenation measure and a driver simulator for measuring various participants driving behaviors were utilized. Statistical analysis for analyzing the different variables, Pearson’s x2 analysis for the comparison of categorical variables, continuous variable is compared using Student’s t-test and for testing the correlation between the different variables and bivariate correlation analysis were applied. Results In the (EG following WPS, we observed increase in the pulse rate - from 80 to 95 (t = 11.84, p  Conclusion The results show that WPS has a significant impact on driving behavior and on the risk of being involved in road accidents and causing driving to become riskier and less careful and stable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such relationships have been tested. After WPS the total number of traffic accidents and driving violations increase. The results show a significant increase in the pulse rate immediately after WPS with a decrease in the saturation rate (the level of blood oxygenation; these changes continue half an hour after WPS.

  6. Calculation of slip energy recovery induction motor drive behavior using the equivalent circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, P. (Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Refoufi, L. (Inst. National D' Electricite et d' Electronique, Boumerdes (Algeria))

    A transformer-type equivalent circuit model for the calculation of the steady state performance of a slip energy recovery induction motor drive with a step down chopper in the dc link is described. Experimental data of rms currents, power, reactive power and overall efficiency satisfactorily correlate with calculations over most of the operating speed range. Also, detailed calculations of rotor, stator and supply harmonic currents due to the rectifier and inverter actions are performed using the conventional version of the equivalent circuit. The computed and measured instantaneous current waveforms show satisfactory agreement except at a slip of 1/6 where significant deviations appear. This effect is adequately catered for by using a more rigorous model.

  7. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five g

  8. Dynamic behavioral fingerprinting': What drives the deployment of environmental information and communication capabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.; Haverkamp, D.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of organizational drivers for the implementation of business process and network information and communication capabilities (ICCs) supporting cleaner production in the Dutch food and beverage industry. We do so with the intention to promote `dynamic behavioral fi

  9. A Review on Driving Behavior Models%驾驶行为模型的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段冀阳; 李志忠

    2012-01-01

    驾驶员行为模型的研究对于预测和干预驾驶员的风险行为、设计相关的道路安全设施与车内设备,以及制定交通法律法规等具有重要的意义.为了解和掌握学术界关于驾驶行为模型的研究进展,搜集、筛选和归纳了1960-2010年被SCI数据库索引的相关文章,将驾驶行为模型分类为描述性模型、信息处理模型、动机模型、计划行为理论(TPB)和躯体标识假设,并对每种模型进行评述和总结,理清这些模型间的内在联系.研究发现,现有各模型只是从某个角度研究驾驶员行为的部分特征,而不能解释驾驶员的全部行为.今后应不断完善和整合各类模型,并借鉴心理学、生理学和行为科学等相关领域的理论、知识,使驾驶行为模型变得更为实用、有效.%The research on driving behavior models could be useful for the prediction and intervention of risky behavior of drivers, the design of road facilities and in-vehicle equipment, and the improvement of traffic regulations. Relevant articles indexed by Web of Science from 1960 to 2010 were collected for the review of the development of driver behavior models, including descriptive models, information processing models, motivational models, TPB model and Somatic marker hypothesis. Summary and comments were given to those models which were widely cited, along with the internal relationships among these models. It is concluded that each of these models can only partly explain driving behaviors, thus much effort should be spent on their continuous improvement, integration, and the introduction of new findings from psychology , physiology, behavior science, and other related disciplines, so that they would become more practical and effective.

  10. Lattice hydrodynamic modeling of two-lane traffic flow with timid and aggressive driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new two-lane lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model is proposed by considering the aggressive or timid characteristics of driver's behavior. The effect of driver's characteristic on the stability of traffic flow is examined through linear stability analysis. It is shown that for both the cases of lane changing or without lane changing the stability region significantly enlarges (reduces) as the proportion of aggressive (timid) drivers increases. To describe the propagation behavior of a density wave near the critical point, nonlinear analysis is conducted and mKdV equation representing kink-antikink soliton is derived. The effect of anticipation parameter with more aggressive (timid) drivers is also investigated and found that it has a positive (negative) effect on the stability of two-lane traffic flow dynamics. Simulation results are found consistent with the theoretical findings which confirm that the driver's characteristics play a significant role in a two-lane traffic system.

  11. Estimating direction in brain-behavior interactions: Proactive and reactive brain states in driving

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Javier O.; Brooks, Justin; Kerick, Scott; Johnson, Tony,; Mullen, Tim; Vettel, Jean M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional neuroimaging analyses have revealed the computational specificity of localized brain regions, exploiting the power of the subtraction technique in fMRI and event-related potential analyses in EEG. Moving beyond this convention, many researchers have begun exploring network-based neurodynamics and coordination between brain regions as a function of behavioral parameters or environmental statistics; however, most approaches average evoked activity across the experimental session to...

  12. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation se...

  13. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas;

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation....

  14. Can differences in host behavior drive patterns of disease prevalence in tadpoles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Venesky

    Full Text Available Differences in host behavior and resistance to disease can influence the outcome of host-pathogen interactions. We capitalized on the variation in aggregation behavior of Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] fowleri and grey treefrogs (Hyla versicolor tadpoles and tested for differences in transmission of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd and host-specific fitness consequences (i.e., life history traits that imply fitness of infection in single-species amphibian mesocosms. On average, A. fowleri mesocosms supported higher Bd prevalences and infection intensities relative to H. versicolor mesocosms. Higher Bd prevalence in A. fowleri mesocosms may result, in part, from higher intraspecific transmission due to the aggregation of tadpoles raised in Bd treatments. We also found that, independent of species, tadpoles raised in the presence of Bd were smaller and less developed than tadpoles raised in disease-free conditions. Our results indicate that aggregation behavior might increase Bd prevalence and that A. fowleri tadpoles carry heavier infections relative to H. versicolor tadpoles. However, our results demonstrate that Bd appears to negatively impact larval growth and developmental rates of A. fowleri and H. versicolor similarly, even in the absence of high Bd prevalence.

  15. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; BRIJS, Kris; Ruiter, Rob; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie'...

  16. Snowmelt induced hydrologic perturbations drive dynamic microbiological and geochemical behaviors across a shallow riparian aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danczak, Robert; Yabusaki, Steven; Williams, Kenneth; Fang, Yilin; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments.

  17. Inhibition drives configural superiority of illusory Gestalt: Combined behavioral and drift-diffusion model evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qi-Yang; Maurer, Mara; Müller, Hermann J; Conci, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Illusory Kanizsa figures demonstrate that a perceptually completed whole is more than the sum of its composite parts. In the current study, we explored part/whole relationships in object completion using the configural superiority effect (CSE) with illusory figures (Pomerantz & Portillo, 2011). In particular, we investigated to which extent the CSE is modulated by closure in target and distractor configurations. Our results demonstrated a typical CSE, with detection of a configural whole being more efficient than the detection of a corresponding part-level target. Moreover, the CSE was more pronounced when grouped objects were presented in distractors rather than in the target. A follow-up experiment systematically manipulated closure in whole target or, respectively, distractor configurations. The results revealed the effect of closure to be again stronger in distractor, rather than in target configurations, suggesting that closure primarily affects the inhibition of distractors, and to a lesser extent the selection of the target. In addition, a drift-diffusion model analysis of our data revealed that efficient distractor inhibition expedites the rate of evidence accumulation, with closure in distractors particularly speeding the drift toward the decision boundary. In sum, our findings demonstrate that the CSE in Kanizsa figures derives primarily from the inhibition of closed distractor objects, rather than being driven by a conspicuous target configuration. Altogether, these results support a fundamental role of inhibition in driving configural superiority effects in visual search. PMID:26896900

  18. Reading Text While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yulan; Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone)...

  19. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, A.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 血液酒精浓度对驾驶行为的影响研究%Effect of Blood Alcohol Concentration on Driving Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欣婷

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨饮酒对驾驶员驾驶行为的影响,以驾驶模拟器为平台,测试了13名驾驶人员在不同血液酒精浓度(0mg/dl,20mg/dl,50 mg/dl,80 mg/dl)、不同场景下加速、刹车情况并调查了其主观感受。进行数据分析后初步得到一些结论:饮酒(特别是在较高血液酒精浓度的情况下)确实会对驾驶行为产生影响并可能会导致某些危险驾驶行为;性别和驾驶经验也会对不同酒精浓度下的驾驶行为产生影响。%In order to investigate the impact of alcohol on the driving behavior, 13 different drivers′driv⁃ing behaviors, such as acceleration and braking, were tested under different blood alcohol concentration (0mg/dl、20mg/dl、50 mg/dl、80 mg/dl)and different scenarios based on driving simulator. The drivers′subjective feelings were also investigated. Results show that drunk driving, especially under high BAC, has an impact on driving behavior and may cause some dangerous driving behavior;gender and driving ex⁃perience also have an impact on driving behavior under different blood alcohol concentration.

  1. Abnormal driving behavior detection based on the smart phone%智能手机车辆异常驾驶行为检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周后飞; 刘华平; 石红星

    2016-01-01

    Using the smart phone as a tool for detecting abnormal driving behavior, this paper designs an abnormal driving behavior detection method and a practical system. First, the system obtains data from the acceleration, mag⁃netic, and gyroscope sensors of an on⁃board smart phone. Then, through coordinate rotation, feature extraction, and an online driving behavior analysis algorithm, which is based on the kernel extreme learning machine ( ELM) algorithm, the system identifies real⁃time abnormal driving behavior, including frequent lane⁃changing, frequent speed⁃changing, and emergency braking. It then sets off an alarm when abnormal driving behavior has been identi⁃fied. Test results indicate that the driving behavior classifier, which is based on the kernel ELM algorithm, performs better than the support vector machine algorithm. In addition, the proposed abnormal driving behavior detection sys⁃tem can effectively identify various driving behaviors.%将智能手机作为车辆异常驾驶行为检测工具,设计了一种车辆异常驾驶行为检测方法和系统。系统通过获取车载智能手机内部的加速度传感器数据、陀螺仪传感器数据以及磁场传感器数据,经坐标旋转和特征提取,并利用基于核方法极限学习机(核ELM)得到的驾驶行为在线分析算法,以实现能实时识别包括频繁变道、频繁变速及急刹车在内的多种车辆异常驾驶行为,并在车辆出现异常驾驶行为时开启报警语音。测试结果表明,基于核ELM算法的驾驶行为分类器性能比基于支持向量机( SVM )算法更好,提出的异常驾驶行为检测系统能有效识别各种驾驶行为。

  2. On the molecular mechanisms driving pain perception and emergent collective behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Patti, F.; Fanelli, D.

    2010-05-01

    A stochastic model to investigate the microscopic processes which trigger the sensation of pain is considered. The model, presented in Di Patti and Fanelli [Di Patti F, Fanelli D. Can a microscopic stochastic model explain the emergence of pain cycles in patients? J Stat Mech 2009. doi:10.1088/1742-5468/2009/01/P01004], accounts for the action of analgesic drug and introduces an effect of competition with the inactive species populating the bloodstream. Regular oscillations in the amount of bound receptors are detected, following a resonant amplification of the stochastic component intrinsic to the system. The condition for such oscillations to occur are here studied, resorting to combined numerical and analytical techniques. Extended and connected patches of the admissible parameters space are detected which do correspond to the oscillatory behaviors. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing literature on patients' response to the analgesic treatment.

  3. Social behavior drives the dynamics of respiratory disease in threatened tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Lori D; Wooding, John; White, C LeAnn; Demcovitz, Dina; Littell, Ramon; Berish, Joan Diemer; Ozgul, Arpat; Oli, Madan K; Klein, Paul A; Christman, Mary C; Brown, Mary B

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, morbidity and mortality in tortoise populations have been associated with a transmissible, mycoplasmal upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). Although the etiology, transmission, and diagnosis of URTD have been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of disease transmission in free-ranging tortoise populations. To understand the transmission dynamics of Mycoplasma agassizii, the primary etiological agent of URTD in wild tortoise populations, we studied 11 populations of free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus; n = 1667 individuals) over five years and determined their exposure to the pathogen by serology, by clinical signs, and by detection of the pathogen in nasal lavages. Adults tortoises (n = 759) were 11 times more likely to be seropositive than immature animals (n = 242) (odds ratio = 10.6, 95% CI = 5.7-20, P tortoises as compared with 8.6% (120/1399) of adult tortoises. Nasal lavages from all juvenile tortoises (n = 283) were negative by PCR for mycoplasmal pathogens associated with URTD. We tested for spatial segregation among tortoise burrows by size class and found no consistent evidence of clustering of either juveniles or adults. We suggest that the social behavior of tortoises plays a critical role in the spread of URTD in wild populations, with immature tortoises having minimal interactions with adult tortoises, thereby limiting their exposure to the pathogen. These findings may have broader implications for modeling horizontally transmitted diseases in other species with limited parental care and emphasize the importance of incorporating animal behavior parameters into disease transmission studies to better characterize the host-pathogen dynamics. PMID:20503858

  4. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  5. Predicting Driver Behavior Using Field Experiment Data and Driving Simulator Experiment Data: Assessing Impact of Elimination of Stop Regulation at Railway Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihisa Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of deregulating the presence of stop signs at railway crossings on car driver behavior. We estimated the probability that a driver would stop inside the crossing, thereby obstructing the tracks, when a lead vehicle suddenly stopped after the crossing and a stop regulation was eliminated. We proposed a new assessment method of the driving behavior as follows: first, collecting driving behavior data in a driving simulator and in a real road environment; then, predicting the probability based on the collected data. In the simulator experiment, we measured the distances between a lead vehicle and the driver’s vehicle and the driver’s response time to the deceleration of the leading vehicle when entering the railway crossing. We investigated the influence of the presence of two leading vehicles on the driver’s vehicle movements. The deceleration data were recorded in the field experiments. Slower driving speed led to a higher probability of stopping inside the railway crossing. The probability was higher when the vehicle in front of the leading vehicle did not slow down than when both the lead vehicle and the vehicle in front of it slowed down. Finally, advantages of our new assessment method were discussed.

  6. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  7. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This 60 second PSA is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  8. Relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers%汽车驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为和事故的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦章; 贾杰; 尹莲; 唐勤

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶员应对方式与驾驶行为、事故的关系.方法 采用简单随机抽样方法,抽取347名驾驶员进行应对方式问卷、驾驶行为问卷的调查.结果 (1)除回避性应对与驾驶行为相关不显著外,对抗性应对、情绪性应对与驾驶行为有显著正相关( r=0.18~0.56,P<0.01);积极评估应对与驾驶行为有显著负相关(r=-0.34~-0.41,P<0.01).(2)积极评估应对、对抗性应对和情绪性应对对错误行为和疏忽行为均有显著的预测作用,解释率分别为33.5%和23.5%.对抗性应对和积极评估应对对超速及违规行为有显著预测作用,解释率为40.2%.(3)在轻微事故和一般事故中,事故驾驶员和安全驾驶员均在对抗性应对上差异有统计学意义(t=-2.75;2.80,P<0.01).结论 驾驶员应对方式是影响驾驶行为和事故安全的重要因素.%Objective To explore the relationships of driving coping styles with driving behaviors and road accidents of drivers.Methods Three hundreds and thirty-seven drivers were randomly surveyed by Driving Coping Questionnaire ( DCQ),Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ).Results ( 1 ) Except avoidance coping style,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping were correlated positively with the three driving behaviors ( r =0.18 ~ 0.56,P < 0.01 ),and positive appraisal coping had negatively correlations with them (( r =-0.34 ~-0.41,P<0.01 ).(2)Positive appraisal coping,confrontive coping and emotion-focused coping could predict 33.5% of error behaviors and 23.5% of slip behaviors.And confrontive coping and positive appraisal coping could predict 40.2% of speeding and violation behaviors.(3) Compared with safety drivers,accident drivers had significantly differences in confrontive coping in mild and moderate crashes( t=-2.75,2.80,P< 0.01 ).Conclusion Driving coping styles are the important factors influencing drivers' behaviors and road safety.

  9. Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Huang, Yanlan; Pressley, Joyce C.

    2016-01-01

    Background While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. Methods The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008–2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger v...

  10. Impact of subjective factors on driver vigilance : a driving simulator study, In : Driver behavior and training Vol 3

    OpenAIRE

    Vrignon, J.; RAKOTONIRAINY, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of subjective factors on driver's vigilance, using the driver's psychomotor performances assessed using an unobtrusive Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). We first described our experiment, with the design of the scenario used on a driving simulator, and the designed of a nonobtrusive Psychomotor Vigilance Test enabling to assess performance of the driver while driving. Then, the impact of subjective factors reported by participants is analysed with ANOVA. Fin...

  11. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus;

    2016-01-01

    drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial...... with respect to both transconductance and on/off ratio. We achieve high currents of up to 45mA at a temperature of 80 C with an on/ off ratio of 100 which is sufficient to drive large area organic electronics such as an EC device powered by OPV devices that we also demonstrate. Finally, we observe a...

  12. The relationship between trait anxiety and driving behavior with regard to self-reported Iranian accident involving drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Pourabdian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded from the results (according to the relation between TA with error and lapses factor that the rate of TA is destructive effective on the memory performance and process in the drivers and cause absent minded and memory imperfect function and process in these people during the driving.

  13. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective...

  14. Driving Behavior Shaping Model in Road Traffic System%驾驶行为形成模型及其在道路交通系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王武宏

    2001-01-01

    为了给驾驶行为模型化和道路交通事故原因辨识提供新的途径,以便从实践上达到解决诸如驾驶失误预防和驾驶行为分析等道路交通安全问题,提出了适于定量评价驾驶失误对道路交通安全影响程度的驾驶行为形成模型. 该模型能用于辩识道路交通事故原因,为驾驶员训练提供数据,评价驾驶步骤和道路交通系统中人的因素设计.%In order to give a new way for modeling driving behavior, identifying road traffic accident causation and solving a variety of road traffic safety problems such as driving errors prevention and driving behavior analysis, a new driving behavior shaping model is proposed, which could be used to assess the degree of effect of driving error upon road traffic safety. Driver behavior shaping model based on driving reliability and safety analysis could be used to identify the road traffic accident causation, to supply data for driver's behavior training, to evaluate driving procedures, to human factor design of road traffic system.

  15. 基于计划行为理论的竞争驾驶行为建模0%Modeling of Competitive Driving Behavior Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 石建军; 刘小明

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the dimensionality of drivers’behaviors and analyze the motives of competitive driving behavior. Data are collected from a self-reported questionnaire completed by 225 drivers on the internet. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) are used to analyze the underlying factor structure. Four latent factors are derived, including speed advantage, space occupation, contention over the right-of-way, and space advantage. Structural equation modeling is established to explain the correlation between drivers’attitude and driving behavior based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Results indicate that competitive driving behavior could be predicted by the combination of attitudes, subjective norm, control of perceived behavior, and social environment through the medium of behavior intention. A high correlation between the dimensions of social environment and intention is observed. This is an effective way to rectify the competitive driving behavior.%为获取竞争驾驶行为的潜变量因子,分析驾驶员竞争驾驶行为的产生动机。对225名驾驶员进行了网上问卷调查,通过主成分分析和验证性因子分析提取竞争驾驶行为的4个潜变量因子:速度领先、空间占用、路权争夺和空间领先争夺。基于计划行为理论,构建了竞争驾驶意图与行为关系结构方程模型。研究表明,驾驶员的竞争驾驶态度、主观标准、知觉行为控制等心理因素和社会环境外界因素,通过行为意向能够很好地对竞争驾驶行为进行预测。社会环境因素对竞争驾驶意图有显著影响,为驾驶员竞争驾驶行为的矫正提供了有效途径。

  16. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  17. Research on Driving Behavior Prediction Method Based on HMM%基于隐马尔可夫模型的驾驶行为预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖献强; 任春燕; 王其东

    2013-01-01

    根据驾驶行为受驾驶意图驱使,在时空上应先产生驾驶意图后有驾驶动作执行,再有具体的驾驶行为的时空顺序,利用意图到行为实现过程中的时间差,研究建立了基于多驾驶操作动作特征观测信息和隐马尔可夫模型的驾驶行为预测方法,实现了跑偏驾驶、一般转向和紧急转向3种驾驶行为的预测。从机动车安全预警的角度进行分析,预测出驾驶员的驾驶行为等同于获得驾驶员对车辆未来运行状态的需求,有助于及时纠正或干预驾驶员正在或即将实施的危险行为。%According to time and space relationship of driving behavior and driving intention,driv-ing intention of driver drived driving behavior and manoeuvre,The driver first produced driving inten-tion,and then driving manoeuvre.On the basis of the time difference between driving intention and driving manoeuvre,this paper researched driving behavior prediciton method based on multi-charac-teristics of driving manoeuvre and HMM.The results show that the method has successfully forecas-ted three type driving behaviors of lane departure,steering and urgent steering.In the vehicle safety warning term,if was understood the demand of the driver to vehicle in the future can be calculated the driving behavior of driver.The method presented herein will help to correct and intervene the hazard-ous driving behavior of driver for the vehicle safety warning.

  18. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N; Spieß, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zöller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L M; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Müller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E; Baker, Darren P; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-04-19

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded RNA ligands, and IFNs shared pathways involving engagement of melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-I), and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), and subsequently induced IFN responses specifically in brain endothelia and epithelia of mice. Behavioral alterations were specifically dependent on brain endothelial and epithelial IFN receptor chain 1 (IFNAR). Using gene profiling, we identified that the endothelia-derived chemokine ligand CXCL10 mediated behavioral changes through impairment of synaptic plasticity. These results identified brain endothelial and epithelial cells as natural gatekeepers for virus-induced sickness behavior, demonstrated tissue specific IFNAR engagement, and established the CXCL10-CXCR3 axis as target for the treatment of behavioral changes during virus infection and type I IFN therapy. PMID:27096319

  19. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vorobyev

    Full Text Available Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections and outcome (pass or crash phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens, midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.

  20. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2016-01-01

    organic semiconductor poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and the dielectric material polyvinylphenol (PVP) before the gate (G) was applied by either screen printing or evaporation of silver. We explore the footprint and the practically accessible geometry of such devices with a special view toward being able to...... drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial......We present flexible organic power transistors prepared by fast (20mmin1) roll-to-roll (R2R) flexographic printing[1] of the drain (D) and source (S) electrode structures directly on polyester foil. The devices have top gate architecture and were completed by spin coating or slot-die coating of the...

  1. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  2. Removal of high-fat diet after chronic exposure drives binge behavior and dopaminergic dysregulation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jesse L; McKee, Sarah E; Hill-Smith, Tiffany; Grissom, Nicola M; George, Robert; Lucki, Irwin; Reyes, Teresa M

    2016-06-21

    A significant contributor to the obesity epidemic is the overconsumption of highly palatable, energy dense foods. Chronic intake of palatable foods is associated with neuroadaptations within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system adaptations which may lead to behavioral changes, such as overconsumption or bingeing. We examined behavioral and molecular outcomes in mice that were given chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD; 12weeks), with the onset of the diet either in adolescence or adulthood. To examine whether observed effects could be reversed upon removal of the HFD, animals were also studied 4weeks after a return to chow feeding. Most notably, female mice, particularly those exposed to HFD starting in adolescence, demonstrated the emergence of binge-like behavior when given restricted access to a palatable food. Further, changes in dopamine-related gene expression and dopamine content in the prefrontal cortex were observed. Some of these HFD-driven phenotypes reversed upon removal of the diet, whereas others were initiated by removal of the diet. These findings have implications for obesity management and interventions, as both pharmacological and behavioral therapies are often combined with dietary interventions (e.g., reduction in calorie dense foods). PMID:27063418

  3. Behavior Analysis Of Malicious Web Pages Through Client Honeypot For Detection Of Drive-By-Download Malwares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinder Kaur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malwares which is also known as malicious software’s is spreading through the exploiting the client side applications such as browsers, plug-ins etc. Attackers implant the malware codes in the user’s computer through web pages; thereby they are also known malicious web pages. Here in the paper, we present the usefulness of controlled environment in the form of client honeypots in detection of malicious web pages through collections of malicious intent in web pages and then perform detailed analysis for validation and confirmation of malicious web pages. First phase is collection of malicious infections through high interaction client honeypot, second phase is validations of the malicious infections embedded into web pages through behavior based analysis. Malwares which infect the client side applications and drop the malwares into user’s computers sometimes overrides the signature based detection techniques; thereby there is a need to study the behavior of the complete malicious web pages.

  4. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  5. Synergistic interactions between the molecular and neuronal circadian networks drive robust behavioral circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Weiss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms use 24-hr circadian clocks to keep temporal order and anticipate daily environmental changes. In Drosophila melanogaster CLOCK (CLK and CYCLE (CYC initiates the circadian system by promoting rhythmic transcription of hundreds of genes. However, it is still not clear whether high amplitude transcriptional oscillations are essential for circadian timekeeping. In order to address this issue, we generated flies in which the amplitude of CLK-driven transcription can be reduced partially (approx. 60% or strongly (90% without affecting the average levels of CLK-target genes. The impaired transcriptional oscillations lead to low amplitude protein oscillations that were not sufficient to drive outputs of peripheral oscillators. However, circadian rhythms in locomotor activity were resistant to partial reduction in transcriptional and protein oscillations. We found that the resilience of the brain oscillator is depending on the neuronal communication among circadian neurons in the brain. Indeed, the capacity of the brain oscillator to overcome low amplitude transcriptional oscillations depends on the action of the neuropeptide PDF and on the pdf-expressing cells having equal or higher amplitude of molecular rhythms than the rest of the circadian neuronal groups in the fly brain. Therefore, our work reveals the importance of high amplitude transcriptional oscillations for cell-autonomous circadian timekeeping. Moreover, we demonstrate that the circadian neuronal network is an essential buffering system that protects against changes in circadian transcription in the brain.

  6. Comportamentos no trânsito: um estudo epidemiológico com estudantes universitários Driving-related behavior: an epidemiologic study of undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marín-León

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever os comportamentos auto-referidos no trânsito e comparar a freqüência de comportamentos de risco entre condutores com e sem história de acidentes de trânsito (AT, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 2.116 estudantes de 18 a 25 anos, de uma universidade pública do Brasil. Para observar quais as variáveis independentes que se associam ao antecedente de AT como condutor de carro, foram calculadas: freqüências, chi2, p, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. O sexo masculino foi analisado mediante modelo de Regressão Logística. Observou-se maior risco de AT no sexo masculino. Os condutores com maior freqüência de comportamentos inseguros para o trânsito apresentaram maior risco de AT. No sexo masculino as variáveis comportamentais associadas a AT foram "ter sido multado", "dirigir pelo acostamento" e "dirigir logo após consumir álcool". Também foi observado que os jovens tendem a não reconhecer sua responsabilidade nos AT. São necessárias intervenções dirigidas aos estudantes, devendo priorizar os homens, especialmente os de renda elevada.The purpose of this article was to describe self-reported driving-related behavior and compare the frequency of risk-taking among drivers with and without a history of traffic accidents (TA. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 2,116 undergraduate students from a public university in Brazil ranging in age from 18 to 25 were interviewed. Association between independent variables and history of TA was described using frequency, chi2, p, odds ratio, and 95% confidence intervals. Male data were analyzed through logistic regression. Men showed a higher risk than women of having been involved in TA. Drivers with more frequent risk-taking had a greater risk of history of TA. Behaviors observed to be associated with TA in men were: "history of fines", "driving on the shoulder", and "drinking and driving". Open-ended questions demonstrated that students show

  7. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18%) in which someone was injured involved distracted driving. 1 What are the risk factors? Activities Some activities—such as texting—take the driver’s attention away from driving more frequently and for longer periods than other ...

  8. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  9. Driving offences

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, C

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010, Taylor & Francis Group. This material is posted on this site with the permission of the publishers. This chapter on driving offences will largely follow the template of earlier chapters except that owing to their vast number, a limited selection only will be examined based on their high volume, seriousness and public concern. The first section will define what driving offences are, how they developed alongside the emerging car culture, and it will consider the contempora...

  10. Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. The surrounding tr...

  11. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity on driving behavior when combined with cognitive load: an LCT study of young novice drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; BRIJS, Kris; Ruiter, Rob; Wets, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Distracted driving received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. Especially the use of new in-vehicle technologies created situations in which driving is often combined with other tasks. However, operating in-vehicle technology induces working memory load (WM load) and therefore the working memory capacity (WM capacity) of the driver is not only devoted to the primary task of driving. WM capacity consists of different subtypes (visuospatial and verb...

  12. Asymmetric Microscopic Driving Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, Hwasoo

    2008-01-01

    Numerous theories on traffic have been developed as traffic congestion gains more and more interest in our daily life. To model traffic phenomena, many traffic theorists have adopted theories from other fields such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. However, their efforts to model the traffic at a microscopic level have not been successful yet. Therefore, to overcome the limitations of the existing theories we propose a microscopic asymmetric traffic theory based on analysis of individual...

  13. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...

  14. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio Casutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  15. Analysis on unsafe driving behaviors and its influence factors in Guangzhou, 2008%2008年广州市居民不安全驾驶行为发生率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董航; 林国桢; 潘冰莹; 周琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence and related influence factors of unsafe driving behaviors among residents in Guangzhou City, and provide information for establishing road traffic safety prevention and control policy. Methods Multi-stage random sampling method was used for selecting the sample, and 6987 residents aged 15-69 years old from 12 counties or districts in Guangzhou were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to collect unsafe driving behaviors and related influence factors in last 30 days. Results In last 30 days, the rates of driving without seatbelt, drinking driving, fatigue driving and driving without license were 15. 0% , 13.6%, 16.3% and 11.0%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression results showed that rural areas ( OR = 2. 4) , low education level ( OR = 2. 4 ) were risk factors of driving without seatbelt. Frequency of driving without seatbelt in Group aged 35 ( OR = 0. 4) was lower than that in Group aged55-69. Male (OR =5. 2) , drinkers (OR = 13. 6) , rural areas ( OR = 2.0), smokers ( OR = 1. 8) were risk factors of drunk driving, and life and work pressure was ( OR = 0. 1 ) protect factor of drunk driving. Male ( OR = 7. 0) , smokers ( OR = 1.6) were risk factors of fatigue driving. Frequencies of fatigue driving in drivers with junior high school ( OR = 2. 6 ) or high school / technical secondary school ( OR = 1.8) were higher than that of drivers with college or above. Rural area ( OR — 0. 4) was protect factors of fatigue driving. Low education level ( OR — 8. 8 ) was risk factor of driving without license, male was protect factor ( OR = 0. 4 ). Frequencies of driving without license in Group aged 25 ( OR = 0. 2 ) and Group aged 35 (OR=0. 4) was slower than those in Group aged 55 -69. Conclusion Unsafe driving behaviors are common in Guangzhou City, the supervision of fatigue driving and drunk driving should be strengthened and the unsafe driving behaviors among aged people should not be ignored.%目的 了解广州市居民不

  16. A Study of Driving Anger Expression Scale Based on Driving Behavior%基于驾驶行为的驾驶愤怒表现量表研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷虎; 吴超仲; 张晖

    2012-01-01

    对456名驾驶人的调查数据进行了因子分析,得到一份有21个项目的驾驶愤怒表现量表(Cronbach α=0.861),量表包括操作强度、操作频率、言语攻击、对车发泄、自我调节5个可靠的分量表,子量表的信度系数(Cronbach α)在0.667~0.894之间.除自我调节子量表外,其余各子量表彼此显著正相关.并通过比较月收入不同的驾驶人驾驶愤怒表现得分平均数对量表的结构效度进行了检验.研究结果表明,本量表具有较高的信度和效度,符合心理测量学标准.%A factor analysis of responses from 456 drivers yielded a 21-item driving anger expression scale (alpha reliability = 0. 861) with five reliable subscales involving operational fiery, operational frequency, verbal aggression, venting by vehicle and self-regulation. The subscale of reliability coefficients ranged between =0. 667 and =0. 894. In addition to self-regulation subscale, the other sub-scales correlated positively and significantly with each other. The scale of construct validity was tested by comparing the driving anger performance average score of drivers with different monthly income. The results show that the scale has high reliability and validity, meets the psychometric standards,and is a valid instrument to study the driver of driving anger performance.

  17. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  18. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals....... pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008). In the...

  19. 基于驾驶行为及意图的汽车主动安全技术研究%Study on automotive active safety technology based on driving behavior and intention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储颖; 肖献强; 朱家诚

    2011-01-01

    针对国内汽车主动安全技术研究的现状,提出了基于驾驶员行为及意图判断的汽车主动安全研究方法,在此汽车主动安全系统中利用采集到的驾驶员各种操作信号及环境信息,进行驾驶员的驾驶行为及意图分析.根据驾驶员的各种操作信息对常见驾驶行为及意图判断的权重的不同,建立了用于判别典型驾驶行为及意图的权重矩阵.通过MATLAB软件编程仿真,建立了八种典型驾驶状态下权重判断矩阵,仿真表明,该权重矩阵设计合理,可以准确地判断和识别出典型的驾驶行为及意图,为未来汽车主动安全技术的研究提供了一种有效的方法.%To the status of domestic automotive safety technology research,the vehicle active safety research method that was based on the identifying of driver behavior and intention was proposed.it safety system,the analysis of driving behavior and intention was made by collecting a variety of driver's operating signal and environmental information.The weight matrix for identifying the typical driving behavior and intention was built according to the different proportion of variety operating information on identifying cornmon intention of driving behavior and intention. Through programming emulation with MATLAB, the weight matrix under the eight typical given state of driving was established. The emulation indicates that the weight matrix was designed reasonably. The matrix can identify the driving behavior and intention exactly. It offers an effective method for researching automotive active safety technology.

  20. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  1. Multi - Case study on the organizational driving behaviors involving informatization in large -sized companies%大型企业信息化进程组织推动的多案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚

    2011-01-01

    本文通过多案例研究,总结归纳了企业信息化发展的组织推动行为,完成了企业信息化组织推动工作主体的组织结构分析,研究归纳出企业内部推动信息化的四类主体:高层领导、业务部门、管理部门、信息化部门,构建了大型企业信息化进程的组织推动框架模型.%Through a multi - case study, the organizational driving behaviors for the development of informatization in large-sized companies are investigated.The organizational structures for related tasks are analyzed and four types of entities are identified as the internal driving forces for the development of informatization, they are top management, business units, administration departments, and IT department.Consequently, a comprehensive framework for understanding the organizational driving behaviors involving informatization in large -sized companies is postulated.

  2. Factorial structure of Driving Log in a Spanish sample

    OpenAIRE

    David Herrero-Fernández; Sara Fonseca-Baeza; Sara Pla-Sancho

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed the adaptation of the Driving Log, a questionnaire that assesses aggressive and risky driving behaviors in a day by day basis, with 395 Spanish participants. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the questionnaire fitted properly in two correlated factors, labeled as Risky Driving and Aggressive Driving. Subsequent analyses showed that the number of drives is significantly associated to Risky Driving, while the number of occasions in which anger is experimented corr...

  3. 考虑驾驶员行为特性的行车安全仿真试验%Simulation test on effect of driver behavior characteristics on driving safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰; 杨娇; 杭文; 陈志伟; 吴德华

    2013-01-01

    The driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system which is proved out by virtual simulation test is effec-tuated for analyzing the effect of the driving behavior characteristics on safety of driving.By combining the domestic and foreign research findings on driver′s physical function,the driving behavior characteristics were divided into 12 types and the characterization parameters were determined.The road traffic safety of drivers with different characteristics who drive on different radius of horizontal curve and under heavy weather was analyzed by orthogonal test.The result indicates that the fatigue states have the most signifi-cant impact on driver′s driving ability.When driving under heavy weather,the vehicle speed is the most important factor impacting on the driver′s traveling safety.%为了分析驾驶员行为特性对行车安全的影响状况,首先建立了基于 MATLAB/Simulink 和 AD-AMS 联合仿真的人-车-路闭环系统,通过不同车速下的双移线和蛇形线的闭环仿真试验验证了该系统的有效性。此外,在综合国内外学者研究成果的基础上,综合驾驶员的生理、心理特性和疲劳程度将驾驶员的驾驶特性分为12类,并确定相应类型驾驶特性的表征参数。选取某省道设计方案的部分路段为试验路段,对不同类型驾驶员在弯道上的行车安全以及不同疲劳程度的驾驶员在恶劣天气下的行车安全进行正交试验设计,基于人-车-路闭环系统开展虚拟行车仿真试验。试验数据的极差和方差分析结果显示,驾驶员疲劳程度对行车安全状况影响显著,在雨天与冰雪等恶劣天气下行驶时车速是影响行车安全的决定性因素。

  4. DeepDriving: Learning Affordance for Direct Perception in Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chenyi; Seff, Ari; Kornhauser, Alain; Xiao, Jianxiong

    2015-01-01

    Today, there are two major paradigms for vision-based autonomous driving systems: mediated perception approaches that parse an entire scene to make a driving decision, and behavior reflex approaches that directly map an input image to a driving action by a regressor. In this paper, we propose a third paradigm: a direct perception approach to estimate the affordance for driving. We propose to map an input image to a small number of key perception indicators that directly relate to the affordan...

  5. When social preferences and anxiety drive behavior and vasopressin does not – An neuroeconomic analysis of vasopressin and the Hawk-Dove game –

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Brunnlieb; Stephan Schosser; Bodo Vogt

    2015-01-01

    We delineated the causal influence of vasopressin on behavior in an iterated Hawk-Dove game. While subjects treated with vasopressin tend to be more aggressive in response to group members who did not coordinate on equilibrium instantaneously, this effect vanishes as soon as the subjects reach an equilibrium. More than vasopressin, social preferences and trait anxiety of the subjects predict the observed behavior.

  6. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  7. Do drivers have a realistic view of their driving ability?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two......The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...

  8. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  9. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Durbin, Dennis R.; McGehee, Daniel V.; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the r...

  10. Distractions in Everyday Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while driving, which is one of the reasons distracted driving is such a big problem. Driver inattention is ... you’re doing any of these things while driving, you become distracted in ways that increase your risk of crashing. ...

  11. Optimizing the charge profile: Considering users' driving profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kley, Fabian; Dallinger, David; Wietschel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    PHEVs are discussed controversially. On the one hand, the evolutionary approach of a hybrid vehicle helps the consumer to adopt to electric driving, using the range extender when driving longer distances. On the other hand, PHEVs have a more complex propulsion system and a potentially low emission impact due to a low electric driving share. These factors, however, strongly depend on the consumers' driving and charging behavior. Therefore, this paper simulates realistic driving based on the na...

  12. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  13. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  14. 基于自然驾驶数据的驾驶员紧急变道行为开环模型%Open-loop model of drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior based on the naturalistic driving data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱西产; 刘智超; 李霖

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe drivers’ behavior when driver takes an emergency lane-change action, an open-loop model was proposed based on the naturalistic driving data which was colected by the program named China pilot Field Operation Test. Almost 228 lane-change use cases were extracted from the naturalistic driving data. Steering wheel angle rate combined with steering wheel angle were used as iflters to classify the different emergency degrees of lane-change. The duration of drivers’ emergency lane-change was studied based on a liner dependency between the maximum values of both steering wheel angle and steering wheel angle rate. Parameters were iftted by the 50th percentile of the naturalistic driving data colected from lane-change scenarios .The model can be applied in research of Chinese drivers’ behavior and its values have been proved by both signiifcant test and correlation test. The results of tests show that coherence of the outputs from real driver and the model is good, so the model can wel describe Chinese drivers’ emergency lane-change behavior.%基于“中国大型实车路试先行实验(China Pilot-FOT)”所采集的自然驾驶数据,提出了一种开环模型,它可以描述驾驶员紧急变换车道行为。将方向盘转角和方向盘转角变化率作为变道紧急程度的筛选条件,从中筛选出228例紧急变换车道工况。基于最大方向盘转角与最大方向盘转角变化率的线性关系,分析了紧急变换车道的持续时间。利用其中50百分位驾驶数据,来拟合模型参数。使用相关性和显著性检验,验证了真实驾驶数据与驾驶计算模型的关系。结果表明:该模型的输出结果与真实驾驶员操作结果一致性良好。因此,该模型可以描述中国一般驾驶员紧急变道行为。

  15. What Drives Merger Decision Making Behavior? Don’t Seek, Don’t Find, and Don’t Change Your Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Bogan, Vicki; Just, David R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the constant and frequent merger activity across various industries in the U.S. and throughout the world, limited evidence of the success of corporate mergers has been documented. The vast body of academic research demonstrates that most mergers add no value or reduce shareholder value for the acquiring firm. Furthermore, the traditional merger theories have not found significant empirical support. In the past twenty years, more behavioral explanations have been utilized to provide a ...

  16. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Sagaspe; Jacques Taillard; Torbjorn Akerstedt; Virginie Bayon; Stéphane Espié; Guillaume Chaumet; Bernard Bioulac; Pierre Philip

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years)...

  17. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    OpenAIRE

    SAGASPE, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; BAYON, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3–5am, 1–5am and 9pm–5am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [±SD] = 23.4 [±1.7] years) partici...

  18. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  19. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  20. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia, deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  1. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  2. Universal drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnálek, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    This document deal with design of universal driving unit. For the final solution is required driving unit which will be controled with help of sensory unit placed on the chassis of driving unit. In theoretical part of this labour are examined possibilities of a power, electric motor operation by PWM, kind of chassis and odometry which could be taken into account. From this section is finally chosen concrete configuration which is then described in chapter concerned oneself with driving unit d...

  3. A Research on the Driving Factors of Customer Engagement Behavior Guided by Organizational Support Theory%基于组织支持理论的顾客契合行为驱动因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀村; 牛席席

    2016-01-01

    识别影响顾客契合行为的关键因素,对于培育和保持良好的企业顾客契合关系具有十分重要的意义。基于组织支持理论,构建理论模型并实证检验了顾客感知支持与顾客承诺及契合行为的关系。通过对于企业主导社区成员的深度访谈和问卷调查,开发了顾客感知支持的测量量表,证实了顾客情感性和工具性感知支持分别积极地影响顾客情感性承诺与规范性承诺,以及两种类型的顾客承诺对于顾客契合行为的驱动作用。%Identification of key factors influencing customer engagement behavior is vitally significant in cultivating and maintai-ning good enterprise-customer engagement relationship. Based on organizational support theories, a conceptual model is con-structed and applied in this empirical study of the relationship between customer-conceived support, customer commitment and customer engagement behavior. Through in-depth interviews and questionnaires to dominant sector members, a measurement scale is devised concerning customer-perceived emotional support. Results confirm that customer-perceived emotional and in-strumental support positively affect customer emotional and normative commitment respectively,and that the above-mentioned two commitments have a driving effect on customer engagement behavior.

  4. Impact of Distracted Driving on Safety and Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L.; Garner, Annie A.; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A.; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Philip R. Fine

    2013-01-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16 to 25 years of age (sp...

  5. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  6. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data......Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp...

  7. Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Tom A Schweizer; Karen Kan; Yuwen Hung; Fred Tam; Gary Naglie; Simon Graham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Materials and Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functio...

  8. Superluminal warp drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form

  9. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  10. Characteristics Analysis of Lane Changing Behavior Based on the Naturalistic Driving Data%基于自然驾驶数据的驾驶员变道特征分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪松; 李艳

    2016-01-01

    为研究驾驶员的变道特征,包括变道频率、变道动机、注视行为以及转向灯使用情况,基于上海自然驾驶实验采集的驾驶员行为以及车辆运行数据,通过车道偏移值对变道事件进行识别,提取特征变量。对比分析不同类型道路上驾驶员的变道特征,得到以下结论:驾驶员变道较为频繁,城市主干道上变道频率最高,为0.82次/km;高速公路上多车道变道的比例相对较高,安全隐患较大;与美国学者 Olsen 等人的研究结果相比,驾驶员在变道前查看侧视镜与开启转向灯的比例较高,但极少转头检查盲区。频繁变道、多车道变道以及忽视盲区都是变道过程中存在的安全隐患,深入了解这些特征,从而有针对性地提出改善措施对提高行车安全性有重要意义。%In order to study characteristics of drivers′lane changing behaviors,including lane changing frequency, motivations,gazing behavior and turn signal usage,drivers′behavior and vehicle operating data are collected from Shang-hai naturalistic driving study.Lane changing is identified by lane departure and its variables are thus extracted.Character-istics of lane changing behavior are analyzed and compared between different types of road.Lane changing behavior con-stantly occurs on urban arterial road,with a frequency of 0.82 per kilometer.The rate of the multilane changing on the freeway is relatively higher,being a potential threat to the drivers.Comparing with the study results by Olsen et al.,it appears that drivers rarely carry out"shoulder check"the blind spot before lane changing behavior although,the percent-age of side mirrors check and use of turn signal is relatively high.Potential risks exist in the frequent lane changes,multi-lane changing and blind spot ignorance,which deserve further studies.

  11. The analysis of Lobo and Visser applied to both Natario and Casimir warp drives. Physical reactions of gravitational repulsive behavior between the positive mass of the spaceship and the negative mass of the warp bubble

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that allows superluminal travel within the framework of General Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions: The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario warp drive discovered in $2001$. The major drawback concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years away in a reas...

  12. The mirage of impairing drug concentration thresholds: a rationale for zero tolerance per se driving under the influence of drugs laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; DuPont, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Drivers with measurable quantities of potentially impairing illicit or prescription drugs in their body fluids are multiple times more likely to be involved in motor vehicle crashes than those without such drugs in their bodies. Drug-related impairment, however, cannot be inferred solely on the basis of the presence of drugs in biological fluids. Thus, for more than a quarter century, there has been a search for drug blood concentrations that are the equivalent of the 0.08 g/dL threshold for alcohol-impaired driving in the United States. We suggest that such equivalents are a mirage, and cannot be determined due to variable drug tolerance, lack of consistent relationships between drug blood concentrations and impairment, innumerable drug combinations and multiple other factors. Thus, while the idea of determining impairing drug concentrations is attractive, it is ultimately unattainable, and withholding drugged driving legislation pending the acquisition of such data is tantamount to a plan for inaction with regard to an important and growing public health and safety problem. We propose specific legislation to address alcohol- and drug-impaired driving in the United States. PMID:22582272

  13. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  14. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  15. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  16. Eco-driving with eco-cognition: development of cognitive indicators, experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Delhomme, P.; PARAN, F; NICOLAS, PA

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the aims of the present study were to examine the actual behaviors and the acceptability of the rules of eco-driving and to predict two behavioral components of eco-driving among French motorists (N= 1243). Additional TPB factors were taken into account - descriptive norm, expanded descriptive norm, environmental problem awareness, concern for reducing car-related environmental problem, actual eco-driving behaviors and perceived difficulty to ado...

  17. Class-D amplifier design and performance for driving a Piezo Actuator Drive servomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Andersen, Nils Axel

    This paper investigates the behavior of piezoelectric stacks in a Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) motor, which shows non-linear equivalent impedance and has a dramatic impact on the overall system performance. Therefore, in this paper, the piezo stackt’s model is discussed and an improved large...... signal model is proposed and verified by measurement. Finally, a Class-D amplifier as a power driver and its associated closed-loop control are implemented and tested to control PAD drive effectively....

  18. Fast wave current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  19. Driving When You Have Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they want. I Driving is a complex skill. Our ability to drive safely can be challenged by changes in our ... drive with you to see how well you drive with your cataract. I The ... to improve your driving skills. Improving your skills could help keep you and ...

  20. Dual drive; Doppelt angetrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2011-09-15

    The Opel Ampera was designed as an everyday car with an alternative drive system. A hybrid concept comprising both an electric motor and a gasoline engine ensures long mileage, but there is still the problem of high purchase cost.

  1. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for crashes. Drivers and passengers should use automobile safety features at all times. These include: seat belts, shoulder straps, and headrests. Only drive cars that have air bags, padded dashes, safety glass, ...

  2. Drunk Driving Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Vogel, Klara Elisa Pingel

    2014-01-01

    This project evaluates a communication product, consisting of three flush-ad posters against drunk driving. The target group of this campaign is young men in the ages 18-22 in the outskirts of Denmark. The project's scientific theoretical approach is phenomenology which will give insight in the target groups life situation, furthermore the social constructivist perspective is used to understand the target group's opinions in relation to product and subject drunk driving because of the interac...

  3. Drinking and driving

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol misuse generates many health and social problems at a cost that society is increasingly unwilling to sustain. One of the most tragic consequences of alcohol misuse is the result of drinking and driving. Each week, impaired drivers kill 40 Canadian men, women and children and injure 1250 others. The Canadian Medical Association (CMA), in its campaign against drinking and driving, has recommended that a condition of obtaining or renewing a driver's licence include the individual's writt...

  4. Engineering Autonomous Driving Software

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Christian; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A larger number of people with heterogeneous knowledge and skills running a project together needs an adaptable, target, and skill-specific engineering process. This especially holds for a project to develop a highly innovative, autonomously driving vehicle to participate in the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. In this contribution, we present essential elements of a software and systems engineering process to develop a so-called artificial intelligence capable of driving autonomously in complex u...

  5. Direct drive wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  6. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  7. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  8. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. PMID:26446454

  9. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  10. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and share information, we created a dedicated website . Distracted Driving Information Clearinghouse In addition, to collect and share ... technology that could potentially reduce the problem of distracted driving, the Commission’s staff created the FCC Distracted Driving ...

  11. Psychometric examination and validation of the aggressive driving scale (ADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Houston, Rebecca; Wu, Changxu

    2016-07-01

    Aggressive driving behavior is an important cause of traffic accidents. Based on the recent view that aggressive driving is one way that trait aggression manifests itself, a growing research area has focused on the development of scales to assess aggressive driving. The aggressive driving scale (ADS) analyzed in the present study consists of 24 items. A sample of 276 participants was analyzed to obtain the factor structure and reliability of the ADS and 67 of them participated in the behavioral experiment in order to examine the construct and predictive validity of the scale. Results indicated a 3-factor structure (interference with other drivers, violations/risk taking, and anger/aggression expression behavior) with high item loadings. The ADS had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Construct validity of the ADS was established as the ADS subscale scores correlated significantly with trait measures of anger and aggression. Predictive validity of the ADS was verified as most items were significantly correlated with behavioral measures derived from a driving simulator. The ADS was a significant predictor of behavioral measures both in the simulated environment (i.e., frequency of driving off the road, red light running behavior, frequency of colliding with a vehicle, frequency and distance of over speeding, frequency and distance of central crossing) and reported real world situations (i.e., annual moving violations and accidents). These results suggest that the ADS is a reliable and valid tool in evaluating aggressive driving behavior as the current study provides behavioral support for the effectiveness of the ADS in measuring aggressive driving behavior. Aggr. Behav. 42:313-323, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848038

  12. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  13. A tool suite for developing and evaluating cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.; Noort, M. van; Versteegh, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems influence individual vehicles, either through advisory or autonomous actions, so as to optimize the collective behavior in terms of throughput, safety, fuel consumption and/or emissions. Cooperative driving systems need to function properly in a vast amount of different t

  14. On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Rosca, B.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid and electric vehicles require accurate knowledge of the battery to make an educated guess about the expected electric driving range. Range prediction is complicated by the fact that batteries are subject to external influences and aging. Also the future driving behavior is often unknown. This

  15. Lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past ten years progress on Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have demonstrated the largest non-inductive current (3.6 MA, JT-60U), the longest current sustainment (2 hours, TRIAM-1M), non-inductive current drive at the highest density (n-bare - 1020m-3, ALCATOR-C) and the highest current drive efficiency (ηCD = 3.5x1019 m-2A/W, JT-60). These results indicate that LHCD is one of the most promising methods to drive non-inductive current in the present tokamak plasmas. This paper presents recent experimental results on LHCD experiments. Basic theories of LH waves, the wave propagation and the current drive are briefly summarized. The main part of this paper describes several important results and their physical pictures on recent LHCD experiments; 1) the experimental set-up, 2) the current drive efficiency, 3) the control of current profile and MHD activities, 4) the global energy confinement, 5) the global power flow, 6) fast electron behavior, 7) interaction between LH waves and thermal/fast ions, 8) combination with other CD method. (author)

  16. [Driving fitness in therapy with antidepressive drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Dittert, S; Gartenmeier, A; Schäfer, M

    1998-04-01

    The driving ability of patients under therapy with antidepressives is seen less restrictive than some years ago. The inhibition of psychomotor performance is of special interest. Some empirical studies point at antidepressives increasing the risk for accidents at least in elderly patients. Different groups of antidepressants apparently show different effects. Tricyclic antidepressants were shown to worsen cognitive and psychomotor performance in some patients while serotonin reuptake inhibitors and some other new antidepressants may cause less behavioral toxicity. Methodological problems in assessing driving ability and some recent findings are discussed. PMID:9587241

  17. [Drug use and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. PMID:25956300

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To fix a magnetic rotor to a drive shaft and at the time of non-driving, to restrain the rotor by permanent magnets thereby to hold the position of the control rod safely and accurately. Constitution: A control rod position holding device is provided in a motor or a drive shaft of a control rod drive. This device consists of a rotor and a stator, the rotor being provided on its circumference with salient-poles arranged equidistantly, and the position of the rotor being determined depending upon the transfer distance of the control rod and the conversion ratio of the converter. On the other hand, the stator has salient-poles (any of them is a permanent magnet) having the number of poles and the positional relationship equivalent to those of the rotor, and provided in the inner periphery of a cylinder using the drive shaft as a central shaft and wound with a winding. When the control rod is not driven, the poles of the rotor are attracted by the magnetic force of the confronting poles of the stator, thereby to prevent the inverse rotation of the motor shaft due to the dead weight of the control rod. When a current is caused to flow through the winding, the magnetic force of the permanent magnet, and the stator release the rotor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  19. Quantum effects in the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Hiscock, William A.

    1997-01-01

    The expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a free conformally invariant scalar field is computed in a two-dimensional reduction of the Alcubierre ``warp drive'' spacetime. The stress-energy is found to diverge if the apparent velocity of the spaceship exceeds the speed of light. If such behavior occurs in four dimensions, then it appears implausible that ``warp drive'' behavior in a spacetime could be engineered, even by an arbitrarily advanced civilization.

  20. Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations in general relativity: At least theoretically, they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to exist as solutions of Einstein's equations. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to build them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries have been analyzed only for eternal warp-drive bubbles traveling at fixed superluminal speeds. Here, we investigate the more realistic case in which a superluminal warp drive is created out of an initially flat spacetime. First of all we analyze the causal structure of eternal and dynamical warp-drive spacetimes. Then we pass to the analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) of a quantum field in these geometries. While the behavior of the RSET in these geometries has close similarities to that in the geometries associated with gravitational collapse, it shows dramatic differences too. On one side, an observer located at the center of a superluminal warp-drive bubble would generically experience a thermal flux of Hawking particles. On the other side, such Hawking flux will be generically extremely high if the exotic matter supporting the warp drive has its origin in a quantum field satisfying some form of quantum inequalities. Most of all, we find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to, and on, the front wall of the superluminal bubble. Consequently, one is led to conclude that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical backreaction.

  1. Empathic concern drives costly altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-15

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern--and not trait personal distress--motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  2. Ceramic vane drive joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Charles H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  3. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  4. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  5. Permanent magnet brushless drives

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CC; Xia, W.; Jiang, JZ; Chau, KT; Zhu, ML

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an optimal efficiency control scheme for constant power operation of phase decoupling (PD) PM brushless DC motor drives. The key is to adaptively adjust the advanced conduction angle to minimize the system losses for a given operation point in the constant power region. The strategy for constant power operation of PD PM brushless DC motor drives is exemplified using a 5-phase 22-pole PD PM brushless DC motor. In the sections that follow, the newly-devel...

  6. Friction drive characterization breadboard: test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, B.; Lucuix, C.; Tortolani, J. M.; Brunetto, E.; Delrez, C.; Gabriel, E.

    2010-07-01

    The drive and bearing technologies have a major impact on the static and dynamic performance of steerable structures such as telescope and dome. Merging drive and bearing system into friction drive mechanical devices (bogie) can reduce the complexity and cost of the design. In the framework of ELT design study (European FP6) a breadboard test setup was realized to test and evaluate the static and dynamic behavior of such bogies. In this paper some of the characterization test results are presented. Characterization of the bogies and the setup structure in the frequency domain, quantification and measure of the most important parameters of the friction forces, the control of the bogies and the tracking performance of the test setup are among the main results discussed in this paper.

  7. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  8. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  9. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent damages in control rod drives upon connection and disconnection with control rods by providing, to an extension rod, a closure and opening guide mechanism which is adapted to open and close depending upon connection and disconnection with the control rod. Constitution: In control rod drives having a driving section and a lower mechanism, the lower mechanism has a guide tube engaged into the upper cover of a reactor container and suspended therefrom into the reactor container. An opening and closure mechanism with guide blades capable of contacting the inner wall of the guide tube is secured to an extension rod for fastening the gripper which supports the control rod. Such a mechanism cap prevent damages in the control rod drives and the control rods due to the connection after disconnection of them by the buffering action between the extension rod and the control rod, as well as damages in both of them caused by rolling such as in earthquakes by the buffering action between the extension rod and the guide tube. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Efficient driving; Effizientes Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillmann, Gerhard; Prys, Gerhard; Klinkert, Carsten; Sauer, Juergen; Otasevic, Aleksandar; Steinbock, Robert [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    With the BMW Efficient Dynamics development strategy, the new BMW 7 Series is proving that a superior, dynamic driving experience with simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions can be combined with the premium standards of the luxury automobile class. (orig.)

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  13. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988

  14. Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives

    CERN Document Server

    Finazzi, Stefano; Barceló, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations in General Relativity: At least theoretically, they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to exist as solutions of Einstein's equations. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to build them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries have been analyzed only for eternal warp-drive bubbles traveling at fixed superluminal speeds. Here, we investigate the more realistic case in which a superluminal warp drive is created out of an initially flat spacetime. First of all we analyze the causal structure of eternal and dynamical warp-drive spacetimes. Then we pass to the analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) of a quantum field in these geometries. While the behavior of the RSET in these geometries has close similarities to that in the geometries associate...

  15. Seatbelt Use Following Stricter Drunk Driving Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Adams; Chad Cotti; Nathan Tefft

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System that shows increased seat-belt use following the enactment of stricter BAC thresholds in states where seat-belt laws are primarily enforced. This suggests that inebriated drivers may use their seat-belts more judiciously to avoid being identified as a drunk driver by law enforcement. The interactive effect of stricter drunk driving laws and primary seat-belt laws are also shown to be...

  16. Predicting Visual Distraction Using Driving Performance Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral variables are often used as performance indicators (PIs) of visual or internal distraction induced by secondary tasks. The objective of this study is to investigate whether visual distraction can be predicted by driving performance PIs in a naturalistic setting. Visual distraction is here defined by a gaze based real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. Seven drivers used an instrumented vehicle for one month each in a small scale field operational test. For each of ...

  17. Punishment and Deterrence: Evidence from Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional economic models of criminal behavior have straightforward predictions: raising the expected cost of crime via apprehension probabilities or punishments decreases crime. I test the effect of harsher punishments on deterring driving under the influence (DUI). In this setting, punishments are determined by strict rules on Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) and previous offenses. Regression discontinuity derived estimates suggest that having a BAC above the DUI threshold reduces recidivism b...

  18. Driving without a GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited in...... an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS......, thereby contributing to a possible typology of challenges and solutions in international programmes from which all attendees may benefit. They will then not have to drive without a GPS, but will have a better background for navigating the international university. Singh, P. and C. Doherty (2004) “Global...

  19. Mitigating Distracted Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Tim; Kolberg, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    The scourge of distracted driving is not limited to any one demographic group or nation. It is global and affects every victim and victims’ families. This dire situation, caused largely by technology such as texting, requires technological solutions, including new traffic safety countermeasures. The transverse rumble strip, a countermeasure reinvented in 2009 as the temporary portable rumble strip, is already proving a significant, innovative addition to work zone safety processes and procedu...

  20. Driving on the Descartes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground.

  1. Driving and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The proportion of elderly in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet medical diagnosis or age alone is not reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes, or revoke the driving privileges of these drivers. Dri...

  2. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving in a Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...

  3. Primary and secondary prevention of drink driving by the use of alcolock device and program: Swedish experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre, Bo

    2005-11-01

    To prevent drinking and driving, alcolock (or alcohol-interlock) devices and programs were introduced in Sweden in 1999. Two types of prevention programs were begun. A primary prevention strategy was initiated to prevent alcohol impaired driving by individuals not pre-selected for having prior DWI offences. This approach was first applied as a pilot project in three commercial transport companies (buses, trucks, taxis). Also a secondary prevention trial was begun as a voluntary 2-year program for DWI offenders involving strict medical requirements, including counseling and regular checkups by a medical doctor. The program did not require a prior period of hard suspension and focused on changing alcohol use habits. Alcolocks in commercial vehicles have been well accepted by professional drivers, their employers, and their passengers, and the number of vehicles with alcolocks as a primary prevention measure is rapidly growing in Sweden. Three of 1000 starts in the primary prevention program were blocked by the alcolock after measuring a BAC higher than the legal limit and lock point of 0.02% (20mg/dl). Only 11% of eligible DWI offenders took part in the voluntary, secondary prevention program. Of these, 60% had diagnoses of alcohol dependence or abuse. During the program, alcohol consumption generally decreased significantly as measured through five biological alcohol markers, and the rate of DWI recidivism fell sharply from a yearly rate of approximately 5% to almost 0. These effects on DWI recidivism are paralleled by reduced rates of police-reported traffic accidents involving injuries and hospital admissions due to road accidents. Successful completion of the program appears to have lasting effects (even 2.5 years later) in terms of far lower rates of DWI recidivism and maybe also lower crash rates. On the other hand those being dismissed from the program appear to rapidly return to previous behaviour. Hard suspension seems almost to have an adverse effect on DWI

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Control rod drive mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To accurately measure the loads generated upon scram and judge the absence or presence of deceleration in control rod drive mechanisms. Constitution: Control rod drive mechanisms for use in a BWR type reactor includes an index tube vertically movably, connected at the upper end to the control rod and having a drive piston at the lower end. A piezoelectric member for detecting the load generated upon uprise of the index tube is disposed and signals from the piezoelectric member is connected to a calculation processing device. A load exerted when the index tube uprises is measured by way of the piezoelectric member upon scram thereby judging the absence or presence of the decelerating operation. Therefore, the nuclear reactor can be shutdown only when it is required with no excess safety operation than required. As a result, the reactor availability can be improved and, in addition, it is also possible to mitigate the burden of in-service inspection and reduce the operators' exposure. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Control rod drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an electromotive driving-type control rod driving system of a BWR type reactor, for which sliding resistance (friction) test can be performed of a movable portion of the control rod driving mechanisms. Namely, a hydraulic pressure control unit has following constitutions in addition to a conventional constitution as a sliding resistance test performing function. (1) A restricting valve is disposed downstream of the scram valve of scram pipelines to control flow rate and pressure of pressurized water flown in the pipelines. (2) A pressure gauge detects a pressure between the scram valve and the restricting valve. (3) A flow meter detects the flow rate of pipelines controlled by the restricting valve. (4) A recording pressure detector detects the pressure at the downstream of the restricting valve. (5) The recording device is attached when the sliding resistant test is performed for tracing the pressure measured by the pressure detection device. Further, the scram valve sends electric signals to a central operation chamber when it is fully closed. The central operation chamber has a function of fully opening the restricting valve by way of the electric signals. (I.S.)

  8. 高速直线电动机驱动进给轴热行为测试研究%Test of thermal behavior of high speed feed drive system equipped with linear motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林献坤; 李燕军; 吴倩倩

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a high speed feed drive system equipped with linear motor, which was developed by ourselves. The heat distribution and thermal deformation characteristics of the closed—loop control feed drive system were analyzed qualitatively. It was shown that the thermal deformation of direct linear drives includes thermal expansion of the linear scale, pitch angle error of the guide and thermal deformation of the slide. Meanwhile, the experimental scheme and procedure, using thermocouples, laser interferometer and capacitance gage, were determined. The heat distribution and thermal deformation characteristics of direct linear drives were measured. The factors and its proportions of thermal deformation were verified through experiments on the test rig.%以自构建的直线电动机驱动高速进给轴为研究对象,对全闭环位置反馈进给轴的温度场分布和热变形特性进行了定性分析,指出直线进给轴的几何热变形可以分为光栅尺线性变形、导轨的轴向俯仰角度误差变形和滑台变形3个部分组成,探讨给出进给轴温度测量以及基于激光干涉仪、电容测微仪的变形测量原理及方案,在自构建的直线进给轴试验台上,对该热变形过程进行了综合测试研究,测试结果客观反映了导致直线进给轴热变形误差的组合要素及其所占比例.

  9. Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Gaster, Samuel; Struckman-Johnson, Dave; Johnson, Melissa; May-Shinagle, Gabby

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1-5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men's data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men's or women's texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25463963

  10. Constructing a Distracted Driving Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, James; Ebe, Kazu; Owens, Justin M.; Angell, Linda; Hankey, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has become a topic of critical importance to driving safety research over the past several decades. Naturalistic driving data offer a unique opportunity to study how drivers engage with secondary tasks in real-world driving; however, the complexities involved with identifying and coding relevant epochs of naturalistic data have limited its accessibility to the general research community. Method This project was developed to help address this problem by creating an accessibl...

  11. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  12. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  13. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  14. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  15. Modular droplet actuator drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  16. PURE DRIVE GT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    在2004年奥林匹克赛事中,中国的李婷,孙甜甜取得了中国网球第一个金牌一女子双打冠军。忘记不了当时李婷挥动着她的BABOLAT(百保力)网拍Pure Drive Zylon 360°激动地拥抱着孙甜甜吵闹着,幸福地哭着的情景。

  17. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  18. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Okayama, T.; Katayama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. A Three Year Outcome Evaluation of a Theory Based Drink Driving Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to tenth-grade students. The program, which involved twelve lessons, used strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students (N=1,774) were trained to use alternatives to drinking and driving and to use safer passenger behaviors, and were followed-up…

  1. 背景音乐的节奏与歌词语言熟悉程度对驾驶行为及眼动的影响%Effects of Music's Tempo and Participants' Familiarity With Words on Driving Behavior and Eye-movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萌; 王剑桥; 夏裕祁; 杨帆; 张学民

    2011-01-01

    Music is one of the causes for traffic accident. Although most researchers focus on the role of music's tempo in driving behavior in recently researches, another note-worthy factor participants' familiarity with words. This paper aimed to study that lyrics may affect the driving mode by increasing cognitive load and affecting visual attention, while tempo changes drivers' behavior by influencing the physiological arousal. Eye tracking was used to record the driving performance. The present study investigated the effects of music's tempo and participants' familiarity with words on driving behavior and eye tracking performance with a 3D driving simulator, which included a Tobii 1750 eye-tracker, and two computers. The driving simulator, "3D driving simulator", was set up and run on the Tobii' s computer screen. The simulator was controlled with the Be-top Be3169 steering wheel,pedal and automatic gear changing was applied. A 2× 2× 2 mixed design was used. 11 experienced drivers and 11 novice drivers participated in the present study. Each group drove 4 times in a specific route under low-tempo× familiarity, low- tempo × unfamiliarity, high-tempo×familiarity and high-tempo × unfamiliarity in a driving simulator separately. The Tobii 1750 eye tracker was used to record all eye movement data, the 3D driving simulator recorded the time of mistakes automatically, and a stopwatch was used to measure the time participants spent completing every lap. The results indicated that driving experience affected driving behavior and eye-movement performance significantly: drivers with more experience outperformed novice drivers, as they performed in faster speed and fewer mistakes, F (1,20) = 74.099, p 〈0. 001 ; F (1,20) = 12. 225, p〈0. 01. Driving speed was faster when the music was in high tempo, which also led to narrower saccade and vertical spread of search, F (1,20) = 8. 822, p 〈0. 01 ; F (1,20) = 5. 013, p 〈0. 05; F (1,20

  2. Multi-agent Architecture Model for Driving Mobile Manipulator Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Hentout, A.; Bouzouia, B.; Z. Toukal

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present generic hierarchical behavior-based architecture model for driving mobile manipulator robots. Two behaviors are of high-level. They constitute the Supervisory agent, which manages the global system. Two others are of intermediate-level and finally one behavior is of low-level. These last ones constitute the Mobile Robot agent and the Manipulator Robot agent controlling, respectively, the mobile base and the manipulator arm. The choice of the suggest...

  3. The Effects of Dextromethorphan on Driving Performance and the Standardized Field Sobriety Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Fredriksen, Kristian; Chew, Stephanie; Ip, Eric J; Lopes, Ingrid; Doroudgar, Shadi; Thomas, Kelan

    2015-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is abused most commonly among adolescents as a recreational drug to generate a dissociative experience. The objective of the study was to assess driving with and without DXM ingestion. The effects of one-time maximum daily doses of DXM 120 mg versus a guaifenesin 400 mg dose were compared among 40 healthy subjects using a crossover design. Subjects' ability to drive was assessed by their performance in a driving simulator (STISIM® Drive driving simulator software) and by conducting a standardized field sobriety test (SFST) administered 1-h postdrug administration. The one-time dose of DXM 120 mg did not demonstrate driving impairment on the STISIM® Drive driving simulator or increase SFST failures compared to guaifenesin 400 mg. Doses greater than the currently recommended maximum daily dose of 120 mg are necessary to perturb driving behavior. PMID:26294136

  4. Cycloconverter drive systems. Cycloconverter gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiashi, M.; Osawa, H.; Endo, K. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-10

    Fuji Electric has completed preparation for the production of various cycloconverter variable-speed AC drive systems used for low-speed large-capacity drives, and is ready to supply the optimum system to meet purposes. Among cycloconverter drive systems of Fuji Electric, circulating current-free cycloconverter fed synchronous motor drive is superior in respect of input power factor and equipment capacity, induction motor drive is superior in respect of maintenance, and circulating current cycloconverter fed motor drive is superior in respect of controllability. This report describes outlines, system components, comparison of performances, control systems and their characteristics, and technology for advanced performance of these various cycloconverter drive systems. Furthermore, was introduced a development of hybrid cycloconverter using a GTO thyristor which can regulate input power factor at 1. 2 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 1400 loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω = O(10)] into a He+ plasma with n/sub e/approx. =4 x 1012 cm-3 and B = 4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the RF. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam

  6. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To rapidly detect the position to which a control rod has been rapidly inserted into the reactor core upon scram in the control rod drives for use in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In control rod drives comprising an acceleration spring disposed to the outside of an extension pipe and an acceleration pipe for conducting the spring force to a control rod for rapidly dropping the rod into the reactor core, a magnet having a repulsive force is disposed to each acceleration pipe and guide pipe as decelerating and buffering means for the acceleration pipe. The position of the control rod is detected by the interaction between the magnet and the coils attached to the inside of the guide pipe or reactor lead switch. According to this invention, 85 % scram signal which has hitherto been difficult to be processed electrically can be obtained with a sufficient intensity and with no delay to thereby improve the entire safety of the reactor system. Then, the inserted position and the insertion time can accurately and rapidly be detected. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Polar drive on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser-plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated back-lit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity. (authors)

  8. Turbulent current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density

  9. College students' prevalence and perceptions of text messaging while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Marissa A

    2011-07-01

    By analyzing self-reports from sample of 91 college students from the United States who are frequent drivers, the present study examined the prevalence of text messaging (or "texting") while driving and the incidence of recklessness and consequences that accompany this behavior. Analyses revealed that 91% of participants reported having used text messaging while driving, with many reporting doing so with passengers, including children, riding in their vehicles. Further, a substantial number of participants reported driving dangerously above the speed limit and drifting into other traffic lanes while texting, and many reported "sexting" and arguing via text messages while driving. However, these young drivers agreed that texting while driving is dangerous and should be illegal. These results and the limitations to the present study are discussed. PMID:21545885

  10. Retail Pricing Patterns and Driving Factors of Price Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Chenguang; Volpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the strategic pricing behaviors across retail chains for produce products. We adopt a Panel-VAR model to identify the driving factors of retail price variation and find that retail price history, competition, product cost are among the key drivers of retail price change. Forecast Error Variance Decomposition (FEVD) is used to quantify the relative impact of driving factors to retail price changes and show how they affect prices differently across retail chains. We also fin...

  11. Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Schweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and pedals in a 3.0 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI system. To identify the brain areas involved while performing different real-world driving maneuvers, participants completed tasks ranging from simple (right turns to more complex (left turns at busy intersections. To assess the effects of driving while distracted, participants were asked to perform an auditory task while driving analogous to speaking on a hands-free device and driving. Results: A widely distributed brain network was identified, especially when making left turns at busy intersections compared to more simple driving tasks. During distracted driving, brain activation shifted dramatically from the posterior, visual and spatial areas to the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the distracted brain sacrificed areas in the posterior brain important for visual attention and alertness to recruit enough brain resources to perform a secondary, cognitive task. The present findings offer important new insights into the scientific understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of driving behavior and lay down an important foundation for future clinical research.

  12. What is strenuous? Driving itself or the driving situation?

    OpenAIRE

    Schießl, Caroline; Vollrath, Mark; Altmüller, Tobias; Dambier, Michael; Kornblum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    To avoid driver overload, assistance systems can be adapted regarding the driver’s current strain. Physiological and performance workload measures require special sensors and are problematic concerning sensitivity and specificity. Within the presented study the driver’s stress level was estimated in real-driving based on an analysis of different driving manoeuvres and environmental factors. The analyses show that different driving manoeuvres result in significantly different subjective strain...

  13. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  15. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  16. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  17. Driving experience moderates the effect of implicit versus explicit threat priming on hazard perception test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Yaakov; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2016-07-01

    Due to the controversial evidence regarding the efficacy of threat campaigns on driving behavior, we addressed the effects of explicit vs. implicit threats. As in other areas of advertisements, we hypothesized that an implicit threat would be more effective, i.e., generate more anxiety than an explicit threat. Furthermore, we hypothesized that such effects would be moderated by driving experience: more experienced drivers when threatened will rely on driving skills and perform in a less cautious manner vs. less experienced drivers who have not yet acquired these skills, and therefore will tend to calm their fear by exercising more caution. Driving behavior in this experimental design was addressed by the Hazard Perception (HP) task. Results were as expected. Anxiety was higher under implicit vs. explicit threat. HP scores however were overall the same for both groups. Implicit priming generated less-cautious behavior in high-experienced drivers while generating more caution for less-experienced drivers. Demonstrating in a single experiment all three driving patterns following threat, namely, no change in driving behavior (whole sample), more cautious driving behavior (less-experience) and less cautious behavior (more-experience), potentially comprises an important step in resolving the aforementioned disparity concerning effects of threat campaigns on driving behavior. PMID:27042988

  18. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  19. Quantum effects in warp drives

    OpenAIRE

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an expon...

  20. Searching in Lists While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Koerner, Julia

    2006-01-01

    More and more in-vehicle systems are rapidly becoming commercially available, making the driving task more and more complex. Driving performance in such multiple-task situations depends primarily on the level of task demands imposed on the driver by certain situations. The higher the perceived task difficulty, the higher the workload level of that individual. The aim of this dissertation was therefore to investigate possible trade-offs between primary task (driving) and secondary task (se...

  1. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  2. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... converter losses and its size so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and...

  3. Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator--A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallvig, David; Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Karlsson, Johan G; Wahde, Mattias; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving. This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants. The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution. PMID:23149323

  4. A three year outcome evaluation of a theory based drink driving education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, M; Schonfeld, C; Ballard, R; Schofield, F; Najman, J; Siskind, V

    1996-01-01

    This study reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to grade ten high school students. The program which involves twelve lessons uses strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students were trained to use alternatives to drink driving and passenger behaviors. One thousand seven hundred and seventy-four students who had been taught the program in randomly assigned control and intervention schools were followed up three years later. There had been a major reduction in drink driving behaviors in both intervention and control students. In addition to this cohort change there was a trend toward reduced drink driving in the intervention group and a significant reduction in passenger behavior in this group. Readiness to use alternatives suggested that the major impact of the program was on students who were experimenting with the behavior at the time the program was taught. The program seems to have optimized concurrent social attitude and behavior change. PMID:8952213

  5. Heat resistant driving coil and control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic materials are used for each part of driving coils and used as the driving coils for a driving shaft. That is, a cylindrical bobbin having outwardly protruding flanges on the entire circumference at the upper and the lower portions is made of stainless steels. Ceramics sheets are appended as necessary to the outer circumferential surface of the bobbin. Then, ceramic electric wires are wound around the outer circumference of the bobbin by a required number of turns to constitute coils. The electric wire is prepared by coating the conductor of nickel-plated copper with ceramic coating material, disposing an insulation material to the outer circumference thereof the further coating the outside with ceramic coating material. This can improve the heat resistance and, since the control rod drives using such heat resistant driving coils can operate at a high temperature. It requires no cooling device and can simplify the reactor and its peripheral structures. (T.M.)

  6. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P.

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  7. Foucault Pendulum without Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoshifumi

    2016-06-01

    Foucault pendulums are two-dimensional harmonic oscillators to which the Coriolis force is applied. The Foucault parameter ΩF is the ideal rate of rotation of the plane of oscillation due to the Coriolis force. Kamerlingh Onnes pointed out that the actual behavior of Foucault pendulums can be understood only by taking into account the unavoidable mechanical asymmetry, i.e., the difference between the frequency in the X-direction and that in the Y-direction, which is called the asymmetry parameter δ. Our equations of motion for Foucault pendulums are linear and their solutions are easily obtained. We are interested in slowly varying rotations of the plane of oscillation, where the angle of rotation is denoted by φ. The motion of the bob consists of rapid simple oscillations and the slow rotations mentioned above. Eliminating the rapid oscillations, we obtain an analytic expression for tan 2φ, which is a periodic function with period π /√{Ω {F}2 + δ 2} . The graphs of the rotation φ versus time t have two distinct appearances. Under the condition ΩF ≥ δ|cos(2θ)| (θ is the initial value of φ), φ decreases monotonically, which is the behavior expected for Foucault pendulums. Otherwise φ repeatedly increases and decreases, which is the behavior of pendulums describing Lissajous figures. The vertical component of angular momentum is also calculated analytically.

  8. Detonation drive pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detonation drive pellet injector has been developed and tested. By this method the free piston is not necessary because the pellet accelerated the high pressure shock directly. In the experiment, the Teflon pellet (5 mm dia., 5 mm length) was accelerated by hydrogen, oxygen and dilution gas mixtured detonation. When the gas pressure was only 500 kPa and the mixture rates of hydrogen, oxygen and helium were 3:6:1 or 3:6:0, the Teflon pellet speed was up to 747 m/s. Typical experimental results over 300 kPa of the initial gas pressure range are 78--92% of the one-dimensional calculational values. It showed that the pellet could be accelerated by a relative low pressure gas. When the helium dilution rate is larger than 20%, it was often found the strong detonation of which speed is more than the Chapman-Jouguet speed. Then the pellet speed above 1,100 m/s was obtained

  9. Induction-drive magnetohydrodynamic propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for marine applications is reviewed with emphasis on induction-drive systems such as the open-quotes rippleclose quotes motor. Comparisons are made with direct-drive MHD propulsion systems. Application to pumps for hazardous fluids and liquid-metal coolants is also discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: NIDA for Teens Past Issues Most Viewed February 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, ...

  11. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  12. Warp Drive With Zero Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Natario, Jose

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding space behind it. We show that this expansion/contraction is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre, and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  13. Risky driving and recorded driving offences: a 24-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summala, Heikki; Rajalin, Sirpa; Radun, Igor

    2014-12-01

    Permanent individual differences in driver behavior and accident risk have long been under active debate. Cognitive and personality factors have correlated with risky driving indicators in cross-sectional studies, and prospective cohort studies are now increasingly revealing early antecedents of risky behavior and injury mortality in adult age, with connections to stable personality traits. However, long-term stability in driver behavior or accident involvement has not been documented in a general driver population.This study reports 24-year follow-up data from a study that compared the recorded offenses between 134 drivers stopped by the police because of sustained risky driving and 121 control drivers stopped at the same locations at the same time in 1987 (Rajalin, 1994. Accid. Anal. Prev., 26, 555-562). Data were compiled from national driver records and accident statistics for the same drivers again 24 years later, and their yearly mileage and speed behavior was requested in a mail survey. The results showed that the two groups of drivers sampled on one trip a quarter of a century ago still differ from each other. The offenders still have more entries in their driver record, also when adjusted for age and mileage (OR=1.59, CI=1.03-2.46), they still report in the survey that they drive faster and overtake other cars more often. The results show that individual differences in driver behavior persist for decades, perhaps for life. However, in this on-road sample, the effect seems to be moderated by occupation which also presumably explains the lower mortality among the offenders during this 24-year follow-up. PMID:25171522

  14. [Driving and health at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times. PMID:25960440

  15. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  16. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  17. 自然驾驶条件下驾驶人换道行为实时预测%Real-time prediction of lane-changing behaviors under naturalistic driving condtions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭金栓; 付锐; 郭应时

    2015-01-01

    为降低车道变换的风险性,提出一种基于驾驶人视觉特性与车辆运动状态预测车道变换行为的方法. 应用视觉追踪系统、毫米波雷达等仪器设备,进行了真实环境下的实车驾驶试验. 基于换道前驾驶人后视镜注视特性确定换道意图时窗大小为5 s,构建换道行为预测的表征指标体系. 设计BP神经网络结构,构建换道行为预测模型. 结果表明:模型可以至少提前1.5 s预测驾驶人的换道行为,且预测精度达到95.58%. 与基于转向灯状态预测驾驶人换道行为相比,其预测精度及时序特性均有显著提升,证明了预测指标及预测方法的有效性.%To reduce the risk of lane changing behaviors, based upon drivers' visual characteristics and vehicle motion states, a method for lane change prediction is proposed. By using visual tracking system, millimeter-wave radar and so on, the research group conducts experiments under real road environment. Based on drivers' fixation characteristics of the rearview mirrors before lane change occurs, lane changing intent time window is determined as 5 s, the characteristic index for predict lane changing behavior is further built. By designing BP neural network, the lane change prediction model is constructed. Results show that the model may predict drivers ' lane changing behavior for at least 1.5 s in advance, and the prediction accuracy can reach 95.58%. As compared to predict lane change behavior via turn signals, the prediction accuracy and time series characteristics are both improved remarkably, thus verifying the effectiveness of the predictive index and method.

  18. Built Environment Influences on Healthy Transportation Choices: Bicycling versus Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, Meghan; Brauer, Michael; Setton, Eleanor M.; Teschke, Kay

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, tri...

  19. U.S. State and Federal Laws Targeting Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Chase, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has burgeoned with the proliferation of cell phones, global positioning systems and other in-vehicle and personal electronic devices. Annually more than 3,300 people are killed and an additional 400,000 are injured in the United States in distracted driving crashes. The United States (U.S.) federal and state governments have responded to this public health problem with policies and laws; however, a more comprehensive and more effective approach is still needed. Some restrictions on the use of electronic devices while driving by federal employees and some voluntary guidelines and recommendations have been issued. Public opinion polls show support for addressing the issue of distracted driving with state laws. The majority of states have laws banning text messaging while driving and prohibiting the use of an electronic device by teenage or novice drivers. Some states prohibit all drivers from using a hand-held cellphone. Currently no state has a total ban on the use of personal electronic devices while driving. Successful past traffic safety campaigns changing driver behavior have demonstrated the necessity to adopt a “three Es” approach of Enactment of a law, Education of the public about the law, and rigorous Enforcement of the law. Experience reveals that this approach, along with future federal regulation of in-vehicle electronic devices and the employment of technology to limit the use of electronic devices while driving, is needed to alter personal behavior in order to reduce distractions and keep drivers focused on the driving task. PMID:24776229

  20. Semiclassical instability of warp drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warp drives, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to construct them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. In this contribution we will report on the behaviour of the Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor (RSET) in the spacetimes associated with superluminal warp drives. We find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, hence strongly supporting the conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction.

  1. Control rod drive for high temperature gas cooled reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengJun-Xian; XuJi-Ming; 等

    1998-01-01

    This control rod drive is developed for HTR-10 high temperature gas cooled test reactor.The stepmotor is prefered to improve positioning of the control rod and the scram behavior.The preliminary test in 1600170 ambient temperature shows that the selected stepmotor and transmission system can meet the main operation function requirements of HTR-10.

  2. Roller-chain Drives Mechanics using Multibody Dynamics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosio, Jorge A. C.; Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    An integrated model for the simulation of roller-chain drives based on a multibody dynamics methodology is presented here in order to describeits complex dynamic behavior. The chain is modeled by masses lumped at the roller locations and connected by translational spring-damper elements in order ...

  3. No-Pass, No-Drive Laws Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades or so, a majority of states have implemented policies that link teenagers' driver's licenses to school attendance, academic performance, or behavior, but those requirements are not backed by solid research evidence. Experts trace the start of the trend to 1988, when West Virginia enacted a law linking driving privileges…

  4. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety. PMID:20432083

  5. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda;

    2015-01-01

    power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts to the...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the...

  6. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  7. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  8. Optimal Drunk Driving Penalty Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Darren Grant

    2007-01-01

    The expected penalty for drunk driving can and does vary by blood alcohol content. This paper outlines the "penalty structure" that does this optimally, using two different metrics, shows how the optimality conditions can be implemented with available data to analyze policy ex ante or ex post, and then uses these findings to investigate four fundamental features of current U.S. drunk driving policy. The paper provides theoretical and empirical support for large penalties at very high alcohol ...

  9. Warp drive with zero expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Natario, J

    2002-01-01

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  10. Warp drive with zero expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed

  11. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  12. Neural substrates of driving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, H. J.; Maguire, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Driving a vehicle is an indispensable daily behaviour for many people, yet we know little about how it is supported by the brain. Given that driving in the real world involves the engagement of many cognitive systems that rapidly change to meet varying environmental demands, identifying its neural basis presents substantial problems. By employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK) a...

  13. Using Naturalistic Driving Data to Examine Age and Gender Differences on Seat Belt Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, S.; H. Xiong; SAYER, J; Buonarosa, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Teens and young drivers are often reported as one driver group that has significantly lower seatbelt use rates than other age groups. Objective This study was designed to address the questions of whether and how seatbelt-use behavior of novice teen drivers is different from young adult drivers and other adult drivers when driving on real roads. Method Driving data from 148 drivers who participated in two previous naturalistic driving studies were further analyzed. The combined dataset represe...

  14. Parallel Diagnosis Model of Fatigue Driving Based on Vehicle Running Status

    OpenAIRE

    Shuanfeng Zhao; Guanghua Xu; Wei Guo

    2013-01-01

    To replenish the drowsy driving samples, the parallel diagnostic model with model analysis and signal analysis is developed for the fatigue driving prediction. The preview optimal artificial neural network and driver fatigue behavior model are applied to make mathematical models of the drowsy driving. The fatigue model for forward analysis is able to achieve the vehicle running status data, e.g. Steering wheel angle, the vehicle's yaw rate, lateral acceleration and other running parameters wh...

  15. Considerations of a Dual-systems Model of Cognitive Development and Risky Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E Lambert; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Cain, Sarah A.; Weisz, Sarah; Cox, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-systems model of adolescent risk-taking postulates that risk-taking during adolescence partially results from an imbalance in the development of the executive and the socio-emotional cognitive systems. While supported by behavioral and neuroanatomical data, translational research linking the model with real-world driving or laboratory driving simulation is sparse. This paper discusses the model as it relates to adolescent driving and reviews empirical studies that have applied it in ...

  16. An Overview of Methods and Key Findings from the NTDS: The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Methods and Selected Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, C.; Guo, Feng; Lee, S; Ouimet, Marie-Claude; Albert, P.S.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) ...

  17. Movable coil type magnetic drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In movable coil type magnetic drives suitable to reactor control element drives, if it is intended to increase the retaining force thereof, there has been a problem that the size of the device is increased. Then in electromagnetic coils surrounding a plunger mounted to a driving shaft, auxiliary annular poles are disposed to each of inner ends of poles at both ends of the coils so as to cover almost of the surface on the side of the plunger. As a result, the magnetic bonding force between the electromagnetic coils and the plunger is enhanced, and the retaining force for the driving shaft can be increased by a small sized device without increasing current supplied to the electromagnetic coils and the number of the electromagnetic coils. The present invention is not limited to reactor control element drives, but it can be applied to various kinds of fields such as a driving device for moving materials in contactless manner, for example, in a case of removing drum cans containing radioactive materials or harmful materials. (N.H.)

  18. PHENOMENON OF CARVED DRIVING WHEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghua; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    A newly found phenomenon of carved driving wheels of a rea-wheel-drive tractor used in an airport is discussed. The circum of every driving wheel is damaged at three regions, which distribute regularly and uniformly. Everyday, the tractor tows a trailer which are times heavier than the tractor, and moves on the same road in the airport. The phenomenon is explained by the torsional self-excited vibration system of the powertrain. The simplified torsional vibration system is discribed by a 2-order ordinary differential equation, which has a limit circle. Experiments and numerical simulations show the followings: Because of the heavy trailer, the slip ratio of the tractor's driving wheels is very large. Therefore, there is severe torsional self-excited vibration in the tractor's drivetrain, and the self-excited vibration results in severe and regular fluctuations of the rear wheel's velocity. The severe fluctuations in velocity fastens the damage of the driving wheels. At the same time, the time interval in which an arbitrary point in the circum of the driving wheel contacts with the road twice is two times more than the period of the torsional self-excited vibration, and this times explained the existence of three damaged regions. At last, it points out that the phenomenon can be avoided when the torsional damping is large enough.

  19. Drowsy Driving: Asleep at the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a major problem in the United States. The risk, danger, and often tragic results of drowsy driving are alarming. Drowsy driving is the dangerous combination of driving and sleepiness or fatigue. This usually happens when a driver has not ...

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.58 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Teen Drinking and Driving A Dangerous Mix Recommend on ... Drinking and driving can be deadly, especially for teens Fewer teens are drinking and driving, but this ...

  1. Correspondence between self-reported and objective measures of driving exposure and patterns in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robin A; Myers, Anita M; Porter, Michelle M

    2010-03-01

    The driving behavior of older adults has been traditionally examined using questionnaires and diaries. The accuracy of self-reports has been questioned, and in-vehicle recording devices touted as more objective measures of real-world driving. The purposes of this study were to replicate and extend prior research comparing self-report and actual measures of driving exposure and patterns. Two electronic devices were installed in the vehicles of 61 drivers (67-92 years, 59% women) who were instructed to drive as usual over 1-week. Participants completed trip logs, daily diaries, a questionnaire on usual driving habits, ratings of situational driving frequency and avoidance and a follow-up interview. Only 53% of the sample attempted to estimate how far they had driven over the week and self-estimates were inaccurate (ME=77.5 km; CV=44.5%). Drivers tended to miss a significant number of trips and stops in their diaries. Driving behavior over the week was fairly consistent with usual practices regarding time of day, driving in certain areas, and night driving. However, subjects drove in challenging situations more than usual. Triangulating multiple sources of electronic and self-reported data provided a better understanding about the behavior of older drivers. PMID:20159076

  2. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  3. Parallel Diagnosis Model of Fatigue Driving Based on Vehicle Running Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanfeng Zhao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To replenish the drowsy driving samples, the parallel diagnostic model with model analysis and signal analysis is developed for the fatigue driving prediction. The preview optimal artificial neural network and driver fatigue behavior model are applied to make mathematical models of the drowsy driving. The fatigue model for forward analysis is able to achieve the vehicle running status data, e.g. Steering wheel angle, the vehicle's yaw rate, lateral acceleration and other running parameters when the driver is fatigue. The driving fatigue model for inverse analysis is able to achieve the driver's state based on the vehicle running status data. To extract necessary characteristics of risk driving state, a method based on steering angle index (Amp_D2_Theta and steering wheel angular velocity index (Amp_D2_Theta is developed in this paper. It can overcome limitations of using a single index to describe the fatigue driving behavior. A comprehensive set of fatigue driving simulation tests is conducted to verify feasibilities of the parallel diagnostic model for fatigue driving. Driving simulator’s experimental results show that the parallel diagnostic model in driving fatigue diagnosis is feasible and efficient.

  4. An empirical study on behavior intention of leading enterprise driving farmer ’s organization---On basis of TPB theory and leading enterprises survey in Jilin Province%龙头企业牵头合作经济组织行为意向的实证分析--基于TPB理论与吉林省龙头企业微观调查数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楠

    2013-01-01

    基于TPB理论和吉林省101家龙头企业微观调查数据,利用因子分析和结构方程模型,系统分析了龙头企业牵头合作经济组织行为意向的影响因素。研究表明, TPB理论能够很好地解释龙头企业牵头合作经济组织的行为意愿,企业的行为态度、主观规范和感知行为控制与行为意愿呈显著性正相关;龙头企业缺乏牵头合作经济组织的直接行为动力;政府行为在龙头企业的经济决策中影响很大;龙头企业由于资源禀赋不足表现出较弱的行为控制认知。%Based on TPB theory and micro survey data from 101 leading enterprises in Jilin province, the paper systematically analyzes the factors influencing behavior intention of leading enterprise ’ s driving cooperative economic organization by using factor analysis and struc-tural equation model (SEM) The research shows that, TPB theory explains leading enterprise ’ s behavior intention very well, and there is a positive correlation between enterprise’ s behavior intention and behavior attitude, subjective norm and behavior control awareness. Leading enterprises lack direct power of driving farmer’ s organizations. Government policy plays an important role in leading enterprises’ decision making. Leading enterprises show weak behavior control awareness for resources shortage.

  5. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  6. Model of Human Vehicle Driving - a Predictive Nonlinear Optimization Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Prokop, Günther

    2000-01-01

    When driving a vehicle the human acts as a controller in a highly dynamic environment. Thus human behavior in that control loop has to a large extent been described using control theoretical methodology. We develop a driver model, in which driving is seen as a model predictive control task in such a way that the driver accumulates knowledge about his/her vehicle's handling properties. He/she builds a model out of that knowledge and uses it to predict the vehicle's future reactions on his/her ...

  7. Texting While Driving: Does the New Law Work Among Healthcare Providers?

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Anitha Elizabeth; Houry, Debra; Christopher J. Dente; Salomone, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed whether Georgia Senate Bill 360, a statewide law passed in August, 2010, that prohibits text messaging while driving, resulted in a decrease in this behavior among emergency medicine (EM) and general surgery (GS) healthcare providers. Methods: SurveyMonkey was used to create a web-based survey containing up to 28 multiple choice and free-text questions about driving behaviors. EM and GS healthcare provid...

  8. Effects of Gender on Presence and Virtual Driver Perception in Driving Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    DARTY, Kevin; Saunier, Julien; Sabouret, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators are routinely used by researchers to study driver behavior. However, (limited) previous research has shown that the user gender may modify the perception, or even usability of these devices. For example, [Mourant 00] shows that men and women have different sensitivity to simulator sickness. These differences are liable to introduce biases in behavior studies and other virtual reality applications such as driver training. The validity of driving simulators depends on a numbe...

  9. The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    DiLeone, Ralph J.; Taylor, Jane R.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2012-01-01

    The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive beha...

  10. Characteristics of on-road driving by persons with central vision loss: Learning to drive with a bioptic telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Elgin, Jennifer; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research on the driving performance and safety of bioptic drivers and even less regarding the driving skills that are most challenging for those learning to drive with bioptic telescopes. This research consisted of case studies of five trainee bioptic drivers whose driving skills were compared with those of a group of licensed bioptic drivers (n = 23) while they drove along city, suburban, and controlled-access highways in an instrumented dual-brake vehicle. A certified driver rehabilitation specialist was positioned in the front passenger seat to monitor safety and two backseat evaluators independently rated driving using a standardized scoring system. Other aspects of performance were assessed through vehicle instrumentation and video recordings. Results demonstrate that while sign recognition, lane keeping, steering steadiness, gap judgments, and speed choices were significantly worse in trainees, some driving behaviors and skills, including pedestrian detection and traffic light recognition were not significantly different from those of the licensed drivers. These data provide useful insights into the skill challenges encountered by a small sample of trainee bioptic drivers which, while not generalizable because of the small sample size, provide valuable insights beyond that of previous studies and can be used as a basis to guide training strategies. PMID:26480232

  11. Alcohol dose effects on brain circuits during simulated driving: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A; Calhoun, Vince D; Astur, Robert S; Turner, Beth M; Ruopp, Kathryn; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2009-04-01

    Driving while intoxicated remains a major public health hazard. Driving is a complex task involving simultaneous recruitment of multiple cognitive functions. The investigators studied the neural substrates of driving and their response to different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality driving simulator. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate spatially independent and temporally correlated driving-related brain circuits in 40 healthy, adult moderate social drinkers. Each subject received three individualized, separate single-blind doses of beverage alcohol to produce BACs of 0.05% (moderate), 0.10% (high), or 0% (placebo). 3 T fMRI scanning and continuous behavioral measurement occurred during simulated driving. Brain function was assessed and compared using both ICA and a conventional general linear model (GLM) analysis. ICA results replicated and significantly extended our previous 1.5T study (Calhoun et al. [2004a]: Neuropsychopharmacology 29:2097-2017). GLM analysis revealed significant dose-related functional differences, complementing ICA data. Driving behaviors including opposite white line crossings and mean speed independently demonstrated significant dose-dependent changes. Behavior-based factors also predicted a frontal-basal-temporal circuit to be functionally impaired with alcohol dosage across baseline scaled, good versus poorly performing drivers. We report neural correlates of driving behavior and found dose-related spatio-temporal disruptions in critical driving-associated regions including the superior, middle and orbito frontal gyri, anterior cingulate, primary/supplementary motor areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Overall, results suggest that alcohol (especially at high doses) causes significant impairment of both driving behavior and brain functionality related to motor planning and control, goal directedness, error monitoring, and memory. PMID:18571794

  12. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  13. The warp drive and antigravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2004-01-01

    The warp drive envisioned by Alcubierre that can move a spaceship faster than light can, with modification, levitate it as if it were lighter than light, even allow it to go below a black hole's horizon and return unscathed. Wormhole-like versions of the author's `drainhole' (1973) might provide the drive, in the form of a by-pass of the spaceship composed of a multitude of tiny topological tunnels. The by-pass would divert the gravitational `ether' into a sink covering part of the spaceship'...

  14. Warp drives, wavefronts and superluminality

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Coule's primary objection to the Alcubierre "warpdrive" is that the material producing the warp field needs to be superluminal. This difficulty is solved by placing the drive material inside its own warp field (making the drive system part of the payload), but we then have to deal with Low's related objection, that there is then a restricted rate at which this "naked" warp-field can propagate through the background metric. We argue that the propagation of this sort of gravitational wave is no...

  15. The onset of driving phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjack, D J

    1984-12-01

    Thirty driving phobics who called the Psychiatry Outpatient Phobia Clinic (25 females and five males) were given a 20-min semi-standardized telephone interview during which they were asked about the circumstances of the onset of their driving fears. Twelve (40%) reported that their fears were precipitated by a panic attack on the freeway; six (20%) by a collision; and three (10%) by other frightening experiences in automobiles. Four (13.3%) related the onset to family stress or upheaval. Other modes of onset also occurred. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of existing theories of fear acquisition and treatment approaches. PMID:6526942

  16. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  17. Driving under the influence of non-alcohol drugs--An update. Part II: Experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, M C; Gjerde, H; Mørland, J

    2016-07-01

    Experimental studies on the impairing effects of drugs of relevance to driving-related performance published between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Studies with on-the-road driving, driving simulators, and performance tests were included for benzodiazepines and related drugs, cannabis, opioids, stimulants, GHB, ketamine, antihistamines, and antidepressants. The findings in these experimental studies were briefly discussed in relation to a review of epidemiological studies published recently. The studies mainly concluded that there may be a significant psychomotor impairment after using benzodiazepines or related drugs, cannabis, opioids, GHB, or ketamine. Low doses of central stimulants did not seem to cause impairment of driving behavior. PMID:27257716

  18. Research on Optimization of Vehicle Driving Based on Energy-saving and Low-carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of vehicle driving can reduce energy consumption and carbon emission. According to differences of vehicle braking mode, two driving situations are proposed. In this context, vehicle energy-consumption models based on energy consumption minimization are built and the soft such as MATLAB is employed to solve the models. By calculating, minimal energy-consumption value and related variable values on different driving distances are got, which contribute to guiding drivers taking energy-consumption driving behaviors. Finally conclusions are drawn by comparing and analyzing results of optimization under two situations.

  19. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  20. Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-04-01

    A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.

  1. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  2. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position

  3. Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actions individuals can take to mitigate climate change are, in the aggregate, significant. Mobilizing individuals to respond personally to climate change, therefore, must be a complementary approach to a nation's climate change strategy. One action item overlooked in the United States has been changing driver behavior or style such that eco-driving becomes the norm rather than the exception. Evidence to date indicates that eco-driving can reduce fuel consumption by 10%, on average and over time, thereby reducing CO2 emissions from driving by an equivalent percentage. A sophisticated, multi-dimensional campaign, going well beyond what has been attempted thus far, will be required to achieve such savings on a large scale, however, involving education (especially involving the use of feedback devices), regulation, fiscal incentives, and social norm reinforcement.

  4. The relationship between four-wheel drives and risky driving behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the increased number of four wheel drive (4WD vehicles in Qatar and their involvement in crashes, casualties and road fatalities, it is important to understand the association between risky driving behavior and 4WD crashes. Aim/Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between risky driving behaviours and 4WD vehicles and its impact on road traffic accidents in the State of Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique to recruit 1824 drivers of two wheel drive (small cars and 4WD across different primary health centres (PHCs in Qatar. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and Driver Skill Inventory (DSI were used to collect the data. Information regarding socio-demographic and road traffic crashes during last three years was also obtained. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Results: 762 (41.8% owned 4WD vehicles. Drivers of 4WD were significantly higher between 30-50 years age (P < 0.001, urban dwellers (P = 0.003, having more driving experience (atleast 5 years (P < 0.001 and annual mileage higher than the drivers of small cars (P < 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of 4WD drivers had previous penalties for traffic violations such as crossing a red traffic signal (51.6% vs. 21.4%; P < 0.001 or exceeding the speed limit (35% vs. 27.8%; P < 0.001. A higher proportion of 4WDs' drivers reported previous involvement in accidents as compared to the drivers of small cars (42.4% vs. 35.7%; p 0.004. The risk of accident involvement was 1.21 times higher among drivers of 4WD as compared to the counterparts (OR 1.21; 95%CI; 1.01-1.46. Besides, excessive speed, annual mileage, male gender, traffic violations, lapses, errors and driving skills were significantly associated with crashes. Conclusion: The drivers of 4WD cars are at higher risk of crashes as compared to the drivers of small cars. Also, they have

  5. Evaluation, Generation, and Transformation of Driving Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Driving cycles are important components for evaluation and design of vehicles. They determine the focus of vehicle manufacturers, and indirectly they affect the environmental impact of vehicles since the vehicle control system is usually tuned to one or several driving cycles. Thus, the driving cycle affects the design of the vehicle since cost, fuel consumption, and emissions all depend on the driving cycle used for design. Since the existing standard driving cycles cannot keep up with the c...

  6. Driving Under the Influence of Our Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies intergenerational correlations in drunk driving between fathers and their children using the Stockholm Birth Cohort. We find strong evidence of an intergenerational drunk driving relationship. Cohort members who have fathers with a drunk driving record have 2.59 times higher odds of having a drunk driving conviction themselves than cohort members with non-drunk driving fathers. We then go on to investigate the underlying mechanisms that give rise to these correlations. The ...

  7. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy;

    2015-01-01

    concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents' (especially the fathers') sensation...... to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents' model for risky driving, and peers norms' of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents......The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data...

  8. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  9. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  10. Death Drive in Tourism Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina

    2014-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive refers to a constant metapsychological force at the junction between life and death: it is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Geographies of tourist performances in places in the proximity of

  11. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  12. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  13. Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics Mental Health, Aggression and Driving Habits in Dangerous Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadpoor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, all kinds of people need vehicles for performing their daily activities. The need for use of these vehicles for transportation frequently leads to a high rate of road accidents and it seems that certain people do not have enough ability to use these vehicles. Dangerous behaviors lead to financial and life risking irreparable damages. Methods: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The researchers chose 110 injured men drivers and asked them to complete the Manchester Driving Behavior, Type A Characteristic, Ahvaz Aggressive and Mental Health questionnaires. The data was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation and Regression Analysis. Results: The findings showed that there is a significant relation between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The regression analysis also foresees the aggressive and mental health of testers’ dangerous driving behavior. Meanwhile, Type A characteristic is not able to foresee driving behaviors. Conclusion: Risky driving is a phenomenon that leads to many irreparable damages for the society and individual. Present study suggests that in order to reduce dangers and probable damages, procurement of driving license procedures should be prolonged and drivers should be regularly assessed psychologically (personal or public. Risky drivers or the attackers who need education or consultation should attend education-consultation programs.

  14. Drive for muscularity and disordered eating among French adolescent boys: a sociocultural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Ganchou, Camille; Franko, Debra L; Chabrol, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The pursuit of muscularity is an important body image concern among boys which has been described within sociocultural models of risk for eating disorders. This study explored a sociocultural model of disordered eating in which drive for thinness and pursuit of muscularity were both pathways to disordered eating among French adolescent boys. A sample of 146 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing drive for thinness, drive for muscularity, media-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and sociocultural pressure. The model was a good fit to the data and both drive for thinness and the pursuit of muscularity were related to disordered eating. Furthermore, internalization and appearance comparison mediated the relationships between pressure to increase muscle and both drive for muscularity and drive for thinness. Longitudinal research could help clarify the role of the pursuit of muscularity in the development of disordered eating and extreme body shape changing behaviors. PMID:22494958

  15. Statistical Properties of Car Following: Theory and Driving Simulator Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Hiromasa; Zgonnikov, Arkady; Saito, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A fair simple car driving simulator was created based on the open source engine TORCS and used in car-following experiments aimed at studying the basic features of human behavior in car driving. Four subjects with different skill in driving real cars participated in these experiments. The subjects were instructed to drive a car without overtaking and losing sight of a lead car driven by computer at a fixed speed. Based on the collected data the distributions of the headway distance, the car velocity, acceleration, and jerk are constructed and compared with the available experimental data for the real traffic flow. A new model for the car-following is proposed to capture the found properties. As the main result, we draw a conclusion that human actions in car driving should be categorized as generalized intermittent control with noise-driven activation. Besides, we hypothesize that the car jerk together with the car acceleration are additional phase variables required for describing the dynamics of car motion g...

  16. Variable-reluctance motor drives for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J. H.; Vallese, F. J.

    1985-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the design of a variable reluctance motor drive having high specific torque, power output and efficiency. Models are developed that describe the magnetic terminal relations of the VRM. These models are based on a flux-tube analysis that is motivated by numerically obtained finite-difference magnetic simulations. The result is a model for the flux-linkage/phase-current characteristic of the VRM. Intrinsic to this model is the estimation of maximum and minimum inductance as well the incremental inductance during bulk saturation. Also fundamental is the behavior of the flux linkage during local pole-tip saturation and due to bulk core saturation. The drive-oriented treatment of modelling and design uncovered important design interactions between the VRM, its inverter, and its excitation. The experimental 3.8-kW drive operated as expected, verifying the models and the design optimizations developed for VRM drives. These experimental results were projected to the 60-kW level, indicating that a 60-kW drive could be constructed with a VRM having a mass of approximately 65 kg, and an efficiency in excess of 95% at and below peak power output.

  17. AC drives for industrial plants. Plant kudoyo AC drive sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Features and product series of AC drives for industrial plants were outlined. Configurations and features of various types of AC drives were briefly discussed which are put into market to meet various requirements for industrial plants and wide ranges of output voltage and capacity. The following product series were outlined; the power bipolar transistor inverter for 3.5-600 kVA in output capacity, IGBT inverter for AC 400 V in output voltage and 1,000 kVA or less, GTO inverter for AC 600 V and 700-2,000 kVA, and cycloconverter for AC 1,000-3,000 V and 1,000 kW-20 MW. The following subjects were outlined as current technical trends of AC drives for industrial plants; increasing in capacity of voltage-source PWM inverters, downsizing of converters through highly efficient cooling and highly dense mounting, spreading of sensorless vector controls, and development of high-voltage large-capacity PWM inverters. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Isolated cell behavior drives the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Dudley, Carmel; Vega, Nicole M.; Gore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial antibiotic resistance is typically quantified by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), which is defined as the minimal concentration of antibiotic that inhibits bacterial growth starting from a standard cell density. However, when antibiotic resistance is mediated by degradation, the collective inactivation of antibiotic by the bacterial population can cause the measured MIC to depend strongly on the initial cell density. In cases where this inoculum effect is strong, the rela...

  19. Do minimum wages really increase youth drinking and drunk driving?

    OpenAIRE

    SABIA, JOSEPH J.; Pitts, M. Melinda; Argys, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Adams, Blackburn, and Cotti (ABC) found that increases in minimum wages were positively related to drunk driving-related traffic fatalities for those ages 16 to 20. The hypothesized mechanism for this relationship - increased alcohol consumption caused by minimum wage - induced income gains - remains empirically unexplored. Using data from two national behavioral surveys and an identification strategy identical to ABC, we find little evidence that an increase in the minimum wage leads to incr...

  20. Driving convection by a temperature gradient or a heat current

    OpenAIRE

    Matura, P.; Luecke, M

    2006-01-01

    Bifurcation properties, stability behavior, dynamics, and the heat transfer of convection structures in a horizontal fluid layer that is driven away from thermal equilibrium by imposing a vertical temperature difference are compared with those resulting from imposing a heat current. In particular oscillatory convection that occurs in binary fluid mixtures in the form of travelling and standing waves is determined numerically for the two different driving mechanisms. Conditions are elucidated ...

  1. [Driving fitness/driving capacity of patients treated with methadone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri-Bionda, R; Bär, W; Friedrich-Koch, A

    1998-10-10

    To answer the question whether or not therapeutic methadone doses significantly reduce traffic-related performance of drivers on medically supervised methadone programmes, 34 methadone substitution patients, all of them volunteers, were subjected to a test series: the focus of the study was a psychophysical test battery consisting of 10 individual performance tests to assess essential functions with regard to driving ability, such as concentration, attention, reaction capability, memory, perception and sensorimotor coordination. In evaluating the results of the psychophysical tests, multiple drug use and subjective methadone influence at the time of the examination were taken into consideration but current methadone blood level was neglected. The results were compared to those of a control group. The methadone group (n = 34) consisted of 25 men and 9 women aged between 18 and 38. At the time of the study, the majority of the test persons (29) were on low dosage methadone maintenance (up to 60 mg/day). In the urine samples of approximately 2/3 of the test persons, evidence was found for multiple drug use together with other psychotropic substances, the most frequent (14) being cannabis metabolites. Referring to their driving practices, a mere 4 out of 29 drivers had not committed any driving offences. A comparison of the psychophysical performance of the whole methadone group (n = 34) with a control group demonstrated that the methadone substitution patients achieved rather lower results in almost all variables. These performance deficits were particularly conspicuous in sustained attention, sensorimotor coordination and reaction capability. 12 "methadone only" participants, i.e. methadone probands without any additional consumption of psychotropic substances showed-partly considerably-better performance than the methadone group as a whole and also achieved normal results in relation to the test norm. Nevertheless, once again, results tended to be of lower level in

  2. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  3. The warp drive and antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, H G

    2004-01-01

    The warp drive envisioned by Alcubierre that can move a spaceship faster than light can, with modification, levitate it as if it were lighter than light, even allow it to go below a black hole's horizon and return unscathed. Wormhole-like versions of the author's `drainhole' (1973) might provide the drive, in the form of a by-pass of the spaceship composed of a multitude of tiny topological tunnels. The by-pass would divert the gravitational `ether' into a sink covering part of the spaceship's hull, connected by the tunnels to a source covering the remainder of the hull, to produce an ether flow like that of a river that disappears underground only to spring forth at a point downstream. This diversion would effectively shield the spaceship from external gravity.

  4. Warp-Drive Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakahara, M; Kondo, Y; Tanimura, S; Hata, K; Nakahara, Mikio; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Kondo, Yasushi; Tanimura, Shogo; Hata, Kazuya

    2004-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that time-optimal quantum computation is attained by using the Cartan decomposition of a unitary matrix. We extend this approach by noting that the unitary group is compact. This allows us to reduce the execution time of a quantum algorithm $U_{\\rm alg}$ further by adding an extra gate $W$ to it. This gate $W$ sends $U_{\\rm alg}$ to another algorithm $WU_{\\rm alg}$ which is executable in a shorter time than $U_{\\rm alg}$. We call this technique warp-drive. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that the execution time of Grover's algorithm is reduced in two-qubit NMR quantum computer. Warp-drive is potentially a powerful tool in accelerating algorithms and reducing the errors in any realization. of a quantum computer

  5. Warp Drive: A New Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obousy, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Certain classes of higher dimensional models suggest that the Casimir Effect is a candidate for the cosmological constant. In this paper we demonstrate that a sufficiently advanced civilization could, in principal, manipulate the radius of the extra dimension to locally adjust the value of the cosmological constant. This adjustment could be tuned to generate an expansion/contraction of spacetime around a spacecraft creating an exotic form of field-propulsion. Due to the fact that spacetime expansion itself is not restricted by relativity, a faster-than-light 'warp drive' could be created. Calculations of the energy requirements of such a drive are performed and an 'ultimate' speed limit, based on the Planckian limits on the size of the extra dimensions is found.

  6. Warp drive space-time

    OpenAIRE

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the problem of the quantum stability of the two-dimensional warp drive spacetime moving with an apparent faster than light velocity is considered. We regard as a maximum extension beyond the event horizon of that spacetime its embedding in a three-dimensional Minkowskian space with the topology of the corresponding Misner space. It is obtained that the interior of the spaceship bubble becomes then a multiply connected nonchronal region with closed spacelike curves and that the m...

  7. On translating "The Sunday Drive"

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Heide

    1991-01-01

    What difficulties confront the translator of a text by William H. Gass? Apart, that is, from the difficulties known to any translator of any literary text, differences of environment, culture, and mental habits, as well as linguistic problems regarding tense, aspect, or mode? The following text will point out a few of those difficulties by facing eight paragraphs from Gass's piece "The Sunday Drive" with a German translation, each section to be followed by a commentary on the text and an eval...

  8. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kevin L.; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K.; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of centromere-specific DNA repeats in different species (centromere paradox) and the seemingly parallel rapid evolution of the cenH3 histone protein have previously been interpreted to be related to evolutionary pressures acting on both molecules based on their interaction (centromere drive hypothesis). Here we describe the detailed mechanism and chronology of centromere repeat replacement, and identify inbreeding as a major driver of centromeric DNA replacement that ultimately ...

  9. High-performance motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, José; Pérez, Marcelo; León Galván, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from...

  10. Opportunities and Cooperation Drive Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The old industrial base is lying in Northeast China. Although boasting many advantages such as talents, resources, transportation, environment, the region still have many disadvantages that needs opening up and reform. Revitalizing the Northeast region is an important task for China to built well-off society in an all-round way in the new century. It is also a big strategy made after developing costal region and western region by Chinese leaders according to current situation, which is a driving force

  11. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  12. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  13. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  14. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  15. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  16. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    system. The dynamic performances were also evaluated in a vector controlled drive for CT applications. Based on these tests, the displacement power factor control and the direct air-gap flux control appeared to be best for small HVAC applications. Energy optimal control of medium-size drives was analyzed......This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives. The...

  17. Development of portable driving simulator system

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Y; Nemoto, T.; Matsuura, H.; M. Kihira; S. Yanai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries, number of drivers who suffer from mild cognitive impairment (MCI drivers) is increasing. Since it has been reported that driving skill of the MCI drivers are deteriorated, it is important to train themselves in driving situation to preserve their driving skills. The present study was conducted to develop the simple driving simulator system, and to examine the effect of training in this system.Design/methodology/appr...

  18. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of... and enforcing distracted driving laws. The FY 2013 funds are subject to an annual obligation... FY 2013 may be less than the amount identified above. A State's distracted driving law must...

  19. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous ...

  20. Do Alcohol Warning Labels Influence Men’s and Women’s Attempts to Deter Others from Driving When Intoxicated?

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Tammy W.; Thomas K. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    Research on the federally mandated alcohol warning label has found mixed results, but some findings are consistent with a modest influence on precautionary behaviors to reduce drinkers’ self-reported drunk driving. We hypothesized that warnings would also influence the likelihood of intervening to deter other’s driving after drinking. Using data from 1376 adult drinkers in a US national survey, a conceptual model reflecting effects of exposure to the label’s drunk driving message on taking ac...

  1. Demographics, clinical characteristics and quality of life of Brazilian women with driving phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael T da; Carvalho, Marcele Regine de; Cantini, Jessye; Freire, Rafael Christophe da Rocha; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-02-01

    Driving phobia is associated with serious consequences such as restriction of freedom, career impairments and social embarrassment. The main objective of this paper is to compare clinical characteristics and quality of life between women with driving phobia and women without this phobia. These factors were assessed using structured interviews, semi-structured questionnaires, scales and inventories. We accessed diagnoses, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, anxiety traits, driving cognitions and quality of life. There was no difference between groups with regard to demographic data and driving history. Both groups were also equivalent in the number of traumatic events and accidents experienced while driving or riding. The fear of driving group showed higher state and trait anxiety scores. A high frequency of cognitive distortions can explain why people with driving phobia often engage in maladaptive safety behaviors in an attempt to protect themselves from unpredicted dangers when driving. Regarding quality of life, the control group had slightly higher scores on all subscales, but significant differences were observed for only three scales: "functional capacity", "social aspects", and "mental health". More studies with larger samples more instruments and other contexts are needed to further investigate the clinical characteristics and personality traits of people who have a fear of driving. PMID:24238932

  2. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. PMID:26310799

  3. Warp-Drive Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Mikio; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Kondo, Yasushi; Tanimura, Shogo; Hata, Kazuya

    2004-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that time-optimal quantum computation is attained by using the Cartan decomposition of a unitary matrix. We extend this approach by noting that the unitary group is compact. This allows us to reduce the execution time of a quantum algorithm $U_{\\rm alg}$ further by adding an extra gate $W$ to it. This gate $W$ sends $U_{\\rm alg}$ to another algorithm $WU_{\\rm alg}$ which is executable in a shorter time than $U_{\\rm alg}$. We call this technique warp-drive. Here we s...

  4. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2016-01-01

    perturbations. Forces were applied to the ankle joint during the early swing phase using an electrohydraulic ankle-foot orthosis. Repetitive 80 Hz electrical stimulation was applied to disrupt cutaneous feedback from the superficial peroneal nerve (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerve (foot sole) during...... anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  5. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  6. Development of a valid measurement instrument to understand self-regulatory driving practices among older drivers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Sok Foon; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Oxley, Jennifer; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd

    2016-07-01

    Self-regulatory driving is a term used to describe a strategy used by older drivers to preserve mobility and safety, through the adjustment of driving behaviors to match declining physical functions. It can be regarded as a way to prolong driving, or as a process leading to the cessation of driving. Previous studies have striven to explore and understand how older drivers self-regulate their driving. This paper aims to provide an overview of the relevant theories, to explicate the factors that contribute to the adoption of self-regulated driving and the scales used to measure self-regulatory behaviors. This paper also reports on the development and psychometric testing of a Self-Regulatory Driving Practices (SRDP) scale in the Malaysian context. Based on the reviewed theories, adoption of self-regulatory driving practices is a process and involves cognitive thinking that reflects a set of actions. Existing instruments to measure self-regulatory driving practices have been developed and used to identify the behavioral components of self-regulation. Based on literature reviews and a thematic analysis from focus group discussions, a SRDP scale was developed, accommodating the Malaysian context. There were 498 surveys completed by older drivers for further psychometric testing purposes. Results revealed that the final 12-item SRDP scale (α=0.81) consists of four subscales that are planning, avoidance, reduction and alternatives. Suggestions for future research are also recommended. PMID:27022713

  7. Understanding commercial truck drivers' decision-makin process concerning distracted driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C

    2015-05-01

    A concurrent mixed methods design was used to explore personal and workplace factors, informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, that affect truck drivers' decision-making about distracted driving on the job. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with experts in truck safety and distracted driving, and quantitative data were collected via online survey of truck drivers in the United States. Findings from the interviews illustrated how drivers perceived distractions and the importance of supervisors enforcing organizational distracted driving policies. Survey results found that behavioral intentions were most important in regards to texting and crash and near-crash outcomes, while perceived norms from management best described the correlation between dispatch device use and negative crash-related outcomes. By using a mixed methods design, rather than two separate studies, these findings revealed nuanced differences into the influence of supervisors on distracted driving. PMID:25732132

  8. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. PMID:27035394

  9. Driving under the influence…..”Of social factors”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Robert M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of the research that seeks to understand driving behavior and decision making has been performed by behavioral psychologists and engineers. These studies have a tendency to focus on the individual driver, examining such topics as road and vehicle design, cognitive skills, and the effects of collisions on the human body. This disparate research has produced a wealth of knowledge but with little unifying theory. The act of driving occurs within social environments that exist at many levels; the same act can be viewed through multiple lenses. In its exploration of the social context, this paper moves from an analysis of the global scale to the regional to the local. Our roads are monitored by police services and illegal acts are punished by judicial systems; these social institutions attempt to modify behavior through punitive measures. These punitive measures are derived from social theories of deviance and deterrence, methods shown here to be flawed. Empirical data derived from observations in Al Ain, UAE, are used in a quasi-experimental design that describes how drivers alter their choice of speed based on their observations of other drivers. This paper concludes by suggesting that, both by examining and legislating for driver behavior, there is a pressing need to situate the driver within his/her social environment.

  10. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... parameters which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping...... conditions for real chain drives. Examples are presented of both decoupled and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model and analytical results provides a framework for numerical and experimental investigations of roller chain drive motion and deepens the understanding of roller chain drive...

  11. Absorber rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns an absorber rod drive for Boiling Water Reactors, in which a mechanical drive is combined with a hydraulic drive working separately from it, so that both drives are situated concentric within an overall length. The driving torque of a motor is transmitted to a threaded spindle, which moves a free adjacent hollow piston vertically via a fixed nut. The same means are used for the hydraulic liquid which is used as coolant or moderator and there are nozzles, annular gaps and/or bores between the hydraulic system and the reactor pressure vessel for the purpose of pressure compensation. All the components of the absorber rod drive except the sealing housing and the setting drive are situated in one casing tube taking the differential pressure. (orig./HP)

  12. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “20min.ch” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “20min.ch” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  14. Design and Optimization of Gearless Drives using Multi-Physics Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh

    Many different technical areas are involved in the design process of large gearless drives for the mining industry, aiming at correctly describing the electrical-mechanical-thermal behavior of the drive. So far, these various technical areas are being treated more or less separately, and no...... gearless drives based on a multi-physics approach: a) experimental tests on the physical mill drives for verification and adjustment of the presented models are crucial, since the multi-physics models have only been compared with other mathematical models; b) 3D simulation of the thermal part in order to...... descriptions or references are found concerning the modeling of these large drives using coupled multi-physics models, which allow an overall optimization of this kind of machinery. In this framework, the goal of this thesis is to create reliable and coherent interdisciplinary mathematical models based on a...

  15. Driving Experience, Alcohol and Monotonous Simulated Driving: Behavioural, Psychophisiological and Subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Laurent; Galy, Edith; BERTHELON, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate driving performance during monotonous task depending on Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), and driving experience. Assuming that, during monotonous driving task, performance should be impaired with a BAC increased. This impairment should be more pronounced for Young Novice Drivers (YND) than for Young Experienced Drivers (YED). YND (18 years, less than two months of driving license) and YED (21 years, 3 years of driving license) were invited to participate ...

  16. Safety implications of infotainment system use in naturalistic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The use of a radio while driving has long been considered a "threshold" of distraction that is socially acceptable although it may be a factor in some crashes and near crashes. This "social acceptance" has prompted the use of radio tasks, specifically radio tuning, as "references" that should not be exceeded by other secondary and tertiary tasks that make their way into the vehicle. As new functions make their way into vehicle radios (or more advanced infotainment systems), however, it is possible that radio tasks may become distracting to a level that surpasses current driver expectations. This investigation examines the naturalistic usage of several advanced infotainment systems and examines whether usage is associated first with changes in near crash occurrence and second with changes in driving behavior. Little association was found with near crashes: 5 of 46 near crash events observed in the dataset exhibited infotainment system use. Drivers involved in infotainment system use during near crashes, however, did exhibit distinct glance behaviors, generally suggesting lower levels of awareness about their driving environment. Initial analyses of a larger dataset appear to confirm these findings. PMID:22317366

  17. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in ...

  18. Is Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance a Better Way to Reduce Gasoline than Gasoline Taxes?

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Gasoline taxes are widely perceived as the most efficient instrument for reducing gasoline consumption because they exploit all behavioral responses for reducing fuel use, including reduced driving and improved fuel economy. At present, however, higher fuel taxes are viewed as a political nonstarter. Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) auto insurance, which involves replacing existing lump-sum premiums with premiums that vary in proportion to miles driven, should be more practical, since they do not rais...

  19. Effects of sleep disorders and pharmacological treatment on driving ability and traffic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Mets, M. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Operating a vehicle is a form of complex skilled behavior, which requires the driver to be alert. Sleepiness and fatigue behind the wheel are important causes of driver errors and traffic accidents and are associated with sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, circadian factors, use of recreational or medicinal drugs, monotonous conditions, and long driving times. Psychoactive substances play a important role in the context of drowsy driving. Drug treatment of underlying disorders may improve pe...

  20. Travel-time valuation for automated driving: A use-case-driven study

    OpenAIRE

    Cyganski, Rita; Fraedrich, Eva; Lenz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An application-oriented evaluation of the implications of fully automated driving is of growing importance, particularly with regard to future user acceptance and usage. One of the most remarkable benefits of fully automated driving discussed is the potential of alternative travel-time use. Radical changes in time valuation and a rise in productivity are being discussed, which are highly relevant when evaluating transport-related measures, infrastructure investments and mode choice behavior. ...

  1. Generation of uniform synthetic magnetic fields by split driving of an optical lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Creffield, Charles; Sols Lucía, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to generate a synthetic gauge potential for ultracold atoms held in an optical lattice. Our approach uses a time-periodic driving potential based on two quickly alternating signals to engineer the appropriate Aharonov-Bohm phases, and permits the simulation of a uniform tunable magnetic field. We explicitly demonstrate that our split driving scheme reproduces the behavior of a charged quantum particle in a magnetic field over the complete range of field strengths, and obt...

  2. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  3. Multi-agent Architecture Model for Driving Mobile Manipulator Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hentout

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present generic hierarchical behavior-based architecture model for driving mobile manipulator robots. Two behaviors are of high-level. They constitute the Supervisory agent, which manages the global system. Two others are of intermediate-level and finally one behavior is of low-level. These last ones constitute the Mobile Robot agent and the Manipulator Robot agent controlling, respectively, the mobile base and the manipulator arm. The choice of the suggested model is justified by the generic character of the proposed agent model and by the possibility of integrating the whole in a distributed robotic system. The model is formalized in Agent UML from the conceptual level to the implementation level. The interaction between the various agents is modeled by the use of the interaction diagrams of Agent UML (states and protocol diagrams.

  4. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... driving performance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these findings also apply to cognitively impaired older drivers. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 cognitively impaired older drivers. The results showed that the participants were most likely to report their...... driving skills as unchanged. There was an association between level of discomfort and avoidance of driving situations, but not between cognitive status and discomfort or avoidance. The results suggest that cognitively impaired older drivers constitute a unique group; while cognitively impaired older...

  5. The effect of family climate on risky driving of young novices: The moderating role of attitude and locus of control

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Aline; BRIJS, Kris; Declercq, Katrien; Brijs, Tom; Daniels, Stijn; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relative importance of young novice drivers’ family climate on their driving behavior. A sample of young novice drivers (N = 171) between the age of 17 and 24, who held their permanent (or temporary) driver's license for no longer than one year, participated. The questionnaire included items related to the participants’ family climate, 3 socio-cognitive determinants (i.e., attitude, locus of control and social norm), and risky driving behaviors. We expe...

  6. Driving Style: Determining Factors, Characteristics, Optimization Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova I. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of description, identification and classification of factors determining driving style is proposed in the article; stable (sustained and variable (unstable factors determining driving style are studied. Driving style is analyzed within the framework of structural approach. The variable factor are: specifications and technical condition of the vehicle, class of the car, its prestige (from a social point of view, training of the driver, social regulators, features of the road environment, psychophysiological (and emotional condition of the driver. The stable factors are: individual-typological properties, the level of suitability for driver`s activities, personal (primarily characterological features of a driver and sources of activity. Five main characteristics of driving style are selected and presented: safety-risk, confidence with parking, relation to the means of security; planning-impulsivity; driving culture. There are results of empirical research directed on discovery of relationship between styles of driving activities (planning-universal-impulsive as one characteristic of driving style, emotions typical for driver while driving and accidents. Increase of safety as a result of planning style of activities is shown (especially for women drivers. The paper offers direction of work for optimizing driving style: the formation of compensating planning style of activities, psychotherapeutic work, modeling training, psychological selection, training and education work in driving schools.

  7. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  8. [Stress of driving: general overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2012-01-01

    Driving is a stressful task that requires high levels of attention and vigilance to cope properly with job demands, mainly related to working hours and timetables, weather and traffic conditions, passengers and goods safety, responsibility in case of error and/or accident. Scientific literature shows a higher prevalence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neuropsychic and musculoskeletal disorders, and consequent sick leaves, in professional bus/lorry and train drivers. Several studies have emphasized that stress, fatigue and excessive sleepiness give a significant contribution to occupational road and rail accidents. There are noteworthy, interindividual differences concerning alertness/sleepiness and tolerance to fatigue, related to psychophysiological and behavioural characteristics and health status, in particular: age, ability to overcome drowsiness, morningness/eveningness, diet and intake of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs, medicaments), primary and secondary sleep disorders (insomnia, ipersomnias, parasomnias). PMID:23213814

  9. What Drives Politicians’ Online Popularity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms...... in the 112 most competitive congressional districts in the 2010 U.S. midterm elections to address that question. Using multivariate regression models, we show that while district-level socioeconomic characteristics have little effect on candidates' online popularity, challengers and candidates in...... open-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These...

  10. Development of untethered SU-8 polymer scratch drive microrobots

    KAUST Repository

    Valencia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, simulation, fabrication and testing of novel, untethered SU-8 polymer microrobots based on scratch drive actuators (SDAs). The design consists of two 100×120×10μm linked SDAs, individually operated close to their resonant frequencies. The resonant frequency and deflection behavior of an individual SDA can be controlled by its shape, thickness, and stiffening design features. As a result, paired SDAs can be actuated individually or simultaneously by a multifrequency driving signal, allowing for two-dimensional displacement. The fabrication process uses SU-8 as structural material and PMGI as sacrificial material. The SU-8 provides a flexible material for the SDA\\'s plates as well as the bushing. Finally, a Cr/Au layer is blanket deposited to provide electrical conductivity.

  11. Using the community health assessment to screen for continued driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Fries, Brant E; Berkowitz, Randi; Goldman, Beryl; David, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    This project used the interRAI based, community health assessment (CHA) to develop a model for identifying current elder drivers whose driving behavior should be reviewed. The assessments were completed by independent housing sites in COLLAGE, a non-profit, national senior housing consortium. Secondary analysis of data drawn from older adults in COLLAGE sites in the United States was conducted using a baseline assessment with 8042 subjects and an annual follow-up assessment with 3840 subjects. Logistic regression was used to develop a Driving Review Index (DRI) based on the most useful items from among the many measures available in the CHA assessment. Thirteen items were identified by the logistic regression to predict drivers whose driving behavior was questioned by others. In particular, three variables reference compromised decision-making abilities: general daily decisions, a recent decline in ability to make daily decisions, and ability to manage medications. Two additional measures assess cognitive status: short-term memory problem and a diagnosis of non-Alzheimers dementia. Functional measures reflect restrictions and general frailty, including receiving help in transportation, use of a locomotion appliance, having an unsteady gait, fatigue, and not going out on most days. The final three clinical measures reflect compromised vision, little interest or pleasure in things normally enjoyed, and diarrhea. The DRI focuses the review process on drivers with multiple cognitive and functional problems, including a significant segment of potentially troubled drivers who had not yet been publicly identified by others. There is a need for simple and quickly identified screening tools to identify those older adults whose driving should be reviewed. The DRI, based on the interRAI CHA, fills this void. Assessment at the individual level needs to be part of the backdrop of science as society seeks to target policy to identify high risk drivers instead of simply age

  12. Relationships between self-esteem, media influence and drive for thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sofia; Pritchard, Mary

    2012-12-01

    The media is a powerful societal tool for expressing expectations about how men and women should look. As a result, over the past several years, women have shown an increase in body dissatisfaction (Cash, Morrow, Hrabosky, & Perry, 2004). The present study examined the relationships between drive for thinness, self-esteem, and media influence among men and women. Two hundred ninety-four college students completed the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (Helmreich & Stapp, 1974), Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Scale-3 (Thompson, van den Berg, Roehrig, Guarda, & Hienberg, 2004), self-constructed questionnaire influence of media models, and the drive for Thinness Subscale (DT) from the Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3; (Garner, 2004)). We expected to find an association between drive for thinness and media influence and between drive for thinness and self-esteem for both men and women. Finally, we expected that the use of media, social pressures and media internalization would be predictors of drive for thinness. We found a relationship between media influence and drive for thinness. There was also a relationship between self-esteem and drive for thinness. For both men and women, media models were the primary predictor for drive for thinness. However, for women the secondary predictor was social pressures; whereas for men the secondary predictor was internalization. Such findings show the importance of examining the impact of media sources on men and women in order to entangle gender differences. PMID:23121782

  13. Electromagnetic drive system of robotic fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-xiu; SUN Nai-di; YUE Yao-hui; DENG Jing; LI Fei-hang; GU Yue; JIA Rui-qing

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to apply the electric fish into practice to assist coal mine water disaster life detection and rescue work,based on the analysis on swing propulsion movements of tail fin,this paper integrates the electromagnet technology with tail fin drive system by analyzing how the fish swims with tail fin under the law of progression.The principle,structure,and drive signals of tail fin electromagnetic drive are researched,the enforced situation of fish under electromagnetic driving modes are analyzed,and the experimental plat-form of tail fin electromagnetic drive is established.The best distance between electromagnet and armature,which can realize the swing of tail fin,was researched in the experiment under water.The robotic fish structure parameters of tail fin electromagnetic drive was finalized by theoretical analysis and experimental measurement.

  14. Instruction or distraction in the driving school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mike Kirk; Caglio, Agnese

    In this paper we report an ongoing study of driving school practice. We recorded several hours of driving lessons in different environments, which we analyze with the Interaction Analysis method. Our initial analysis suggests that looking at how teachers make use of different communicative resour...... resources to instruct students in driving, can provide insights for the development of technologies that support drivers in managing distractions....

  15. Driving Style: Determining Factors, Characteristics, Optimization Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A system of description, identification and classification of factors determining driving style is proposed in the article; stable (sustained) and variable (unstable) factors determining driving style are studied. Driving style is analyzed within the framework of structural approach. The variable factor are: specifications and technical condition of the vehicle, class of the car, its prestige (from a social point of view), training of the driver, social regulators, features of the road enviro...

  16. Fundamental limitations on "warp drive" spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    "Warp drive" spacetimes are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" communication. We verify the non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions of the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second order of the non-relativistic warp-bubble v...

  17. A causally connected superluminal Warp Drive spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, F.; Held, R.; Waite, D; Halerewicz, Jr., E.; Stabno, M.; Kuntzman, M.; Sims, R.

    2002-01-01

    It will be shown that while horizons do not exist for warp drive spacetimes traveling at subluminal velocities horizons begin to develop when a warp drive spacetime reaches luminal velocities. However it will be shown that the control region of a warp drive ship lie within the portion of the warped region that is still causally connected to the ship even at superluminal velocities, therefore allowing a ship to slow to subluminal velocities. Further it is shown that the warped regions which ar...

  18. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient...

  19. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  20. Driving Miss Bradley: performance measurement to support thermal driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Dino; Ferrett, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    The Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) program is providing a system to enlarge the driving envelope for the community of military wheeled and tracked vehicles. The DVE, an IR device, provides the driver with images of the forward scene under night and adverse day conditions. During the DVE development program, several questions emerged requiring performance-based data to resolve. A comprehensive program to provide the Project Manager, Night Vision/Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition with driver performance data that will aid in the decision-making process is described in this paper. The program involves several linked efforts including: the relative merits of the DVE and night vision goggles (NVG); drivers' ability to detect the presence of drop-offs when using the DVE and NVG; the effect on performance of various levels of nonuniformity and nonresponsiveness in the display/sensor system; the analysis of drivers' vision using an eye-tracker in a vehicle; and the evaluation of candidate symbology to enhance the DVE's utility in the M2 Bradley. The data collected will aid in making decisions on how to write a system specification to reduce cost without sacrificing driver performance, gain an understanding of how drivers use the DVE in operational settings, and determine where training is needed to enhance safety and reduce risk on the battlefield.

  1. The Driven Pendulum at Any Drive Angle

    CERN Document Server

    VanDalen, G J

    2002-01-01

    The driven inverted pendulum undergoes stable oscillations if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough. This classroom demonstration is best used in junior or graduate level Classical Mechanics courses. This paper reintroduces the equation of motion of the driven pendulum, generalizing to arbitrary driving angle. The pendulum will oscillate about a stable angle, other than straight down, if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough for a given drive angle. We will explore what is meant by ``large enough.'' Emphasis is given to parameters associated with a simply made demonstration apparatus.

  2. Effects of driving time on microsaccadic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Pannasch, Sebastian; Renner, Rebekka; Catena, Andrés; Cañas, José J; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is a common cause of car accidents. Thus, the objective detection of driver fatigue is a first step toward the effective management of fatigue-related traffic accidents. Here, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on the dynamics of fixational eye movements. Participants drove for 2 h in a virtual driving environment while we recorded their eye movements. Microsaccade velocities decreased with driving time, suggesting a potential effect of fatigue on microsaccades during driving. PMID:25417191

  3. Women drive better if not stereotyped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Cadinu, Mara; Maass, Anne

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held stereotype is that women are poor drivers. This stereotype is recognized and endorsed by women and girls very early on, long before taking their driving licence, nevertheless they are less involved in accidents and drive safer and less fast than men. In line with the stereotype threat theory, the present study tests the hypothesis that making the driving stereotype salient will lead women to underperform in a driving simulation task. In Experiment 1women in the stereotype threat condition were told that the aim of the study was to detect gender differences in driving whereas in a control condition no study aim was provided. In Experiment 2, two conditions were compared: stereotype threat (same instructions as in Experiment 1), and stereotype boost (the alleged goal was to compare driving ability of young vs. old people). As predicted, the results of both experiments showed that women under stereotype threat, as compared to either control or stereotype boost participants, doubled the number of mistakes. Nevertheless, they overall expected/self-reported to drive/have driven poorly. Importantly, their level of expectation was a significant predictor of their actual driving performance only in the stereotype threat condition. Implications of these effects of stereotype threat on women's driving performance and self-assessment are discussed. PMID:26457739

  4. Driving profile modeling and recognition based on soft computing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Abdul; Quek, Chai; Tan, Chin Keong; Takeda, Kazuya

    2009-04-01

    Advancements in biometrics-based authentication have led to its increasing prominence and are being incorporated into everyday tasks. Existing vehicle security systems rely only on alarms or smart card as forms of protection. A biometric driver recognition system utilizing driving behaviors is a highly novel and personalized approach and could be incorporated into existing vehicle security system to form a multimodal identification system and offer a greater degree of multilevel protection. In this paper, detailed studies have been conducted to model individual driving behavior in order to identify features that may be efficiently and effectively used to profile each driver. Feature extraction techniques based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) are proposed and implemented. Features extracted from the accelerator and brake pedal pressure were then used as inputs to a fuzzy neural network (FNN) system to ascertain the identity of the driver. Two fuzzy neural networks, namely, the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFuNN) and the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to demonstrate the viability of the two proposed feature extraction techniques. The performances were compared against an artificial neural network (NN) implementation using the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network and a statistical method based on the GMM. Extensive testing was conducted and the results show great potential in the use of the FNN for real-time driver identification and verification. In addition, the profiling of driver behaviors has numerous other potential applications for use by law enforcement and companies dealing with buses and truck drivers. PMID:19258199

  5. Are sex drive and hypersexuality associated with pedophilic interest and child sexual abuse in a male community sample?

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets (TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large pop...

  6. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    OpenAIRE

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. gene...

  7. Empathy, justice, and moral behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Decety, Jean; Cowell, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy shapes the landscape of our social lives. It motivates prosocial and caregiving behaviors, plays a role in inhibiting aggression, and facilitates cooperation between members of a similar social group. Thus, empathy is often conceived as a driving motivation of moral behavior and justice, and as such, everyone would think that it should be cultivated. However, the relationships between empathy, morality, and justice are complex. We begin by explaining what the notion of empathy encompa...

  8. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  9. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100trademark disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks

  10. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  11. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  12. Drunk Driving Among Novice Drivers, Possible Prevention with Additional Psychological Module in Driving School Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver’s license attempters during their driving school studies. Sub...

  13. Variable-speed drive and control systems for rolling mills; Atsuenkiyo drive seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, T.; Tochigi, T. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The drive systems of large rolling mills is of a cycloconverter type, a GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) type or high-voltage IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) type. Drive systems for bar, rod and pipe mills use three and/or two level IGBT inverters. This paper describes recent technical trends of drives and control systems in rolling mills, including each drive application and the PLC (programmable controller) and HCI (human communication interface) controlling the total rolling mill line. (author)

  14. Automobile driving in seniors: Factors affecting driving restriction in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    MARIE-DIT-ASSE, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Independence for older people is linked to driving, this being their main mode of travel. Even in normal aging, sensory, functional, and cognitive deficits appear, and are more severe in brain pathology leading to dementia. These may profoundly affect driving, which is a complex task involving all of these functions. Many studies show that older drivers modify their driving habits (reduced distance, avoiding certain driving situations ...). When this regulation process ...

  15. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August 24... Progress in the 21st Century Act'' (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141, which created a new distracted...

  16. Reflector driving device of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a reflector driving device which eliminates driving at outside and rapidly start-up and shuts down the reactor. Namely, the device has an electromagnetic holding mechanism attracted to a reactor core barrel by electromagnetic attracting force. Electromagnetic repulsion coils for generating instantaneous electromagnetic repulsion force are disposed between the reflector and the electromagnet retaining mechanism. The reflector is driven using inertia force of the electromagnetic repulsion force and the reflector. Then, the reflector driving device is attracted and held at a start-up position of the reactor upon start-up of the reactor. The reflector elevated by fluid pressure is secured at a position of the start-up of the reactor while having the reflector driving device as a stopper. The reflector moves at an extremely slow speed while being secured to the reflector driving device along with the elevation of the reflector driving device. As a result, a driving shaft sealing material which supports a conventional driving device at the outside and the reflector is eliminated thereby simplifying the structure of the outside of the reactor. (I.S.)

  17. The ripple effect of automated driving

    OpenAIRE

    Milakis, D.; Van Arem, B.; van Wee, B

    2015-01-01

    Most papers published so far focus on traffic implications of automated driving, while papers that focus more on wider impacts do not present a respective conceptualization. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a conceptualization of policy and society related implications of automated driving inspired by the ripple effect model.

  18. Truck platooning : Driving the future of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G.R.; Zwijnenberg, J; Blankers, I.J.; Kruijff, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Truck Platooning is the future of transportation in which trucks drive cooperatively at less than 1 second apart made possible by automated driving technology. Transportation companies benefit from lower fuel consumption and improvements in (driver) productivity, while society benefits from fewer accidents, safer traffic and less congested roads, and lower carbon emissions.

  19. Use of mobile phone while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while driving has negative effects on driving behaviour. This is the case for conducting a conversation, dialling a number, and sending text messages as well as for using the extra functions that smartphones offer, like accessing internet or social networking sites. The negative

  20. Determining the focus of driving fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J E; Deane, F P; Podd, J V

    2000-01-01

    Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. Studies on flying phobia have drawn similar conclusions, although increasing clarity has been gained through research that indicates that there may be subtypes of flying phobia based on the focus of fear. However, it is unclear if similar subtypes exist for fear of driving. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of driving fear subtypes and to clarify further whether there were differences between driving-fearful respondents who had been in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and those who had not. Eighty-five driving-fearful, media-recruited respondents completed a questionnaire that assessed anxiety, avoidance, and concerns related to their driving fears. The sample had high expectations of negative events while driving. There were no significant differences between those who had experienced an MVA and those who had not on various measures of fear severity. Cluster analysis revealed two main foci of fear, one characterized by danger expectancies and the other based on anxiety expectancies and unpleasant driving situations. This emphasizes the importance of assessing both internal and external foci of fear. Although this finding is consistent with the results obtained for flying phobia, more research is required to replicate and extend these results and to develop and evaluate differential treatment programs. PMID:11095540

  1. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  2. A coding and high voltage driving module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coding and high-voltage pulse driving module used in free-space quantum communication is described. This module generate random control signal to drive High-Voltage Pulse generator to control receiver’s polarization, receive detector signal and encode them by signal channel. (authors)

  3. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: a driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction b

  4. Cognitive problems, self-rated changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving in old drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    that driving-related discomfort is an important factor affecting the self-regulation of driving. Finally, the findings indicate that driving-related discomfort functions as an indirect self-monitoring of driving ability and may contribute to the safe driving performance of Danish older drivers.......Ageing in general is associated with functional decline that may have an adverse effect on driving. Nevertheless, older drivers have been found to show good judgement and to self-regulate their driving, which may enable them to continue driving safely despite functional decline. The process of the...... self-monitoring of driving ability and the awareness of functional decline, and its association with the self-regulation of driving is, however, not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the perceived changes in driving skills, the discomfort experienced in driving, and the self...

  5. How do passengers influence drivers' propensities for angry driving? Different effects of supervisors versus friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Xie, Xiaofei; Han, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qin

    2012-11-01

    A lot of researchers discussed the influence of passengers on drivers' behaviors without reaching a consistent conclusion. This study aimed to offer some new evidence concerning this issue. The study examined different effects of supervisors and friends as passengers on drivers' propensities for angry driving. In Study 1, drivers were asked to freely imagine a passenger either as their supervisor or friend. Results showed that compared with driving alone, drivers' propensities for angry driving increased when the passenger was a friend but decreased when the passenger was a supervisor. These findings were consistent with the generally accepted social norm. In Study 2, drivers read a description about either an aggressive supervisor or a cautious friend. Results showed that the effects of passengers on drivers' angry driving propensities were correspondingly reversed, indicating that a clearer behavior standard conveyed by a passenger had a stronger effect on drivers. Self-monitoring propensity showed a main effect on drivers' propensities for angry driving in a standard-free situation. And self-monitoring propensity moderated the effect of a passenger's role on angry driving propensities in a standard-set situation. Impression management processes were discussed with respect to these findings. PMID:23036422

  6. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kit Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents.

  7. Drive linac for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacki, E.; Konecny, R.; Rosing, M.; Simpson, J.

    1993-08-01

    The drive linac in Phase I of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) will be used to accelerate short duration (10 ps), high charge (100 nC) electron bunches from 2 MV to 20 MV for use in a variety of wakefield acceleration and measurement studies. The high charge is required since this drive bunch will generate the wakefields of interest in various test sections and their amplitudes are proportional to bunch charge. The short bunch duration is required to drive high-frequency wakefields without intra-bunch cancellation effects. The drive linac design was a balance between having a small wake function to maintain a drive bunch energy spread of {le}10% and obtaining an adequate accelerating gradient of {ge}10 MV/m. This yielded a large aperture, low shunt impedance, high group velocity, L-band, standing-wave linac. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing are presented in the following.

  8. Extracting periodic driving signal from chaotic noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jing; TAO Chao; DU Gonghuan

    2003-01-01

    After periodic signals pass through some nonlinear systems, they are usually transformed into noise-like and wide-band chaotic signals. The discrete spectrums of the original periodic signals are often covered by the chaotic spectrums. Recovering the periodic driving signals from the chaotic signals is important not only in theory but also in practical applications. Based on the modeling theory of nonlinear dynamic system, a "polynomial-simple harmonic drive" non-autonomous equation (P-S equation) to approximate the original system is proposed and the approximation error between P-S equation and the original system is obtained. By changing the drive frequency, we obtain the curve of the approximation error vs. drive frequency. Based on the relation between this curve and the spectrums of the original periodic signals, the spectrum of the original driving signal is extracted and the original signal is recovered.

  9. RF current drive components in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical analysis of low frequency current drive in a tokamak is presented. The global model discussed includes kinetic hot plasma effects and collisions. It is found that all kinds of wave-plasma interactions (resonant wave-electron interaction, resonant wave-ion interaction and collisions) can contribute to the current drive. The analysis presented stresses the two new current drive components, the resonant helicity current and the nonresonant collisionless current. Helicity current drive is proportional to the parallel helicity flux and to the wave damping strength, which is defined by the wave-plasma interaction process. The collisionless part of the nonresonant current is proportional to wave damping on ions. However, this is an electron current, and wave-ion interaction just creates necessary polarization of the wave to drive a current. The resistive MHD limit is considered as well, and the correct expression for the RF driven current including the Alfven resonance effect, is given. (author) 17 refs

  10. DriveID: safety innovation through individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben; Teo, Grace; Mouloua, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    The driving task is highly complex and places considerable perceptual, physical and cognitive demands on the driver. As driving is fundamentally an information processing activity, distracted or impaired drivers have diminished safety margins compared with non- distracted drivers (Hancock and Parasuraman, 1992; TRB 1998 a & b). This competition for sensory and decision making capacities can lead to failures that cost lives. Some groups, teens and elderly drivers for example, have patterns of systematically poor perceptual, physical and cognitive performance while driving. Although there are technologies developed to aid these different drivers, these systems are often misused and underutilized. The DriveID project aims to design and develop a passive, automated face identification system capable of robustly identifying the driver of the vehicle, retrieve a stored profile, and intelligently prescribing specific accident prevention systems and driving environment customizations. PMID:22317376

  11. The lifetime of the control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime of the control rod drives is studied. Their function is to take out or to pull in the control rods. The drive and the experiments carried out, are described. The analysis of the behaviour under operation, the drive inspections and surveyance, are also considered. The results are obtained from: the investigations performed on the fatigue strength of the 900 MW and 1300 MW drives, which allowed to deduce a low of wear and to identify the important aspects to be studied, the measurements of the dynamical stresses of mobile elements and a dynamical calculation model. The study leads to the conclusion that a probabilistic approach is needed for the fatigue damage analysis of some elements. Moreover, a systematic examination is also needed, to verify the agreement betwem the drives calculated aging values and the measured ones

  12. GCFR main helium circulator and electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the helium circulators for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) is to achieve the highest possible operational reliability. This is no simple task considering the plant system integration requirements, auxiliary support systems, all possible transient requirements, and resulting complexity in supplying the driving power, primary coolant flow control, and lubrication and sealing. Therefore, the design of the circulator itself is highly dependent on the type of prime mover selected to drive the circulator, e.g., series turbine, parallel turbine, or electric motor. The circulator main drive has evolved from the series steam turbine drive into the variable-speed, synchronous electric motor drive mounted externally to the reactor and controlled by thyristor variable frequency controller. This design is a result of 18 months of joint effort by General Atomic Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation

  13. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  14. What drives the disposition effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Zuchel, Heiko

    2001-01-01

    Why do some investors tend to ''sell winners too early and ride losers too long''? Such behavior, labeled the disposition effect, has been attributed to biases in return expectations, time-varying risk-aversion based on the value function of prospect theory, and regret theory. I review these explanations and argue that none of them is satisfactory because they either fail to capture the disposition effect or because they are not supported by emprical evidence. I point out that there is a larg...

  15. Development of portable driving simulator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Itoh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries, number of drivers who suffer from mild cognitive impairment (MCI drivers is increasing. Since it has been reported that driving skill of the MCI drivers are deteriorated, it is important to train themselves in driving situation to preserve their driving skills. The present study was conducted to develop the simple driving simulator system, and to examine the effect of training in this system.Design/methodology/approach: Nineteen university students (8 males and 11 females participated in this study. After the habituation period (approximately 5min, three trials (approximately 12 min were conducted. Experimental situation imitated the real highway course. During trials, dangerous situation that would be resulted in car accident is randomly appeared and participants were required to avoid the car accidents. To avoid the possible car accidents are considered as correct response.Findings: Mean percent of correct responses for male and female were 75.2% and 56.6% in 1st trial and 95.7% and 72.6% in 3rd trial, respectively. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of sex(F (1, 14 = 7.84, p < .05 and trials (F (2, 34 = 10.19, p < .001. These results indicate that numbers of car accidents are dramatically decreased and the driving skills of male are superior to that of female.Practical implications: Although the present study revealed the differences in driving skills between the sexes, their driving history was not considered. Driving history of each participant should be examined in future study.Originality/value: Since the improvement of driving skills is revealed, our experimental design is expected as the tool for the preservation of driving skills in the MCI drivers.

  16. What drives successful verbal communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eDe Boer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviours and intentions in communication: a behaviour can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviours. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behaviour of other agents (mentalizing and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (communicative motivation. Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.

  17. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  18. EEG-Based Attention Tracking During Distracted Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Kai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2015-11-01

    Distracted driving might lead to many catastrophic consequences. Developing a countermeasure to track drivers' focus of attention (FOA) and engagement of operators in dual (multi)-tasking conditions is thus imperative. Ten healthy volunteers participated in a dual-task experiment that comprised two tasks: a lane-keeping driving task and a mathematical problem-solving task (e.g., 24+15=37?) during which their electroencephalogram (EEG) and behaviors were concurrently recorded. Independent component analysis (ICA) was employed as a spatial filter to separate the contributions of independent sources from the recorded EEG data. The power spectra of six components (i.e., frontal, central, parietal, occipital, left motor, and right motor) extracted from single-task conditions were fed into support vector machine (SVM) based on the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to build an FOA assessment system. The system achieved 84.6±5.8% and 86.2±5.4% classification accuracies in detecting the participants' FOAs on the math versus driving tasks, respectively. This FOA assessment system was then applied to evaluate participants' FOAs during dual-task conditions. The detected FOAs revealed that participants' cognitive attention and strategies dynamically changed between tasks to optimize the overall performance, as attention was limited and competed. The empirical results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of a practical system to continuously estimating cognitive attention through EEG spectra. PMID:25850090

  19. Pulling together: Tissue-generated forces that drive lumen morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navis, Adam; Nelson, Celeste M

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical interactions are essential for bending and shaping tissues during morphogenesis. A common feature of nearly all internal organs is the formation of a tubular network consisting of an epithelium that surrounds a central lumen. Lumen formation during organogenesis requires precisely coordinated mechanical and biochemical interactions. Whereas many genetic regulators of lumen formation have been identified, relatively little is known about the mechanical cues that drive lumen morphogenesis. Lumens can be shaped by a variety of physical behaviors including wrapping a sheet of cells around a hollow core, rearranging cells to expose a lumenal cavity, or elongating a tube via cell migration, though many of the details underlying these movements remain poorly understood. It is essential to define how forces generated by individual cells cooperate to produce the tissue-level forces that drive organogenesis. Transduction of mechanical forces relies on several conserved processes including the contraction of cytoskeletal networks or expansion of lumens through increased fluid pressure. The morphogenetic events that drive lumen formation serve as a model for similar mechanical processes occurring throughout development. To understand how lumenal networks arise, it will be essential to investigate how biochemical and mechanical processes integrate to generate complex structures from comparatively simple interactions. PMID:26778757

  20. The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLeone, Ralph J.; Taylor, Jane R.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2013-01-01

    The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior. In this review, we will examine the commonalities and differences in the systems-level and behavioral responses to food and drugs of abuse, with the goal of identifying areas of research that would address gaps in our current understanding and ultimately identify novel treatments for obesity or drug addiction. PMID:23007187

  1. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  2. Hopf bifurcation and chaos from torus breakdown in voltage-mode controlled DC drive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Period-doubling bifurcation and its route to chaos have been thoroughly investigated in voltage-mode and current-mode controlled DC motor drives under simple proportional control. In this paper, the phenomena of Hopf bifurcation and chaos from torus breakdown in a voltage-mode controlled DC drive system is reported. It has been shown that Hopf bifurcation may occur when the DC drive system adopts a more practical proportional-integral control. The phenomena of period-adding and phase-locking are also observed after the Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, it is shown that the stable torus can breakdown and chaos emerges afterwards. The work presented in this paper provides more complete information about the dynamical behaviors of DC drive systems.

  3. Lane heading difference: An innovative model for drowsy driving detection using retrospective analysis around curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Drew M; Pilcher, June J; Switzer Iii, Fred S

    2015-07-01

    Driving while sleepy is a serious contributor to automobile accidents. Previous research has shown that drowsy drivers produce systematic errors (variability) in vehicle behavior which are detectable using vehicle monitoring technology. The current study developed a new methodological approach using a vehicle heading difference metric to detect drowsy driving more effectively than other more commonly used methods. Twenty participants completed a driving scenario as well as several measures of fatigue in five testing sessions across a night of sleep deprivation. Each simulated highway driving session lasted 20 min, and was analyzed for lateral lane position variability and vehicle heading difference variability with two statistical methods. Fatigue measures monitored reaction time, attention, and oculomotor movement. The results showed that examining lane heading difference using the absolute value of the raw data detected driving variability better across the night than other statistical models. The results from the fatigue measures indicated an increase in reaction time and response lapses, as well as a decrease in oculomotor reactivity across the night. These results suggest that in fatigued drivers the statistical model using the absolute value of lane heading could be an improved metric for drowsy driving detection that could accurately detect detriments in driving ability at lower levels of fatigue. PMID:25899059

  4. Alcohol impairs long-term depression at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse

    OpenAIRE

    Belmeguenai, A.; Botta, Paolo; Weber, John; Carta, Mario; De Ruiter, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris; Valenzuela, Fernando; Hansel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcute alcohol consumption causes deficits in motor coordination and gait, suggesting an involvement of cerebellar circuits, which play a role in the fine adjustment of movements and in motor learning. It has previously been shown that ethanol modulates inhibitory transmission in the cerebellum and affects synaptic transmission and plasticity at excitatory climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell synapses. However, it has not been examined thus far how acute ethanol application affects...

  5. Alcohol impairs long-term depression at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Belmeguenai; P. Botta (Paolo); J.T. Weber (John); M. Carta (Mario); M.M. de Ruiter (Martijn); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); C.F. Valenzuela (Fernando); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcute alcohol consumption causes deficits in motor coordination and gait, suggesting an involvement of cerebellar circuits, which play a role in the fine adjustment of movements and in motor learning. It has previously been shown that ethanol modulates inhibitory transmission in the cere

  6. 企业环境经营驱动因素、行为与绩效关系研究--基于长株潭城市群企业问卷调查数据的实证检验%Study on the Relationship between Driving Factors,Behavior and Performance of Corporate Environmental Management--Empirical Test on Questionnaires of Chang-Zhu-Tan Urban Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱东; 罗文兵; 邓明君

    2013-01-01

    Through combing the domestic and foreign related research,the paper builds a new theoretical model to study the driving factors of corporate environmental management and the relationship between the factors,and the impact of environmen⁃tal management acts on corporate environmental performance and economic performance.The paper takes Chang-Zhu-Tan ur⁃ban cluster corporation as research object,uses structural equation model to test and correct the model by applying the sam⁃pling survey questionnaires data.The result shows that the corporate environmental management behavior doesn’t drive by the government media pressure directly but by the market and efficiency,and corporate environmental management perfor⁃mance improves only by green manufacturing,corporate environmental performance plays a significant role in corporate eco⁃nomic performance under a good market environment and good efficiency driving force.%  文章通过梳理国内外相关研究成果,构建一个新的理论模型来研究驱动企业环境经营的因素及因素间的关系,环境经营行为对企业环境绩效和经济绩效产生的影响。文章以长株潭城市群企业为研究对象,以抽样调查所得的实际有效问卷数据为样本,运用结构方程模型进行检验和修正,结果发现,政府媒体压力并不直接驱动企业环境经营行为,企业环境经营行为需要通过市场和效率来驱动的;企业环境经营绩效只有通过绿色制造才能提高,企业环境绩效对经济绩效存在显著影响,但前提是有好的市场环境和效率驱动力。

  7. Effects of Repeated Stress on Excitatory Drive of Basal Amygdala Neurons In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Padival, Mallika; Quinette, Danielle; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress leads to heightened affective behaviors, and can precipitate the emergence of depression and anxiety. These disorders are associated with increased amygdala activity. In animal models, chronic stress leads to increased amygdala-dependent behaviors, as well as hyperactivity of amygdala neurons. However, it is not known whether increased excitatory synaptic drive after chronic stress contributes to hyperactivity of basolateral amygdala (BLA; comprised of basal, lateral, and acces...

  8. Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4. Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

  9. Fundamental limitations on "warp drive" spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, F S N; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    "Warp drive" spacetimes are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" communication. We verify the non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions of the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second order of the non-relativistic warp-bubble velocity. We are primarily interested in a secondary feature of the warp drive that has not previously been remarked upon, if it could be built, the warp drive would be an example of a "reaction-less drive". For both the Alcubierre and Natario warp drives we find that the occurrence of significant energy condition violations is not just a high-speed effect, but that the violations persist even at arbitrarily low speeds. An interesting feature of this construction is that it is now meaningful to place a finite mass spaceshi...

  10. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  11. Multiobjective gear shifting optimization considering a known driving cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mazzariol Santiciolli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the fuel consumption of the vehicles driven by combustion engines is a target of the automakers, governments and drivers. The literature asserts that the adjustment of the driver behavior results in a substantial fuel economy. Specifically, the gear shifting is one aspect of the driver behavior that can be changed by the use of support systems installed in the vehicle that indicate the right moment that the gear must be shifted. The interested community is focused on the development of the algorithms that are implemented in these support systems. These algorithms must be able to arbitrate between two antagonistic objective functions simultaneously: the maximization of the performance and the fuel economy. Thus, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to calculate the trade-off threshold between performance and fuel economy of a vehicle by means of the multiobjective optimization of the gear shifting considering a known driving cycle. To reach this objective, it is created a dynamic model of an automobile base on the literature data; the optimization algorithm implemented is Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm - II and the driving cycle used is described by the standards ABNT NBR6601:2012 and FTP-72.

  12. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllably exhaust liquid therefrom during a ''scram'' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe ''scram'' of the control rod into the reactor

  13. Stabilization of tearing mode by current drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-tian; SHI Man-li; MAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Shan-zhong; ZHENG Xiao-hu

    2004-01-01

    The major disruption limits the operation of present tokamaks. Experimental evidences point out that the growth of tearing modes or the magnetic islands is primarily responsible for the occurrence. Taking the non-inductive current drive effects into account, a set of 3D nonlinear equation is derived. It is shown from simulation that the growth of the magnetic island is suppressed effectively by RF current drive. It is consistent with recent experiments on the HL-1 tokamak in which the plasma is stabilized by an RF current drive.

  14. Optimal Control Development System for Electrical Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Marian GAICEANU; Emil ROSU; Romeo PADURARU; Cristinel DACHE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the optimal electrical drive development system is presented. It consists of both electrical drive types: DC and AC. In order to implement the optimal control for AC drive system an Altivar 71 inverter, a Frato magnetic particle brake (as load), three-phase induction machine, and dSpace 1104 controller have been used. The on-line solution of the matrix Riccati differential equation (MRDE) is computed by dSpace 1104 controller, based on the corresponding feedback signals, generat...

  15. A causally connected superluminal Warp Drive spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Loup, F; Waite, D; Halerewicz, E F; Stabno, M; Kuntzman, M; Sims, R

    2002-01-01

    It will be shown that while horizons do not exist for warp drive spacetimes traveling at subluminal velocities horizons begin to develop when a warp drive spacetime reaches luminal velocities. However it will be shown that the control region of a warp drive ship lie within the portion of the warped region that is still causally connected to the ship even at superluminal velocities, therefore allowing a ship to slow to subluminal velocities. Further it is shown that the warped regions which are causally disconnected from a warp ship have no correlation to the ship velocity.

  16. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives are...... specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive....

  17. Lower-hybrid current drive with opposing ohmic drive on PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two distinct conditions where the rf phase velocity is directed opposite to the ohmically induced electron drift have been studied experimentally: (1) rf current ramp-up (f/sub p/ > 0), where an induced electric field opposes the current increase; (2) rf current ramp-down, where waves are launched opposite the electron drift direction for a decaying plasma current. The time behavior of the electron tail is inferred from hard x-ray (30 to 750 keV) emission as a function of angle to B. In cases (1) and (2) we find that the emission amplitude in the reverse (opposite the LH phase velocity) direction increases throughout the rf pulse, while it is constant in the forward direction. This increase indicates that some high energy electrons are accelerated or are even running away in the direction opposite to the main rf produced tail. It also indicates for case (1) that the electric field in the plasma center has been reversed by the rf current drive

  18. Further development of a commercial driving simulation for research in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Muttray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to refine a commercial car driving simulation for occupational research. As the effects of ethanol on driving behavior are well established, we choose alcohol as a test compound to investigate the performance of subjects during simulation. Materials and Methods: We programmed a night driving scenario consisting of monotonous highway and a rural road on a Foerst F10-P driving simulator. Twenty healthy men, 19-30 years, participated in a pilot study. Subjects were screened for simulator sickness, followed by training on the simulator one hour in total. Experiments were performed in the morning on a separate day. Participants were randomized into either an alcoholized or a control group. All subjects drove two courses consisting of highway and rural road and were sober for the first course. During a 1 h break the ethanol group drank an alcoholic beverage to yield 0.06% blood alcohol concentration (BAC. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze the influence of alcohol on driving performance. Among others, independent variables were Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores and subjective sleepiness. Results: Subjects did not experience simulator sickness during the experiments. Mean BAC before the second test drive was 0.065% in the mildly intoxicated group. There was no clear-cut difference in the number of crashes between 2 groups. BAC of 0.1% would deteriorate mean braking reaction time by 237 ms (SE = 112, p < 0.05. Ethanol slightly impaired the tracking in the righthand curves (p = 0.058. Braking reaction time improved by 86 ms (SE = 36, p < 0.05 for the second test drive, indicating a learning effect. Conclusions: In sum, a clear ethanol effect was observed in the driving simulation. This simulation seems suitable for occupational research and produces little simulator sickness. Controlling for possible learning effects is recommended in driving simulation studies.

  19. Performance comparison of a novel configuration of beta-type Stirling engines with rhombic drive engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper describes a novel arrangement of a beta-type Stirling engine. • Its performance was compared with rhombic drive engine. • The power output of the engine was found to be greater than rhombic drive. • Efficiency was found to be higher than rhombic drive at the same working fluid mass. • Efficiency was found to be lower than rhombic drive at the same charge pressure. - Abstract: This study presents a beta type Stirling engine mechanism and its performance analysis. The displacer motion of the engine is performed by a lever mechanism. The performance of the engine was investigated via comparing with a rhombic-drive engine possessing an equal sided rhombic. Comparison was made for kinematic behaviors, power and thermal efficiency. For comparison; the piston swept volume, the inner heat transfer area, the hot and cold end temperatures, the inner heat transfer coefficient, charge pressure and dead volumes were kept equal for both engines. As working fluid the helium was used. Thermodynamic treatments of engines were performed via the nodal analysis. The power of the lever driven engine was found to be greater than the power of the rhombic drive engine. Under the equal charge pressure, the thermal efficiency of the lever driven engine was found to be lower than the efficiency of the rhombic drive engine however, under the equal working fluid mass the thermal efficiency of the lever driven engine was found to be greater than that of the rhombic drive engine. The external volume and mass of the lever driven engine is lower than the rhombic drive engine

  20. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292