WorldWideScience

Sample records for alcohol-impaired driving behavior

  1. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  2. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...

  3. Legal and social control of alcohol-impaired driving in California: 1983-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, D E; Marelich, W D

    1997-09-01

    This research was designed to provide information on the legal and social forces that influence change in control of alcohol-impaired driving. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviors concerning drinking and driving for California drivers in 1994 (n = 608) were compared to similar information collected from California drivers in 1983 and 1986 (n = 291) through random-digit-dialing telephone interviews. Self-reported drinking-driving violations showed a substantial decline, paralleling the well-documented drop in alcohol-related traffic crashes during this time span. A large reduction in drinking before driving was reported for all age groups, men and women, and for both heavy drinkers and light drinkers. There was evidence of an increase in the levels of both general deterrence and general prevention. Increased external control was reflected in greater knowledge of drinking-driving laws and trends toward an increased expectation that violations would be followed by unpleasant consequences. Strong gains in creating a social norm for control of alcohol-impaired driving were indicated by perceptions that friends and relatives were more likely to disapprove of driving after drinking, observations of more control of drinking by drivers at occasions where alcohol is served and an increase in the view that it is morally wrong to drive after heavy drinking. California has made substantial progress in efforts to control alcohol-impaired driving, through increases in both general deterrence (fear of punishment) and general prevention (moral inhibitions and socialization of preventive habits), especially the latter.

  4. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  5. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2005-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2005-2014; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2005-2014; All occupants...

  6. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2003-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2003-2012; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2003-2012; All occupants...

  7. Alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences in the United States: the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2006-01-01

    Progress in dealing with the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States during the past 25 years is addressed. Trends in various measures of the problem were tracked and a thorough review of the relevant literature conducted. In the 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s, major decreases occurred in alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences. The contribution of alcohol to fatal crashes dropped by 35-40% during this period. Two primary reasons for the decline appear to be the emergence of citizen activist groups that mobilized public support and attention to the problem, and the proliferation of effective laws. Since about 1995 the alcohol-impaired driving problem has stabilized at a reduced but still quite high level. Highway safety organizations and citizen activist groups have continued to highlight the problem, but its status as a social issue has diminished. We basically know what the primary target groups are, and we know measures that would work to reduce the problem if implemented more fully. We know that political leadership, state task forces, and media advocacy are important ingredients in addressing the problem. It is likely that a resurgence in citizen activism will be necessary to foster these elements and refocus the nation on the unfinished battle against alcohol-impaired driving. Alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem that needs continuing attention.

  8. Associations between Responsible Beverage Service Laws and Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2016-01-01

    We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…

  9. Alcohol-Impaired Driving: The Influence of Adverse Rearing Environments, Alcohol, Cannabis Use, and the Moderating Role of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Bord, Shiran; Zeichner, Amos

    2017-03-21

    The rate of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) increases during the college years and students who have reported adverse rearing environments appear to be at increased risk for the development of alcohol and drug use behaviors. Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used drugs by college students, and these substances are particularly predictive of substance-impaired driving. The present study aimed to investigate whether adverse rearing environment experiences and level of alcohol and cannabis use are related to the frequency of alcohol-impaired driving and whether anxiety might buffer or accelerate this effect. Data regarding adversity, drug use, anxiety, and AID were obtained from 1,265 students annually, from first to final year of college, over four waves (Mean Age at wave 1 = 18.5 years). Structural equation modeling supported associations among childhood adversity, alcohol, cannabis, and anxiety symptoms. A significant mediation effect was found such that adversity was predictive of AID via alcohol use and cannabis use. Among men, anxiety symptoms accelerated the path from increased cannabis use and decelerated the path from increased alcohol use to AID frequency. Conclusions/Importance: Childhood adversity is a developmental risk precursor to drug use and AID, whereas anxiety might serve a risk or protective factor to AID, contingent on the drug used.

  10. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving in community sports clubs: evaluating the good sports program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Allen, Felicity

    2012-03-01

    The Good Sports program uses a systematic accreditation process to implement gradual alcohol-related harm-reduction strategies in Australian community sports clubs that aim to reduce the incidence of harmful alcohol-related behaviors, such as drink driving. This study tested whether the Good Sports program reduced the incidence of drink driving and whether reductions are related to the level of program implementation. An adoption versus nonadoption pilot study was undertaken with 65 cricket and 48 Australian Football League clubs (N = 1,968 individuals). Associations between the stage of accreditation (Stage 1 and Stage 2) and the likelihood of driving with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were examined. Alcohol-use diary accounts were used to calculate BAC before driving home from the club. The percentage of club members driving at least once in the previous week with a BAC estimate greater than .05% (the legal limit in Australia) was lower in clubs that had achieved Stage 2 Good Sports accreditation (7%, 95% CI [5%, 9%]) than those that had not (8%, 95% CI [6%, 9%]), but this was not significantly different. However, multilevel modeling identified a larger number of the safe-transport strategies, implemented as part of Stage 2 accreditation, which were associated with a significantly lower probability of drink driving. Being a risky drinker at the club, and the average number of risky drinkers at the club, was also predictive of drink driving. The findings of this pilot study suggest that implementation of the Good Sports program is likely to have a significant effect on harms associated with drink driving in Australia and elsewhere. Further community studies will be required, however, to examine precisely how the program is achieving improvements and whether it can be refined to have a greater impact in both Australia and overseas.

  11. MADD rates the states: a media advocacy event to advance the agenda against alcohol-impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A; Voas, R B; Dejong, W; Chaloupka, M

    1995-01-01

    The "Rating the States" (RTS) Program of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is designed to bring public attention to the status of State government efforts to combat alcohol-impaired driving. MADD's 1993 report, which evaluated each State with a grade from A to D, brought renewed visibility to MADD's fight for new prevention policies and helped to advance key State legislation. Because of MADD's national press conference and other media activities, more than 60 million Americans saw or heard a news story related to the program. This article outlines the program's objectives and methodology, efforts to publicize the results, and what was achieved in terms of news media coverage and in advancing public policy change. The RTS Program is a proven media advocacy strategy for prompting State legislatures and Governors to enact new policies. The article concludes with guidelines for other public health advocacy groups that may want to emulate this strategy.

  12. Using vehicle-based sensors of driver behavior to detect alcohol impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    Despite persistent efforts at the local, state, : and federal levels, alcohol-impaired crashes : still contribute to approximately 30% of all : traffic fatalities. Although enforcement and : educational approaches have helped to : reduce alcohol-impa...

  13. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-06-19

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.

  14. Drug and alcohol-impaired driving among electronic music dance event attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, Debra; Voas, Robert B; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Miller, Brenda

    2006-10-15

    Drug-impaired driving has received increased attention resulting from development of rapid drug-screening procedures used by police and state laws establishing per se limits for drug levels in drivers. Venues that host electronic music dance events (EMDEs) provide a unique opportunity to assess drug-impaired driving among a high proportion of young adult drug users. EMDEs are late-night dance parties marked by a substantial number of young adult attendees and elevated drug involvement. No studies to date have examined drug-impaired driving in a natural environment with active drug and alcohol users. Six EMDEs were sampled in San Diego, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A random sample of approximately 40 attendees per event were administered surveys about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and driving status, given breath tests for alcohol, and asked to provide oral fluid samples to test for illicit drug use upon entering and exiting the events. Driving status reduced the level of alcohol use (including abstaining) but the impact on drug-taking was not significant. However, 62% of individuals who reported their intention to drive away from the events were positive for drugs or alcohol upon leaving. This suggests that these events and settings are appropriate ones for developing interventions for reducing risks for young adults.

  15. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  16. Low levels of alcohol impair driving simulator performance and reduce perception of crash risk in partially sleep deprived subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Catcheside, Peter; Lack, Leon; Grunstein, Ron R; McEvoy, R Doug

    2004-09-15

    Partial sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption are a common combination, particularly among young drivers. We hypothesized that while low blood alcohol concentration (sleep deprivation and low blood alcohol concentration would cause significant performance impairment. Experimental Sleep Disorders Unit Laboratory 20 healthy volunteers (mean age 22.8 years; 9 men). Subjects underwent driving simulator testing at 1 am on 2 nights a week apart. On the night preceding simulator testing, subjects were partially sleep deprived (5 hours in bed). Alcohol consumption (2-3 standard alcohol drinks over 2 hours) was randomized to 1 of the 2 test nights, and blood alcohol concentrations were estimated using a calibrated Breathalyzer. During the driving task subjects were monitored continuously with electroencephalography for sleep episodes and were prompted every 4.5 minutes for answers to 2 perception scales-performance and crash risk. Mean blood alcohol concentration on the alcohol night was 0.035 +/- 0.015 g/dL. Compared with conditions during partial sleep deprivation alone, subjects had more microsleeps, impaired driving simulator performance, and poorer ability to predict crash risk in the combined partial sleep deprivation and alcohol condition. Women predicted crash risk more accurately than did men in the partial sleep deprivation condition, but neither men nor women predicted the risk accurately in the sleep deprivation plus alcohol condition. Alcohol at legal blood alcohol concentrations appears to increase sleepiness and impair performance and the detection of crash risk following partial sleep deprivation. When partially sleep deprived, women appear to be either more perceptive of increased crash risk or more willing to admit to their driving limitations than are men. Alcohol eliminated this behavioral difference.

  17. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Exploring the Drinking/Driving Behaviors and Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott

    While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…

  19. Assessment of older driver performance under low level alcohol impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes, to date, of the work undertaken to examine : the effects of low level alcohol impairment, especially for older drivers, based on : on-road driving studies. Some of the questions the project initially sought answer...

  20. Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James

    2016-11-16

    Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other

  1. Driving citations and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.

  2. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  3. Norms and attitudes related to alcohol usage and driving : a review of the relevant literature. "Suggestions for developing prevention programs to reduce the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This project provides information about norms and attitudes related to alcohol use and driving. This booklet was developed to assist highway safety program officials in assimulating recent research findings on primary prevention into their DWI commun...

  4. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  5. How can repeat drunk drivers be influenced to change? Analysis of the association between drunk driving and DUI recidivists' attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K

    2004-07-01

    Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.

  6. Lessons learned from evaluating Maryland's anti-drunk driving campaign: assessing the evidence for cognitive, behavioral, and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H

    2009-07-01

    The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.

  7. Motivational factors associated with drowsy driving behavior: a qualitative investigation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Lee, Clark J; Weiner, Talia

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. Four focus groups of college students. A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Notes and transcripts from the focus group sessions were analyzed to identify recurring themes regarding attitudes, motivations, experiences, influences, and potential preventive messaging strategies related to drowsy driving. Although most participants had heard of drowsy driving and were concerned about it, they did not associate it with legal risks and were more concerned about alcohol-impaired and distracted driving as crash risks. Participants viewed drowsy driving as a normal and unavoidable part of their lives over which they had little control. For potential anti-drowsy driving messaging strategies, participants preferred messages delivered via audiovisual or social media that featured graphic and emotional portrayals of crashes and their consequences. Participants also voiced strong support for preventive messaging strategies equating various degrees of sleep deprivation to known impairing levels of alcohol, as well as messages providing cues to action to actual drowsy drivers on roadways. Increased enforcement, education, and public messaging campaigns are needed to increase knowledge and influence attitudes and opinions among young drivers about the dangers and social unacceptability of drowsy driving. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drowsy driving and risk behaviors - 10 States and Puerto Rico, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Shults, Ruth A; Chapman, Daniel P; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-07-04

    Findings in published reports have suggested that drowsy driving is a factor each year in as many as 7,500 fatal motor vehicle crashes (approximately 25%) in the United States. CDC previously reported that, in 2009-2010, 4.2% of adult respondents in 19 states and the District of Columbia reported having fallen asleep while driving at least once during the previous 30 days. Adults who reported usually sleeping ≤6 hours per day, snoring, or unintentionally falling asleep during the day were more likely to report falling asleep while driving compared with adults who did not report these sleep patterns. However, limited information has been published on the association between drowsy driving and other risk behaviors that might contribute to crash injuries or fatalities. Therefore, CDC analyzed responses to survey questions regarding drowsy driving among 92,102 respondents in 10 states and Puerto Rico to the 2011-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. The results showed that 4.0% reported falling asleep while driving during the previous 30 days. In addition to known risk factors, drowsy driving was more prevalent among binge drinkers than non-binge drinkers or abstainers and also more prevalent among drivers who sometimes, seldom, or never wear seatbelts while driving or riding in a car, compared with those who always or almost always wear seatbelts. Drowsy driving did not vary significantly by self-reported smoking status. Interventions designed to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving, to increase enforcement of seatbelt use, and to encourage adequate sleep and seeking treatment for sleep disorders might contribute to reductions in drowsy driving crashes and related injuries.

  9. Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2009-03-01

    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  11. ELDERLY DRIVING BEHAVIOR AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuo HORIKAWA

    2009-01-01

    Discussions: Of the 30 items monitored in the study, significant differences were evident in only a few. Because the evidence did not suggest a particular link to accident experience, it will be necessary to obtain objective data from other cognitive function tests and driving behavior for reassessment. various problems related to elderly driving in Japan were discussed.

  12. Teens' distracted driving behavior: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-12-01

    Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and

  13. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The HEXACO Model of Personality and Risky Driving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtăverde, Vlad; Chraif, Mihaela; Aniţei, Mihai; Dumitru, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    This research tested the association between the HEXACO personality model and risky driving behavior as well as the predictive power of the HEXACO model in explaining risky driving behavior compared with the Big Five model. In Sample 1, 227 undergraduate students completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving aggression. In Sample 2, 244 community respondents completed measures of the HEXACO personality model, the Big Five model, and driving styles. Results showed that the Honesty-Humility factor is an important addition to personality models that aim to explain risky driving behavior as being related to all forms of driving aggression as well as to maladaptive and adaptive driving styles and having incremental validity in predicting verbally aggressive expression, risky driving, high-velocity driving, and careful driving. Moreover, compared with the Big Five model, the HEXACO model had better predictive power of aggressive driving.

  15. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the

  16. DrivingSense: Dangerous Driving Behavior Identification Based on Smartphone Autocalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since pervasive smartphones own advanced computing capability and are equipped with various sensors, they have been used for dangerous driving behaviors detection, such as drunk driving. However, sensory data gathered by smartphones are noisy, which results in inaccurate driving behaviors estimations. Some existing works try to filter noise from sensor readings, but usually only the outlier data are filtered. The noises caused by hardware of the smartphone cannot be removed from the sensor reading. In this paper, we propose DrivingSense, a reliable dangerous driving behavior identification scheme based on smartphone autocalibration. We first theoretically analyze the impact of the sensor error on the vehicle driving behavior estimation. Then, we propose a smartphone autocalibration algorithm based on sensor noise distribution determination when a vehicle is being driven. DrivingSense leverages the corrected sensor parameters to identify three kinds of dangerous behaviors: speeding, irregular driving direction change, and abnormal speed control. We evaluate the effectiveness of our scheme under realistic environments. The results show that DrivingSense, on average, is able to detect the driving direction change event and abnormal speed control event with 93.95% precision and 90.54% recall, respectively. In addition, the speed estimation error is less than 2.1 m/s, which is an acceptable range.

  17. Acceptance of and Engagement in Risky Driving Behaviors by Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sheila; Andreas, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Data gathered from 1,430 teenage student drivers and 880 teenage traffic violators were used to examine the levels of exposure to risky driving behaviors and perceptions concerning the level of danger of such behaviors. For student drivers, 55% reported exposure to risky driving by being in a car with a driver engaging in such activities as drunk…

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...

  19. Chinese carless young drivers' self-reported driving behavior and simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Man, Dong; Xu, Xunnan

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers become carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has raised great concern in China. This study aims to provide initial insight into the self-reported driving behaviors and simulated driving performance of Chinese carless young drivers. Thirty-three carless young drivers and 32 young drivers with their own cars (as a comparison group) participated in this study. A modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) with a 4-factor structure (errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses) was used to study carless young drivers' self-reported driving behaviors. A simulated driving experiment using a low-cost, fixed-base driving simulator was conducted to measure their simulated driving performance (errors, violations, attention lapses, driving maintenance, reaction time, and accidents). Self-reported DBQ outcomes showed that carless young drivers reported similar errors, more attention lapses, fewer memory lapses, and significantly fewer violation behaviors relative to young drivers with their own cars, whereas simulated driving results revealed that they committed significantly more errors, attention lapses, and violation behaviors than the comparison group. Carless young drivers had a lower ability to maintain the stability of speed and lane position, drove more cautiously approaching and passing through red traffic lights, and committed more accidents during simulated driving. A tendency to speed was not found among carless young drivers; their average speed and speeding frequency were all much lower than that of the comparison group. Lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of carless young drivers' self-reported violations, simulated violations

  20. Does automatic transmission improve driving behavior in older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Helena; Bolin, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers. In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers - used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) - were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured. The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants' driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations. Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Emergency department charges for evaluating minimally injured alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael H; Mello, Michael J; Reinert, Steven

    2009-10-01

    The literature on the costs of treating alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crash victims is largely based on inpatient data. Less is known about the more frequent emergency department (ED) evaluations for those who are discharged home. Our objective is to measure the difference in charges and length of stay between alcohol-impaired and nonimpaired drivers in this population. This was a retrospective study of charts and billing data for all drivers in motor vehicle crashes, aged 21 to 65 years, treated at an urban Level I trauma center in 2005 and discharged home from the ED. Patients were divided into alcohol-positive and -negative groups according to alcohol level, documentation of recent alcohol use, or clinical intoxication. Itemized charges were tabulated and compared across groups. Of 1,618 eligible patients, median charges were higher for alcohol-positive patients by $4,538 (95% confidence interval [CI] $2,755 to $5,665). Imaging was 69% of the charge differential because of a higher frequency of imaging (91% versus 70%) and more expensive studies (median difference $2,464; 95% CI $1,507 to $3,400) for alcohol-positive patients. Median length of stay was higher for alcohol-positive patients by 3.3 hours (95% CI 2.7 to 4.1 hours). When stratified by trauma-protocoled triage destination, median charges were higher for alcohol-positive versus -negative patients in non-critical care beds by $2,229 (95% CI $1,039 to $2,693). For patients triaged to critical care beds, the difference in charges was only $132 (95% CI -$1,677 to $1,233). The presence of alcohol substantially increased charges and length of stay for ED evaluations of injured drivers discharged home, especially for patients who were triaged to non-critical care beds. The magnitudes are striking for this minimally injured population and represent an underreported burden of alcohol-impaired driving.

  2. Teen driving behaviors in a rural southern state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Elizabeth; Nichols, Michele; King, William D; Crew, Marie; Monroe, Kathy

    2014-12-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers. Alabama ranks fourth in the United States for teen crash fatalities. We sought to describe risky driving behaviors among teens in the rural areas of the state's most populous county. A questionnaire was adapted from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Each of the schools in Jefferson County, Alabama, participated in 2009 and 2010. Surveys were anonymous and data were entered into an Excel spreadsheet. Inclusion criteria were age 15 years and older. A total of 1399 surveys met inclusion criteria. A total of 52% of respondents were boys; 64% were white, 29% were African American, and 3% were Hispanic. Respondents were 15 (38%), 16 (36%), 17 (21%), and 18 (5%) years old. When asked about behaviors during driving in the last 30 days, 41% reported texting and 11% reported driving after drinking. Teens reported being a passenger in a car with the driver texting (67%) or after the driver had been drinking (27%) in the last 30 days. Overall, 58% reported not wearing a seatbelt; 13% reported driving after using drugs; 60% reported routinely exceeding the speed limit; 80% reported having discussed safe driving with a parent, but only 16% with their doctor; 25% had signed a safe driving contract; and 63% had taken a driving class. Many risky behaviors were identified for both teen drivers and passengers. A concerning number of teens are not receiving safe driving educational messages from parents, doctors, or driver's education classes. Some interventions have been instituted; however, more outreach efforts should be made to focus on strengthening driving laws and educating parents and teens.

  3. A Behavioral Solution to the Drunk Driving Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of drunk driving primarily as a failure in the process of operant conditioning, with the inappropriate behavior of the drunk driver resulting from a profound ignorance of the potentially tragic consequences of his behavior. Concludes most effective way to understand consequences is to witness autopsies of drunk driving…

  4. Simulation Analysis on Driving Behavior during Traffic Sign Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Sun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The traffic signs transfer trip information to drivers through vectors like words, graphs and numbers. Traffic sign with excessive information often makes the drivers have no time to read and understand, leading to risky driving. It is still a problem of how to clarify the relationship between traffic sign recognition and risky driving behavior. This paper presents a study that is reflective of such an effort. Twenty volunteers participated in the dynamic visual recognition experiment in driving simulator, and the data of several key indicators are obtained, including visual cognition time, vehicle acceleration and the offset distance from middle lane, etc. Correlations between each indicator above are discussed in terms of risky driving. Research findings directly show that drivers' behavior changes a lot during their traffic sign recognition.

  5. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The behavioral economics of drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Xu, Yanzhi

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates whether drinker-drivers attributes are associated with imperfect rationality or irrationality. Using data from eight U.S. cities, we determine whether drinker-drivers differ from other drinkers in cognitive ability, ignorance of driving while intoxicated (DWI) laws, have higher rates of time preference, are time inconsistent, and lack self-control on other measures. We find that drinker-drivers are relatively knowledgeable about DWI laws and do not differ on two of three study measures of cognitive ability from other drinkers. Drinker-drivers are less prone to plan events involving drinking, e.g., selecting a designated driver in advance of drinking, and are more impulsive. Furthermore, we find evidence in support of hyperbolic discounting. In particular, relative to non-drinker-drivers, the difference between short- and long-term discount rates is much higher for drinker-drivers than for other drinkers. Implications of our findings for public policy, including incapacitation, treatment, and educational interventions, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning Driving Behavior by Timed Syntactic Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values

  8. Don’t Drink and Drive (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    Nearly one-third of fatalities in car crashes are caused by alcohol-impaired driving. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving.  Created: 8/6/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  9. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    -driving simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed...

  10. The role of sensation seeking, perceived peer pressure, and harmful alcohol use in riding with an alcohol-impaired driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Generalized Force Model considering the Comfortable Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved generalized force model (IGFM that considers the driver’s comfortable driving behavior. Through theoretical analysis, we propose the calculation methods of comfortable driving distance and velocity. Then the stability condition of the model is obtained by the linear stability analysis. The problems of the unrealistic acceleration of the leading car existing in the previous models were solved. Furthermore, the simulation results show that IGFM can predict correct delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density, and it can exactly describe the driver’s behavior under an urgent case, where no collision occurs. The dynamic properties of IGFM also indicate that stability has improved compared to the generalized force model.

  12. A social network analysis of alcohol-impaired drivers in Maryland : an egocentric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the personal, household, and social structural attributes of alcoholimpaired : drivers in Maryland. The study used an egocentric approach of social network : analysis. This approach concentrated on specific actors (alcohol-impaire...

  13. Behavioral and neurophysiological signatures of benzodiazepine-related driving impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradly T Stone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem, worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; NHTSA, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004. Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009. Currently, drug recognition experts (law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving, have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS depressants (Smith, Hayes, Yolton, Rutledge, & Citek, 2002. The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake, Michie, Carter, & Jones, 2011, further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim™. This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (EEG, ECG. While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009, we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of drug recognition experts. Our analyses revealed that 1 specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and; 2 the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify impaired vs. unimpaired with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in

  14. Driving Green: Toward the Prediction and Influence of Efficient Driving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, William D.

    Sub-optimal efficiency in activities involving the consumption of fossil fuels, such as driving, contribute to a miscellany of negative environmental, political, economic and social externalities. Demonstrations of the effectiveness of feedback interventions can be found in countless organizational settings, as can demonstrations of individual differences in sensitivity to feedback interventions. Mechanisms providing feedback to drivers about fuel economy are becoming standard equipment in most new vehicles, but vary considerably in their constitution. A keystone of Radical Behaviorism is the acknowledgement that verbal behavior appears to play a role in mediating apparent susceptibility to influence by contingencies of varying delay. In the current study, samples of verbal behavior (rules) were collected in the context of a feedback intervention to improve driving efficiency. In an analysis of differences in individual responsiveness to the feedback intervention, the rate of novel rules per week generated by drivers is revealed to account for a substantial proportion of the variability in relative efficiency gains across participants. The predictive utility of conceptual tools, such as the basic distinction among contingency-shaped and rule governed behavior, the elaboration of direct-acting and indirect-acting contingencies, and the psychological flexibility model, is bolstered by these findings.

  15. Investigating the decision-making processes that contribute to impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired (AI) driving continues to cause a disproportionate number of fatalities within the college and : young adult populations, indicating optimal prevention programs for AI driving have yet to be developed. The : current study tested the ...

  16. A Support Vector Regression Approach for Investigating Multianticipative Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Support Vector Regression (SVR approach that can be applied to predict the multianticipative driving behavior using vehicle trajectory data. Building upon the SVR approach, a multianticipative car-following model is developed and enhanced in learning speed and predication accuracy. The model training and validation are conducted by using the field trajectory data extracted from the Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM project. During the model training and validation tests, the estimation results show that the SVR model performs as well as IDM model with respect to the model prediction accuracy. In addition, this paper performs a relative importance analysis to quantify the multianticipation in terms of the different stimuli to which drivers react in platoon car following. The analysis results confirm that drivers respond to the behavior of not only the immediate leading vehicle in front but also the second, third, and even fourth leading vehicles. Specifically, in congested traffic conditions, drivers are observed to be more sensitive to the relative speed than to the gap. These findings provide insight into multianticipative driving behavior and illustrate the necessity of taking into account multianticipative car-following model in microscopic traffic simulation.

  17. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  18. Driving behavior recognition using EEG data from a simulated car-following experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Rui; Zhang, H Michael; Guan, Wei; Jiang, Shixiong

    2017-11-23

    Driving behavior recognition is the foundation of driver assistance systems, with potential applications in automated driving systems. Most prevailing studies have used subjective questionnaire data and objective driving data to classify driving behaviors, while few studies have used physiological signals such as electroencephalography (EEG) to gather data. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a two-layer learning method for driving behavior recognition using EEG data. A simulated car-following driving experiment was designed and conducted to simultaneously collect data on the driving behaviors and EEG data of drivers. The proposed learning method consists of two layers. In Layer I, two-dimensional driving behavior features representing driving style and stability were selected and extracted from raw driving behavior data using K-means and support vector machine recursive feature elimination. Five groups of driving behaviors were classified based on these two-dimensional driving behavior features. In Layer II, the classification results from Layer I were utilized as inputs to generate a k-Nearest-Neighbor classifier identifying driving behavior groups using EEG data. Using independent component analysis, a fast Fourier transformation, and linear discriminant analysis sequentially, the raw EEG signals were processed to extract two core EEG features. Classifier performance was enhanced using the adaptive synthetic sampling approach. A leave-one-subject-out cross validation was conducted. The results showed that the average classification accuracy for all tested traffic states was 69.5% and the highest accuracy reached 83.5%, suggesting a significant correlation between EEG patterns and car-following behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Large-Scale Battery System Development and User-Specific Driving Behavior Analysis for Emerging Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Sun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emerging green-energy transportation, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs, has a great potential for reduction of fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions. The lithium-ion battery system used in these vehicles, however, is bulky, expensive and unreliable, and has been the primary roadblock for transportation electrification. Meanwhile, few studies have considered user-specific driving behavior and its significant impact on (PHEV fuel efficiency, battery system lifetime, and the environment. This paper presents a detailed investigation of battery system modeling and real-world user-specific driving behavior analysis for emerging electric-drive vehicles. The proposed model is fast to compute and accurate for analyzing battery system run-time and long-term cycle life with a focus on temperature dependent battery system capacity fading and variation. The proposed solution is validated against physical measurement using real-world user driving studies, and has been adopted to facilitate battery system design and optimization. Using the collected real-world hybrid vehicle and run-time driving data, we have also conducted detailed analytical studies of users’ specific driving patterns and their impacts on hybrid vehicle electric energy and fuel efficiency. This work provides a solid foundation for future energy control with emerging electric-drive applications.

  20. Addressing alcohol-impaired driving : training physicians to detect and counsel their patients who drink heavily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Alcohol is the most common chronic disease in trauma patients, and one of the most common in patients treated in primary care. Studies have shown that brief counseling intervention in trauma centers and primary care clinics are efficient in reducing ...

  1. National survey of drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration : conducts the National Survey of Drinking and Driving : Attitudes and Behaviors on a periodic basis to monitor the : publics attitudes, knowledge, and self-reported behavior : regarding drinking ...

  2. Anomalous Scaling Behaviors in a Rice-Pile Model with Two Different Driving Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Duanming; Sun Hongzhang; Li Zhihua; Pan Guijun; Yu Boming; Li Rui; Yin Yanping

    2005-01-01

    The moment analysis is applied to perform large scale simulations of the rice-pile model. We find that this model shows different scaling behavior depending on the driving mechanism used. With the noisy driving, the rice-pile model violates the finite-size scaling hypothesis, whereas, with fixed driving, it shows well defined avalanche exponents and displays good finite size scaling behavior for the avalanche size and time duration distributions.

  3. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The texting and driving epidemic : changing norms to change behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This campaign was created to reduce texting and driving and to increase awareness of the serious risks involved with texting and driving. The target audience of the campaign is University of Kansas students. This plan proposes an Anti-Texting and ...

  5. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and texting while driving behavior in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Teruya, Stacey; Pan, Deyu; Lin, Johnny; Gordon, David; Krochalk, Pamela C; Bazargan, Mohsen

    2017-01-02

    To examine the role of intent and other theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting college students' willingness to text while driving (TWD). This was a cross-sectional study. 243 male and female college students enrolled in the 2013-2014 academic year in the College of Health, Human Services & Nursing completed a survey on TWD. All races and ethnicities, ≥18 years of age, cell phone owner, and licensed driver. Over 70% of the sample (n = 243) reported talking on a cell phone and sending and receiving text messages "at least a few times" while driving within the past week. However, only 27% reported being stopped by police. Of these, 22% reported being fined. Within the past 30 days, 26% reported reading or sending TWD and having to slam on the brakes to avoid hitting another car or pedestrian(s) as a result. In all, 47% of the variance in intention to send TWD was accounted for by the full TPB model. Intention, in turn, predicted willingness to TWD. Intention also mediated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and willingness to TWD. Attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of intention. In addition, intention was found to mediate the relationship of willingness to TWD on perceived behavioral control. These findings highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioral change interventions seeking to prevent TWD.

  6. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  7. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  8. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Acosta Oliveira

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  9. Scrolling and driving: how an MP3 player and its aftermarket controller affect driving performance and visual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D; Roberts, Shannon C; Hoffman, Joshua D; Angell, Linda S

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how scrolling through playlists on an MP3 player or its aftermarket controller affects driving performance and to examine how drivers adapt device use to driving demands. Drivers use increasingly complex infotainment devices that can undermine driving performance. The goal activation hypothesis suggests that drivers might fail to compensate for these demands, particularly with long tasks and large search set sizes. A total of 50 participants searched for songs in playlists of varying lengths using either an MP3 player or an aftermarket controller while negotiating road segments with traffic and construction in a medium-fidelity driving simulator. Searching through long playlists (580 songs) resulted in poor driving performance and required more long glances (longer than 2 s) to the device compared with other playlist lengths. The aftermarket controller also led to more long glances compared with the MP3 player. Drivers did not adequately adapt their behavior to roadway demand, as evident in their degraded driving performance. No significant performance differences were found between short playlists, the radio-tuning task, and the no-task condition. Selecting songs from long playlists undermined driving performance, and drivers did not sufficiently adapt their use of the device to the roadway demands, consistent with the goal activation hypothesis. The aftermarket controller degraded rather than enhanced performance. Infotainment systems should support drivers in managing distraction. Aftermarket controllers can have the unintended effect of making devices carried into the car less compatible with driving.These results can motivate development of new interfaces as alternatives to scrolling lists.

  10. [Study on illegal driving behavior and vehicle road traffic injury in China from 2006 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing; Yang, Yunjuan

    2015-06-01

    To study the characteristics and trend of illegal driving behavior in China to provide evidence for related policy enforcement. Using indices as death rate of ten thousand vehicle, death rate per 100 000 population, thousands of road mileage, degree of motorization and death ratio etc. to analyze the current situation, characteristics of illegal vehicle driving behavior related to road traffic injuries, in China. From 2006 to 2010, death ratio on vehicle road traffic injuries related to the top five illegal driving behaviors were as follows: speeding (from 0.33 down to 0.17), on refuse to give way to others (from 0.26 to 0.14), on driving without license (from 0.21 to 0.08), on illegal driving encroachment (from 0.17 to 0.04) and on reverse driving (from 0.11 to 0.07). Death rates related to vehicle road traffic injuries on drunk driving or fatigue driving were 0.04 in 2010 and 0.02 in 2010, respectively. Despite the fact that the number of vehicle road traffic injuries appeared a declining trend, the severity was increasing. Illegal driving behavior was still prevalent in China.

  11. Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive inhibition predict risky driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risky driving and sexual behaviors as developmental outcomes of co-occurring substance use and antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Worley, Matthew J; Winiger, Evan; Trim, Ryan S; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Brown, Sandra A; Wall, Tamara L

    2016-12-01

    To examine the associations between substance use and antisocial behavior trajectories and seven risky behaviors over time. Data were collected from a high-risk sample of adolescents followed into young adulthood. Five trajectory classes, identified based on dual development of substance use and antisocial behavior symptoms, were used to predict three risky driving and four risky sexual behaviors. In this high-risk sample (n=530), participants reported notably high overall rates of reckless driving (55.5%) and unprotected sex under the influence (44.8%) in the past year. Risky behaviors that are typically of low base rates in population-based studies were also elevated, with 8.8% reporting past-year driving under the influence (DUI) charge, 17.6% reporting lifetime sexually transmitted infection (STI), and 10.4% reporting lifetime injection drug use. The Dual Chronic class had the highest levels of all seven risky behaviors, and were 3-4 times more likely to report risky driving, lifetime STI, and injection drug use than the Relatively Resolved class. Rates of past-year reckless driving and DUI were elevated among classes with persistent antisocial behavior, whereas rates of DUI, DUI charge, and unprotected sex under the influence were elevated among classes with persistent substance use. Young adults with persistent co-occurring substance use and antisocial behavior engage in multiple very costly risky behaviors. Differential associations between risky behaviors and trajectory classes highlight the need for targeted interventions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huimin; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James; Kato, Kazuma

    2015-09-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realistic way to examine drivers' behaviors and associated factors for cell phone use while driving. In this study, driving speed while using a cell phone (conversation or visual/manual tasks) was compared to two baselines (baseline 1: normal driving condition, which only excludes driving while using a cell phone, baseline 2: driving-only condition, which excludes all types of secondary tasks) when traversing an intersection. The outcomes showed that drivers drove slower when using a cell for both conversation and visual/manual (VM) tasks compared to baseline conditions. With regard to cell phone conversations, drivers were more likely to drive faster during the day time compared to night time driving and drive slower under moderate traffic compared to under sparse traffic situations. With regard to VM tasks, there was a significant interaction between traffic and cell phone use conditions. The maximum speed with VM tasks was significantly lower than that with baseline conditions under sparse traffic conditions. In contrast, the maximum speed with VM tasks was slightly higher than that with baseline driving under dense traffic situations. This suggests that drivers might self-regulate their behavior based on the driving situations and demand for secondary tasks, which could provide insights on driver distraction guidelines. With the rapid development of in-vehicle technology, the findings in this research could lead the improvement of human-machine interface (HMI) design as well

  14. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  15. Predictors of Cell Phone Use in Distracted Driving: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the predictors of six distracted driving behaviors, and the survey data partially support Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The data suggest that the attitude variable predicted intention to engage in all six distracted driving behaviors (reading and sending text messages, making and answering cell phone calls, reading/viewing social media, and posting on social media while driving). Extending the model to include past experience and the variable perceived safety of technology yielded an improvement in the prediction of the distraction variables. Specifically, past experience predicted all six distracted driving behaviors, and the variable perceived safety of technology predicted intentions to read/view social media and intention to post on social media while driving. The study provides evidence for the importance of incorporating expanded variables into the original TPB model to predict cell phone use behaviors while driving, and it suggests that it is essential to tailor campaign materials for each specific cell phone use behavior to reduce distracted driving.

  16. Effects of human-machine interface design for intelligent speed adaptation on driving behavior and acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, A.M.; Hogema, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of human-machine interface (HMI) design for intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) on driving behavior and acceptance were measured in a moving-base research driving simulator. Sixty-four experienced drivers participated in two simulator experiments (32 in each). During the simulated runs

  17. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  18. Drinking and driving and other risk taking behaviors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the relationship between drinking and driving and other risk taking behaviours among university students in Limpopo, South Africa aged 17 to 24 years old. A purposive sample of 111 undergraduate university student drivers participated in the study after they had consented to participate. More than ...

  19. National Phone Survey on Distracted Driving Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    As more drivers take their cell phones into their vehicles, distracted driving continues to grow as a traffic safety issue. Most U.S. States : responded by enacting some sort of cell phone or texting ban. In November and December 2010, NHTSA conducte...

  20. National survey of drinking and driving attitudes and behaviors : 2008. Volume 3, methodology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the details of the methodology used for the 2008 National Survey of Drinking and Driving Attitudes and Behaviors conducted by Gallup, Inc. for : the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This survey represents t...

  1. The trends and issues about drive for thinness and eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tazaki, Shinji

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the recent trends and issues on the drive for thinness and eating behavior of adolescent females. In Japan, the number of eating disorders in adolescent female is rapidly increasing. And it is considered that the number of individuals who are not given a diagnosis of eating disorder but express a problematic eating behavior is on the increase. Through review researches, it was found that many psychological and sociocultural factors influenced the drive...

  2. Gender differences in adapting driving behavior to accommodate visual health limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkin, Andrew J; Tally, Steven R; Wooldridge, Jennalee S; Choi, Kyle; Shieh, Marian; Kaplan, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether men and women are equally likely to adapt their driving behaviors in response to visual limitations. Participants were 376 (222 women and 154 men) pre-surgical cataract patients from the Shiley Eye Center in La Jolla, California. All participants completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire, which assesses self-reported visual symptoms, functional limitations, and behaviors including driving during the day, at night, or in difficult conditions. Visual acuity was assessed using the log of the minimal angle of resolution (LogMAR) scale. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between men and women who reported either that they stopped driving at night because of visual impairment or reported having no difficulty driving at night. Of participants who reported having difficulty driving at night, mean weighted LogMAR scores indicated significantly better visual acuity for women than men. There were no significant differences in LogMAR visual acuity between women and men in any of the difficult driving condition categories. Significantly more women than men reported that they stopped driving in difficult conditions because of eyesight, despite the lack of gender differences in visual acuity for this sample. We found no evidence that cataract disease had different effects on the visual acuity of older adult men and women. However, there was a significant difference between genders in self-reported driving behavior. It is possible that some women are more cautious or have less need to drive. However, failing to adapt driving behaviors to accommodate visual limitations may represent a potential behavioral public health risk for men.

  3. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  4. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Shen

    Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  5. Impact of Vehicular Countdown Signals on Driving Psychologies and Behaviors: Taking China as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuquan Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countdown signal control is a relatively new control mode that can inform a driver in advance about the remaining time to pass through intersections or the time needed to wait for other drivers and pedestrians. At present, few countries apply vehicular countdown signals. However, in China, some cities have applied vehicular countdown signals for years, though it is unclear how and how much such signals influence driving psychologies and behaviors compared with non-countdown signal controls. The present work aims to clarify the impact of vehicular countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors on the cognitive level. A questionnaire survey with 32 questions about driving psychologies and behaviors was designed, and an online survey was conducted. A total of 1051 valid questionnaires were received. The survey data were analyzed, and the main results indicate that most of the surveyed drivers prefer countdown signal controls and think that such controls can improve not only traffic safety but also traffic operational efficiency. The surveyed drivers also think that countdown signal controls have an impact on driving psychologies and behaviors and the survey results have demonstrated that the driving behaviors of female drivers surveyed are not conservative under the clear conditions of green countdown signal control. Further studies and methods concerning the effects of countdown signals on driving psychologies and behaviors are discussed.

  6. C U L8ter: YouTube distracted driving PSAs use of behavior change theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Mindy; Chao, Melanie S; Strong, Jessica T; Maxwell, Martha; West, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the inclusion of health behavior theory in distracted driving PSAs on YouTube.com. Two-hundred fifty PSAs were assessed using constructs from 4 prominent health behavior theories. A total theory score was calculated for each video. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with higher theory scores. PSAs were generally lacking in theoretical content. Video length, use of rates/statistics, driving scenario depiction, and presence of a celebrity were positively associated with theory inclusion. Collaboration between health experts and PSA creators could be fostered to produce more theory-based distracted driving videos on YouTube.com.

  7. European electric vehicle fleet: driving and charging behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Corchero García, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of vehicles would be a reality in the coming decades. Statistical results on real electric vehicle usage data is a key point in the development of the electro mobility. A large collection of electric vehicles and charging points have been monitored during three years and the results about the driving and charging patterns are shown in this work. These results may help to develop future policies on, for instance, charging infrastructure location, end-users incentives, or to...

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DRIVING SUPPORT SYSTEMS BASED ON HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi DOI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.

  9. Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.

  10. Attitudes and behaviors related to distracted driving in college students: a need for interventions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; MacLean, Sarah A; Garcia, Philip

    2017-08-05

    Objective One of the biggest contributors to distracted driving among young people in the United States is technology. The objective of this study was to describe distracted driving behaviors among college students, with a specific focus on attitudes towards and use of social media. Methods With written permission, a survey was adapted from the Distracted Driving Public Opinion Poll distributed by the National Safety Council. The survey comprised 43 questions assessing attitudes and behaviors. A total of 411 students enrolled in a personal health course were invited to complete the survey. In total 324 surveys were completed, resulting in a response rate of 79%. Results Among students with a driver's license, 95.2% reported engaging in distracted driving behaviors. The use of social media while driving was common, with 30.7% reporting that they glance at, read, or post to social media while driving, most commonly on Snapchat or Instagram. It was common for students to make or answer phone calls (72.0%), review or send text messages (54.6%), or glance at or read automatic notifications (43.3%). Almost all students (91.5%) reported that they believed a hands-free solution is safer than holding the phone while driving, but only 67.9% reported that they usually used a hands-free device. Students in a health major and students who drive in urban areas were more likely to engage in distracted driving behaviors. Conclusions These findings suggest a need for interventions, particularly those which target adolescents in an attempt to deter these behaviors as they transition into adulthood.

  11. Eco-driving behavior tendency among Indonesian people: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraida, Rida; Widjaja, Dimitrius

    2017-12-01

    Eco-driving behavior can be triggered by many aspects such as economic and environmental awareness. In Indonesia this issue received less attention from citizen, whereas it has significant roles in reducing greenhouse gas emission. This paper initiated a study about eco-driving tendency behavior among Indonesian people, the objective is to see whether current behavior support or not, and does the differences between gender and age exist. Adopted on-line study method using an online form questionnaire„ 27 questions developed consist of 8 items related to individual data, 19 items related to perception and driving behavior. The respond measures using 5 scale option answers (i.e. strongly disagree, disagree, quite agree, agree, and strongly agree). Based on average respondents’ answers, can be concluded that the tendency of behavior somewhat supports to in line with eco-driving behavior. After Q15 and Q18 omitted based on Pearson-product moment correlation, further analysis results showed that most of respondents categorized into mild tendency behavior (109 respondents). However, a mild tendency among female respondents are higher than male, and the strong tendency of males is higher than female respondents. Based on gender, there are no significant tendency behavior differences between male and female (p-value = 0, 320), and also among age groups (30y, 31-40y, 41-50y, and >50y), even though age >50 have a lower tendency to the behavior compare to other groups.

  12. Modeling Left-Turn Driving Behavior at Signalized Intersections with Mixed Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, mixed traffic is the most common type of urban transportation; traffic of this type faces many major problems in traffic engineering, such as conflicts, inefficiency, and security issues. This paper focuses on the traffic engineering concerns on the driving behavior of left-turning vehicles caused by different degrees of pedestrian violations. The traffic characteristics of left-turning vehicles and pedestrians in the affected region at a signalized intersection were analyzed and a cellular-automata-based “following-conflict” driving behavior model that mainly addresses four basic behavior modes was proposed to study the conflict and behavior mechanisms of left-turning vehicles by mathematic methodologies. Four basic driving behavior modes were reproduced in computer simulations, and a logit model of the behavior mode choice was also developed to analyze the relative share of each behavior mode. Finally, the microscopic characteristics of driving behaviors and the macroscopic parameters of traffic flow in the affected region were all determined. These data are important reference for geometry and capacity design for signalized intersections. The simulation results show that the proposed models are valid and can be used to represent the behavior of left-turning vehicles in the case of conflicts with illegally crossing pedestrians. These results will have potential applications on improving traffic safety and traffic capacity at signalized intersections with mixed traffic conditions.

  13. Blood alcohol analysis alone versus comprehensive toxicological analysis - Systematic investigation of missed co-ingested other drugs in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Andrea E; Eisenbeiss, Lisa; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or drugs (DUID) is a safety issue of increasing public concern. When a police officer has reasonable grounds to classify a driver as impaired, he may arrange for a blood sample to be taken. In many countries, alcohol analysis only is ordered if impairment is suspected to be exclusively due to alcohol while comprehensive toxicological screening will be performed if additional suspicion for other illegal drugs of abuse (DoA) or medicinal drugs is on hand. The aim of the present study was firstly to evaluate whether signs of impairment can be differentiated to be caused by alcohol alone or a combination of alcohol and other driving-impairing drugs and secondly to which extent additional drugs are missed in suspected alcohol-impaired drivers. A total of 293 DUID cases (negative n=41; alcohol positive only, n=131; alcohol+active drug positive, n=121) analyzed in 2015 in the Canton of Zurich were evaluated for their documented impairment symptoms by translating these into a severity score and comparing them applying principle component analysis (PCA). Additional 500 cases suspected for alcohol-impaired driving only were reanalyzed using comprehensive LC-MS/MS screening methods covering about 1500 compounds. Drugs detected were classified for severity of driving impairment using the classification system established in the DRUID study of the European Commission. As partly expected from the pharmacological and toxicological point of view, PCA analysis revealed no differences between signs of impairment caused by alcohol alone and those caused by alcohol plus at least one active drug. Breaking it down to different blood alcohol concentration ranges, only between 0.3 and 0.5g/kg trends could be observed in terms of more severe impairment for combined alcohol and drug intake. In the 500 blood samples retrospectively analyzed in this study, a total of 330 additional drugs could be detected; in some cases up to 9 co-ingested ones. In

  14. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationship in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to playbacks of pile driving sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Jennings, Nancy; Kommeren, Aimée; Helder-Hoek, Lean; Schop, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean

  15. Driving Behavior and mileage with the Incidence of ISPA in Students UNAIR Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezkha Mala Ludyaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive lifes short by health problems cause inhaling dirty air generate from motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Transport activities generate air pollutants that lead to the onset of disease Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between driving behavior and mileage with ARI at Airlangga University students. This research was an observational analytic study and case control design. The sample size in this study was 44 people for each group of cases and controls with systematic random sampling technique. To determine the relationship and odd ratio, the study used statistical Chi Square test. The results showed that there was a relationship between driving behavior consists of the used of PPE (p = 0.008, speed drive (p = 0.001, and the distance (p = 0.001 with ARI. Respondents who never wore PPE might increase that risk of acute respiratory infection 2.6 times compared with respondents who always wear PPE. Driving speed of 60 km/hours. Mileage ≥5 km had 5.156 times the risk of acute respiratory infection compared with respondents mileage <5km. It was concluded that driving behavior and mileage associated with ARI. It is recommended that officers PLK Airlangga University type C provide brochures, free masks, and held a car free day to students with the aim of reducing the incidence of ARI. Keywords: Driving Behavior, Mileage, and ARI

  16. A Multi-Method Approach to Understanding Behavior Change. The Case of Texting and Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. HOOD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving, specifically texting and driving, has become a nationwide public health problem in the U.S. with negative, and potentially fatal consequences. In an effort to combat the growing problem, non-profit organizations, corporations, and the federal government have all stepped in to try to increase public awareness and persuade drivers to cease texting while driving. These efforts have not had the desired impact as texting and driving has continued to increase in recent years. This research investigates the potential that the messages used to curb texting and driving behavior might not be properly constructed. Specifically, we test the potential for message sponsor and self-relevance of the message to influence message outcomes. Our results suggest that messages sponsored by a combination of company and government that are self-relevant to viewers will have different outcomes than other messages. We identify practical and theoretical implications as well as future research directions.

  17. A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minglin; Zhang, Sheng; Dong, Yuhan

    2016-10-20

    In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution) and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden) can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects.

  18. A Novel Model-Based Driving Behavior Recognition System Using Motion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglin Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a novel driving behavior recognition system based on a specific physical model and motion sensory data is developed to promote traffic safety. Based on the theory of rigid body kinematics, we build a specific physical model to reveal the data change rule during the vehicle moving process. In this work, we adopt a nine-axis motion sensor including a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, and apply a Kalman filter for noise elimination and an adaptive time window for data extraction. Based on the feature extraction guided by the built physical model, various classifiers are accomplished to recognize different driving behaviors. Leveraging the system, normal driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with caution and aggressive driving behaviors (such as accelerating, braking, lane changing and turning with a sudden can be classified with a high accuracy of 93.25%. Compared with traditional driving behavior recognition methods using machine learning only, the proposed system possesses a solid theoretical basis, performs better and has good prospects.

  19. A Refined Numerical Simulation on Dynamic Behavior of Roller Chain Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A refined numerical analysis of the dynamic behavior of roller chain drives is performed considering the roller assembly as a three-layer structure with mechanical clearance between each two of the mechanical components. Instead of using analytical method, explicit finite element technique is utilized for modeling and simulating the dynamic behavior of chain drives. The complete standard geometry of sprockets and all components of chain links are used in the developed model with minor geometry simplification. A primary goal is to achieve a more complete understanding of the dynamic behavior of chain drives especially in the transient vibration response of the engaging rollers, which is crucial for noise emission calculation. The simulated velocity response of the engaging rollers and roller-sprocket contact forces achieved using the full model are compared with what found by the simple model which has been adopted in analytical study of chain roller dynamics.

  20. Effects of the Contextual Variables of Racing Games on Risky Driving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Chan, Alan H S; Wu, Feng; Liu, Shulin

    2017-08-01

    This research conducted experimental studies to investigate the effects of the contextual variables of racing games on risky driving behavior. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, the effect of racing game violence on the driving-related risk-taking inclination of racing game players was examined. Experiment 2 investigated the impact of the competitiveness of racing games on risk-taking inclination, and Experiment 3 investigated the impact of the rewarded/punitive characteristics of racing games on the risk-taking inclination of racing game players. The Vienna Risk-Taking Test was used to measure risk-taking inclination of participants. The game violence, competitiveness, and the reward characteristics of racing games, all had significant impacts in increasing risky driving behavior. The punitive characteristics of racing games had a significant effect, which decreases risky driving behavior. The contextual variables of game violence, competitiveness, and rewarded/punitive characteristics of racing games investigated in this study were all shown to influence the risk-taking inclination of game players, which increased risky driving behavior. This study provides a useful reference for the classification and graded management of racing games.

  1. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  2. Intention to Drive After Drinking Among Medical Students: Contributions of the Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; Malbergier, André; Lima, Danielle Ruiz; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model. Fifty-two students (33%) had previous experience of driving after drinking during the last year, and 54 students (35%) reported intention to drive after drinking within the next year. Regression analysis showed that higher scores in perception of personal vulnerability to risks were associated with occasional and frequent intention to continue pursuing this particular behavior. Poorer evaluations about short-term consequences of alcohol consumption and cognitions regarding external rewards were significantly associated with reported intention to continue driving after drinking. Considering the social and health impact of alcohol-impaired behaviors, our findings suggest the need of interventional efforts focused in increasing students' awareness about the negative consequences of drinking and driving aiming to enhance their motivation towards more adaptive behaviors.

  3. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  4. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-08-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat's perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How Am I Driving? Using Genetic Programming to Generate Scoring Functions for Urban Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries are a serious concern in emerging economies. Their death toll and economic impact are shocking, with 9 out of 10 deaths occurring in low or middle-income countries; and road traffic crashes representing 3% of their gross domestic product. One way to mitigate these issues is to develop technology to effectively assist the driver, perhaps making him more aware about how her (his decisions influence safety. Following this idea, in this paper we evaluate computational models that can score the behavior of a driver based on a risky-safety scale. Potential applications of these models include car rental agencies, insurance companies or transportation service providers. In a previous work, we showed that Genetic Programming (GP was a successful methodology to evolve mathematical functions with the ability to learn how people subjectively score a road trip. The input to this model was a vector of frequencies of risky maneuvers, which were supposed to be detected in a sensor layer. Moreover, GP was shown, even with statistical significance, to be better than six other Machine Learning strategies, including Neural Networks, Support Vector Regression and a Fuzzy Inference system, among others. A pending task, since then, was to evaluate if a more detailed comparison of different strategies based on GP could improve upon the best GP model. In this work, we evaluate, side by side, scoring functions evolved by three different variants of GP. In the end, the results suggest that two of these strategies are very competitive in terms of accuracy and simplicity, both generating models that could be implemented in current technology that seeks to assist the driver in real-world scenarios.

  6. Feature Integration Drives Probabilistic Behavior in the Drosophila Escape Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, Catherine R; Nern, Aljoscha; Williamson, W Ryan; Breads, Patrick; Wu, Ming; Namiki, Shigehiro; Card, Gwyneth M

    2017-06-21

    Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF. Linear integration improves size detection invariance over prior models and appropriately biases motor selection to rapid, GF-mediated escapes during fast looms. Our findings suggest feature integration, and motor control may occur as simultaneous operations within the same neuron and establish the Drosophila escape circuit as a model system in which these computations may be further dissected at the circuit level. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  8. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  9. CROSS-STUDY RESEARCH ON UTILITY AND VALIDITY OF DRIVING SIMULATOR FOR DRIVER BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Matowicki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Driving is one of the most ordinary and universal everyday tasks and, at the same time, one of the most complex and dangerous. It requires a full range of sensory, perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions, all of which can be affected by a wide range of stressors and experience levels. Therefore, exploring of human behaviour while controlling a vehicle is a crucial task in improving traffic safety. Experimental studies can always be conducted with on-road tests, however, using a simulator is safer and more cost-effective. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate if and under what conditions could a driving simulator provide sufficient results required for a proper study of driver behavior. It discusses its limits and advantages. Overall, the research reviewed in this paper indicates that simulator driving behaviour approximates (relative validity of speed and lateral position of vehicle on road, but does not exactly replicate (absolute validity, on-road driving behaviour.

  10. Associations between parenting styles and teen driving, safety-related behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Durbin, Dennis R; García-España, J Felipe; Kalicka, Ewa A; Winston, Flaura K

    2009-10-01

    The goal was to explore the association between parenting style and driving behaviors. The 2006 National Young Driver Survey gathered data on driving safety behaviors from a nationally representative sample of 5665 ninth-, 10th-, and 11th-graders. A parenting style variable was based on adolescent reports and separated parents into 4 groups, (1) authoritative (high support and high rules/monitoring), (2) authoritarian (low support and high rules/monitoring), (3) permissive (high support and low rules/monitoring), and (4) uninvolved (low support and low rules/monitoring). Associations between parenting style and driving behaviors and attitudes were assessed. One half of parents were described as authoritative, 23% as permissive, 8% as authoritarian, and 19% as uninvolved. Compared with teens with uninvolved parents, those with authoritative parents reported one half the crash risk in the past year (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26-0.87]), were 71% less likely to drive when intoxicated (OR: 0.29 [95% CI: 0.19-0.44]), and were less likely to use a cellular telephone while driving (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.99]). Teens with authoritative or authoritarian parents reported using seat belts nearly twice as often (authoritative: OR: 1.94 [95% CI: 1.49 -2.54]; authoritarian: OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.08 -3.18]) and speeding one half as often (authoritative: OR: 0.47 [95% CI: 0.36-0.61]; authoritarian: OR: 0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.99]) as teens with uninvolved parents. No significant differences in crash risk or seat belt use were found between permissive and uninvolved parents. Clinicians should encourage parents to set rules and to monitor teens' driving behaviors, in a supportive context.

  11. Defect-Repairable Latent Feature Extraction of Driving Behavior via a Deep Sparse Autoencoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiLong Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Data representing driving behavior, as measured by various sensors installed in a vehicle, are collected as multi-dimensional sensor time-series data. These data often include redundant information, e.g., both the speed of wheels and the engine speed represent the velocity of the vehicle. Redundant information can be expected to complicate the data analysis, e.g., more factors need to be analyzed; even varying the levels of redundancy can influence the results of the analysis. We assume that the measured multi-dimensional sensor time-series data of driving behavior are generated from low-dimensional data shared by the many types of one-dimensional data of which multi-dimensional time-series data are composed. Meanwhile, sensor time-series data may be defective because of sensor failure. Therefore, another important function is to reduce the negative effect of defective data when extracting low-dimensional time-series data. This study proposes a defect-repairable feature extraction method based on a deep sparse autoencoder (DSAE to extract low-dimensional time-series data. In the experiments, we show that DSAE provides high-performance latent feature extraction for driving behavior, even for defective sensor time-series data. In addition, we show that the negative effect of defects on the driving behavior segmentation task could be reduced using the latent features extracted by DSAE.

  12. Validity and Usability of a Safe Driving Behavior Measure for Older Adults : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Florida leads the U.S. in number of people over : 65, now 18%, rising to 27% by 2030. Also likely to : rise are crashes involving over-65 drivers. Most : older adults modify their driving behaviors in : response to age-related changes; however, at-ri...

  13. Defect-Repairable Latent Feature Extraction of Driving Behavior via a Deep Sparse Autoencoder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, HaiLong; Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Takenaka, Kazuhito; Bando, Takashi

    2018-02-16

    Data representing driving behavior, as measured by various sensors installed in a vehicle, are collected as multi-dimensional sensor time-series data. These data often include redundant information, e.g., both the speed of wheels and the engine speed represent the velocity of the vehicle. Redundant information can be expected to complicate the data analysis, e.g., more factors need to be analyzed; even varying the levels of redundancy can influence the results of the analysis. We assume that the measured multi-dimensional sensor time-series data of driving behavior are generated from low-dimensional data shared by the many types of one-dimensional data of which multi-dimensional time-series data are composed. Meanwhile, sensor time-series data may be defective because of sensor failure. Therefore, another important function is to reduce the negative effect of defective data when extracting low-dimensional time-series data. This study proposes a defect-repairable feature extraction method based on a deep sparse autoencoder (DSAE) to extract low-dimensional time-series data. In the experiments, we show that DSAE provides high-performance latent feature extraction for driving behavior, even for defective sensor time-series data. In addition, we show that the negative effect of defects on the driving behavior segmentation task could be reduced using the latent features extracted by DSAE.

  14. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, W

    1994-04-01

    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  15. The prevalence and correlates of risky driving behavior among National Guard soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Prescott, Marta R; Goldmann, Emily; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that risky driving is associated with deployment and combat exposure in military populations, but there is limited research on risky driving among soldiers in the National Guard and Reserves, a group increasingly deployed to active international conflicts. The goal of this analysis was to assess the prevalence of risky driving and its demographic, mental health, and deployment-related correlates among members of the Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG). The study group comprised 2,616 eligible OHARNG soldiers enlisted as of June 2008, or who enlisted between June 2008 and February 2009. The main outcome of interest was the prevalence of risky driving behavior assessed using six questions: "How often do you use seat belts when you drive or ride in a car?"; "In the past 30 days, how many times have you driven when you've had perhaps too much to drink?"; "In the past year, have you ever become impatient with a slow driver in the fast lane and passed them on the right?"; "In the past year have you crossed an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already changed from yellow to red?"; "In the past year have you disregarded speed limits late at night or early in the morning?"; and "In the past year have you underestimated the speed of an oncoming vehicle when attempting to pass a vehicle in your own lane?" We fit multiple logistic regression models and derived the adjusted prevalence of risky driving behavior for soldiers with mental health conditions, deployment experience, exposure to combat or trauma, and psychosocial stressors or supports. The prevalence of risky driving was higher in soldiers with a history of mental health conditions, deployment to a conflict area, deployment-related traumatic events, and combat or post-combat stressors. In contrast, the prevalence of risky driving was lower for soldiers who reported high levels of psychosocial support. Efforts to mitigate risky driving in military populations may be more

  16. THE DIFFERENCES OF DRIVING BEHAVIOR AMONG DIFFERENT DRIVER AGE GROUPS AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian John LU, Ph.D., P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years the population of older drivers has substantially increased across the United States. Older drivers are a group of special interest because of their potential age-related deficiencies. It is essential to understand their driving behavior and adjust the conditions of roadway systems according to their requirements. Likewise, driving behavior of older drivers needs to be considered in order to adequately estimate capacities at intersections. In the past few years, research projects were performed by the University of South Florida to analyze the differences of driving behavior among different driver age groups. Typically, the driving behavior of older drivers was evaluated by analyzing their start-up lost time and saturation headway at signalized intersections as compared to young and mid-age driver groups. Research results were based on data collected from signalized intersections with different land-use types. These intersections are located in west and central Florida where the elderly population has been increasing rapidly in recent years. From the results it was found that the presence of older drivers significantly reduced intersection capacity at all study sites because of their higher lost times and lower saturation flow rates. Therefore, driving behavior of older drivers should be considered in designing intersections located in places with a significant older driver population. In the research, models were developed to predict start-up lost time and saturation headway values generated by older drivers. Then, the variation in capacities with an increasing percentage of older drivers in the traffic stream was modeled. Finally, adjustment factors for different percentages of older drivers were developed to adjust intersection capacity. These factors are believed to account for the presence of older drivers in the traffic stream. The adjustment factors may be used in capacity analysis and design procedures for

  17. An extended heterogeneous car-following model accounting for anticipation driving behavior and mixed maximum speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2018-02-01

    The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.

  18. Methods for automated identification of informative behaviors in natural bioptic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2012-06-01

    Visually impaired people may legally drive if wearing bioptic telescopes in some developed countries. To address the controversial safety issue of the practice, we have developed a low-cost in-car recording system that can be installed in study participants' own vehicles to record their daily driving activities. We also developed a set of automated identification techniques of informative behaviors to facilitate efficient manual review of important segments submerged in the vast amount of uncontrolled data. Here, we present the methods and quantitative results of the detection performance for six types of driving maneuvers and behaviors that are important for bioptic driving: bioptic telescope use, turns, curves, intersections, weaving, and rapid stops. The testing data were collected from one normally sighted and two visually impaired subjects across multiple days. The detection rates ranged from 82% up to 100%, and the false discovery rates ranged from 0% to 13%. In addition, two human observers were able to interpret about 80% of targets viewed through the telescope. These results indicate that with appropriate data processing the low-cost system is able to provide reliable data for natural bioptic driving studies.

  19. Driving-behavior-aware stochastic model predictive control for plug-in hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; You, Sixiong; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Song, Jian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel approximated global optimal energy management strategy has been proposed for hybrid powertrains. • Eight typical driving behaviors have been classified with K-means to deal with the multiplicative traffic conditions. • The stochastic driver models of different driving behaviors were established based on the Markov chains. • ECMS was used to modify the SMPC-based energy management strategy to improve its fuel economy. • The approximated global optimal energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric buses has been verified and analyzed. - Abstract: Driving cycles of a city bus is statistically characterized by some repetitive features, which makes the predictive energy management strategy very desirable to obtain approximate optimal fuel economy of a plug-in hybrid electric bus. But dealing with the complicated traffic conditions and finding an approximated global optimal strategy which is applicable to the plug-in hybrid electric bus still remains a challenging technique. To solve this problem, a novel driving-behavior-aware modified stochastic model predictive control method is proposed for the plug-in hybrid electric bus. Firstly, the K-means is employed to classify driving behaviors, and the driver models based on Markov chains is obtained under different kinds of driving behaviors. While the obtained driver behaviors are regarded as stochastic disturbance inputs, the local minimum fuel consumption might be obtained with a traditional stochastic model predictive control at each step, taking tracking the reference battery state of charge trajectory into consideration in the finite predictive horizons. However, this technique is still accompanied by some working points with reduced/worsened fuel economy. Thus, the stochastic model predictive control is modified with the equivalent consumption minimization strategy to eliminate these undesirable working points. The results in real-world city bus routines show that the

  20. Behavioral responses of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) to playbacks of broadband pile driving sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; van Heerden, Dorianne; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean

    2013-12-01

    The high under-water sound pressure levels (SPLs) produced during pile driving to build offshore wind turbines may affect harbor porpoises. To estimate the discomfort threshold of pile driving sounds, a porpoise in a quiet pool was exposed to playbacks (46 strikes/min) at five SPLs (6 dB steps: 130-154 dB re 1 μPa). The spectrum of the impulsive sound resembled the spectrum of pile driving sound at tens of kilometers from the pile driving location in shallow water such as that found in the North Sea. The animal's behavior during test and baseline periods was compared. At and above a received broadband SPL of 136 dB re 1 μPa [zero-peak sound pressure level: 151 dB re 1 μPa; t90: 126 ms; sound exposure level of a single strike (SELss): 127 dB re 1 μPa(2) s] the porpoise's respiration rate increased in response to the pile driving sounds. At higher levels, he also jumped out of the water more often. Wild porpoises are expected to move tens of kilometers away from offshore pile driving locations; response distances will vary with context, the sounds' source level, parameters influencing sound propagation, and background noise levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia

    2017-09-01

    The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.

  2. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter

    2007-03-01

    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Analyzing Operating Behavior of Hot Mill Table Roll Drives using Statistical Methods for Current Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakov, P. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. V.; Ilatovsky, I. S.

    2017-12-01

    The article briefly describes failures of table rolls in Hot Rolling Mill 2000, PAO Severstal, and provides research results obtained by applying statistical methods. The statistical analysis showed a possibility of detecting deviations in roll behavior based on electric drive current changes, which cause failures. The statistical data analysis was employed to define roll critical behavior, which is to be checked using additional data. For this purpose, the research will be continued, roll operating behavior will be studied during the entire lifetime with due regard for deviations detected, comprehensive statistical analysis will be carried out, influence of rolling mill practices and roll failure predictability will be assessed.

  4. Taxi drivers' views on risky driving behavior in Tehran: a qualitative study using a social marketing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Montazeri, Ali

    2011-05-01

    The use of the social marketing approach for public health issues is increasing. This approach uses marketing concepts borrowed from the principles of commercial marketing to promote beneficial health behaviors. In this qualitative study, four focus groups involving 42 participants were used in consumer research to explore taxi drivers' views on the driving situation and the determinants of risky driving behaviors in Tehran, as well as to gather their ideas for developing a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors among taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Participants were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a marketing mix, or four Ps (product, price, place and promotion). The discussions determined that the program product should involve avoiding risky driving behaviors through increased attention to driving. They pointed out that developing and communicating with a well-designed persuasive message meant to draw their attention to driving could affect their driving behaviors. In addition, participants identified price, place and promotion strategies. They offered suggestions for marketing nonrisky driving to the target audience. The focus group discussions generated important insights into the values and the motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt the product. The focus group guided the development of a social marketing program to reduce risky driving behaviors in taxi drivers in Tehran, Iran. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  6. Experiments and simulation of thermal behaviors of the dual-drive servo feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Mei, Xuesong; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Liang; Ma, Chi; Shi, Hu

    2015-01-01

    The machine tool equipped with the dual-drive servo feed system could realize high feed speed as well as sharp precision. Currently, there is no report about the thermal behaviors of the dual-drive machine, and the current research of the thermal characteristics of machines mainly focuses on steady simulation. To explore the influence of thermal characterizations on the precision of a jib boring machine assembled dual-drive feed system, the thermal equilibrium tests and the research on thermal-mechanical transient behaviors are carried out. A laser interferometer, infrared thermography and a temperature-displacement acquisition system are applied to measure the temperature distribution and thermal deformation at different feed speeds. Subsequently, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the transient thermal behaviors of the boring machine. The complex boundary conditions, such as heat sources and convective heat transfer coefficient, are calculated. Finally, transient variances in temperatures and deformations are compared with the measured values, and the errors between the measurement and the simulation of the temperature and the thermal error are 2 °C and 2.5 μm, respectively. The researching results demonstrate that the FEM model can predict the thermal error and temperature distribution very well under specified operating condition. Moreover, the uneven temperature gradient is due to the asynchronous dual-drive structure that results in thermal deformation. Additionally, the positioning accuracy decreases as the measured point became further away from the motor, and the thermal error and equilibrium period both increase with feed speeds. The research proposes a systematical method to measure and simulate the boring machine transient thermal behaviors.

  7. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  8. Drivers' Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-15

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers' visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers' visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers' visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  9. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms. PMID:26784203

  10. Design of Driving Behavior Pattern Measurements Using Smartphone Global Positioning System Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new technologies such as GPS, cellphone, Bluetooth device, etc. offers opportunities for collecting high-fidelity temporal-spatial travel data in a cost-effective manner. With the vehicle trajectory data achieved from a smartphone app Metropia, this study targets on exploring the trajectory data and designing the measurements of the driving pattern. Metropia is a recently available mobile traffic app that uses prediction and coordinating technology combined with user rewards to incentivize drivers to cooperate, balance traffic load on the network, and reduce traffic congestion. Speed and celeration (acceleration and deceleration are obtained from the Metropia platform directly and parameterized as individual and system measurements related to traffic, spatial and temporal conditions. A case study is provided in this paper to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach utilizing the trajectory data from the actual app usage. The driving behaviors at both individual and system levels are quantified from the microscopic speed and celeration records. The results from this study reveal distinct driving behavior pattern and shed lights for further opportunities to identify behavior characteristics beyond safety and environmental considerations.

  11. Drivers’ Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbo Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers’ visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers’ visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers’ visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  12. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics derived from the driver model are embedded into the advanced driver assistance systems, and the evaluation and verification of vehicle systems based on the driver model are described.

  13. Videosensor for the Detection of Unsafe Driving Behavior in the Proximity of Black Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the overall design and implementation of a video sensor for the detection of risky behaviors of car drivers near previously identified and georeferenced black spots. The main goal is to provide the driver with a visual audio alert that informs of the proximity of an area of high incidence of highway accidents only if their driving behavior could result in a risky situation. It proposes a video sensor for detecting and supervising driver behavior, its main objective being manual distractions, so hand driver supervision is performed. A GPS signal is also considered, the GPS information is compared with a database of global positioning Black Spots to determine the relative proximity of a risky area. The outputs of the video sensor and GPS sensor are combined to evaluate a possible risky behavior. The results are promising in terms of risk analysis in order to be validated for use in the context of the automotive industry as future work.

  14. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Obstacle avoidance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior of glaucoma patients in a driving simulator : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado Vega, R.; Van Leeuwen, P.M.; Rendon Velez, E.; Lemij, H.G.; De Winter, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23) and control participants (n = 12) completed four 5-min driving

  17. Behavioral and Cardiovascular Responses to Frustration during Simulated Driving Tasks in Young Adults with and without Attention Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michele L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Cassavaugh, Nicholas D.; Backs, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of negative emotions on driving performance in relation to ADHD, by comparing young adults scoring high on measures of ADHD (n = 20) with a control group (n = 22). Method: The authors used cardiorespiratory physiological measures, simulated driving behavior, and self-report to examine how participants…

  18. A simulator study of the combined effects of alcohol and marihuana on driving behavior--phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    Author's abstract: The study described in this report investigated the effects of alcohol and marihuana, alone and in combination, on driver performance and behavior in a fully interactive driving simulator. The simulator provided the driver a comple...

  19. Evaluating the Safety Benefits of a Low-Cost Driving Behavior Management System in Commercial Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This project provides an independent evaluation of a commercially available low-cost driving behavior management system. Participating drivers from two carriers (identified as Carrier A and Carrier B) drove an instrumented vehicle for 17 consecutive ...

  20. Behind the wheel and on the map: Genetic and environmental associations between drunk driving and other externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D; Harden, K Paige

    2013-11-01

    Drunk driving, a major contributor to alcohol-related mortality, has been linked to a variety of other alcohol-related (e.g., Alcohol Dependence, early age at first drink) and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. In a sample of 517 same-sex twin pairs from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined 3 conceptualizations of the etiology of drunk driving in relation to other externalizing behaviors. A series of behavioral-genetic models found consistent evidence for drunk driving as a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a spectrum of alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related externalizing behaviors. Most notably, multidimensional scaling analyses produced a genetic "map" with drunk driving located near its center, supporting the strength of drunk driving's genetic relations with a broad range of externalizing behaviors. In contrast, nonshared environmental associations with drunk driving were weaker and more diffuse. Drunk driving may be a manifestation of genetic vulnerabilities toward a broad externalizing spectrum. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Driver Behavior During Overtaking Maneuvers from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    Lane changes with the intention to overtake the vehicle in front are especially challenging scenarios for forward collision warning (FCW) designs. These overtaking maneuvers can occur at high relative vehicle speeds and often involve no brake and/or turn signal application. Therefore, overtaking presents the potential of erroneously triggering the FCW. A better understanding of driver behavior during lane change events can improve designs of this human-machine interface and increase driver acceptance of FCW. The objective of this study was to aid FCW design by characterizing driver behavior during lane change events using naturalistic driving study data. The analysis was based on data from the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, collected by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute. The 100-Car study contains approximately 1.2 million vehicle miles of driving and 43,000 h of data collected from 108 primary drivers. In order to identify overtaking maneuvers from a large sample of driving data, an algorithm to automatically identify overtaking events was developed. The lead vehicle and minimum time to collision (TTC) at the start of lane change events was identified using radar processing techniques developed in a previous study. The lane change identification algorithm was validated against video analysis, which manually identified 1,425 lane change events from approximately 126 full trips. Forty-five drivers with valid time series data were selected from the 100-Car study. From the sample of drivers, our algorithm identified 326,238 lane change events. A total of 90,639 lane change events were found to involve a closing lead vehicle. Lane change events were evenly distributed between left side and right side lane changes. The characterization of lane change frequency and minimum TTC was divided into 10 mph speed bins for vehicle travel speeds between 10 and 90 mph. For all lane change events with a closing lead vehicle, the results showed that drivers change

  2. How much can you drink before driving? The influence of riding with impaired adults and peers on the driving behaviors of urban and rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan

    2008-04-01

    Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.

  3. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  4. Detection of Risky Driving Behaviors in the Naturalistic Environment in Healthy Older Adults and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Davis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing naturalistic driving behavior recorded with in-car cameras is an ecologically valid method for measuring driving errors, but it is time intensive and not easily applied on a large scale. This study validated a semi-automated, computerized method using archival naturalistic driving data collected for drivers with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 44 and age-matched healthy controls (HC; n = 16. The computerized method flagged driving situations where safety concerns are most likely to occur (i.e., rapid stops, lane deviations, turns, and intersections. These driving epochs were manually reviewed and rated for error type and severity, if present. Ratings were made with a standardized scoring system adapted from DriveCam®. The top eight error types were applied as features to train a logistic model tree classifier to predict diagnostic group. The sensitivity and specificity were compared among the event-based method, on-road test, and composite ratings of two weeks of recorded driving. The logistic model derived from the event-based method had the best overall accuracy (91.7% and sensitivity (97.7% and high specificity (75.0% compared to the other methods. Review of driving situations where risk is highest appears to be a sensitive data reduction method for detecting cognitive impairment associated driving behaviors and may be a more cost-effective method for analyzing large volumes of naturalistic data.

  5. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  6. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  7. Comparing handheld and hands-free cell phone usage behaviors while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Fitch, Gregory M; Perez, Miguel A; Hanowski, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cell phone usage behaviors while driving across 3 types of cell phones: handheld (HH) cell phones, portable hands-free (PHF) cell phones, and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones. Naturalistic driving data were used to observe HH, PHF, and IHF usage behaviors in participants' own vehicles without any instructions or manipulations by researchers. In addition to naturalistic driving data, drivers provided their personal cell phone call records. Calls during driving were sampled and observed in naturalistically collected video. Calls were reviewed to identify cell phone type used for, and duration of, cell phone subtasks, non-cell phone secondary tasks, and other use behaviors. Drivers in the study self-identified as HH, PHF, or IHF users if they reported using that cell phone type at least 50% of the time. However, each sampled call was classified as HH, PHF, or IHF if the talking/listening subtask was conducted using that cell phone type, without considering the driver's self-reported group. Drivers with PHF or IHF systems also used HH cell phones (IHF group used HH cell phone in 53.2% of the interactions, PHF group used HH cell phone for 55.5% of interactions). Talking/listening on a PHF phone or an IHF phone was significantly longer than talking/listening on an HH phone (P phone call task for HH phones was significantly longer in duration than the end phone call task for PHF and IHF phones. Of all the non-cell phone-related secondary tasks, eating or drinking was found to occur significantly more often during IHF subtasks (0.58%) than in HH subtasks (0.15%). Drivers observed to reach for their cell phone mostly kept their cell phone in the cup holder (36.3%) or in their seat or lap (29.0% of interactions); however, some observed locations may have required drivers to move out of position. Hands-free cell phone technologies reduce the duration of cell phone visual-manual tasks compared to handheld cell phones. However

  8. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of REM Sleep Homeostatic Drive: A Plausible Component for Behavioral Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subimal Datta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of REM sleep drive, as measured by an increase in the number of REM sleep transitions, plays a key role in neuronal and behavioral plasticity (i.e., learning and memory. Deficits in REM sleep homeostatic drive (RSHD are implicated in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this RSHD remain to be incomplete. To further our understanding of this mechanism, the current study was performed on freely moving rats to test a hypothesis that a positive interaction between extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling in the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT is a causal factor for the development of RSHD. Behavioral results of this study demonstrated that a short period (<90 min of selective REM sleep restriction (RSR exhibited a strong RSHD. Molecular analyses revealed that this increased RSHD increased phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 and BDNF expression in the PPT. Additionally, pharmacological results demonstrated that the application of the ERK1/2 activation inhibitor U0126 into the PPT prevented RSHD and suppressed BDNF expression in the PPT. These results, for the first time, suggest that the positive interaction between ERK1/2 and BDNF in the PPT is a casual factor for the development of RSHD. These findings provide a novel direction in understanding how RSHD-associated specific molecular changes can facilitate neuronal plasticity and memory processing.

  9. The Melanin-Concentrating Hormone as an Integrative Peptide Driving Motivated Behaviors

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    Giovanne B. Diniz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH is an important peptide implicated in the control of motivated behaviors. History, however, made this peptide first known for its participation in the control of skin pigmentation, from which its name derives. In addition to this peripheral role, MCH is strongly implicated in motivated behaviors, such as feeding, drinking, mating and, more recently, maternal behavior. It is suggested that MCH acts as an integrative peptide, converging sensory information and contributing to a general arousal of the organism. In this review, we will discuss the various aspects of energy homeostasis to which MCH has been associated to, focusing on the different inputs that feed the MCH peptidergic system with information regarding the homeostatic status of the organism and the exogenous sensory information that drives this system, as well as the outputs that allow MCH to act over a wide range of homeostatic and behavioral controls, highlighting the available morphological and hodological aspects that underlie these integrative actions. Besides the well-described role of MCH in feeding behavior, a prime example of hypothalamic-mediated integration, we will also examine those functions in which the participation of MCH has not yet been extensively characterized, including sexual, maternal, and defensive behaviors. We also evaluated the available data on the distribution of MCH and its function in the context of animals in their natural environment. Finally, we briefly comment on the evidence for MCH acting as a coordinator between different modalities of motivated behaviors, highlighting the most pressing open questions that are open for investigations and that could provide us with important insights about hypothalamic-dependent homeostatic integration.

  10. Exploring travelers' behavior in response to dynamic message signs (DMS) using a driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This research studies the effectiveness of a dynamic message sign (DMS) using a driving : simulator. Over 100 subjects from different socio-economic and age groups were recruited to : drive the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions...

  11. Exploring travelers' behavior in response to dynamic message signs (DMS) using a driving simulator : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This research studies the effectiveness of a dynamic message sign (DMS) using a driving : simulator. Over 100 subjects from different socio-economic and age groups were recruited to : drive the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions...

  12. The traffic climate in China: The mediating effect of traffic safety climate between personality and dangerous driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Sun, Xianghong

    2018-04-01

    Traffic safety climate is defined as road users' attitudes and perceptions of traffic in a specific context at a given point in time. The current study aimed to validate the Chinese version of the Traffic Climate Scale (TCS) and to explore its relation to drivers' personality and dangerous driving behavior. A sample of 413 drivers completed the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Chinese version of the TCS, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and a demographic questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to confirm a three-factor (external affective demands, internal requirements and functionality) solution of the TCS. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of TCS were verified. More importantly, the results showed that the effect of personality on dangerous driving behavior was mediated by traffic climate. Specifically, the functionality of the TCS mediated the effect of neuroticism on negative cognitive/emotional driving and drunk driving, while openness had an indirect impact on aggressive driving, risky driving and drunk driving based on the internal requirements of the TCS. Additionally, agreeableness had a negative direct impact on four factors of the DDDI, while neuroticism had a positive direct impact on negative cognitive/emotional driving, drunk driving and risky driving. In conclusion, the Chinese version of the TCS will be useful to evaluate drivers' attitudes towards and perceptions of the requirements of traffic environment in which they participate and will also be valuable for comparing traffic cultures and environments in different countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Misako; Wilecki, Martin; Sommer, Ralf J

    2017-11-06

    Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1 , two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus . Copyright © 2017 Okumura et al.

  14. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Okumura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1, two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus.

  15. Elevated alcohol demand is associated with driving after drinking among college student binge drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Martens, Matthew P; Murphy, James G

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving among college students represents a significant public health concern, yet little is known about specific theoretical and individual difference risk factors for driving after drinking among heavy drinking college students. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heavy drinkers with elevated alcohol demand would be more likely to report drinking and driving. Participants were 207 college students who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode (4/5 or more drinks in 1 occasion for a woman/man) in the past month. Participants completed an alcohol purchase task that assessed hypothetical alcohol consumption across 17 drink prices and an item from the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire that assessed driving after drinking. In binary logistic regression models that controlled for drinking level, gender, ethnicity, age, and sensation seeking, participants who reported higher demand were more likely to report driving after drinking. These results provide support for behavioral economics models of substance abuse that view elevated/inelastic demand as a key etiological feature of substance misuse. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  17. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  18. Drinking and parenting practices as predictors of impaired driving behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug-impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug-impaired drivers (RWI). The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009-2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p parenting practices and selected covariates. Father's monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors.

  19. Drinking and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Impaired Driving Behaviors Among U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug–impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug–impaired drivers (RWI). Method: The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Results: Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p teen substance use. Conclusions: Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors. PMID:24411792

  20. Psychometrics of the self-report safe driving behavior measure for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Wen, Pey-Shan; Velozo, Craig A; Bédard, Michel; Winter, Sandra M; Brumback, Babette; Lanford, Desiree N

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the 68-item Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) with 80 older drivers, 80 caregivers, and 2 evaluators from two sites. Using Rasch analysis, we examined unidimensionality and local dependence; rating scale; item- and person-level psychometrics; and item hierarchy of older drivers, caregivers, and driving evaluators who had completed the SDBM. The evidence suggested the SDBM is unidimensional, but pairs of items showed local dependency. Across the three rater groups, the data showed good person (≥3.4) and item (≥3.6) separation as well as good person (≥.93) and item reliability (≥.92). Cronbach's α was ≥.96, and few items were misfitting. Some of the items did not follow the hypothesized order of item difficulty. The SDBM classified the older drivers into six ability levels, but to fully calibrate the instrument it must be refined in terms of its items (e.g., item exclusion) and then tested among participants of lesser ability. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of Effects of Warning Sign Position on Driving Behavior in Horizontal Sharp Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In present time, the guidelines on warning sign position in the China National Standard lack detailed and standard regulations of placing warning signs on sharp curves, which may cause road safety problems. Therefore, this paper briefly discussed how to optimize the position of a warning sign on a sharp curve through a driving simulator experiment. This study concluded that a warning sign placed at different positions prior to a sharp curve will have different influence ranges for drivers approaching and negotiating the curve. Meanwhile, different positions of a warning sign imposed different effect obviously on the adjustment of vehicle's lane position on sharp curves with the same radius, especially at the midpoint of a sharp curve. The evaluation results of five positions (0 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m in advance showed that only when the warning signs were placed 100 m or 200 m prior to sharp curves, can they achieve positive influence on driving behavior. On this basis, the authors look forward to providing rationalization proposals in selecting the best position of a warning sign on a sharp curve for the engineering implementation and national standard.

  2. Effects of high power illuminators on vision through windscreens and driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Alexander; Alferdinck, Johan W. A. M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study we investigated the effectiveness of high power illuminators that are intended to be used as warning devices or non-lethal weapons to deny car drivers their view on the outside world through windscreens. The test is based on a measurement of the amount of veiling glare resulting when a high intensity light source hits a windscreen. We measured the veiling glare for new, used and colored windscreens that were either clean or dirty. We found no significant difference between the scatter function for new, used and colored windows. The scatter function for dirty windscreens is a factor 14 larger than for clean windscreens. We also derived a method to assess the impact of the illumination of a windscreen by a high intensity light source on driving behavior. The method is based on the assumption that drivers reduce their speed when veiling glare reduces the detection distance of objects on the road. Estimates of respectively the detection distance for objects on the road and the maximum safe driving speed are directly related to operational requirements, and can therefore be used to assess the operational effectiveness of high intensity light sources as powerful warning devices or non-lethal weapons.

  3. Integration of a driving simulator and a traffic simulator case study: Exploring drivers' behavior in response to variable message signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jeihani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a driving simulator has been integrated with a traffic simulator at the network level to allow subjects to drive in a fairly realistic environment with a realistic traffic flow and density. A 10 mi2 (25 km2 network was developed in a driving simulator and then exported to a traffic simulator. About 30 subjects drove the simulator under different traffic and driving conditions and variable message sign (VMS information, both with and without integration. Route guidance was available for the subjects. The challenges of the integration process are explained and its advantages investigated. The study concluded that traffic density, VMS reliability and compliance behavior are higher when driving and traffic simulators are integrated. To find factors affecting route diversion, researchers applied a binary logistic regression model. The results indicated that the original chosen route, displayed VMS information, subjects' attitude toward VMS information helpfulness, and their level of exposure to VMS affect route diversion. In addition, a multinomial logistic regression model was employed to investigate important factors in route choice. The results revealed that there is a significant correlation with driver route choice behavior and their actual travel time, the need for GPS, VMS exposure and also the designed scenarios. It should be noted that the paper was peer-reviewed by TRB and presented at the TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2016. Keywords: Integration, Variable message sign, Compliance behavior, Driving simulator, Traffic simulator, Discrete choice analysis

  4. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  5. SUV driving "masculinizes" risk behavior in females: a public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Involvement of sport utility vehicles (SUV) in accidents especially with children is of increasing importance. Studies have indicated a more risky behavior in SUV drivers. We conducted an observational study focusing on traffic violations, car type, and the gender of the driver in Vienna. The study was conducted on five weekdays at the beginning of school term. Three busy intersections were selected.Drivers of 43,168 normal cars and 5653 SUVs were counted at the intersections during the observation period. In total 13.8% drivers were unbelted, 3.1% were using a handheld mobile phone, and 2.5% violated traffic lights. These frequencies were significantly higher in SUV drivers than in normal passenger car drivers. This "SUV effect" also occurred in women for all violations, although male drivers violated traffic laws more often than female drivers. However, for driving unbelted the difference between males and females was smaller in SUV drivers.

  6. Conceptual framework on the application of biomechanical measurement methods in driving behavior study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaya, Kadek Heri; Sya'bana, Yukhi Mustaqim Kusuma

    2017-01-01

    Research on eco-friendly vehicle development in Indonesia has largely neglected ergonomic study, despite the fact that traffic accidents have resulted in greater economic cost than fuel subsidy. We have performed a biomechanical experiment on human locomotion earlier. In this article, we describe the importance of implementing the biomechanical measurement methods in transportation ergonomic study. The instruments such as electromyogram (EMG), load cell, pressure sensor, and motion analysis methods as well as cross-correlation function analysis were explained, then the possibility of their application in driving behavior study is described. We describe the potentials and challenges of the biomechanical methods concerning the future vehicle development. The methods provide greater advantages in objective and accurate measurement not only in human task performance but also its correlation with vehicle performance.

  7. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh M. Babulal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer’s disease (AD also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods: Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds, at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM, afternoon (2:00-5:00PM and night (7:00-10pm. The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results: Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion: Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look

  9. The Sweet Drive Test: Refining phenotypic characterization of anhedonic behavior in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António eMateus-Pinheiro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring anhedonic behavior in rodents is a challenging task as current methods display only moderate sensitivity to detect anhedonic phenotype and, consequently, results from different labs are frequently incongruent. Herein we present a newly-developed test, the Sweet Drive Test (SDT, which integrates food preference measurement in a non-aversive environment, with ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs recording. Animals were placed in a soundproofed black arena, under red light illumination, and allowed to choose between regular and sweet food pellets. During the test trials, 50 KHz ultrasonic vocalizations, previously described to be associated with positive experiences, were recorded. In a first experimental approach, we demonstrate the ability of SDT to accurately characterize anhedonic behavior in animals chronically exposed to stress. In a subsequent set of experiments, we show that this paradigm has high sensitivity to detect mood-improving effects of antidepressants. The combined analysis of both food preference and the number of 50 KHz vocalizations in the SDT provides also a valuable tool to discriminate animals that responded to treatment from non-responder animals.

  10. Towards a national model for managing impaired driving offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B; DuPont, Robert L; Talpins, Stephen K; Shea, Corinne L

    2011-07-01

    To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Developing a theoretical foundation to change road user behavior and improve traffic safety: Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J; Schell, William; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Otto, Jay; Finley, Kari

    2018-01-16

    This study explored a theoretical model to assess the influence of culture on willingness and intention to drive under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). This model is expected to guide the design of strategies to change future DUIC behavior in road users. This study used a survey methodology to obtain a nationally representative sample (n = 941) from the AmeriSpeak Panel. Survey items were designed to measure aspects of a proposed definition of traffic safety culture and a predictive model of its relationship to DUIC. Although the percentage of reported past DUIC behaviors was relatively low (8.5%), this behavior is still a significant public health issue-especially for younger drivers (18-29 years), who reported more DUIC than expected. Findings suggest that specific cultural components (attitudes, norms) reliably predict past DUIC behavior, general DUIC willingness, and future DUIC intention. Most DUIC behavior appears to be deliberate, related significantly to willingness and intention. Intention and willingness both appear to fully moderate the relationship between traffic safety culture and DUIC behavior. This study explored a theoretical model to understand road user behavior involving drug (cannabis)-impaired driving as a significant risk factor for traffic safety. By understanding the cultural factors that increase DUIC behavior, we can create strategies to transform this culture and sustain safer road user behavior.

  12. Competition as an Effective Tool in Developing Social Marketing Programs: Driving Behavior Change through Online Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina ŞERBAN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social marketing practices represent an important part of people’s lives. Consumers’ understanding of the need for change has become the top priority for social organizations worldwide. As a result, the number of social marketing programs has increased, making people reflect more on their behaviors and on the need to take action. Competition in social marketing can bring many benefits. The more programs initiated, the more people will start to involve in society’s problems, hereby contributing to beneficial causes. However, social organizations are in the search for competitive advantages to differentiate them on the market. This paper aims to present the role of online communication in driving competitive advantage for social organizations. Using the structural equation model, the paper describes the relations between four characteristics of the online communication: credibility, attractiveness, persuasion and promotion and then presents the correlations between these variables and website competitiveness. The resulting model shows that owning a competitive advantage in social marketing can bring many advantages to both the non-profit organization and the consumer. Therefore, the online environment can be considered a good solution for better serving consumers’ social needs. Its contribution is significant especially in programs for children and adolescents, since teenagers spend more time on the Internet than adults and are more open to using the online channels of communication. In conclusion, this article opens new opportunities for social marketers to address society’s problems and supports the integration of the online communication tools in the competition strategy.

  13. Do drives drive the train of thought?-Effects of hunger and sexual arousal on mind-wandering behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Nied, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  15. Investigating the influence of threat appraisals and social support on healthy eating behavior and drive for thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Christopher J

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived obesity threats, social support, and college students' eating attitudes and behaviors. Results showed that perceived vulnerability to obesity negatively predicted healthy eating behavior. In addition, the perceived severity of obesity-related health problems positively predicted women's drive for thinness. Social support played a significant role in explaining health behaviors. Specifically, appraisal by others indirectly predicted college students' healthy eating behavior through increased self-efficacy. Among women, informational support moderated the relationships between both vulnerability and severity on healthy eating behavior. At low levels of support, vulnerability and severity negatively predicted students' healthy eating behavior. Overall, results suggest that messages designed to increase perceived vulnerability and severity may be detrimental when trying to improve people's dietary habits; however, among women certain types of social support may buffer the defensive responses resulting from obesity threats.

  16. Driver support and automated driving systems : Acceptance and effects on behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, D.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Scerbo, MW; Mouloua, M

    1999-01-01

    Automation in driving ranges from simple in-vehicle information systems to completely automated driving in the Automated Highway System (AHS). An increased level of automation and increased restriction in behavioural freedom, as well as decreased control over tasks, have serious consequences for

  17. Behavioral reactions to advanced cruise control: results of a driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaeker, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter describes an experimental study that is conducted in the driving simulator at the Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology (COV) of the University of Groningen. In the experiment, two groups of drivers, who differed with respect to reported driving style in terms of speed, drove

  18. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  19. Antihistamines and driving-related behavior : a review of the evidence for impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A review of the scientific literature concerning the effects of antihistamines on driving-related skills was conducted. After reviewing all pertinent publications from 1998 and earlier, a total of 130 publications were found to meet criteria for incl...

  20. A comparison of drivers with high versus low perceived risk of being caught and arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F

    2009-08-01

    To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.

  1. Predictors of Long-Term Risky Driving Behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jessica A; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Reed, Margot O; Bloch, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    This study examines predictors of later risky driving behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to explore baseline predictors of risky driving behavior for adolescents who completed the 8-year follow-up assessment in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). Stepwise logistic regression analysis explained 19% of the total variance in risky driving behavior. Increased likelihood of risky driving behavior was associated with parental history of conduct disorder, low parental monitoring and supervision, and increased age. ROC analysis identified discriminative predictors for adolescents older and younger than 16 years of age at follow-up. The most discriminative predictors of later risky driving behavior were parental stress at baseline (for children 16 years or older) and increased child-rated parental protectiveness (for children less than 16 years old). Risky driving behavior was significantly predicted by baseline characteristics for the MTA cohort. Aspects of parenting behavior (or the child's perception of them), including parental stress levels, parental protectiveness, and parental levels of monitoring and supervision, were most informative in predicting these outcomes. Our results suggest that interventions to reduce high-risk behaviors in these high-risk children with ADHD might involve targeted parenting interventions.

  2. A brief peripheral motion contrast threshold test predicts older drivers' hazardous behaviors in simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steven; Woods-Fry, Heather; Collin, Charles A; Gagnon, Sylvain; Voloaca, Misha; Grant, John; Rosenthal, Ted; Allen, Wade

    2015-05-01

    Our research group has previously demonstrated that the peripheral motion contrast threshold (PMCT) test predicts older drivers' self-report accident risk, as well as simulated driving performance. However, the PMCT is too lengthy to be a part of a battery of tests to assess fitness to drive. Therefore, we have developed a new version of this test, which takes under two minutes to administer. We assessed the motion contrast thresholds of 24 younger drivers (19-32) and 25 older drivers (65-83) with both the PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min test and investigated if thresholds were associated with measures of simulated driving performance. Younger participants had significantly lower motion contrast thresholds than older participants and there were no significant correlations between younger participants' thresholds and any measures of driving performance. The PMCT-10min and the PMCT-2min thresholds of older drivers' predicted simulated crash risk, as well as the minimum distance of approach to all hazards. This suggests that our tests of motion processing can help predict the risk of collision or near collision in older drivers. Thresholds were also correlated with the total lane deviation time, suggesting a deficiency in processing of peripheral flow and delayed detection of adjacent cars. The PMCT-2min is an improved version of a previously validated test, and it has the potential to help assess older drivers' fitness to drive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. VRILLE Controls PDF Neuropeptide Accumulation and Arborization Rhythms in Small Ventrolateral Neurons to Drive Rhythmic Behavior in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Kushan L; Hardin, Paul E

    2017-11-20

    In Drosophila, the circadian clock is comprised of transcriptional feedback loops that control rhythmic gene expression responsible for daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The core feedback loop, which employs CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dusk, is required for circadian timekeeping and overt behavioral rhythms. CLK-CYC also activates an interlocked feedback loop, which uses the PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1ε (PDP1ε) activator and the VRILLE (VRI) repressor to drive rhythmic transcription peaking at dawn. Although Pdp1ε mutants disrupt activity rhythms without eliminating clock function, whether vri is required for clock function and/or output is not known. Using a conditionally inactivatable transgene to rescue vri developmental lethality, we show that clock function persists after vri inactivation but that activity rhythms are abolished. The inactivation of vri disrupts multiple output pathways thought to be important for activity rhythms, including PDF accumulation and arborization rhythms in the small ventrolateral neuron (sLN v ) dorsal projection. These results demonstrate that vri acts as a key regulator of clock output and suggest that the primary function of the interlocked feedback loop in Drosophila is to drive rhythmic transcription required for overt rhythms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A probabilistic analysis of the crystal oscillator behavior at low drive levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmaliy, Yuriy S.; Brendel, Rémi

    2008-03-01

    The paper discusses a probabilistic model of a crystal oscillator at low drive levels where the noise intensity is comparable with the oscillation amplitude. The stationary probability density of the oscillations envelope is derived and investigated for the nonlinear resonator loses. A stochastic explanation is given for the well-known phenomenon termed sleeping sickness associated with losing a facility of self-excitation by a crystal oscillator after a long storage without a power supply. It is shown that, with low drive levels leading to an insufficient feedback, a crystal oscillator generates the noise-induced oscillations rather than it absolutely "falls in sleep".

  5. Validity and Usability of a Safe Driving Behavior Measure for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    With the aging of the Baby Boomers and ensuing Gray Tsunami in Florida leading the USA, older : drivers who are unfit to drive must be identified. The gold standard on-road test is expensive, : sophisticated, not available to many older drivers, and ...

  6. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume III Appendix B, Compendium of survey questions on drinking and driving and occupant restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume III is a compendium of question...

  7. Feasibility planning study for a behavior database. Volume 2 Appendix A, Summary information on the drinking and driving and occupant restraint surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-24

    The general objective of the project was to determine the feasibility of and the general requirements for a centralized database on driver behavior and attitudes related to drunk driving and occupant restraints. Volume I assesses the extent of pertin...

  8. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationship in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) exposed to playbacks of pile driving sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Jennings, Nancy; Kommeren, Aimée; Helder-Hoek, Lean; Schop, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    The foundations of offshore wind turbines are attached to the sea bed by percussion pile driving. Pile driving sounds may affect the behavior of fish. Acoustic dose-behavioral response relationships were determined for sea bass in a pool exposed for 20 min to pile driving sounds at seven mean received root-mean-square sound pressure levels [SPLrms; range: 130-166 dB re 1 μPa; single strike sound exposure level (SEL ss ) range: 122-158; 6 dB steps]. Initial responses (sudden, short-lived changes in swimming speed and direction) and sustained responses (changes in school cohesion, swimming depth, and speed) were quantified. The 50% initial response threshold occurred at an SEL ss of 131 dB re 1 μPa 2  s for 31 cm fish and 141 dB re 1 μPa 2  s for 44 cm fish; the small fish thus reacted to lower SEL ss than the large fish. Analysis showed that there is no evidence, even at the highest sound level, for any consistent sustained response to sound exposure by the study animals. If wild sea bass are exposed to pile driving sounds at the levels used in the present study, there are unlikely to be any adverse effects on their ecology, because the initial responses after the onset of the piling sound observed in this study were short-lived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  10. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this

  11. Obstacle avoidance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior of glaucoma patients in a driving simulator: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Prado Vega

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23 and control participants (n = 12 completed four 5-min driving sessions in a simulator. The participants were instructed to maintain the car in the right lane of a two-lane highway while their speed was automatically maintained at 100 km/h. Additional tasks per session were: Session 1: none, Session 2: verbalization of projected letters, Session 3: avoidance of static obstacles, and Session 4: combined letter verbalization and avoidance of static obstacles. Eye-scanning behavior was recorded with an eye-tracker. Results showed no statistically significant differences between patients and control participants for lane keeping, obstacle avoidance, and eye-scanning behavior. Steering activity, number of missed letters, and letter reaction time were significantly higher for glaucoma patients than for control participants. In conclusion, glaucoma patients were able to avoid objects and maintain a nominal lane keeping performance, but applied more steering input than control participants, and were more likely than control participants to miss peripherally projected stimuli. The eye-tracking results suggest that glaucoma patients did not use extra visual search to compensate for their visual field loss. Limitations of the study, such as small sample size, are discussed.

  12. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license. PMID:28293047

  13. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. Methods: In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ, big five personality test (NEO personality inventory and semi-structured interview (SADS were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004. It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009, but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. Conclusion: The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver’s license.

  14. Personality, Driving Behavior and Mental Disorders Factors as Predictors of Road Traffic Accidents Based on Logistic Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Souri, Hamid; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Sepahbodi, Ghazal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of variables such as personality traits, driving behavior and mental illness on road traffic accidents among the drivers with accidents and those without road crash. In this cohort study, 800 bus and truck drivers were recruited. Participants were selected among drivers who referred to Imam Sajjad Hospital (Tehran, Iran) during 2013-2015. The Manchester driving behavior questionnaire (MDBQ), big five personality test (NEO personality inventory) and semi-structured interview (schizophrenia and affective disorders scale) were used. After two years, we surveyed all accidents due to human factors that involved the recruited drivers. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software by performing the descriptive statistics, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis methods. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. In terms of controlling the effective and demographic variables, the findings revealed significant differences between the two groups of drivers that were and were not involved in road accidents. In addition, it was found that depression and anxiety could increase the odds ratio (OR) of road accidents by 2.4- and 2.7-folds, respectively (P=0.04, P=0.004). It is noteworthy to mention that neuroticism alone can increase the odds of road accidents by 1.1-fold (P=0.009), but other personality factors did not have a significant effect on the equation. The results revealed that some mental disorders affect the incidence of road collisions. Considering the importance and sensitivity of driving behavior, it is necessary to evaluate multiple psychological factors influencing drivers before and after receiving or renewing their driver's license.

  15. Driver behavior in car-to-pedestrian incidents: An application of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Tivesten, Emma; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Bärgman, Jonas; Ljung Aust, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    To develop relevant road safety countermeasures, it is necessary to first obtain an in-depth understanding of how and why safety-critical situations such as incidents, near-crashes, and crashes occur. Video-recordings from naturalistic driving studies provide detailed information on events and circumstances prior to such situations that is difficult to obtain from traditional crash investigations, at least when it comes to the observable driver behavior. This study analyzed causation in 90 video-recordings of car-to-pedestrian incidents captured by onboard cameras in a naturalistic driving study in Japan. The Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) was modified and used to identify contributing factors and causation patterns in these incidents. Two main causation patterns were found. In intersections, drivers failed to recognize the presence of the conflict pedestrian due to visual obstructions and/or because their attention was allocated towards something other than the conflict pedestrian. In incidents away from intersections, this pattern reoccurred along with another pattern showing that pedestrians often behaved in unexpected ways. These patterns indicate that an interactive advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) able to redirect the driver's attention could have averted many of the intersection incidents, while autonomous systems may be needed away from intersections. Cooperative ADAS may be needed to address issues raised by visual obstructions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Past Behavior, Situational Factors, and Self-Identity Factors Drive Indonesian Enterpreneurs to Be Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the factors affecting borrowing intention among young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. About 100 questionnaires were accepted and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM in determining the relationships. The results show that borrowing intention amongst young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community is influenced by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, self identity, situational temptation, and past behavior. The young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community believe that they have complete control of their behavior in borrowing as they perceived to be equipped with the knowledge about the personal financing. In addition, because of their experience in students’ loans since undergraduates’ level, the result explains why situational temptation were found to be a significant predictor. The findings offer implications for researchers and government.

  17. Driving simulator validation of driver behavior with limited safe vantage points for data collection in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bham, Ghulam H; Leu, Ming C; Vallati, Manoj; Mathur, Durga R

    2014-06-01

    This study is aimed at validating a driving simulator (DS) for the study of driver behavior in work zones. A validation study requires field data collection. For studies conducted in highway work zones, the availability of safe vantage points for data collection at critical locations can be a significant challenge. A validation framework is therefore proposed in this paper, demonstrated using a fixed-based DS that addresses the issue by using a global positioning system (GPS). The validation of the DS was conducted using objective and subjective evaluations. The objective validation was divided into qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The DS was validated by comparing the results of simulation with the field data, which were collected using a GPS along the highway and video recordings at specific locations in a work zone. The constructed work zone scenario in the DS was subjectively evaluated with 46 participants. The objective evaluation established the absolute and relative validity of the DS. The mean speeds from the DS data showed excellent agreement with the field data. The subjective evaluation indicated realistic driving experience by the participants. The use of GPS showed that continuous data collected along the highway can overcome the challenges of unavailability of safe vantage points especially at critical locations. Further, a validated DS can be used for examining driver behavior in complex situations by replicating realistic scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validity and usability of a safe driving behaviors measure for older adults : strategy for congestion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Statistics project that crash/injury/fatality rates of older drivers will increase with the future growth of : this population. Accurate and precise measurement of older driver behaviors becomes imperative to : curtail these crash trends and resultin...

  19. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  20. Human behavior and environmental sustainability : Problems, driving forces, and research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, Charles; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Social and behavioral research is crucial for securing environmental sustainability and improving human living environments. To put the following articles into broader perspective, we first give an overview of worldwide developments in environmental quality and trends in resource use. Second, five

  1. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, A.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Towards Player’s Affective and Behavioral Visual Cues as drives to Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asteriadis, Stylianos; Shaker, Noor; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...... player engagement and frustration, along with the degree of challenge imposed by the game is explored. The estimated levels of the induced metrics can feed an engine’s artificial intelligence, allowing for game adaptation.......Recent advances in emotion and affect recognition can play a crucial role in game technology. Moving from the typical game controls to controls generated from free gestures is already in the market. Higher level controls, however, can also be motivated by player’s affective and cognitive behavior...

  3. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Misako; Wilecki, Martin; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation an...

  4. Detailed Behavior Analysis for High Voltage Bidirectional Flyback Converter Driving DEAP Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    flyback based converter has been implemented. The parasitic elements have serious influence for the operation of the converter, especially in the high output voltage condition. The detailed behavior analysis has been performed considering the impact of the critical parasitic parameters. The converter has...... been analyzed for both charging and discharging processes in low and high output voltage operating occasions. The experimental waveforms can validate the analysis....

  5. Snowmelt Induced Hydrologic Perturbations Drive Dynamic Microbiological and Geochemical Behaviors across a Shallow Riparian Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danczak, Robert E.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Fang, Yilin; Hobson, Chad; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2016-05-11

    Shallow riparian aquifers represent hotspots of biogeochemical activity in the arid western US. While these environments provide extensive ecosystem services, little is known of how natural environmental perturbations influence subsurface microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes. Over a six-month period we tracked the annual snowmelt-driven incursion of groundwater into the vadose zone of an aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River, leading to increased dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the normally suboxic saturated zone. Strong biogeochemical heterogeneity was measured across the site, with abiotic reactions between DO and sulfide minerals driving rapid DO consumption and mobilization of redox active species in reduced aquifer regions. Conversely, extensive DO increases were detected in less reduced sediments. 16S rRNA gene surveys tracked microbial community composition within the aquifer, revealing strong correlations between increases in putative oxygen-utilizing chemolithoautotrophs and heterotrophs and rising DO concentrations. The gradual return to suboxic aquifer conditions favored increasing abundances of 16S rRNA sequences matching members of the Microgenomates (OP11) and Parcubacteria (OD1) that have been strongly implicated in fermentative processes. Microbial community stability measurements indicated that deeper aquifer locations were relatively less affected by geochemical perturbations, while communities in shallower locations exhibited the greatest change. Reactive transport modeling of the geochemical and microbiological results supported field observations, suggesting that a predictive framework can be applied to develop a greater understanding of such environments. Frontiers in Earth Science Journal Impact & Description - ResearchGate - Impact Rankings ( 2015 and 2016 ). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/journal/2296-6463_Frontiers_in_Earth_Science [accessed Jul 25, 2016].

  6. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  7. Understanding watershed hydrogeochemistry: 2. Synchronized hydrological and geochemical processes drive stream chemostatic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Bao, Chen; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Brantley, Susan; Shi, Yuning; Duffy, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Why do solute concentrations in streams remain largely constant while discharge varies by orders of magnitude? We used a new hydrological land surface and reactive transport code, RT-Flux-PIHM, to understand this long-standing puzzle. We focus on the nonreactive chloride (Cl) and reactive magnesium (Mg) in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). Simulation results show that stream discharge comes from surface runoff (Qs), soil lateral flow (QL), and deeper groundwater (QG), with QL contributing >70%. In the summer, when high evapotranspiration dries up and disconnects most of the watershed from the stream, Cl is trapped along planar hillslopes. Successive rainfalls connect the watershed and mobilize trapped Cl, which counteracts dilution effects brought about by high water storage (Vw) and maintains chemostasis. Similarly, the synchronous response of clay dissolution rates (Mg source) to hydrological conditions, maintained largely by a relatively constant ratio between "wetted" mineral surface area Aw and Vw, controls Mg chemostatic behavior. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cation exchange plays a secondary role in determining chemostasis compared to clay dissolution, although it does store an order-of-magnitude more Mg on exchange sites than soil water. Model simulations indicate that dilution (concentration decrease with increasing discharge) occurs only when mass influxes from soil lateral flow are negligible (e.g., via having low clay surface area) so that stream discharge is dominated by relatively constant mass fluxes from deep groundwater that are unresponsive to surface hydrological conditions.

  8. Effect of audio in-vehicle red light-running warning message on driving behavior based on a driving simulator experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    Drivers' incorrect decisions of crossing signalized intersections at the onset of the yellow change may lead to red light running (RLR), and RLR crashes result in substantial numbers of severe injuries and property damage. In recent years, some Intelligent Transport System (ITS) concepts have focused on reducing RLR by alerting drivers that they are about to violate the signal. The objective of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the effectiveness of the red light violation warning system using a voice message. In this study, the prototype concept of the RLR audio warning system was modeled and tested in a high-fidelity driving simulator. According to the concept, when a vehicle is approaching an intersection at the onset of yellow and the time to the intersection is longer than the yellow interval, the in-vehicle warning system can activate the following audio message "The red light is impending. Please decelerate!" The intent of the warning design is to encourage drivers who cannot clear an intersection during the yellow change interval to stop at the intersection. The experimental results showed that the warning message could decrease red light running violations by 84.3 percent. Based on the logistic regression analyses, drivers without a warning were about 86 times more likely to make go decisions at the onset of yellow and about 15 times more likely to run red lights than those with a warning. Additionally, it was found that the audio warning message could significantly reduce RLR severity because the RLR drivers' red-entry times without a warning were longer than those with a warning. This driving simulator study showed a promising effect of the audio in-vehicle warning message on reducing RLR violations and crashes. It is worthwhile to further develop the proposed technology in field applications.

  9. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  10. Patterns of level and change in self-reported driving behaviors among older adults: who self-regulates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Edwards, Jerri D; Small, Brent J; Andel, Ross

    2012-07-01

    The present study investigated patterns of self-reported driving habits among healthy older adults over 5 years, as well as characteristics that distinguished subgroups with different patterns. Participants were drivers from the control group of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study at the baseline assessment (N = 597). The outcome was a composite of driving frequency, driving space, and perceived driving difficulty. Growth mixture models identified classes of participants with different baseline scores and change trajectories, and classes were compared in terms of baseline sensory, physical, and cognitive functioning. A 3-class model was indicated, consisting of 2 classes with intercept differences and stability over time, "above-average stable" (39%) and "average stable" drivers (44%), and 1 class with a lower intercept and negative slope, "decreasers" (17%). Relative to stable drivers, decreasers exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer self-rated health, balance, everyday functioning, and speed of processing after controlling for age and education (p older drivers maintained their driving over time at different levels, whereas a subgroup of individuals with poorer baseline functioning self-regulated by reducing their driving. Future studies should determine how such patterns affect driving safety.

  11. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...

  12. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  13. Predicting muscularity-related behavior, emotions, and cognitions in men: The role of psychological need thwarting, drive for muscularity, and mesomorphic internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; Molnar, Gyozo; Markland, David

    2016-09-01

    We examine the relationships that internalization, need thwarting (NT), and drive for muscularity (DFM), along with their interactions, had with weightlifting, muscle dissatisfaction (MD), and muscle-related-worry (MRW). A sample of 552 men (MAge=20.5 years, SD=3.1) completed the Psychological Need Thwarting Scale, the Internalization subscale of the male version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire, the Drive for Muscularity Scale-Attitudes subscale, the Male Body Attitudes Scale-Muscularity subscale, the Body Change Inventory-Worry subscale, and an inventory assessing weightlifting behavior. DFM significantly predicted weightlifting, MRW, and MD. Internalization significantly predicted weightlifting and MRW. NT significantly predicted weightlifting and MD, and its relationship with MRW approached significance. The interaction terms did not predict weightlifting or MRW. The NT/DFM and NT/Internalization interaction terms predicted MD. These results highlight the role of NT in predicting appearance variables in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between trait anxiety and driving behavior with regard to self-reported Iranian accident involving drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Pourabdian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded from the results (according to the relation between TA with error and lapses factor that the rate of TA is destructive effective on the memory performance and process in the drivers and cause absent minded and memory imperfect function and process in these people during the driving.

  15. Incentivizing energy-efficient behavior at work: An empirical investigation using a natural field experiment on eco-driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, Dominik L.; Mohnen, Alwine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We conduct a natural field experiment on incentives for fuel-efficient driving. • A monetary and a tangible non-monetary reward for eco-driving are compared. • The non-monetary reward results in an average reduction of fuel consumption of 5%. • There is only a small reduction effect in the equivalent monetary reward treatment. • Emphasis of fun, emotional responses and frequency of recalling might play a role. - Abstract: Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a highly prevalent goal of public policy in many countries around the world. Convincing people to drive more fuel-efficiently (“eco-driving”) can contribute substantially to this goal and is often an integral part of policy initiatives. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on the effects of individual monetary and non-monetary incentives for eco-driving, especially in organizational settings and with regards to demonstrating causality, e.g., by using controlled experiments. We address this gap with a six months long controlled natural field experiment and introduce a monetary and a non-monetary reward for eco-driving to drivers of light commercial vehicles in different branches of a logistics company. Our results show an average reduction of fuel consumption of 5% due to a tangible non-monetary reward and suggest only a small reduction of the average fuel consumption in the equivalent monetary reward treatment. We find indications that more emphasis on the fun of achieving a higher fuel efficiency, a more emotional response to non-monetary incentives, and a higher frequency of thinking and talking about non-monetary incentives might play a role in the stronger effect of the tangible non-monetary reward. Policy implications for private and public actors are discussed.

  16. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This 60 second PSA is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  17. Drinking and Driving – What You Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-04

    This podcast is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If you’re drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent.  Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/4/2011.

  18. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  19. Brain Endothelial- and Epithelial-Specific Interferon Receptor Chain 1 Drives Virus-Induced Sickness Behavior and Cognitive Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blank, Thomas; Detje, Claudia N.; Spiess, Alena; Hagemeyer, Nora; Brendecke, Stefanie M.; Wolfart, Jakob; Staszewski, Ori; Zoeller, Tanja; Papageorgiou, Ismini; Schneider, Justus; Paricio-Montesinos, Ricardo; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise; Jansen, Stephan; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Lu, Bao; Imai, Yumiko; Mueller, Marcus; Goelz, Susan E.; Baker, Darren P.; Schwaninger, Markus; Kann, Oliver; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Kalinke, Ulrich; Prinz, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Sickness behavior and cognitive dysfunction occur frequently by unknown mechanisms in virus-infected individuals with malignancies treated with type I interferons (IFNs) and in patients with autoimmune disorders. We found that during sickness behavior, single-stranded RNA viruses, double-stranded

  20. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  1. The Organic Power Transistor: Roll-to-Roll Manufacture, Thermal Behavior, and Power Handling When Driving Printed Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Schmidt, Thomas Mikael; Hösel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    of the organic semiconductor poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and the dielectric material polyvinylphenol (PVP) before the gate (G) was applied by either screen printing or evaporation of silver. We explore the footprint and the practically accessible geometry of such devices with a special view toward being able...... to drive large currents while handling the thermal aspects in operation together with other organic printed electronics technologies such as large area organic photovoltaics (OPV)[2] and large area electrochromic displays (EC).[3] We find especially that an elevated operational temperature is beneficial...

  2. Behavior of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive in the Madison symmetric torus reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakita, Hajime; Craig, Darren; Anderson, Jay K.; Chapman, Brett E.; Den-Hartog, Daniel J.; Prager, Stewart C.; Biewer, Ted M.; Terry, Stephen D.

    2003-01-01

    We report on passive measurements of impurity ion velocities during the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch. During PPCD, the electron temperature increased and a sudden reduction of magnetic fluctuations was observed. For this change, we have studied whether plasma velocity is affected. Plasma rotation is observed to decrease during PPCD. From measurements of line intensities for several impurities at 10 poloidal chords, it is found that the impurity line emission shifts outward. The ion temperature of impurities is reasonably connected to that measured by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy from core to edge. (author)

  3. Effect of changing driving conditions on driver behavior towards design of a safe and efficient traffic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This simulation-based study explores the effects of different work zone configurations, varying distances : between traffic signs, traffic density and individual differences on drivers behavior. Conventional Lane : Merge (CLM) and Joint Lane Merge...

  4. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Vorobyev

    Full Text Available Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections and outcome (pass or crash phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens, midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.

  5. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence.

  6. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  7. Self-Determination Theory and Risk Behavior in a Collectivistic Society: Preventing Reckless Driving in Urban Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Yerina S; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark A; Rimal, Rajiv N

    2017-08-01

    Traffic road accidents are one of the leading causes of mortality in Nepal and around the world. Drivers in Nepal are not adequately educated about road safety rules. Road conditions are chaotic as traffic regulations are also not strictly enforced. Public safety campaigns may be able to alter drivers' attitudes and behaviors; however, little is known about which persuasive strategies may be most effective. Drawing on self-determination theory and the Health Belief Model, the current study used a post-only experimental design to test the impact of a short video message. The video included collective vs. individual appeals, and messages emphasizing one's ability to make the right choice (autonomy support) vs. directive language. Participants were Nepali college students (mean age 20, N = 199). Using structural equation modeling, the study found that directive messages rather than autonomy support influenced an individual seeing value in the recommended behavior (identified regulation), which in turn influenced perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and behavioral intention. The study also proposed a behavior change model by incorporating the stage of identification with the message upon exposure. This model aims to expand the model proposed by the Health Belief Model, to include a stage of value identification before cues to action influence perception of threat. Further implications are discussed.

  8. What Drives Wine Expenditure in the United States? A Four-State Wine Market Segmentation and Consumer Behaviors Study

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of 1,609 wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including wine consumption frequency, preference of differently priced wines, wine knowledge, past wine experience, and “local” involvement are investigated and compared for their significance in driv...

  9. Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengdin, Phoebe; You, Wenjing; Chen, Cong; Shi, Xun; Zusin, Dmitriy; Zhang, Yingchao; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Keller, Mark; Oppeneer, Peter M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Tao, Zhensheng; Murnane, Margaret M

    2018-03-01

    It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time- and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel. This is evidenced by several observations. First, we observe a divergence of the transient heat capacity of the electron spin system preceding material demagnetization. Second, when the electron temperature is transiently driven above the Curie temperature, we observe an extremely rapid change in the material response: The spin system absorbs sufficient energy within the first 20 fs to subsequently proceed through the phase transition, whereas demagnetization and the collapse of the exchange splitting occur on much longer, fluence-independent time scales of ~176 fs. Third, we find that the transient electron temperature alone dictates the magnetic response. Our results are important because they connect the out-of-equilibrium material behavior to the strongly coupled equilibrium behavior and uncover a new time scale in the process of ultrafast demagnetization.

  10. New Implications for the Melanocortin System in Alcohol Drinking Behavior in Adolescents: The Glial Dysfunction Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Cerpa, Waldo; Carvajal, Maria F.; Lerma-Cabrera, José M.; Karahanian, Eduardo; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence causes physical, social, and moral harms and currently represents an important public health concern. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), alcoholism is the third leading cause of death worldwide, after tobacco consumption and hypertension. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a growing trend in alcohol abuse among adolescents, characterized by the consumption of large doses of alcohol over a short time period. Since brain development is an ongoing process during adolescence, short- and long-term brain damage associated with drinking behavior could lead to serious consequences for health and wellbeing. Accumulating evidence indicates that alcohol impairs the function of different components of the melanocortin system, a major player involved in the consolidation of addictive behaviors during adolescence and adulthood. Here, we hypothesize the possible implications of melanocortins and glial cells in the onset and progression of alcohol addiction. In particular, we propose that alcohol-induced decrease in α-MSH levels may trigger a cascade of glial inflammatory pathways that culminate in altered gliotransmission in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The latter might potentiate dopaminergic drive in the NAc, contributing to increase the vulnerability to alcohol dependence and addiction in the adolescence and adulthood. PMID:28424592

  11. Predictors of driving under the influence of alcohol among Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M J, Barlés Arizón; J J, Escario; J, Galbe Sánchez-Ventura

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the socio-economic determinants of alcohol-impaired drinking in Spanish adolescents. In particular, we are interested in analysing the impact of the family and school environment. To do it, we used the Spanish Survey on Drug Use in the School Population for the year 2008, carried out by the Spanish Government’s Delegation for the National Plan on Drugs. This survey with 30,183 students between 14 and 18 years of age (M = 15.6; SD = 1.17) constitutes a representative sample of the Spanish student population. Of these, 6.7% reported having driven under the influence of alcohol, this behaviour being more frequent among boys (10.6%) than girls (2.9%). Logistic regressions reveal that informative campaigns at school could significantly reduce the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving (OR = 0.82), especially among males (OR = 0.73) and among younger students (OR = 0.66). Our results also suggest that although parents’ education has no significant impact, parent’s alcohol abuse increase notably the probability of driving after drinking (OR = 2.22 for mothers and OR = 2.81 for fathers).

  12. Comportamentos no trânsito: um estudo epidemiológico com estudantes universitários Driving-related behavior: an epidemiologic study of undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marín-León

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever os comportamentos auto-referidos no trânsito e comparar a freqüência de comportamentos de risco entre condutores com e sem história de acidentes de trânsito (AT, foi realizado um estudo transversal com 2.116 estudantes de 18 a 25 anos, de uma universidade pública do Brasil. Para observar quais as variáveis independentes que se associam ao antecedente de AT como condutor de carro, foram calculadas: freqüências, chi2, p, odds ratio e intervalo de confiança de 95%. O sexo masculino foi analisado mediante modelo de Regressão Logística. Observou-se maior risco de AT no sexo masculino. Os condutores com maior freqüência de comportamentos inseguros para o trânsito apresentaram maior risco de AT. No sexo masculino as variáveis comportamentais associadas a AT foram "ter sido multado", "dirigir pelo acostamento" e "dirigir logo após consumir álcool". Também foi observado que os jovens tendem a não reconhecer sua responsabilidade nos AT. São necessárias intervenções dirigidas aos estudantes, devendo priorizar os homens, especialmente os de renda elevada.The purpose of this article was to describe self-reported driving-related behavior and compare the frequency of risk-taking among drivers with and without a history of traffic accidents (TA. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 2,116 undergraduate students from a public university in Brazil ranging in age from 18 to 25 were interviewed. Association between independent variables and history of TA was described using frequency, chi2, p, odds ratio, and 95% confidence intervals. Male data were analyzed through logistic regression. Men showed a higher risk than women of having been involved in TA. Drivers with more frequent risk-taking had a greater risk of history of TA. Behaviors observed to be associated with TA in men were: "history of fines", "driving on the shoulder", and "drinking and driving". Open-ended questions demonstrated that students show

  13. Do managerial incentives drive cost behavior? Evidence about the role of the zero earnings benchmark for labor cost behavior in Belgian private firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierynck, B.; Landsman, W.R.; Renders, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of managerial incentives to meet or beat the zero earnings benchmark on labor cost behavior of private Belgian firms. We posit that relative to managers of firms reporting healthy profits, managers meeting or beating the zero earnings benchmark will increase

  14. Methodology for determining motorcycle operator crash risk and alcohol impairment. Vol. 1, Synthesis report on alternative approaches with priorities for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    Alcohol-involvement continues to be a prominent factor in motorcycle crashes. Automobile-driver drinking and driving has been researched extensively, and the relationship between drivers' blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) and crash risk is well-unde...

  15. Drowsy Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least 8 hours. 8-9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  16. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communities Toolkit Best Practices Guide Publications Motorcycle Safety Bicycle Safety Publications Global Road Safety Get Email Updates ... study. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety keeps track of distracted driving laws. 7 As of June ...

  17. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on measures of simulated driving: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Iudakhina, Elizaveta; Desbrow, Ben; McCartney, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    Driving simulators are used in a wide range of research settings to help develop an understanding of driver behavior in complex environments. Acute alcohol impairment is an important research topic for traffic safety and a large number of studies have indicated levels of simulated driving impairment imposed by alcohol across a range of performance outcome variables. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of acute alcohol consumption on simulated driving performance by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence. The online databases PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (via Thomas Reuters) and Scopus were searched to identify studies that measured simulated car driving performance under control ('no alcohol' or 'placebo alcohol' ingestion) and intervention (acute alcohol ingestion) conditions, using repeated-measures experimental designs. Primary research outcomes were standard deviation of lane position (SDLP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP); (total number of lane crossings (LC) and average speed (Speed) were secondary research outcomes). Meta-analytic procedures were used to quantify the effect of acute alcohol consumption on vehicle control, and to determine the influence of methodological variables (i.e. the duration of the simulated driving task, the limb of the BAC curve (ascending vs. descending) and the type of driving simulator employed (i.e. car vs. PC-based)) on the magnitude of the performance change due to alcohol consumption. 423 records were screened, and 50 repeated-measures trials (n=962 participants, 62% male) derived from 17 original publications were reviewed. 37 trials (n=721 participants) used a 'placebo alcohol' comparator to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on SDLP (32/37) and SDSP (22/37). Alcohol consumption significantly increased SDLP by 4.0±0.5cm (95% CI: 3.0, 5.1) and SDSP by 0.38±0.10km⋅h -1 (95% CI: 0.19, 0.57). Regression analyses indicate BAC (p=0.004) and driving

  18. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  19. Human Social Behavior and Demography Drive Patterns of Fine-Scale Dengue Transmission in Endemic Areas of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Padmanabha

    Full Text Available Dengue is known to transmit between humans and A. aegypti mosquitoes living in neighboring houses. Although transmission is thought to be highly heterogeneous in both space and time, little is known about the patterns and drivers of transmission in groups of houses in endemic settings. We carried out surveys of PCR positivity in children residing in 2-block patches of highly endemic cities of Colombia. We found high levels of heterogeneity in PCR positivity, varying from less than 30% in 8 of the 10 patches to 56 and 96%, with the latter patch containing 22 children simultaneously PCR positive (PCR22 for DEN2. We then used an agent-based model to assess the likely eco-epidemiological context of this observation. Our model, simulating daily dengue dynamics over a 20 year period in a single two block patch, suggests that the observed heterogeneity most likely derived from variation in the density of susceptible people. Two aspects of human adaptive behavior were critical to determining this density: external social relationships favoring viral introduction (by susceptible residents or infectious visitors and immigration of households from non-endemic areas. External social relationships generating frequent viral introduction constituted a particularly strong constraint on susceptible densities, thereby limiting the potential for explosive outbreaks and dampening the impact of heightened vectorial capacity. Dengue transmission can be highly explosive locally, even in neighborhoods with significant immunity in the human population. Variation among neighborhoods in the density of local social networks and rural-to-urban migration is likely to produce significant fine-scale heterogeneity in dengue dynamics, constraining or amplifying the impacts of changes in mosquito populations and cross immunity between serotypes.

  20. THE APPLICATION OF RTK-GPS AND STEER-BY-WIRE TECHNOLOGY TO THE AUTOMATIC DRIVING OF VEHICLES AND AN EVALUATION OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu OMAE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic vehicle driving has long been the subject of research efforts designed to improve the safety and efficiency of automobile transportation. In recent years, increasingly sophisticated sensors and automobiles have brought automatic driving systems closer to reality. In this paper we describe an attempt to apply real-time kinematic GPS (RTK-GPS, a highly precise positioning system, and steer-by-wire body technology, which has advanced greatly in recent years, to automatic driving. In addition, we also describe the results of research into human factors related to automatic driving, which will become more and more important as automatic driving is put to practical use.

  1. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    . pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008....... Interaction with objects reflects the car’s role beyond mere transport as a site of personal, social, and work life (Featherstone et al. 2005; Redshaw 2008). Studies of interaction examine this role as it is actually enacted, understood, and accomplished, in situ through participants’ practices (e.g. Laurier...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  2. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....

  3. Do effects of theoretical training and rewards for energy-efficient behavior persist over time and interact? A natural field experiment on eco-driving in a company fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schall, Dominik L.; Wolf, Menas; Mohnen, Alwine

    2016-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is a cornerstone of policy initiatives to tackle climate change and increase corporate sustainability. Convincing people to drive more fuel-efficiently (“eco-driving”) is often an integral part of these approaches, especially in the transport sector. But there is a lack of studies on the long-term persistence and potential interaction of the effects of incentives and training on energy conservation behavior in general and eco-driving behavior in particular. We address this gap with a twelve months long natural field experiment in a logistics company to analyze the time-dependent and potentially interacting effects of rewards and theoretical training for eco-driving on fuel consumption in a real-world setting. We find an immediate reduction of fuel consumption following the introduction of a non-monetary reward and an attenuation of this effect over time. Theoretical eco-driving training shows no effect, neither short-term nor long-term, highlighting the often neglected necessity to include practical training elements. Contrary to common assumptions, the interaction of incentives and theoretical training does not show an additional reduction effect. Our results demonstrate the difficulty of changing engrained behavior and habits, and underline the need for a careful selection and combination of interventions. Policy implications for public and private actors are discussed. - Highlights: • Natural field experiment on training and incentives for fuel-efficient driving. • Focus on long-term and interaction effects over twelve months. • Immediate reduction effect of non-monetary reward that attenuates over time. • Theoretical eco-driving training shows no effect, neither short-term nor long-term. • Interaction of incentives and training shows no additional reduction effect.

  4. The effect on problematic drinking behavior of a brief motivational interview shortly after a first arrest for driving under the influence of alcohol: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Garth H; Young, Jason B; Theard, Leslie A; Cropp, David M; Mohar, Craig J; Eisenberg, Daniel; Schermer, Carol R; Owens, Leon J

    2014-03-01

    In medical settings, motivational interviewing-based "brief intervention" (BI) counseling reduces alcohol-related risk-taking behavior and harm in high-risk populations. Individuals arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are another at-risk population. We sought to determine whether a BI administered shortly after a first DUI arrest might decrease problematic drinking behavior. We conducted a single-center, parallel-group, double-blinded superiority randomized trial (NCT01270217), enrolling first-time DUI arrestees at a county jail from December 2010 through April 2011. Before their release, we randomized participants by computer-generated sequence to either a single BI or no discussion. We assessed 90-day change in Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores (range 0-40, higher values indicating more problematic drinking) as the primary outcome. We enrolled 200 subjects (100 to each arm), and 181 (90.5%, 86 control and 95 BI) completed the 90-day follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 30 (10) years, and 50% were men. Mean (SD) blood alcohol concentration upon arrest was 0.14% (0.04%). Mean (SD) baseline AUDIT scores were 8.8 (5.8) among control subjects and 7.7 (6.3) among BI subjects. At 90 days, AUDIT scores decreased by a mean (SD) 4.7 (5.1) units among control subjects and 3.4 (5.0) among BI subjects (difference, -1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to +0.1). The likelihood of subsequent binge drinking [relative risk (RR) 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0; BI vs. control], abstinence (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.1), alcohol-related injury to self or others (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4), and seeking treatment (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.7) did not differ. A single BI counseling session shortly after first-time DUI arrest does not reduce 90-day self-reported drinking behavior or increase seeking treatment for drinking beyond that which occurs without such a discussion. Therapeutic study, level III.

  5. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  6. The Virtual Driving Instructor: A Multi-agent Based System for Driving Instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weevers, I.; Kuipers, J.; Brugman, A.; Zwiers, Jakob; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Driving simulators need an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Simulators provide ways to conduct objective measurements on students' driving behavior and opportunities for creating the best possible learning environment. The generated traffic situations can be influenced directly according to the

  7. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  8. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  9. Driving intoxicated: is hospital admission protective against legal ramifications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis

    2013-12-01

    According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  10. Hurried driving: Relationship to distress tolerance, driver anger, aggressive and risky driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Daughters, Stacey B; Ali, Bina

    2013-03-01

    Being a hurried driver is associated with a variety of risky driving behaviors, yet the mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was examined as a predictor of hurried driving among 769 college students. Results indicate that after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, the student's year in school, their grade point average, driving frequency, angry driving, aggressive driving as well as other forms of self-reported risky driving; hurried driving was significantly associated with lower levels of distress tolerance. Hurried drivers also reported greater levels of frustration and impatience with other drivers, suggesting that they have difficulty in withstanding or coping with negative psychological states when driving. Traditional traffic safety campaigns that emphasize enforcement may be less successful with these drivers. The need to develop campaigns that address the affective coping abilities that contribute to this behavioral pattern is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  12. The Effectiveness of “Improvement of Driver-Behavior Program” on Self-Control of Individuals Whose Driving Licenses Have Been Seized due to Drinking and Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ýbrahim Taymur

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that the quality of “Driver-Behavior Improvement Program” should be enhanced by extending the duration of the education and addressing the age factor in improving self-control features of the relevant individuals. [JCBPR 2014; 3(3.000: 182-190

  13. [Fitness to drive after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In Germany, patient information and expert testimony on driving ability requires knowledge of the corresponding legislation and the Guideline for expertises on driver aptitude. The testimony should clearly identify handicaps with regard to driving, give estimates on the future risks of a sudden loss of control, and also consider personal attitudes such as inadequate behavior, lack of insight etc. Physical handicaps often can be compensated for by restrains or restrictions such as vehicle modifications, daylight driving only etc.Both, information and testimony must give estimates on the risks of a sudden loss of control while driving by stroke recurrence or epileptic seizures. In accordance with the Risk-of-Harm-Formula of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society methods are being discussed, by which an estimate of harmful traffic accidents due to stroke recurrence can be calculated. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Violent behavior and driving under the influence of alcohol: prevalence and association with impulsivity among individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Bohnert, Amy; Ilgen, Mark A; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated or under the influence (DUI; for the purposes of this paper, we use the following terms synonymously: driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, and drunk driving) and engaging in interpersonal violence are two injury-related problems of high public health importance that have both been linked to alcohol consumption. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of DUI and violence in a sample of individuals in treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Patient characteristics associated with DUI and violence involvement, with a particular focus on impulsivity, were examined. Three hundred and sixty-four patients consecutively admitted to four alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland participated in this study. Questions concerning history of interpersonal violence as well as those about DUI were derived from the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Impulsivity level was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and the stop-signal task. Among all participants in the study, 148 (40.1%) had been arrested in the past for DUI, and 196 (55%) reported involvement in a fight under the influence of alcohol (FUI). The DUI group had a significantly earlier onset of alcohol problems, a longer period of heavy alcohol use, and fewer women in comparison to participants without a DUI history. FUI patients were significantly younger, with a younger average age of onset of drinking problems, longer period of heavy drinking, and lower percentage of women than the non-FUI group. Both of the self-reported measures of impulsivity indicated a higher level of impulsivity among participants from the FUI group than those from the non-FUI group. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  16. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  17. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    are found to impair drivers' physical characteristics. However, their impacts on the parameters SBP, HR, eyesight, and TDSA are different. A driver's physical characteristics will be impaired more seriously when he continues driving while drowsy, compared to driving under normal situation. These findings contribute to the current research on identifying drivers' driving state and quantifying the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on driving ability and driving behavior.

  18. National distracted driving telephone survey finds most drivers answer the call, hold the phone, and continue to drive : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducted : the first of several periodic national surveys of distracted : driving to monitor the publics attitudes, knowledge, : and self-reported behavior about cell phones, texting, and : drive...

  19. Strategic advertising plans to deter drunk driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Primary objective for this study was to identify and profile subpopulations at highest risk for drinking and driving, and persons who may be in a position to intervene in their drinking and driving behavior. A related objective was to explore media m...

  20. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  1. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings. PMID:27258144

  2. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  3. Older Drivers' Reasons for Reducing the Overall Amount of Their Driving and for Avoiding Selected Driving Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    that the reduction in driving and avoidance of driving situations are separate types of self-regulatory behavior; that self-regulation of driving is an automatic process, in which older drivers are not aware that they are compensating for functional loss; and that it is important to acknowledge gender differences......Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 840 older drivers to explore their reasons for self-regulating their driving. The main reason for reduced driving was having fewer activities to drive to, and for avoidance of driving situations, reasons also included not liking or feeling...

  4. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Reducing drink driving in low- and middle-income countries: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn; Silcock, David; Wegman, Fred

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes and the related injuries and deaths in countries around the world. Unfortunately, this progress has not been shared by many low- and middle-income countries. In response to this disparity, a variety of international efforts have been undertaken, including the Drink Driving Initiative of Global Actions on Harmful Drinking, being carried out with a focus on 6 low- and middle-income countries where drink driving is a significant issue. These countries are China, Colombia, Mexico, Nigeria, Russia, and Vietnam. This article provides an overview of situational assessments that describe the current drink driving problems in these countries and the laws, policies, enforcement efforts, and public attitudes related to drink driving. These descriptions show clearly that there are particular challenges faced by the countries discussed here. Some, such as a lack of reliable traffic safety data, are common to most of the countries. This lack of data may be interrelated with the lack of well-developed drink driving policies. Other challenges vary depending on the particular geographic, economic, cultural, and social situations in each country. The assessments indicate the need for a focus on capacity building at the organizational and individual level in the target countries. The assessments also indicate that a long-term commitment to strengthening policies, implementation, and evaluation will be needed. This deeper understanding of the situations in each of these countries is already being put to use in what we hope is the beginning of an important and lifesaving process. Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  6. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  8. 75 FR 75845 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... property in a moment. This reckless behavior not only includes drunk driving, but also the growing problem... dedicated to strengthening efforts against drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. To lead by example, we... Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is also sponsoring the campaign, ``Drunk Driving...

  9. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhito; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns upper-built-in type control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. Namely, high temperature linear motor driving type control rod drives are disposed in an upper space of the reactor pressure vessel, which generates electromagnetic power. In usual driving of control rods, driving shafts connected with control rods by a high temperature linear motor driving system comprising a driving shaft having an iron core inserted therein and electromagnetic coils is vertically moved to insert/withdraw the control rods to and from the reactor core. Upon occurrence of reactor scram, electric power source is interrupted, and the control rods are rapidly inserted to the reactor core. According to the present invention, since the control rod drives are disposed in the space above the reactor pressure vessel, pipelines or equipments passing through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel can be saved. As a result, operation for maintenance and inspection is facilitated. (I.S.)

  11. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  12. `People on the move and goods on the go` behavioral factors driving carbon-dioxide emissions for travel and freight in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Concern has been expressed in many government and private studies over the cost of externalitites from transportation, which include safety, air pollution, noise, competition for urban space, balance of payments associated with oil imports, and risks from importing oil. If the individual (s) benefiting at the time faced those costs, the travel (or shipment) behind the externality might not take place, or technology would be applied to reduce the extent of the problem. For large trucks and busses, the costs (per vehicle-km) are considerably higher. Expressed as per unit of travel (passenger kilometers) or per unit of freight, i.e., taking into account the utilization of the vehicle, the specific cost change because of economics of scale. Transportation is a valuable part of our economy, but it is no free lunch. Emissions of CO{sub 2} or carbon from road transport are also on government agendas is industrialized countries. Not surprisingly, CO{sub 2} emissions from travel and freight have increased in most industrialized countries faster than population, albeit less rapidly than GDP. This paper reviews some of the factors driving that increase. Whatever the `real` external costs of each mode, all studies suggest two important findings: First, these costs are sometimes comparable to, or higher than, direct fuel costs per kilometer at the margin; Second, the value attached to the externality for carbon emissions tends to be low compared to those associated with other problems. Hence this suggests that CO{sub 2} by itself may not `felt` as a strong stimulus for change, but that changes to deal with the other problems may affect traffic, and therefore CO{sub 2} emissions, profoundly. (EG) 51 refs.

  13. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  14. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  15. Young and unlicensed: risky driving before entering the licensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Watson, B; King, M J; Hyde, M K

    2012-01-01

    On-road driving before gaining a valid license (prelicense driving) represents a risk for all road users. Prelicense driving among young people who obtained a provisional license within an enhanced graduated driver licensing program in Queensland, Australia, was investigated. Recently licensed drivers (n = 1032) aged 17 to 19 years (M = 17.54) completed a survey exploring their driving experiences while on their learner's license. Six months later, 355 of these drivers completed the same survey exploring their experiences on their provisional (intermediate) license. Twelve percent of participants reported prelicense driving. Prelicense drivers reported significantly more risky driving as learners and provisional drivers. Prelicense drivers not only place themselves and other road users at risk at the time but also continue to do so through their subsequent risky driving. Prelicense driving should be discouraged, and parents should be encouraged to monitor car use and the driving behavior of their children.

  16. Dynamics and control of instrumented harmonic drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, H.; Ellis, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Since torque in harmonic drives is transmitted by a pure couple, harmonic drives do not generate radial forces and therefore can be instrumented with torque sensors without interference from radial forces. The installation of torque sensors on the stationary component of harmonic drives (the Flexipline cup in this research work) produce backdrivability needed for robotic and telerobotic compliant maneuvers. Backdrivability of a harmonic drive, when used as torque increaser, means that the output shaft can be rotated via finite amount of torque. A high ratio harmonic drive is non-backdrivable because its output shaft cannot be turned by applying a torque on it. This article first develops the dynamic behavior of a harmonic drive, in particular the non-backdrivability, in terms of a sensitivity transfer function. The instrumentation of the harmonic drive with torque sensor is then described. This leads to a description of the control architecture which allows modulation of the sensitivity transfer function within the limits established by the closed-loop stability. A set of experiments on an active hand controller, powered by a DC motor coupled to an instrumented harmonic drive, is given to exhibit this method's limitations.

  17. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  18. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    In control rod drives, differential pressure sensors are disposed at the inlet and the exit of a driving water pressure control valve disposed in a driving water supply device and, when deviation of fluctuation of the differential pressure from a set value is detected, a pressure control valve for driving water is controlled so as to make the differential pressure constant. The differential pressure sensors detect the differential pressure between the pressure of the control rod drives at the inlet and the exit of the driving water pressure control valve and a pressure in a reactor dome. A judging circuit judges whether the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control valve is deviated from a set value or not and, if it deviates from the set value, outputs of judging signal to the control device. In the control device, the opening degree of the driving water pressure control valve is controlled, so that the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control value is constant and does not deviate from the set value. There are provided advantageous effects of preventing abnormal control rod withdrawing phenomenon to improve safety and reliability for the control of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  19. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  20. Alcohol and drug use among young adults driving to a drinking location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B; Johnson, Mark B; Miller, Brenda A

    2013-09-01

    Clubs that feature electronic music dance events (EMDEs) draw young adults aged 18-34 who are at high-risk for alcohol-related crashes to locations where alcohol sales are the principal source of revenue. Up to 30% of these attendees may also use drugs. This provides an important context in which to study driving arrangements that reflect concern with impaired driving. We explored whether drivers were using less alcohol and fewer drugs at exit than their passengers were and whether a driver for the group ever changed after consuming too much during the evening. Using biological measures of alcohol consumption (breath tests) and drug use (oral fluid tests), 175 drivers and 272 passengers were surveyed among young adults arriving at and departing from EMDEs in San Francisco. Upon exit from the drinking locations, only 20% of the drivers, compared to 47% of the passengers, had a high breath alcohol concentration (defined as a BrAC of .05 g/dL or greater). Further, there was evidence that drivers with high BrACs switched to passenger status on exit and former passengers with lower BrACs replaced those drivers. However, there were no differences in the prevalence of drug use among drivers and passengers. These findings suggest that the effort by young adult drivers to avoid alcohol-impaired driving appears to be reducing the number of drivers with high BrACs returning from drinking locations, such as EMDEs, by about one third. However, there is no similar pattern for drugged driving. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvements of Piezo-Actuated Stick–Slip Micro-Drives: Modeling and Driving Waveform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Ha Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and waveform optimization are important research topics for piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives. In this paper, the dynamics of piezo-actuated stick–slip micro-drives (PASSMDs are theoretically investigated. We introduce an extended model taking the dynamics of the piezo actuators into account. The model combines the whole macroscopic movement of the drive’s runner and actuators and the microscopic behavior of the frictional contacts in a hybrid dynamic simulation. The macroscopic movements are described via Newtonian mechanics, while the microscopic behavior is computed using the method of dimensionality reduction. Two important characteristics of the drive, the critical actuation amplitude and the force generation, are systematically analyzed. The numerical simulation results show a fine agreement with experimental data of the previously published work. The critical actuation amplitude is found to depend on the behavior of the guiding contacts, the dynamics of the actuators and their interaction. Furthermore, a novel driving waveform, which allows us to increase the operational velocity for the drive, is proposed. The waveform is derived by exploiting micro-vibration and considering the dynamic contact status. Simulation results show that the average velocity of the drive is heightened by about 15 % . The performance of the drive is therefore improved.

  2. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  3. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  4. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  5. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  6. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  7. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  8. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  10. Modeling cooperative driving behavior in freeway merges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Merging locations are major sources of freeway bottlenecks and are therefore important for freeway operations analysis. Microscopic simulation tools have been successfully used to analyze merging bottlenecks and to design optimum geometric configurat...

  11. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  12. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of...

  13. Class-D amplifier design and performance for driving a Piezo Actuator Drive servomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsurzsan, Tiberiu-Gabriel; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the behavior of piezoelectric stacks in a Piezoelectric Actuator Drive (PAD) motor, which shows non-linear equivalent impedance and has a dramatic impact on the overall system performance. Therefore, in this paper, the piezo stackt’s model is discussed and an improved large...... signal model is proposed and verified by measurement. Finally, a Class-D amplifier as a power driver and its associated closed-loop control are implemented and tested to control PAD drive effectively....

  14. Simulation of Automated Vehicles' Drive Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    This research has two objectives: 1) To develop algorithms for plausible and legally-justifiable freeway car-following and arterial-street gap acceptance driving behavior for AVs 2) To implement these algorithms on a representative road network, in o...

  15. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  16. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  17. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  18. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  19. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  20. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  1. Driving simulators for occupational therapy screening, assessment, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Brooks, Johnell

    2014-04-01

    Simulation technology provides safe, objective, and repeatable performance measures pertaining to operational (e.g., avoiding a collision) or tactical (e.g., lane maintenance) driver behaviors. Many occupational therapy researchers and others are using driving simulators to test a variety of applications across diverse populations. A growing body of literature provides support for associations between simulated driving and actual on-road driving. One limitation of simulator technology is the occurrence of simulator sickness, but management strategies exist to curtail or mitigate its onset. Based on the literature review and a consensus process, five consensus statements are presented to support the use of driving simulation technology among occupational therapy practitioners. The evidence suggests that by using driving simulators occupational therapy practitioners may detect underlying impairments in driving performance, identify driving errors in at-risk drivers; differentiate between driving performance of impaired and healthy controls groups; show driving errors with absolute and relative validity compared to on-road studies; and mitigate the onset of simulator sickness. Much progress has been made among occupational therapy researchers and practitioners in the use of driving simulation technology; however, empirical support is needed to further justify the use of driving simulators in clinical practice settings as a valid, reliable, clinical useful, and cost effective tool for driving assessment and intervention.

  2. Blood alcohol concentration testing and reporting by the states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Accurate and complete data on blood alcohol concentration : (BAC) levels for drivers in fatal crashes are critical in monitoring : alcohol-impaired-driving rates across the country, developing : alcohol-impaired-driving programs, and evaluating : the...

  3. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  4. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  5. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. The virtual driving instructor: Creating awareness in a multi-agent system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weevers, I.; Weevers, I.; Kuipers, J.; Brugman, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Zwiers, Jakob; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Xiang, Y.; Chaib-draa, B.

    2003-01-01

    Driving simulators need an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Simulators provide ways to conduct objective measurements on students’ driving behavior and opportunities for creating the best possible learning environment. The generated traffic situations can be influenced directly according to the

  7. [A retrospective analysis of 97 drunk driving cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang-Wei; Chu, Yun; Zong, Xiong-Xin; Wang, Zi-Wei; Chu, Jian-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Based on a retrospective analysis of the drunk driving cases, to explore the drunk drivers' personnel composition, occurrence time and psychology. As a result of punishment of the drunk driving by criminal law for one year from May 1st, 2011 to April 30th, 2012, 91 drunk driving cases were statistically analyzed the easy-happening time of drunk driving, the drunk drivers' age, gender, occupational characteristics, domicile and psychological factors. In 97 drunk driving cases, 26-40 years old, non-local domiciled and non-professional male drivers were prone to drunk driving at night from 22:00 to 5:00. The behavior of drunk driving is relevant to time, age, genders and occupation. The psychological characteristics of most drivers are fluky, making-life-easy, competitive and peacockish.

  8. Can We Study Autonomous Driving Comfort in Moving-Base Driving Simulators? A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellem, Hanna; Klüver, Malte; Schrauf, Michael; Schöner, Hans-Peter; Hecht, Heiko; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    To lay the basis of studying autonomous driving comfort using driving simulators, we assessed the behavioral validity of two moving-base simulator configurations by contrasting them with a test-track setting. With increasing level of automation, driving comfort becomes increasingly important. Simulators provide a safe environment to study perceived comfort in autonomous driving. To date, however, no studies were conducted in relation to comfort in autonomous driving to determine the extent to which results from simulator studies can be transferred to on-road driving conditions. Participants ( N = 72) experienced six differently parameterized lane-change and deceleration maneuvers and subsequently rated the comfort of each scenario. One group of participants experienced the maneuvers on a test-track setting, whereas two other groups experienced them in one of two moving-base simulator configurations. We could demonstrate relative and absolute validity for one of the two simulator configurations. Subsequent analyses revealed that the validity of the simulator highly depends on the parameterization of the motion system. Moving-base simulation can be a useful research tool to study driving comfort in autonomous vehicles. However, our results point at a preference for subunity scaling factors for both lateral and longitudinal motion cues, which might be explained by an underestimation of speed in virtual environments. In line with previous studies, we recommend lateral- and longitudinal-motion scaling factors of approximately 50% to 60% in order to obtain valid results for both active and passive driving tasks.

  9. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  10. A tool suite for developing and evaluating cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.; Noort, M. van; Versteegh, T.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative driving systems influence individual vehicles, either through advisory or autonomous actions, so as to optimize the collective behavior in terms of throughput, safety, fuel consumption and/or emissions. Cooperative driving systems need to function properly in a vast amount of different

  11. On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Rosca, B.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid and electric vehicles require accurate knowledge of the battery to make an educated guess about the expected electric driving range. Range prediction is complicated by the fact that batteries are subject to external influences and aging. Also the future driving behavior is often unknown. This

  12. Drunk driving among novice drivers, possible prevention with additional psychological module in driving school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.

  13. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  14. Effectiveness of a Driving Intervention on Safe Community Mobility for Returning Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    psychological conditions on driving, and driving rehabilitation needs. Effective driving interventions have potential to increase driving safety and reduce...MMS) • Sensory – Vision – Sensation – Proprioception • Cognitive – MMSE – Trails B – Useful Field of View DriveSafety Simulator DriveSafety 250...5 – Risky Driving  Behavior in  Psychological  Aspects of Deployment and Health Behaviours (NATO report TR‐HFM‐164). Neuilly‐sur‐Seine, France

  15. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  16. 23 CFR 1313.4 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING PREVENTION PROGRAMS § 1313.4 General requirements. (a) Qualification requirements... enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving prevention programs in § 1313.6 and other associated costs permitted... certification that it has an alcohol-impaired driving prevention program that meets the requirements of 23 U.S.C...

  17. 75 FR 53369 - Reports, Forms, and Recordkeeping Requirements Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... more widespread use of unobtrusive technology to prevent drunk driving''. The goal of this research... people were killed in alcohol-impaired- driving crashes. Drivers are considered to be alcohol-impaired... alcohol-impaired-driving fatalities accounted for 32 percent of the total motor vehicle traffic fatalities...

  18. Prevalence of and attitudes about distracted driving in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara; Fram, Ethan; Merchant, Gina; Eastman, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    To identify current distracted driving (DD) behaviors among college students, primarily those involving cell phone use, and elucidate the opinions of the students on the most effective deterrent or intervention for reducing cell phone use. Students enrolled at 12 colleges and universities were recruited to participate in an online, anonymous survey. Recruitment was done via school-based list-serves and posters. School sizes ranged from 476 to over 30,000. The validated survey included 38 questions; 17 were specifically related to distracted driving. Four thousand nine hundred sixty-four participants completed the surveys; the average age was 21.8, 66% were female, 82.7% were undergraduates, and 47% were white/non-Hispanic. Additionally, 4,517 (91%) reported phoning and/or texting while driving; 4,467 (90%) of drivers said they talk on the phone while driving; 1,241 (25%) reported using a hands-free device "most of the time"; 4,467 (90%) of drivers reported texting while driving; 2,488 (50%) reported sending texts while driving on the freeway; 2,978 (60%) while in stop-and-go traffic or on city streets; and 4,319 (87%) at traffic lights. Those who drove more often were more likely to drive distracted. When asked about their capability to drive distracted, 46% said they were capable or very capable of talking on a cell phone and driving, but they felt that only 8.5% of other drivers were capable. In a multivariate model, 9 predictors explained 44% of the variance in DD, which was statistically significant, F (17, 4945) = 224.31; P perception of safety of multitasking while driving (β = 0.19), social norms (i.e., observing others multitasking while driving; β = 0.29), and having a history of crashing due to multitasking while driving (β = 0.11). Distracted driving is a highly prevalent behavior among college students who have higher confidence in their own driving skills and ability to multitask than they have in other drivers' abilities. Drivers' self-efficacy for

  19. Empathic concern drives costly altruism

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern – and not trait personal distress – motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  20. A pilot study of the effects of atomoxetine on driving performance in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A; Anderson, Deborah L; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-02-01

    There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with ADHD (M age = 37 years) using ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairment, and safe driving behavior; a virtual reality driving simulator; and ratings of simulator performance. Atomoxetine improves self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairments, safe driving behavior, and simulator driving performance. No effects of atomoxetine are evident on others' ratings of driving behavior or on the simulator. Practice effects on the simulator may have obscured those drug effects. The authors find a mixed pattern of results such that atomoxetine warrants further study for its effects on driving in this high-risk population.

  1. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  2. [Effect of air-electric fields on driving and reaction patterns. Test subjects in the car driving simulator (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W

    1977-06-10

    In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.

  3. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  4. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  5. Drive-Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  6. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  7. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  8. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  9. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety perceptions than

  10. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety

  11. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  12. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  13. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  14. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  15. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  16. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  17. Design Drives: materials innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Raymond; Toomey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Design Drives Materials Innovation‘ outlines the potential of a D:STEM (Design, Science, Technology, Engineering amd Mathematics) approach to combining traditionally different fields through design-led, needs driven and technology anchored future products using electro/photo/bio-active polymers in physical formats defined in ‚dots, lines, surfaces and structures‘.It also identifies Ambient Assisted Living as a key driver for future applications.

  18. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  19. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  3. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  4. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  5. Naturalistic teenage driving study: Findings and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Klauer, Sheila G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S; Lee, Suzanne E; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K; Dingus, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving: a road to unhealthy lifestyles and poor health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Ding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Driving is a common part of modern society, but its potential effects on health are not well understood. PURPOSE: The present cross-sectional study (n = 37,570 examined the associations of driving time with a series of health behaviors and outcomes in a large population sample of middle-aged and older adults using data from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor Study conducted in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression was used in 2013 to examine the associations of usual daily driving time with health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep and outcomes (obesity, general health, quality of life, psychological distress, time stress, social functioning, adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Findings suggested that longer driving time was associated with higher odds for smoking, insufficient physical activity, short sleep, obesity, and worse physical and mental health. The associations consistently showed a dose-response pattern and more than 120 minutes of driving per day had the strongest and most consistent associations with the majority of outcomes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights driving as a potential lifestyle risk factor for public health. More population-level multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the mechanism of how driving affects health.

  7. Preventing distracted driving among college students: Addressing smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  9. Learning theory: a driving force in understanding orbitofrontal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannald, Michael A; Jones, Joshua L; Takahashi, Yuji K; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2014-02-01

    Since it was demonstrated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical to reversal learning, there has been considerable interest in specifying its role in flexible, outcome-guided behavior. Behavioral paradigms from the learning theory tradition, such as outcome devaluation, blocking, Pavlovian to instrumental transfer, and overexpectation have been a driving force in this research. The use of these procedures has revealed OFC's unique role in forming and integrating information about specific features of events and outcomes to drive behavior and learning. These studies highlight the power and importance of learning theory principles in guiding neuroscience research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Cognitive maps influence over driving strategies in Russia: analyzing Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX and Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetverikova A.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes our investigation of drivers cognitive maps and its influence over their behavior. 182 subjects participated in our research, i.e. 97 professional drivers, 85 car enthusiasts, 156 men and 26 women, 20—66 years old, mileage about 3—150 thousands kilometers per year. Questionnaire “Dula Dangerous Driving Index” was used on Russian subjects for the first time ever. Our results show that subjects’ need for get their rocks off when they are angered (or suspicious, or failed to trust the world around and aggressive behavior during driving are correlated. Most drivers feel emotional tension during driving and use some self-regulation techniques to decrease the tension stabilize their emotional state. The following factors were found to correlate with one’s aggressive behavior on the road: feeling suspicious of world/self/others, low level of self-acceptance, external locus of control.

  11. Driving with diabetes: precaution, not prohibition, is the proper approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrman, Daniel B

    2013-03-01

    Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Acute coronary syndromes occurring while driving: frequency and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Miyatake, Satoru; Yagi, Takashi; Noma, Shigetaka

    2017-12-20

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may occur during any human activity, including driving. The objectives of this study were to report the frequency of ACS occurring while driving, clarify patient characteristics, and analyze the behavioral patterns of drivers who sustained ACS. A single-center, retrospective observational study was conducted using prospectively acquired data. Among 1605 ACS patients admitted between January 2011 and December 2016, 65 (60 men/5 women) patients who sustained ACS while driving were identified. Clinical variables were compared between these 65 patients and 1540 patients who sustained ACS while performing other activities. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify variables associated with ACS. The frequency of ACS occurring while driving was 4.0% (65/1605). Compared with patients who sustained ACS while performing other activities, those who sustained ACS while driving were significantly younger (66.2 ± 13.0 vs. 57.5 ± 12.2 years, p current smoking (OR 1.978; 95% CI 1.145-3.417) were associated with ACS. While 55 drivers (85%) who remained conscious after ACS could seek medical attention without causing accidents, the other 10 (15%) who sustained cardiac arrest caused accidents. The association between current smoking and ACS occurring while driving suggests that smoking cessation is advised for smokers who drive from the standpoint of driving safety. We expect that prospective studies be conducted to verify our findings and identify individuals at risk for ACS while driving.

  13. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  14. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  15. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  16. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  17. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  18. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed......, and a high voltage attenuation interface for an audio analyzer is presented. THD below 0:1% is reported....

  19. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Polar drive on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha P.B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.

  2. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  3. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  4. Dangerous driving in a Chinese sample: associations with morningness-eveningness preference and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Individual differences in morningness-eveningness preference may influence susceptibility and response to sleepiness. These differences could influence driving performance, but the influence of morningness-eveningness preference on driving behavior and accident risk has not been comprehensively studied. As morningness-eveningness preference is associated with personality characteristics, we also investigated how the interaction between morningness-eveningness preference and personality may be related to dangerous driving behaviors. Two hundred and ninety five drivers completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, and personality scales for agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism, and reported demographic information (gender, age, level of education, driving years and annual average driving mileage and self-reported traffic violations (accidents, penalty points and fines. The results showed that more Risky Driving, Aggressive Driving, Negative Cognitive/Emotional Driving and Drunk Driving, as measured by the Dula Dangerous Driving Index, were all significantly correlated with more eveningness, corresponding to lower scores on the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Moreover, eveningness was correlated with self-reported traffic accidents, penalty points and fines. Furthermore, a moderation effect was found: eveningness was more strongly associated with risky driving and negative emotional driving in those who scored high for trait agreeableness.

  5. Brain activity during driving with distraction: an immersive fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A Schweizer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive measurements of brain activity have an important role to play in understanding driving ability. The current study aimed to identify the neural underpinnings of human driving behavior by visualizing the areas of the brain involved in driving under different levels of demand, such as driving while distracted or making left turns at busy intersections. Methods: To capture brain activity during driving, we placed a driving simulator with a fully functional steering wheel and pedals in a 3.0 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI system. To identify the brain areas involved while performing different real-world driving maneuvers, participants completed tasks ranging from simple (right turns to more complex (left turns at busy intersections. To assess the effects of driving while distracted, participants were asked to perform an auditory task while driving analogous to speaking on a hands-free device and driving. Results: A widely distributed brain network was identified, especially when making left turns at busy intersections compared to more simple driving tasks. During distracted driving, brain activation shifted dramatically from the posterior, visual and spatial areas to the prefrontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the distracted brain sacrificed areas in the posterior brain important for visual attention and alertness to recruit enough brain resources to perform a secondary, cognitive task. The present findings offer important new insights into the scientific understanding of the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of driving behavior and lay down an important foundation for future clinical research.

  6. Age and gender differences in risky driving: the roles of positive affect and risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy; Pivik, Kelly

    2011-05-01

    A phone survey of 504 teen (age 16-20) and 409 adult (age 25-45) drivers in the US state of Alabama was conducted to examine the relationships among risk perception, positive affect and risky driving. Male drivers reported engaging in risky driving behaviors more frequently than female drivers and teen drivers reported engaging in risky driving behaviors more frequently than adult drivers. Positive affect (liking for risky driving behaviors) and perceived risk mediated the relationships of age and gender with risky driving. Affect and risk perception were independent predictors of risky driving behavior. Interactions of positive affect and perceived risk with gender and age showed that positive affect more strongly predicted risky driving for teen and male drivers than for adult and female drivers. These findings are interpreted in the context of dual process models of behavioral decision making. Future research into interventions designed to moderate the positive affect surrounding driving may have promise for reducing risky driving behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Texting while driving, executive function, and impulsivity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Rivera, Esteban A; Modico, James G; Foreman, Anne M; Wirth, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cognitive processes underlying texting while driving. A sample of 120 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read a text message while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 20 students who frequently text while driving and 20 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they differed in self-reported measures of executive function and impulsivity. The groups were also compared on a behavioral measure of impulsivity: the extent to which they discounted hypothetical monetary rewards as a function of the delay. For this measure, the students made repeated choices between smaller monetary rewards available immediately and larger rewards available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. The results show that the group of students who frequently text while driving showed (a) significantly lower levels of executive function and (b) higher levels of self-reported impulsivity, although the groups did not differ significantly on the behavioral measure of impulsivity. These results support a general conclusion that drivers with lower levels of executive function and higher levels of impulsivity are more likely to text while driving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Driving without a GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    in the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited...... as students as well as the lecturers themselves represent a diverse range of first languages, cultures and knowledge systems; at the same time, the teaching and learning must reach at least the same high quality standards as in more traditional mono-lingual and mono-cultural settings. For a lecturer...... in an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS. Based...

  9. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Nobuaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To remove movable portion and improve the reliability by the direct control to coil. Constitution: Coils are disposed vertically at a predetermined interval to the outside of a control rod drive guide tube and each of the coils is adapted to be directly controlled. The coils are arranged at such an interval that a plunger laps over the vertically adjacent coils. In the case of moving the plunger upwardly, a coil just above the coil that attract the plunger is energized while the coil attracting the plunger so far is denergized. Then, the plunger is pulled up to an aimed position by repeating the procedures. In the case of moving the plunger downwardly, the procedures are conducted in the manner opposite to the above. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  11. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  12. Chronotype-dependent circadian rhythmicity of driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Among the factors associated with driving safety, sleep-related variables constitute a leading cause of road accidents. Circadian fluctuations of driver's somnolence has been previously linked to road safety. However, the role of chronotype in this relationship has been poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the present work was to address whether driving performance is influenced by circadian patterns, in turn modulated by the driver's chronotype and the time of day (i.e. synchrony effect). We assessed 47 healthy young adults with specific chronotypes in several simulated driving sessions, both in the morning and in the evening. We collected driving performance data, along with self-reported levels of activation prior to each driving session and other sleep-related variables. Participants drove less safely when testing times took place outside their optimal time of day, as determined by their chronotype and confirmed by self-reported levels of activation. These differences were more pronounced in the morning, when morning types shown a better driving performance. Our results suggest that chronotype plays an important role as a modulator of the relationship between the time of day and driving safety. Therefore, it is necessary to acknowledge this variable in theoretical models of driving behavior, and for the improvement of occupational accidents prevention programs.

  13. Driving platform for OLED lighting investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Elgner, Andreas; Kreye, Daniel; Amelung, Jörg; Scholles, Michael

    2006-08-01

    OLED technology may be excellently suitable for lighting applications by combining high efficiency, cost effective manufacturing and the use of low cost materials. Certain issues remain to be solved so far, including OLED brightness, color, lifetime, large area uniformity and encapsulation. Another aspect, that might be capable in addressing some of the mentioned issues, is OLED lighting electrical driving. We report on the design of a driving platform for OLED lighting test panels or substrates. It is intended for being a test environment for lighting substrates as well as demonstration/presentation environment. It is based on a 128-channel passive-matrix driver/controller ASIC OC2. Its key component is an MSP430-compatible 16-bit micro-controller core including embedded Flash memory (program), EEPROM (parameter), and RAM (data memory). A significant feature of the device is an electronic approach for improving the lifetime/uniformity behavior of connected OLED. The embedded micro-controller is the key to the high versatility of OC2, since by firmware modification it can be adapted to various applications and conditions. Here its application for an OLED lighting driving platform is presented. Major features of this platform are PC-control mode (via USB interface), stand-alone mode (no external control necessary, just power supply), on-board OLED panel parameter storage, flat geometry of OLED lighting panel carrier (board), AC and DC driving regimes, adjustable reverse voltage, dedicated user SW (PC/Windows-based), sub-tile patterning and single sub-tile control, combination of multiple channels for increasing driving current. This publication contains results of the project "High Brightness OLEDs for ICT & Next Generation Lighting Applications" (OLLA), funded by the European Commission.

  14. Risky Teen Driving in a Rural Southern State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Hardwick, William; Lawson, Victoria; Nichols, Elizabeth; Nichols, Michele; King, William D

    2017-05-01

    Alabama is one of the five US states with the highest teen driving mortality. We recruited teen drivers to participate in a questionnaire regarding high-risk driving behaviors. Teens were recruited from a large county school system to participate in a voluntary anonymous survey. Questions were taken in part from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1023 teen drivers participated (46% boys, 47% African American, 39% white, 6% Latino, and 7% other). In all, 526 students (52%) reported inconsistent seat belt use. Half of the teens surveyed reported using a cellular telephone while driving within the past 30 days (51%); 10% admitted to driving after drinking alcoholic beverages in the past 30 days, with 23% saying they had ridden with a driver who had been drinking. High-risk teen driving behaviors were reported by many of the participants in our study. The majority of teens surveyed do not routinely wear seatbelts. Common misperceptions still exist regarding seatbelts and should be a focus of future education. Future research should focus on parental behaviors and correcting misperceptions of young drivers.

  15. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and small size...

  16. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  17. Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work: The moderating role of safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Darren; Somoray, Klaire; Evenhuis, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Within many industrialized countries, the leading cause of worker fatalities and serious injuries can be attributed to road trauma. In non-occupational research, high levels of sensation seeking personality, and specifically thrill and adventure seeking, have been associated with risky driving behaviors. In work driving literature, high organizational safety climate has been associated with reduced risky driving in work drivers. However, the extent that factors such as safety climate and thrill seeking interact in regard to work driving safety remains unclear, and the current research examined this interaction. Methods A total of 1,011 work drivers from four organizations participated in the research. Surveys were distributed online and hardcopies were sent via mail. The survey included measures of thrill and adventure seeking, safety climate and work-related driving behaviors, as well as questions relating to participant demographics and information about their work driving. Results The results demonstrated that safety climate significantly moderated the effect of thrill and adventure seeking trait on driving errors, driving violations, and driving while fatigued. Conclusion These results suggest that the development of a strong safety climate has the potential to improve work driving safety outcomes by reducing the impact of particular personality traits such as thrill seeking within an organizational context. Practical application To improve work driving safety, organizations and management need to develop strategies to encourage and foster positive work driving safety climate, particularly within work settings that may attract thrill and adventure seeking employees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on Daily Routine Driving Practice in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettorazzi, Eik; Oehlwein, Christian; Rikkers, Fred; Poetter-Nerger, Monika; Gulberti, Alessandro; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K.; Hamel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on daily routine driving behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done in 121 DBS-PD patients. The influences of patient characteristics and DBS on current driving and driving at time of surgery and the predictive value of the preoperative levodopa-test on postoperative driving were evaluated. Results. 50% of 110 driving-license holders currently drove. 63.0% rated themselves as safe drivers, 39.4% reported improvement, and 10.9% noted deterioration in driving after DBS surgery. Inactive drivers had quit driving mainly due to disease burden (90.9%). Active drivers were younger, more often males, and less impaired according to H&Y and MMSE, had surgery more recently, and reported more often overall benefit from DBS. H&Y “on” and UPDRS III “off” scores at time of surgery were lower in pre- and postoperative active than in inactive drivers. Tremor and akinesia were less frequent reasons to quit driving after than before DBS surgery. Postoperatively, 22.7% (10/44) of patients restarted and 10.6% (7/66) of patients discontinued driving, independently of H&Y stage. The preoperative levodopa-test was not predictive for the postoperative driving outcome. Conclusion. 50% of PD patients with DBS drive. DBS surgery changes daily routine driving behavior. PMID:26640738

  19. Comparison between young male drivers' self-assessed and objectively measured driving skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Self-assessment of skills is a self-generated feedback process that contributes to confidence in one's skills. The higher one's self-assessed skills, the more likely one is to feel competent a particular domain thereby influencing the related behaviors. Drivers' self-assessed driving skills...... are not always accurate, which may cause serious problems such as underestimation of risk, reckless driving and accidents. Most previous research on self-assessment of driving skills did not compare self-reported skills to objectively measured driving skills, so the aim of this study was to test the accuracy...... of young male drivers' self-assessments of driving skills using a driving simulator, and to examine whether self-assessment accuracy varied with driving skill, experience or sensation-seeking propensity. Results showed that the drivers' self-assessments were inconsistent with their driving performance...

  20. PUBLIC ATTITUDES, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONSEQUENCES OF DRINKING AND DRIVING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. DESAPRIYA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the ninth most common cause of premature death worldwide and the third most common cause of years lived with disability. Many early deaths are related to motor vehicle crashes (MVC's: each year, MVC's kill 1.2 million people (3,242 deaths/day and injure or disable 20–50 million more. The Global Burden of Disease Study, conducted in the early 1990s, predicted that traffic-related injuries will become the third largest contributor to global death and disability by the year 2020. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. The substantial effect of alcohol on road safety has long been recognized, and a variety of important initiatives to combat this problem have been introduced with some measurable success. Canadians have rated drinking and driving as one of the most important social issues facing them today, placing it ahead of other prominent issues, including health care, pollution, and the state of the economy. Two factors that have contributed strongly to motor vehicle injuries and fatalities in British Columbia (BC and Canada are alcohol-impaired driving and failure to use seat belts. Drivers who operated motor vehicles after drinking were less likely to wear seat belts, and so they continue to be a major traffic safety concern. When compared to restrained occupants, unrestrained occupants were almost 5 times more likely to die (Odds Ratios (OR 4.70, or be injured (OR 4.66. Fractures (OR 10.70, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.35–15.5, lacerations (OR 7.50, CI 5.55-10.15 bleeding (OR 7.14, CI 4.97–10.26 and concussions (OR 5.49, CI 2.71-11.12, were the more common types of injuries experienced by unrestrained occupants compared to the restrained occupants. Laws mandate the use of safety belts by motor vehicle occupants, and driving under the influence of alcohol is a generic term for a series of offences under the Canadian Criminal Code. Violation of

  1. Control rod driving mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maejima, Yoshinori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct reactor scram by an external signal and, also by a signal for the abnormal temperature from a temperature detector in the nuclear reactor. Constitution: Control rod driving mechanisms magnetically coupling the extension pipe with the elevating mechanism above the reactor core and the holding magnet, and retains a control rod to the lower portion of the extension pipe by way of a latch mechanism. The temperature detector is immersed in reactor coolants. If the temperature of the coolants rises abnormally, bimetal contacts of the temperature detector are opened to interrupt the current supply to the holding electromagnet. Then, the extension pipe released from the magnetic coupling is lowered and the control rod free from latch is rapidly dropped and inserted into the reactor core. Since this procedure is carried out for all of the control rods, the reactor scram can be attained. The feature of this invention resides in that the reactor scram can be attained also by the signal of the reactor core itself even if the signal system for the external signals should be failed. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  3. Foucault Pendulum without Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoshifumi

    2016-06-01

    Foucault pendulums are two-dimensional harmonic oscillators to which the Coriolis force is applied. The Foucault parameter ΩF is the ideal rate of rotation of the plane of oscillation due to the Coriolis force. Kamerlingh Onnes pointed out that the actual behavior of Foucault pendulums can be understood only by taking into account the unavoidable mechanical asymmetry, i.e., the difference between the frequency in the X-direction and that in the Y-direction, which is called the asymmetry parameter δ. Our equations of motion for Foucault pendulums are linear and their solutions are easily obtained. We are interested in slowly varying rotations of the plane of oscillation, where the angle of rotation is denoted by φ. The motion of the bob consists of rapid simple oscillations and the slow rotations mentioned above. Eliminating the rapid oscillations, we obtain an analytic expression for tan 2φ, which is a periodic function with period π /√{Ω F2 + δ 2} . The graphs of the rotation φ versus time t have two distinct appearances. Under the condition ΩF ≥ δ|cos(2θ)| (θ is the initial value of φ), φ decreases monotonically, which is the behavior expected for Foucault pendulums. Otherwise φ repeatedly increases and decreases, which is the behavior of pendulums describing Lissajous figures. The vertical component of angular momentum is also calculated analytically.

  4. Unique and interactive effects of impulsivity facets on reckless driving and driving under the influence in a high-risk young adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Trim, Ryan S; Karyadi, Kenny A; Curry, Inga; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C; Brown, Sandra A; Wall, Tamara L

    2017-08-01

    Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings ( n =1,100). Multilevel Poisson regressions indicated that sensation seeking and negative urgency were uniquely and positively associated with both frequency of past-year reckless driving and driving under the influence. Moreover, lack of premeditation was uniquely and positively associated with reckless driving, whereas lack of perseverance was uniquely and positively associated with driving under the influence. Furthermore, lack of premeditation moderated and strengthened the positive association between sensation seeking and driving under the influence. These study findings suggest that assessing multiple facets of trait impulsivity could facilitate targeted prevention efforts among young adults with a history of externalizing psychopathology.

  5. Electric vehicle drive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, M.

    1992-01-01

    New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.

  6. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  7. Fleet analysis of headway distance for autonomous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Andrej

    2017-12-01

    Modern automobiles are going through a paradigm shift, where the driver may no longer be needed to drive the vehicle. As the self-driving vehicles are making their way to public roads the automakers have to ensure the naturalistic driving feel to gain drivers' confidence and accelerate adoption rates. This paper filters and analyzes a subset of radar data collected from SHRP2 with focus on characterizing the naturalistic headway distance with respect to the vehicle speed. The paper identifies naturalistic headway distance and compares it with the previous findings from the literature. A clear relation between time headway and speed was confirmed and quantified. A significant difference exists among individual drivers which supports a need to further refine the analysis. By understanding the relationship between human driving and their surroundings, the naturalistic driving behavior can be quantified and used to increase the adoption rates of autonomous driving. Dangerous and safety-compromising driving can be identified as well in order to avoid its replication in the control algorithms. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  10. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  11. Speeding driving behaviour: Age and gender experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teo Sir Hiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road safety is a substantial issue worldwide. Speeding contributed to one-third of all the fatal crashes reported from year 2002 to 2011 with young drivers reported to have the highest fatality and injury rates. This paper studied on the speeding driving behavior of 10 teenagers and 10 adults, from both genders. The aim was to investigate the relationship between age and gender with speeding driving behavior. The drivers were required to drive within an enclosed compound by using a test car. Results showed young and male drivers averagely travelled at higher velocity before entering the roundabout and at the same time accelerate to higher velocity upon exiting the roundabout compared to old and female drivers.

  12. Warning drivers about potential congestion as a means to reduce frustration-driven aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B; McKnight, Scott

    2009-08-01

    This research was conducted to examine the consequences of forewarning drivers about impending congestion on aggressive driving behavior. Some have argued that aggressive driving stems from frustration experienced on the roadway (often due to congestion), and that by warning drivers about congestion, frustration, and consequently aggressive driving, can be reduced. The study employed an experimental design, where participants (whose dispositional driver anger was measured using the Driver Anger Scale) were instructed to operate an instrumented vehicle along a prescribed route containing construction. Participants were randomly assigned either to receive a warning about the construction or to receive no warning about the congestion. Measures of aggressive driving behavior were extracted from video (shot from a camera hidden behind the vehicle's license plate) and from an ongoing accelerometer. A total of 49 participants completed the study. Analyses of combined measure of aggressive driving behavior data revealed a statistically significant main effect for dispositional driver anger (with participants scoring higher on the scale actually driving more aggressively), as well as interactions between driver anger and forewarning. Accordingly, forewarning about potential congestion reduced aggressive driving behavior for participants high in dispositional anger but increased aggressive behavior for participants who were low on dispositional anger. Some of the results-particularly the increase in aggressive driving among participants low in dispositional driver anger who were warning about congestion-were unexpected. The interaction effect suggests that the strategy providing warnings about upcoming congestion will not necessarily reduce frustration among all drivers.

  13. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.

  14. Physical Mechanisms Driving Cell Sorting in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Locke, Tiffany T; Shi, Winnie H; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2017-12-19

    Cell sorting, whereby a heterogeneous cell mixture organizes into distinct tissues, is a fundamental patterning process in development. Hydra is a powerful model system for carrying out studies of cell sorting in three dimensions, because of its unique ability to regenerate after complete dissociation into individual cells. The physicists Alfred Gierer and Hans Meinhardt recognized Hydra's self-organizing properties more than 40 years ago. However, what drives cell sorting during regeneration of Hydra from cell aggregates is still debated. Differential motility and differential adhesion have been proposed as driving mechanisms, but the available experimental data are insufficient to distinguish between these two. Here, we answer this longstanding question by using transgenic Hydra expressing fluorescent proteins and a multiscale experimental and numerical approach. By quantifying the kinematics of single cell and whole aggregate behaviors, we show that no differences in cell motility exist among cell types and that sorting dynamics follow a power law with an exponent of ∼0.5. Additionally, we measure the physical properties of separated tissues and quantify their viscosities and surface tensions. Based on our experimental results and numerical simulations, we conclude that tissue interfacial tensions are sufficient to explain cell sorting in aggregates of Hydra cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the aggregate's geometry during sorting is key to understanding the sorting dynamics and explains the exponent of the power law behavior. Our results answer the long standing question of the physical mechanisms driving cell sorting in Hydra cell aggregates. In addition, they demonstrate how powerful this organism is for biophysical studies of self-organization and pattern formation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  16. Campus Buzz: How Alcohol Impairs America's Judgment of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busteed, Brandon

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the single greatest threat to the public trust in higher education is alcohol. Specifically, it is high-risk drinking among college students and the lack of engagement by those who can help solve the problem. He contends that, for too many students, college is no longer about preparing for leadership roles and productive…

  17. Roller-chain Drives Mechanics using Multibody Dynamics Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosio, Jorge A. C.; Hansen, John Michael

    1999-01-01

    An integrated model for the simulation of roller-chain drives based on a multibody dynamics methodology is presented here in order to describeits complex dynamic behavior. The chain is modeled by masses lumped at the roller locations and connected by translational spring-damper elements in order...

  18. Fostering Entrepreneurial Drive in Business Education: An Attitudinal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Juan; Karri, Ranjan; Rossiter, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from research in individual characteristics of entrepreneurs and the theory of planned behavior from social psychology literature, this study identifies attitudinal dimensions of entrepreneurial drive (ED), proposes a model, and develops and tests an instrument to measure it. Results show that students differentiate among five attitudes…

  19. No-Pass, No-Drive Laws Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades or so, a majority of states have implemented policies that link teenagers' driver's licenses to school attendance, academic performance, or behavior, but those requirements are not backed by solid research evidence. Experts trace the start of the trend to 1988, when West Virginia enacted a law linking driving privileges…

  20. Driving pattern analysis of Nordic region based on the national travel surveys for electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Christensen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    to the power system. This paper presents a methodology to transform driving behavior of persons into the one of cars in order to analyze the driving pattern of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys. In the proposed methodology, a statistical process is used to obtain the driving behavior......EVs show great potential to cope with the intermittency of renewable energy sources (RES) and provide demand side flexibility required by the smart grid.On the other hand, the EVs will increase the electricity consumption. Large scale integration of EVs will probably have substantial impacts...... of cars by grouping the survey respondents according to the driving license number and car number and mapping the households with similar characteristics. The proposed methodology was used to carry out the driving pattern analysis in the Nordic region. The detailed driving requirements and the charging...

  1. Driving context influences drivers' decision to engage in visual-manual phone tasks: Evidence from a naturalistic driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivesten, Emma; Dozza, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Visual-manual (VM) phone tasks (i.e., texting, dialing, reading) are associated with an increased crash/near-crash risk. This study investigated how the driving context influences drivers' decisions to engage in VM phone tasks in naturalistic driving. Video-recordings of 1,432 car trips were viewed to identify VM phone tasks and passenger presence. Video, vehicle signals, and map data were used to classify driving context (i.e., curvature, other vehicles) before and during the VM phone tasks (N=374). Vehicle signals (i.e., speed, yaw rate, forward radar) were available for all driving. VM phone tasks were more likely to be initiated while standing still, and less likely while driving at high speeds, or when a passenger was present. Lead vehicle presence did not influence how likely it was that a VM phone task was initiated, but the drivers adjusted their task timing to situations when the lead vehicle was increasing speed, resulting in increasing time headway. The drivers adjusted task timing until after making sharp turns and lane change maneuvers. In contrast to previous driving simulator studies, there was no evidence of drivers reducing speed as a consequence of VM phone task engagement. The results show that experienced drivers use information about current and upcoming driving context to decide when to engage in VM phone tasks. However, drivers may fail to sufficiently increase safety margins to allow time to respond to possible unpredictable events (e.g., lead vehicle braking). Advanced driver assistance systems should facilitate and possibly boost drivers' self-regulating behavior. For instance, they might recognize when appropriate adaptive behavior is missing and advise or alert accordingly. The results from this study could also inspire training programs for novice drivers, or locally classify roads in terms of the risk associated with secondary task engagement while driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  3. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  4. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  5. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  7. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

  8. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  9. Driving experiences of disabled drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R S; Hunter, J; Hanley, J

    2006-05-01

    To study the influence of non-standard controls on return to driving after disability, including prevalence of accidents/retraining difficulties. Postal questionnaires sent within two years of assessment to 972 disabled drivers seen over a three-year period. Scottish Driving Assessment Service. All patients considered capable of driving after assessment during the study period. Five hundred and eighty-nine people (61 %) replied who were representative of the total population (mean age 55 years, range 19-87); 73% were male and 70% were disabled for up to two years. Overall 79% respondents had returned to driving (highest reported success with standard manual car (86%) and lowest using left foot to accelerate and brake (66%) (chi2 = 16.6, P = 0.005)). A significantly higher proportion of the 30 patients (6.5%) admitting to accidents and 25 (5.4%) to problems with retraining were using non-standard driving techniques, especially the use of hand controls. Disabled drivers returning to drive using non-familiar controls had lower success and a higher proportion of accidents and/or problems with retraining than people using conventional controls. If confirmed in larger studies this may have implications for policy-makers as well as specialist practitioners.

  10. Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Denson, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense) and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense) charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors.

  11. Temporal alcohol availability predicts first-time drunk driving, but not repeat offending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Schofield

    Full Text Available Alcohol availability has been linked to drunk driving, but research has not examined whether this relationship is the same for first-time and repeat offenses. We examined the relationship between the business hours of alcohol outlets licensed to serve alcohol for on-premises consumption and misdemeanor-level (first offense and felony-level drunk driving (repeat offense charges in New York State in 2009. Longer outlet business hours were associated with more misdemeanor drunk driving charges, but were not associated with felony drunk driving charges. The per capita density of on-premises alcohol outlets did not affect misdemeanor or felony drunk driving charges. The results suggest that temporal alcohol availability may be an impelling factor for first-time drunk driving, but other factors likely influence repeat drunk driving behaviors.

  12. Designing feedback to mitigate teen distracted driving: A social norms approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikhpour, Maryam; Donmez, Birsen

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate teens' perceived social norms and whether providing normative information can reduce distracted driving behaviors among them. Parents are among the most important social referents for teens; they have significant influences on teens' driving behaviors, including distracted driving which significantly contributes to teens' crash risks. Social norms interventions have been successfully applied in various domains including driving; however, this approach is yet to be explored for mitigating driver distraction among teens. Forty teens completed a driving simulator experiment while performing a self-paced visual-manual secondary task in four between-subject conditions: a) social norms feedback that provided a report at the end of each drive on teens' distracted driving behavior, comparing their distraction engagement to their parent's, b) post-drive feedback that provided just the report on teens' distracted driving behavior without information on their parents, c) real-time feedback in the form of auditory warnings based on eyes of road-time, and d) no feedback as control. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on these teens' and their parents' self-reported engagement in driver distractions and the associated social norms. Social norms and real-time feedback conditions resulted in significantly smaller average off-road glance duration, rate of long (>2s) off-road glances, and standard deviation of lane position compared to no feedback. Further, social norms feedback decreased brake response time and percentage of time not looking at the road compared to no feedback. No major effect was observed for post-drive feedback. Questionnaire results suggest that teens appeared to overestimate parental norms, but no effect of feedback was found on their perceptions. Feedback systems that leverage social norms can help mitigate driver distraction among teens. Overall, both social norms and real-time feedback induced

  13. Texting while driving: A study of 1211 U.S. adults with the Distracted Driving Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Gliklich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Texting and other cell-phone related distracted driving is estimated to account for thousands of motor vehicle collisions each year but studies examining the specific cell phone reading and writing activities of drivers are limited. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of cell-phone related distracted driving behaviors. A national, representative, anonymous panel of 1211 United States drivers was recruited in 2015 to complete the Distracted Driving Survey (DDS, an 11-item validated questionnaire examining cell phone reading and writing activities and at what speeds they occur. Higher DDS scores reflect more distraction. DDS scores were analyzed by demographic data and self-reported crash rate. Nearly 60% of respondents reported a cell phone reading or writing activity within the prior 30 days, with reading texts (48%, writing texts (33% and viewing maps (43% most frequently reported. Only 4.9% of respondents had enrolled in a program aimed at reducing cell phone related distracted driving. DDS scores were significantly correlated to crash rate (p < 0.0001, with every one point increase associated with an additional 7% risk of a crash (p < 0.0001. DDS scores were inversely correlated to age (p < 0.0001. The DDS demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94. High rates of cell phone-related distraction are reported here in a national sample. Distraction is associated with crash rates and occurs across all age groups, but is highest in younger drivers. The DDS can be used to evaluate the impact of public health programs aimed at reducing cell-phone related distracted driving.

  14. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  15. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  16. Driving and Dementia: Workshop Module on Communicating Cessation to Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Power, Barbara; Lee, Linda; Rhee, Glara Gaeun; Parson, Bob; Molnar, Frank

    2017-12-01

    For persons with dementia (PWD), driving becomes very dangerous. Physicians in Canada are legally responsible to report unfit drivers and then must disclose that decision to their patients. That difficult discussion is fraught with challenges: physicians want to maintain a healthy relationship; patients often lack insight into their cognitive loss and have very strong emotional reactions to the loss of their driving privileges. All of which may stifle the exchange of accurate information. The goal of this project was to develop a multimedia module that would provide strategies and support for health professionals having these difficult conversations. Literature search was conducted of Embase and OVID MedLine on available driving and dementia tools, and on websites of online tools for communication strategies on driving cessation. A workshop module was developed with background material, communication strategies, links to resources and two videos demonstrating the "bad" then the "good" ways of managing this emotionally charged discussion. When the module was tested with internal medicine trainees, results demonstrated that confidence increased significantly ( p communicate driving cessation to PWD.

  17. Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova

    2006-01-01

    Through spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance. Twenty-three male adults were observed while driving for an hour and a half each; drivers were unaware of being observed. During the session, each of the participants received a phone call, initiated by an associate of the observer. The experiment was divided into two periods during which the experimental parameters were monitored: 10 minutes during conversation on a cell phone and 10 minutes of non-conversation on a hands-free cell phone. After the experiment, the driver was questioned concerning the extent to which his/her driving was disturbed by the cell phone conversation. T-test for matched samples revealed that the gaps between the drivers' cars and those in front of them diminished when drivers were engaged in the cell phone conversations. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that drivers that had short conversations did not change their speed, while drivers who were engaged in long (over 16 minutes) conversations drove faster. No effect of drivers' awareness toward cell phone-related disturbance on actual driving behavior monitored in the present study was found.

  18. An empirical analysis of risk-taking in car driving and other aspects of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Mannering, Fred

    2016-01-01

    , including risk-taking behavior in financial and labor-market decisions. Specifically, we establish significant positive correlations between individuals’ risk-taking behavior in car driving and their risk-taking behavior in financial and labor-market decisions. However, we find that the strength...

  19. Determinants of Safe and Productive Truck Driving: Empirical Evidence from Long-haul Cargo Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; de Koster, R.; Rijsdijk, S.; Roy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Using GPS data of 370 long-haul trips in India, survey data of 49 truck drivers, and ERP data, this study examines the role of driver personality characteristics in predicting risky and productive driving. The results show that more conscientious drivers display more risky driving behavior. More

  20. Mobile phone use while driving: a hybrid modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Luis; Cantillo, Víctor; Arellana, Julián

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the effects that mobile phone use produces while driving is a topic of great interest for the scientific community. There is consensus that using a mobile phone while driving increases the risk of exposure to traffic accidents. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the drivers' behavior when they decide whether or not to use a mobile phone while driving. For that, a hybrid modeling approach that integrates a choice model with the latent variable "risk perception" was used. It was found that workers and individuals with the highest education level are more prone to use a mobile phone while driving than others. Also, "risk perception" is higher among individuals who have been previously fined and people who have been in an accident or almost been in an accident. It was also found that the tendency to use mobile phones while driving increases when the traffic speed reduces, but it decreases when the fine increases. Even though the urgency of the phone call is the most important explanatory variable in the choice model, the cost of the fine is an important attribute in order to control mobile phone use while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of alcohol on automated and controlled driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Gineyt, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently detected substance in fatal automobile crashes, but its precise mode of action is not always clear. The present study was designed to establish the influence of blood alcohol concentration as a function of the complexity of the scenarios. Road scenarios implying automatic or controlled driving performances were manipulated in order to identify which behavioral parameters were deteriorated. A single blind counterbalanced experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. Sixteen experienced drivers (25.3 ± 2.9 years old, 8 men and 8 women) were tested with 0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 g/l of alcohol. Driving scenarios varied: road tracking, car following, and an urban scenario including events inspired by real accidents. Statistical analyses were performed on driving parameters as a function of alcohol level. Automated driving parameters such as standard deviation of lateral position measured with the road tracking and car following scenarios were impaired by alcohol, notably with the highest dose. More controlled parameters such as response time to braking and number of crashes when confronted with specific events (urban scenario) were less affected by the alcohol level. Performance decrement was greater with driving scenarios involving automated processes than with scenarios involving controlled processes.

  2. Vehicle Driving Risk Prediction Based on Markov Chain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Xiong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A driving risk status prediction algorithm based on Markov chain is presented. Driving risk states are classified using clustering techniques based on feature variables describing the instantaneous risk levels within time windows, where instantaneous risk levels are determined in time-to-collision and time-headway two-dimension plane. Multinomial Logistic models with recursive feature variable estimation method are developed to improve the traditional state transition probability estimation, which also takes into account the comprehensive effects of driving behavior, traffic, and road environment factors on the evolution of driving risk status. The “100-car” natural driving data from Virginia Tech is employed for the training and validation of the prediction model. The results show that, under the 5% false positive rate, the prediction algorithm could have high prediction accuracy rate for future medium-to-high driving risks and could meet the timeliness requirement of collision avoidance warning. The algorithm could contribute to timely warning or auxiliary correction to drivers in the approaching-danger state.

  3. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  4. Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Purucker, Christian; Wiedemann, Katharina; Neukum, Alexandra; Wolter, Stefan; Steiger, Reid

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called 'Hands-on' variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called 'Hands-off' variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as 'harmless' by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  6. Driving After Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Shakked, Rachel; Daniel, Joseph; Pedowitz, David I; Winters, Brian S; Reb, Christopher; Lynch, Mary-Katherine; Raikin, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine when patients can safely return to driving after first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. After institutional review board approval, 60 patients undergoing right first metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction surgery were recruited prospectively. Patients' brake reaction time (BRT) was tested at 6 weeks and repeated until patients achieved a passing BRT. A control group of twenty healthy patients was used to establish as passing BRT. Patients were given a novel driver readiness survey to complete. At 6 weeks, 51 of the 60 patients (85%) had BRT less than 0.85 seconds and were considered safe to drive. At 6 weeks, the passing group average was 0.64 seconds. At the 8 weeks, 59 patients (100%) of those who completed the study achieved a passing BRT. Patients that failed at 6 weeks had statistically greater visual analog scale (VAS) pain score and diminished first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion (ROM). On the novel driver readiness survey, 8 of the 9 patients (89%) who did not pass disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement, "Based on what I think my braking reaction time is, I think that I am ready to drive." Most patients may be informed that they can safely return to driving 8 weeks after right metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus correction. Some patients may be eligible to return to driving sooner depending on their VAS, first MTP ROM, and driver readiness survey results. Level II, comparative study.

  7. Sensory augmentation for increased awareness of driving environment : final research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a lateral localization framework for autonomous driving in urban areas. Vehicle location is significant information for the controller, planner and behaviors systems. Lateral location is extremely important for...

  8. A decrease in brain activation associated with driving when listening to someone speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that engaging in a secondary task, such as talking on a cellular : telephone, disrupts driving performance. This study used functional magnetic resonance : imaging (fMRI) to investigate the impact of concurrent auditory ...

  9. Sunk Cost Fallacy in Driving the World's Costliest Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Teck Hua; Png, Ivan P. L.; Reza, Sadat

    2017-01-01

    We develop a behavioral model of durable good usage with mental accounting for sunk costs. It predicts higher-than-rational usage that attenuates at a rate that increases with sunk costs. Singapore government policy varied the sunk cost of buying a new car. Using Singapore data, we estimate the elasticity of driving with respect to sunk costs to be 0.048, which implies that government policy between 2009 and 2013 was associated with 86 kilometers per month, or 5.6%, more driving. The results ...

  10. The effects of driver identity on driving safety in a retrospective feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guozhen; Wu, Changxu

    2012-03-01

    Retrospective feedback that provides detailed information on a driver's performance in critical driving situations at the end of a trip enhances his/her driving behaviors and safe driving habits. Although this has been demonstrated by a previous study, retrospective feedback can be further improved and applied to non-critical driving situations, which is needed for transportation safety. To propose a new retrospective feedback system that uses driver identity (i.e., a driver's name) and to experimentally study its effects on measures of driving performance and safety in a driving simulator. We conducted a behavioral experimental study with 30 participants. "Feedback type" was a between-subject variable with three conditions: no feedback (control group), feedback without driver identity, and feedback with driver identity. We measured multiple aspects of participants' driving behavior. To control for potential confounds, factors that were significantly correlated with driving behavior (e.g., age and driving experience) were all entered as covariates into a multivariate analysis of variance. To examine the effects of speeding on collision severity in driving simulation studies, we also developed a new index - momentum of potential collision - with a set of equations. Subjects who used a feedback system with driver identity had the fewest speeding violations and central-line crossings, spent the least amount of time speeding and crossing the central line, had the lowest speeding and central-line crossing magnitude, ran the fewest red lights, and had the smallest momentum of potential collision compared to the groups with feedback without driver identity and without feedback (control group). The new retrospective feedback system with driver identity has the potential to enhance a person's driving safety (e.g., speeding, central-line crossing, momentum of potential collision), which is an indication of the valence of one's name in a feedback system design. Copyright

  11. Learning to Drive Safely: Reasonable Expectations and Future Directions for the Learner Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Simons-Morton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The young driver problem is typified by high crash rates early in licensure that decline with experience, but are higher initially and decline more slowly for the youngest novices. Despite considerable effort, only Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS policies have been shown to improve novice young driver safety outcomes. Unfortunately, GDLS policies are mostly limited to countries with a relatively young licensure age. Meanwhile, it is not entirely clear how GDLS and other young driver transportation safety efforts, including driver training and testing, supervised practice and parental management of young drivers, can best be configured. Notably, professional training can foster improvements in vehicle management skills that are necessary, but do not assure safe driving behavior. Substantial recent research has focused on training methods to improve driving skills, but the safety benefits of driver training have not been established. While prolonged practice driving increases experience and provides supervisors with opportunities to prepare novices for independent driving, the transition to independent driving challenges novices to employ, on their own, poorly-mastered skills under unfamiliar and complex driving conditions. Licensing policies and parental management practices can limit the complexity of driving conditions while novices gain needed driving experience. Nevertheless, an emerging body of literature suggests that future advances in training and supervision of novice teenage drivers might best focus on the translation of learning to independent driving by fostering safe driving attitudes and norms, judgment, dedicated attention to driving tasks and self-control at the wheel.

  12. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex B Siegling

    Full Text Available This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1. Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP, a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2. The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3. Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  13. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  14. The direct wave-drive thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew Solomon

    A propulsion concept relying on the direct, steady-state acceleration of a plasma by an inductive wave-launching antenna is presented. By operating inductively in steady state, a Direct Wave-Drive Thruster avoids drawbacks associated with electrode erosion and pulsed acceleration. The generalized relations for the scaling of thrust and efficiency with the antenna current are derived analytically; thrust is shown to scale with current squared, and efficiency is shown to increase with increasing current or power. Two specific configurations are modeled to determine nondimensional parameters governing the antenna-plasma coupling: an annular antenna pushing against a finite-conductivity plasma, and a linear antenna targeting the magnetosonic wave. Calculations from the model show that total thrust improves for increasing excitation frequencies, wavenumbers, plasma densities, and device sizes. To demonstrate the magnetosonic wave as an ideal candidate to drive a DWDT, it is shown to be capable of carrying substantial momentum and able to drive a variable specific impulse. The magnetosonic wave-driven mass flow is compared to mass transport due to thermal effects and cross-field diffusion in order to derive critical power requirements that ensure the thruster channel is dominated by wave dynamics. A proof-of-concept experiment is constructed that consists of a separate plasma source, a confining magnetic field, and a wave-launching antenna. The scaling of the increase of exhaust velocity is analytically modeled and is dependent on a nondimensional characteristic wavenumber that is proportional to the excitation frequency and plasma density and inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength. Experimental validation of the derived scaling behavior is carried out using a Mach probe to measure the flow velocity in the plume. Increases in exhaust velocity are measured as the antenna current increases for varying excitation frequencies and applied magnetic field

  15. Chain Drive Simulation Using Spatial Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Omar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient approach for modeling chain derives using multibody dynamics formulation based on the spatial algebra. The recursive nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are formulated using spatial Cartesian coordinates and joint variables to form an augmented set of differential-algebraic equations. The spatial algebra is used to express the kinematic and dynamic equations leading to consistent and compact set of equations. The connectivity graph is used to derive the system connectivity matrix based on the system topological relations. The connectivity matrix is used to eliminate the Cartesian quantities and to project the forces and inertia into the joint subspace. This approach will result in a minimum set of equation and can avoid iteratively solving the system of differential and algebraic equations to satisfy the constraint equations. In order to accurately capture the full dynamics of the chain links, each link in the chain is modeled as rigid body with full 6 degrees of freedom. To avoid singularities in closed loop configurations, the chain drive is considered a kinematically decoupled subsystem and the interaction between the links and other system components is modeled using force elements. The out-of-plane misalignment between the sprockets can be easily modeled using a compliant force element to model the joints between each two adjacent links. The nonlinear three dimensional contact forces between the chain links and the sprockets are modeled using elastic spring-damper element and accounts for the sliding friction. The proposed approach can be used to model complex drive chain, bicycle chain as well as conveyance systems. Results show that realistic behavior of the chain as well as out-of-plane vibration can be easily captured using the presented approach. The proposed approach for chain drive subsystem could be easily appended to any other multibody simulation system.

  16. 32 CFR 634.43 - Driving records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Records and the Traffic Point System § 634.43 Driving... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Driving records. 634.43 Section 634.43 National... suspension or revocation actions. Table 5-1 of Part 634 Suspension/Revocation of Driving Privileges (See...

  17. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  18. Design and Optimization of Gearless Drives using Multi-Physics Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Bøgh

    . The optimization resulted in a mass reduction of 4.0% and a decrease of losses of 9.9% compared to the original drive design. The thesis also opens new research fronts and highlights three new necessary research aspects for further development of the design processes of large gearless drives based on a multi......Many different technical areas are involved in the design process of large gearless drives for the mining industry, aiming at correctly describing the electrical-mechanical-thermal behavior of the drive. So far, these various technical areas are being treated more or less separately...

  19. Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, Jack N.

    2010-01-01

    The actions individuals can take to mitigate climate change are, in the aggregate, significant. Mobilizing individuals to respond personally to climate change, therefore, must be a complementary approach to a nation's climate change strategy. One action item overlooked in the United States has been changing driver behavior or style such that eco-driving becomes the norm rather than the exception. Evidence to date indicates that eco-driving can reduce fuel consumption by 10%, on average and over time, thereby reducing CO 2 emissions from driving by an equivalent percentage. A sophisticated, multi-dimensional campaign, going well beyond what has been attempted thus far, will be required to achieve such savings on a large scale, however, involving education (especially involving the use of feedback devices), regulation, fiscal incentives, and social norm reinforcement.

  20. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  1. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  2. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  3. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  5. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  6. Factors driving aquaculture technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology adoption has played a key role in the global development and increase in agricultural productivity. However, the decision to adopt a new technology on farms is complex. While the factors that drive the adoption of new technologies have been well studied in agriculture, less attention has ...

  7. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  8. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  9. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone, or texting—raises the risk of a crash. NIH-funded researchers analyzed the driving habits of both novice teen and experienced drivers. Vehicles were equipped with 4 cameras that recorded video whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, ...

  10. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...

  11. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low self-esteem History of physical or sexual abuse Previous negative sexual experiences Relationship issues For many women, emotional closeness is an essential prelude to sexual intimacy. So problems in your relationship can be a major factor in low sex drive. Decreased interest in sex is often a ...

  12. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....

  13. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  14. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the driving anger scale (DAS): long form and short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Jessye Almeida; Santos, George Oliveira; Machado, Eduardo de Carvalho; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Driving anger has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years because it may induce individuals to drive aggressively or adopt risk behaviors. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was designed to evaluate the propensity of drivers to become angry or aggressive while driving. This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation of a Brazilian version of the short form and the long form of the DAS. Translation and adaptation were made in four steps: two translations and two back-translations carried out by independent evaluators; the development of a brief version by four bilingual experts in mental health and driving behaviors; a subsequent experimental application; and, finally, an investigation of operational equivalence. Final Brazilian versions of the short form and of the long form of the DAS were made and are presented. This important instrument, which assesses driving anger and aggressive behaviors, is now available to evaluate the driving behaviors of the Brazilian population, which facilitates research in this field.

  15. Driver headway choice: a comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  16. Driver headway choice : A comparison between driving simulator and real-road driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, M.; Martens, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Driving simulators have become an established tool in driver behaviour research by offering a controllable, safe and cost-effective alternative to real world driving. A challenge for using driving simulators as a research tool has been to elicit driving behaviour that equals real world driving. With

  17. What drives successful verbal communication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, M. de; Toni, I.; Willems, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviors and intentions in communication: a behavior can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviors. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when

  18. A prospective study of loss of consciousness in epilepsy using virtual reality driving simulation and other video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Morland, Thomas B; Schmits, Kristen; Rawson, Elizabeth; Narasimhan, Poojitha; Motelow, Joshua E; Purcaro, Michael J; Peng, Kathy; Raouf, Saned; Desalvo, Matthew N; Oh, Taemin; Wilkerson, Jerome; Bod, Jessica; Srinivasan, Aditya; Kurashvili, Pimen; Anaya, Joseph; Manza, Peter; Danielson, Nathan; Ransom, Christopher B; Huh, Linda; Elrich, Susan; Padin-Rosado, Jose; Naidu, Yamini; Detyniecki, Kamil; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Astur, Robert; Xiao, Bo; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-07-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a driving simulator and two other video games in patients undergoing continuous video/EEG monitoring. We captured 22 seizures in 13 patients and found that driving impairment during seizures differed in terms of both magnitude and character, depending on the seizure type. Our study documents the feasibility of a prospective study of driving and other behaviors during seizures through the use of computer-based tasks. This methodology may be applied to further describe differential driving impairment in specific types of seizures and to gain data on anatomical networks disrupted in seizures that impair consciousness and driving safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Active Damping Control Methods for Three-Phase Slim DC-link Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In the conventional variable speed drive, the dclink including the dc-choke and electrolytic capacitor is bulky with limited lifetime. The slim dc-link drive is thus proposed for the lower cost and longer lifetime by using the film capacitor to replace the electrolytic capacitor and dc......-choke. However, such drive system suffers from the potential instability issue, due to the negative incremental impedance characteristic caused by the constant power load behavior of the motor drive system, and the influence by the reduced capacitance. Therefore, active damping methods are very important...... for stabilizing such slim dc-link drives together with the benefit of low cost and high flexibility. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art active damping methods for the three-phase slim dc-link drive. The main pros and cons of each method are identified. The theoretical comparison is validated...

  20. Dynamics and control of electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wach, Piotr [Politechnika Opolska, Opole (Poland). Inst. of Electromechanical Systems and Applied Informatics

    2011-07-01

    Dynamics is a science concerned with movement and changes. In the most general approach it relates to life processes as well as behavior in nature in rest. It governs small particles, technical objects, conversion of matter and materials but also concerns people, groups of people in their individual and, in particular, social dimension. In dynamics we always have to do with causes or stimuli for motion, the rules of reaction or behavior and its result in the form of trajectory of changes. This book is devoted to dynamics of a wide class of specific but very important objects such as electromechanical systems. This is a very rigorous discipline and has a long tradition, as its theoretical bases were formulated in the first half of the XIX century by d' Alembert, Lagrange, Hamilton, Maxwell and other prominent scientists, but their crucial results were based on previous pioneering research of others such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton..This book in its theoretical foundations is based on the principle of least action which governs classical as well as relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism and leads to Lagrange's equations which are applied in the book as universal method to construct equations of motion of electromechanical systems. It gives common and coherent grounds to formulate mathematical models for all lumped parameters' electromechanical systems, which are vital in our contemporary industry and civilized everyday life. From these remarks it seems that the book is general and theoretical but in fact it is a very practical one concerning modern electrical drives in a broad sense, including electromechanical energy conversion, induction motor drives, brushless DC drives with a permanent magnet excitation and switched reluctance machines (SRM). And of course their control, which means shaping of their trajectories of motion using modern tools, their designed autonomy in keeping a track according to our programmed expectations. The problems

  1. Family communication patterns and teen drivers' attitudes toward driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Campo, Shelly; Ramirez, Marizen; Krapfl, Julia Richards; Cheng, Gang; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Family communication patterns (FCPs) play an important role in reducing the risk-taking behaviors of teens, such as substance use and safer sex. However, little is known about the relationship between family communication and teen driving safety. We analyzed the baseline data from a randomized trial that included 163 parent-teen dyads, with teens who would be receiving their intermediate driver's license within 3 months. FCPs were divided into four types-pluralistic, protective, consensual, and laissez-faire-and were correlated with the frequency of parent-teen discussions and teens' driving safety attitudes. The ratings on four types of FCPs were distributed quite evenly among teens and parents. Parents and teens agreed on their FCP ratings (p = .64). In families with communication patterns that were laissez-faire, protective, and pluralistic, parents talked to their teens less about safe driving than did parents in families with a consensual communication pattern (p teen communication about safe driving was positively associated with teen attitudes toward safe driving (adjusted β = 0.35, p = .03). Health care providers need to encourage parents, particularly those with non-consensual FCPs, to increase frequency of parent-teen interactions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Driving after brain injury: Does dual-task modality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Kayci L; Schultheis, Maria T; Manning, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    Virtual reality technology allows neuropsychologists to examine complex, real-world behaviors with high ecological validity and can provide an understanding of the impact of demanding dual-tasks on driving performance. We hypothesized that a task imposing high cognitive and physical demands (coin-sorting) would result in the greatest reduction in driving maintenance performance. Twenty participants with acquired brain injury and 28 healthy controls were included in the current study. All participants were licensed and drove regularly. Participants completed two standardized VRDS drives: (1) a baseline drive with no distractions, and (2) the same route with three, counterbalanced dual-tasks representing differing demands. A series of 3 (Task)×2 (Group) ANOVAs revealed that the ABI group tended to go slower than the HC group in the presence of a dual-task, F (1, 111) = 6.24, p = 0.01. Importantly, the ABI group also showed greater variability in speed, F (1, 110) = 10.97, p < 0.01, and lane position, F (1, 108) = 7.81, p < 0.01, an effect driven by dual-tasks with both a cognitive and motor demand. These results indicate that long-term driving difficulties following ABI are subtle and likely due to reduced cognitive resources.

  3. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drunk Driving Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving Email Facebook Twitter July ... in a vehicle whose driver had been using marijuana or another illicit drug, or had drunk 5 ...

  4. Predicting the Problem Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Neslihan G.

    2013-01-01

    Problem statement: Problem behavior theory describes both protective factors and risk factors to explain adolescent problem behaviors, such as delinquency, alcohol use, and reckless driving. The theory holds that problem behaviors involving risky behavior are used by adolescents as a means to gain peer acceptance and respect. Problem behaviors…

  5. Hand on the wheel, mind on the mobile: an analysis of social factors contributing to texting while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    In an era defined by social technology, mobile phones provide constant connection to others. However, they also present a very dangerous situation when people choose to use their mobile phones while driving. In particular, exchanging text messages while driving has resulted in numerous accidents and fatalities. The purpose of this study is to examine social factors that lead people to text while driving. Specifically, using a multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from a 2010 survey by the Pew Research Center, variables for general mobile talk, driving while talking on a mobile, using the Internet on a mobile, sexting, and various motivations for texting were examined to determine factors that increase the likelihood of texting while driving. The findings suggest that people engage in mobile multiplexing (i.e., communication using two or more media on the mobile) while driving. Additionally, exchanging text messages in public, and consequently texting while driving, has become normalized. Furthermore, people are socialized into such behaviors through observing others texting while driving and using a mobile recklessly while driving. Finally, a number of motivations for texting were found to increase the likelihood of texting while driving significantly. Ultimately, the author contends that texting while driving has become a cultural artifact in the United States, which conflicts with driver safety as well as laws prohibiting texting while driving. The findings of this study could inform future awareness campaigns and technology developers to help establish a safer driving environment within the multitasking culture.

  6. Neurobiology driving hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, R A H; Hillebrand, J J G; Danner, U N; Cardona Cano, S; Kas, M J H; Verhagen, L A W

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general increase in locomotor activity that may be an expression of foraging behavior and involves frontal brain regions, the increased locomotor activity expressed before food is presented (food anticipatory behavior or FAA) involves hypothalamic neural circuits. Ghrelin plays a role in FAA, whereas decreased leptin signaling is involved in both aspects of increased locomotor activity. We hypothesize that increased ghrelin and decreased leptin signaling drive the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. In anorexia nervosa patients, this altered activity of the dopamine system may be involved not only in hyperactivity but also in aberrant cognitive processing related to food.

  7. Granular gases under extreme driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  8. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  9. Auto warranty and driving patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiadis, Simon; Anderson, Boyd; Chukova, Stefanka

    2013-01-01

    Automobile warranty coverage is typically limited by age as well as mileage. However, the age is known for all sold vehicles at all times, but mileage is only observed for a vehicle with a claim and only at the time of the claim. We study the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns. Within a nonparametric framework, we account for the rate of mileage accumulation and propose a measure for the variability of this rate over a vehicle's observable life. We illustrate the ideas with real warranty data and comment on the relationship between the expected number/cost of warranty claims and the driving patterns using results adjusted/unadjusted for withdrawals from the warranty coverage due to mileage accumulation

  10. Safe, Multi-Agent, Reinforcement Learning for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev-Shwartz, Shai; Shammah, Shaked; Shashua, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a multi-agent setting where the host vehicle must apply sophisticated negotiation skills with other road users when overtaking, giving way, merging, taking left and right turns and while pushing ahead in unstructured urban roadways. Since there are many possible scenarios, manually tackling all possible cases will likely yield a too simplistic policy. Moreover, one must balance between unexpected behavior of other drivers/pedestrians and at the same time not to be too de...

  11. Unitary deformations of counterdiabatic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazutaka

    2015-04-01

    We study a deformation of the counterdiabatic-driving Hamiltonian as a systematic strategy for an adiabatic control of quantum states. Using a unitary transformation, we design a convenient form of the driver Hamiltonian. We apply the method to a particle in a confining potential and discrete systems to find explicit forms of the Hamiltonian and discuss the general properties. The method is derived by using the quantum brachistochrone equation, which shows the existence of a nontrivial dynamical invariant in the deformed system.

  12. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  13. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  14. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  15. Factors That Drive Youth Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaki, Ajay S; Popkin, Charles A; Hodgins, Justin L; Kovacevic, David; Lynch, Thomas Sean; Ahmad, Christopher S

    Specialization in young athletes has been linked to overuse injuries, burnout, and decreased satisfaction. Despite continued opposition from the medical community, epidemiological studies suggest the frequency is increasing. Extrinsic pressures in addition to individual aspirations drive this national trend in sports specialization. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A novel instrument assessing the driving factors behind youth specialization was generated by an interdisciplinary team of medical professionals. Surveys were administered to patients and athletes in the department's sports medicine clinic. The survey was completed by 235 athletes between 7 and 18 years of age, with a mean age of 13.8 ± 3.0 years. Athletes specialized at a mean age of 8.1 years, and 31% of athletes played a single sport while 58% played multiple sports but had a preferred sport. More than 70% of athletes had collegiate or professional ambitions, and 60% played their primary sport for 9 or more months per year, with players who had an injury history more likely to play year-round ( P sports, with specialized athletes reporting this significantly more often ( P = 0.04). Half of the athletes reported that sports interfered with their academic performance, with older players stating this more frequently ( P sport before starting high school. While intrinsic drive may identify healthy aspirations, extrinsic influences are prevalent in specialized athletes. Extrinsic factors contributing to youth specialization were identified and compounded the deleterious sequelae of youth athlete specialization.

  16. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  17. Peer Passenger Norms and Pressure: Experimental Effects on Simulated Driving Among Teenage Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Almani, Farideh; Falk, Emily B; Shope, Jean T; Buckley, Lisa; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Albert, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    Serious crashes are more likely when teenage drivers have teenage passengers. One likely source of this increased risk is social influences on driving performance. This driving simulator study experimentally tested the effects of peer influence (i.e., risk-accepting compared to risk-averse peer norms reinforced by pressure) on the driving risk behavior (i.e., risky driving behavior and inattention to hazards) of male teenagers. It was hypothesized that peer presence would result in greater driving risk behavior (i.e., increased driving risk and reduced latent hazard anticipation), and that the effect would be greater when the peer was risk-accepting. Fifty-three 16- and 17-year-old male participants holding a provisional U.S., State of Michigan driver license were randomized to either a risk-accepting or risk-averse condition. Each participant operated a driving simulator while alone and separately with a confederate peer passenger. The simulator world included scenarios designed to elicit variation in driving risk behavior with a teen passenger present in the vehicle. Significant interactions of passenger presence (passenger present vs. alone) by risk condition (risk-accepting vs. risk-averse) were observed for variables measuring: failure to stop at yellow light intersections (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95CI]=1.06, 4.43); higher probability of overtaking (IRR=10.17; 95CI=1.43, 73.35); shorter left turn latency (IRR=0.43; 95CI=0.31,0.60); and, failure to stop at an intersection with an occluded stop sign (IRR=7.90; 95CI=2.06,30.35). In all cases, greater risky driving by participants was more likely with a risk-accepting passenger versus a risk-averse passenger present and a risk-accepting passenger present versus driving alone. Exposure of male teenagers to a risk-accepting confederate peer passenger who applied peer influence increased simulated risky driving behavior compared with exposure to a risk-averse confederate peer

  18. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  19. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallière, Martin; Simoneau, Martin; Tremblay, Mathieu; Laurendeau, Denis; Teasdale, Normand

    2012-03-02

    Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses) do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group). Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers) who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot). In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes). These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  20. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  1. Synthesizing Naturalistic Driving Data: a further review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) methodology has in the past decade proven extremely valuable in providing rich contextual information about the driver, the vehicle and driving environment. Internationally the uptake of the methodology...

  2. Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seehausen, Ole; Terai, Yohey; Magalhaes, Isabel S.; Carleton, Karen L.; Mrosso, Hillary D. J.; Miyagi, Ryutaro; van der Sluijs, Inke; Schneider, Maria V.; Maan, Martine E.; Tachida, Hidenori; Imai, Hiroo; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, divergent selection on sensory systems can cause speciation through sensory drive. However, empirical evidence is rare and incomplete. Here we demonstrate sensory drive speciation within island populations of cichlid fish. We identify the ecological and molecular basis of divergent

  3. Deceleration buffer for hydraulic linear motion drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrus, K.J.

    1982-01-01

    Braking of the motion of a fluid-actuated drive is provided by a buffer arrangement which is normally sealed to prevent vaporization of the fluid in a buffer cylinder and which isolates the drive piston rings from braking pressures

  4. Driving While Interacting With Google Glass: Investigating the Combined Effect of Head-Up Display and Hands-Free Input on Driving Safety and Multitask Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippey, Kathryn G; Sivaraj, Elayaraj; Ferris, Thomas K

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the individual and combined effects of voice (vs. manual) input and head-up (vs. head-down) display in a driving and device interaction task. Advances in wearable technology offer new possibilities for in-vehicle interaction but also present new challenges for managing driver attention and regulating device usage in vehicles. This research investigated how driving performance is affected by interface characteristics of devices used for concurrent secondary tasks. A positive impact on driving performance was expected when devices included voice-to-text functionality (reducing demand for visual and manual resources) and a head-up display (HUD) (supporting greater visibility of the driving environment). Driver behavior and performance was compared in a texting-while-driving task set during a driving simulation. The texting task was completed with and without voice-to-text using a smartphone and with voice-to-text using Google Glass's HUD. Driving task performance degraded with the addition of the secondary texting task. However, voice-to-text input supported relatively better performance in both driving and texting tasks compared to using manual entry. HUD functionality further improved driving performance compared to conditions using a smartphone and often was not significantly worse than performance without the texting task. This study suggests that despite the performance costs of texting-while-driving, voice input methods improve performance over manual entry, and head-up displays may further extend those performance benefits. This study can inform designers and potential users of wearable technologies as well as policymakers tasked with regulating the use of these technologies while driving.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of drink driving within patrons of Australian night-time entertainment precincts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G

    2016-10-01

    Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  7. National energy efficient driving system (NEEDS). Volume 1, Survey of requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-15

    This report provides a state-of-the-art summary of the means by which individual drivers can achieve more fuel-efficient vehicle operation. It identifies fuel-efficient driving behaviors, the means of influencing behavior, appropriate audiences for a...

  8. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  9. CAAD: Computer Architecture for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoshan; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Zhe; Gaudiot, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We describe the computing tasks involved in autonomous driving, examine existing autonomous driving computing platform implementations. To enable autonomous driving, the computing stack needs to simultaneously provide high performance, low power consumption, and low thermal dissipation, at low cost. We discuss possible approaches to design computing platforms that will meet these needs.

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... every trip, no matter how short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens ... teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's parent-teen driving ...

  11. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get older, ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous system ...

  12. Assessment of driving outcomes after epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Ross L; Omar, Nidal B; Agee, Bonita S; Walters, Beverly C; Riley, Kristen O

    2015-11-01

    Driving is an important factor contributing to good quality of life in patients with epilepsy. Little work has been undertaken to explore the details of driving experience alone in this patient population. We assessed the driving status of our patients prior to and following surgery for epilepsy. We also sought to determine what associations exist between patient characteristics and postoperative driving status. The participants were selected from those adult patients with epilepsy who have required surgical treatment at our home institution between 2006 and 2010. Each participant received a questionnaire asking about driving and seizure status before and after surgery. The surveys were distributed using a modified Dillman approach. Perioperative patient data were obtained from the electronic medical record system in addition to a previously assembled epilepsy database from the Neurology Department at our institution. Independent variables were analyzed to look for significant associations with driving outcomes. One hundred forty eligible patients were included in the survey population; 78 patients returned a questionnaire for a response rate of 55.7%. Eighty percent of patients experienced driving as a regular part of life at some point prior to surgery. At the time of the questionnaire distribution, 68% of patients had returned to regular driving. Demographic characteristics did not play a significant role in whether or not the patient had a favorable driving outcome after surgery. However, patients who had a history of driving on a regular basis prior to surgery and those who had an Engel Class I outcome after surgery had significantly higher rates of good driving outcomes. Also, patients with an unfavorable preoperative driving status were more likely to have a favorable driving outcome after surgery if they had an Engel Class I outcome. Patients in whom intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) was utilized prior to resection had worse driving outcomes. A

  13. Psychopathology and traffic violations in subjects who have lost their driving license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, S; Bosch, R; Corominas, M; Giannoni, A; Barrau, V; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Casas, M

    2017-07-01

    The persistence of risky behaviors while driving and traffic accidents despite campaigns to increase awareness suggest that there may be underlying causes that maintain proneness to traffic violations. The aim of the current study was to assess: a) the prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of people who have lost their driving license due to former traffic violations and b) the discriminatory capacity of each psychopathological disorder to differentiate among people with high and low proneness to perform risky behaviors while driving. 383 participants in a course to recover their driving license after its loss due to previous traffic violations were included. The International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) according to DSM-IV was used to assess psychopathology. Between 67% and 76.2% of the participants had been affected by a lifetime psychopathological disorder until the moment of assessment. The most prevalent diagnoses were substance abuse including alcohol (52.5-62.7%), ADHD (19.7-28.5%), depression (7.9-14.4%) and anxiety (3.6-12.4%). Substance abuse and ADHD also showed the strongest set of associations with specific risk behaviors, but ADHD emerged as the most discriminant disorder to distinguish between those people at high and low risk of while driving. The results of the current study suggest that addressing psychopathology explicitly to prevent risky behaviors and recidivism while driving would provide benefits in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Do driving restriction policies effectively motivate commuters to use public transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yunxia; Hong, Zaisheng; Liu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Driving restriction policies have been implemented in some large Chinese cities to cope with severe urban smog pollution. We explored the roles of policy acceptance and other factors in commuters' transport mode decisions, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A questionnaire survey was conducted in Tianjin, China. A structural equation model was developed to test eight hypotheses, two of which were rejected. The results indicate that a driving restriction policy alone cannot effectively motivate commuters to use public transport if the policymakers fail to improve public transport, enhance commuters' awareness of consequences, increase commuters' perceived behavior control, and encourage car owners to change driving behavior. Comparisons between car owners and non-owners indicated that car owners view driving restriction policy and public transport more negatively. These negative views could be a barrier for the promotion of public transport among car owners. In addition, attitude toward public transport was found to have positive correlation with commuting time. - Highlights: • Attitude towards public transport has an impact on policy acceptance. • Driving habit indirectly affects policy acceptance and perceived behavior control. • Driving restriction policy and public transport are not popular among car owners. • Attitude towards public transport correlates positively with commuting time.

  15. Cell Phone Use While Driving: Prospective Association with Emerging Adult Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Neha; Haynie, Denise; Bible, Joe; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers. Binomial logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and family affluence, showed that participants (n=212) with peers (n=675) who reported frequently texting while driving, were significantly more likely to text while driving the following year (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.19-7.59; P=0.05). The findings are consistent with the idea that peer texting behavior influences the prevalence of texting while driving among emerging adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A longitudinal investigation of the Drive for Muscularity Scale: predicting use of performance enhancing substances and weightlifting among males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana; Dodge, Tonya

    2008-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the predictive validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS; McCreary & Sasse, 2000). The drive for muscularity scale (DMS) is comprised of two subscales: a muscularity-oriented body image (MBI) subscale and a muscularity behavior (MB) subscale. The present study tested whether these subscales predicted two behavioral outcomes in the context of a longitudinal design: use of performance enhancing substances (PES) and weightlifting behavior. One hundred and sixty-one male undergraduates completed a questionnaire that assessed the drive for muscularity, PES use and weightlifting behavior at Time 1 and again 6 weeks later. Results indicated that the MB subscale at Time 1 significantly predicted both changes in PES use and weightlifting behavior controlling for past substance use and past weightlifting behavior. The MBI subscale failed to predict either changes in PES use or weightlifting behavior. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  18. Dynamic analysis and vibration testing of CFRP drive-line system used in heavy-duty machine tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low critical rotary speed and large vibration in the metal drive-line system of heavy-duty machine tool affect the machining precision seriously. Replacing metal drive-line with the CFRP drive-line can effectively solve this problem. Based on the composite laminated theory and the transfer matrix method (TMM, this paper puts forward a modified TMM to analyze dynamic characteristics of CFRP drive-line system. With this modified TMM, the CFRP drive-line of a heavy vertical miller is analyzed. And the finite element modal analysis model of the shafting is established. The results of the modified TMM and finite element analysis (FEA show that the modified TMM can effectively predict the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line. And the critical rotary speed of CFRP drive-line is 20% higher than that of the original metal drive-line. Then, the vibration of the CFRP and the metal drive-line were tested. The test results show that application of the CFRP drive shaft in the drive-line can effectively reduce the vibration of the heavy-duty machine tool. Keywords: CFRP drive-line system, Dynamic behavior, Transfer matrix, Vibration measurement

  19. Analysis of a novel double driving signal line and driving electrodes separated RF MEMS switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Tian, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaotong

    2017-04-01

    A novel double driving signal line and driving electrodes separated radio frequency (RF) micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) switch was proposed in this paper to overcome the problems of the high actuation voltage, small displacement, and long pull-down time of the RF MEMS switches. Dynamic equations of the micro beam were built based on the small deflection theory. Dynamic behaviors of the proposed RF MEMS switch were analyzed and calculated by the variable separation method. The effects of different driving voltages, structure parameters and materials on the RF MEMS switch performance were discussed in detail. The simulation results presented that the proposed RF MEMS switch had an actuation voltage of 26 V, a pull-down time of 31.5 μs and an actuation displacement of 3 μm. The results also showed that the pull-down time of micro beam increased as the dielectric layer thickness increased. When the beam thickness was higher than 1.1 μm, the switch could not pull down anymore. Additionally, the switch had a lowest pull down time when Al was used as micro beam material, compared to Au, Si, and SiC. The COMSOL Multiphysics finite element analysis was carried out to validate the MATLAB simulation results, and the comparison results were basically consistent with the MATLAB simulation results. Besides, the proposed switch had an insertion loss of -0.2 dB on up-state and isolation of more than -20 dB on down-state at 60 GHz derived from the electromagnetic simulation results. The actuation voltage, pull-down time, actuation displacement, and electromagnetic performances of the proposed RF MEMS switch were compared to some other switches, which were better than some existing switches.

  20. What Drives Politicians’ Online Popularity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms......-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These findings...... help us understand the dynamics of internet politics, and have wider implications for candidate competition and party politics....