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Sample records for alcohol withdrawal seizures

  1. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  2. Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Seizure Susceptibility is Associated with an Upregulation of CaV1.3 Channels in the Rat Inferior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinfiresoye, Luli R.; Allard, Joanne S.; Lovinger, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We previously reported increased current density through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV1) channels in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons during alcohol withdrawal. However, the molecular correlate of this increased CaV1 current is currently unknown. Methods: Rats received three daily doses of ethanol every 8 hours for 4 consecutive days; control rats received vehicle. The IC was dissected at various time intervals following alcohol withdrawal, and the mRNA and protein levels of the CaV1.3 and CaV1.2 α1 subunits were measured. In separate experiments, rats were tested for their susceptibility to alcohol withdrawal–induced seizures (AWS) 3, 24, and 48 hours after alcohol withdrawal. Results: In the alcohol-treated group, AWS were observed 24 hours after withdrawal; no seizures were observed at 3 or 48 hours. No seizures were observed at any time in the control-treated rats. Compared to control-treated rats, the mRNA level of the CaV1.3 α1 subunit was increased 1.4-fold, 1.9-fold, and 1.3-fold at 3, 24, and 48 hours, respectively. In contrast, the mRNA level of the CaV1.2 α1 subunit increased 1.5-fold and 1.4-fold at 24 and 48 hours, respectively. At 24 hours, Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of the CaV1.3 and CaV1.2 α1 subunits increased by 52% and 32%, respectively, 24 hours after alcohol withdrawal. In contrast, the CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 α1 subunits were not altered at either 3 or 48 hours during alcohol withdrawal. Conclusions: Expression of the CaV1.3 α1 subunit increased in parallel with AWS development, suggesting that altered L-type CaV1.3 channel expression is an important feature of AWS pathogenesis. PMID:25556199

  3. Electrical amygdala kindling in alcohol-withdrawal kindled rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrichsen, J; Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Clemmesen, L; Haugbøl, S; Olsen, C H; Laursen, H; Bolwig, T G; Hemmingsen, R

    1998-01-01

    Repeated alcohol withdrawal has been shown to kindle seizure activity. The purpose of the present investigation was to study electrical amygdala kindling in rats previously exposed to alcohol-withdrawal kindling. In three independent experiments, male Wistar rats were subjected to multiple episodes each consisting of 2 days of severe alcohol intoxication and 5 days of alcohol withdrawal. In the first experiment, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were divided into two groups depending on whether spontaneous alcohol-withdrawal seizures were observed in episodes 10-13. In the second and third experiments, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals were compared to a group in which alcohol-withdrawal kindling was prevented by diazepam treatment during the withdrawal reactions in order to discriminate between the effect of withdrawal and intoxication. Electrical kindling was initiated 28-35 days after the last alcohol dose by exposing the animals to daily electrical stimulations of the right amygdala. The results showed that amygdala kindling was facilitated in alcohol-withdrawal kindled animals which showed spontaneous withdrawal seizure activity, compared with animals exposed to multiple episodes of alcohol withdrawal which did not develop withdrawal seizures or with animals exposed to a single episode of alcohol intoxication. When compared to the control group, the alcohol-withdrawal kindled group with seizures also kindled at a faster rate, but the difference did not reach statistical significance and therefore the results must be regarded as preliminary at present.

  4. Alcohol Dependence, Withdrawal, and Relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2008-01-01

    Continued excessive alcohol consumption can lead to the development of dependence that is associated with a withdrawal syndrome when alcohol consumption is ceased or substantially reduced. This syndrome comprises physical signs as well as psychological symptoms that contribute to distress and psychological discomfort. For some people the fear of withdrawal symptoms may help perpetuate alcohol abuse; moreover, the presence of withdrawal symptoms may contribute to relapse after periods of absti...

  5. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  6. Clinical profile of patients with nascent alcohol related seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE in the same. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG and at least computed tomography (CT scan. Results: A total of 27 patients (27% who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001. Twenty-two patients (22% had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029. One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest. Conclusion: CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures. IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1% who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.

  7. Sodium valproate in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D G; Johnson, R H; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1980-09-01

    The value of sodium valproate in the management of patients during withdrawal from alcohol dependence has been assessed. Alcoholic inpatients were randomly allocated to two groups - one treated with sodium valproate and the other acting as a control. All patients received multivitamins and fluid and electrolyte replacement, and some received chlormethiazole or other tranquillisers. Treatment with sodium valproate (1200 mg daily) was continued for one week. The occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms (tremulousness, nausea, sweating, disorientation) were noted daily. Forty-nine episodes of withdrawal have been included in the trial - 22 in the sodium valproate group and 27 in the control group. Five patients, all in the control group, had seizures. Other withdrawal symptoms disappeared more quickly in the sodium valproate group even though fewer patients were receiving chlormethiazole.

  8. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nur...

  9. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  10. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

  11. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete;

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  12. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  13. Catatonia in mixed alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Basu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia is mostly caused by different neuropsychiatric conditions. We report a case of a 30 year old man suffering from both alcohol and benzodiazepine dependence who exhibited catatonic features soon after stopping the intake of substances. This case will help clinicians to recognize catatonic features within the varied symptomatology of substance withdrawal and thereby helping in its early diagnosis and management.

  14. Influence of normal versus slow antiepileptic drugs withdrawal on seizure recurrence in patients with epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of normal and slow antiepileptic drugs(AEDs) withdrawal on recurrence of epilepsy. Methods Epileptic patients with seizure-free more than 2 years were recruited to the study. They were first divided into normal

  15. Radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional changes found in radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes (n=82; AAWS) regressed to normal values with recovery from AAWS (during 4 days on the average) with the exception of the secretory value which increased to a maximum on the 7th day of observation, remaining approximately unchanged for the following 3 days and decreasing more gradually to a normal value on the 23rd day of observation. In various forms of AAWS the same functional changes in the radiohippuran renogram were observed. (author)

  16. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  17. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ganeshalingam; Epa Dhanesha; Rodrigo Chaturaka; Jayasinghe Saroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literatur...

  18. Intraoperative Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Coincidence or Precipitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Asish Subedi; Balkrishna Bhattarai

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of alcohol dependence is approximately half in surgical patients with an alcohol use disorder, anesthetist often encounters such patients in the perioperative settings. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is one of the most feared complications of alcohol dependence and can be fatal if not managed actively. A 61-year-old man, alcoholic with 50 h of abstinence before surgery, received spinal anesthesia for surgery for femoral neck fracture. To facilitate positioning for spinal ...

  19. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total.......51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). CONCLUSION: There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among...

  20. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary M. Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

  1. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Khess, Christoday R.J.; Vijay Verma; Mahesh Hembram; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Subhas Soren

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance...

  2. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Khess, Christoday R J; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Soren, Subhas

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance), second factor also had four items (24.25% variance), and the third had two items (10.04% variance). Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors. PMID:24826372

  3. Factor Structure of CIWA-Ar in Alcohol Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the underlying factor structure of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as measured with CIWA-Ar. Methods. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the items of CIWA-Ar. On 201 alcohol-dependent male patients seeking treatment for alcohol withdrawal at 36 hours of abstinence. Results. A three-factor solution was obtained that accounted for 68.74% of total variance. First factor had loading from four items (34.34% variance, second factor also had four items (24.25% variance, and the third had two items (10.04% variance. Conclusions. Factor analysis reveals the existence of multidimensionality of alcohol withdrawal as measured with CIWA-Ar and we found three factors that can be named as delirious, autonomic and nonspecific factors.

  4. Seizures and Epilepsy: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control with their medication. Seizure triggers include alcohol consumption or alcohol withdrawal, dehydration or missing meals, stress, ... treatment of epilepsy was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... stimulation or a fast-acting drug to prevent the seizure from occurring. ...

  5. Genital self mutilation in alcohol withdrawal state complicated with delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital self mutilation is a rare and a severe form of self-injurious behavior usually described in psychotic disorders, with delusions and hallucinations. It has been ascribed to sexual conflicts, Body image distortions, Internalized aggression, and suicidal intent. This phenomenon has been described in schizophrenia, affective psychosis, alcohol intoxication, and personality disorders. The present case genital self mutilation in a case of alcohol withdrawal state complicated by delirium is reported.

  6. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presenting as self mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Bichitra Nanda; Sharma, Akhilesh; Mehra, Aseem; Singh, Shubhmohan

    2014-01-01

    Self-mutilation has been defined as deliberate self injury to body tissue without the intent to die. There has been an association between substance abuse and self mutilation. Alcoholic hallucinosis is usually in auditory modality and regarded as harmless. But patients can indulge in self harm behavior when the hallucinosis is commanding type. We are presenting a case in which the patient inflicted multiple stab injury to his own abdomen in response to alcoholic hallucinosis. This has clinical implication to enquire about substance abuse in patients presenting to emergency setting.

  7. [Seizure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ayumi; Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-06-01

    Seizure is defined as "a strong shrinkage state of the skeletal muscle which is involuntary, and occurs spasmodically" and it is often accompanied by disturbance of consciousness. The typical disease which causes seizure is epilepsy. But there is many conditions causing seizure. Therefore, diagnosis of epilepsy should be careful. Seizure among eldery increases in an era of an aging population in Japan. The risk of recurrence of seizure or epilepsy in elderly is higher than that in youth. In considering of the treatment of seizure among elderly, differential diagnosis from various condition must be done. PMID:23855204

  8. Effects of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal on Stress Responsiveness and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body’s stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produc...

  9. Prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB;

    2005-01-01

    of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....

  10. Ethanol-withdrawal seizures are controlled by tissue plasminogen activator via modulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Robert; Melchor, Jerry P.; Matys, Tomasz; Skrzypiec, Anna E.; Strickland, Sidney

    2005-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse causes up-regulation of NMDA receptors, which underlies seizures and brain damage upon ethanol withdrawal (EW). Here we show that tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease implicated in neuronal plasticity and seizures, is induced in the limbic system by chronic ethanol consumption, temporally coinciding with up-regulation of NMDA receptors. tPA interacts with NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and is required for up-regulation of the NR2B subunit in response to ethanol...

  11. Study on Alcoholic Withdrawal Score, with Questionnaire Based Session Conducted on Acute and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Navyatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol liver disease is damage to the Liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. It occurs after years of heavy drinking and by through which cirrhosis can occur and which leads to the final phase of Alcoholic liver disease. It not only occurs in heavy drinkers but also there is a chance of getting liver disease go up the longer of been drinking and more alcohol consumption. A study was observational, prospective and descriptive; and was carried out one hundred and nine patients [n=109] who were with suffering from an Alcoholic liver disease, to determine the alcohol withdrawal score and there symptoms involved after they were kept on alcohol withdrawal therapy. An observational, prospective and randomized study was conducted in the hospital from March 2014-March 2016. Questionnaire based session with 10 scaled questions were framed according to CIWA (assessment and management of alcohol withdrawal and the score was noted with their symptoms occurrence after the alcohol cessation plan. CIWA score with moderate severity were found to be highest. 7 patients out of 33 patients in severe category of CIWA score were admitted in the hospital with alcohol withdrawal syndrome and psychological disturbances. Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA helps clinicians assess and treat potential alcohol withdrawal.

  12. Intraoperative Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Coincidence or Precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asish Subedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence of alcohol dependence is approximately half in surgical patients with an alcohol use disorder, anesthetist often encounters such patients in the perioperative settings. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS is one of the most feared complications of alcohol dependence and can be fatal if not managed actively. A 61-year-old man, alcoholic with 50 h of abstinence before surgery, received spinal anesthesia for surgery for femoral neck fracture. To facilitate positioning for spinal anesthesia, fascia iliaca compartmental block with 0.25% bupivacaine (30 mL was administered 30 min prior to spinal block. Later, in the intraoperative period the patient developed AWS; however, the features were similar to that of local anesthetic toxicity. The case was successfully managed with intravenous midazolam, esmolol, and propofol infusion. Due to similarity of clinical features of AWS and mild local anesthetic toxicity, an anesthetist should be in a position to differentiate the condition promptly and manage it aggressively.

  13. Intraoperative Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Coincidence or Precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Asish

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of alcohol dependence is approximately half in surgical patients with an alcohol use disorder, anesthetist often encounters such patients in the perioperative settings. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is one of the most feared complications of alcohol dependence and can be fatal if not managed actively. A 61-year-old man, alcoholic with 50 h of abstinence before surgery, received spinal anesthesia for surgery for femoral neck fracture. To facilitate positioning for spinal anesthesia, fascia iliaca compartmental block with 0.25% bupivacaine (30 mL) was administered 30 min prior to spinal block. Later, in the intraoperative period the patient developed AWS; however, the features were similar to that of local anesthetic toxicity. The case was successfully managed with intravenous midazolam, esmolol, and propofol infusion. Due to similarity of clinical features of AWS and mild local anesthetic toxicity, an anesthetist should be in a position to differentiate the condition promptly and manage it aggressively. PMID:23936683

  14. Alcohol withdrawal – therapeutical management in surgical patients with upper intestinal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Bălălău Cristian; Cobani Oana Denisa; Trambitasu Gloria; Popescu Bogdan; Carolina Negrei; Scăunașu Răzvan Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Psychological dependence involves a desire to use a drug to avoid the unpleasant withdrawal syndrome that results from cessation of exposure to it. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is one of the most feared complications of alcohol addiction and sometimes can be fatal if not treated properly. Withdrawal syndrome is characterized by neurological hyperexcitability, which can lead to severe psychological and neurological symptoms. A survey was conceived in order to monitor the efficiency of several d...

  15. Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna E. Jung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2, interferes with the EW-induced alteration of oxidative signaling pathways and thereby protects neurons, mitochondria, and behaviors. The current review attempts to provide integrated information at the levels of oxidative signaling mechanisms by which EW provokes brain injuries and E2 protects against it. Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17

  16. Withdrawal symptoms in a long-term model of voluntary alcohol drinking in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölter, S M; Linthorst, A C; Reul, J M; Spanagel, R

    2000-05-01

    Long-term voluntary alcohol drinking with repeated alcohol deprivation episodes has been suggested as animal model for some aspects of alcoholism. Using a radiotelemetric system, the present study investigated the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms in long-term voluntarily alcohol drinking Wistar rats with (repeated alcohol deprivation group) and without (first alcohol deprivation group) prior alcohol deprivation experience. Six days after transmitter implantation, alcohol bottles were removed, and returned 4 days later. Alcohol deprivation induced hyperlocomotion in both groups. In the repeated alcohol deprivation group, hyperlocomotion was increased at the beginning of the alcohol deprivation phase and decreased during the following dark phase, suggesting that removal of the alcohol bottles might have become a conditioned withdrawal stimulus for this group. Both groups showed an enhanced alcohol intake after representation of alcohol bottles compared to preabstinence intakes (alcohol deprivation effect). However, alcohol intake of the repeated alcohol deprivation group was significantly increased compared to the first alcohol deprivation group at the end of the experiment. It is concluded that repeated alcohol deprivation experience might promote the development of alcohol addiction because of its latent stimulating effect on alcohol drinking that can be unveiled by (presumably mildly stressful) experimental situations. PMID:10837854

  17. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  18. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Symptom-Triggered versus Fixed-Schedule Treatment in an Outpatient Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, B.; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether, in the treatment with chlordiazepoxide for outpatient alcohol withdrawal, there are advantages of symptom-triggered self-medication over a fixed-schedule regimen. Methods: A randomized controlled trial in outpatient clinics for people suffering from alcohol dependence...... (AD) and alcohol-related problems; 165 adult patients in an outpatient setting in a specialized alcohol treatment unit were randomized 1:1 to either a symptom-triggered self-medication or tapered dose, using chlordiazepoxide. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms, amount of medication, duration of symptoms......, time to relapse and patient satisfaction were measured. Patients assessed their symptoms using the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS). Patient satisfaction was monitored by the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Well-Being Index and the European addiction severity index...

  19. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, S.A.; Kelso, M.L.; Liput, D.J.; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent’s unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study i...

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Pandit Lakshmi; R Vijendra; Ajay Kumar; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B ) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods : This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness an...

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Lakshmi, Pandit; R Vijendra; Kumar, Ajay; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (...

  2. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the patients' group than in the control group and decreased significantly during alcohol withdrawal (p < 0.001). The decrease of testosterone serum levels during alcohol withdrawal (days 1-7) was significantly associated with the BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. PMID:27514572

  3. Gender Differences in Associations between Lifetime Alcohol, Depression, Panic Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Tobacco Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; McKee, Sherry A.; Reutenauer, Erin L.; Mazure, Carolyn M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interaction of gender and lifetime psychiatric status on the experience of nicotine withdrawal using retrospective data from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS; N = 816). Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main and interactive effects of gender and major depression, alcohol abuse/dependence, panic disorder, and PTSD on indices of withdrawal. Major depression and alcohol abuse/dependence were associated with longer duration of withdrawal sympto...

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Withdrawal-Related Insomnia among Adults with Alcohol Dependence: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Kirk J.; Perron, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Insomnia during acute alcohol withdrawal (AWD) as well as persisting insomnia during post-acute withdrawal is associated with relapse. Rates of insomnia in clinical samples of alcohol-dependent patients range from 36 to 91%, but the prevalence of AWD-related insomnia in the general population is unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of insomnia as a symptom of acute AWD and its correlates in a general population of alcohol-dependent individuals. Data were analyzed ...

  5. Downregulation of Gabra4 expression during alcohol withdrawal is mediated by specific microRNAs in cultured mouse cortical neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Bekdash, Rola A.; Harrison, Neil L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and dependence are a serious public health problem. A large number of alcohol-regulated genes, (ARGs) are known to be influenced by alcohol use and withdrawal (AW), and recent evidence suggests that neuroadaptation to alcohol may be due in part to epigenetic changes in the expression of ARGs. Gabra4, which encodes the α4 subunit of GABAA receptors (GABAARs), is one of a number of ARGs that show remarkable plasticity in response to alcohol, being rapidly upregulated by...

  6. A case of mistaken identity: alcohol withdrawal, schizophrenia, or central pontine myelinolysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Schneider1, Vicki A Nejtek2,3, Cheryl Hurd2,31Green Oaks Behavioral Health Care Services, Dallas, 2University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, 3John Peter Smith Health Network, Fort Worth, Texas, USAAbstract: Demyelination is a hallmark of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of this condition include weakness, quadriplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, mood changes, psychosis, and cognitive disturbances. These psychiatric symptoms are also associated with schizophrenia and alcohol withdrawal. Thus, it is clinically relevant to differentiate between CPM, schizophrenia, and alcohol withdrawal as the treatment and prognostic outcomes for each diagnosis are distinct. We present a series of events that led to a misdiagnosis of a patient admitted to the medical emergency center presenting with confusion, psychomotor agitation, and delirium who was first diagnosed with schizophrenia and alcohol withdrawal by emergency medical physicians and later discovered by the psychiatric consult team to have CPM. With a thorough psychiatric evaluation, a review of the laboratory results first showing mild hyponatremia (127 mmol/L, subsequent hypernatremia (154 mmol/L, and magnetic resonance brain imaging, psychiatrists concluded that CPM was the primary diagnosis underlying the observed neuropsychopathology. This patient has mild impairments in mood, cognition, and motor skills that remain 12 months after her emergency-center admission. This case report reminds emergency clinicians that abnormal sodium metabolism can have long-term and devastating psychopathological and neurological consequences. Differentiating between CPM, schizophrenia, and alcohol withdrawal using neuroimaging techniques and preventing the risks for CPM using slow sodium correction are paramount.Keywords: MRI, alcohol, schizophrenia, central pontine myelinolysis, hyponatremia

  7. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  8. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist JDTic attenuates alcohol seeking and withdrawal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R; Goldstein, Andrea L; Rowe, Kelly E; King, Courtney E; Marusich, Julie A; Wiley, Jenny L; Carroll, F Ivy; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus

    2012-05-01

    The role of kappa-opioid receptors (KOR) in the regulation of alcohol-related behaviors is not completely understood. For example, alcohol consumption has been reported to increase following treatment with KOR antagonists in rats, but was decreased in mice with genetic deletion of KOR. Recent studies have further suggested that KOR antagonists may selectively decrease alcohol self-administration in rats following a history of dependence. We assessed the effects of the KOR antagonist JDTic on alcohol self-administration, reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by alcohol-associated cues or stress, and acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety ('hangover anxiety'). JDTic dose-dependently reversed hangover anxiety when given 48 hours prior to testing, a time interval corresponding to the previously demonstrated anxiolytic efficacy of this drug. In contrast, JDTic decreased alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking when administered 2 hours prior to testing, but not at longer pre-treatment times. For comparison, we determined that the prototypical KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine can suppress self-administration of alcohol at 2 hours pre-treatment time, mimicking our observations with JDTic. The effects of JDTic were behaviorally specific, as it had no effect on stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, self-administration of sucrose, or locomotor activity. Further, we demonstrate that at a 2 hours pre-treatment time JDTic antagonized the antinociceptive effects of the KOR agonist U50,488H but had no effect on morphine-induced behaviors. Our results provide additional evidence for the involvement of KOR in regulation of alcohol-related behaviors and provide support for KOR antagonists, including JDTic, to be evaluated as medications for alcoholism. PMID:22515275

  9. Temporal changes in innate immune signals in a rat model of alcohol withdrawal in emotional and cardiorespiratory homeostatic nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman Kate; Brureau Anthony; Vadigepalli Rajanikanth; Staehle Mary M; Brureau Melanie M; Gonye Gregory E; Hoek Jan B; Hooper D; Schwaber James S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic alcohol use changes the brain’s inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal follo...

  10. Alcohol withdrawal – therapeutical management in surgical patients with upper intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bălălău Cristian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological dependence involves a desire to use a drug to avoid the unpleasant withdrawal syndrome that results from cessation of exposure to it. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is one of the most feared complications of alcohol addiction and sometimes can be fatal if not treated properly. Withdrawal syndrome is characterized by neurological hyperexcitability, which can lead to severe psychological and neurological symptoms. A survey was conceived in order to monitor the efficiency of several drug associations (Clonidine, Midazolam, IV ethanol, which were administered at the beginning of intensive therapy admission of achohol addicts. By comparing the postoperative evolution parameters and complications incidences for these patients (such as the hospitalization duration in AIT department, the tracheobronchitis incidence, complications as sepsis, pneumonia and cardiac complications, we managed to determine which treatment is the most beneficial for these cases. Benzodiazepines are frequently used for pharmacological therapy of alcohol addicted patients. In our study Midazolam was very efficient, compared to other therapies. When administered for a maximum of 7 days, the inccidence of side effects remains minimal.

  11. Study of factors responsible for recurrence of seizures in controlled epileptics for more than 1 years after withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamdhade S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 531 epileptic patients, who had achieved remission mostly for 2 years or more were studied. The mean follow up period was 5 years. Recurrence was noted in 103 patients (19% after gradual withdrawal of AED, over a period of 3-4 months. 424 patients (81% did not have recurrence. The recurrence rate was influenced adversely by factors like adolescent age and later onset seizures, pre-treatment duration of symptoms more than 3 years, pre-treatment precipitating factors like emotional stress, lack of sleep and meals (however, number in each group is small, positive family history of epilepsy, focal neurodeficit, absence and myoclonic plus grandmal type of clinical seizures, paroxysmal generalized spike and wave discharges and generalized short polyspike and wave discharges in the pretreatment EEG, atrophic changes on CT brain scan (in small numbers, head trauma at birth or later and hereditary factors as etiology of epilepsy, and more than 30 number of seizures before achieving the remission. Factors like, sex, frequency of seizures, period of remission i.e. two years or more and number of drugs used to achieve remission, did not have any significant adverse effect. However, in the last parameter 95% remission was achieved by one or a combination of two drugs (72% and 23% respectively.

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram K Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods : This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient′s perspective and third-party perspective. Results : The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER in patient′s perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03. Conclusion : Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide.

  13. Cocaine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not be as unstable as withdrawal from alcohol. However, the withdrawal from any chronic substance abuse is very serious. There is a risk of suicide or overdose. Symptoms usually disappear over time. People who have cocaine ...

  14. Add on dexmedetomidine in the treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal in a patient of emergency laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Madan Shende

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available According to American statistics 90% of people drink alcohol at some time in life. The estimated prevalence of alcohol abuse among hospitalized in patients is 20 % and 10- 33 % in patients admitted to the ICU. Approximately 18% of these patients will develop alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS whose symptoms can include physical and psychological manifestations that range from mild to life threatening. Although AWS has been reported in literature in post-operative periods and in intensive care unit, there is less information on treatment and preparing of a patient with AWS, coming for emergency surgical procedure. The surgical stress and deranged liver functions possess an additional challenge to the anesthesiologist. Here we are reporting the successful management of a case of delirium tremens by using Dexmedetomidine in pre, intra and post-operative period in a patient with hollow viscous perforation for emergency laparotomy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2446-2449

  15. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 2. Results in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data obtained in 72 male chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndroms give evidence that there is a significant correlation between the numerical value of the cerebral radiorheographic index and the severity of the psychopathological syndrome (especially of the clouding of sensorium) in these patients. (author)

  16. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may include: Clammy skin Enlarged (dilated) pupils Headache Insomnia (sleeping difficulty) Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting ... areas have housing options that provide a supportive environment for those trying to stay sober. Permanent and ...

  17. Death from seizures induced by chronic alcohol abuse--does it exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S

    2007-01-01

    In a forensic setting, deaths due to seizures, either epileptic or other, present a well-known problem. Cause of death is rarely established on the basis of physical evidence, but on circumstantial evidence such as tongue biting or discharge of urine or faeces. Seizures have several different...

  18. Temporal changes in innate immune signals in a rat model of alcohol withdrawal in emotional and cardiorespiratory homeostatic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Kate

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alcohol use changes the brain’s inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA and dorsal vagal complex (DVC, brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure. Methods For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1, MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and DVC samples from adult male rats exposed to a liquid alcohol diet for thirty-five days and in similarly treated animals at four hours and forty-eight hours following alcohol withdrawal. ANOVA was used to identify statistically significant treatment effects. Immunohistochemistry (IHC and confocal microscopy were performed in a second set of animals during chronic alcohol exposure and subsequent 48-hour withdrawal. Results Following a chronic alcohol exposure, withdrawal resulted in a statistically significant increase in the expression of mRNAs specific for innate immune markers Ccl2, TNF-α, NOS-2, Tnfrsf1a, and CD74. This response was present in both the CeA and DVC and most prominent at 48 hours. Confocal IHC of samples taken 48 hours into withdrawal demonstrate the presence of TNF-α staining surrounding cells expressing the neural marker NeuN and endothelial cells colabeled with ICAM-1 (CD54 and RECA-1, markers associated with an inflammatory response. Again, findings were consistent in both brain regions. Conclusions This study demonstrates the rapid induction of Ccl2, TNF-α, NOS-2, Tnfrsf1a and CD74 expression during alcohol withdrawal in both the CeA and DVC. IHC dual labeling showed an increase in TNF-α surrounding neurons and ICAM-1 on vascular endothelial cells

  19. Clinical applications of sodium oxybate (GHB): from narcolepsy to alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, F P; Kyriakou, C; Napoletano, S; Marinelli, E; Zaami, S

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short chain fatty acid endogenously produced within the central nervous system (CNS) and acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although, it is an illegal recreational drug of abuse, its sodium salt (sodium oxybate) has been utilized as a medication for a number of medical conditions. The first aim of this review was to focus on current applications of sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy, with a particular emphasis on the key symptoms of this disorder: cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Secondly, the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence has been assessed. Nowadays, sodium oxybate is the first-line treatment for narcolepsy and it is highly effective in meliorating sleep architecture, decreasing EDS and the frequency of cataplexy attacks in narcoleptic patients. Sodium oxybate currently finds also application in the treatment of AWS and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcoholics. Most of the studies evaluating the efficacy of GHB in the treatment of AWS use a dosage of 50 mg/kg divided in three or four administrations per day. Human studies showed that GHB (dose of 50 mg/kg, divided in three administrations per day) is capable to increase the number of abstinent days, reduce alcohol craving and decrease the number of drinks per day. However, there is limited randomized evidence and, thus, GHB cannot be reliably compared to clomethiazole or benzodiazepines. Some randomized data suggest that GHB is better than naltrexone and disulfiram regarding abstinence maintenance and prevention of craving in the medium term i.e. 3-12 months. It is recommended that GHB should be used only under strict medical supervision, since concerns about the abuse/misuse of the drug and the addiction potential have been arisen.

  20. Pharmacological activation/inhibition of the cannabinoid system affects alcohol withdrawal-induced neuronal hypersensitivity to excitotoxic insults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rubio

    Full Text Available Cessation of chronic ethanol consumption can increase the sensitivity of the brain to excitotoxic damages. Cannabinoids have been proposed as neuroprotectants in different models of neuronal injury, but their effect have never been investigated in a context of excitotoxicity after alcohol cessation. Here we examined the effects of the pharmacological activation/inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in an in vitro model of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal followed by an excitotoxic challenge. Ethanol withdrawal increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-evoked neuronal death, probably by altering the ratio between GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. The stimulation of the endocannabinoid system with the cannabinoid agonist HU-210 decreased NMDA-induced neuronal death exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. This neuroprotection could be explained by a decrease in NMDA-stimulated calcium influx after the administration of HU-210, found exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. By contrast, the inhibition of the cannabinoid system with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716 during ethanol withdrawal increased death of ethanol-withdrawn neurons without any modification of NMDA-stimulated calcium influx. Moreover, chronic administration of rimonabant increased NMDA-stimulated toxicity not only in withdrawn neurons, but also in control neurons. In summary, we show for the first time that the stimulation of the endocannabinoid system is protective against the hyperexcitability developed during alcohol withdrawal. By contrast, the blockade of the endocannabinoid system is highly counterproductive during alcohol withdrawal.

  1. Effect of topiramate on partial excitatory amino acids in hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats after alcohol withdrawal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Yang; Guang Wu; Haiying Jiang; Yuanzhe Jin; Songbiao Cui

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have indicated that the imbalances of various amino acid transmitters and neurotransmitters in brain are involved in the formation of alcohol withdrawal, especially that glutamic acid is one of the important transmitters for alcohol tolerance in central nervous system.OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of excitatory amino acids in hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats with long-term alcohol drinking after withdrawal under consciousness, and investigate the therapeutic effect of topiramate on alcohol withdrawal.DESIGN: A randomized control animal experiment.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University.MATERIALS: Thirty male Wistar rats of 4 months old, weighing 300-350 g, were purchased from the Experimental Animal Department, Medical College of Yanbian University. Topiramate was produced by Swish Cilag Company, and the batch number was 02CS063.METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Physiology, Medical College of Yanbian University from August 2005 to February 2006. ① The rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group (n=10), alcohol group (n=10) and topiramate-treated group (n=10). Rats in the alcohol group and topiramate-treated group were given intragastric perfusion of 500 g/L alcohol (10 mL/kg), once a day for 4 weeks successively, and then those in the topiramate-treated group were treated with 80 mg/kg topiramate at 24 hours after the last perfusion of alcohol, once a day for 3 days successively. Rats in the control group were intragastricly given isovolume saline. ② The withdrawal symptoms were assessed at 6, 30, 48 and 72 hours after the last perfusion of alcohol by using the withdrawal rating scale set by Erden et al,which had four observational indexes of stereotyped behaviors, agitation, tail stiffness and abnormal posture,each index was scored by 5 points, the higher the score, the more obvious the symptoms. ③ The contents of aspartic acid and glutamic acid

  2. Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, John C M

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

  3. Study on Alcoholic Withdrawal Score, with Questionnaire Based Session Conducted on Acute and Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi Navyatha; Pragada Sneha Pallavi; S. Purna Divya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol liver disease is damage to the Liver and its function due to alcohol abuse. It occurs after years of heavy drinking and by through which cirrhosis can occur and which leads to the final phase of Alcoholic liver disease. It not only occurs in heavy drinkers but also there is a chance of getting liver disease go up the longer of been drinking and more alcohol consumption. A study was observational, prospective and descriptive; and was carried out one hundred and nine patients [n=109] wh...

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  5. The kappa opioid receptor antagonist JDTic attenuates alcohol seeking and withdrawal anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Schank, Jesse R.; Goldstein, Andrea L.; Rowe, Kelly E.; King, Courtney E.; Marusich, Julie A.; Wiley, Jenny L; Carroll, F. Ivy; Thorsell, Annika; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The role of kappa-opioid receptors (KOR) in regulation of alcohol-related behaviors is not completely understood. For example, alcohol consumption has been reported to increase following treatment with KOR antagonists in rats, but was decreased in mice with genetic deletion of KOR. Recent studies have further suggested that KOR antagonists may selectively decrease alcohol self-administration in rats following a history of dependence. We assessed the effects of the KOR antagonist JDTic on alco...

  6. The three year course of alcohol use disorders in the general population: DSM-IV, ICD-10 and the Craving Withdrawal Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Bruijn; W. van den Brink; R. de Graaf; W.A.M. Vollebergh

    2006-01-01

    To determine the course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in a prospective general population study using three different classification systems: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV), International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) and the craving withdrawal model (CWM). T

  7. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  8. Determinants of improvement in quality of life of alcohol-dependent patients during an inpatient withdrawal programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lahmek, Ivan Berlin, Laurent Michel, Chafia Berghout, Nadine Meunier, Henri-Jean Aubin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the improvement in quality of life (QoL of alcohol-dependent patients during a 3-week inpatient withdrawal programme, and to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and alcohol-related variables associated with baseline QoL on admission and with improvement of QoL during residential treatment. Methods: This prospective, observational study included 414 alcohol-dependent patients, hospitalised for a period of 3 weeks. QoL was measured on admission and at discharge using the French version of the Medical Outcome Study SF-36. The mean scores for each dimension and for the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were calculated. Results: The mean scores per dimension and the mean Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were significantly lower on admission than at discharge; the lowest scores being observed for social functioning and role limitations due to emotional problems. At discharge, the mean scores per dimension were similar to those observed in the French general population. Female gender, age >45 years, living alone, working as a labourer or employee, somatic comorbidity, and the existence of at least five criteria for alcohol dependence according to the DSM-IV classification were associated with a low Physical Component Summary score on admission; psychiatric comorbidity, the presence of at least five DSM-IV dependence criteria, smoking and suicidality were associated with a low Mental Component Summary score on admission. The increase in Physical and Mental Component Summary scores during hospitalisation was more marked when the initial scores were low. Apart from the initial score, the greatest improvement in Physical Component Summary score was seen in patients with a high alcohol intake and in those without a somatic comorbidity; the increase in Mental Component Summary score was greatest in patients without psychotic symptoms and in those who abused or were dependent on illegal drugs. Conclusion

  9. STUDY ON ALCOHOL AND ITS NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akumnaro Jamir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcoholism is characterised by alcohol tolerance, signs and symptoms of withdrawal and continued use in spite of insidious physical or psychological consequences. Chronic alcohol abuse causes several distinct diseases affecting many organs; however, the alcohol affecting the brain is the most significant factor for maintaining this alcohol abuse. The neurological complications of alcoholism include both the peripheral and the central nervous system like the alcohol withdrawal syndrome which includes alcohol withdrawal seizures, delirium tremens, alcohol hallucinosis. The other neurological complications are the alcoholic peripheral neuropathy, alcoholic myopathy, Wernicke encephalopathy, combination of Wernicke encephalopathy with Korsakoff ’s psychosis. Not all alcoholics are alike. The degree of impairment differs from individual to individual and the aetiology of a particular disease has different origins for different people. In the current scenario, it is still a subject of active research as to what characteristic features makes certain group of alcoholics more vulnerable to brain damage. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was undertaken under the Department of General Medicine, Govt. Stanley Hospital, Chennai. The study consists of 150 patients with history of alcohol intake satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, presenting in medical OPD/wards/ICU, after proper consent were subjected to questionnaires, complete physical examination and relevant laboratory investigations as per proforma. A prospective observational study design was chosen and descriptive statistics was done for all data and suitable statistical tests of comparison for a period of 6 months. RESULTS It was found that alcohol withdrawal seizures and acute hallucinosis were the most common neurological sequelae seen. Acute hallucinosis was more prevalent in younger age group, whereas complications like alcohol polyneuropathy, Wernicke

  10. Disulfiram-induced de novo convulsions without alcohol challenge: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Ramarao Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%, DSF-induced hypertension (HTN (37.5%, psychosis (12.5% were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5% were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5% even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.

  11. Efficacy of transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, A T; Zhukov, O B; Raigorodskii, Yu M

    2009-11-01

    A total of 54 patients with alcoholism were studied during abstinence. Of these, 29 patients in the experimental group received basal therapy supplemented with physical treatment consisting of transcranial dynamic magnetotherapy (TcDMT), while the control group of 25 patients received only basal therapy. Comparison of the status of patients in the experimental and control groups during treatment demonstrated advantages of TcDMT in relation to improving the functional state of the CNS, memory, and attention, the autonomic nervous system, and the psychoemotional status of the patients (with decreases in the severity of anxiety and depression). PMID:19830574

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies 5q21 and 9p24.1 (KDM4C) loci associated with alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wu, Long-Yang; Zeng, Min

    2012-04-01

    Several genome-wide association (GWA) studies of alcohol dependence (AD) and alcohol-related phenotypes have been conducted; however, little is known about genetic variants influencing alcohol withdrawal symptoms (AWS). We conducted the first GWA study of AWS using 461 cases of AD with AWS and 408 controls in Caucasian population in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample. Logistic regression analysis of AWS as a binary trait, adjusted for age and sex, was performed using PLINK. We identified 51 SNPs associated with AWS with p GABRA1, GABRG1, and GABRG3 were associated with AWS (p < 10(-2)) in the COGA sample. In conclusion, we identified several loci associated with AWS. These findings offer the potential for new insights into the pathogenesis of AD and AWS. PMID:22072270

  13. Hypnopompic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Amer M; Lüders, Hans O

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between epilepsy and sleep is complex and bidirectional. Ictal awakening is probably a common and well-described phenomenon. In this small observational study we describe arousal from sleep as the only, or at least main, manifestation of some epileptic seizures. We coin the term "hypnopompic seizures" to describe this entity. Five patients with intractable epilepsy were monitored by continuous video-electroencephalogram. Four of them had left temporal lobe epilepsy and one patient had generalised epilepsy. Hypnopompic seizures accounted for 30-100% of their seizure types captured during monitoring. All the seizures occurred during stage II sleep and were brief. Hypnopompic seizures are extremely subtle and may be underdiagnosed and underreported. Future larger studies are needed to shed some light on this unique entity and its neuropathophysiology. Epileptologists should be aware of this type of seizure and careful review of electroencephalograms during the transition from sleep to arousal is imperative to capture these seizures. Physicians, patients and families also need to be aware of such a subtle manifestation of seizures. Improved awareness of hypnopompic seizures and subtle seizures, in general, help guide accurate and early diagnosis, thorough monitoring and appropriate management. PMID:21030341

  14. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits.

  15. Dopey's seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure.

  16. Dopey's seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, B; Christiaens, F

    1999-06-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition namely characterized by developmental delay, virtual absence of expressive verbal language, peculiar organization of movement, seizures and happy demeanor. This syndrome has been recognized since 1965, but it seems that Walt Disney presented an original depiction of it in his first full-length animated film, including myoclonic jerks and an apparently generalized tonic-clonic seizure. PMID:10452923

  17. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  18. Antiepileptic drug withdrawal in dogs with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar Gesell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. In humans with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, 4 of these dogs remained seizure free, 7 dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only 3 dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication.

  19. Motor impairment: a new ethanol withdrawal phenotype in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Philibin, Scott D.; Cameron, Andy J.; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental risk factors. The presence of withdrawal symptoms is one criterion for alcohol dependence. Genetic animal models have followed a reductionist approach by quantifying various effects of ethanol withdrawal separately. Different ethanol withdrawal symptoms may have distinct genetic etiologies, and therefore differentiating distinct neurobiological mechanisms related to separate signs of withdrawal would increase our understanding of...

  20. Withdrawal-Associated Increases and Decreases in Functional Neural Connectivity Associated with Altered Emotional Regulation in Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    O'Daly, Owen G; Trick, Leanne; Scaife, Jess; Marshall, Jane; Ball, David; Phillips, Mary L.; Williams, Stephen SC; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Theodora

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic patients who have undergone multiple detoxifications/relapses show altered processing of emotional signals. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of implicit and explicit versions of a task in which subjects were presented with morphs of fearful facial emotional expressions. Participants were abstaining, multiply detoxified (MDTx; n=12) or singly detoxified patients (SDTx; n=17), and social drinker controls (n=31). Alcoholic patients were less able th...

  1. Controlling Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how an implantable device could greatly improve the quality of life for people with epilepsy. Gabe Anderson was diagnosed with bilateral heterotopia, a congenital condition that can lead to the onset of complex partial seizures stemming from both hemispheres of the brain. In early 2004, Gabe became one of the first 35…

  2. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zifkin, Benjamin G; Inoue, Yushi

    2004-01-01

    Visual reflex seizures induced by complex stimuli may be triggered by patterned and flashing displays that are now ubiquitous. The seizures may be clinically generalized, but unilateral and bilateral myoclonic attacks also may be triggered, especially in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and recently, clearly focal reflex occipital lobe seizures have been described. Some seizure-triggering properties of video displays can be identified, such as perceived brightness, pattern, flicker frequency, and color. Knowledge of these is useful in planning individual treatment and in designing regulations for screen content of television broadcasts or for other video displays. Some subjects will also be sensitive to cognitive or action-programming activation, especially when playing video games, and this can increase the chance of seizure triggering. Nonspecific factors such as sleep deprivation, prolonged exposure, and drug or alcohol use also may play a role in reflex seizure occurrence. PMID:14706042

  4. Consequences of amygdala kindling and repeated withdrawal from ethanol on amphetamine-induced behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Tamzin L; Dunworth, Sarah J; Stephens, David N

    2002-09-01

    It has been shown previously that chronic ethanol treatment in mice leads to accelerated behavioural sensitization to psychomotor stimulants [Manley & Little (1997) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 281, 1330-1339], whilst repeated experience of ethanol withdrawal sensitizes pathways underlying seizure activity (Becker & Hale (1993) Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 17, 94-98]. The aim of the current experiment was to investigate the consequences of repeated withdrawal from ethanol on amphetamine-induced behaviours in the rat and compare this with animals with electrical kindling of the amygdala, a procedure that has been shown to enhance alcohol withdrawal seizures [Pinel et al. (1975) Can. J. Neurol. Sci., 2, 467-475]. For the kindling experiments, electrodes were surgically implanted in the left basolateral amygdala and were stimulated daily at the afterdischarge threshold until a criterion of three consecutive stage 5 seizures was reached. Fully kindled rats showed a marginally significant reduction in sensitivity to the locomotor stimulant effects of acute amphetamine compared with sham and partially kindled rats which had experienced subthreshold stimulation of the amygdala. Sham and partially kindled rats sensitized readily to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine (0.125 mg/kg) following repeated treatments, but the fully kindled rats did not. Fully kindled rats also failed to show place preference conditioning to amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg). Rats, withdrawn three times from chronic ethanol (liquid-diet), kindled more quickly to PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p.) than rats with the same overall exposure to ethanol (24 days) followed by a single withdrawal or control animals. However, there was no difference in the locomotor stimulating effects of acute amphetamine (0.25-1 mg/kg, i.p.), the rate of sensitization to amphetamine (0.125 mg/kg, i.p.) or amphetamine induced conditioned place preference (1 mg/kg, i.p.). These observations suggest that, in rats, repeated withdrawal from a

  5. Seizures and Teens: Stress, Sleep, & Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Patricia Osborne

    2007-01-01

    Most parents are used to erratic sleep patterns and mood swings in their teenagers. When these occur in an adolescent with seizures, however, the parent may wonder if sleep and mood problems are related to seizures. Sorting out the cause and effects of sleep in an adolescent with seizures can be confusing. Since stress can be a contributor to both…

  6. Dextromethorphan abuse masquerading as a recurrent seizure disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majlesi, Nima; Lee, David C; Ali, Sayed S

    2011-03-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) has unique toxicity that may be difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a young woman who presented to our emergency department (ED) initially diagnosed with recurrent seizures. Paramedics brought a 19-year-old woman to the ED. Witnesses noted "shaking," which the patient did not recall. The patient denied fever, antecedent trauma, or neurological complaint. She was recently administered lamotrigine for bipolar disorder. She was a former alcoholic with no history of developing withdrawal. She admitted to marijuana use but denied use of any other illicit substances. Her vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable. She had a normal brain computed tomography, electrocardiogram, and laboratory evaluation. There was no alcohol detected. Her urine drug screen was negative for opiates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, phencyclidine, and tricyclic antidepressants. She was diagnosed with new-onset seizure and discharged home. No abnormalities were seen in the brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and electroencephalogram. She was scheduled for a cardiac syncope workup, but never followed through. Two months later, she presented to the hospital again for a similar complaint. Coworkers reported witnessing sudden tonic-clonic movements and confusion. On ED presentation, the patient was tachycardic with a heart rate of 110 beats/min and had horizontal nystagmus. She was alert with a flat affect. She did not recall events but answered questions appropriately. Repeat radiographic and laboratory evaluations were normal including urine drug screen and computed tomography. Upon questioning, she admitted to abusing DXM for the past several months. A serum DXM level at this time was 988.3 ng/mL. She was admitted to the hospital for 24 hours without sequelae. All further diagnostic testing was cancelled, and she was referred to a drug rehabilitation program. Abuse of DXM is increasing in incidence. The serum level of our

  7. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  8. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  9. A differential role for neuropeptides in acute and chronic adaptive responses to alcohol: behavioural and genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mitchell

    Full Text Available Prolonged alcohol consumption in humans followed by abstinence precipitates a withdrawal syndrome consisting of anxiety, agitation and in severe cases, seizures. Withdrawal is relieved by a low dose of alcohol, a negative reinforcement that contributes to alcohol dependency. This phenomenon of 'withdrawal relief' provides evidence of an ethanol-induced adaptation which resets the balance of signalling in neural circuits. We have used this as a criterion to distinguish between direct and indirect ethanol-induced adaptive behavioural responses in C. elegans with the goal of investigating the genetic basis of ethanol-induced neural plasticity. The paradigm employs a 'food race assay' which tests sensorimotor performance of animals acutely and chronically treated with ethanol. We describe a multifaceted C. elegans 'withdrawal syndrome'. One feature, decrease reversal frequency is not relieved by a low dose of ethanol and most likely results from an indirect adaptation to ethanol caused by inhibition of feeding and a food-deprived behavioural state. However another aspect, an aberrant behaviour consisting of spontaneous deep body bends, did show withdrawal relief and therefore we suggest this is the expression of ethanol-induced plasticity. The potassium channel, slo-1, which is a candidate ethanol effector in C. elegans, is not required for the responses described here. However a mutant deficient in neuropeptides, egl-3, is resistant to withdrawal (although it still exhibits acute responses to ethanol. This dependence on neuropeptides does not involve the NPY-like receptor npr-1, previously implicated in C. elegans ethanol withdrawal. Therefore other neuropeptide pathways mediate this effect. These data resonate with mammalian studies which report involvement of a number of neuropeptides in chronic responses to alcohol including corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF, opioids, tachykinins as well as NPY. This suggests an evolutionarily conserved role

  10. Comparison of pharmaceutical, illicit drug, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine levels in wastewater with sale, seizure and consumption data for 8 European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Salvatore, Stefania; Gracia-Lor, Emma;

    2016-01-01

    for the comparison. RESULTS: High agreement was found between wastewater and other data sources for pharmaceuticals and cocaine, whereas amphetamines, alcohol and caffeine showed a moderate correlation. methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and nicotine did not correlate with other sources...

  11. Aspectos neurofarmacológicos do uso crônico e da Síndrome de Abstinência do Alcool Neuropharmacological aspects of chronic alcohol use and withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zaleski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é o de revisar e descrever as principais alterações neurofarmacológicas causadas pela exposição crônica ao álcool, assim como os fenômenos ocorridos durante o período de abstinência. São apresentados dados referentes às alterações neuroadaptativas e de tolerância ocorridas nos principais sistemas de monoaminas, aminoácidos neurotransmissores e canais de cálcio, o que está relacionado a uma piora no prognóstico de portadores de comorbidades psiquiátricas com o consumo de álcool. São também descritos alguns estudos relevantes que demonstram o envolvimento de outros mecanismos de ação do álcool no sistema nervoso central, como o envolvimento de opióides, entre outras substâncias. O artigo reafirma a importância, para clínicos e pesquisadores, de um sempre maior entendimento do mecanismo de ação central do álcool, pois dele depende a busca por novas opções farmacológicas, tanto para a redução dos danos provocados pelo seu uso crônico, como para o tratamento da síndrome de abstinência a esta substância.The objective of this paper is to review and describe the main neuropharmacological changes caused by the chronic use of alcohol and those observed during its withdrawal period. The results show international data referring to the involvement of monoamine systems, neurotransmitters and calcium channels in both neuroadaptation and tolerance to alcohol effects and withdrawal. Relevant studies showing the participation of other systems in those mechanisms, as opioids and other substances, are also shown. The article reinforces the importance, for both physicians and researchers, of an always growing understanding of alcohol central mechanisms of action. This understanding is necessary to new pharmacological options to alcohol harm reduction as well as to alcohol withdrawal treatment.

  12. 酒精戒断综合征患者综合护理干预的对照研究%Control study of comprehensive nursing intervention in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂霞; 梁先锋; 张振文; 陈启辉; 黄丽秀

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨临床综合护理干预对酒精戒断综合征患者的临床疗效.方法 将60例酒精戒断性震颤谵妄患者随机分成综合护理干预组(研究组)和一般护理干预组(对照组),每组各30例.研究组在药物治疗的基础上配合一般性护理、心理护理、认知行为矫正、健康教育等措施;对照组只在药物治疗的基础上给予一般性护理措施.采用酒精戒断综合征评定量表、抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、临床疗效总评量表(CGI)评定其疗效.结果 研究组戒断综合征评定量表和临床疗效总评量表(CGI)在治疗后第14天评分分别为(2.56±0.70),(3.10±0.20)分,对照组为(8.56±1.05),(4.10±0.20)分;抑郁自评量表(SDS)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)第14天的评分与对照组相比,均有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 在药物治疗的基础上合并综合护理干预措施有助于提高酒精戒断综合征患者的疗效,巩固其康复效果.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of comprehensive nursing intervention on patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome in clinic. Methods 60 cases of alcohol withdrawal delirium tremors were randomly divided into the integrated nursing intervention group (the research group) and the general nursing intervention group (the control group), with 30 cases in each group. On the basis of drug therapy, the general care, psychological care, cognitive behavior modification, health education and other measures were adopted in the research group. Only the general nursing measure was given in the control group on the basis of drug therapy. The efficacy was assessed using the alcohol withdrawal syndrome scale, self-rating depression scale (SDS), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and clinical global impression (CGI). Results The scores of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome scale and clinical global impression (CGI) in the 14th day in the research group were(2.56±0.70) and (3.10±0.20), respectively, which were

  13. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood-alcohol

  14. The negative effects of alcohol hangover on high-anxiety phenotype rats are influenced by the glutamate receptors of the dorsal midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel Leite, L; Nobre, M J

    2012-06-28

    Alcoholism is a chronic disorder characterized by the appearance of a withdrawal syndrome following the abrupt cessation of alcohol intake that includes symptoms of physical and emotional disturbances, anxiety being the most prevalent symptom. In humans, it was shown that anxiety may increase the probability of relapse. In laboratory animals, however, the use of anxiety to predict alcohol preference has remained difficult. Excitatory amino acids as glutamate have been implicated in alcohol hangover and may be responsible for the seizures and anxiety observed during withdrawal. The dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) is a midbrain region critical for the modulation/expression of anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and the propagation of seizures induced by alcohol withdrawal, the glutamate neurotransmission being one of the most affected. The present study was designed to evaluate whether low- (LA) and high-anxiety rats (HA), tested during the alcohol hangover phase, in which anxiety is the most prevalent symptom, are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of alcohol when tested in a voluntary alcohol drinking procedure. Additionally, we were interested in investigating the main effects of reducing the excitatory tonus of the dorsal midbrain, after the blockade of the ionotropic glutamate receptors into the DPAG, on the voluntary alcohol intake of HA and LA motivated rats that were made previously experienced with the free operant response of alcohol drinking. For this purpose, we used local infusions of the N-metil D-Aspartato (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-kainate receptors antagonist DL-2-Amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid - DL-AP7 (10 nmol/0.2 μl) and l-glutamic acid diethyl ester - GDEE (160 nmol/0.2 μl), respectively. Alcohol intoxication was produced by 10 daily bolus intraperitonial (IP) injections of alcohol (2.0 g/kg). Peak-blood alcohol levels were determined by gas-chromatography analysis in order to assess blood-alcohol

  15. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in...

  16. : Seizure onset zone imaging

    OpenAIRE

    David, Olivier; Blauwblomme, Thomas; Job, Anne-Sophie; Chabardès, Stéphan; Hoffmann, Dominique,; Minotti, Lorella; Kahane, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    International audience Stereo-electroencephalography is used to localize the seizure onset zone and connected neuronal networks in surgical candidates suffering from intractable focal epilepsy. The concept of an epileptogenicity index has been proposed recently to represent the likelihood of various regions being part of the seizure onset zone. It quantifies low-voltage fast activity, the electrophysiological signature of seizure onset usually assessed visually by neurologists. Here, we re...

  17. Viruses and febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    We conclude that viral infections are the main cause of febrile seizures, with an important role for influenza A, HHV-6 and HHV-7. We showed that several viral infections not only contribute to initial febrile seizures, but also to recurrences. Viruses could not be detected in the CSF of children wi

  18. FEBRILE SEIZURE AND ANEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talebian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveConsidering the controversial results in present day literature regarding the relationship between febrile seizures and anemia and the high rate of such seizures in children, this study was conducted to evaluate the association between pediatric febrile seizures and anemia.Material and MethodsIn this case-control study, conducted in 2003, 60 children with febrile seizure(cases and 60 febrile children without seizure(controls were evaluated in the Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital; all patients were matched for age, sex, type of feeding, and use of supplemental iron. Thirty-six (60% and 39 (65% of the patients in case and control groups respectively were male, and the remaining female. Levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell indices were determined in all children and Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze data.ResultsOf the case group, 13.3% (6 male, 2 female and of controls, 20% (9 male, 3 female of children had anemia (p= 0.327, the condition being more common in male children aged over 6 months. Febrile seizures were found to occur mostly between the ages of 6 to 24 months.ConclusionThe risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children seems to be less than that in children who do not suffer from the condition.Keywords:Febrile seizure, Anemia, Children

  19. Endogenous bufadienolide mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkin, Vladimir A.; Zvartau, Edwin E.; Fedorova, Olga V.; Bagrov, Yakov Y.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Bagrov, Alexei Y.

    2007-01-01

    An endogenous natriuretic and vasoconstrictor Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, marinobufagenin (MBG), is implicated in NaCl-induced hypertension and in ethanol addiction. In rats, MBG suppresses voluntary alcohol intake, while immunization against MBG induces alcohol-seeking behavior. Since alcohol withdrawal is associated with elevation of blood pressure (BP) and renal sodium retention, we hypothesized that MBG mediates pressor response to ethanol withdrawal. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, forced ethano...

  20. Impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome on social phobia and panic disorder in alcoholic inpatients Impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência de álcool sobre a fobia social e o transtorno de pânico em pacientes alcoolistas hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal on the course of social phobia and panic disorder. METHOD: A group of 41 alcoholic inpatients undergoing detoxification therapy were interviewed using the SCID-I (DSM-IV and questions to detect fluctuations in the course of social phobia and panic disorder as a function of the different phases in alcohol dependence (intoxication, withdrawal, and lucid interval. RESULTS: Only 1 (2.4% patient presented panic disorder throughout life, and 9 (21.9% had panic attacks during alcohol intoxication or during the withdrawal syndrome. Sixteen (39% alcoholic patients showed social phobia with onset prior to drug use. However, drinking eventually became unable to alleviate social phobia symptoms or worsened such symptoms in 31.2% of social-phobic patients. While patients with social phobia reported a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms during alcohol intoxication, patients experiencing panic attacks worsened significantly during intoxication. In the withdrawal phase, patients with social phobia tended to have more and more intense phobic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the impact of alcohol intoxication is different for social phobia as compared to panic disorder, at first decreasing the social-phobic symptoms but later aggravating them. In panic disorder, the impact of intoxication by alcohol is more harmful, at least in the short term.OBJETIVO: Estudar o impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência do uso de álcool sobre o curso da fobia social e do transtorno de pânico. MÉTODO: Um grupo de 41 pacientes hospitalizados por dependência de álcool foi entrevistado com o SCID-I (DSM-IV, adicionado de perguntas para detectar as flutuações no curso da fobia social e do transtorno do pânico em função das diferentes fases do uso da droga (intoxicação, abstinência e intervalo lúcido. RESULTADOS: Apenas um (2,4% paciente, apresentou transtorno

  1. Four-year outcome after early withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, AT; Niermeijer, JMF; Arts, WFM; Brouwer, OF; Stroink, H; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, CA

    2005-01-01

    Four-year follow-up of children with epilepsy included in a randomized trial of early withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs showed that 51% achieved a terminal remission of at least 2 years without medication and 21% with medication; 15% had seizures during the fourth year. Early medication withdrawal i

  2. Investigations into the behavioural and neurobiological effects of repeated ethanol withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a rat model, by which the effects of repeated ethanol withdrawal on withdrawal severity was investigated, in relation to the cognitive and behavioural deficits associated with repeated episodes of withdrawal. Repeated ethanol withdrawal in the rat has been well established to model the effects of repeated episodes of human alcohol detoxification. This model has enabled the study of withdrawal severity and the role of the prefrontal cortex in the form of rat behaviour. ...

  3. Mechanism of Seizure Termination

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms contributing to seizure termination and organized according to membranes, synapses, networks, and circuits are reviewed by researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

  4. Fibromyalgia and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Langston, Michael E; Acton, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case-matched study was to determine how frequently fibromyalgia is associated with different paroxysmal neurological disorders and explore the utility of fibromyalgia as a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. The billing diagnosis codes of 1,730 new, non-selected patient encounters were reviewed over a three-year period for an epileptologist in a neurology clinic to identify all patients with historical diagnoses of fibromyalgia. The frequency with which epileptic seizures, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and physiological non-epileptic events were comorbid with fibromyalgia was assessed. Age and gender case-matched controls were used for a between-group comparison. Wilcoxon tests were used to analyse interval data, and Chi-square was used to analyse categorical data (pFibromyalgia was retrospectively identified in 95/1,730 (5.5%) patients in this cohort. Females represented 95% of the fibromyalgia sample (age: 53 years; 95% CI: 57, 51). Forty-three percent of those with fibromyalgia had a non-paroxysmal, neurological primary clinical diagnosis, most commonly chronic pain. Paroxysmal events were present in 57% of fibromyalgia patients and 54% of case-matched controls. Among patients with fibromyalgia and paroxysmal disorders, 11% had epileptic seizures, 74% had psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, and 15% had physiological non-epileptic events, compared to case-matched controls with 37% epileptic seizures, 51% psychogenic non-epileptic events, and 12% physiological non-epileptic events (p = 0.009). Fibromyalgia was shown to be a predictor for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in patients with undifferentiated paroxysmal spells. However, our results suggest that the specificity and sensitivity of fibromyalgia as a marker for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in a mixed general neurological population of patients is less than previously described. PMID:27238051

  5. Seizures Induced by Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ogunyemi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicogenic epilepsy is a rare disorder. Much remains to be learned about the electroclinical features. This report describes a patient who has been followed at our institution for 17 years, and was investigated with long-term telemetered simultaneous video-EEG recordings. She began to have seizures at the age of 10 years. She experienced complex partial seizures, often preceded by elementary auditory hallucination and complex auditory illusion. The seizures occurred in relation to singing, listening to music or thinking about music. She also had occasional generalized tonic clonic seizures during sleep. There was no significant antecedent history. The family history was negative for epilepsy. The physical examination was unremarkable. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal. During long-term simultaneous video-EEG recordings, clinical and electrographic seizure activities were recorded in association with singing and listening to music. Mathematical calculation, copying or viewing geometric patterns and playing the game of chess failed to evoke seizures.

  6. Role of central histaminergic system in lorazepam withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, C; Gupta, M B

    2001-04-01

    Effects of histaminergic agonists and antagonists were investigated on withdrawal signs in lorazepam-dependent rats. Physical dependence was developed by giving lorazepam admixed with the food in the following dose schedule (in mg/kg given daily x days): 10 x 4, 20 x 4, 40 x 4, 80 x 4, and 120 x 7. The parameters observed during the periods of administration of lorazepam and after its withdrawal were spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA), reaction time to pain, foot shock aggression (FSA), and audiogenic seizures. During the withdrawal period, the rats were divided into groups of 10 each. Control-withdrawal group did not receive any drug. The drugs (in mg/kg administered intramuscularly)--L-histidine (50), histamine-N-methyl (2), promethazine (10), pheniramine (10), astemizole (10), and thioperamide (1)--were given separately in other groups daily during the withdrawal period. The withdrawal signs in control group were hyperkinesia, hyperaggression, and audiogenic seizures. L-Histidine, precursor of histamine, and thioperamide, antagonist of H3 receptor, potentiated hyperkinesia, hyperaggression, and audiogenic seizures. Histamine-N-methyl, agonist of H3 receptor, and H1 receptor antagonists, promethazine and pheniramine, blocked all the withdrawal signs. Astemizole, a peripheral antagonist of H1 receptor, could not affect any withdrawal sign. It may be concluded that histamine H1 receptors are facilitatory and H3 receptors are inhibitory for benzodiazepine (BZD) withdrawal syndrome.

  7. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  8. Febrile and other occasional seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, T; Carmant, L

    2013-01-01

    Seizures with fever that result from encephalitis or meningitis usually occur late in the course of febrile illness, and are focal and prolonged. Febrile seizures are by far the most common affecting 5% of the population, followed by posttraumatic seizures and those observed in the setting of a toxic, infectious, or metabolic encephalopathy. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation of the three most common forms, due to fever, trauma, and intoxication. Febrile seizures carry no cognitive or mortality risk. Recurrence risk is increased by young age, namely before 1 year of age. Febrile seizures that persist after the age of 6 years are usually part of the syndrome of Generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus. These febrile seizures have a strong link with epilepsy since non-febrile seizures may occur later in the same patient and in other members of the same family with an autosomal dominant transmission. Complex febrile seizures, i.e., with focal or prolonged manifestations or followed by focal defect, are related to later mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis; risk factors are seizure duration and brain malformation. Prophylactic treatment is usually not required in febrile seizures. Early onset of complex seizures is the main indication for AED prophylaxis. Early posttraumatic seizures, i.e., within the first week, are often focal and indicate brain trauma: contusion, hematoma, 24 hours amnesia, and depressed skull fracture are major factors of posttraumatic epilepsy. Prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is not effective. Various psychotropic drugs, including antiepileptics, may cause seizures.

  9. Awake seizures after pure sleep-related epilepsy: a systematic review and implications for driving law

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Rhys H.; King, Will H; Johnston, Ann; Smith, Philip EM

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Who with sleep seizures is safe to drive? Driving law is controversial; ineligibility varies between individual US states and EU countries. Current UK driving law is strongly influenced by a single-centre study from 1974 where most participants were not taking antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, pure sleep-related epilepsy is often fully controlled on medication, and its withdrawal can provoke awake seizures. This systematic review asked, `What is the risk of awake se...

  10. Discovering Genes Involved in Alcohol Dependence and Other Alcohol Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Kari J.; Milner, Lauren C.; Denmark, Deaunne L.; Grant, Seth G.N.; Kozell, Laura B.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a varie...

  11. Effect of medication withdrawal on the interictal epileptiform EEG discharges in presurgical evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.B.; Alving, J.; Beniczky, S.

    2010-01-01

    Medication withdrawal (MW) is an important method of provoking seizures and activating epileptiform EEG activity during the diagnostic work-up of patients evaluated for epilepsy surgery. Previously it was suggested that MW might influence the seizure-type and activate cortical areas otherwise...... not producing epileptiform discharges, leading to a false localization of the irritative zone. In order to investigate this we reviewed 42 consecutive cases of MW, of 36 patients, during a 3-year period. We compared seizure frequency, seizure-types and the localization of interictal epileptiform discharges...

  12. 29 CFR 4219.11 - Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. 4219.11 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.11 Withdrawal liability upon mass withdrawal. (a) Initial withdrawal liability. The plan sponsor of a multiemployer plan that experiences a...

  13. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF SEIZURES (EPILEPSY IN PEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study is aimed to reassess the role of CT in detecting various epileptogenic lesions with multi detector CT imaging, to know the value of CECT is evaluation of various lesions and to know the commonest CNS lesions ca using afebrile se i zures in Paediatric age group is the local population. METHODOLOGY: The study consists of 70 Pediatric patients suffering from afebrile seizures referred to Radio – diagnostic department S.V.R.R. Hospital at Tirupati for C.T. brain invest igation. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : A s our study is to evaluate epilepsy characterized by recurrent (more than two episodes seizures, with no immediate identifiable and avoidable cause (sleep deprivation, known metabolic disorders, alcohol withdrawal, pyrexia. Therefore we excluded patients below one month ago. Febrile convulsions, acute infections, toxic and known metabolic disorders Equipment used is Fourth generation Four slice CT with scan time 0.7 seconds Matrix size 640, gantry tilt 120, KV – 120 MAs – 100 to 200, Slice thickness 5mm and 2mm Auto power injector 3 to 3.5 ml per second. NECT : Continuous axial sections of brain, posterior fossa 3mm and rest of brain 5mm sections and 2mm sections were taken wherever necessary CECT is carried out logically in th ose cases which were inconclusive or ambiguous and NECT excluding more definite cases like congenital anomalies and calcified granulomas without peri lesion edema. IV CONTRAST : Non - ionic contrast medium at 1mg / kg body weight was used whenever indicated, n o adverse reactions were noted after injection of contrast medium and sedation was advised whenever the patient was un co - operative. RESULTS: In the present study we evaluated to cases of Pediatric Se i zures and observed and analyzed our findings with the available relevant clinical data and concluded that ; Out of 70 cases there are a Slight female Predilection 57%. And maximum incidence of Seizures was in the first 3 years, but

  14. Analysis on nursing intervention effect in patients with alcoholic liver disease combined withdrawal syndrome%酒精性肝病合并戒断综合征患者护理干预效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊叶; 安纪红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological condition and nursing intervention methods in patients with alcoholic liver disease combined withdrawal syndrome.Methods We use the self-assessment lists of symptom scale (SCL-90), anxiety self-assessment (SAS) and depression self rating scale (SDS) in 50 patients with chronic severe hepatitis is evaluated, the country give corresponding nursing intervention for psychological problems, assess again after intervention, the assessment result of intervention before separately with the national norm, the evaluation results after nursing intervention.Results Alcoholic liver disease combined withdrawal syndrome patient intervention before the SCL-90, SAS and SDS scores were higher than the national norm, with very significant difference (P< 0.01). Score comparison difference before and after the intervention has very signiifcant (P< 0.01). Aware of knowledge about patients’ health at discharge was signiifcantly better than on admission (P< 0.05).Conclusions Take positive and effective clinical nursing interventions that can make withdrawal syndrome patients overcome negative psychological emotional response, effectively improve the psychological condition, improve the treatment compliance, promote symptom improvement and rehabilitation of disease.%目的:探讨酒精性肝病合并戒断综合征患者的心理状况及护理干预方法。方法采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对50例慢性重症肝炎患者进行测评,对心理问题突出者给予相应的护理干预,干预后再次进行评定,将干预前的测评结果分别同全国常模、护理干预后的测评结果进行比较。结果酒精性肝病合并戒断综合征患者干预前SCL-90、SAS、SDS得分均高于全国常模,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);干预前后得分比较,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01)。患者出院时健康知识知晓

  15. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI

    2013-01-01

    parental knowledge, attitudes, concerns and practices. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Jan;105(1:38-48. Vaswani RK, Dharaskar PG, Kulkarni S, Ghosh K. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure. Indian Pediatr. 2010 May;47(5:437-9.Sadleir LG, Scheffer IE. Febrile seizures. BMJ. 2007 Feb;334(7588:307-11.Mohebbi MR, Holden KR, Butler IJ. FIRST: a practical approach to the causes and management of febrile seizures. J Child Neurol. 2008 Dec;23(12:1484-9.Salehi Omran M, Khalilian E, Mehdipour E et al. Febrile seizures in North Iranian children: Epidemiology and clinical feature. J Pediatr Neurol. 2008;6(1:39-42.Bidabadi E, Mashouf M. Association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile convulsion. A case-control study. Seizure. 2009 Jun;18(5:347-51.Vahidnia F, Eskenazi B, Jewell N. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, and febrile convulsion. Seizure. 2008 Jun;17(4:320-6.Ashrafzade F, Hashemzadeh A, Malek A. Acute otitis Media in Children with Febrile Convulsion. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;16(35:33-9.Millichap JJ, Gordon Millichap J. Methods of investigation and management of infections causing febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6:381-6.Hosseini Nasab A, Dai pariz M, Alidousti K. Demographic characteristics and predisposing factors of febrile seizures in children admitted to Hospital No. 1 of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Med Counc Islam Repub Iran. 2006;24(2:107-12.Keller A, Saucier D, Sheerin A, Yager J. Febrile convulsions affect ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat pup. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Oct;5(5:649-54.Ogihara M, Shirakawa S, Miyajima T, Takekuma K, Hoshika A. Diurnal variation in febrile convulsions. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Jun;42(6:409-12.Fallah R, Akhavan S, Mir Sadat Nasseri F. Clinical and demographic characteristics of first febrile seizure in children. J Shaeed Sdoughi Uni Med Sci Yazd. 2009;16(5:61-5.Khodapanahande F, VahidHarandi N, Esmaeli F. Evaluation of seasonal variation and circadian rhythm of febrile seizures in

  16. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  17. 酒精戒断综合征:机制、评估及药物治疗进展%Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome:Updates on Mechanism, Assessment and Pharmacotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 盛利霞; 郝伟; 汤宜朗

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To review the updates on mechanism of,and assessment and pharmacotherapy for alcohol Withdrawal syn-drome(AWS). Methods:Literature review and hand-picked literature. Results:We reviewed the time-course,mechanism(espe-cially mechanism related to GABA and NMDA systems),assessment and medications for AWS. Detailed discussions are provided re-garding fixed-dosed and symptom-triggered methods when using benzodiazepines for AWS. Role of other medications is also discussed. Conclusion:AWS is common and of diagnostic value in alcohol dependence. Alterations in GABA/ NMDA system after prolonged ex-posure to alcohol is believed to be the primary mechanism for AWS and long-acting benzodiazepines are the first-line pharmacotherapy, though other medications have been tried. Either fixed-dose or symptom-triggered method can be used,depending on the setting,clini-cians’preference and staff training.%目的:介绍酒精戒断综合征(AWS)的机制、评估及药物治疗方面的进展。方法:对近年相关文献进行复习。结果:本文对 AWS 的时程、机制(尤其是涉及 GABA 及 NMDA 递质系统)、评估及药物治疗进行了介绍。详细讨论了固定剂量法及对症给药法的具体细节。对其他药物的使用也略有介绍。结论:AWS 比较常见且对酒精将具有诊断意义。长期饮酒导致的GABA/ NMDA 系统的改变是 AWS 的主要机制,长效苯二氮□类药是控制 AWS 的一线药物,不过其他药物也有使用。具体是使用固定剂量法还是对症给药法则以治疗环境、医生的偏好以及员工的培训情况而定。

  18. Seizures Complicating Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 116 patients, 1 month to <5 years of age, admitted for bacterial meningitis, and grouped according to those with and without seizures during hospitalization, were compared in a study at Buddhist Dalin Tzu Chi General Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and other centers in Taiwan.

  19. Relationship between alcohol craving levels and sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal of alcohol dependence patients%酒依赖患者戒断初期酒精渴求程度与睡眠障碍的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜好瑞; 李拴荣; 穆俊林; 徐建强; 王传升; 崔二龙; 李冲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristic of sleep disorders in the initial stage of withdrawal and their relationships with alcohol craving levels in alcohol dependence (AD) patients,and provide support for diagnosis and prevention of re-drinking.Methods Thirty-two AD inpatients were assigned to AD group and 20 male healthy volunteers to control group.Alcohol craving was assessed with the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) within the 2nd week after alcohol withdrawal for AD patients,and then the whole-night polysomnogram (PSG) tracings were conducted on the day of the night.Results The five item scores of the PACS were from 3.48 to 4.26 in AD patients.The sleep latency was(42.48±22.42) min,total sleep time was(289.61± 103.22)min,sleep efficiency was(71.45± 19.86) %,S1 sleep was (23.47± 11.07) %,arousal frequencies was (8.01 ± 2.77),S3+4 sleep was(6.26±5.35)% in AD group.Compared with control group((19.65±8.57) min,(407.33±21.29) min,(81.52 ± 6.46) %,(8.79± 1.83) %,(2.17 ± 1.04),(15.87 ± 5.24) % respectively),the differences had statistical significances(t=2.206-9.082,P< 0.05-0.001).Alcohol craving levels were positively related to sleep latency,arousal frequencies and S1 sleep (r=0.424-0.898,P<0.05-0.01) and negatively to total sleep time,sleep efficiency and S3+4 sleep (r=-0.416--0.662,P<0.05-0.01) in AD group.Conclusion AD patients have sleep continuity and structure disturbances in the initial stage of alcohol withdrawal,sleep continuity and structure disturbances are related to alcohol craving.Improvements of sleep disorders should be paid during clinical alcohol dependence treatment.%目的 探讨酒依赖患者酒精戒断初期睡眠障碍的特点,及其与饮酒渴求程度的关系,为临床诊治和防止复饮提供帮助.方法 以32例住院治疗的酒依赖患者为酒依赖组,20例男性健康志愿者为对照组,在酒精戒断后第2周内,酒依赖组采用宾夕

  20. Change of depression-like behavior in chronic alcoholism and withdrawal model, and co-mechanism of depression and chronic alcoholism in mice%小鼠慢性酒精中毒及戒断过程中抑郁样行为的改变及其共病机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋曦; 田福荣; 赵应征

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究小鼠慢性酒精中毒及戒断过程中抑郁样行为的改变,进一步探讨酒精中毒与抑郁症的共病机制。方法:构建新型慢性酒精中毒小鼠模型;实验分为正常对照组及慢性酒精7 d、14 d、21 d和28 d组。在第6、13、20和27天分别进行酒精偏好度测试,测试后戒断酒精1 d,随后次日进行抑郁行为学测试,测试结束后处死小鼠取海马与额叶皮层,采用高效液相色谱法测定5-羟色胺(5-HT)及去甲肾上腺素(NE)含量,采用免疫印迹法测定cAMP反应元件结合蛋白( CREB)和脑源性神经营养因子( BDNF)的含量。结果:随着酒精饮酒天数及戒断次数的增加,小鼠表现出明显嗜酒现象,并且在强迫游泳和悬尾测试中,表现出明显的不动时间增加。7d组小鼠额叶皮层内5-HT水平升高(P<0.05),海马与额叶5-HT水平在21 d与28 d组降低(P<0.01);7 d和14 d组小鼠海马与额叶NE水平无明显变化,21 d和28 d组NE水平降低( P<0.05)。21 d和28 d组小鼠海马与额叶内p-CREB/CREB比值及BDNF表达水平明显下降( P<0.05),7 d与14 d组无明显变化。结论:酒精中毒、戒断阶段与抑郁的共病机制涉及5-HT。5-HT-cAMP-CREB-BDNF信号转导通路可能为酒精中毒与抑郁症的共病机制。%AIM: To investigate the behavior of depression in chronic alcoholism and withdrawal model of mice, and to explore the co-mechanism of alcoholism and depression.METHODS: A novel model of chronic alcoholism was constructed in this study.The animals were divided into normal control group, and alcohol 7 d, 14 d, 21 d and 28 d groups.The mice were given alcohol preference test on the 6th, 13th, 20th and 27th days.After the test, alcohol were withdrawn for 1 d, then the next day the mice were given behavior test of depression.After the test, the mice were sacri-ficed.The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine

  1. 78 FR 41185 - Denial of Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... likely achieve a level of safety that is equivalent to, or greater than, the level that would be achieved... driving; by metabolic derangement not likely to recur; and by alcohol or illicit drug withdrawal....

  2. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir; Pinar Tektürk; Zehra Oya Uyguner; Betül Baykan

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkab...

  3. Seizures induced by playing music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherling, W W; Hershman, L M; Miller, J Q; Lee, S I

    1980-09-01

    A 67-year-old organist and minister with diabetes mellitus had stereotyped focal seizures of the left lower face, jaw, and neck. Attacks occurred spontaneously or were induced when he played a specific hymn on the organ. The seizures were not induced by reading, singing, hearing, or playing the hymn silently. The patient had interictal weakness of the left lower face and left side of the tongue. Focal seizures were recorded on an electroencephalogram (EEG) at the right temporofrontal area. This patient illustrates partial seizures induced by playing music. PMID:6775246

  4. Seizure activity post organophosphate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, John

    2009-01-01

    Electrographic seizures are a feature of organophosphate anticholinesterase intoxication. Clinical studies of pesticide poisonings suggest that seizures are more common in children than in adults. Since flaccid paralysis, a characteristic sign of organophosphate poisoning, can mask convulsions, the most reliable indicator of seizures is the electroencephalogram, but this has not been widely used in clinical studies. Seizures can rapidly progress to status epilepticus, contributing to mortality and, in survivors, to neuronal damage and neurological impairment. Anticonvulsant drugs can significantly reduce the lethal and toxic effects of these compounds. A benzodiazepine, usually diazepam, is the treatment currently indicated for control of seizures. Animal studies have indicated that the early phase of seizure activity (0-5 min after seizure onset) is purely cholinergic, predominantly involving muscarinic mechanisms. Seizure activity subsequently progresses through mixed cholinergic and noncholinergic modulation (5-40 min) into a final noncholinergic phase. Neuropathology caused by seizures is most likely associated with glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Future prospects for improved treatments include new benzodiazepines, glutamate receptor antagonists, antimuscarinics with additional antiglutamatergic activity and adenosine receptor antagonists.

  5. Sex Differences in Acoustic Startle Responses and Seizure Thresholds between Ethanol-Withdrawn Male and Female Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, William; Koirala, Bikul; Devaud, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: We have found consistent and significant sex differences in recovery from the increased seizure susceptibility observed during ethanol withdrawal (EW) in our rat model system. The main objective of the present study was to determine if sex differences in EW generalized to an additional behavioral measure startle reactivity. Methods: Acoustic startle or seizure threshold responses were measured in separate groups of rats at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Results: Both pair-fed control and EW mal...

  6. Seizures and Teens: Using Technology to Develop Seizure Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Patricia O.; Schachter, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Most people learn about seizures from their doctors, but others know only what they have seen on television. Unfortunately, visits to doctor's office aren't long enough to learn all that is needed, and often times, doctors and nurses aren't available to teach this information. Seizures are often represented inaccurately and too dramatically on…

  7. Factor Analysis of the Aftereffects of Drinking in Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Performed factor analyses of 100 alcoholics' reports of the effects that they experience after alcohol consumption. Five factors emerged: Hangover, Euphoria, Flushing, Seizures, and Sleepiness. These factors may be helpful in assessing theories on the etiology of alcoholism and in studies of ethanol's effects on subsets of alcohol abusers. (BH)

  8. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot. PMID:26662874

  9. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  10. Predicting epileptic seizures in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Moghim

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, affecting 0.6-0.8% of the world's population. In this neurological disorder, abnormal activity of the brain causes seizures, the nature of which tend to be sudden. Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs are used as long-term therapeutic solutions that control the condition. Of those treated with AEDs, 35% become resistant to medication. The unpredictable nature of seizures poses risks for the individual with epilepsy. It is clearly desirable to find more effective ways of preventing seizures for such patients. The automatic detection of oncoming seizures, before their actual onset, can facilitate timely intervention and hence minimize these risks. In addition, advance prediction of seizures can enrich our understanding of the epileptic brain. In this study, drawing on the body of work behind automatic seizure detection and prediction from digitised Invasive Electroencephalography (EEG data, a prediction algorithm, ASPPR (Advance Seizure Prediction via Pre-ictal Relabeling, is described. ASPPR facilitates the learning of predictive models targeted at recognizing patterns in EEG activity that are in a specific time window in advance of a seizure. It then exploits advanced machine learning coupled with the design and selection of appropriate features from EEG signals. Results, from evaluating ASPPR independently on 21 different patients, suggest that seizures for many patients can be predicted up to 20 minutes in advance of their onset. Compared to benchmark performance represented by a mean S1-Score (harmonic mean of Sensitivity and Specificity of 90.6% for predicting seizure onset between 0 and 5 minutes in advance, ASPPR achieves mean S1-Scores of: 96.30% for prediction between 1 and 6 minutes in advance, 96.13% for prediction between 8 and 13 minutes in advance, 94.5% for prediction between 14 and 19 minutes in advance, and 94.2% for prediction between 20 and 25 minutes in advance.

  11. Children of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at home: Failure in school; truancy Lack of friends; withdrawal from classmates Delinquent behavior, such as stealing or violence Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or ...

  12. NEONATAL SEIZURES: ETIOLOGY AND FREQUENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eghbalian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the etiology and frequency of neonatal seizure in hospitalized neonates.Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 1295 neonates with seizures admitted to neonatal and NICU wards in our center. Data was collected on age, sex, birth weight, serum levels of calcium, glucose, and sodium, CT scan findings, history of maternal opium abuse, blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture, and analyzed using SPSS 13.ResultsOf a total of 1295 patients, 34 (2.62% had seizure. Mean age was 14.03 ± 10.05 days (range, 1 to 29 days; twenty-five (73.5% neonates were boys and 9 (26.5% were girls. Of 34 neonates with neonatal seizures, 12 (35.3%, 11 (32.4%, 9 (26.5%, 7 (20.6%, and 3 (8.8% had hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia, respectively.Maternal addiction, meningitis, and sepsis were found in 3 (8.8%, 1 (2.9% and 1 (2.9% of neonates, respectively.ConclusionThe incidence rate of neonatal seizure in the neonates in our NICU and neonatal ward was 2.62%. Common causes of seizure in this study included hypocalcemia, asphyxia, hypoglycemia, intracranial hemorrhage, and hypernatremia. Maternal ddiction, meningitis and sepsis had the lowest prevalence.Keywords:Neonate, Seizure, Etiologies.

  13. Occipital seizures imitating migraine aura.

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotopoulos, C P; Sharoqi, I A; Agathonikou, A

    1997-01-01

    Three cases are reported in which symptoms of occipital seizures resembled the visual aura of migraine. Careful recording of the characteristics and timing of such visual effects will often resolve the diagnostic dilemma.

  14. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

  15. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, Pınar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

  16. CHRONIC ALCOHOL NEUROADAPTATION AND STRESS CONTRIBUTE TO SUSCEPTIBILITY FOR ALCOHOL CRAVING AND RELAPSE

    OpenAIRE

    Breese, George R.; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Major characteristics observed in alcoholics during an initial period of alcohol abstinence are altered physiological functions and a negative emotional state. Evidence suggests that a persistent, cumulative adaptation involving a kindling/allostasis-like process occurs during the course of repeated chronic alcohol exposures that is critical for the negative symptoms observed during alcohol withdrawal. Basic studies have provided evidence for specif...

  17. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J

    2010-05-01

    Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics. PMID:20463875

  18. Assimilating seizure dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim Ullah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Observability of a dynamical system requires an understanding of its state-the collective values of its variables. However, existing techniques are too limited to measure all but a small fraction of the physical variables and parameters of neuronal networks. We constructed models of the biophysical properties of neuronal membrane, synaptic, and microenvironment dynamics, and incorporated them into a model-based predictor-controller framework from modern control theory. We demonstrate that it is now possible to meaningfully estimate the dynamics of small neuronal networks using as few as a single measured variable. Specifically, we assimilate noisy membrane potential measurements from individual hippocampal neurons to reconstruct the dynamics of networks of these cells, their extracellular microenvironment, and the activities of different neuronal types during seizures. We use reconstruction to account for unmeasured parts of the neuronal system, relating micro-domain metabolic processes to cellular excitability, and validate the reconstruction of cellular dynamical interactions against actual measurements. Data assimilation, the fusing of measurement with computational models, has significant potential to improve the way we observe and understand brain dynamics.

  19. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  20. [Martin Luther's seizure disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Martin Luther's diseases are well documented, because he used to discuss them freely in his letters. There is also a wealth of evidence through reports by his friends. Most of his diseases were common and well known to the contemporary physicians, who accordingly interpreted them correctly: bladder stones, chronic constipation, hemorrhoids. Luther's death obviously was due to a coronary thrombosis. During the last 19 years of his life, in addition to these "natural diseases", Luther also suffered from recurring attacks of a peculiar symptomatology. Luther himself and his friends considered these seizures to be no "natural disease", but Satan punching his flesh, and he compared them to St. Paul's disease (2. Cor. 12). The first of these attacks occurred on July 6, 1527, when Luther was 43 years of age. It began with a roaring tinnitus in his left ear, which increased dramatically and seemed to occupy the left half of his head. Then a state of sickness and collapse followed, however, consciousness was retained throughout the whole period. After a night's rest all the symptoms had subsided, except the tinnitus, which, from that day on, continued for all the following years in varying intensity. Similar attacks with increase of the tinnitus and vertigo as the leading symptoms, seized Luther at irregular intervals and distressed him extremely. Former investigators of Luther's diseases interpreted these attacks as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder and a chronic inflammatory disease of the middle ear. The present detailed study reveals that it was a typical case of Menière's disease of the left ear manifesting itself more than 330 years before Menière's classical observation.

  1. Osthole suppresses seizures in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Andres-Mach, Marta; Cisowski, Wojciech; Mazol, Irena; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of osthole {[7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one]--a natural coumarin derivative} in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. The antiseizure effects of osthole were determined at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after its systemic (i.p.) administration. Time course of anticonvulsant action of osthole revealed that the natural coumarin derivative produced a clear-cut antielectroshock activity in mice and the experimentally-derived ED(50) values for osthole ranged from 259 to 631 mg/kg. In conclusion, osthole suppresses seizure activity in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. It may become a novel treatment option following further investigation in other animal models of epilepsy and preclinical studies. PMID:19236860

  2. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  3. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  4. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  5. 27 CFR 22.113 - Receipt of tax-free alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of tax-free alcohol. 22.113 Section 22.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Withdrawal...

  6. Effect of Acetaldehyde Intoxication and Withdrawal on NPY Expression: Focus on Endocannabinoidergic System Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, Fulvio; Brancato, Anna; Marino, Rosa Anna Maria; Vita, Carlotta; Navarra, Michele; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first alcohol metabolite, plays a pivotal role in the rewarding, motivational, and addictive properties of the parental compound. Many studies have investigated the role of ACD in mediating neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by alcohol administration, but very little is known about the modulation of neuropeptide systems following ACD intoxication and withdrawal. Indeed, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is altered during alcohol withdrawal in key regions for cerebrocortical excitability and neuroplasticity. The primary goal of this research was to investigate the effects of ACD intoxication and withdrawal by recording rat behavior and by measuring NPY immunoreactivity in hippocampus and NAcc, two brain regions mainly involved in processes which encompass neuroplasticity in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, on the basis of the involvement of endocannabinoidergic system in alcohol and ACD reinforcing effects, the role of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 in modulating NPY expression during withdrawal was assessed. Our results indicate that (i) ACD intoxication induced a reduction in NPY expression in hippocampus and NAcc; (ii) symptoms of physical dependence, similar to alcohol's, were scored at 12 h from the last administration of ACD; and (iii) NPY levels increased in early and prolonged acute withdrawal in both brain regions examined. The administration of AM281 was able to blunt signs of ACD-induced physical dependence, to modulate NPY levels, and to further increase NPY expression during ACD withdrawal both in hippocampus and NAcc. In conclusion, the present study shows that complex plastic changes take place in NPY system during ACD intoxication and subsequent withdrawal in rat hippocampal formation and NAcc. The pharmacological inhibition of CB1 signaling could counteract the neurochemical imbalance associated with ACD, and alcohol withdrawal, likely boosting the setting up of homeostatic functional recovery.

  7. Seizures in the life and works of Edgar Allan Poe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazil, C W

    1999-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe, one of the most celebrated of American storytellers, lived through and wrote descriptions of episodic unconsciousness, confusion, and paranoia. These symptoms have been attributed to alcohol or drug abuse but also could represent complex partial seizures, prolonged postictal states, or postictal psychosis. Complex partial seizures were not well described in Poe's time, which could explain a misdiagnosis. Alternatively, he may have suffered from complex partial epilepsy that was complicated or caused by substance abuse. Even today, persons who have epilepsy are mistaken for substance abusers and occasionally are arrested during postictal confusional states. Poe was able to use creative genius and experiences from illness to create memorable tales and poignant poems.

  8. Temperature, age, and recurrence of febrile seizure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Prediction of a recurrent febrile seizure during subsequent episodes of fever. DESIGN: Study of the data of the temperatures, seizure recurrences, and baseline patient characteristics that were collected at a randomized placebo controlled trial of ibuprofen s

  9. Risk of Seizure Recurrence with Neurocysticercosis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC) was evaluated in a prospective study of 77 patients at the School of Medicine and Research Institute, University of Cuenca, Ecuador, and Columbia University, New York.

  10. Clinical study of dexmedetomidine in alcohol withdrawal syndrome patients in ICU%右美托咪定用于 ICU 酒精戒断综合征患者的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 姚兰; 邹捍东; 陈伟; 周青山

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the clinical effect and adverse reaction of dexmedetomidine ( DEX) in alcohol with-drawal syndrome patients (AWS) in ICU.Methods 96 AWS patients with nystagmus, anxiety, irritability symptoms were ran-domly divided into group A(n=32), group B(n=32) and group C(n=32) by random number table method.Group A were injected intravenously of dexmedetomidine load 0.5-1.0 μg/kg within 10 minutes and maintained at 0.2-0.6 μg/kg/h, Group B were injected intravenously of propofol load 0.5-2.0 mg/kg within 10 minutes and maintained 1 -3 mg/kg/h, Group C were injected intramuscular of diazepam temporarily .The sedative effect , mean arterial pressure , heart rate , respira-tory rate, pulse oxygen saturation , arterial oxygen partial pressure , CIWA-Ar score, APACHEⅡscore before treatment and after treatment were compared in the three groups .The ICU hospitalized time and mortality were analyzed in the three groups . The incidence of adverse effects include bradycardia , hypotension and respiratory depression were observed .Results The seda-tion good control rates in group A and group B was higher than that in group C (P0.05).The onset time of sedation was the shortest and dosage of diazepam was the least in group B, the differences were significantly different among the three groups (P all0.05).CIWA-Ar score and APACHEⅡscore of three groups were decreased compared with than before treatment (P<0.05), the scores of Group A were signifi-cantly decreased especially .Group A's ICU hospitalization time was shorter than that of Group C (P<0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can effectively relieve AWS symptoms such as agitation or delirium with less adverse effects .It can be rec-ommended in sedation treatment in AWS patients .%目的:观察右美托咪定治疗ICU酒精戒断综合征患者的临床疗效及安全性。方法采用随机数字表法将出现震颤(抽搐)、焦虑、激惹等表现的96例ICU酒精戒断综合征患者分为3

  11. Neonatal Seizures. Advances in Mechanisms and Management.

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, HC

    2013-01-01

    Seizures occur in approximately 1–5 per 1,000 live births, and are among the most common neurologic conditions managed by a neonatal neurocritical care service. There are several, age-specific factors that are particular to the developing brain, which influence excitability and seizure generation, response to medications, and impact of seizures on brain structure and function. Neonatal seizures are often associated with serious underlying brain injury such as hypoxia-ischemia, stroke or hemor...

  12. Types of Seizures Affecting Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... head from injury. Turn on side to keep airway clear. Reassure when consciousness returns. Time the event If single seizure lasted less than 5 minutes, ask the person if hospital evaluation is wanted. If multiple seizures, or if one seizure lasts ...

  13. Seizures after stroke : a prospective clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanuka A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of epilepsy in elderly. However, there have been very few prospective studies to define the incidence, pattern and outcome of seizures in stroke. Most studies are based on retrospective analysis of hospital records. Hence, we planned this prospective study to see the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of seizures in stroke and their outcome, from a north Indian tertiary care centre. Over a span of approximately 6 years, 269 consecutive patients with stroke were studied and followed up. Thirty-five (13% of these developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, during mean follow up period of 15.9 months. Twenty of these had infarctions while 15 had haemorrhages. Involvement of the cortical region was seen in most of the patients with seizures. In these patients, 86% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas on CT scan of the brain. Twenty-seven (77% developed early seizures, two third of them had immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients with early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 50% of late onset seizures developed epilepsy. No specific EEG pattern was found in those who later developed epilepsy. In the present study, early onset seizures after stroke were rather common and did not affect outcome and did not recur even when not treated with anti-epileptics. Late onset seizures were less common but were associated with recurrent seizures.

  14. Binge drinking during pregnancy and risk of seizures in childhood: a study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2009-01-01

    Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...

  15. Influence of the endogenous opioid system on high alcohol consumption and genetic predisposition to alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Gianoulakis, Christina

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting a link between the endogenous opioid system and excessive alcohol consumption. Acute or light alcohol consumption stimulates the release of opioid peptides in brain regions that are associated with reward and reinforcement and that mediate, at least in part, the reinforcing effects of ethanol. However, chronic heavy alcohol consumption induces a central opioid deficiency, which may be perceived as opioid withdrawal and may promote alcohol consumption th...

  16. Hypertension after clonidine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; deCarvalho, J G; Batson, H M; Frohlich, E D

    1978-05-01

    Rebound hypertension occurred in two patients upon clonidine withdrawal. Treatment of the hypertensive crisis consists of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, reserpine, or the reintroduction of clonidine. With effective control of pressure during the crisis, long-term antihypertensive therapy must be resumed.

  17. Dovish Candidate Withdraws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Former Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yasuo Fukuda formally announced on July 21 his withdrawal from the upcoming Liberal Democratic Party's (LDP) presidential election in September, citing his opposition to officials' visits to the war-related Yasukuni Shrine and his advanced age.

  18. A genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J Bierut; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Laurie, Cathy; Pugh, Elizabeth; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Howells, William; Bertelsen, Sarah; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Almasy, Laura; Breslau, Naomi; Culverhouse, Robert C; Dick, Danielle M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the leading causes of preventable death in the United States. Approximately 14% of those who use alcohol meet criteria during their lifetime for alcohol dependence, which is characterized by tolerance, withdrawal, inability to stop drinking, and continued drinking despite serious psychological or physiological problems. We explored genetic influences on alcohol dependence among 1,897 European-American and African-American subjects with alcohol dependenc...

  19. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  20. Nonlinear analysis of EEG for epileptic seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, L.M.; Clapp, N.E.; Daw, C.S.; Lawkins, W.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Eisenstadt, M.L. [Knoxville Neurology Clinic, St. Mary`s Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We apply chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) to human electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Three epoches were examined: epileptic seizure, non-seizure, and transition from non-seizure to seizure. The CTSA tools were applied to four forms of these data: raw EEG data (e-data), artifact data (f-data) via application of a quadratic zero-phase filter of the raw data, artifact-filtered data (g- data) and that was the residual after subtracting f-data from e-data, and a low-pass-filtered version (h-data) of g-data. Two different seizures were analyzed for the same patient. Several nonlinear measures uniquely indicate an epileptic seizure in both cases, including an abrupt decrease in the time per wave cycle in f-data, an abrupt increase in the Kolmogorov entropy and in the correlation dimension for e-h data, and an abrupt increase in the correlation dimension for e-h data. The transition from normal to seizure state also is characterized by distinctly different trends in the nonlinear measures for each seizure and may be potential seizure predictors for this patient. Surrogate analysis of e-data shows that statistically significant nonlinear structure is present during the non-seizure, transition , and seizure epoches.

  1. Glycolysis in energy metabolism during seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Yang; Jiongxing Wu; Ren Guo; Yufen Peng; Wen Zheng; Ding Liu; Zhi Song

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that glycolysis increases during seizures, and that the glycolytic metabolite lactic acid can be used as an energy source. However, how lactic acid provides energy for seizures and how it can participate in the termination of seizures remains unclear. We reviewed possible mechanisms of glycolysis involved in seizure onset. Results showed that lactic acid was involved in seizure onset and provided energy at early stages. As seizures progress, lactic acid reduces the pH of tissue and induces metabolic acidosis, which terminates the seizure. The specific mechanism of lactic acid-induced acidosis involves several aspects, which include lactic acid-induced inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme 6-diphosphate kinase-1, inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, activation of the acid-sensitive 1A ion channel, strengthening of the receptive mechanism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, and changes in the intra- and extracellular environment.

  2. Tramadole Withdrawal in a Neonate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Borna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol is a synthetics 4-phenyl-piperidine analogue of codeine used for treating moderate to severe pain. Tramadol is a FDA pregnancy category C medication which induces release of serotonin and inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Chronic use of this drug during pregnancy may lead to physical dependency and withdrawal syndrome in the neonate.Case presentation: We report the newborn of a woman admitted in the delivery ward of Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2011. The mother suffered from chronic low back pain and headache and frequently took tramadol during pregnancy. The infant had a gestational age of 38.5 w, a birth weight of 2950 gr and an Apgar score of 9/10 at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The first signs of withdrawal syndrome occurred after 24 h with nausea, vomiting, poor feeding, and tremor. Later, agitation, tremor, hyprertonicity, and repeated multifocal myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed. Clinical signs of withdrawal syndrome waned under phenobarbital therapy.Conclusion: Drug withdrawal syndrome should be considered in the neonates of pregnant mothers who chronically take tramadol. Tramadol administration during pregnancy should be restricted to carefully selected cases.

  3. Seizure-induced disinhibition of the HPA axis increases seizure susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Kate K; Hooper, Andrew; Wakefield, Seth; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the most commonly reported precipitating factor for seizures. The proconvulsant actions of stress hormones are thought to mediate the effects of stress on seizure susceptibility. Interestingly, epileptic patients have increased basal levels of stress hormones, including corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and corticosterone, which are further increased following seizures. Given the proconvulsant actions of stress hormones, we proposed that seizure-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may contribute to future seizure susceptibility. Consistent with this hypothesis, our data demonstrate that pharmacological induction of seizures in mice with kainic acid or pilocarpine increases circulating levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone, and exogenous corticosterone administration is sufficient to increase seizure susceptibility. However, the mechanism(s) whereby seizures activate the HPA axis remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis involves compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons, which govern HPA axis function. Following seizure activity, there is a collapse of the chloride gradient due to changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 expression, resulting in reduced amplitude of sIPSPs and even depolarizing effects of GABA on CRH neurons. Seizure-induced activation of the HPA axis results in future seizure susceptibility which can be blocked by treatment with an NKCC1 inhibitor, bumetanide, or blocking the CRH signaling with Antalarmin. These data suggest that compromised GABAergic control of CRH neurons following an initial seizure event may cause hyperexcitability of the HPA axis and increase future seizure susceptibility.

  4. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording.

  5. Smartphone applications for seizure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandher, Puneet Singh; Bhullar, Karamdeep Kaur

    2016-06-01

    Technological advancements continue to provide innovative ways of enhancing patient care in medicine. In particular, the growing popularity of smartphone technology has seen the recent emergence of a myriad of healthcare applications (or apps) that promise to help shape the way in which health information is delivered to people worldwide. While limited research already exists on a range of such apps, our study is the first to examine the salient features of smartphone applications as they apply to the area of seizure management. For the purposes of this review, we conducted a search of the official online application stores of the five major smartphone platforms: iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Windows Mobile and Nokia-Symbian. Apps were included if they reported to contain some information or tools relating to seizure management and excluded if they were aimed exclusively at health professionals. A total of 28 applications met these criteria. Overall, we found an increasing number of epilepsy apps available on the smartphone market, but with only a minority offering comprehensive educational information alongside tools such as seizure diaries, medication tracking and/or video recording. PMID:25038202

  6. Treatment Of Alcoholism In Family Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmer, David R.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment goals and treatment methods for alcoholism are discussed with particular emphasis on the role of the family physician in the management of this extremely common problem. The office treatment of alcoholism of moderate severity is discussed, starting with the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by making a treatment contract with the patient in order to help him remain sober, and to fit the patient to the optimal treatment methods on an individual basis. Office treatment methods...

  7. Huntington′s disease and alcohol abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattoo S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine, glutamate and GABA systems are known to mediate the effects of alcohol on the movement disorders, though their exact roles are not clear. Thus, use of alcohol has implications for pathogenesis as well as management of the movement disorders. These implications are discussed citing a patient who had a strong family history of Huntington′s disease and in whom movement disorder and behavioral problems were manifest under alcohol use and withdrawal, but not while being abstinent.

  8. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  9. Application effects of Orem self-care theory in patients with stroke and alcohol withdrawal syndrome%Orem护理系统理论在脑卒中患者并发酒精戒断综合征的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑美爱; 林容杏; 罗美菊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Orem护理系统理论在脑卒中并酒精戒断综合征患者中的应用效果.方法 将50例脑卒中并酒精戒断综合征患者随机分为观察组和对照组,各25例,对照组采取常规的护理干预措施,观察组在此基础上应用Orem护理系统模式进行护理干预:ADL能力评分≤40分者,实施①环境及人身安全护理(如上床栏,必要时使用保护性约束或适当的镇静剂);②加强意识、思维、认知观察;③避免激惹因素.ADL能力评分60 ~41分者,行肢体功能训练指导,坐、卧姿势,进食等的指导,干预三周后比较两组患者的日常生活能力( ADL),并观察两组患者在住院期间护理并发症的发生率.结果 观察组ADL得分高于对照组t=4.254.而误吸、肺部感染、压疮较对照组发生率低,t检验值分别为2.257、2.038,2.085.结论 将Orem护理系统理论应用于脑卒中并酒精戒断综合症患者的护理,可调动患者及家属的积极性,提高患者的生活质量,实现患者的自我护理和康复.%Objective To investigate the effect of Orem self-care theory in patients with stroke and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.Methods 50 patients with stroke and alcohol withdrawal syndrome were randomly divided into observation group and control group(n=25),cases in the control group took regular nursing care interventions,while the observation group had additional Orem self-care model of nursing intervention on the basis of regular nursing care:For those with activities of daily living (ADL) ability score =40 points,the following implementation were conducted:①Environmental and personal safety care (such as bedrails,if necessary,the use of protective restraint or sedative):②Strengthening awareness,thinking,cognition observation; ③Avoiding the irritation factor.Those with ADL score of 60~41 points,took the limb function training guidance,sitting or lying posture,eating guidance,3 weeks later 2 groups were compared with ADL

  10. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  11. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  12. Orgasm Induced Seizures: A Rare Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaukimath, S P; Patil, P S

    2015-01-01

    A variety of stimuli can cause reflex seizures, Some triggers include light, music and cognitive phenomenon. There are case reports however where the phenomenon of sexual activity has been a trigger for epileptic seizures. Most of these cases reported are in women so far, and were found to be localized to right cerebral hemisphere. We report a case of a 36-year-old male with orgasm-induced seizures, with other atypical features compared to majority of previous reports. PMID:27057393

  13. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jiana Shi; Huimin Xu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug...

  14. Early-Onset Alcohol Dependence Increases the Acoustic Startle Reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.; Mulders, P.C.R.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cools, A.R.; Verkes, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hyperreactivity and impaired sensory gating of the acoustic startle response in alcohol dependence has been suggested to reflect a residual effect of previous detoxifications, increasing the severity of subsequent withdrawal episodes. Previous studies on the acoustic startle only include

  15. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening.

  16. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  17. An attempt to evaluate diagnostic and prognostic significance of blood endogenous ethanol in alcoholics and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Y M; Pronko, P S; Shishkin, S N; Kolesnikov, V B; Volynets, S I

    1989-01-01

    Endogenous ethanol in the blood of human subjects was measured by gas chromatography. In healthy males, 12-13-year-old boys (sons of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers), and alcoholic inpatients (after cessation of all drugs), the endogenous ethanol levels ranged from 0 to 4.3 mg/l. The results showed no significant differences between the groups. At the period of alcohol withdrawal reactions the concentrations of endogenous ethanol were minimal in patients with delirium tremens and maximal in patients with mild alcohol withdrawal syndrome, the dynamics of this parameter being dependent on the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the nature of the drugs prescribed.

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  20. CORRELATION OF THE SERUM LEVEL OF CARBAMAZEPINE WITH SEIZURE CONTROL AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG EPILEPTICS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Fadare

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder requiring long-term treatment. Seizure control requires adequate blood levels of anti-seizure drugs. Carbarmazepine is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs in Nigeria. This study was carried out to investigate the correlation between serum levels of carbamazepine and seizure control and adverse drug reactions among epileptics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, sixty-nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy who had been on treatment with carbamazepine alone or in combination with phenytoin for at least one month were enrolled into the study and divided into two groups based on seizure control. Drug level in pre-dose (steady state venous blood was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Result: The mean serum concentration of carbamazepine (CBZ and carbamazepine-epoxide (CBZ-EP was 13.5±9.3ìg/mL and 6.34±12.61ìg/mL respectively. Patients with good seizure control had mean serum CBZ concentration of 12.7 ± 9.2ìg/mL versus 15.02 ± 9.7ìg/mL among patients with poor seizure control (P=0.33. The serum concentration of CBZ-EP in patients with good seizure control was 8.05 ± 15.2ìg/mL while it was 3.11 ± 3.5ìg/mL in the second group (P=0.122. Drowsiness was the commonest adverse drug reaction (26.1% and it did not necessitate withdrawal of the drug. Conclusion The study showed that serum level of carbamazepine does not correlate with seizure control and adverse drug reactions.

  1. CHD2 mutations are a rare cause of generalized epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivisano, Marina; Striano, Pasquale; Sartorelli, Jacopo; Giordano, Lucio; Traverso, Monica; Accorsi, Patrizia; Cappelletti, Simona; Claps, Dianela Judith; Vigevano, Federico; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2015-10-01

    Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2 (CHD2) gene mutations have been reported in patients with myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (MAE), as well as in patients with Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes and other epileptic encephalopathies featuring generalized epilepsy and intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of CHD2 mutations in a series of patients with MAE. Twenty patients affected by MAE were included in the study. We analyzed antecedents, age at onset, seizure semiology and frequency, EEG, treatment, and neuropsychological outcome. We sequenced the CHD2 gene with Sanger technology. We identified a CHD2 frameshift mutation in one patient (c.4256del19). He was a 17-year-old boy with no familial history for epilepsy and normal development before epilepsy onset. Epilepsy onset was at 3years and 5months: he presented with myoclonic-atonic seizures, head drops, myoclonic jerks, and absences. Interictal EEGs revealed slow background activity associated with generalized epileptiform abnormalities and photoparoxysmal response. His seizures were highly responsive to valproic acid, and an attempt to withdraw it led to seizure recurrence. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed moderate intellectual disability. Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 2 is not the major gene associated with MAE. Conversely, CHD2 could be responsible for a proper phenotype characterized by infantile-onset generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity, which might overlap with MAE, Lennox-Gastaut, Dravet, and Jeavons syndromes.

  2. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  3. Diagnosing Functional Seizures in Children and Adolescent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichaidit, Bianca Taaning; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ostergaard, John R

    2014-01-01

    Functional seizures (FS) is a condition where the child experiences seizure-like events, without abnormal electrical discharge as measured by EEG, and with high risk of misdiagnosis. Diagnosing FS contains: 1) video-EEG, 2) anamnestic evaluation, focusing on the presence of psychosocial stressors...

  4. Occipital seizures presenting with bilateral visual loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjikoutis S; Sawhney I

    2003-01-01

    Transient visual loss may occur with occipital seizures as an ictal or post-ictal phenomenon. Its duration varies from less than one minute to days, or can be permanent. We describe a 61-year-old man presenting with headache, vomiting and bilateral visual loss. EEG revealed persistent spike discharge in the occipital lobes suggesting occipital seizures. His vision improved with carbamazepine.

  5. ROLE OF MRI IN EVALUATION OF SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avadhesh Pratap Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Seizure is a paroxysmal alteration in neurologic function resulting from abnormal excessive neuronal electrical activity. Epilepsy is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent seizures unprovoked by an acute systemic or neurologic insult.1 An epileptic seizure is a clinical manifestation of abnormal, excessive neuronal activity arising in the grey matter of the cerebral cortex. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective studies of 100 patients with clinical impression of seizures were examined by 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. RESULT A total of 100 patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The age range of patients was from neonate to elderly with male predominance, male 64 (64% and female 36 (36%. GTCS was the most common clinical diagnosis constituting (80% cases. The common abnormalities were cerebral infarction with gliosis (16%, infections – NCC (7% and tuberculoma (10%, cerebral atrophy (1%, developmental cortical malformations (2%, venous thrombosis (4%, low-grade glioma (9%, meningioma (3%. CONCLUSION MRI is the investigation of choice in patients with seizure disorder. The sensitivity of MRI in detecting abnormalities in patients with seizure disorder is in part associated to the underlying pathologies and by the MRI techniques and experience of the interpreting physician. Accurate diagnosis of the cause of seizure is crucial for finding an effective treatment. With its high spatial resolution, excellent inherent soft tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging capability and lack of ionizing radiation, MR imaging has emerged as a versatile tool in the evaluation of patients with seizure disorder.

  6. Risk of Seizure Recurrence with Neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of seizure recurrence after a first seizure due to neurocysticercosis (NC was evaluated in a prospective study of 77 patients at the School of Medicine and Research Institute, University of Cuenca, Ecuador, and Columbia University, New York.

  7. Transient inhibitory seizures mimicking crescendo TIAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Lerner, A

    1990-01-01

    Somatic inhibitory seizures are thought to occur rarely. We describe a patient with somatic inhibitory seizures who initially presented with a clinical picture of crescendo transient ischemic attacks. He did not improve with anticoagulation, but the episodes ceased promptly after the administration of an anticonvulsant.

  8. Effect of Seizure Clustering on Epilepsy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.

  9. Febrile Seizures: clinical and genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFebrile seizures are described as a temporary seizure disorder of childhood; the attacks occur by definition in association with fever and are usually accompanied by sudden tonic-clonic muscle contractions and reduced consciousness, usually lasting not longer than 5 to 10 minutes. Accord

  10. Seizure phenotypes, periodicity, and sleep-wake pattern of seizures in Kcna-1 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Samantha; Wallace, Eli; Hwang, Youngdeok; Maganti, Rama

    2016-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe seizure phenotypes, natural progression, sleep-wake patterns, as well as periodicity of seizures in Kcna-1 null mutant mice. These mice were implanted with epidural electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) electrodes, and simultaneous video-EEG recordings were obtained while animals were individually housed under either diurnal (LD) condition or constant darkness (DD) over ten days of recording. The video-EEG data were analyzed to identify electrographic and behavioral phenotypes and natural progression and to examine the periodicity of seizures. Sleep-wake patterns were analyzed to understand the distribution and onset of seizures across the sleep-wake cycle. Four electrographically and behaviorally distinct seizure types were observed. Regardless of lighting condition that animals were housed in, Kcna-1 null mice initially expressed only a few of the most severe seizure types that progressively increased in frequency and decreased in seizure severity. In addition, a circadian periodicity was noted, with seizures peaking in the first 12h of the Zeitgeber time (ZT) cycle, regardless of lighting conditions. Interestingly, seizure onset differed between lighting conditions where more seizures arose out of sleep in LD conditions, whereas under DD conditions, the majority occurred out of the wakeful state. We suggest that this model be used to understand the circadian pattern of seizures as well as the pathophysiological implications of sleep and circadian disturbances in limbic epilepsies. PMID:26724401

  11. The Role of Seizure-Related SEZ6 as a Susceptibility Gene in Febrile Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Mulley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty cases of febrile seizures from a Chinese cohort had previously been reported with a strong association between variants in the seizure-related (SEZ 6 gene and febrile seizures. They found a striking lack of genetic variation in their controls. We found genetic variation in SEZ6 at similar levels at the same DNA sequence positions in our 94 febrile seizure cases as in our 96 unaffected controls. Two of our febrile seizure cases carried rare variants predicted to have damaging consequences. Combined with some of the variants from the Chinese cohort, these data are compatible with a role for SEZ6 as a susceptibility gene for febrile seizures. However, the polygenic determinants underlying most cases of febrile seizures with complex inheritance remain to be determined.

  12. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  13. Moxifloxacin Induced Seizures -A Case Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiana Shi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old female patient developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure on the 6th day after treatment with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily intravenously for appendicitis. This patient had atrial fibrillation and history of a surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage, with impaired renal function and liver function, but without history of seizures. Moxifloxacin was discontinued and switched to cefuroxime. The patient remained seizure-free at discharge four days later. The naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score was 4, indicating a possible adverse reaction to moxifloxacin. The potential risk factors related to moxifloxacin-induced seizures are discussed. It highlights that preexisting central nervous system disease, elderly female with lower bodyweight and severe renal impairment may be the risk factors involved in moxifloxacin-induced seizures.

  14. Febrile seizures and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Christensen, Jakob;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Febrile seizure is a benign condition for most children, but experiments in animals and neuroimaging studies in humans suggest that some febrile seizures may damage the hippocampus, a brain area of possible importance in schizophrenia. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children...... with schizophrenia. A history of febrile seizures was associated with a 44% increased risk of schizophrenia [relative risk (RR)=1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.95] after adjusting for confounding factors. The association between febrile seizures and schizophrenia remained virtually unchanged when...... restricting the analyses to people with no history of epilepsy. A history of both febrile seizures and epilepsy was associated with a 204% increased risk of schizophrenia (RR=3.04; 95% CI, 1.36-6.79) as compared with people with no such history. CONCLUSIONS: We found a slightly increased risk of schizophrenia...

  15. Seizure detection algorithms based on EMG signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    Background: the currently used non-invasive seizure detection methods are not reliable. Muscle fibers are directly connected to the nerves, whereby electric signals are generated during activity. Therefore, an alarm system on electromyography (EMG) signals is a theoretical possibility. Objective......: to show whether medical signal processing of EMG data is feasible for detection of epileptic seizures. Methods: EMG signals during generalised seizures were recorded from 3 patients (with 20 seizures in total). Two possible medical signal processing algorithms were tested. The first algorithm was based...... the frequency-based algorithm was efficient for detecting the seizures in the third patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that EMG signals could be used to develop an automatic seizuredetection system. However, different patients might require different types of algorithms /approaches....

  16. Detection and Prediction of Epileptic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas

    monitoring of their brain waves. More specifically, three issues were investigated: The feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, optimization of automatic seizure detection algorithms, and the link between intra- and extracranial EEG. Regarding feasibility of automatic seizure prediction, neither...... seizure prediction algorithms. More promising results were obtained in the investigating of possible use of an outpatient EEG monitoring device for idiopathic generalized epilepsy patients. Combined with an automatic seizure detection algorithm such a device can give an objective account of the paroxysm...... detected without any false positive detections. This was obtained using a generic algorithm on the signals from only a single frontal channel. Applying the same algorithm architecture on EEG data from two outpatient children monitored for approximately three entire days each, the sensitivity was 90...

  17. The Life Time Prevalence of Childhood Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P AlizadehTaheri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Seizure is the most common pediatric neurologic disorder. Epidemiological studies of childhood epilepsy are of importance to compare incidence and prevalence rates, age distribution, inheritance, seizure types, epilepsy syn­dromes and treatment strategies. Since there is little information about prevalence of childhood seizure in Iran, this study was aimed to determine the life time prevalence of childhood seizure and some of its determining factors in Tehran, Iran."nMethods: In this cross sectional study, 2500 male and female students, aged 12 years or younger, studying in fifth grade of primary schools in district one of Ministry of Education were assessed by filling a preliminary questionnaire. Those who were categorized by the author as having a history of any form of seizure were assessed by a second questionnaire. The clinical form of seizure, the presumptive cause, positive family history and use of anti-convulsant drugs were recorded."nResults: The life time prevalence of seizure was 32/1000 population which was more prevalent in boys .Generalized seizure was the most common clinical form. Approximately 60% of cases reported febrile convulsion as the presumptive cause stated by the physician. Positive family history was reported in 29.6% of cases. Anti epileptic drugs were taken by 54% of students with a positive history of seizure."nConclusion: The results of this study show that the life time prevalence of seizure is relatively high in Iranian community, although the other factors were in concordance with other communities.

  18. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Stuijvenberg (Margriet); G. Derksen-Lubsen (Gerarda); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months, relativ

  19. 小组心理护理对酒依赖患者戒断症状和心理渴求的影响%Effect of group psychological care on the withdrawal symptoms and psychological craving of patients with alcohol dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of group psychological care on the withdrawal symptoms and psychological craving of patients with alcohol dependence. Methods: 48 patients with alcohol dependence were randomly divided into a study group and a control group ( 24 cases in each group ). The patients in both groups were given conventional treatment and nursing care and the patients in the study group were given extra group psychological care. AWS and AUQ were used to make an assessment of the patients respectively on admission and in the 4th week after admission. Results: The repeated survey variance analysis showed that the time factor had main effect on psychiatric symptoms, autonomic nerve symptoms and psychological craving scores ( P <0. 01 );the intervention factors had main effect on psychiatric symptoms and psychological craving scores ( P <0. 05 ,P <0. 01 );the intervention factors and time factor had interaction effect on psychiatric symptoms and psychological craving scores(P <0. 05,P <0.01 );the stepwise regression analysis found that the reduction value after alcohol withdrawal was influenced by psychiatric symptoms and psychological nursing intervention before the intervention ( P < 0. 01 );the reduction value of autonomic nerve symptoms was influenced by autonomic nerve symptoms and drinking time before the intervention ( P <0. 05 ,P <0. 01 );the reduction value of psychological craving was influenced by psychological craving,psychological nursing intervention and drinking time before the intervention ( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion: The group psychological care can markedly alleviate the withdrawal symptoms and psychological craving symptoms. And the symptoms before intervention and drinking time may affect the degree of improvement of withdrawal symptoms and psychological craving.%目的:探讨小组心理护理对酒依赖患者戒断症状和心理渴求的影响.方法:将48例酒依赖患者随机分为研究组和对照组各24例,均给予戒酒科常

  20. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S

    1992-05-01

    Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal.

  1. Nonepileptic seizures: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, David L; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-06-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are a functional neurological disorder/conversion disorder subtype, which are neurobehavioral conditions at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Significant advancements over the past decade have been made in the diagnosis, management, and neurobiological understanding of PNES. This article reviews published PNES research focusing on semiologic features that distinguish PNES from epileptic seizures, consensus diagnostic criteria, the intersection of PNES and other comorbidities, neurobiological studies, evidence-based treatment interventions, and outcome studies. Epidemiology and healthcare utilization studies highlight a continued unmet medical need in the comprehensive care of PNES. Consensus guidelines for diagnostic certainty are based on clinical history, semiology of witnessed typical event(s), and EEG findings. While certain semiologic features may aid in the diagnosis of PNES, the gold standard remains capturing a typical event on video electroencephalography (EEG) showing the absence of epileptiform activity with history and semiology consistent with PNES. Medical-neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities are prevalent in PNES; these should be assessed in diagnostic evaluations and integrated into treatment interventions and prognostic considerations. Several studies, including a pilot, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, have now demonstrated that a cognitive behavioral therapy-informed psychotherapy is an efficacious treatment for PNES, and additional efforts are necessary to evaluate the utility of pharmacologic and other psychotherapy treatments. Neuroimaging studies, while requiring replication, suggest that PNES may occur in the context of alterations within and across sensorimotor, emotion regulation/processing, cognitive control, and multimodal integration brain systems. Future research could investigate similarities and differences between PNES and other somatic symptom disorders. PMID:26996600

  2. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. Rahal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES. A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX. During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI. After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES.

  3. Inhomogeneous cortical synchronization and partial epileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Carolina Vega

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Interictal synchronization clusters have recently been described in several publications using diverse techniques, including neurophysiological recordings and fMRI, in patients suffering from epilepsy. However, little is known about the role of these hyper-synchronous areas during seizures. In this work, we report an analysis of synchronization clusters jointly with several network measures during seizure activity; we then discuss our findings in the context of prior literature. Methods: Subdural activity was recorded by electrocorticography (with sixty electrodes placed at temporal and parietal lobe locations in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy with partial seizures with and without secondary generalization. Both interictal and ictal activities (during four seizures were investigated and characterized using local synchronization and complex network methodology. The modularity, density of links, average clustering coefficient and average path lengths were calculated to obtain information about the dynamics of the global network. Functional connectivity changes during the seizures were compared with the time-evolution of highly synchronized areas.Results: Our findings reveal temporal changes in local synchronization areas during seizures and a tight relationship between the cortical locations of these areas and the patterns of their evolution over time. Seizure evolution and secondary generalization appear to be driven by two different underlying mechanisms.

  4. Advances in management of neonatal seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesoulis, Zachary A; Mathur, Amit M

    2014-06-01

    Seizures are more common in the neonatal period than any other time in the human lifespan. A high index of suspicion for seizures should be maintained for infants who present with encephalopathy soon after birth, have had a stroke, central nervous system (CNS) infection or intracranial hemorrhage or have a genetic or metabolic condition associated with CNS malformations. Complicating the matter, most neonatal seizures lack a clinical correlate with only subtle autonomic changes and often no clinical indication at all. Over the last three decades, several tools have been developed to enhance the detection and treatment of neonatal seizures. The use of electroencephalography (EEG) and the later development of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG), allows for Neurologists and non-Neurologists alike, to significantly increase the sensitivity of seizure detection. When applied to the appropriate clinical setting, time to diagnosis and start of therapy is greatly reduced. Phenobarbital maintains the status of first-line therapy in worldwide use. However, newer anti-epileptic agents such as, levetiracetam, bumetanide, and topiramate are increasingly being applied to the neonatal population, offering the potential for seizure treatment with a significantly better side-effect profile. Seizures in premature infants, continue to confound clinicians and researchers alike. Though the apparent seizure burden is significant and there is an association between seizures and adverse outcomes, the two are not cleanly correlated. Compounding the issue, GABA-ergic anti-epileptic drugs are not only less effective in this age group due to reversed neuronal ion gradients but may cause harm. Selecting an appropriate treatment group remains a challenge. PMID:24796413

  5. Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome with Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothwal, Sunil; Nayan, Swati

    2016-04-01

    Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is a disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. The disease is caused by mutations in gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) and patients have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We present an 8-year-old boy with progressive muscle dystonia, neuroregression, frequent fall and multiple injury marks of different stages. Seizures are rare with PANK2. This child had seizure onset at 4 years of age and seizure free on valproate and levetricetam. The CT scan showed tiger eye appearance and mutations on PANK2 gene. PMID:27303611

  6. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient. PMID:24824664

  7. Biotelemetry system for Epilepsy Seizure Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, LaCurtise; Bohnert, George W.

    2009-07-02

    The Biotelemetry System for Epilepsy Seizure Control Project developed and tested an automated telemetry system for use in an epileptic seizure prevention device that precisely controls localized brain temperature. This project was a result of a Department of Energy (DOE) Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) grant to the Kansas City Plant (KCP), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to partner with Flint Hills Scientific, LLC, Lawrence, KS and Biophysical Laboratory Ltd (BIOFIL), Sarov, Russia to develop a method to help control epileptic seizures.

  8. 5 CFR 1650.11 - Withdrawal elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal elections. 1650.11 Section 1650.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN Post-Employment Withdrawals § 1650.11 Withdrawal elections....

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop ...

  10. Neonatal seizures triple the risk of a remote seizure after perinatal ischemic stroke.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, CK; Glass, HC; Sidney, S; Smith, SE; Fullerton, HJ

    2016-01-01

    To determine incidence rates and risk factors of remote seizure after perinatal arterial ischemic stroke.We retrospectively identified a population-based cohort of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (presenting acutely or in a delayed fashion) from a large Northern Californian integrated health care system. We determined incidence and predictors of a remote seizure (unprovoked seizure after neonatal period, defined as 28 days of life) by survival analyses, and measured epilepsy ...

  11. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. PMID:25744958

  12. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  13. Seizures in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triggers, such as strong emotions, intense exercise, loud music, or flashing lights. When these triggers are at ... may not believe it because you have no memory of the event. The period following a seizure ...

  14. Seizures and Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence, morbidity and mortality, diagnosis and management of cases of fabricated seizures and child abuse (Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSbp are assessed by pediatricians at the University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

  15. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Seizures associated with Lupus during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Shigeru; KOBAYASHI, Natsuko; Mochimaru, Aya; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A sudden flare of previously stable SLE may give rise to CNS lupus. During pregnancy, seizures associated with CNS lupus can cause hypoxic‐ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the infant.

  17. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... status epilepticus in children: The FEB- STAT Study. Neurology 2012;79:871– 877. 2. Graves RC, Oehler ... Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:911–918. e82 Neurology 79 August 28, 2012 Febrile seizures: Possible outcomes ...

  18. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster’s alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure t...

  19. Aging Models of Acute Seizures and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Aged animals have been used by researchers to better understand the differences between the young and the aged brain and how these differences may provide insight into the mechanisms of acute seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. To date, there have been relatively few studies dedicated to the modeling of acute seizures and epilepsy in aged, healthy animals. Inherent challenges to this area of research include the costs associated with the purchase and maintenance of older animals and, at tim...

  20. Genetic effects on sleep/wake variation of seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Melodie R.; Shih, Jerry; Beck, Erin S.; Hunter, Jessica E.; Epstein, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective There is a complex bidirectional relationship between sleep and epilepsy. Sleep/wake timing of seizures has been investigated for several individual seizure types and syndromes, but few large-scale studies of the timing of seizures exist in people with varied epilepsy types. In addition, the genetic contributions to seizure timing have not been well studied. Methods Sleep/wake timing of seizures was determined for 1,395 subjects in 546 families enrolled in the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project (EPGP). We examined seizure timing among subjects with different epilepsy types, seizure types, epilepsy syndromes, and localization. We also examined the familial aggregation of sleep/wake occurrence of seizures. Results Seizures in nonacquired focal epilepsy (NAFE) were more likely to occur during sleep than seizures in generalized epilepsy (GE), for both convulsive (odds ratio [OR] 5.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–7.52) and nonconvulsive seizures (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.48–7.21). Seizures occurring within 1 h of awakening were more likely to occur in patients with GE than with NAFE for both convulsive (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.54– 3.39) and nonconvulsive (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04–2.66) seizures. Frontal onset seizures were more likely than temporal onset seizures to occur during sleep. Sleep/wake timing of seizures in first-degree relatives predicted timing of seizures in the proband. Significance We found that sleep/wake timing of seizures is associated with both epilepsy syndrome and seizure type. In addition, we provide the first evidence for a genetic contribution to sleep/wake timing of seizures in a large group of individuals with common epilepsy syndromes. PMID:26948972

  1. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  2. Childhood epileptic seizures imitating migraine and encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravljanac Ružica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paroxismal events can resemble epileptic seizures, however, some epileptic seizures, especially benign occipital childhood epilepsies can imitate migraine, cycling vomiting or encephalitis. Objective. The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features and outcome in children with benign occipital childhood epilepsies. Methods. Investigation included 18 patients with benign occipital childhood epilepsies hospitalized in the period from 2007 to 2010. The diagnosis was based on clinical and EEG characteristics of seizures, while treatment included acute therapy for seizures and chronic antiepileptic drugs. Prognosis was analyzed in terms of neurological outcome and seizure recurrence rate. Results. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with early onset was diagnosed in 15 children. Vegetative symptoms, mostly ictal vomiting (13, eye deviation and loss of consciousness (13 dominated in the clinical presentation. The most frequent EEG findings showed occipital epileptic discharges. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with late onset was diagnosed in three cases. Seizures were manifested by visual hallucinations, headache and secondary generalized convulsions. All three patients were administered chronic antiepileptic drugs and had good outcome. Conclusion. In our patients, clinical manifestations of benign occipital epilepsies had some similarities with clinical features of migraine and encephalitis. It could explain misdiagnosis in some of them. Knowledge about main features and differences between each of these disorders is crucial for making appropriate diagnosis.

  3. [Energy drinks as a cause of seizures--real or possible danger? Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszkiewicz, Eryk; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Tezyk, Artur; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara; Zaba, Czesław

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of energy beverages is increasing, especially among young people. The increasing consumption of these drinks increases the data of side effects. Case report: A 26-year old male was admitted to Toxicology Department suspected of intoxication due to ethyl alcohol and unknown psychoactive substances. The patient lost consciousness during a party in which he drank an unknown amount of ethyl alcohol mixed with an energy beverage ("Red Bull"). The patient and his friends strongly denied the use of psychoactive substances. On admission, the patient was stable, but unconscious (GCS 8 points), pupils wide, symmetric with weak reaction to light, respiratory rate 15/min. Neurological examination did not reveal any abnormalities. During the hospitalization, somnolence slowly disappeared and the patient became restless, with recurrent episodes of seizures not reacting to diazepam, clonazepam and midazolam infusion. The seizures finally abated after administration of barbiturates (Thiopental). This, in turn, caused respiratory insufficiency, requiring patient intubation and mechanical ventilation. The patients mental status and respiratory status slowly improved. After regaining consciousness, the patient strongly denied the use of psychoactive substances or of chronic alcohol use. He confirmed the single use of high, but not clearly defined, caffeine dosage (in the form of "Red Bull") mixed with alcohol. He mentioned that eight months earlier in similar circumstances he was admitted to the neurology department due to an episode of seizures. Ultimately the origin was not established, despite broad diagnostic testing. Thus the origin of the seizures was suggested to be of a toxicological origin. The patient was released home in good condition, without any side effects of the poisoning. The psychological examination doe not reveal any symptoms of alcohol or psychoactive substances addiction. In our case, due to the unclear nature of the history, we preformed broad

  4. Effects of a Natural Community Intervention Intensifying Alcohol Law Enforcement Combined With a Restrictive Alcohol Policy on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman-Offermans, K.; Knibbe, R.A.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Casswell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determining whether intensified inspections on alcohol retailers, combined with a policy withdrawing liquor licenses if retailers are fined twice per annum, is effective in reducing adolescents' odds to initiate weekly drinking and drunkenness. Causal pathways by which the intervention was a

  5. Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Lee, Mei-Wen; Wei, Ruey-Chang; Mok, Hin-Kiu; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures. Methods Forty-eight children who experienced...

  6. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  7. Seizures and Teens: When Seizures Aren't the Only Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Andres M.; Shafer, Patricia O.

    2006-01-01

    Some teenagers with epilepsy only have to deal with seizures, which can be tough enough, but for other teens, seizures are not the only problem. Parents and caregivers often report changes in their teens' abilities to think clearly, learn in school, or remain focused in class. Mood and other behavioral problems may also be seen. It is critical…

  8. Febrile seizures in Kaduna, north western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Eseigbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Febrile seizure is the most common seizure of childhood and has a good prognosis. However its presentation is fraught with poor management, with grave consequences, in our environment. Thus a review of its current status is important. Objective: To review the status of febrile seizures in Kaduna metropolis. Materials and Methods: A review of cases seen in the Department of Paediatrics, 44 Nigeria Army Reference Hospital, Kaduna between June 2008 and June 2010. Results: Out of the 635 cases admitted in the department 17 (2.7% fulfilled the criteria for febrile seizures. There were 11 Males and 6 Females (M: F, 1.8:1. Age range was from 9 months to 5 years with a mean of 2.2 years ± 1.1 and peak age of 3 years. Twelve (70.6% were in the upper social classes (I-III. Fever, convulsion, catarrh and cough were major presenting symptoms. Incidence of convulsion was least on the 1st day of complaint. Fourteen (82.4% of the cases were simple febrile seizures while 3 were complex. There was a positive family history in 5 (29.4% of the cases. Eleven (64.7% had orthodox medication at home, before presentation, 5 (29.4% consulted patient medicine sellers and 7 (41.7% received traditional medication as part of home management. Malaria and acute respiratory infections were the identifiable causes. Standard anti-malaria and anti-biotic therapy were instituted, where indicated. All recovered and were discharged. Conclusion: There was a low prevalence of febrile seizures among the hospitalized children and a poor pre-hospitalization management of cases. It highlighted the need for improved community awareness on the prevention and management of febrile seizures.

  9. Who withdraws? Psychological individual differences and employee withdrawal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Ryan D; Swider, Brian W; Woo, Sang Eun; Allen, David G

    2016-04-01

    Psychological individual differences, such as personality, affectivity, and general mental ability, have been shown to predict numerous work-related behaviors. Although there is substantial research demonstrating relationships between psychological individual differences and withdrawal behaviors (i.e., lateness, absenteeism, and turnover), there is no integrative framework providing scholars and practitioners a guide for conceptualizing how, why, and under what circumstances we observe such relationships. In this integrative conceptual review we: (a) utilize the Cognitive-Affective Processing System framework (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) to provide an overarching theoretical basis for how psychological individual differences affect withdrawal behaviors; (b) create a theoretical model of the situated person that summarizes the existing empirical literature examining the effect of psychological differences on withdrawal behavior; and (c) identify future research opportunities based on our review and integrative framework. PMID:26595754

  10. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali DELPISHEH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Delpisheh A, Veisani Y, Sayehmiri K, Fayyazi A. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3:30-37. AbstractObjectiveFebrile seizures (FSs are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children.Materials & MethodsOn the computerized literature valid databases, the FS prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a random effects model. A metaregression analysis was introduced to explore heterogeneity between studies. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed using Stata10.ResultsThe important viral or bacterial infection causes of FSs were; recent upper respiratory infection 42.3% (95% CI: 37.2%–47.4%, gastroenteritis21.5% (95% CI: 13.6%–29.4%, and otitis media infections15.2% (95% CI: 9.8%- 20.7% respectively. The pooled prevalence rate of FS among other childhood convulsions was 47.9% (95% CI: 38.8–59.9%. The meta–regression analysis showed that the sample size does not significantly affect heterogeneity for the factor ‘prevalence FS’.ConclusionsAlmost half of all childhood convulsions among Iranian children are associated with Febrile seizure. ReferencesFelipe L, Siqueira M. febrile seizures: update on diagnosis and management. Siqueira LFM. 2010;56 (4:489–92.Oka E, Ishida S, Ohtsuka Y, Ohtahara S. Neuroepidemiological Study of Childhood Epilepsy by Application of International Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes (ILAE, 1989. Epilepsia. 1995;36 (7:658–61.Shi X, Lin Z, Ye X, Hu Y, Zheng F, Hu H. An epidemiological survey of febrile convulsions among pupils in the Wenzhou region. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2012 Feb;14 (2:128–30.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child

  11. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  12. Possibility to predict the development of secondary depression in primary alcoholics during abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Gajić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The relationship between alcoholism and depression is observed in clinical trials. The factors which could predict persistence of secondary depression after alcohol withdrawal are not enough explored on admission. The differences between depressed (DA and non-depressed (NDA alcoholics regarding the degrees of severity of withdrawal, severity of depression and the intensity of cognitive dysfunctions were explored on admission to investigate possibility of prediction of the development of secondary depression in alcoholics. Methods. A group of primary male alcoholics (n=86 was recruited during inpatient treatment. After 4 weeks alcoholics were divided in the DA group (n=43 and NDA (n=43 group according to the score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Clinical assessment of withdrawal, scoring on the Alcohol Dependency Severity Scale- ASD, and scoring on the Mini Mental Scale-MMSE were performed in all the participants on admission. The differences between the groups were tested by the Student's t-test. Results. The DA group showed the significantly higher severity of depression, higher levels of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions than the NDA group on admission. Conclusion. The specific group of depressive alcoholics was shown to be characterized by the higher severity of alcoholism and depression on admission, which could predict prolonged, secondary depression. Early detection and concurrent therapy of secondary depression could improve the treatment, and reduce the relapse of alcoholism.

  13. Epileptic Seizures: Quakes of the brain?

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Ivan; Sornette, Didier; Milton, John; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The concept of universality proposes that dynamical systems with the same power law behaviors are equivalent at large scales. We test this hypothesis on the Earth's crust and the epileptic brain, and discover that power laws also govern the distributions of seizure energies and recurrence times. This robust correspondence is extended over seven statistics, including the direct and inverse Omori laws. We also verify in an animal seizure model the earthquake-driven hypothesis that power law statistics co-exist with characteristic scales, as coupling between constitutive elements increases towards the synchronization regime. These observations point to the universality of the dynamics of coupled threshold oscillators for systems even as diverse as Earth and brain and suggest a general strategy for forecasting seizures, one of neurosciences' grails.

  14. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhafeez M. Khair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes.

  15. 21 CFR 314.620 - Withdrawal procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.620 Withdrawal procedures. (a) Reasons to withdraw... diligence; (3) Use after marketing demonstrates that postmarketing restrictions are inadequate to...

  16. 75 FR 7526 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... CONTACT: Matthew D. Yoder, Division of Component Integrity, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Withdrawal of Regulatory Guide AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Withdrawal...

  17. Vagus nerve stimulation: predictors of seizure freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janszky, J; Hoppe, M; Behne, F; Tuxhorn, I; Pannek, H; Ebner, A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To identify predictive factors for the seizure-free outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Methods: All 47 patients who had undergone VNS implantation at one centre and had at least one year of follow up were studied. They underwent complete presurgical evaluation including detailed clinical history, magnetic resonance imaging, and long term video-EEG with ictal and interictal recordings. After implantation, adjustment of stimulation parameters and concomitant antiepileptic drugs were at the discretion of the treating physician. Results: Mean (SD) age of the patients was 22.7 (11.6) years (range 7 to 53). Six patients (13%) became seizure-free after the VNS implantation. Only two variables showed a significant association with the seizure-free outcome: absence of bilateral interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) and presence of malformation of cortical development (MCD). Epilepsy duration showed a non-significant trend towards a negative association with outcome. By logistic regression analysis, only absence of bilateral IED correlated independently with successful VNS treatment (p<0.01, odds ratio = 29.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.4 to 353)). Bilateral IED (independent or bilateral synchronous) was found in one of six seizure-free patients and in 33 of 41 non-seizure-free patients. When bilateral IED were absent, the sensitivity for seizure-free outcome was 0.83 (0.44 to 0.97), and the specificity was 0.80 (0.66 to 0.90). Conclusions: Bilateral IED was independently associated with the outcome of VNS. These results are preliminary because they were based on a small patient population. They may facilitate prospective VNS studies enrolling larger numbers of patients to confirm the results. PMID:15716532

  18. Adjunctive pregabalin vs gabapentin for focal seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glue, Paul; Friedman, Daniel; Almas, Mary; Yardi, Nandan; Knapp, Lloyd; Pitman, Verne; Posner, Holly B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the comparative safety and adjunctive efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin in reducing seizure frequency in patients with partial-onset seizures based on prestudy modeling showing superior efficacy for pregabalin. Methods: The design of this comparative efficacy and safety study of pregabalin and gabapentin as adjunctive treatment in adults with refractory partial-onset seizures was randomized, flexible dose, double blind, and parallel group. The study included a 6-week baseline and a 21-week treatment phase. The primary endpoint was the percentage change from baseline in 28-day seizure rate to the treatment phase. Results: A total of 484 patients were randomized to pregabalin (n = 242) or gabapentin (n = 242). Of these, 359 patients (187 pregabalin, 172 gabapentin) completed the treatment phase. The observed median and mean in percentage change from baseline was −58.65 and −47.7 (SD 48.3) for pregabalin and −57.43 and −45.28 (SD 60.6) for gabapentin. For the primary endpoint, there was no significant difference between treatments. The Hodges-Lehman estimated median difference was 0.0 (95% confidence interval −6.0 to 7.0). Safety profiles were comparable and consistent with prior trials. Conclusions: The absence of the anticipated efficacy difference based on modeling of prior, nearly identical trials and the larger-than-expected response rates of the 2 antiepileptic drugs were unexpected. These findings raise questions that are potentially important to consider in future comparative efficacy trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00537940. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with partial seizures enrolled in this study, pregabalin is not superior to gabapentin in reducing seizure frequency. Because of the atypical response rates, the results of this study are poorly generalizable to other epilepsy populations. PMID:27521437

  19. Seizures and Praziquantel. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime R. Torres R.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available A 27 year Old male developed seizures after receiving a single 20 mg/kg dose of praziquantel for the treatment of an intestinal Hymenolepis nana infection. On further clinical and laboratorial evaluations, he was found to suffer from an until then asymptomatic parenchymal brain cysticercosis. Praziquantel must be used with caution in those areas where cysticercosis represents a mayor public health problem. The occurrence of unexpected seizures in an individual being treated with the compound, must prompt clinicians to rule out cysticercosis of the CNS.

  20. Emergence of semiology in epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2014-09-01

    Semiology, the manifestation of epilepsy, is dependent upon electrical activity produced by epileptic seizures that are organized within existing neural pathways. Clinical signs evolve as the epileptic discharge spreads in both time and space. Studying the relation between these, of which the temporal component is at least as important as the spatial one, is possible using anatomo-electro-clinical correlations of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data. The period of semiology production occurs with variable time lag after seizure onset and signs then emerge more or less rapidly depending on seizure type (temporal seizures generally propagating more slowly and frontal seizures more quickly). The subset of structures involved in semiological production, the "early spread network", is tightly linked to those constituting the epileptogenic zone. The level of complexity of semiological features varies according to the degree of involvement of the primary or associative cortex, with the former having a direct relation to peripheral sensory and motor systems with production of hallucinations (visual and auditory) or elementary sensorimotor signs. Depending on propagation pattern, these signs can occur in a "march" fashion as described by Jackson. On the other hand, seizures involving the associative cortex, having a less direct relation with the peripheral nervous system, and necessarily involving more widely distributed networks manifest with altered cognitive and/or behavioral signs whose neural substrate involves a network of cortical structures, as has been observed for normal cognitive processes. Other than the anatomical localization of these structures, the frequency of the discharge is a crucial determinant of semiological effect since a fast (gamma) discharge will tend to deactivate normal function, whereas a slower theta discharge can mimic physiological function. In terms of interaction between structures, the degree of synchronization plays a key role in

  1. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Delpisheh, Ali; Veisani, Yousef; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; FAYYAZI, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Delpisheh A, Veisani Y, Sayehmiri K, Fayyazi A. Febrile Seizures: Etiology, Prevalence, and Geographical Variation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer; 8(3):30-37. AbstractObjectiveFebrile seizures (FSs) are the most common neurological disorder observed in the pediatric age group. The present study provides information about epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as risk factors associated with FS among Iranian children.Materials & MethodsOn the comp...

  2. Treating seizures and epilepsy with anticoagulants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eMaggio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin is a serine protease playing an essential role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent work, however, has identified a novel role for thrombin-mediated signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Binding of thrombin to protease-activated receptors (PARs in the brain appears to have multiple actions affecting both health and disease. Specifically, thrombin has been shown to lead to the onset of seizures via PAR-1 activation. In this perspective article, we review the putative mechanisms by which thrombin causes seizures and epilepsy. We propose a potential role of PAR-1 antagonists and novel thrombin inhibitors as new, possible antiepileptic drugs.

  3. Seizures after intravenous tramadol given as premedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Kumar Raiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old, 50-kg female with a history of epilepsy was scheduled for elective breast surgery (fibroadenoma under general anaesthesia. She was given glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg, ondansetron 4 mg and tramadol 100 mg i.v. as premedication. Within 5 min, she had an acute episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure that was successfully treated with 75 mg thiopentone i.v. and after 30 min, she was given general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Surgery, intra-operative period, extubation and post-operative period were uneventful. We conclude that tramadol may provoke seizures in patients with epilepsy even within the recommended dose range.

  4. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  5. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of drug-r

  6. 8 CFR 1280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 1280.21 Section 1280... REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 1280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an...

  7. 28 CFR 0.86 - Seizure of gambling devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seizure of gambling devices. 0.86 Section... Bureau of Investigation § 0.86 Seizure of gambling devices. The Director, Associate Director, Assistants... General to make seizures of gambling devices (18 U.S.C. 1955(d), 15 U.S.C. 1171 et seq.) and wire or...

  8. Rapidly Learned Identification of Epileptic Seizures from Sonified EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sonification refers to a process by which data are converted into sound, providing an auditory alternative to visual display. Currently, the prevalent method for diagnosing seizures in epilepsy is by visually reading a patient’s electroencephalogram (EEG. However, sonification of the EEG data provides certain advantages due to the nature of human auditory perception. We hypothesized that human listeners will be able to identify seizures from EEGs using the auditory modality alone, and that accuracy of seizure identification will increase after a short training session. Here we describe an algorithm we have used to sonify EEGs of both seizure and non-seizure activity, followed by a training study in which subjects listened to short clips of sonified EEGs and determine whether each clip was of seizure or normal activity, both before and after a short training session. Results show that before training subjects performed at chance level in differentiating seizures vs. non-seizures, but there was a significant improvement of accuracy after the training session. After training, subjects successfully distinguished seizures from non-seizures using the auditory modality alone. Further analyses using signal detection theory demonstrated improvement in sensitivity and reduction in response bias as a result of training. This study demonstrates the potential of sonified EEGs to be used for the detection of seizures. Future studies will attempt to increase accuracy using novel training and sonification modifications, with the goals of managing, predicting, and ultimately controlling seizures using sonification as a possible biofeedback-based intervention for epilepsy.

  9. Seizure-like activity during fentanyl anesthesia. A case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Fentanyl induced seizures have been described previously in the literature. Clinical observations has labeled the movements seen in fentanyl anesthesia as seizure activity but electroencephalographic studies have not supported this. A case of seizure-like activity after the administration of fentanyl in a 20-year-old female is reported.

  10. Out-of-body experiences associated with seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce eGreyson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of consciousness are critical factors in the diagnosis of epileptic seizures. With these alterations in consciousness, some persons report sensations of separating from the physical body, experiences that may in rare cases resemble spontaneous out-of-body experiences. This study was designed to identify and characterize these out-of-body-like subjective experiences associated with seizure activity. 55% of the patients in this study recalled some subjective experience in association with their seizures. Among our sample of 100 patients, 7 reported out-of-body experiences associated with their seizures. We found no differentiating traits that were associated with patients’ reports of out-of-body experiences, in terms of either demographics; medical history, including age of onset and duration of seizure disorder, and seizure frequency; seizure characteristics, including localization, lateralization, etiology, and type of seizure, and epilepsy syndrome; or ability to recall any subjective experiences associated with their seizures. Reporting out-of-body experiences in association with seizures did not affect epilepsy-related quality of life. It should be noted that even in those patients who report out-of-body experiences, such sensations are extremely rare events that do not occur routinely with their seizures. Most patients who reported out-of-body experiences described one or two experiences that occurred an indeterminate number of years ago, which precludes the possibility of associating the experience with the particular characteristics of that one seizure or with medications taken or other conditions at the time.

  11. Drug treatment-related factors of inadequate seizure control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handoko, K.B.; Rijkom, JE Zwart-van; Visee, H.F.; Hermens, W.A.; Hekster, Y.A.; Egberts, T.C.G.

    2008-01-01

    To optimize seizure control it is important to identify modifiable factors. We conducted a case-control study to explore to what extent drug treatment-related factors are associated with seizures. Eighty-six patients with epilepsy were evaluated: 45 cases (recently experienced a seizure) and 41 cont

  12. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  13. Simple autonomic seizures and ictal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Varga, Edina T; Akeson, Per;

    2011-01-01

    manifestation of the de novo post-traumatic simple autonomic seizures. Source analysis of the ictal epileptiform discharges showed activation of the cortical areas surrounding the right inferior frontal sulcus, adjacent to the lesional zone. The case depicted here further endorses recent neuroimaging studies...

  14. [Classification of epileptic seizures and syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noachtar, S; Rémi, J

    2012-02-01

    Advances in diagnostic and therapeutic options require a revision of the current classification of seizures and epilepsies. Recently, a classification proposal was introduced which reflects the ambivalence of the Internationalen Liga gegen Epilepsie (ILAE). We suggest that epileptology should utilize the same established systematic approach used in clinical neurology.

  15. Cardiac arrhythmias during or after epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lende, Marije; Surges, Rainer; Sander, Josemir W; Thijs, Roland D

    2016-01-01

    Seizure-related cardiac arrhythmias are frequently reported and have been implicated as potential pathomechanisms of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). We attempted to identify clinical profiles associated with various (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias. We conducted a systematic search from the first date available to July 2013 on the combination of two terms: ‘cardiac arrhythmias’ and ‘epilepsy’. The databases searched were PubMed, Embase (OVID version), Web of Science and COCHRANE Library. We attempted to identify all case reports and case series. We identified seven distinct patterns of (post)ictal cardiac arrhythmias: ictal asystole (103 cases), postictal asystole (13 cases), ictal bradycardia (25 cases), ictal atrioventricular (AV)-conduction block (11 cases), postictal AV-conduction block (2 cases), (post)ictal atrial flutter/atrial fibrillation (14 cases) and postictal ventricular fibrillation (3 cases). Ictal asystole had a mean prevalence of 0.318% (95% CI 0.316% to 0.320%) in people with refractory epilepsy who underwent video-EEG monitoring. Ictal asystole, bradycardia and AV-conduction block were self-limiting in all but one of the cases and seen during focal dyscognitive seizures. Seizure onset was mostly temporal (91%) without consistent lateralisation. Postictal arrhythmias were mostly found following convulsive seizures and often associated with (near) SUDEP. The contrasting clinical profiles of ictal and postictal arrhythmias suggest different pathomechanisms. Postictal rather than ictal arrhythmias seem of greater importance to the pathophysiology of SUDEP. PMID:26038597

  16. Targeting Pannexin1 Improves Seizure Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marcelo F.; Veliskova, Jana; Patel, Naman K.; Lutz, Sarah E.; Caille, Dorothee; Charollais, Anne; Meda, Paolo; Scemes, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures. PMID:21949881

  17. Targeting pannexin1 improves seizure outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo F Santiago

    Full Text Available Imbalance of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is one of several causes of seizures. ATP has also been implicated in epilepsy. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the release of ATP from cells and the consequences of the altered ATP signaling during seizures. Pannexin1 (Panx1 is found in astrocytes and in neurons at high levels in the embryonic and young postnatal brain, declining in adulthood. Panx1 forms large-conductance voltage sensitive plasma membrane channels permeable to ATP that are also activated by elevated extracellular K(+ and following P2 receptor stimulation. Based on these properties, we hypothesized that Panx1 channels may contribute to seizures by increasing the levels of extracellular ATP. Using pharmacological tools and two transgenic mice deficient for Panx1 we show here that interference with Panx1 ameliorates the outcome and shortens the duration of kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. These data thus indicate that the activation of Panx1 in juvenile mouse hippocampi contributes to neuronal hyperactivity in seizures.

  18. Treatment Of Seizures In The Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem MA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing life expectancy over the preceding decades and trend towards further increase means that the elderly is now a growing section of the population. Seizures are a particularly common disorder in the age group. Considering that above the age of 50 years, one is prone to suffer from atleast one chromic illness, the interplay between associated medical and neurologic diseases and seizures need to be understood. These comorbidities like hypertension, cerebrovascular accidents, diabetes, renal failure and others not only contribute to seizures, they may also interfere with their appropriate treatment. Seizures, on the other hand, may be the cause of added morbidity like fractures, head injury and poor self esteem which may lead to poor quality of life. In addition, the unique pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side effect profile of the various antieplileptic drugs in the elderly and the multiple drug interactions, require judicious use along with regular monitoring. However, an ideal antiepileptic drug for the elderly is yet to be found.

  19. Hippocampal kindling: corticosterone modulation of induced seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R. de; Cottrell, G.A.; Nyakas, C.; Bohus, B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of adrenalectomy (ADX) and corticosterone replacement was studied on seizures induced by hippocampal kindling. A complex series of changes occurred in after-discharge (AD) and behavioural depression (BD) during the immediate hours after ADX, culminating at day 1 in markedly decreased AD a

  20. Seizures and Epilepsy in Sotos Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians from the Child Neurology Division, Sapienza University of Rome, and 7 other pediatric neurology centers in Italy report a series of 19 Sotos syndrome (SS) patients with febrile seizures (FS) and/or epilepsy during childhood and a long-term follow-up.

  1. Photosensitivity and visually induced seizures: review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Parra; S. Kalitzin; F.H. Lopes da Silva

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in visually induced seizures has increased in recent years as a result of the increasing number of precipitants in our modern environment. This review addresses new developments in this field with special attention given to the emergence of new diagnostic, therapeutic and

  2. Alcohol use disorders and current pharmacological therapies: the role of GABAA receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jing; Olsen, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are defined as alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, which create large problems both for society and for the drinkers themselves. To date, no therapeutic can effectively solve these problems. Understanding the underlying mechanisms leading to AUD is critically important for developing effective and safe pharmacological therapies. Benzodiazepines (BZs) are used to reduce the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, frequent use of BZs causes cross-toleranc...

  3. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Peng; LI Xin; LIN Hao-jie; PENG Wei-feng; LIU Jian-ying; MA Yu; FAN Wei; WANG Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats.Methods With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, differentdoses of curcumin (10 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 30 mg·kg-1·d-1as low dose groups, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of Ads to reach the stages of class Ⅰ to Ⅴ seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses.Results Curcumin (both 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·d-1) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80±9.25) and (21.70±9.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3±85.9) μA to (960.0±116.5) μA during the progression to class Ⅴ seizures. Rats treated with 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0±65.2) μA to (86±7.093.4) μA during the progression to class Ⅴ seizures. Rats treated with 300 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin required much more evoked Ads to reach the stage of class both Ⅳ (as (199.83±12.47) seconds) and Ⅴ seizures (as (210.66±10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mg·kg-1·d-1 curcumin required much more evoked Ads to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56±18.24) seconds). Conclusion Our study suggests that curcumin has a potential

  4. Levetiracetam seizure prophylaxis in craniotomy patients at high risk for postoperative seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Sankalp; Khan, Shariq Ali; Agrawal, Abhishek; Allan H Friedman; McDonagh, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing immediate postoperative seizures in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor surgery without anti-epileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis is 15-20%. Patients who present with pre-operative seizures and patients with supratentorial meningioma or supratentorial low grade gliomas are at significantly higher risk. There is little data on the efficacy of levetiracetam as a prophylactic AED in the immediate postoperative period (within 7 days of surgery) in these p...

  5. Alcohol Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The recent alcohol tax increase poses a challenge to China’s white spirits makers Alcohol, rather than wine, is an in-dispensable component to Chinese table culture. The financial crisis has failed to affect white spirits sales, but an alcohol tax increase might.

  6. FEBRILE SEIZURE: RECURRENCE AND RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TALEBIAN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Febrile Convulsion is the most common convulsive disorder in children,occurring in 2 to 4% of the pediatric population and recurring in 30-50% of cases. Considering the varying recurrence rates reported, thisstudy was conducted at the pediatric ward of the Shaheed BeheshtiGeneral Hospital, between 2000-2001 to determine the frequencyof recurrence and related risk factors in children presenting with theirfirst episode of febrile convulsionMaterials & Methods:A two–year cohort study was performed on 50 children presentingwith the first attack of febrile convulsion. Patient demographic dataincluding age, sex, type and duration of seizure, family history offebrile seizure or epilepsy and the interval between fever onset andoccurrence of seizure were recorded in questionnaires. Those patients,for whom prophylactic medication was not administered, werefollowed at three–month intervals for up to one year. Findings werestatistically analyzed using Fisher’s exact testResults:Recurrence was observed in twelve children (24% out of the fifty,being most common in patients aged less than one year (54.4%.Recurrence rates among children with a positive family history offebrile convulsion, presence of complex febrile seizure and positivefamily history of epilepsy were 42.1%, 42.8% and 25% respectively.From among those children with a “less than one hour” intervalbetween fever onset and occurrence of seizure, recurrence occurredin 43-7% of cases, while in those with a “more than one hourinterval”, 14.7% experienced recurrence.Conclusion:Recurrence rates are increased by certain factors including age-belowone year-, positive family history of febrile convulsion, and a “lessthan one hour” interval between time of fever onset and seizureoccurrence.

  7. Evaluation of Seizure Attacks in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Koochaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common reason for seizure in elderly duration is the stroke. This study was conducted aiming to assess the frequency of seizure attack occurrence in those patients. Materials and Methods: This investigation was carried out through a cross-sectional method for one year on 330 patients admitted to the neurology ward as diagnosed with stroke. The required data was collected through the researcher-made questionnaire from the patients suffering from stoke which was diagnosed based on clinical findings, CT-Scan and MRI as required. Results: Among 330 patient suffering from stroke (162 men and 168 women, 48 cases (14.5% were suffering from seizure. Six percent of the patients had early seizure and another 8.5% had late seizure. Among 162 men suffering from the stroke, 32 ones were without seizures and 30 men were suffering the seizure. A number of 150 women out of total 168 ones suffering from the stroke, had no seizure and 18 others had seizures; frequency of seizure occurrence was more in male samples (p=0.044. In the people under 60 year, there were mostly early types of seizure (45% and in the age range above 60 year, it was mostly late type (89.3%. A 68.5% of the patients suffering from the seizure had experienced ischemic stroke. However, the frequency of seizure occurrence in the patients with hemorrhagic stroke was statistically greater (p=0.003. Conclusion: This examination showed that occurrence of seizure attacks in the people with stroke is 14.5% and it is seen more in the hemorrhagic strokes than ischemic ones. The frontoparietal area is the most common location involved and tonic clonic was the most common seizure in the patients suffering from it who have experienced the stroke

  8. Interictal spikes and epileptic seizures: their relationship and underlying rhythmicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Philippa J; Freestone, Dean R; Boston, Ray; Grayden, David B; Himes, David; Leyde, Kent; Seneviratne, Udaya; Berkovic, Samuel; O'Brien, Terence; Cook, Mark J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a quantitative analysis of electrocorticography data from a study that acquired continuous ambulatory recordings in humans over extended periods of time. The objectives were to examine patterns of seizures and spontaneous interictal spikes, their relationship to each other, and the nature of periodic variation. The recorded data were originally acquired for the purpose of seizure prediction, and were subsequently analysed in further detail. A detection algorithm identified potential seizure activity and a template matched filter was used to locate spikes. Seizure events were confirmed manually and classified as either clinically correlated, electroencephalographically identical but not clinically correlated, or subclinical. We found that spike rate was significantly altered prior to seizure in 9 out of 15 subjects. Increased pre-ictal spike rate was linked to improved predictability; however, spike rate was also shown to decrease before seizure (in 6 out of the 9 subjects). The probability distribution of spikes and seizures were notably similar, i.e. at times of high seizure likelihood the probability of epileptic spiking also increased. Both spikes and seizures showed clear evidence of circadian regulation and, for some subjects, there were also longer term patterns visible over weeks to months. Patterns of spike and seizure occurrence were highly subject-specific. The pre-ictal decrease in spike rate is not consistent with spikes promoting seizures. However, the fact that spikes and seizures demonstrate similar probability distributions suggests they are not wholly independent processes. It is possible spikes actively inhibit seizures, or that a decreased spike rate is a secondary symptom of the brain approaching seizure. If spike rate is modulated by common regulatory factors as seizures then spikes may be useful biomarkers of cortical excitability.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww019_video_abstractaww019_video_abstract. PMID:26912639

  9. Nerve agent-induced seizures and their pharmacological modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonough, J.H.; Shih, T.M.; Adams, N.L.; Koviak, T.A.; Cook, L.A.

    1993-05-13

    Intoxication with nerve agents produces prolonged central nervous system seizures (status epilepticus) that can produce irreversible brain pathology (15). This report summarizes our recent findings regarding the neurotransmitter changes that occur in discrete brain regions as a function of seizure duration and the differential effectiveness of anticholinergic, benzodiazepine and excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist drugs in terminating soman-induced seizures when given at different times after seizure onset. These results are discussed in relation to a model we have proposed to explain the sequence of electrophysiological, biochemical and neurochemical events and mechanisms controlling nerve agent-induced seizures.

  10. Detection of Epileptic Seizures with Multi-modal Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa

    phase of GTC) and simulated seizures. This was valuable information concerning a seizure detection algorithm, and the findings from this research provided evidence for a change in the definition of these seizures by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Our final study presents a novel...... algorithms for these based on uni- or multimodalities. Regarding seizure detection, the highest potential clinical relevance is for the generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures, as these are associated with an increased risk for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in unsupervised patients. Several...

  11. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  12. SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH SIMPLE FEBRILE SEIZURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad HEYDARIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the serum zinc level of the patients with simple febrile seizure and compare them with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis prospective case - control study was performed on 60 patients aged 6 months to 6 years from Apr. 2009 to Jan.2010 in Ghaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad. The serum zinc level was assessed and compared between the cases (30 individuals who suffered from simple febrile seizure and the controls (30 individuals who had fever without seizure.ResultsMean serum zinc level was 663.7 µg /l and 758.33  µg /l in the case group and the control group, respectively (PConclusionIt was revealed that the serum level of zinc was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Keywords: Simple febrile seizure, children, zinc, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid

  13. Analysis of Seizure EEG in Kindled Epileptic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Using wavelet analysis we have detected the presence of chirps in seizure EEG signals recorded from kindled epileptic rats. Seizures were induced by electrical stimulation of the amygdala and the EEG signals recorded from the amygdala were analyzed using a continuous wavelet transform. A time–frequency representation of the wavelet power spectrum revealed that during seizure the EEG signal is characterized by a chirp-like waveform whose frequency changes with time from the onset of seizure to its completion. Similar chirp-like time–frequency profiles have been observed in newborn and adult patients undergoing epileptic seizures. The global wavelet spectrum depicting the variation of power with frequency showed two dominant frequencies with the largest amounts of power during seizure. Our results indicate that a kindling paradigm in rats can be used as an animal model of human temporal lobe epilepsy to detect seizures by identifying chirp-like time–frequency variations in the EEG signal.

  14. Metabolic Disruption in Drosophila Bang-Sensitive Seizure Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergestad, Tim; Bostwick, Bret; Ganetzky, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We examined a number of Drosophila mutants with increased susceptibility to seizures following mechanical or electrical stimulation to better understand the underlying factors that predispose neurons to aberrant activity. Several mutations in this class have been molecularly identified and suggest metabolic disruption as a possible source for increased seizure susceptibility. We mapped the bang-sensitive seizure mutation knockdown (kdn) to cytological position 5F3 and identified citrate synthase as the affected gene. These results further support a role for mitochondrial metabolism in controlling neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility. Biochemical analysis in bang-sensitive mutants revealed reductions in ATP levels consistent with disruption of mitochondrial energy production in these mutants. Electrophysiological analysis of mutants affecting mitochondrial proteins revealed an increased likelihood for a specific pattern of seizure activity. Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. PMID:16648587

  15. Neonatal withdrawal syndrome: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radunović-Gojković Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maternal drug abuse has increased over the past decade. It has a multiple negative influence on a pregnant woman, as well as her newborn. Practically, every drug taken during pregnancy crosses the placenta, and the developing fetus may also be affected by the effects of a drug. After delivery, an infant of a drug-abusing mother may potentially develop neonatal withdrawal syndrome. Existing studies on the neonatal effects of drug exposure in utero are subject to many factors. Many studies have relied on the history obtained from the mother, which is innacurate. Urine testing for drug abuse does not reflect exposure to a drug through pregnancy and does not provide quantitative information. Social and economic deprivation is common among drug abusers, and this factor has a major effect on long term studies of infant outcome. The purpose of this article is to underline the problems during management of a neonatal withdrawal syndrom, and growing incidence of it in our society. Case report. A case of an infant of a heroin-abusing mother is reported. Conclusion. It is very important to take care of an infant with neonatal withdrawal syndrome, but it is also of a great importance to supervise these children for a long period of time.

  16. Local cerebral metabolism during partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J. Jr.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Rausch, R.; Nuwer, M.

    1983-04-01

    Interictal and ictal fluorodeoxyglucose scans were obtained with positron CT from four patients with spontaneous recurrent partial seizures, one with epilepsia partialis continua, and one with a single partial seizure induced by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus. Ictal metabolic patterns were different for each patient studied. Focal and generalized increased and decreased metabolism were observed. Ictal hypermetabolism may exceed six times the interictal rate and could represent activation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses in the epileptogenic region and its projection fields. Hypometabolism seen on ictal scans most likely reflects postictal depression and may indicate projection fields of inhibited neurons. No quantitative relationship between alterations in metabolism and EEG or behavioral measurements of ictal events could be demonstrated.

  17. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  18. [Extension of the concept of withdrawal signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shin

    2015-12-01

    If the conditions including normal-dose dependence in which withdrawal signs are observed in the absence of definite psychic dependence are classified as dependence, this classification should be regarded as inappropriate extension of the concept of drug dependence. These conditions should be diagnosed as 'withdrawal' as specified by the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Advancements of research have clarified that an increased number of drugs cause withdrawal signs. Some Japanese researchers use the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence.' Their definition of drug dependence and concept of withdrawal signs, however, are different from the definition established by the WHO and the researchers specializing in this field. Thus, the concept of 'withdrawal signs of psychic dependence' raises a lot of questions. PMID:26964289

  19. 27 CFR 19.534 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. 19.534 Section 19.534 Alcohol... Withdrawals of spirits for use in production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. Spirits... bonded wine cellar for use in the production of nonbeverage wine and nonbeverage wine products. (Sec....

  20. Reversed scototaxis during withdrawal after daily-moderate, but not weekly-binge, administration of ethanol in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Holcombe

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse can lead to severe psychological and physiological damage. Little is known, however, about the relative impact of a small, daily dose of alcohol (daily-moderate schedule versus a large, once per week dose (weekly-binge schedule. In this study, we examined the effect of each of these schedules on behavioural measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio. Adult wild-type zebrafish were administered either 0.2% ethanol on a daily-moderate schedule or 1.4% ethanol on a weekly-binge schedule for a period of 21 days, and then tested for scototaxis (preference for darkness during withdrawal. Compared to a control group with no alcohol exposure, the daily-moderate group spent significantly more time on the light side of the arena (indicative of decreased anxiety on day two of withdrawal, but not day 9 of withdrawal. The weekly-binge group was not significantly different from the control group on either day of withdrawal and showed no preference for either the light or dark zones. Our results indicate that even a small dose of alcohol on a daily basis can cause significant, though reversible, changes in behaviour.

  1. Post-stroke seizures in consecutive elderly stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Chen; Lufang Chen; Yiqing Tao; Maomao Han; Chunlan Cui; Shichao Liu

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study sought to investigate the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of seizures in elderly stroke patients, and their outcomes. Over a 2-year study period, 158 consecutive eldedy patients with stroke were examined and followed up. Of these patients, 32 (20%) developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, within a follow up period between 5 months and 2 years. Of these 32 cases, 20 experienced infarctions, and 12 experienced hemorrhages. Involvement of cortical regions was detected in most of the patients exhibiting seizures. In these patients, 44% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas observed on computed tomography (CT) images. Twenty-five patients (78%)developed early seizures (within 2 weeks after stroke), and half exhibited immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients exhibiting early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 57% of late onset seizures (four cases) developed epilepsy. No specific EEG patterns were apparent in those who later developed epilepsy. Overall, early onset seizures after stroke were found to be relatively common, and did not affect outcome. Late onset seizures were less common, but were associated with chronic epilepsy.

  2. Perspectives on seizure clusters: Gaps in lexicon, awareness, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Janice M; Shafer, Patricia; Shinnar, Ruth; Austin, Joan; Dewar, Sandra; Long, Lucretia; O'Hara, Kathryn; Santilli, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Seizure clusters in epilepsy can result in serious outcomes such as missed work or school, postictal psychosis, emergency room visits, or hospitalizations, and yet they are often not included in discussions between health-care professionals (HCPs) and their patients. The purpose of this paper was to describe and compare consumer (patient and caregivers) and professional understanding of seizure clusters and to describe how consumers and HCPs communicate regarding seizure clusters. We reviewed social media discussion sites to explore consumers' understanding of seizure clusters. We analyzed professional (medical) literature to explore the HCPs' understanding of seizure clusters. Major themes were revealed in one or both groups, including: communication about diagnosis; frequency, duration, and time frame; seizure type and pattern; severity; and self-management. When comparing discussions of professionals and consumers, both consumers and clinicians discussed the definition of seizure clusters. Discussions of HCPs were understandably clinically focused, and consumer discussions reflected the experience of seizure clusters; however, both groups struggled with a common lexicon. Seizure cluster events remain a problem associated with serious outcomes. Herein, we outline the lack of a common understanding and recommend the development of a common lexicon to improve communication regarding seizure clusters. PMID:26906403

  3. [Pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Yosuke; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    We reviewed the available pharmacological therapies for alcohol use disorder in Japan. For treatment of withdrawal delirium, therapists prefer to use antipsychotic drugs rather than benzodiazepines, which is different from other countries. Japan does not have any substantial treatment guidelines for withdrawal delirium. Therefore, so treatment strategies matching the environment of each facility need to be formulated. Moreover, current choices for prescribing anti-alcoholic drugs to cope with alcohol craving are limited to drugs such as cyanamide and disulfiram. However, the use of acamprosate has recently begun and a clinical trial for nalmefene is starting soon. We anticipate that these newer pharmacological therapies will contribute to better treatment of alcohol use disorder also in Japan.

  4. Epileptic seizures in patients with a posterior circulation infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksel Kaplan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of seizures and the clinical features of patients with seizures related to a posterior circulation infarct (POCI. METHODS: We reviewed all ischemic stroke patients admitted to our clinic between January 2011 and January 2012. The patients’ database information was retrospectively analyzed. Fifty-five patients with a POCI were included in the study. We reviewed all patients with epileptic seizures related to a POCI. Age, gender, recurrent stroke, risk factors, etiology, radiographic localization, the seizure type and onset time, and the electroencephalographic findings of patients were evaluated. We excluded all patients who had precipitating conditions during seizures such as taking drugs, acid-base disturbances, electrolyte imbalance, and history of epilepsy. RESULTS: Seizures were observed in four patients (3 male, 1 female with a POCI related epileptic seizures (7.2%. The etiology of strokes was cardiac-embolic in 3 patients and vertebral artery dissection in 1 patient. Seizures occurred in 2 patients as presenting finding, in 1 patient within 7 days, and 1 patient within 28 days. Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures occurred in 3 patients and simple partial seizures with secondary generalization in 1 patient. Three patients had cerebellum infarction at the left hemisphere. One patient had lateral medullary infarction at the right side. The electroencephalographic findings of patients were normal. CONCLUSION: Studies involving patients with seizures related to a POCI are novel and few in number. Three patients with seizure had cerebellum infarction. The cerebellum in these patients may contribute via different mechanisms over seizure activity.

  5. 29 CFR 4219.12 - Employers liable upon mass withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. 4219.12 Section 4219... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.12 Employers liable upon mass withdrawal. (a... experiences successive mass withdrawals, an employer that has been determined to be liable under this...

  6. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  7. A heuristic model of alcohol dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance dependence poses a critical health problem. Sadly, its neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear, and this lack of real understanding is reflected in insufficient treatment options. It has been hypothesized that alcohol effects are due to an imbalance between neuroexcitatory and neuroinhibitory amino acids. However, glutamate and GABA interact with other neurotransmitters, which form a complicated network whose functioning evades intuition and should be investigated systemically with methods of biomedical systems analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We present a heuristic model of neurotransmitters that combines a neurochemical interaction matrix at the biochemical level with a mobile describing the balances between pairs of neurotransmitters at the physiological and behavioral level. We investigate the effects of alcohol on the integrated neurotransmitter systems at both levels. The model simulation results are consistent with clinical and experimental observations. The model demonstrates that the drug diazepam for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal effectively reduces the imbalances between neurotransmitters. Moreover, the acetylcholine signal is suggested as a novel target for treatment of symptoms associated with alcohol withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient means of integrating clinical symptoms across multiple levels are still scarce and difficult to establish. We present a heuristic model of systemic neurotransmitter functionality that permits the assessment of genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological perturbations. The model can serve as a tool to represent clinical and biological observations and explore various scenarios associated with alcohol dependence and its treatments. It also is very well suited for educational purposes.

  8. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Maren L.; Lopez, Marcelo F; Archer, Kellie J; Wolen, Aaron R.; Howard C Becker; Miles, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Long lasting abusive consumption, dependence, and withdrawal are characteristic features of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Mechanistically, persistent changes in gene expression are hypothesized to contribute to brain adaptations leading to ethanol toxicity and AUD. We employed repeated chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor chamber as a mouse model to simulate the cycles of ethanol exposure and withdrawal commonly seen with AUD. This model has been shown to induce progressive eth...

  9. Treatment of Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Menachery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD is a spectrum ranging from simple hepatic steatosis to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis can have clinical presentation almost similar to those with decompensated cirrhosis. Scoring with models like Maddrey discriminant function, a model for end-stage liver disease, Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score, and Lille model are helpful in prognosticating patients with ALD. One of the first therapeutic goals in ALD is to induce alcohol withdrawal with psychotherapy or drugs. Most studies have shown that nutritional therapy improves liver function and histology in patients with ALD. The rationale for using glucocorticoids is to block cytotoxic and inflammatory pathways in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα suppressor, and infliximab, an anti-TNFα mouse/human chimeric antibody, has been extensively studied in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Liver transplantation remains the definitive therapy for decompensated cirrhosis/alcoholic hepatitis despite the issues of recidivism, poor compliance with postoperative care, and being a self-inflicted disease.

  10. Refeeding syndrome is uncommon in alcoholics admitted to a hospital detoxification unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, S; Gilmour, M; Weatherall, M; Robinson, G M

    2014-05-01

    The refeeding syndrome is increasingly recognised. It is a serious change in electrolytes when nutrition is reintroduced to malnourished patients. Alcohol dependence is a risk factor for the refeeding syndrome. We report a prospective cohort study of 36 alcoholics hospitalised for withdrawal management. We found no evidence of refeeding syndrome in any patient after 3 days of hospitalisation, despite hypomagnesaemia, a risk factor for the refeeding syndrome being prevalent (44% of subjects). Low thiamine levels were infrequent affecting 3/29 (10%). We recommend that in alcoholics admitted for managed withdrawal, risk of refeeding syndrome appears to be low, and routine testing of repeat electrolytes appears unnecessary.

  11. 8 CFR 280.21 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 280.21 Section 280.21... OF FINES § 280.21 Seizure of aircraft. Seizure of an aircraft under the authority of section 239 of the Act and § 280.2 will not be made if such aircraft is damaged to an extent that its value is...

  12. Noradrenergic mechanism in the regulation of seizures in GEPR.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwang-HoKo; Dong-OokSeo; Jae-RyunRyu; Chan-YoungShin

    2004-01-01

    Genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR) is a model of generalized tonic/clonic epilepsy and a useful tool in the understanding of basic mechanisms of human epilepsy. GEPR is susceptible to audiogenic seizure, hyperthermia induced seizure,and has lower threshold for electrical and chemical stimuli. Several strains of GEPR, from GEPR-3 to GEPR-9, are available depending on the degree of the intensity of audiogenic seizure.

  13. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    OpenAIRE

    Mark H Myers; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a “closed-loop” system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which...

  14. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    OpenAIRE

    Mark H Myers; Ashay ePadmanabha; Gahangir eHossain; Amy ede Jongh Curry; Blaha, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a ‘closed-loop’ system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998, Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) whi...

  15. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  16. A missed orthopaedic injury following a seizure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor-Read Laurence

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous orthopaedic injuries can follow a seizure and are often diagnosed late. This is the first documented case of a missed bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a seizure. The possible reasons for the greater incidence of posterior dislocations are examined and why bilateral anterior dislocations following a seizure are so rare. The article discusses the reasons for the delay and highlights potential pitfalls and learning points for junior emergency department doctors.

  17. Febrile Seizure Related with Adenovirus Gastroenteritis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Müjgan; Ermiştekin, Halime; Güngör, Serdal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizure is the most common, age-dependant, benign, and fever-related convulsion of childhood. Its pathogenesis is still not clear. Fever causing febrile seizures is usually associated with viral infections, mostly upper respiratory tract infections, otitis media, tonsillitis, or urinary tract infections. The incidence of febrile convulsions during gastroenteritis is lower and gastroenteritis is thought to exert a protective feature in febril seizures. Although the most common pathogen...

  18. Mortality predictors of epilepsy and epileptic seizures among hospitalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Telma M.R. de Assis; Aroldo Bacellar; Gersonita Costa; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy and epileptic seizures are common brain disorders in the elderly and are associated with increased mortality that may be ascribed to the underlying disease or epilepsy-related causes. Objective To describe mortality predictors of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in elderly inpatients.Method Retrospective analysis was performed on hospitalized elderly who had epilepsy or epileptic seizures, from January 2009 to December 2010. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled.Results The mo...

  19. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    OpenAIRE

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN; Omid YAGHINI; Shirin BAJOGHLI

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female) were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excl...

  20. Seizure in later life: an ode to the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raminderpal Singh Sibia; Amith Kumar S; Honey Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Seizure disorder and epilepsy are one of the common presenting symptoms to an emergency department for geriatric population. Cerebrovascular accident, metabolic derangement, trauma, neurodegenerative diseases, tumor, infections and psychiatric illnesses add up to the frequent etiological spectrum of seizure in elderly. Objective of current study was to describe clinical and etiological spectrum of seizures in later life. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from medi...

  1. Predictive factors for generalized seizures after deliberate citalopram overdose

    OpenAIRE

    Waring, W Stephen; Gray, Julie A; Graham, Ann

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTCitalopram is a common means of self-poisoning in young adults.Generalized seizures are a recognised complication after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor overdose (including citalopram overdose). WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSThe minimum stated citalopram dose associated with seizures in the absence of co-ingested drugs was 400 mg.Co-ingestion of a tricyclic antidepressant or venlafaxine confers a 15-fold increased risk of seizures.

  2. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitali Patra; Shatanik Sarkar; Malay Kumar Dasgupta; Amit Das

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise) in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any.

  3. Camphor poisoning: An unusual cause of seizure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Patra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Camphor is a pleasant-smelling cyclic ketone with propensity to cause neurologic side-effect, especially seizures. We report a case of 1½-year-old child who after inadvertent consumption of camphor, experienced an episode of generalized tonic clonic seizure. This case highlights the importance of enquiring any intake of material (medicinal or otherwise in every patient presenting with seizure and notifying presence of typical smell, if any.

  4. The Future of Seizure Prediction and Intervention: Closing the loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro; Netoff, Theoden

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss 1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, 2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and 3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy while minimizing side-effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672

  5. Validation of an automated seizure detection algorithm for term neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieson, Sean R; Stevenson, Nathan J.; Low, Evonne; Marnane, William P.; Rennie, Janet M.; Temko, Andrey; Lightbody, Gordon; Geraldine B. Boylan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to validate the performance of a seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group, on previously unseen, prolonged, unedited EEG recordings from 70 babies from 2 centres. Methods EEGs of 70 babies (35 seizure, 35 non-seizure) were annotated for seizures by experts as the gold standard. The SDA was tested on the EEGs at a range of sensitivity settings. Annotations from the expert and SDA were compared using event and epoch based metrics. The ef...

  6. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  7. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  8. 42 CFR 457.170 - Withdrawal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal process. 457.170 Section 457.170 Public... Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.170 Withdrawal process. (a... amendment, or any portion of a proposed State plan or plan amendment, at any time during the review...

  9. 14 CFR 93.223 - Slot withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall assign, by random lottery, withdrawal priority numbers for the recall priority of slots at each...) Slots obtained in a lottery held pursuant to § 93.225 of this part shall be subject to withdrawal... following a lottery held after June 1, 1991, a slot acquired in that lottery shall be withdrawn by the...

  10. Seizure recurrence after a first febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditan, A A

    1994-01-01

    In this study, 140 children aged from 6 months to 6 years who presented with a first febrile convulsion at the King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia were retrospectively identified. Information about these children was obtained from their medical records covering a follow-up period of 3 years from July 1989 to June 1992. Recurrent febrile convulsions occurred in 60 of them (43%). Relevant risk factors that were observed to be significantly associated with seizure recurrence included an age of less than 18 months (odds ratio [OR] = 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.26, 1.58), an initial febrile convulsion that was complex (OR = 4.41; CI = 9.50, 2.05) and a positive family history of febrile convulsions (OR = 4.12; CI = 10.74; 1.58), while a decreased risk of recurrence occurred with a temperature of over 39 degrees C (OR = 4.60; CI = 9.44; 2.24). There was no association between seizure recurrence and the duration of the initial febrile convulsion (OR = 0.93; CI = 2.33; -2.04) or family history of epilepsy (OR = 0.88; CI = 4.22, -3.27). An important observation in the present study is the close association (ORM-H = 2.36; X2M-H = 9.65) between the development of an afebrile convulsion and seizure recurrence among the group of children with CFC. Anticonvulsant prophylaxis should therefore be considered for children whose initial febrile convulsions are complex in nature. PMID:7880092

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  14. Lipopolysaccharide potentiates hyperthermia-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Eun, Baik-Lin; Abraham, Jayne; Mlsna, Lauren; Kim, Min Jung; Koh, Sookyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged febrile seizures (FS) have both acute and long-lasting effects on the developing brain. Because FS are often associated with peripheral infection, we aimed to develop a preclinical model of FS that simulates fever and immune activation in order to facilitate the implementation of targeted therapy after prolonged FS in young children. Methods The innate immune activator lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered to postnatal day 14 rat (200 μg/kg) and mouse (100 μg/kg) pups...

  15. S100B proteins in febrile seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Kirsi; Pekkala, Niina; Pokka, Tytti;

    2011-01-01

    S100B protein concentrations correlate with the severity and outcome of brain damage after brain injuries, and have been shown to be markers of blood-brain barrier damage. In children elevated S100B values are seen as a marker of damage to astrocytes even after mild head injuries. S100B proteins...... may also give an indication of an ongoing pathological process in the brain with respect to febrile seizures (FS) and the likelihood of their recurrence. To evaluate this, we measured S100B protein concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 103 children after their first FS. 33 children...

  16. Seizure susceptibility of neuropeptide-Y null mutant mice in amygdala kindling and chemical-induced seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Harlan E; Yang, Lijuan

    2004-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) administered exogenously is anticonvulsant, and, NPY null mutant mice are more susceptible to kainate-induced seizures. In order to better understand the potential role of NPY in epileptogenesis, the present studies investigated the development of amygdala kindling, post-kindling seizure thresholds, and anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine and levetiracetam in 129S6/SvEv NPY(+/+) and NPY(-/-) mice. In addition, susceptibility to pilocarpine- and kainate-induced seizures was compared in NPY(+/+) and (-/-) mice. The rate of amygdala kindling development did not differ in the NPY(-/-) and NPY(+/+) mice either when kindling stimuli were presented once daily for at least 20 days, or, 12 times daily for 2 days. However, during kindling development, the NPY(-/-) mice had higher seizure severity scores and longer afterdischarge durations than the NPY(+/+) mice. Post-kindling, the NPY(-/-) mice had markedly lower afterdischarge thresholds and longer afterdischarge durations than NPY (+/+) mice. Carbamazepine and levetiracetam increased the seizure thresholds of both NPY (-/-) and (+/+) mice. In addition, NPY (-/-) mice had lower thresholds for both kainate- and pilocarpine-induced seizures. The present results in amygdala kindling and chemical seizure models suggest that NPY may play a more prominent role in determining seizure thresholds and severity of seizures than in events leading to epileptogenesis. In addition, a lack of NPY does not appear to confer drug-resistance in that carbamazepine and levetiracetam were anticonvulsant in both wild type (WT) and NPY null mutant mice.

  17. Role of endogenous neuropeptides in the pathomechanism of alcohol addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Rudzińska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies with endogenous neuropeptides have indicated their modulating role in the etiology of alcoholism. The role of endogenous opioids is relatively well known and there is growing evidence for a role of the appetite-regulating peptides leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, galanin, and orexins. It has been demonstrated that these peptides could also be involved in alcohol intake regulation and the occurrence of alcohol craving. Moreover, important significance is attached to corticotrophin-releasing factor, since an increased level of this peptide during alcohol withdrawal is responsible for the occurrence of anxiety behaviors. Knowledge of the processes tied with neuropeptides is needed in the search for more effective therapy for alcohol addiction as their actions could perhaps facilitate the search for new medicines which would adapt the therapy to the individual patient as well as contribute to increasing the effectiveness of alcohol addiction therapy.

  18. Clonidina como droga adjuvante no tratamento da síndrome de abstinência alcoólica em unidade de terapia intensiva: relato de caso Clonidina como droga coadyuvante en el tratamiento de la síndrome de abstinencia alcohólica en unidad de terapia intensiva: relato de un caso Clonidine as adjuvant therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in intensive care unit: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gobbo Braz

    2003-12-01

    alta de la UTI. CONCLUSIONES: La droga escogida para el tratamiento del síndrome de abstinencia alcohólico es el benzodiazepínico. No obstante, en el presente relato, solamente el uso coadyuvante de clonidina consiguió proporcionar tratamiento adecuado al paciente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sedation of patients with past history of alcohol and drug abuse in Intensive Care Units (ICU is a challenge due to the high incidence of sedative drugs tolerance and withdrawal syndromes. This report aimed at describing a case of a young patient admitted to the ICU who developed alcohol withdrawal syndrome and tolerance to sedatives, resolved only after clonidine administration. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 18 years old, alcohol, tobacco, cocaine and marijuana abuser, victim of firearm accident, who was admitted to the ICU in the first post-enterectomy day, after gastric content aspiration during tracheal re-intubation. Clinical evolution was: vasoactive drugs up to the 4th day; bilateral bronchopneumonia with pleural effusion and need for artificial ventilation up to the 15th day. Initial sedation scheme was the association of midazolam and fentanyl. As from the 4th day, patient presented with several psychomotor agitation episodes, even after the association of lorazepam in the 6th day. In the 9th day, patient received the largest doses but remained agitated. Dexmedetomidine was associated, which has decreased other drug doses in 35% and has improved agitation. In the 12th day, midazolam and dexmedetomidine were replaced by propofol infusion with worsening of agitation. In the 13th day, clonidine was associated to the sedation scheme with total resolution of agitation. Propofol was withdrawn in the 14th day, fentanyl was maintained and midazolam infusion was restarted, with doses 75% and 65% lower as compared to peak doses of such drugs. Patient was extubated in the 15th day and was discharged from ICU. CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepines should remain the drugs of choice for the

  19. Congenital hypothyroidism with seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Vivian Sproul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypothyroidism (CH is defined as thyroid hormone deficiency, present at birth. It is seen in 1:4,000 births and is caused by an anatomical defect, known as thyroid dysgenesis (underdevelopment or unusual location of the thyroid gland, by abnormal biosynthesis of the thyroid hormones (dyshormogenesis, inborn errors of metabolism, genetic mutations or iodine deficiency. If untreated, severe neurological impairment develops. However, newborn screening programs have improved outcomes greatly, through early diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are often subtle at birth, due to the placental transfer of thyroxine (T4, thus making diagnosis in the first few days of life difficult. Increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and low levels of T4 are confirmatory for this disorder. We describe the case of a baby with CH who presented with neonatal seizures: a rare clinical presentation. Our case highlights the need to eliminate CH, as a cause of seizures, so that treatment can be initiated even more promptly to optimize neurological sequelae and outcome.

  20. Alcoholism (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  1. Dynamics of muscle activation during tonic-clonic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai; Jennum, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    ) of exponentially increasing duration - features that could not be reproduced voluntarily. The last SP was longer in seizures with higher EMG peak frequency whereas the energy of the last clonus was higher in seizures with a short clonic phase. We found specific features of muscle activation dynamics during GTCS...

  2. 19 CFR 162.63 - Arrests and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arrests and seizures. 162.63 Section 162.63 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Controlled Substances, Narcotics, and Marihuana §...

  3. 14 CFR 13.17 - Seizure of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seizure of aircraft. 13.17 Section 13.17... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Legal Enforcement Actions § 13.17 Seizure of aircraft. (a) Under... by the Regional Administrator of the region, or by the Chief Counsel, may summarily seize an...

  4. Histamine H1 antagonists and clinical characteristics of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolaly MA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A ZolalyDepartment of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures.Methods: The current descriptive study was carried out from April 2009 to February 2011 in 250 infants and children who visited the Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital as a result of febrile convulsions. They were divided into two groups according to administration of antihistamines at the onset of fever.Results: Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamines. The time from fever detection to seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than in the nonantihistamine group. No significant difference was found in time from fever detection to seizure onset or seizure duration between patients who received a first-generation antihistamine and those who received a second-generation antihistamine.Conclusion: Due to their central nervous system effects, H1 antagonists should not be administered to patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy. Caution should be exercised regarding the use of histamine H1 antagonists in young infants, because these drugs could potentially disturb the anticonvulsive central histaminergic system.Keywords: antihistamine, nonantihistamine, histamine H1 antagonist, febrile seizures

  5. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Mark H; Padmanabha, Akshay; Hossain, Gahangir; de Jongh Curry, Amy L; Blaha, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a "closed-loop" system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998; Ben-Menachem, 2001), while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV) which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the "CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database" which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events. PMID:27014017

  6. Seizure Prediction and Detection via Phase and Amplitude Lock Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A robust seizure prediction methodology would enable a ‘closed-loop’ system that would only activate as impending seizure activity is detected. Such a system would eliminate ongoing stimulation to the brain, thereby eliminating such side effects as coughing, hoarseness, voice alteration, and paresthesias (Murphy et al., 1998, Ben-Menachem, 2001, while preserving overall battery life of the system. The seizure prediction and detection algorithm uses Phase/Amplitude Lock Values (PLV/ALV which calculate the difference of phase and amplitude between EEG electrodes local and remote to the epileptic event. PLV is used as the seizure prediction marker and signifies the emergence of abnormal neuronal activations through local neuron populations. PLV/ALVs are used as seizure detection markers to demarcate the seizure event, or when the local seizure event has propagated throughout the brain turning into a grand-mal event. We verify the performance of this methodology against the ‘CHB-MIT Scalp EEG Database’ which features seizure attributes for testing. Through this testing, we can demonstrate a high degree of sensivity and precision of our methodology between pre-ictal and ictal events.

  7. Responding to Seizures (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-26

    As traumatic as epilepsy can be for the person experiencing seizures, it can be just as troubling for witnesses who want to try and help. In this podcast, Rosemarie Kobau discusses the appropriate way to help someone who is experiencing a seizure.  Created: 11/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/26/2015.

  8. Responding to Seizures (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-26

    When helping someone with a seizure, it’s important to remain calm. This podcast discusses what to do if you witness someone having a seizure.  Created: 11/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/26/2015.

  9. Effect of berberine on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Sadeghnia

    2011-09-01

    Results: Intraperitoneal administration of lower doses of berberine (100 and 200 mg/kg had no significant effects on minimal clonic seizures (MCS and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS latencies, while injection of 400 mg/kg caused significant increase in both MCS and GTCS latencies (p

  10. 27 CFR 478.152 - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of the Act, where the firearm or ammunition intended to be used in such offense is involved in a... firearm or ammunition is intended to be used in such offense by the transferor of such firearm or... Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.152 Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Any firearm or...

  11. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure Parvaneh KARIMZADEH, Alireza REZAYI*, Mansoureh TOGHA, Farzad AHMADABADI, Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR, Eznollah AZARGASHB, Fatemeh KHODAEI Abstract How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Rezayi A, Togha M, Ahmadabadi F, Derakhshanfar H, Azargashb E, Khodaei F. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:20-25. Objective Some studies suggest that detection of epileptic discharge is unusual during the first postictal week of febrile seizure and others believe that EEGs carried out on the day of the seizure are abnormal in as many as 88% of the patients. In this study, we intend to compare early and late EEG abnormalities in febrile seizure. Materials & Methods EEG was recorded during daytime sleep, 24-48 hours (early EEG and 2 weeks (late EEG after the seizure in 36 children with febrile seizure (FS, aged between 3 months and 6 years. EEGs that showed generalized or focal spikes, sharp, spike wave complex, and slowing were considered as abnormal EEG. Abnormalities of the first EEG were compared with those of second EEG. Results The most common abnormal epileptiform discharges recorded in the early EEG were slow waves (27.6% and sharp waves in late EEG (36%. Distribution of abnormalities in early and late EEG showed no significant statistical difference. Conclusion The early and late EEG recording had the same results in patient with febrile seizure.

  12. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  13. Identification of Srp9 as a febrile seizure susceptibility gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Karst, Henk; de Graaff, Esther; van Lith, Hein A; de Bruijn, Ewart; de Sonnaville, Sophietje; Verbeek, Nienke E; Lindhout, Dick; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Kempen, Marjan; Brilstra, Eva; Cuppen, Edwin; Loos, Maarten; Spijker, Sabine S; Kan, Anne A; Baars, Susanne E; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter H; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; van Duijn, Cornelia; Vergeer, Jeanette; Moll, Henriette A; Taubøll, Erik; Heuser, Kjell; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kas, Martien J H; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure type in young children. Complex FS are a risk factor for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). To identify new FS susceptibility genes we used a forward genetic strategy in mice and subsequently analyzed candidate genes in humans. METHODS:

  14. Seizures in Fragile X Syndrome: Characteristics and Comorbid Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Raspa, Melissa; Loggin-Hester, Lisa; Bishop, Ellen; Holiday, David; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A national survey of caregivers of individuals with fragile X syndrome addressed characteristics of epilepsy and co-occurring conditions. Of the 1,394 individuals (1,090 males and 304 females) with the full mutation, 14% of males and 6% of females reported seizures. Seizures were more often partial, began between ages 4 and 10 years, and were…

  15. Temporal epileptic seizures and occupational exposure to solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, M; Bælum, Jesper; Bonde, J P

    1994-01-01

    exposure to a mixture of organic solvents (mainly cyclohexanone, white spirit, and isopropanol). Epileptic seizures of temporal type were occurring in relation to solvent exposure. The seizures disappeared shortly after stopping exposure but returned just after a short term re-exposure to cyclohexanone...

  16. Reversible loss of reproductive fitness in zebrafish on chronic alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewari, Pooran Singh; Ajani, Funmilola; Kushawah, Gopal; Kumar, Damera Santhosh; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-02-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent diseases in society and causes significant health and social problems. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is reported to cause adverse effects on the physical and psychological growth of the fetus. However, the direct effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reproductive fitness has not been tested. In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a versatile model system to study the effects of alcohol on behavior and embryonic development. We utilized the zebrafish model system to address the effect of chronic alcohol exposure (0.5% alcohol in the holding tank for 9 weeks) on reproductive capacity. We found a dramatic decrease in fecundity, measured by counting the number of eggs laid, when at least one of the parents is subject to chronic alcohol exposure. Interestingly, a 9-week alcohol withdrawal program completely restored the reproductive capacity of the treated subjects. In agreement with observations on fecundity, the chronic alcohol exposure leads to increased anxiety, as measured by the novel-tank diving assay. Conversely, the withdrawal program diminished heightened anxiety in alcohol-exposed subjects. Our results highlight the adverse effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the reproductive capacity of both males and females, and underscore the utility of the zebrafish model system to understand the biology of chronic alcoholism. PMID:26781213

  17. Assortative mixing in functional brain networks during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Bialonski, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate assortativity of functional brain networks before, during, and after one-hundred epileptic seizures with different anatomical onset locations. We construct binary functional networks from multi-channel electroencephalographic data recorded from 60 epilepsy patients, and from time-resolved estimates of the assortativity coefficient we conclude that positive degree-degree correlations are inherent to seizure dynamics. While seizures evolve, an increasing assortativity indicates a segregation of the underlying functional network into groups of brain regions that are only sparsely interconnected, if at all. Interestingly, assortativity decreases already prior to seizure end. Together with previous observations of characteristic temporal evolutions of global statistical properties and synchronizability of epileptic brain networks, our findings may help to gain deeper insights into the complicated dynamics underlying generation, propagation, and termination of seizures.

  18. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J; Temp, F R; Marafiga, J R; Jesse, A C; Milanesi, L H; Rambo, L M; Mello, C F

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  19. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  20. Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the lateralization of temporal lobe seizure foci. The clinical charts and imaging data of 43 consecutive CPS patients were reviewed. Based on surface EEG, 31 patients were classified with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE; 25 lateralized, 6 not lateralized) and 12 with non-temporal lobe epilepsy. All were examined by FDG-PET, MRS and MRI within 6 weeks. FDG-PET and MRI were interpreted visually, while the N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio was used for MRS interpretation. One FDG-PET scan was invalid due to seizure activity post injection. The MR spectra could not be evaluated in five cases bilaterally and three cases unilaterally for technical reasons. A total of 15 patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. All showed a beneficial postoperative outcome. When the proportions of agreement between FDG-PET (0.77), MRI (0.58) and MRS (0.56) and surface EEG in TLE cases were compared, there were no significant differences (P>0.10). However, FDG-PET showed a significantly higher agreement (0.93) than MRI (0.60; P=0.03) with the side of successful temporal lobectomy. The concordance of MRS with the side of successful temporal lobectomy was intermediate (0.75). When the results of functional and morphologic imaging were combined, no significant differences were found between the rates of agreement of FDG-PET/MRI and MRS/MRI with EEG (0.80 vs 0.68; P=0.50) and with the side of successful temporal lobectomy (0.87 vs 0.92; P=0.50) in TLE cases. However, MRS/MRI showed

  1. Inter-modality comparisons of seizure focus lateralization in complex partial seizures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.T.; Cortes-Blanco, A.; Pourdehnad, M.; Desiderio, L.; Jang, S.; Alavi, A. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Levy-Reis, I. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Neurology

    2001-10-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy offers a high chance of seizure-free outcome in patients suffering from drug-refractory complex partial seizure (CPS) originating from the temporal lobe. Other than EEG, several functional and morphologic imaging methods are used to define the spatial seizure origin. The present study was undertaken to compare the merits of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) for the lateralization of temporal lobe seizure foci. The clinical charts and imaging data of 43 consecutive CPS patients were reviewed. Based on surface EEG, 31 patients were classified with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE; 25 lateralized, 6 not lateralized) and 12 with non-temporal lobe epilepsy. All were examined by FDG-PET, MRS and MRI within 6 weeks. FDG-PET and MRI were interpreted visually, while the N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine ratio was used for MRS interpretation. One FDG-PET scan was invalid due to seizure activity post injection. The MR spectra could not be evaluated in five cases bilaterally and three cases unilaterally for technical reasons. A total of 15 patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. All showed a beneficial postoperative outcome. When the proportions of agreement between FDG-PET (0.77), MRI (0.58) and MRS (0.56) and surface EEG in TLE cases were compared, there were no significant differences (P>0.10). However, FDG-PET showed a significantly higher agreement (0.93) than MRI (0.60; P=0.03) with the side of successful temporal lobectomy. The concordance of MRS with the side of successful temporal lobectomy was intermediate (0.75). When the results of functional and morphologic imaging were combined, no significant differences were found between the rates of agreement of FDG-PET/MRI and MRS/MRI with EEG (0.80 vs 0.68; P=0.50) and with the side of successful temporal lobectomy (0.87 vs 0.92; P=0.50) in TLE cases. However, MRS/MRI showed

  2. Optogenetically induced seizure and the longitudinal hippocampal network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Osawa

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure is a paroxysmal and self-limited phenomenon characterized by abnormal hypersynchrony of a large population of neurons. However, our current understanding of seizure dynamics is still limited. Here we propose a novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarges using optogenetics, and report on investigation of directional network dynamics during seizure along the septo-temporal (ST axis of hippocampus. Repetitive pulse photostimulation was applied to the rodent hippocampus, in which channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 was expressed, under simultaneous recording of local field potentials (LFPs. Seizure-like afterdischarges were successfully induced after the stimulation in both W-TChR2V4 transgenic (ChR2V-TG rats and in wild type rats transfected with adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors carrying ChR2. Pulse frequency at 10 and 20 Hz, and a 0.05 duty ratio were optimal for afterdischarge induction. Immunohistochemical c-Fos staining after a single induced afterdischarge confirmed neuronal activation of the entire hippocampus. LFPs were recorded during seizure-like afterdischarges with a multi-contact array electrode inserted along the ST axis of hippocampus. Granger causality analysis of the LFPs showed a bidirectional but asymmetric increase in signal flow along the ST direction. State space presentation of the causality and coherence revealed three discrete states of the seizure-like afterdischarge phenomenon: 1 resting state; 2 afterdischarge initiation with moderate coherence and dominant septal-to-temporal causality; and 3 afterdischarge termination with increased coherence and dominant temporal-to-septal causality. A novel in vivo model of seizure-like afterdischarge was developed using optogenetics, which was advantageous in its reproducibility and artifact-free electrophysiological observations. Our results provide additional evidence for the potential role of hippocampal septo-temporal interactions in seizure dynamics in vivo

  3. Zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced seizure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that epileptic seizures increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult. However, the mechanism underlying increased neurogenesis after seizures remains largely unknown. Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampus in the adult brain, although an understanding of why it actively occurs in this region has remained elusive. A high level of vesicular zinc is localized in the presynaptic terminals of the SGZ. Previously, we demonstrated that a possible correlation may exist between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in this area after hypoglycemia. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model, we tested our hypothesis that zinc plays a key role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure. Then, we injected the zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ, 30 mg/kg, into the intraperitoneal space to reduce brain zinc availability. Neuronal death was detected with Fluoro Jade-B and NeuN staining to determine whether CQ has neuroprotective effects after seizure. The total number of degenerating and live neurons was similar in vehicle and in CQ treated rats at 1 week after seizure. Neurogenesis was evaluated using BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX immunostaining 1 week after seizure. The number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cell was increased after seizure. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX positive cells was significantly decreased by CQ treatment. Intracellular zinc chelator, N,N,N0,N-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, also reduced seizure-induced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study shows that zinc chelation does not prevent neurodegeneration but does reduce seizure-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Therefore, this study suggests that zinc has an essential role for modulating hippocampal neurogenesis after seizure.

  4. Automatic multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (MISA) system for detection of motor seizures from electromyographic data and motion data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to develop a non-invasive automatic method for detection of epileptic seizures with motor manifestations. Ten healthy subjects who simulated seizures and one patient participated in the study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and motion sensor features were extracted as energy...

  5. Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less. We review a total of 42 distinct conventional and intracranial studies in the literature which comprised a net of 1458 patients. Indexed to duration, we found that REM sleep was the most protective stage of sleep against focal seizures, generalized seizures, focal interictal discharges, and two particular epilepsy syndromes. REM sleep had an additional protective effect compared to wakefulness with an average 7.83 times fewer focal seizures, 3.25 times fewer generalized seizures, and 1.11 times fewer focal interictal discharges. In further studies REM sleep has also demonstrated utility in localizing epileptogenic foci with potential translation into postsurgical seizure freedom. Based on emerging connectivity data in sleep, we hypothesize that the influence of REM sleep on seizures is due to a desynchronized EEG pattern which reflects important connectivity differences unique to this sleep stage.

  6. Seizure onset detection based on a Uni- or multi-modal intelligent seizure acquisition (UISA/MISA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor; Wolf, Peter; Henriksen, Jonas; Sams, Thomas; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2010-01-01

    An automatic Uni- or Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (UISA/MISA) system is highly applicable for onset detection of epileptic seizures based on motion data. The modalities used are surface electromyography (sEMG), acceleration (ACC) and angular velocity (ANG). The new proposed automatic algorithm on motion data is extracting features as "log-sum" measures of discrete wavelet components. Classification into the two groups "seizure" versus "non-seizure" is made based on the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The algorithm performs with a sensitivity of 91-100%, a median latency of 1 second and a specificity of 100% on multi-modal data from five healthy subjects simulating seizures. The uni-modal algorithm based on sEMG data from the subjects and patients performs satisfactorily in some cases. As expected, our results clearly show superiority of the multi-modal approach, as compared with the uni-modal one. PMID:21096611

  7. 21 CFR 514.7 - Withdrawal of applications without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. 514... Withdrawal of applications without prejudice. The sponsor may withdraw his pending application from.... Such withdrawal may be made without prejudice to a future filing. Upon resubmission, the...

  8. 19 CFR 144.27 - Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. 144.27...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Transfer of Right To Withdraw Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.27 Withdrawal from warehouse by transferee. At any time...

  9. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Resected Brain Tissue, Seizure Onset Zone and Quantitative EEG Measures: Towards Prediction of Post-Surgical Seizure Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rummel

    Full Text Available Epilepsy surgery is a potentially curative treatment option for pharmacoresistent patients. If non-invasive methods alone do not allow to delineate the epileptogenic brain areas the surgical candidates undergo long-term monitoring with intracranial EEG. Visual EEG analysis is then used to identify the seizure onset zone for targeted resection as a standard procedure.Despite of its great potential to assess the epileptogenicty of brain tissue, quantitative EEG analysis has not yet found its way into routine clinical practice. To demonstrate that quantitative EEG may yield clinically highly relevant information we retrospectively investigated how post-operative seizure control is associated with four selected EEG measures evaluated in the resected brain tissue and the seizure onset zone. Importantly, the exact spatial location of the intracranial electrodes was determined by coregistration of pre-operative MRI and post-implantation CT and coregistration with post-resection MRI was used to delineate the extent of tissue resection. Using data-driven thresholding, quantitative EEG results were separated into normally contributing and salient channels.In patients with favorable post-surgical seizure control a significantly larger fraction of salient channels in three of the four quantitative EEG measures was resected than in patients with unfavorable outcome in terms of seizure control (median over the whole peri-ictal recordings. The same statistics revealed no association with post-operative seizure control when EEG channels contributing to the seizure onset zone were studied.We conclude that quantitative EEG measures provide clinically relevant and objective markers of target tissue, which may be used to optimize epilepsy surgery. The finding that differentiation between favorable and unfavorable outcome was better for the fraction of salient values in the resected brain tissue than in the seizure onset zone is consistent with growing evidence that

  11. METALS IN THE METABOLISM OF HIPPOCAMPUS AND ROLE OF ZINC IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kuchkovsky

    2016-05-01

    was increased by 75%; in the case of pre-immobilization duration of seizures increased by 206% and the zinc content - 50%; in the case of pre-alcoholization duration of seizures increased by 234%, and a chelating zinc content - 75%. These results suggest a chelating zinc epileptiform participate in the mechanisms of seizures and, possibly, the development of mechanisms of temporal lobe epilepsy (hippocampal. The results of studies of zinc changes in central and peripheral organs of zinc-containing simulated at different functional states allow us to make the assumption that there is a common mechanism for coordination of functional activity as the hippocampus and other zinc-containing bodies with the help of changes in the chelating zinc metabolism, regulation is carried out by means of the hippocampus.

  12. 2017-2022 Proposed Program - Withdrawal Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This file represents the areas of the Outer Continental Shelf that have been withdrawn from disposition by leasing. The withdrawal of these areas prevents...

  13. On Auctions with Withdrawable Winning Bids

    OpenAIRE

    Michael H. Rothkopf

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers sealed bidding in which bidders may submit two or more bids and after the bids are opened may, perhaps at a cost, withdraw bids that are more aggressive than would be necessary to win. Such withdrawal strategies are sometimes followed, but currently are surreptitious. However, legitimization of them would create potentially useful market mechanisms of potential interest to government agencies. These market mechanisms are also of theoretical interest since they are interme...

  14. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrour, Tarek; Siddiq, Muez; Ghalib, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined. PMID:26788394

  15. Severe Relapsing Clozapine-Withdrawal Catatonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Shahrour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia as a clozapine-withdrawal syndrome has only been documented in the medical literature as case reports. We are reporting a case in which a 32-year-old man develops a catatonic state upon withdrawal of clozapine. The state was quite severe and needed ICU admission. The course was chronic and intermittent which we think was caused by the poor adherence to antipsychotics. The importance of identifying such cases early is underlined.

  16. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran MAHMOUDIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepam in febrile  seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy of intermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age range of 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with a history of psychomotor delay, abnormal  neurological examination, a history of antiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from the study. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/ day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded 38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritment and three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162 febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-free after 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common side effects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because they had prior awareness of the  possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam is efficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informed of its side effects.Keywords: recurrent febrile seizures, clonazepam, intermittent prophylaxis

  17. Cocaine-Associated Seizures and Incidence of Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlesi, Nima DO

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acute complications from cocaine abuse are commonly treated in the emergency department (ED; one of the most consequential is status epilepticus. The incidence of this complication is not clearly defined in the prior literature on cocaine-associated sequelae. We evaluated the incidence of status epilepticus in patients with seizures secondary to suspected cocaine use.Methods: We performed a retrospective multi-center study of patients with seizures resulting from cocaine use. We identified study subjects at 15 hospitals by record review and conducted a computer-assisted records search to identify patients with seizures for each institution over a four-year period. We selected subjects from this group on the basis of cocaine use and determined the occurrence of status epilepticus among them. Data were collected on each subject using a standardized data collection form.Results: We evaluated 43 patients in the ED for cocaine-associated seizures. Their age range was 17 to 54, with a mean age was 31 years; 53% were male. Of 43 patients, 42 experienced a single tonic-clonic seizure and one developed status epilepticus. All patients had either a history of cocaine use or positive urine drug screen for cocaine.Conclusion: Despite reported cases of status epilepticus with cocaine-induced seizures, the incidence of this complication was unclear based on prior literature. This study shows that most cocaine-associated seizures are self-limited. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:157-160.

  18. Seizure in later life: an ode to the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raminderpal Singh Sibia

    2014-08-01

    Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from medical records of 227 cases of elderly subjects presenting with seizure to emergency department, during a period of 3 years (2010-2013. Results: Most common age group involved was 65-75 years. Mean age of subjects included in the study was 68.13 +/- 23.38 years. The most common etiology was cerebrovascular disorders 132 (58.14%, followed by CNS tumor in 16 (07.04%, hypoglycemia in 14 (06.16%, infections 14 (06.16%, substance abuse 12 (05.28% and trauma 10 (04.40%. The most common presentation was with focal seizures, with 119 (52.42% subjects whereas 82 (36.12% presented with generalized tonic clonic seizure, 20 (08.81% with generalized tonic seizure and 05 (02.20% with absence seizures. Conclusion: The present study aims at pointing out the different clinical features and etiologies of geriatric seizures, thereby lets the reader have a head start with the management of an elderly patient presenting with seizure. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1393-1395

  19. A novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min; Ge, Sunan; Wang, Minghui; Hong, Xiaojun; Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients' daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients' physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures' arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient's preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices. PMID:25050381

  20. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol use disorder is when your drinking causes serious problems in your life, yet you keep drinking. You may ... alcohol content). If you have a parent with alcohol use disorder, you are more at risk for alcohol problems. ...

  2. Voltage synchronizations between multichannel electroencephalograms during epileptic seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The underlying dynamics for the electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from humans but especially epilepsy patients are usually not completely known. However, the ictal activity is claimed to be characterized by synchronous oscillations in the brain voltages in the literature. These time dependent interdependencies (synchronization, coupling) between the EEG voltages from epileptogenic and non epileptogenic brain sites of nineteen focal epileptic patients are investigated in this work. It is found that strong synchronizationdesynchronization events occur in alternation during most of the investigated seizures. Thus, these seizures are detected with considerable sensitivity (71 of the 79 seizures).

  3. Automatic Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection Using Matching Pursuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Thomas Lynggaard; Olsen, Ulrich L.; Conradsen, Isa;

    2010-01-01

    An automatic alarm system for detecting epileptic seizure onsets could be of great assistance to patients and medical staff. A novel approach is proposed using the Matching Pursuit algorithm as a feature extractor combined with the Support Vector Machine (SVM) as a classifier for this purpose. The...... combination of Matching Pursuit and SVM for automatic seizure detection has never been tested before, making this a pilot study. Data from red different patients with 6 to 49 seizures are used to test our model. Three patients are recorded with scalp electroencephalography (sEEG) and three with intracranial...

  4. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghofrani M. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:1-5.Abstract The approach to a child who has experienced a first unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizure is challenging and at the same time controversial.How to establish the diagnosis, ways and means of investigation and whether treatment is appropriate, are different aspects of this subject. In this writing the above mentioned matters are discussed. References31.Berg AT, Testa FM., Levy SR, Shinnar S. Neuroimaging in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A community based study. Pediatrics 2000;106:527-532.32.Shinnar S, Odell C. Treating childhood seizure; when and for how long. In: Shinnar S, Amir N, Branski D (Eds. Childhood seizure. S Karger Basel. 1995. P.100-110.33.Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe Sl, et al. Risk of Seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure in childhood; A prospective study. Pediatrics 1990;85:1076-2085.34.Shinnar S, Berg At, Moshe SL, et al. The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked febrile seizure in childhood: An extended follow up. Pediatrics 1996:98:216-225.35.Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure: An extended follow up. Neurology 1990;40:1163-1170.36.Stroink H, Brouwer O F, Arts WF, Greets AT, Peter AC, Van Donselaar CA. The First unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: A hospital based study of the accuracy of diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:595-600. 37.Shinnar S, Berg AT, O’Dell C. Newstein D, et al. Predictors of multiple seizure in a cohort of children prospectively followed from the time of their first unprovoked seizure, Ann Neurol 2000; 48:140-147.38.Martinovie Z, Jovic N. Seizure recurrence after a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure in children

  5. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  6. Increased seizure latency and decreased severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in mice after essential oil administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumanidou, Eleni; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Polissiou, Moschos; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos; Pagonopoulou, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil). After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures). Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects. PMID:23819045

  7. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Koutroumanidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ- induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of a lethal dose of PTZ to eight respective groups of Balb-c mice. Control group received only one i.p. PTZ injection. Motor and behavioral activity of the animals after EOs administration, development of tonic-clonic seizures, seizure latency and severity, and percentage of survival after PTZ administration were determined for each group. All groups of mice treated with the EOs showed reduced activity and stability after the administration of the oil, except for those treated with O. vulgare (100% mortality after the administration of the oil. After PTZ administration, mice from the different groups showed increased latency and reduced severity of seizures (ranging from simple twitches to complete seizures. Mice who had received M. piperita demonstrated no seizures and 100% survival. The different drastic component and its concentration could account for the diversity of anticonvulsant effects.

  8. Effect of Immunotherapy on Seizure Outcome in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Registry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ick Byun

    Full Text Available To evaluate the seizure characteristics and outcome after immunotherapy in adult patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE and new-onset seizure.Adult (age ≥18 years patients with AE and new-onset seizure who underwent immunotherapy and were followed-up for at least 6 months were included. Seizure frequency was evaluated at 2-4 weeks and 6 months after the onset of the initial immunotherapy and was categorized as "seizure remission", "> 50% seizure reduction", or "no change" based on the degree of its decrease.Forty-one AE patients who presented with new-onset seizure were analysed. At 2-4 weeks after the initial immunotherapy, 51.2% of the patients were seizure free, and 24.4% had significant seizure reduction. At 6 months, seizure remission was observed in 73.2% of the patients, although four patients died during hospitalization. Rituximab was used as a second-line immunotherapy in 12 patients who continued to have seizures despite the initial immunotherapy, and additional seizure remission was achieved in 66.6% of them. In particular, those who exhibited partial response to the initial immunotherapy had a better seizure outcome after rituximab, with low adverse events.AE frequently presented as seizure, but only 18.9% of the living patients suffered from seizure at 6 months after immunotherapy. Aggressive immunotherapy can improve seizure outcome in patients with AE.

  9. Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rivera, Claudio; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Salmen, Benedikt; Mackie, Ken; Sipilä, Sampsa T; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Febrile seizures are frequent during early childhood, and prolonged (complex) febrile seizures are associated with an increased susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy. The pathophysiological consequences of febrile seizures have been extensively studied in rat pups exposed to hyperthermia. The mechanisms that trigger these seizures are unknown, however. A rise in brain pH is kn...

  10. Diagnostic decision-making after a first and recurrent seizure in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askamp, J.; Putten, van M.J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The role of EEG after a first seizure has been debated. Epileptiform EEG activity is a good predictor of seizure recurrence, but is reported in only 8-50% of first-seizure adult patients. Even if the EEG is abnormal, the opinions about treatment after a first seizure differ. The role of EEG

  11. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Campen, Jolien S.; Jansen, Floor E.; Pet, Milou A.; Otte, Willem M.; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures rel

  12. Multi-modal Intelligent Seizure Acquisition (MISA) system - A new approach towards seizure detection based on full body motion measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sándor; Wolf, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    test subjects were used for this pilot project. Each subject simulated 15 seizures and in addition performed some predefined normal activities, during a 4-hour monitoring with electromyography (EMG), accelerometer, magnetometer and gyroscope (AMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG......) and audio and video recording. The results showed that a non-subject specific MISA system developed on data from the modalities: accelerometer (ACM), gyroscope and EMG is able to detect 98% of the simulated seizures and at the same time mistakes only 4 of the normal movements for seizures. If the system...

  13. Carisoprodol: abuse potential and withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Roy R; Burke, Randy S

    2010-03-01

    Carisoprodol (N-isopropyl-2 methyl-2-propyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate; N-isopropylmeprobamate) is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant whose primary active metabolite is meprobamate, a substance with well established abuse potential similar to that of benzodiazepines. A number of reports show that carisoprodol has been abused for its sedative and relaxant effects, to augment or alter the effects of other drugs, and by the intentional combination of carisoprodol and other noncontrolled medications because of the relative ease (as compared to controlled substances) of obtaining prescriptions. The diversion and abuse of carisoprodol and its adverse health effects appear to have dramatically increased over the last several years. Clinicians have begun to see a withdrawal syndrome consisting of insomnia, vomiting, tremors, muscle twitching, anxiety, and ataxia in patients who abruptly cease intake of large doses of carisoprodol. Hallucinations and delusions may also occur. The withdrawal symptoms are very similar to those previously described for meprobamate withdrawal, suggesting that what may actually be occurring is withdrawal from meprobamate accumulated as a result of intake of excessive amounts of carisoprodol. However carisoprodol itself is capable of modulating GABA(A) function, and this may contribute both to the drugs abuse potential and to the occurrence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation of intake. Carisoprodol has been classified as a controlled substance in several states in the US and restrictions on the use of the drug have been imposed in some European countries. Carisoprodol is metabolized to a controlled substance, has clear evidence of abuse potential and increasing incidence of abuse, and has shown evidence of a withdrawal syndrome with abrupt cessation from intake. This article will discuss the abuse potential of carisoprodol and the associated withdrawal syndrome, and consider implications for future use of the drug. PMID

  14. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Frisbee, Suzanne; Randall, Patrick A; Jaramillo, Anel A; Masciello, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 120 mg/kg, IG) pretreatment alters sensitivity to experimenter- and self-administered alcohol, and whether gabapentin alone has alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate alcohol dose (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. Second, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IG) would alter alcohol self-administration. Gabapentin pretreatment potentiated the interoceptive effects of both experimenter-administered and self-administered alcohol in discrimination-trained rats. Additionally, the highest gabapentin doses tested (30 and 120 mg/kg) were found to have partial alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone (e.g., without alcohol). In the self-administration trained rats, gabapentin pretreatment (60 mg/kg) resulted in an escalation in alcohol self-administration. Given the importance of interoceptive drug cues in priming and maintaining self-administration, these data define a specific behavioral mechanism (i.e., potentiation of alcohol effects) by which gabapentin may increase alcohol self-administration in non-dependent populations.

  15. Epileptiform EEG Discharges and Risk of Epilepsy Following Febrile Seizure

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-01-01

    Investigators at Kangnam and Masan Samsung Changwon Hospitals, Korea, studied the relation between epileptiform discharges on the EEG after febrile seizures (FS) and the risk of developing epilepsy and recurrence of FS.

  16. Ontology and Knowledge Management System on Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Pedro; Sales, Francisco; Nogueira, Ana; Dourado, António

    2010-01-01

    A Knowledge Management System developed for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information about Epilepsy and Epileptic Seizures is presented. We present an Ontology on Epilepsy and a Web-based prototype that together create the KMS.

  17. Moonstruck? The effect of the lunar cycle on seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Sallie; Fisher, Jennifer

    2008-10-01

    Recent reports on the effects of the lunar cycle on seizure occurrence have yielded mixed results. If the moon phase is influential, we hypothesized that this would be due to the moon's contribution to nocturnal illumination, rather than its waxing or waning state, and that significant correlations would not be apparent if local cloud cover were controlled for. We found a significant negative correlation between the mean number of seizures and the fraction of the moon illuminated by the sun (rho=-0.09, P<0.05) in 1571 seizures recorded in a dedicated epilepsy inpatient unit over 341 days. This correlation disappeared when we controlled for the local clarity of the night sky, suggesting that it is the brightness of the night and the contribution the moon phase makes to nocturnal luminance, rather than the moon phase per se, that may influence the occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  18. Maternal thyroid dysfunction and risk of seizure in the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chunsen;

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase...... the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal...... diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy...

  19. Appearing and disappearing CT scan abnormalities and seizures.

    OpenAIRE

    P K Sethi; Kumar, B.R.; Madan, V S; Mohan, V

    1985-01-01

    A group of patients presenting with seizures (focal or generalised) and abnormal CT scans who, on follow up, showed complete resolution of the CT scan changes, without any treatment other than anticonvulsants, are described.

  20. Focal inhibitory seizures: a cause of recurrent transient weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Connor, Steve; Ferner, Rosalie; Leschziner, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Focal seizures are usually manifest with stereotyped positive phenomena. However, seizures may also give negative phenomena, such as paralysis, speech arrest, neglect, atonia and numbness. We report a 39-year-old man with neurofibromatosis 2 who had recurrent stereotyped episodes of weakness affecting his right leg and right arm. His MR scan of brain showed numerous meningiomas, the largest of which was near the vertex, adjacent to the left side of the falx. Interictal electroencephalogram, MR cerebral angiogram and Doppler carotid artery ultrasound scan were normal. He was diagnosed with epilepsy and started on levetiracetam, with no subsequent attacks. We postulate his negative motor seizures related to a meningioma overlying the supplementary negative motor area in the mesial superior frontal gyrus, and discuss diagnostic criteria for inhibitory seizures. PMID:26245512

  1. Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  2. Mapping preictal networks preceding childhood absence seizures using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Brichford, Eliza; Horn, Paul S; Tenney, Jeffrey R

    2014-10-01

    The electrographic hallmark of childhood absence seizures is 3 Hz generalized spike and wave discharges; however, there is likely a focal thalamic or cortical onset that cannot be detected using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The purpose of this study was to study the earliest preictal changes in children with absence epilepsy. In this report, magnetoencephalography recordings of 44 absence seizures recorded from 12 children with drug-naïve childhood absence seizures were used to perform time frequency analysis and source localization prior to the onset of the seizures. Evidence of preictal magnetoencephalography frequency changes were detected a mean of 694 ms before the initial spike on the EEG. A consistent pattern of focal sources was present in the frontal cortex and thalamus during this preictal period, but source localization occurred synchronously so that independent activity between the 2 structures could not be distinguished.

  3. Backpropagation Artificial Neural Network To Detect Hyperthermic Seizures In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sinha

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-layered feed-forward back-propagation Artificial Neural Network was used to classify the seizure episodes in rats. Seizure patterns were induced by subjecting anesthetized rats to a Biological Oxygen Demand incubator at 45-47ºC for 30 to 60 minutes. Selected fast Fourier transform data of one second epochs of electroencephalogram were used to train and test the network for the classification of seizure and normal patterns. The results indicate that the present network with the architecture of 40-12-1 (input-hidden-output nodes agrees with manual scoring of seizure and normal patterns with a high recognition rate of 98.6%.

  4. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus following Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis is changed by brain injury. When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO. In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC in the hippocampus. However, little is known about the role of NO in the survival and differentiation of newborn cells in the injured dentate gyrus. Here we investigated the role of NO following seizures in the regulation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival of NSC in the hippocampus using the kainic acid (KA induced seizure mouse model. We show that NO increased the proliferation of NSC and the number of neuroblasts following seizures but was detrimental to the survival of newborn neurons. NO was also required for the maintenance of long-term neuroinflammation. Taken together, our data show that NO positively contributes to the initial stages of neurogenesis following seizures but compromises survival of newborn neurons.

  5. Intra-administration associations and withdrawal symptoms: morphine-elicited morphine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert V; Siegel, Shepard

    2004-02-01

    On the basis of a conditioning analysis, some drug "withdrawal symptoms" are conditional responses elicited by stimuli paired with the drug effect. Prior demonstrations of conditional elicitation of withdrawal symptoms evaluated the role of environmental cues; however, pharmacological cues also typically signal a drug effect. Within each administration, early drug onset cues (DOCs) may become associated with the later, larger drug effect (intra-administration associations). This experiment evaluated the contribution of intra-administration associations to withdrawal symptoms. The results indicated that (a). 5 mg/kg morphine elicited behavioral and thermic withdrawal symptoms in rats previously injected on a number of occasions with 50 mg/kg morphine and that (b). DOC-elicited withdrawal symptoms are not a sensitized response to the opiate but rather an associative phenomenon. PMID:14769091

  6. Clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with nonepileptic seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinta Sri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive profile of clinical and psychosocial characteristics of children with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and to assess the short-term outcome of these patients. Materials and Methods: The subjects were consecutive cases of children with a diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures (N=17, mean age = 10.7 years, S.D. = 1.26 and two groups of control groups matched on age and sex: true seizure group and healthy controls. All the children were recruited from the out-patient services of the Department of Pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was done in the case of every child. A standard 18 channel EEG was done in all the children and a video EEG was done in 12 cases of children with nonepileptic seizures. The Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS and Life Events Scale for Indian Children (LESIC were used to measure the children′s emotional and behavioral functioning at home, and the number of life events and the stress associated with these events in the preceding year and the year before that. Short-term outcome was examined three to six months after the diagnosis of nonepileptic seizures was made. Results: Unresponsiveness without marked motor manifestations was the most common "ictal" characteristic of the nonepileptic seizures. Pelvic thrusting, upper and lower limb movements, head movements, and vocalization were observed in less than one-third of the patients. Increased psychosocial stress and significantly higher number of life events in the preceding year were found to characterize children with nonepileptic seizures, as compared to the two control groups. The nonepileptic seizures and true seizures groups had a higher proportion of children with psychopathology scores in the clinically significant maladjustment range, as compared to those in the healthy control group. A majority of the patients

  7. ASPM mutations identified in patients with primary microcephaly and seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, J; Eyaid, W; Mochida, G; Al-Moayyad, F; Bodell, A; Woods, C; Walsh, C

    2005-01-01

    Background: Human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a heterogeneous disorder with at least six genetic loci (MCPH1–6), with MCPH5, caused by ASPM mutation, being the most common. Despite the high prevalence of epilepsy in microcephaly patients, microcephaly with frequent seizures has been excluded from the ascertainment of MCPH. Here, we report a pedigree with multiple affected individuals with microcephaly and seizures.

  8. Influences on seizure activity in pregnant women with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether referral to a specialized epilepsy clinic prior to pregnancy influences seizure activity during pregnancy. In addition, folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy as a marker of intent to conceive was used to evaluate whether the use of folic acid at the time......). Seizure deterioration was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2: 9% versus 32% (Pfolic acid supplements was significantly higher in group 1 (P

  9. Brain Mechanisms of Altered Consciousness in Generalised Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Seri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the inherent difficulties in achieving a biologically meaningful definition of consciousness, recent neurophysiological studies are starting to provide some insight in fundamental mechanisms associated with impaired consciousness in neurological disorders. Generalised seizures are associated with disruption of the default state network, a functional network of discrete brain areas, which include the fronto-parietal cortices. Subcortical contribution through activation of thalamocortical structures, as well as striate nuclei are also crucial to produce impaired consciousness in generalised seizures.

  10. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prithika Chary; Bhuvaneshwari Rajendran

    2013-01-01

    Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G) including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and i...

  11. Automated differentiation between epileptic and non-epileptic convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Conradsen, Isa; Moldovan, Mihai;

    2015-01-01

    algorithm: 25 generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) from 11 patients, and 19 episodes of convulsive PNES from 13 patients. The gold standard was the interpretation of the video-electroencephalographic recordings by experts blinded to the EMG results. The algorithm correctly classified 24 GTCSs (96%) and...... 18 PNESs (95%). The overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%. This algorithm is useful for distinguishing between epileptic and psychogenic convulsive seizures....

  12. A case of Hashimoto's encephalopathy presenting with seizures and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Joo Lee; Hae-Sang Lee; Jin-Soon Hwang; Da-Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare, poorly understood, autoimmune disease characterized by symptoms of acute or subacute encephalopathy associated with increased anti-thyroid antibody levels. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with HE and briefly review the literature. The patient presented with acute mental changes and seizures, but no evidence of infectious encephalitis. In the acute stage, the seizures did not respond to conventional antiepileptic drugs, including valproic...

  13. Copeptin as a serum biomarker of febrile seizures.

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    Benjamin Stöcklin

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of febrile seizures in children presenting after paroxysmal episodes associated with fever, is hampered by the lack of objective postictal biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether FS are associated with increased levels of serum copeptin, a robust marker of arginine vasopressin secretion.This was a prospective emergency-setting cross-sectional study of 161 children between six months and five years of age. Of these, 83 were diagnosed with febrile seizures, 69 had a febrile infection without seizures and nine had epileptic seizures not triggered by infection. Serum copeptin and prolactin levels were measured in addition to standard clinical, neurophysiological, and laboratory assessment.NCT01884766.Circulating copeptin was significantly higher in children with febrile seizures (median [interquartile range] 18.9 pmol/L [8.5-36.6] compared to febrile controls (5.6 pmol/L [4.1-9.4]; p < 0.001, with no differences between febrile and epileptic seizures (21.4 pmol/L [16.1-46.6]; p = 0.728. In a multivariable regression model, seizures were the major determinant of serum copeptin (beta 0.509; p < 0.001, independently of clinical and baseline laboratory indices. The area under the receiver operating curve for copeptin was 0.824 (95% CI 0.753-0.881, significantly higher compared to prolactin (0.667 [0.585-0.742]; p < 0.001. The diagnostic accuracy of copeptin increased with decreasing time elapsed since the convulsive event (at 120 min: 0.879 [0.806-0.932] and at <60 min: 0.975 [0.913-0.997].Circulating copeptin has high diagnostic accuracy in febrile seizures and may be a useful adjunct for accurately diagnosing postictal states in the emergency setting.

  14. A Spectral Based Forecasting Tool of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Khammari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to recognize and predict succedent epileptic seizure by using single channel electroencephalogram (EEG analysis is proposed. Spectral analysis of a brain time series of the left frontal FP1-F7 (LF scalp location signal is devoted for seizure prediction and analysis. Important findings showing the presence of preictal spectral changes in studied brain signal are described. Spectral features occurring during the preictal epoch are extracted from the application of sliding spectral windows of raw EEG at different moments in time preceding the seizure onset. The same method is then applied to a couple of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF1 and IMF2 of the raw EEG (FP1-F7 decomposed by the algorithm of empirical mode decomposition. The main prediction features are derived from the changes of amplitudes, frequency and the number of spikes which are of diagnostic values. The sliding spectral windows were computed to trace the amplitude changes of higher harmonics during time interval preceding the seizure onset. Choosing different moments in time aims to identify the best prediction time of seizure onset. Obviously an early prediction time is always desirable but the seizure may result from an abrupt change and so the spectral 'signs of an imminent seizure occur during a very short prediction time. From another viewpoint, it may be advantageous to consider a successive prediction times showing the increase of spike numbers and the predominance of certain waves rather than others when approaching seizure onset. The common prediction features extracted from the analysis of FP1-F7 signal for both patients were mainly the increasing number of spikes of low frequency waves namely delta and theta waves.

  15. Robust Deep Network with Maximum Correntropy Criterion for Seizure Detection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Effective seizure detection from long-term EEG is highly important for seizure diagnosis. Existing methods usually design the feature and classifier individually, while little work has been done for the simultaneous optimization of the two parts. This work proposes a deep network to jointly learn a feature and a classifier so that they could help each other to make the whole system optimal. To deal with the challenge of the impulsive noises and outliers caused by EMG artifacts in EEG signals,...

  16. Risk factors for developing epilepsy after neonatal seizures

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most frequent neurological disorder in the neonatal period. The incidence is reported to be higher than at any other period in life. Because of the unique nature of neonatal brain anatomy, connections and the paradoxical nature of neurotransmitters, seizures in this age group vary in semiology from those in older children. They may cause irreversible changes to the synapses in the immature brain and progress to epilepsy. The aim of the study was to analys...

  17. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.; Buckmaster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristi...

  18. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    OpenAIRE

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Derksen-Lubsen, Gerarda; Steyerberg, Ewout; Habbema, Dik; Moll, Henriëtte

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure /=38.5 degrees C). Parents were instructed to take the child's rectal temperature immediately when the child seemed ill or feverish and to promptly administer the study medication when the temperature was >/=38.5 degrees C. Doses were to be admi...

  19. Neonatal seizures-part 1: Not everything that jerks, stiffens and shakes is a fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Anthony R; Pilling, Elizabeth L; Alix, James J P

    2015-08-01

    The neonatal period is the most frequent time of life to have epileptic seizures. However, neonates can also exhibit unusual movements that are not epileptic seizures. Differentiating between epileptic and non-epileptic movements can be difficult. Many neonatal seizures exhibit few or no clinical features at all. This article is for the benefit of paediatric trainees and reviews the published evidence on which neonatal movements are likely to be epileptic seizures and which are not. We also discuss epileptic seizure classification.

  20. ROLE OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING BRAIN IN EVALUATION OF SEIZURES

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    Athira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with seizures a dedicated MRI protocol is a useful tool in the detection of an epileptogenic focus, including congenital, neoplastic and degenerative. Resection of these lesions can lead to seizure freedom in most patients. In this context, a prospective study was conducted to evaluate the etiology of seizures using MRI brain. METHODOLOGY: 120 patients presenting with seizures, above the age of 2years, referred to the Department of Radio - diagnosis were included in this study. RESULTS: In this study, the MR examination revealed pathological findi ngs i n 32.50% (39 out of 120 patients which includes: mesial temporal sclerosis - 14.2% (17, cerebral infarct with gliosis - 6.6% (8, meningioma - 2.5% (3, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy - 1.6% (2, cortical dysplasia - 1.6% (2, tuberous sclerosis - 11.6% (2, nodula r heterotopias - 0.83% (1, neurocysticercosis - 0.83% (1%, metastasis - 0.83% (1, Dyke Davidoff Maison syndrome - 0.83% (1 and Arnold Chiari Malformation 0.83% (1. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that MR imaging plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of pati ents with seizures using a dedicated MRI seizure protocol to confirm or rule out any organic or developmental lesions. The most common abnormality seen in this study was mesial temporal sclerosis.

  1. Combination anticonvulsant treatment of soman-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplovitz, I; Schulz, S; Shutz, M; Railer, R; Macalalag, R; Schons, M; McDonough, J

    2001-12-01

    These studies investigated the effectiveness of combination treatment with a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug against soman-induced seizures. The anticholinergic drugs considered were biperiden, scopolamine, trihexaphenidyl, and procyclidine; the benzodiazepines were diazepam and midazolam. Male guinea pigs were implanted surgically with cortical screw electrodes. Electrocorticograms were displayed continually and recorded on a computerized electroencephalographic system. Pyridostigmine (0.026 mg x kg(-1), i.m.) was injected as a pretreatment to inhibit red blood cell acetylcholinesterase by 30-40%. Thirty minutes after pyridostigmine, 2 x LD50 (56 microg x kg(-1)) of soman was injected s.c., followed 1 min later by i.m. treatment with atropine (2 mg x kg(-1)) + 2-PAM (25 mg x kg(-1)). Electrographic seizures occurred in all animals. Anticonvulsant treatment combinations were administered i.m. at 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Treatment consisted of diazepam or midazolam plus one of the above-mentioned anticholinergic drugs. All doses of the treatment compounds exhibited little or no antiseizure efficacy when given individually. The combination of a benzodiazepine and an anticholinergic drug was effective in terminating soman-induced seizure, whether given 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. The results suggest a strong synergistic effect of combining benzodiazepines with centrally active anticholinergic drugs and support the concept of using an adjunct to supplement diazepam for the treatment of nerve-agent-induced seizures.

  2. Seizure Prediction: Science Fiction or Soon to Become Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Dean R; Karoly, Philippa J; Peterson, Andre D H; Kuhlmann, Levin; Lai, Alan; Goodarzy, Farhad; Cook, Mark J

    2015-11-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the field of epileptic seizure prediction. We argue that seizure prediction is possible; however, most previous attempts have used data with an insufficient amount of information to solve the problem. The review discusses four methods for gaining more information above standard clinical electrophysiological recordings. We first discuss developments in obtaining long-term data that enables better characterisation of signal features and trends. Then, we discuss the usage of electrical stimulation to probe neural circuits to obtain robust information regarding excitability. Following this, we present a review of developments in high-resolution micro-electrode technologies that enable neuroimaging across spatial scales. Finally, we present recent results from data-driven model-based analyses, which enable imaging of seizure generating mechanisms from clinical electrophysiological measurements. It is foreseeable that the field of seizure prediction will shift focus to a more probabilistic forecasting approach leading to improvements in the quality of life for the millions of people who suffer uncontrolled seizures. However, a missing piece of the puzzle is devices to acquire long-term high-quality data. When this void is filled, seizure prediction will become a reality.

  3. A Novel Dynamic Update Framework for Epileptic Seizure Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure prediction is a difficult problem in clinical applications, and it has the potential to significantly improve the patients’ daily lives whose seizures cannot be controlled by either drugs or surgery. However, most current studies of epileptic seizure prediction focus on high sensitivity and low false-positive rate only and lack the flexibility for a variety of epileptic seizures and patients’ physical conditions. Therefore, a novel dynamic update framework for epileptic seizure prediction is proposed in this paper. In this framework, two basic sample pools are constructed and updated dynamically. Furthermore, the prediction model can be updated to be the most appropriate one for the prediction of seizures’ arrival. Mahalanobis distance is introduced in this part to solve the problem of side information, measuring the distance between two data sets. In addition, a multichannel feature extraction method based on Hilbert-Huang transform and extreme learning machine is utilized to extract the features of a patient’s preseizure state against the normal state. At last, a dynamic update epileptic seizure prediction system is built up. Simulations on Freiburg database show that the proposed system has a better performance than the one without update. The research of this paper is significantly helpful for clinical applications, especially for the exploitation of online portable devices.

  4. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

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    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  5. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghofrani M. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART I. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 1- 5. The approach to a child who has experienced a first unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizure is challenging and at the same time controversial.How to establish the diagnosis, ways and means of investigation and whether treatment is appropriate, are different aspects of this subject.In this writing the above mentioned matters are discussed.References1. Bluvstein JS, Moshe SL. First unprovoked seizure CurrentManagement in child Neurology, third ed. 2005.P.89-92.2. Hirtz D, Berg A, Bettis D, et al. Practice Parameter: treatment of the child with a first unprovoked seizure. American Academy of Neurology 2003;60:166-175.3. Verity GM, Ross EN, Golding J. Epilepsy in the first ten years of life: finding of the child health and education study. Br Med J 1992;305:857-861.4. Camfiled CS, Camfield PB, Gordon K, et al. Incidence of epilepsy in childhood and adolescence: A populationbasedstudy in Nova Scotia from 1977 to 1985. Epilepsia 1996;37:19-23.5. Hauser W, Annegers J, Kurland L. Incidence of epilepsy and unprovoked seizure in Rochester, Minnisota, 1935- 1984. Epilepsia 1993;34:453-468.6. Jallon P, Goumaz M, Haenggeli G, Morabia A. Incidenceof first epileptic seizure in the canton of Geneve Switzerland. Epilepsia 1997;38:547-552.7. Camfiled PR, Camfiled CS. Pediatric Epilepsy: An overview. Swaiman’s pediatric Neurology, 5th ed, 2012. P.703-710.8. Gowers WB. Epilepsy and other chronic convulsive diseases; their causes, symptoms and treatment. London: J&A Churchill,1881. P.242.9. Goddard GV, Mc Intyre DC, Leech CK. A permanent change in brain function resulting from daily electrical stimulation- Exp Neural 1969;25:295-330.10. Berg AT, Shinnar S. Do seizures beget seizure? An assessment of the clinical evidence in human. J ClinicalNeurophysiol 1993: 14: 102-110.11. Wasterlain CG. Recurrent seizures in developing brain

  6. INTERMITTENT CLONAZEPAM IN THE PREVENTION OF RECURRENT FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAJOGHLI Shirin MD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and common side effects of intermittent clonazepamin febrile seizures.Materials & MethodsThis study was an experimental trial designed to determine the efficacy ofintermittent clonazepam in febrile seizures .Thirty patients with an age rangeof 6 months to 5 years (60% male, 40% female were studied. Children with ahistory of psychomotor delay, abnormal neurological examination, a history ofantiepileptic drug consumption, and afebrile seizures were excluded from thestudy. Patients received a single dose of prophylactic Clonazepam (0.05 mg/kg/day on the first day of febrile illness and twice daily during the course of fever.An antipyretic medication (Acetaminophen was advised if fever exceeded38oC. Patients were followed up for one year after the study inclusion date.ResultsThree patients were excluded from study since they didnot follow the tritmentand three patients experienced afebrile seizures. Twenty four patients had 162febrile episodes during the course of the study and all patients were seizure-freeafter 1 year.ConclusionClonazepam was 100% effective but lethargy and ataxia were common sideeffects in patients. Fortunately, their parents continued treatment because theyhad prior awareness of the possible side effects of clonazepam. Clonazepam isefficacious as an intermittent therapy for febrile seizures if parents are informedof its side effects.

  7. Risk factors for developing seizures after a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancman, M E; Golimstok, A; Norscini, J; Granillo, R

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated development of seizures in 219 consecutive patients who had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Subjects with transitory ischemic attacks, subarachnoid, subdural, and epidural hemorrhages or those with previous history of epilepsy were excluded. Mean follow-up time was 11.5 months (range 1-72 months). Twenty-two of 219 stroke patients (10.04%) had seizures. Twelve (54.55%) were of early onset (< 1 month after the stroke), and 10 (45.45%) were of late onset. No statistically significant differences were evident between the early- and late-onset seizure group in comparisons of type of stroke, localization, and size of the lesion. Six of 22 patients (27%) had seizure recurrence. Seizures developed in (a) 13 of 183 patients with ischemic stroke (7.1%) and 9 of 36 patients with hemorrhagic stroke (25%) (p = 0.01); (b) 16 of 93 patients with cortical lesions (17%) and 6 of 126 patients with subcortical lesions (4.7%) (p = 0.01); and (c) 14 of 66 patients with a lesion comprising more than one lobe (21.2%) and 8 of 153 patients with a lesion comprising less than one lobe (5.2%) (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with hemorrhagic stroke, cortical lesions, and lesions involving more than one lobe are at higher risk of developing seizures.

  8. A physiology-based seizure detection system for multichannel EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ping Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG signals play a critical role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Multichannel EEGs contain more information than do single-channel EEGs. Automatic detection algorithms for spikes or seizures have traditionally been implemented on single-channel EEG, and algorithms for multichannel EEG are unavailable. METHODOLOGY: This study proposes a physiology-based detection system for epileptic seizures that uses multichannel EEG signals. The proposed technique was tested on two EEG data sets acquired from 18 patients. Both unipolar and bipolar EEG signals were analyzed. We employed sample entropy (SampEn, statistical values, and concepts used in clinical neurophysiology (e.g., phase reversals and potential fields of a bipolar EEG to extract the features. We further tested the performance of a genetic algorithm cascaded with a support vector machine and post-classification spike matching. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 86.69% spike detection and 99.77% seizure detection for Data Set I. The detection system was further validated using the model trained by Data Set I on Data Set II. The system again showed high performance, with 91.18% detection of spikes and 99.22% seizure detection. CONCLUSION: We report a de novo EEG classification system for seizure and spike detection on multichannel EEG that includes physiology-based knowledge to enhance the performance of this type of system.

  9. Long-term effects of febrile convulsion on seizure susceptibility in P77PMC rat--resistant to acoustic stimuli but susceptible to kainate-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D Y; Wu, X R; Pei, Y Q; Zuo, Q H

    1985-06-01

    A new audiogenic seizure (AGS)-susceptible strain of rats (P77PMC) was evaluated as a possible model of human febrile seizures. The long-term effects of experimental febrile seizures were observed. All 30-day-old rat pups exhibited clonic seizures during exposure to an ambient temperature of 45 +/- 0.5 degree C. The mean latency from the beginning of the hyperthermic stimulus to the onset of convulsion was 16.9 +/- 2.2 min. The rats survived this hyperthermic seizure, developed a resistance to acoustic stimulations, but were more susceptible at the age of 50 to 60 days to kainate-induced limbic seizures than controls. The results of this study imply that febrile seizures of developing P77PMC rats can change later seizure susceptibility, and there may be some correlation between febrile convulsion and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:3996515

  10. 酒精所致精神障碍伴痉挛发作22例临床分析%The clinical analysis about 22 patients of mentaldisorderduetouseofalcohol with onset seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解酒精所致精神障碍伴发痉挛发作的临床情况。方法:对22例酒精所致精神障碍伴发痉挛发作的病人的饮酒情况症状等进行分析。结果:痉挛发作基本发生在突然戒酒或急剧增减饮酒量时,主要表现为全身抽搐或四肢震颤抽搐。结论:痉挛发作与个体差异、饮酒量、饮酒方式及合并躯体疾病有关。%Objective:To understand the clinicalparameters about the patients of mental disorder due to use of alcohol with seiG zures.Methods:To analysis the drinking status about 22 patients of mentaldisorderduetouseofalcohol with onset seizures.Results:The main performance of onset seizures is whole body tic or four limbstic and onset seizures basically occurred when the patients increase or decrease the alcohol amount.Conclusion:Onset seizures is related to individual difference,alcohol amount,drinking way and body disG eases.

  11. In-depth performance analysis of an EEG based neonatal seizure detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, S.; Rennie, J.; Livingstone, V.; Temko, A.; Low, E.; Pressler, R.M.; Boylan, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel neurophysiology based performance analysis of automated seizure detection algorithms for neonatal EEG to characterize features of detected and non-detected seizures and causes of false detections to identify areas for algorithmic improvement. Methods EEGs of 20 term neonates were recorded (10 seizure, 10 non-seizure). Seizures were annotated by an expert and characterized using a novel set of 10 criteria. ANSeR seizure detection algorithm (SDA) seizure annotations were compared to the expert to derive detected and non-detected seizures at three SDA sensitivity thresholds. Differences in seizure characteristics between groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. False detections were characterized. Results The expert detected 421 seizures. The SDA at thresholds 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 detected 60%, 54% and 45% of seizures. At all thresholds, multivariate analyses demonstrated that the odds of detecting seizure increased with 4 criteria: seizure amplitude, duration, rhythmicity and number of EEG channels involved at seizure peak. Major causes of false detections included respiration and sweat artefacts or a highly rhythmic background, often during intermediate sleep. Conclusion This rigorous analysis allows estimation of how key seizure features are exploited by SDAs. Significance This study resulted in a beta version of ANSeR with significantly improved performance. PMID:27072097

  12. [Social aspects of epilepsy: marriage, pregnancy, driving, antiepileptic drug withdrawal and against social stigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2004-11-01

    Persons with epilepsy need adequate advice and effective counselling about issues such as marriage, pregnancy, risks of inheriting epilepsy, driving, employment and antiepileptic drug withdrawal, because these persons are not receiving important information and education about their condition and possible adverse effects of treatment. Furthermore, women with epilepsy have increased rates of pregnancy complications and poor fetal outcomes including congenital malformations and developmental delay related to both their epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs. However, approximately 90% of all women with epilepsy undergo normal pregnancy and give birth to children free of birth defects. Pregnancy is generally safe in women with epilepsy. The study of long-term prognosis of childhood-onset epilepsy in Japan shows that the majority of these patients have lower levels of educational background as well as employment and marital status compared with the general population (Wakamoto H. et al). Of patients with epilepsy, 60% to 70% achieve control with antiepileptic medication. However, several antiepileptic drug withdrawal studies show variable rates of success, with relapse rates ranging from 12% to 63% (Britton J.W.). Driving is listed as major problem in persons with epilepsy. However, the patients with seizure-free more than two years have been able to get the driver's license since June, 2002. Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient than the disease itself. We should realize that persons with epilepsy are normal or near-normal. To ameliorate the social stigma against epilepsy, continuous and repetitive educational efforts would be needed.

  13. Increased Seizure Latency and Decreased Severity of Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Mice after Essential Oil Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Koutroumanidou; Athanasios Kimbaris; Alexandros Kortsaris; Eugenia Bezirtzoglou; Moschos Polissiou; Konstantinos Charalabopoulos; Olga Pagonopoulou

    2013-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with essential oils (EOs) from eight aromatic plants on the seizure latency and severity of pentylenetetrazol- (PTZ-) induced seizures in mice was evaluated. Weight-dependent doses of Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, Origanum dictamnus, and Origanum vulgare, isolated from the respective aromatic plants from NE Greece, were administered 60 minutes prior to intraperitoneal (i.p.) inject...

  14. ANALYSIS OF MAIN REASONS FOR MISTAKES IN DIAGNOSTICS OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES AND EPILEPTIC SYNDROMES (CLINICAL PECULIARITIES OF EPILEPTIC SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease that requires long therapy and continuous careful supervision of the status of the patient. In connection with this, both overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of this disease is extremely dangerous. Overdiagnosis causes ungrounded social "label", limitation in rights, significant decreasing quality of life of the patient, family problems, prescription of long-term anti-epileptic therapy that may cause potential side effects. Underdiagnosis of epilepsy frequently causes further resistance of seizures to therapy, they become more frequent, there appears the possibility of development of epileptic status, life threatening situations, possibility of development of cognitive disorders associated with the disease. A significant progress in epileptology and medical technologies (video electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring, neuroimaging methods, genetic studies that has been marked in recent decades has allowed minimizing errors of physicians. Despite this, certain difficulties still remain in diagnostics of epilepsy. In the author's opinion, there is a range of epileptic seizures visual assessment of which is extremely difficult and is literally impossible without video EEG monitoring. Short, phantom, atypical absences, absences on the outside, epileptic myoclonus of the eyelids with or without absences, myoclonic, tonic, gelastic, focal hyperkinetic seizures, epileptic aura, reversing focal seizures, epileptic spasms, ictal syncopes, negative myoclonus, focal epileptic myoclonus, epileptic seizures arising when closing the eyes, and self-induced seizures can be attributed to such seizures with difficulties in diagnosis. The author reviews each of these types epileptic seizures in details focusing the attention on their diagnostic criteria and characteristics of the clinical and the EEF features that are of utmost importance in the course of performance of differential diagnostics. Own experience of the

  15. Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Ng; Milena Pavlova

    2013-01-01

    Since the formal characterization of sleep stages, there have been reports that seizures may preferentially occur in certain phases of sleep. Through ascending cholinergic connections from the brainstem, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is physiologically characterized by low voltage fast activity on the electroencephalogram, REMs, and muscle atonia. Multiple independent studies confirm that, in REM sleep, there is a strikingly low proportion of seizures (~1% or less). We review a total of 42 d...

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  17. Cyclosporine alters opiate withdrawal in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, N; Wagle, V G; Drath, D B

    1985-05-01

    Opiates exert numerous effects on all levels of the central nervous system with tolerance, physical dependence and withdrawal being characteristics of this drug class. The degree of dependence is directly correlated to the intensity of withdrawal. Therefore, success in modifying the withdrawal syndrome may shed light on the dynamics of opiate addiction. The present study demonstrates that cyclosporine, a widely used immunosuppressive drug, considerably modified the behavioral signs of a naloxone-induced abstinence syndrome in morphine-addicted rats. In previous experiments, alpha-interferon has shown similar results. The similarity in actions of these two immunomodulator drugs is discussed and we suggest that opiate addiction may involve the immune system. PMID:4039025

  18. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadReza SALEHIOMRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Salehiomran MR, Mahzari M. Zinc Status in Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:20-23.ObjectiveFebrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc and febrile seizure. Zinc, asa major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serumzinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years.This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case and 50 febrile children without seizures (control, that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the northof Iran. Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method.ResultsThe mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001. The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to thecontrol groups.  ConclusionOur findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children. ReferencesVarma RR. Febrile seizures. Indian J Pediatr 2002; 69(8; 697-700.Talebian A, Vakili Z, Talar SA, Kazemi M, Mousavi GA. Assessment of the relation between serum zinc and magnesium levels in children with febrile

  19. [Nalmefene and Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome: Analysis of the Global Pharmacovigilance Database for Adverse Drug Reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmke, Hendrike; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Weiler, Stefan

    2015-10-14

    Nalmefene (Selincro®) is a selective opioid receptor antagonist, licensed in April 2014 in Switzerland for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adults with a high drinking risk level. 200 reports of adverse drug reactions of nalmefene have been documented worldwide in the WHO global pharmacovigilance database between 7th March 1997 to 1st March 2015. In 21 cases (10,5%) nalmefene and an opioid were administered concomitantly, causing withdrawal symptoms. Until now, the regional pharmacovigilance center in Zurich received four cases of nalmefene combined with opioids. This combination should be avoided.

  20. [Eslicarbazepine acetate: a novel therapeutic alternative in the treatment of focal seizures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Llerda, José A

    2012-05-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases. In recent years an important number of drugs have been added to the therapeutic options we have available to us. With the aim of offering an optimal clinical effectiveness, the mechanisms of action or chemical structures of the antiepileptic drugs recently introduced onto the market have been modified with respect to the first, so-called classical or conventional, antiepileptics. Eslicarbazepine acetate belongs to this group of recently incorporated pharmaceuticals and is a novel single daily dose voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, which acts selectively in groups of rapid-activation neurons. It has been approved for indication in associated therapy in adults with partial onset seizures, with or without secondary generalisation. It is widely metabolised to eslicarbazepine and, to a lesser extent, to R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine. In 800 mg and 1200 mg doses it has been shown to bring about a significant reduction in a high percentage of patients with refractory epilepsy in simultaneous treatment with up to three antiepileptic drugs, and this effectiveness is maintained in open follow-up studies lasting up to a year. It is generally speaking well-tolerated; most of the adverse side-effects range in intensity from mild to moderate, and the percentage of patients who withdraw from treatment for this reason is low. Eslicarbazepine acetate is an alternative treatment in associated therapy in patients with partial epilepsy who do not respond adequately to treatment in monotherapy. PMID:22532219

  1. Descriptions of clinical semiology of seizures in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Literary texts are an important part of the cultural history of many fields of medicine. Accounts of epilepsy are frequent, and descriptions of seizure semiology are often included with varying detail. This review looks at these, and considers the authors' background knowledge of epilepsy. The first group of writers suffered seizures themselves. Some of them provide remarkable and novel insights into the subjective symptoms and experiences in and around seizures.A second group draws from their own observations of seizures in others who may have been close relatives or fortuitous strangers. Here, the outside view prevails, and seizures may be described with clinical objectiveness. Commonly, the reactions of onlookers become part of the narrative beyond the seizure description. The third group writes from second-hand knowledge, which may be other observer reports, interviews with people with epilepsy or with experts, information being available in dictionaries, medical textbooks and the like. The professional standard of most writers means that the resulting descriptions are quite accurate, but there are also examples of poor use of such information. Many authors' sources are not known, but can be assumed to belong to one of the above categories, and we can sometimes guess. It appears that even authors with no first-hand knowledge are often aware of seizure types other than the most widely known, generalised tonic-clonic, and there is a widespread interest in warnings and how the afflicted respond to them. The quality of an author's fictional account of epilepsy should not be judged from a translation, because specific aspects and the language involved in the description may have been misunderstood by the translator. PMID:16567320

  2. Thalamus lesions in chronic and acute seizure disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Greschus, Susanne; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology (Neuroradiology), Bonn (Germany); Sassen, Robert; Bien, Christian G. [University of Bonn, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Transient signal changes in the pulvinar have been described following status epilepticus. However, we observed persistent thalamus changes after seizures. The purpose of this study was to characterize thalamus changes in patients with seizure disorders and to correlate imaging findings with clinical features. We searched among 5,500 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams performed in patients with seizures and identified 43 patients. The MRI scans of these patients were reviewed and correlated with clinical data. We identified four patterns of thalamus lesions: (a) fluid attenuated inversion recovery-hyperintense pulvinar lesions (20 patients), as known from status epilepticus. Ten patients in this group had a status epilepticus. Among the remaining patients, three had frequent seizures and seven had sporadic seizures. Twelve patients had follow-up exams for a median of 11 months. The lesions had persisted in 11/12 cases in the last available exam and were reversible in one case only. In seven cases, cone-shaped thalamus atrophy resulted, (b) linear defects in the medial and anterior thalamus (five patients), accompanied by atrophy of the mamillary body and the fornix in patients with chronic epilepsy, (c) extensive bilateral thalamus lesions in two patients with a syndrome caused by mutation in the mitochondrial polymerase gamma, and (d) other thalamus lesions not associated with the seizure disorder (16 patients). The spectrum of thalamus lesions in patients with seizure disorders is wider than previously reported. Postictal pulvinar lesions can persist and may result in thalamic atrophy. Linear defects in the anterior thalamus are associated with limbic system atrophy. (orig.)

  3. A novel genetic programming approach for epileptic seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arpit; Tiwari, Aruna; Krishna, Ramesh; Varma, Vishaal

    2016-02-01

    The human brain is a delicate mix of neurons (brain cells), electrical impulses and chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Any damage has the potential to disrupt the workings of the brain and cause seizures. These epileptic seizures are the manifestations of epilepsy. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals register average neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and label changes in activity over large areas. A detailed analysis of these electroencephalograph (EEG) signals provides valuable insights into the mechanisms instigating epileptic disorders. Moreover, the detection of interictal spikes and epileptic seizures in an EEG signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection methods are required, as these epileptic seizures are volatile and unpredictable. This paper deals with an automated detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for feature extraction and proposes a novel genetic programming (GP) approach for classifying the EEG signals. Improvements in the standard GP approach are made using a Constructive Genetic Programming (CGP) in which constructive crossover and constructive subtree mutation operators are introduced. A hill climbing search is integrated in crossover and mutation operators to remove the destructive nature of these operators. A new concept of selecting the Globally Prime offspring is also presented to select the best fitness offspring generated during crossover. To decrease the time complexity of GP, a new dynamic fitness value computation (DFVC) is employed to increase the computational speed. We conducted five different sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model in the classification of different mixtures of normal, interictal and ictal signals, and the accuracies achieved are outstandingly high. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods on same datasets, and these results affirm the potential use of

  4. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  5. Healthcare-seeking behavior after seizures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdekar Sandeep

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hardly any Indian data is available regarding practices employed by parents for preventing injuries and aspiration and controlling convulsions in children. Aims: To describe the health care-seeking behavior and practices employed by parents when a child has convulsions. Settings and Design: Prospective questionnaire-based study in a tertiary care hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Parents of children (age: 1 month -12 years admitted with history of convulsions were enrolled and information regarding demographic characteristics, time lag, preferred health care provider and measures taken in a convulsing child was elicited using a pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Demographic parameters and measures employed described as percentages. Results: One hundred and forty parents were interviewed. Seventy-six children had first episode. Forty-nine of 64 children with subsequent seizures had contact with a health care provider during the previous seizure episode. The median duration of seizures was 10 minutes (Mean: 54.15±366.39 min; but children were brought to the hospital after a median of 2 hours (Mean: 5.22±10.37 h. Measures such as smelling onions, oral administration of cold water, reading religious texts and insertion of mouth gag were employed. Although 45 with previous seizure-related health care contact agreed that they were informed about measures to be taken, none of them could remember more than one measure for preventing injuries and aspiration and controlling seizures. Only four narrated "per-rectal administration of diazepam" as a measure, although only one implemented it. Only four general practitioners used per-rectal diazepam to control seizures. Conclusions: Children with seizures reach health care providers after a considerable delay putting them at higher risk for developing neurological sequel. There is a need to develop appropriate strategies for disseminating information about "first aid

  6. A novel genetic programming approach for epileptic seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arpit; Tiwari, Aruna; Krishna, Ramesh; Varma, Vishaal

    2016-02-01

    The human brain is a delicate mix of neurons (brain cells), electrical impulses and chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. Any damage has the potential to disrupt the workings of the brain and cause seizures. These epileptic seizures are the manifestations of epilepsy. The electroencephalograph (EEG) signals register average neuronal activity from the cerebral cortex and label changes in activity over large areas. A detailed analysis of these electroencephalograph (EEG) signals provides valuable insights into the mechanisms instigating epileptic disorders. Moreover, the detection of interictal spikes and epileptic seizures in an EEG signal plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy. Automatic seizure detection methods are required, as these epileptic seizures are volatile and unpredictable. This paper deals with an automated detection of epileptic seizures in EEG signals using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for feature extraction and proposes a novel genetic programming (GP) approach for classifying the EEG signals. Improvements in the standard GP approach are made using a Constructive Genetic Programming (CGP) in which constructive crossover and constructive subtree mutation operators are introduced. A hill climbing search is integrated in crossover and mutation operators to remove the destructive nature of these operators. A new concept of selecting the Globally Prime offspring is also presented to select the best fitness offspring generated during crossover. To decrease the time complexity of GP, a new dynamic fitness value computation (DFVC) is employed to increase the computational speed. We conducted five different sets of experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed model in the classification of different mixtures of normal, interictal and ictal signals, and the accuracies achieved are outstandingly high. The experimental results are compared with the existing methods on same datasets, and these results affirm the potential use of

  7. 48 CFR 14.303 - Modification or withdrawal of bids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Submission of Bids 14.303 Modification or withdrawal of... for the bid. (c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not...

  8. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer... after such withdrawal is sufficient to satisfy the required margin for the security futures and...

  9. ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES AND ASTHMA: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    The study purpose was to compare teacher ratings of academic performance (TRP) over 24 months between children with new-onset seizures (N = 121) and new-onset asthma (N = 54) ages 4 to 14 years. At each data collection point (baseline, 12 months, 24 months), children with seizures were placed into two groups according to their recurrent seizure status (yes/no) during that period. Longitudinal linear mixed models were used to explore differences between the asthma group and the two seizure groups and to identify if differences in TRP in children with seizures were associated with age, gender, or use of medication. In the seizure sample, scores for children in both groups (with and without recurrent seizures) initially declined at 12 months; however, at 24 months, children who did not have recurrent seizures improved while children who continued to have recurrent seizures declined. There was a trend for younger children to decline more than older children. PMID:17293164

  10. Zinc supplementation prolongs the latency of hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, L; Erdem, S R; Yazıcı, C

    2016-03-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between febrile seizures and zinc levels. The lowest dose zinc supplementation in pentylenetetrazole seizure model has a protective effect. But, zinc pretreatment has no effect in maximal electroshock model. However, it is unclear how zinc supplementation affects hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on febrile seizures in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Zinc supplementation was commenced 5 days prior to febrile seizure induction by placing the animals in a water bath at 45°C. We measured the rectal temperature and determined the febrile seizure latency, duration, and stage. In the zinc-supplemented group, both the seizure latency and the rectal temperature triggering seizure initiation were significantly higher than in the other groups. We suggest that zinc supplementation can positively modulate febrile seizure pathogenesis in rats.

  11. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Thyrion; R. Raedt; J. Portelli; P. van Loo; W.J. Wadman; G. Glorieux; B.N. Lambrecht; S. Janssens; K. Vonck; P. Boon

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  12. Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms Mediate Motivation to Reinstate Smoking During Abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Claudia; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and three unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive af...

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE RANGE OF MEDICINES FOR THE PHARMACEUTICAL CORRECTION OF THE ALCOHOL TREMOR IN THE STRUCTURE OF ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov V.V. (Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Established that the use of psychoactive substances may lead to premature death. The most commonly used psychoactive substance is alcohol. The authors had previously been justified and suggested for implementation in the practice of medicine cupping method alcoholic tremor in the structure of withdrawal symptoms in alcohol dependence. The article presents an analysis of drugs for the pharmaceutical correction of the alcoholic tremor in the structure of withdrawal symptoms, which are included in the patent of the pharmaceutical correction for the alcohol dependence. According to the international ATC classification included 5 ATC codes clinical and pharmacological groups: "A", "B", "C», «N», «S». The analysis found that in circulation in the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine for the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are mainly domestic remedies (23 pharmaceutical manufacturer that provide the range of nosology at 88.0%. The next step in the analysis was to determine the types of dosage forms used for the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence. Found that the dosage means presented in the form of injection solutions and infusion (36.0%, powders for the preparation of solution (suspension for ingestion (36.0% in the form of tablets or capsules (28.0%. At the last stage analyzed registration certificates and found that the registration for the medicines for pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are 2015 four international nonproprietary names (8 drugs until 2019 in 4 international nonproprietary names (11 drugs.

  14. 21 CFR 171.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 171.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  15. 21 CFR 571.7 - Withdrawal of petition without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. 571.7... Withdrawal of petition without prejudice. (a) In some cases the Commissioner will notify the petitioner that... clarification or the obtaining of additional data. This withdrawal will be without prejudice to a future...

  16. 5 CFR 330.1001 - Withdrawal from competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal from competition. 330.1001... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Prohibited Practices § 330.1001 Withdrawal from competition... applicant or eligible to withdraw from competition or eligibility, for a position in the competitive...

  17. Teachers' Withdrawal Behaviors and Their Relationship with Work Ethic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemli, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Problem Situation: People experience ups and downs in their job satisfaction and motivation levels at different points of their work lives for various reasons. One of the outputs of low job satisfaction and motivation is defined as "withdrawal behaviors" in the literature. Withdrawal behaviors are any employee behavior of withdrawal from…

  18. 19 CFR 144.36 - Withdrawal for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal for transportation. 144.36 Section 144... § 144.36 Withdrawal for transportation. (a) Time limit. Merchandise may be withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to another port of entry if withdrawal for consumption or exportation can be accomplished at...

  19. 47 CFR 1.8 - Withdrawal of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawal of papers. 1.8 Section 1.8 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Practice and Procedure General § 1.8 Withdrawal of papers. The granting of a request to dismiss or withdraw...

  20. Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers: a comparison with drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J A; Mayr, S

    1990-07-01

    Interpersonal types among alcohol abusers were examined with Calsyn, Roszell, and Anderson's (1988) nine-type system for classifying FIRO-B profiles. The frequencies of the nine FIRO-B types among a sample of 135 male veteran alcohol abusers were compared with Calsyn et al.'s (1988) previously published data for a sample of male veteran drug abusers, a normative veteran sample, and a general population sample. The alcohol abusers, like Calsyn et al.'s sample of drug abusers, were more likely to be categorized as "loners," "rebels," and "pessimists" than was the general population sample. While exhibiting preferences for interpersonal types that emphasized social withdrawal, avoidance of responsibility, and mistrust of others, both the alcohol abusers and the drug abusers were heterogeneous groups whose members demonstrated a variety of interpersonal types.

  1. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  2. Salvia Officinalis and Cisplatin Effects on Pentylenetetrazole Induced Seizure Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Hadi Khayate-Nouri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that cisplatin have neuropathic effects and Salvia officinalis (SO could have therapeutic effects on nervous system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SO hydroalcoholic extract and cisplatin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizure in mice. Materials and methods: This is an experimental interventional study. For this purpose first group received normal saline, second group received SO extract, third group received cisplatin, in the fourth group received SO extract plus cisplatin and the subsequent seizure threshold was determined for each group. Results: The results showed that SO extract significantly (p<0.05 increased and in cisplatin group significantly (p<0.05 decreased seizure threshold. Simultaneous uses of cisplatin and SO extract caused to significantly increased seizure threshold (p<0.05 compared with cisplatin group. Conclusion: Considering different types of ingredients in SO extract which have beneficial effects on nervous system, it might be used to reduce cisplatin induced neuropathic effects. It seems that SO extract could be useful in cisplatin-induced seizure but further investigations are needed.

  3. Systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders associated with seizures or epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Angela; Crino, Peter B

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we review the incidence and significance of seizures in well-established autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS), diabetes mellitus, celiac disease, thyroid disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The five following presentations discuss the incidence and possible pathogenesis of epilepsies that are found in these well-known autoimmune conditions. There is a large body of evidence describing the clinical presentation of seizures with MS and SLE, and showing that refractory epilepsy can complicate these already challenging disorders. However, the mechanisms involved are complex and generally not well understood. Neurologic syndromes, including seizure disorders, can also be a feature of celiac disease (CD) or subclinical CD, sometimes associated with cerebral calcification. The association between type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and epilepsy is unclear and requires more definitive epidemiologic analysis, despite the fact that antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase may provide a link between the two conditions. The association between thyroid disorders and encephalopathies, often termed Hashimoto's encephalopathy, is well known but the pathogenic significance of antithyroid antibodies in this condition is still debated. In general, the relationships between autoimmune mechanisms and seizures in these conditions are unclear; the seizures are likely to be caused by a variety of mechanisms, including ischemia, neuronal damage, and specific and nonspecific immunity. PMID:21542840

  4. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Karimzadeh P, Rezayi A, Togha M, Ahmadabadi F, Derakhshanfar H, Azargashb E, Khodaei F. The Best Time for EEG Recording in Febrile Seizure. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:20-25.ObjectiveSome studies suggest that detection of epileptic discharge is unusual during the first postictal week of febrile seizure and others believe that EEGs carried out on the day of the seizure are abnormal in as many as 88% of the patients. In thisstudy, we intend to compare early and late EEG abnormalities in febrile seizure.Materials & Methods EEG was recorded during daytime sleep, 24-48 hours (early EEG and 2 weeks (late EEG after the seizure in 36 children with febrile seizure (FS, aged between 3 months and 6 years. EEGs that showed generalized or focal spikes, sharp, spike wave complex, and slowing were considered as abnormal EEG.Abnormalities of the first EEG were compared with those of second EEG.ResultsThe most common abnormal epileptiform discharges recorded in the early EEG were slow waves (27.6% and sharp waves in late EEG (36%. Distribution of abnormalities in early and late EEG showed no significant statistical difference.ConclusionThe early and late EEG recording had the same results in patient with febrile seizure. Reference:Hauser WA, Kurland LT. The epidemiology of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 through 1967. Epilepsia 1975;16(1:1-66.Freeman JM. Febrile seizures: a consensus of their significance, evaluation, and treatment. Pediatrics 1980;66(6:1009.Waruiru C, Appleton R. Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 2004;89(8:751-6.ILAE. Guidelines for epidemiologic studies on epilepsy, International League against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 1993;34(4:592-6.Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Shirts SB, Kurland LT. Factors prognostic of unprovoked seizures after febrile convulsions. N Engl J Med 1987;316(9:493-8.Berg AT, Shinnar S, Darefsky AS, Holford TR, Shapiro ED, Salomon ME, et al. Predictors of recurrent febrile

  5. Refractory Seizures in Tramadol Poisoning: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Majidi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tramadol, an analgesic drug abused by opioid addicts, is also abused accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Tramadol poisoning can induce CNS depression, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Case: In this report, a 30-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department due to suicidal attempt with ingestion of 14000 mg (140 tablet 100 mg of tramadol. He had history of suicidal attempts in past years as well as depression in his past medical history, but he had not abused tramadol and other drugs in his history. There was no history of epilepsy or head trauma in. He presented with generalized seizures two hours post ingestion, and, then, he was referred to hospital four hours later. Generalized seizures were poorly controlled by multiple medications. Due to respiratory arrest, endotracheal tube was inserted and he was admitted to the ICU immediately. At admission, he experienced hypovolemic shock, hypoglycemia, coma, apnea, refractory seizures, muscle spasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagolative disorder, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Despite medical managements, he died 38 days after ingestion. Conclusion: In this report, despite using inhalational anesthetic drugs, seizures continued and were very poorly controlled. Cause of death in this patient can be seen as the side effects of tramadol poisoning.

  6. A patient with atonic seizures mimicking transient ischemic attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ju Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A focal atonic seizure is a partial seizure in which the ictal manifestation consists of paresis of the extremities or muscles on one side of the body, and this phenomenon can easily be misdiagnosed as a transient ischemic attack. An 86-year-old woman visited our hospital complaining of transient right upper extremity weakness lasting for 10 min following an unusual sensation in her chest accompanied by palpitations. On the third hospital day, she again complained of right arm weakness, which progressed to jerky movements of her right extremity accompanied by facial twitching and then generalized into a tonic–clonic seizure. The EEG displayed several interictal spikes in the contralateral temporal area, and the ictal SPECT, analyzed using the SISCOM system, showed an increased signal in both the contralateral superior parietal area and the mesial frontal area. In this case, the patient was diagnosed with focal atonic seizures as the cause of the monolimb weakness, which had been initially misdiagnosed aas transient ischemic attacks. In cases in which a patient presents with monolimb paresis, physicians should consider the possibility of an atonic seizure as the cause.

  7. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  9. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  10. Genetics and alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed, but excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to many diseases. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence, alcohol use disorders) is a maladaptive pattern of excessive drinking leading to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcoholism is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting risk. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes of alcohol me...

  11. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  12. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  13. Influences on seizure activity in pregnant women with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether referral to a specialized epilepsy clinic prior to pregnancy influences seizure activity during pregnancy. In addition, folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy as a marker of intent to conceive was used to evaluate whether the use of folic acid at the time......). Seizure deterioration was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2: 9% versus 32% (Pfolic acid supplements was significantly higher in group 1 (P... of conception correlates with the risk of seizure deterioration in pregnancy. The study population consisted of patients who had been followed in a specialized epilepsy clinic before conception (group 1, n=46) and patients who were referred to the clinic after the pregnancy was recognized (group 2, n=44...

  14. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte;

    2016-01-01

    confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. METHODS: A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were...... up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1......OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected...

  15. Hallucination in a seizure patient using levetiracetam: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, D R; Dutta, A; Gautam, R

    2012-01-01

    Levetiracetam, a relatively new antiepileptic drug (AED), is used mainly as adjuvant and less as monotherapy of seizure. Though rare, Levetiracetam is reported to induce hallucination. To highlight the potential of this adverse drug event, we report a seizure-case that had auditory hallucination with Levetiracetam. A 32-year lady had 7-year history of unresponsive spells which increased in the last year, also occurred while asleep and were diagnosed as "generalized seizure" with video-EEG. With gradual optimization of Levetiracetam to 2250 mg, she continuously heard distressing sound of saw cutting wooden blocks. After 3-day continuous auditory hallucination, Levetiracetam had to be changed to sodium valproate. PMID:22851978

  16. Seizure prediction using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Ahmed F; Azinfar, Leila; Fazel-Rezai, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a neuro-fuzzy approach of seizure prediction from invasive Electroencephalogram (EEG) by applying adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Three nonlinear seizure predictive features were extracted from a patient's data obtained from the European Epilepsy Database, one of the most comprehensive EEG database for epilepsy research. A total of 36 hours of recordings including 7 seizures was used for analysis. The nonlinear features used in this study were similarity index, phase synchronization, and nonlinear interdependence. We designed an ANFIS classifier constructed based on these features as input. Fuzzy if-then rules were generated by the ANFIS classifier using the complex relationship of feature space provided during training. The membership function optimization was conducted based on a hybrid learning algorithm. The proposed method achieved highest sensitivity of 80% with false prediction rate as low as 0.46 per hour. PMID:24110134

  17. Potent anti-seizure effects of D-leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Santos, Polan; O'Riordan, Kenneth J; Stafstrom, Carl E; Hardwick, J Marie

    2015-10-01

    There are no effective treatments for millions of patients with intractable epilepsy. High-fat ketogenic diets may provide significant clinical benefit but are challenging to implement. Low carbohydrate levels appear to be essential for the ketogenic diet to work, but the active ingredients in dietary interventions remain elusive, and a role for ketogenesis has been challenged. A potential antiseizure role of dietary protein or of individual amino acids in the ketogenic diet is understudied. We investigated the two exclusively ketogenic amino acids, L-leucine and L-lysine, and found that only L-leucine potently protects mice when administered prior to the onset of seizures induced by kainic acid injection, but not by inducing ketosis. Unexpectedly, the D-enantiomer of leucine, which is found in trace amounts in the brain, worked as well or better than L-leucine against both kainic acid and 6Hz electroshock-induced seizures. However, unlike L-leucine, D-leucine potently terminated seizures even after the onset of seizure activity. Furthermore, D-leucine, but not L-leucine, reduced long-term potentiation but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in vitro. In a screen of candidate neuronal receptors, D-leucine failed to compete for binding by cognate ligands, potentially suggesting a novel target. Even at low doses, D-leucine suppressed ongoing seizures at least as effectively as diazepam but without sedative effects. These studies raise the possibility that D-leucine may represent a new class of anti-seizure agents, and that D-leucine may have a previously unknown function in eukaryotes. PMID:26054437

  18. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. Aim To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. Materials and Methods This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. Results The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pblood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  19. SERUM ZINC LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures are the most common cause of convulsions in children and a frequent cause of emergency hospital admissions. Indian studies suggested that up to 10% of children experience a febrile seizure. Febrile seizures are defined as an event in infancy or childhood usually occurring between 6 months to 6 years of age associated with fever but without evidence of intracranial infection or defined cause. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of low serum zinc level in children presenting with febrile seizures at tertiary care hospital, Bangalore. METHOD: This is an observational cross sectional study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Medicine, tertiary care hospital, Bangalore, from January 2013 to January 2014. Children (6 months to 6 years of age presenting with febrile seizures who satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled for the study. Cause of fever was determined after detailed history, physical examination and relevant investigations. Three milliliters centrifuged blood sample was preserved in acid washed test tube. Separated serum was used to measure serum zinc level by calorimetric method. RESULTS: Out of 100 children enrolled, male to female ratio was 1.4:1, 56% of children were below the age of 2 years with mean age of the children was 24 months. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most frequent cause of fever apparent in 70 children (70%, followed by dengue fever 11 children (11%, acute gastroenteritis 6 (6%, urinary tract infection and otitis media in 4 children each (8%, Viral fever in 5 child (5%. Frequency of low serum zinc level was 62% in children with febrile seizures. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: This study reveals that there is positive correlation between low serum zinc levels and febrile convulsions.

  20. Crowdsourcing reproducible seizure forecasting in human and canine epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Joost; Abbot, Drew; Adkins, Phillip; Bosshard, Simone C.; Chen, Min; Tieng, Quang M.; He, Jialune; Muñoz-Almaraz, F. J.; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma; Pardo, Juan; Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Hills, Michael; Wu, Wei; Korshunova, Iryna; Cukierski, Will; Vite, Charles; Patterson, Edward E.; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    See Mormann and Andrzejak (doi:10.1093/brain/aww091) for a scientific commentary on this article.   Accurate forecasting of epileptic seizures has the potential to transform clinical epilepsy care. However, progress toward reliable seizure forecasting has been hampered by lack of open access to long duration recordings with an adequate number of seizures for investigators to rigorously compare algorithms and results. A seizure forecasting competition was conducted on kaggle.com using open access chronic ambulatory intracranial electroencephalography from five canines with naturally occurring epilepsy and two humans undergoing prolonged wide bandwidth intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring. Data were provided to participants as 10-min interictal and preictal clips, with approximately half of the 60 GB data bundle labelled (interictal/preictal) for algorithm training and half unlabelled for evaluation. The contestants developed custom algorithms and uploaded their classifications (interictal/preictal) for the unknown testing data, and a randomly selected 40% of data segments were scored and results broadcasted on a public leader board. The contest ran from August to November 2014, and 654 participants submitted 17 856 classifications of the unlabelled test data. The top performing entry scored 0.84 area under the classification curve. Following the contest, additional held-out unlabelled data clips were provided to the top 10 participants and they submitted classifications for the new unseen data. The resulting area under the classification curves were well above chance forecasting, but did show a mean 6.54 ± 2.45% (min, max: 0.30, 20.2) decline in performance. The kaggle.com model using open access data and algorithms generated reproducible research that advanced seizure forecasting. The overall performance from multiple contestants on unseen data was better than a random predictor, and demonstrates the feasibility of seizure forecasting in canine and

  1. The management of drug resistant seizures in tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina MOAVERO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC is a multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disorder resulting from mutations in one of two genes, TSC1 and TSC2. Pathologically TSC is characterized by abnormal cellular differentiation and proliferation, as well as abnormal neuronal migration. The majority of patients with TSC have epilepsy, although the mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis remain unknown. Seizures onset is frequently during the first year of life, and in a sizable proportion of individuals tend to be refractory to antiepileptic drug treatment. This article reviews the progress in understanding drug resistant seizures in TSC, from molecular pathogenesis to the pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptogenesis, and the rationale for appropriate medical and surgical treatment.

  2. Risk of epileptic seizures onset during acute period of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    I. G. Rudakova; E. Yu. Djachkova; I. G. Kolchu

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is one of the chief cause adults epilepsy. Screening study was performed. Risk factors of early and late after stroke epileptic seizures was studied. It were included 300 patient with different types of stroke, et the age of 41–94. Data of medical history and brain imaging were studied. Results of research were showed: risk of early seizures increase by patients with hemorrhagic stroke, with heart embolic type of ischemic stroke, with combination of cardiac fibrillation and arterial hy...

  3. Ginkgotoxin Induced Seizure Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Soon; Roh, Sook Young; Jeong, Eun Hye; Kim, Byung-Su; Sunwoo, Mun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Although ginkgo is commonly used as an alternative treatment for memory loss, Alzheimer's dementia and peripheral circulatory disturbances, it is also known to cause neuronal symptoms due to ginkgotoxin (4'-methoxypyridoxine or B6 antivitamin). We experienced a case of a 51-year-old female patient with generalized tonic clonic seizure and postictal confusion after eating large amounts of ginkgo nuts. Blood vitamin B6 level was decreased. After conservative treatment and pyridoxine medication, her mental symptoms were resolved completely and no seizures recurred. PMID:26819944

  4. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; AYAZI, Parviz; DALIRANI, Reza; Nargess GHOLAMI; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mohammadi, Navid; AHMADI, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmad Ali SAHMANI

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Gholami N, Daneshi-Kohan MM, Mohammadi N, Ahmadi MM, Sahmani AA. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3): 24-29. AbstractObjectiveRecognition of risk factors for febrile seizures (FS) and epilepsy is essential. Studies regarding the role of melatonin in these convulsive disorders are limited.This study determines the relationship between serum melatonin levels and FS and epilepsy in chil...

  5. A RARE CAUSE OF RESISTANT SEIZURES: DYKE DAVIDOFF MASSON SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswadev Basu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Dyke – Davidoff – Masson Syndrome (DDMS, is a rare clinical condition characterized by clinical triad of seizures, contralateral spastic hemiplegia or hemiparesis, with or without mental retardation. Diagnosis requires presence of cerebral hemiatrophy with homolateral hypertrophy of the skull and sinuses on brain imaging. Here we report a case of DDMS in a 16 year old girl who presented with seizures and hemiparesis.MRI of her brain showed hemiatrophy involving the left cerebral hemisphere with enlargement of ipsilateral sinuses and ventricles

  6. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  7. Health risks of alcohol use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  8. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  9. Mapping brain activity on the verge of a photically induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig R; Wolff, Stephan;

    2009-01-01

    In a photosensitive patient intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) accidentally provoked a generalized tonic-clonic seizure during simultaneous recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Before seizure onset, IPS consistently induced generalized ph...

  10. CNNM2 mutations cause impaired brain development and seizures in patients with hypomagnesemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjona, F.J.; Baaij, J.H.F. de; Schlingmann, K.P.; Lameris, A.L.L.; WIjk, E.; Flik, G.; Regele, S.; Korenke, G.C.; Neophytou, B.; Rust, S.; Reintjes, N.; Konrad, M.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability and seizures are frequently associated with hypomagnesemia and have an important genetic component. However, to find the genetic origin of intellectual disability and seizures often remains challenging because of considerable genetic heterogeneity and clinical variability. In

  11. The Long-term Risk of Epilepsy after Febrile Seizures in susceptible subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sidenius, Per Christian;

    2007-01-01

    A family history of seizures, preexisting brain damage, or birth complications may modify the long-term risk of epilepsy after febrile seizures. The authors evaluated the association between febrile seizures and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.54 million persons born in Denmark (1978.......3). In conclusion, persons with a history of febrile seizures had a higher rate of epilepsy that lasted into adult life, but less than 7 percent of children with febrile seizures developed epilepsy during 23 years of follow-up. The risk was higher for those who had a family history of epilepsy, cerebral palsy......-2002), including 49,857 persons with febrile seizures and 16,481 persons with epilepsy. Overall, for children with febrile seizures compared with those without such seizures, the rate ratio for epilepsy was 5.43 (95% confidence interval: 5.19, 5.69). The risk remained high during the entire follow...

  12. Seizures following hippocampal kindling induce QT interval prolongation and increased susceptibility to arrhythmias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealer, Steven L; Little, Jason G

    2013-07-01

    The prolonged seizures of status epilepticus produce chronic arrhythmogenic changes in cardiac function. This study was designed to determine if repeated, self-limiting seizures administered to kindled rats induce similar cardiac dysfunction. Multiple seizures administered to rats following hippocampal kindling resulted in cardiac QT interval prolongation and increased susceptibility to experimental arrhythmias. These data suggest that multiple, self-limiting seizures of intractable epilepsy may have cardiac effects that can contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

  13. A Multi-stage System for the Automated Detection of Epileptic Seizures in Neonatal EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joyeeta; Glover, John R.; Ktonas, Periklis Y.; Thitai Kumar, Arun; Mukherjee, Amit; Karayiannis, Nicolaos B.; Frost, James D.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Mizrahi, Eli M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test results of a 3-stage automated system for neonatal EEG seizure detection. Stage I of the system is the initial detection stage, and identifies overlapping 5-s segments of suspected seizure activity in each EEG channel. In Stage II, the detected segments from Stage I are spatiotemporally clustered to produce multi-channel candidate seizures. In Stage III, the candidate seizures are processed further using measures of quality and context-based rules to e...

  14. Antioxidants and free radical scavengers do not consistently delay seizure onset in animal models of acute seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Kaiping; Stringer, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    A number of herbal compounds with direct antioxidant activity slow the onset, or completely block, the appearance of seizures. This increase in latency has been proposed to be due to the antioxidant activity. This hypothesis was directly tested by determining the effects of Trolox®, a vitamin E analog, vitamin C, melatonin, and α-lipoic acid on the latency to acute seizures induced with pilocarpine, kainic acid or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ sc) in adult rats. Trolox®, vitamin C, and α-lipoic acid...

  15. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  16. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  17. Expression Profiling after Prolonged Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mice Suggests Structural Remodeling in the Hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloets, Bart C; van Gassen, Koen L I; Kan, Anne A; Olde Engberink, Anneke H O; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Holstege, Frank C P; de Graan, Pierre N E

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most prevalent type of seizures among children up to 5 years of age (2-4% of Western-European children). Complex febrile seizures are associated with an increased risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy. To investigate short- and long-term effects of experimental febrile seiz

  18. Downregulated GABA and BDNF-TrkB Pathway in Chronic Cyclothiazide Seizure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclothiazide (CTZ has been reported to simultaneously enhance glutamate receptor excitation and inhibit GABAA receptor inhibition, and in turn it evokes epileptiform activities in hippocampal neurons. It has also been shown to acutely induce epileptic seizure behavior in freely moving rats. However, whether CTZ induced seizure rats could develop to have recurrent seizure still remains unknown. In the current study, we demonstrated that 46% of the CTZ induced seizure rats developed to have recurrent seizure behavior as well as epileptic EEG with a starting latency between 2 weeks and several months. In those chronic seizure rats 6 months after the seizure induction by the CTZ, our immunohistochemistry results showed that both GAD and GAT-1 were significantly decreased across CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus area of the hippocampus studied. In addition, both BDNF and its receptor TrkB were also decreased in hippocampus of the chronic CTZ seizure rats. Our results indicate that CTZ induced seizure is capable of developing to have recurrent seizure, and the decreased GABA synthesis and transport as well as the impaired BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway may contribute to the development of the recurrent seizure. Thus, CTZ seizure rats may provide a novel animal model for epilepsy study and anticonvulsant drug testing in the future.

  19. A revised Racine's scale for PTZ-induced seizures in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Fabene, P.F.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral scoring is commonly used to access seizure intensity in different seizure models. Racine's scale, originally developed for the amygdala-kindling model, is also frequently used as an intensity measurement in other experimental seizure or epilepsy models. The aim of the present study is to

  20. Patterns of muscle activation during generalized tonic and tonic–clonic epileptic seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Isa; Wolf, Peter; Sams, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tonic seizures and the tonic phase of tonic–clonic epileptic seizures are defined as “sustained tonic” muscle contraction lasting a few seconds to minutes. Visual inspection of the surface electromyogram (EMG) during seizures contributed considerably to a better understanding and accurat...

  1. Predictors and characteristics of seizures in survivors of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskin, Dhanashri P; Herman, Susan T; Ngo, Long H; Koralnik, Igor J

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to determine the risk factors for epileptogenesis and characteristics of seizures in patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) who survive more than 1 year from onset of neurological symptoms (PML survivors). We reviewed clinical data including seizure history and MR imaging studies from PML survivors evaluated at our institution between 1997 and 2014. PML progressors who passed away within 1 year and patients with a history of seizures prior to PML diagnosis were excluded from the analysis. Of 64 PML survivors, 28 (44 %) developed seizures. The median time from the onset of PML symptoms to the first seizure was 5.4 months (range 0-159) and 64 % of patients with seizures had them within the first year. The presence of juxtacortical PML lesions was associated with a relative risk of seizures of 3.5 (p < 0.02; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.3-9.4) in multivariate analyses. Of all seizure types, 86 % were focal and 60 % most likely originated from the frontal lobes. Among seizure patients, 89 % required treatment, including one (54 %), two (25 %), or three (10.5 %) antiepileptic drugs. Seizures are a frequent complication in PML and can develop throughout the entire course of the disease. However, late onset seizures did not signify PML relapse. Seizures may require treatment with multiple antiepileptic medications and are a significant co-morbidity in PML. PMID:26676826

  2. Diurnal rhythms in seizures detected by intracranial electrocorticographic monitoring : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Wytske A.; Spetgens, Willy P. J.; Leijten, Frans S. S.; van Rijen, Peter C.; Gosselaar, Peter; van der Palen, Job; de Weerd, Al W.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated human seizure occurrence over the 24-hour day, and only one group has employed intracranial electrocorticography monitoring to record seizures. Circadian patterns in seizures may have important implications in diagnosis and therapy and provide opportunities in research. We

  3. Seizure semiology inferred from clinical descriptions and from video recordings. How accurate are they?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Simona Alexandra; Fogarasi, András; Neufeld, Miri;

    2012-01-01

    To assess how accurate the interpretation of seizure semiology is when inferred from witnessed seizure descriptions and from video recordings, five epileptologists analyzed 41 seizures from 30 consecutive patients who had clinical episodes in the epilepsy monitoring unit. For each clinical episod...

  4. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  5. Reevaluation of Meta-analysis on prophylactic drug management for recurrence of febrile seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan LIAO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the efficiency and safety of drugs to prevent the recurrence of febrile seizures (FS.  Methods Relevant literatures were searched via PubMed, EMBASE/SCOPUS, EBSCO-CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from December 1997 to November 2014 using the following keywords: febrile seizure OR febrile convulsion, recurrence, prevention OR prophylaxis, medicine OR medication. Publication type was limited to Meta-analysis. Extract the relevant information of Meta-analysis, such as characteristics of objects, types of study design, number of clinical trials, number of cases, search strategies, databases, information of methodology (methods of randomization, concealment, blinding, withdrawal and exit, follow-up time, heterogeneity analysis, subgroup analysis and outcome assessment, etc. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM and Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ were used to assess the quality of included Meta-analyses. Jadad decision was used to assess inclusion and exclusion criteria, search strategies, effectiveness evaluation, data extraction and data analysis, to explore reliable evidence of evidence-based medicine.  Results Eventually, four Meta-analyses were included after screening of all the literatures that can be searched out. Among those Meta-analyses, the Meta-analysis of Offringa and Newton (2012 was relatively more reliable. The results suggesed that no clinically important benefits were found in administering intermittent oral or rectal diazepam, oral phenobarbitone, phenytoin, valproate, pyridoxine, buprofen, diclofenac and acetominophen to children with FE. Only one clinical trial reported that intermittent oral clobazam could reduce the recurrence of FE in comparing with placebo at 6-month follow-up (RR = 0.360, 95% CI: 0.200-0.640; P = 0.000, but it should be verified by more randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Among 4 Meta-analyses included in this study

  6. Spectrum and immediate outcome of seizures in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency, etiology, the clinical types, and outcome of seizures in neonates during the course of stay in the neonatal unit. All neonates (1-28 days) presented with seizures during that period were included in the study. Their detailed history, physical examination, and appropriate investigations were recorded on a study proforma. Out of a total 680 patients, 100 patients presented with the seizures; this comprises the frequency of 14.7%. Male to female ratio was 2.1:1. Regarding gestational age, 65% were full-term, 31% were pre-term, and 4% were post-term. Regarding etiology, 40% patients had birth asphyxia; 14% had hypoglycemia; 12% were due to hypocalcaemia, 5% were due to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), 4% had malformation, 10 % had infection /neonatal sepsis, and in 12%, the etiology was kernicterus. Among the patients with seizures, 45% were completely recovered and discharged and 15% patients had neurological deficit at the time of discharge. From the hospitalized 100 patients, 22% expired. The critical factors for the outcome were etiology, gestational age, birth weight, APGAR score, and clinical characteristics. Generally, birth asphyxia had poor, while metabolic causes had good prognosis. (author)

  7. Uncontrolled seizures resulting from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicating neurobrucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Faraji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare form of stroke caused by thrombosis in venous sinuses of the brain. In this study, we reported on a patient with venous sinus thrombosis and brucellosis who presented with uncontrolled seizure despite being treated with anti-epileptic drugs at high doses. The case was a 33-year-old woman with a history of controlled complex partial seizure who presented with headache, asthenia, and uncontrolled seizure for one month. She was febrile and a brain CT scan indicated hemorrhagic focus in the left posterior parietal and the temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography also proved venous sinus thrombosis in the left transverse sinus. Besides [In addition], a laboratory assessment confirmed brucellosis. Following the treatment with anti-coagulant, anti-brucellosis, and anti-epileptic agents, the patient was discharged in good condition with medical orders. Clinical suspicion and accurate evaluation of a patient′s history is the most important clue in diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, especially in uncontrolled seizure in patients who had previously been under control.

  8. 77 FR 25596 - Inspection Service Authority; Seizure and Forfeiture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... revision of its regulations with regard to forfeiture authority and proceedings (77 FR 11437-52). As... detain, inventory, safeguard, maintain, advertise, sell, or dispose of property under seizure, detained...) Publication once each week for at least three successive weeks in a newspaper generally circulated in...

  9. Recognition of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures: a curable neurophobia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2013-02-01

    Diagnosing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) remains challenging. The majority of \\'PNES status\\' cases are likely to be seen in the emergency department or similar non-specialised units, where patients are initially assessed and managed by physicians of varying expertise in neurology.

  10. Electroconvulsive Therapy In Neuropsychiatry : Relevance Of Seizure Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangadhar BN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is used to induce therapeutic seizures in various clinical conditions. It is specifically useful in depression, catatonia, patients with high suicidal risk, and those intolerant to drugs. Its beneficial effects surpass its side effects. Memory impairment is benign and transient. Its mechanism of action is unknown, though numerous neurotransmitters and neuroreceptors have been implicated. The standards of ECT practice are well established but still evolving in some particularly in unilateral ECT. Assessment of threshold by formula method may deliver higher stimulus dose compared with titration method. Cerebral seizure during ECT procedure is necessary. Motor (cuff method and EEG seizure monitoring are mandatory. Recent studies have shown some EEG parameters (amplitude, fractal dimension, symmetry, and post ictal suppression to be associated with therapeutic outcome. Besides seizure monitoring, measuring other physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP may be useful indicators of therapeutic response. Use of ECT in neurological conditions as well as its application in psychiatric illnesses associated with neurological disorders has also been reviewed briefly.

  11. IRON DEFICIENCY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR FIRST FEBRILE SEIZURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Estimation of Iron status in children with first f ebrile seizure (FFS. Iron status was evaluated by including Hemoglobin, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH, Serum ferritin. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Study was conducted all children with first febrile seizures and febrile illnesses (FI in Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit and Pediatrics Wards of Sri Adichunchanag iri Institute of Medical Sciences, B.G. Nagara from January 2010 to June 2011. The blood samples from the 50 children comprising t he cases and 50 children comprising the controls constituted the material for the study. RESULTS : In the present study 58% cases were diagnosed as Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA with Febrile Seizure (FS; 18% controls were diagnosed as IDA with Febrile Illness . IDA was more frequent among children with FS than those with febrile illness alone. The result s uggests that IDA may be a risk factor for FFS. Screening for IDA should be considered in children with FFS. CONCLUSION: Iron Deficiency Anemia is associated with the seve rity of a febrile illness, and more severe cases could be more likely to get seizures.

  12. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker.

  13. 19 CFR 12.104e - Seizure and forfeiture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104e Seizure and forfeiture. (a) Whenever... Secretary shall prescribe. (b) Whenever any stolen article of cultural property is imported into the U.S. in violation of 19 U.S.C. 2607, such cultural property shall be seized and forfeited to the U.S. in...

  14. Vertebral artery dissection associated with generalized convulsive seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old male with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy was admitted to the neurological department for convulsive seizures just after lamotrigine was discontinued. On admission he was awake but had a right-sided hemiparesis with Babinski sign and ataxic finger-nose test on the left side. An MR scan...

  15. Seizure frequency in pregnant women treated with lamotrigine monotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Petrenaite, Vaiva

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetics of the new antiepileptic drug (AED) lamotrigine (LTG) are substantially influenced by pregnancy and are more likely to be associated with seizure deterioration in pregnancy compared to other AEDs. This is of great concern, as LTG has de...

  16. Feasibility of Seizure Prediction from intracranial EEG Recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas; Kjær, Troels; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The current project evaluated the feasibility of providing an algorithm that could warn a patient of a forthcoming seizure based on iEEG recordings. Method: The mean phase coherence (MPC) feature (Mormann F et al. Phys Nonlinear Phenom 2000;3-4:358-369.) was implemented and tested in a r...

  17. Effect of Nifedipine on Dichlorvos-Induced Seizure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayatnouri Mirhadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dichlorvos a synthetic organophosphate poisons is the property of insecticide. These toxins as insecticides in agriculture and medicine for animals and the destruction of ectoparasites can be used. Studies have shown that Dichlorvos creation seizure effects in different animals. Nifedipine, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the calcium channel blockers are anticonvulsant effects in different animal models. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nifedipine on Dichlorvosinduced seizures in mice. Approach: In this experiment, the animals were received different doses of nifedipine (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally 30 min before intraperitoneal injection of Dichlorvos (50 mg kg-1. After Dichlorvos injection, clonic and tonic seizures and death was investigated. Results: Results showed that nifedipine dose dependently reduced the severity of Dichlorvos-induced seizures, so that nifedipine dose 10 and 40 mg kg-1, respectively, the lowest (pConclusion: The anticonvulsant activity of nifedipine suggests that possibly due to antagonistic effect on voltage-dependent calcium channel.

  18. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakvis, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Giltay, E.J.; Kuyk, J.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Roelofs, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol.

  19. Mutations in antiquitin in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, P.B.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Plecko, B.; Baxter, P.; Baumgartner, M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Omran, H.; Tacke, U.; Uhlenberg, B.; Weschke, B.; Clayton, P.T.

    2006-01-01

    We show here that children with pyridoxine-dependent seizures (PDS) have mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin; these mutations abolish the activity of antiquitin as a delta1-piperideine-6-carboxylate (P6C)-alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA) dehydrogenase. The accumulating

  20. Detection of tonic epileptic seizures based on surface electromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sigge N.; Conradsen, Isa; Beniczky, Sandor;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design an algorithm for detection of tonic seizures based on surface electromyography signals from the deltoids. A successful algorithm has a future prospect of being implemented in a wearable device as part of an alarm system. This has already been done...