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Sample records for alcohol withdrawal delirium

  1. Alcohol withdrawal delirium manifested by manic symptoms in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hung-Yu; Lee, Kuan-I

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a commonly seen problem in psychiatric practice. Alcohol withdrawal delirium is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Withdrawal symptoms usually include tremulousness, psychotic and perceptual symptoms, seizures, and consciousness disturbance. Herein, we report a case involving a 63-year-old man who had alcohol withdrawal delirium that was manifested mainly by manic symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2014 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  2. [Psychotic experiences in the course of alcohol withdrawal symptoms: locus of control among patients with and without delirium and analysis of subjective experiences in delirium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoszka, Andrzej; Laskowska, Marta; Mikuła, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of the locus of control in groups of patients hospitalised due to alcohol withdrawal with and without delirium and analysis of psychotic experiences of patients with delirium. 25 patients with alcohol withdrawal with delirium and 25 without delirium took part in the study. They filled-in the Internal-External (I-E) Locus of Control Scale by Rotter; Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale; the group with delirium also did the Psychopathological Symptoms Inventory, by Bizoń et al. The mean score in I-E Locus of Control Scale in the group with delirium was more external than in the group without delirium (M = 13.28; SD = 2.762 versus M = 11.64; SD = 2.612; t(48) = -2.157; p = 0.036). Group with delirium had also lower mean score in the dimension of internal control in MHLC, than the group without delirium (M = 24.8; SD = 6.149 versus M = 26.8; SD = 4.648; t(48) = 1.99; p = 0.04). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the other subscales. The auditory and visual hallucinations were most common among patients with delirium (84%, 80% respectively, as well as delusions of taking part in not existing events (92%) and persecutory delusions (80%). Psychotic experiences influenced behaviour in nearly 50% of the cases. A more external locus of control may be one of the factors contributing to the development of alcohol delirium. The content of psychotic experiences seems to have impact on the behaviour of many patients with alcohol delirium.

  3. Delirium tremens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms. Delirium tremens is an emergency condition. If you go ... use of alcohol. Get prompt medical treatment for symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Alternative Names Alcohol abuse - delirium tremens; DTs; Alcohol withdrawal - delirium tremens; Alcohol withdrawal ...

  4. Use of propofol infusion in alcohol withdrawal-induced refractory delirium tremens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Kristian; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Bendtsen, Asger Ole

    2014-01-01

    in case reports. We aimed to evaluate the treatment of delirium tremens with propofol infusion for 48 h. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis of 15 patient journals covering the period from May 2012 to September 2013. RESULTS: Five women and ten men were...... and mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit. The mean propofol infusion rate was 4.22 mg/kg/h. Thirteen patients received supplemental infusion of opioids, whereas seven required concomitant vasopressor infusion. Once propofol infusion was discontinued after 48 h, 12 patients had a long awakening...

  5. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  6. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  7. Delirium and High Creatine Kinase and Myoglobin Levels Related to Synthetic Cannabinoid Withdrawal

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    Ahmet Bulent Yazici

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2–100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors. Previous studies on alcohol delirium cases suggested that elevated creatine kinase (CK can be a marker of progress. This study reports delirium and high serum CK levels related to SC withdrawal and offers a treatment with benzodiazepine for them. We described two cases treated in our inpatient clinic about SC withdrawal with increase of serum CK level and other laboratory parameters. One of them demonstrated delirium symptoms and the other did not with early rapid treatment.

  8. The Treatment of Clozapine-Withdrawal Delirium with Electroconvulsive Therapy

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    Anish Modak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic, can precipitate a severe withdrawal syndrome. In this report, we describe a case of delirium with catatonic features emerging after the immediate cessation of clozapine subsequent to concerns of developing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. After multiple treatments were found to be inefficacious, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT was initiated, resulting in significant improvement. A literature search revealed six previous cases of clozapine-withdrawal syndromes of varied symptomatology treated with ECT. To our knowledge, the present case represents the first reported clozapine-withdrawal delirium treated successfully with ECT.

  9. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  10. Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seizure disorder. Electrocardiography (ECG), pulse oximetry (using a sensor that measures oxygen levels in the blood), and ... electrolytes given intravenously, and delirium due to stopping alcohol with benzodiazepines (as well as measures to help ...

  11. Acute coronary ischemia during alcohol withdrawal: a case report

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    Sriram Ganeshalingam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists.

  12. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  13. A rare case of complicated opioid withdrawal in delirium without convulsions

    OpenAIRE

    B Neeraj Raj; N Manamohan; Divya Hegde; Chandrashekar B Huded; Johnson Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Opioids are one of the commonly abused substances in India. Opioid withdrawal symptoms classically include severe muscle cramps, bone aches, autonomic symptoms, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, and temperature dysregulation. However, reports of cases with delirium during withdrawal are few. A 25-year-old male with severe opioid withdrawal symptoms developed delirium. Investigations were normal. There were no comorbidities, no significant past history and family history. Patient treated for op...

  14. A Case Report of Severe Delirium after Amantadine Withdrawal

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    Franz Marxreiter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Amantadine is frequently used in addition to dopaminergic substances like dopamine agonists or L-Dopa in advanced Parkinson disease (PD. However, adverse effects like hallucinations limit its use. PD patients developing severe psychotic symptoms upon treatment with either dopaminergic substances and/or amantadine need to stop intake of any psychotropic substance. Here, we report the case of a 71-year-old PD patient without previously known cognitive impairment. He presented with drug-induced psychotic symptoms due to changes in his therapeutic regimen (increase in COMT inhibitors, newly introduced MAO B inhibitors. Also, amantadine had been part of his long-term medication for more than 2 years. The severity of his psychotic symptoms required a L-Dopa monotherapy. After changing his medication, the patient developed severe delirium that resolved rapidly after i.v. amantadine infusion, suggesting an amantadine withdrawal syndrome. Amantadine withdrawal syndrome is a rare adverse event that may present even in PD patients without cognitive impairment. This case report highlights the need for a gradual withdrawal of amantadine even if acute and severe psychotic symptoms are present. Moreover, this is the first report of a cognitively unimpaired patient developing an amantadine withdrawal syndrome.

  15. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delirium is a condition that features rapidly changing mental states. It causes confusion and changes in behavior. ... Emotion Muscle control Sleeping and waking Causes of delirium include medications, poisoning, serious illnesses or infections, and ...

  17. Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-Paediatric Delirium scale: A tool for early screening of delirium in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Erwin; Te Beest, Harma; van Rosmalen, Joost; de Hoog, Matthijs; Tibboel, Dick; van Beusekom, Babette; van Dijk, Monique

    2017-08-23

    Delirium in critically ill children is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has gained increased attention from clinicians. Early identification of delirium is essential for successful management. The Sophia Observation withdrawal Symptoms-Paediatric Delirium (SOS-PD) scale was developed to detect Paediatric Delirium (PD) at an early stage. The aim of this study was to determine the measurement properties of the PD component of the SOS-PD scale in critically ill children. A prospective, observational study was performed in patients aged 3 months or older and admitted for more than 48h. These patients were assessed with the SOS-PD scale three times a day. If the SOS-PD total score was 4 or higher in two consecutive observations, the child psychiatrist was consulted to assess the diagnosis of PD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria as the "gold standard". The child psychiatrist was blinded to outcomes of the SOS-PD. The interrater reliability of the SOS-PD between the care-giving nurse and a researcher was calculated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). A total of 2088 assessments were performed in 146 children (median age 49 months; IQR 13-140). The ICC of 16 paired nurse-researcher observations was 0.90 (95% CI 0.70-0.96). We compared 63 diagnoses of the child psychiatrist versus SOS-PD assessments in 14 patients, in 13 of whom the diagnosis of PD was confirmed. The sensitivity was 96.8% (95% CI 80.4-99.5%) and the specificity was 92.0% (95% CI 59.7-98.9%). The SOS-PD scale shows promising validity for early screening of PD. Further evidence should be obtained from an international multicentre study. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

  19. Differentiating Delirium From Sedative/Hypnotic-Related Iatrogenic Withdrawal Syndrome: Lack of Specificity in Pediatric Critical Care Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kate; Burns, Michele M; Tasker, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    To identify available assessment tools for sedative/hypnotic iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in PICU patients, the evidence supporting their use, and describe areas of overlap between the components of these tools and the symptoms of anticholinergic burden in children. Studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE from the earliest available date until July 3, 2016, using a combination of MeSH terms "delirium," "substance withdrawal syndrome," and key words "opioids," "benzodiazepines," "critical illness," "ICU," and "intensive care." Review article references were also searched. Human studies reporting assessment of delirium or iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome in children 0-18 years undergoing critical care. Non-English language, exclusively adult, and neonatal intensive care studies were excluded. References cataloged by study type, population, and screening process. Iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium are both prevalent in the PICU population. Commonly used scales for delirium and iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome assess signs and symptoms in the motor, behavior, and state domains, and exhibit considerable overlap. In addition, signs and symptoms of an anticholinergic toxidrome (a risk associated with some common PICU medications) overlap with components of these scales, specifically in motor, cardiovascular, and psychiatric domains. Although important studies have demonstrated apparent high prevalence of iatrogenic withdrawal syndrome and delirium in the PICU population, the overlap in these scoring systems presents potential difficulty in distinguishing syndromes, both clinically and for research purposes.

  20. Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid changes in brain function that occur with physical or mental illness. ... Delirium is most often caused by physical or mental illness, and is ... Often, these do not allow the brain to get oxygen or other ...

  1. Sindrome confusional agudo por abstinencia aguda de nicotina Delirium due to acute nicotine withdrawal

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    Manuel Klein

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome confusional agudo (SCA o delirium en pacientes hospitalizados es un problema frecuente y grave. Se caracteriza por síntomas de comienzo agudo y curso fluctuante con inatención, pensamiento desorganizado, y con distintos niveles de alteración de la conciencia.En la bibliografía consultada, el SCA como manifestación de un síndrome de abstinencia aguda nicotínica fue descripto en solo ocho casos. Presentamos el caso de un tabaquista grave que, internado por una reagudización de su enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC, presentó un cuadro de SCA al tercer día de abstinencia tabacal, cediendo los síntomas tras la administración de un parche de nicotina. Lo descripto sugiere que en pacientes internados que presentan SCA y agitación, con fuertes antecedentes de tabaquismo, un simple ensayo con un parche de nicotina puede ofrecer en pocas horas una notable respuesta terapéutica y a su vez un test confirmatorio. El reconocimiento del SCA como forma de presentación de la abstinencia nicotínica permitirá identificar casos habitualmente complejos en los que se podrá implementar una sencilla y eficaz alternativa terapéutica.Delirium or acute confusional state among hospitalized patients is a frequent and serious problem. It is characterized by acute onset symptoms, fluctuating course, impaired attention, unorganized thinking, and altered level of conciousness. Delirium, as a manifestation of acute nicotine withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the reviewed literature only in eight cases. We report the case of a heavy smoker admitted because of a reagudization of his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. At the third day of nicotine abstinence, he developed delirium with a rapid improvement of his symptoms after treatment with a transdermal nicotine patch. This description suggests that in hospitalized heavy smokers who develop delirium with agitation, a simple trial with a nicotine patch can offer a dramatic

  2. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  3. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel alcohol...

  4. Recent advances in alcohol withdrawal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, M J

    1977-11-26

    Recent advances in alcohol withdrawal states are described. New concepts of classification, the development of the syndrome and its management are outlined. In the light of recent research, more optimistic results for this much maligned but common condition may be achieved.

  5. Evaluation of Ashwagandha in alcohol withdrawal syndrome

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    Ruby B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of Ashwagandha (ASW in attenuation of alcohol withdrawal in ethanol withdrawal mice model. Methods: Alcohol dependence was induced in mice by the oral, once-daily administration of 10% v/v ethanol (2 g/kg for one week. Once the animals were withdrawn from alcohol, the efficacy of ASW (200mg/kg and 500mg/kg in comparison with diazepam (1 mg/kg in the attenuation of withdrawal was studied using, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ kindling test for seizure threshold, forced swim test (FST for depression and locomotor activity (LCA in open field test (OFT. 6 hours after the last ethanol administration, seizure threshold was measured in all the groups by administering the convulsant drug, PTZ with a subconvulsive dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. In FST, mice were forced to swim and the total duration of immobility (seconds was measured during the last 4 min of a single 6-min test session. In OFT, number of crossings of the lines marked on the floor was recorded for a period of 5 min. Results: Compared to ethanol group, ASW (500 mg/Kg has suppressed the PTZ kindling seizures in ethanol withdrawal animals [0% convulsion], FST has shown decreased immobility time and OFT has exhibited increase in the number of line crossing activity by mice which may be the consequence of anxiolytic activity of ASW similar to that of diazepam. Conclusions: The present study provides satisfactory evidence to use ASW as a safe and reliable alternative to diazepam in alcohol withdrawal conditions.

  6. Cerebral blood flow during delirium tremens and related clinical states studied with xenon-133 inhalation tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Vorstrup, S.; Clemmesen, L.; Holm, S.; Tfelt-Hansen, P.; Sorensen, A.S.; Hansen, C.; Sommer, W.; Bolwig, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The regional cerebral blood flow of 12 patients with severe alcohol withdrawal reactions (delirium tremens or impending delirium tremens) was measured during the acute state before treatment and after recovery. Greater cerebral blood flow was significantly correlated with visual hallucinations and agitation during the acute withdrawal reaction. The results suggest that delirium tremens and related clinical states represent a type of acute brain syndrome mainly characterized by CNS hyperexcitability

  7. Clinical Evolution of Central Pontine Myelinolysis in a Patient with Alcohol Withdrawal: A Blurred Clinical Horizon

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    Abdul S. Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM, a potentially fatal and debilitating neurological condition, was first described in 1959 in a study on alcoholic and malnourished patients. It is a condition most frequently related to rapid correction of hyponatremia. Chronic alcoholism associated CPM tends to be benign with a favorable prognosis compared to CPM secondary to rapid correction of hyponatremia. We describe a normonatremic, alcoholic patient who presented with CPM after a rapid rise in his sodium levels. Our case illustrates the fact that CPM can manifest even in patients who are normonatremic at baseline. Rapid rises in sodium levels should be promptly reversed before clinical symptoms manifest in patient with risk factors for CPM irrespective of their baseline sodium levels. Furthermore, clinical evolution of CPM can be difficult to discern from the natural course of alcohol withdrawal delirium, requiring astuteness and maintenance of a high degree of clinical suspicion on the part of the physician.

  8. [Delirium in patients with neurological diseases: diagnosis, management and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, K; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is a common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome. It is characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness and attention, perception, reasoning, memory, emotionality, the sleep-wake cycle as well as psychomotor symptoms. Delirium caused by alcohol or medication withdrawal is not the subject of the current review. Specific predisposing and precipitating factors have been identified in delirium which converge in a common final pathway of global brain dysfunction. The major predisposing factors are older age, cognitive impairment or dementia, sensory deficits, multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Delirium is always caused by one or more underlying pathologies which need to be identified. In neurology both primary triggers of delirium, such as stroke or epileptic seizures and also secondary triggers, such as metabolic factors or medication side effects play a major role. Nonpharmacological interventions are important in the prevention of delirium and lead to an improvement in prognosis. Delirium is associated with increased mortality and in the long term the development of cognitive deficits and functional impairment.

  9. [Comparison of Two Symptom-Triggered Treatments for Alcohol Withdrawal: HAES vs. SAB-P].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzbach, R; Ihlow, C; Takla, T; Kemper, U; Naber, D

    2016-02-01

    For alcohol withdrawal during hospitalization, often a medication as means for withdrawal needs to be chosen. Modern, score-controlled processes that can be used by the nursing staff after instruction by physicians are frequently not used and even unknown in hospitals. One reason for this is that some of the scores require checking several criteria and are therefore more time-consuming and complicated than use of a fixed-dosage strategy. The SAB-P and HAES are short with only 6 items that can be checked by the nursing staff. Safety of the Hamburg Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (Hamburger Alkoholentzugs-Skala (HAES)) was analyzed retrospectively and prospectively with regard to score-controlled alcohol-withdrawal treatment after rating by the nurse staff (Scoregesteuerte Alkoholentzugsbehandlung nach Rating durch das Pflegepersonal (SAB-P)). Incidence of complications in patients treated with SAB-P and HAES was nearly similar with 1% start of delirium and 3% seizures (SAB-P) and 0.5 to 1.5% start of delirium and 0 to 0.5% seizures in the HAES group. With both scales it was possible to start medical treatment while still under falling alcohol levels (0.93 and 0.91%, respectively). Medication dosage was initially higher using the HAES, so that the time needed to monitor withdrawal symptoms could be reduced (3.8 vs. 3.1 days). Using a score-controlled strategy for alcohol withdrawal leads to a lower complication rate than found in literature. The structured procedure was helpful for the nursing staff as well as for the physicians. SAB-P as well as HAES made withdrawal for the patients more comfortable and led to fewer complaints. Because of rapid reaction and faster symptom reduction of HAES, there was less time necessary for monitoring. Simple handling, clomethiazol, oxazepam or diazepam as applicable medication and clear documentation are the advantages of HAES. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Alcohol withdrawal syndrome dynamics during treatment with nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Buzik, O Zh; Rychkova, O V; Smyshlyaev, A V; Rumbesht, V V

    2018-01-01

    To study the efficacy of nooclerin (deanoli aceglumas) in alcohol withdrawal syndrome assessed by clinical and biochemical characteristics. A multicenter, open, randomized, comparative study of nooclerin in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome included 90 patients. The patients were randomized into nooclerin group (n=55) and control group (n=35). Nooclerin reduced alcohol withdrawal symptoms more significantly throughout the whole study period. There were significant between-group differences on the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale (CIWA-Ar) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (МFI-20). However, patients exhibited no excessive activity. No adverse side-effects were observed.

  11. Radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, T.

    1975-01-01

    Functional changes found in radiohippuran renography in chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes (n=82; AAWS) regressed to normal values with recovery from AAWS (during 4 days on the average) with the exception of the secretory value which increased to a maximum on the 7th day of observation, remaining approximately unchanged for the following 3 days and decreasing more gradually to a normal value on the 23rd day of observation. In various forms of AAWS the same functional changes in the radiohippuran renogram were observed. (author)

  12. Use of propofol as adjuvant therapy in refractory delirium tremens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Mahajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium tremens is recognized as a potentially fatal and debilitating complication of alcohol withdrawal. Use of sedatives, particularly benzodiazepines, is the cornerstone of therapy for delirium tremens. But sometimes, very heavy doses of benzodiazepines are required to control delirious symptoms. We are reporting one such case of delirium tremens, which required very heavy doses of benzodiazepines and was ultimately controlled by using infusion of propofol. Thus propofol should always be considered as an option to treat patients with resistant delirium tremens.

  13. Ketogenic Diet suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-01-01

    , we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diets were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were...... maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. RESULTS: Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms 'rigidity' and 'irritability'. CONCLUSION: Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic...... diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  14. Gut microbiota modulates alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Wen; Ge, Chang; Feng, Guo-Xing; Li, Yuan; Luo, Dan; Dong, Jia-Li; Li, Hang; Wang, Haichao; Cui, Ming; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2018-05-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption remains a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Accumulative experimental evidence has suggested an important involvement of gut microbiota in the modulation of host's immunological and neurological functions. However, it is previously unknown whether enteric microbiota is implicated in the formation of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using a murine model of chronic alcoholism and withdrawal, we examined the impact of alcohol consumption on the possible alterations of gut microbiota as well as alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and behavior changes. The 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that alcohol consumption did not alter the abundance of bacteria, but markedly changed the composition of gut microbiota. Moreover, the transplantation of enteric microbes from alcohol-fed mice to normal healthy controls remarkably shaped the composition of gut bacteria, and elicited behavioral signs of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we further confirmed that the expression of genes implicated in alcohol addiction, BDNF, CRHR1 and OPRM1, was also altered by transplantation of gut microbes from alcohol-exposed donors. Collectively, our findings suggested a possibility that the alterations of gut microbiota composition might contribute to the development of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety, and reveal potentially new etiologies for treating alcohol addiction. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A case of mistaken identity: alcohol withdrawal, schizophrenia, or central pontine myelinolysis?

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    Schneider P

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Schneider1, Vicki A Nejtek2,3, Cheryl Hurd2,31Green Oaks Behavioral Health Care Services, Dallas, 2University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, 3John Peter Smith Health Network, Fort Worth, Texas, USAAbstract: Demyelination is a hallmark of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of this condition include weakness, quadriplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, mood changes, psychosis, and cognitive disturbances. These psychiatric symptoms are also associated with schizophrenia and alcohol withdrawal. Thus, it is clinically relevant to differentiate between CPM, schizophrenia, and alcohol withdrawal as the treatment and prognostic outcomes for each diagnosis are distinct. We present a series of events that led to a misdiagnosis of a patient admitted to the medical emergency center presenting with confusion, psychomotor agitation, and delirium who was first diagnosed with schizophrenia and alcohol withdrawal by emergency medical physicians and later discovered by the psychiatric consult team to have CPM. With a thorough psychiatric evaluation, a review of the laboratory results first showing mild hyponatremia (127 mmol/L, subsequent hypernatremia (154 mmol/L, and magnetic resonance brain imaging, psychiatrists concluded that CPM was the primary diagnosis underlying the observed neuropsychopathology. This patient has mild impairments in mood, cognition, and motor skills that remain 12 months after her emergency-center admission. This case report reminds emergency clinicians that abnormal sodium metabolism can have long-term and devastating psychopathological and neurological consequences. Differentiating between CPM, schizophrenia, and alcohol withdrawal using neuroimaging techniques and preventing the risks for CPM using slow sodium correction are paramount.Keywords: MRI, alcohol, schizophrenia, central pontine myelinolysis, hyponatremia

  16. Delirium in the course of dependence upon gamma-butyrolactone (GBL - a case report

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    Łobejko Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL is an organic chemical compound of the lactones group, undergoing biotransformation into gamma-hydroxybutyrate after the intake (GHB. Because of the easy access, low price and fast psychotropic effect, GBL is becoming increasingly popular substance having intoxicating effect. Taking of GBL causes dose-dependent euphoric, sedative, hypnotic effects. Its use can quickly lead to physical dependence with severe course of withdrawal syndromes. Withdrawal symptoms resemble those occurring in the course of addiction to alcohol or benzodiazepines. In some patients, delirium develops during substance withdrawal. There are described severe, life-threatening complications in the course of delirium in GBL-dependent patients. The management of withdrawal syndromes and delirium mainly involves administration of benzodiazepines. In this paper, we present a case of delirium in 24-year-old man addicted to GBL hospitalized in a psychiatric ward. Delirium in this patient went without complications and was successfully managed with diazepam and lorazepam.

  17. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  18. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option......, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. METHODS: The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol...... withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: A total...

  19. Genetic polymorphisms related to delirium tremens: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Levi, Marcel; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium tremens (DT) is one of the more severe complications of alcohol withdrawal (AW), with a 5 to 10% lifetime risk for alcohol-dependent patients. The 2 most important neurosystems involved in AW are gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate. It is unknown whether these neurosystems are

  20. Comparison of Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Patients Treated with Benzodiazepines Alone versus Adjunctive Phenobarbital: a Retrospective Cohort Study

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    Lauren Z. Gashlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: For treatment of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome, high dose benzodiazepines (BZDs may cause delirium and over-sedation. Phenobarbital (PBT is a long-acting barbiturate effective for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Given the potential benefits of PBT, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of PBT as adjunctive treatment for alcohol withdrawal. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with a diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal who had a CIWA-Ar score > 10 treated with either BZDs alone (BZD alone group or BZDs with adjunctive PBT (PBT-adjunct group. The patients received at least one dose of PBT in addition to BZDs (variable doses in the PBT-adjunct group, and three doses of 20 mg diazepam equivalents within 6 hours in the BZD alone group. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a CIWA-Ar score < 10 at 24 hours after initial treatment. Duration of withdrawal and cumulative dose of BZDs were also assessed. Results: Seven subjects in the adjunctive phenobarbital and 21 in the benzodiazepine group were included in the final analysis. Two patients (28.6% in the PBT-adjunct group and 5 patients (23.8% in the BZD only group achieved the primary endpoint, though the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.588. The median (IQR duration of withdrawal symptoms was 44 (12-62 hours in the PBT-adjunct group compared to 53 (37-87 hours in the BZD only group, with no significant difference between the groups (P = 0.249. The median (IQR cumulative BZD dose requirement (diazepam equivalent in the PBT-adjunct group was significantly lower than BZD alone group (25 (20-226 vs. 326 (160-550 mg, P = 0.02. Conclusion: PBT appears to be a safe and effective alternative to BZDs for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal in non-critically ill patients and may be BZD sparing.

  1. Phenobarbital versus diazepam for delirium tremens--a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermø, Ida; Anderson, John Erik; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Delirium tremens (DT) is a severe and potentially fatal condition that may occur during withdrawal from chronic alcohol intoxication. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects and the rates of complications of phenobarbital and diazepam treatment in DT.......Delirium tremens (DT) is a severe and potentially fatal condition that may occur during withdrawal from chronic alcohol intoxication. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects and the rates of complications of phenobarbital and diazepam treatment in DT....

  2. Ketogenic Diet Suppresses Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Ditte; Molander, Anna; Thomsen, Morgane; Schlumberger, Chantal; Wortwein, Gitta; Weikop, Pia; Benveniste, Helene; Volkow, Nora D; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder is underdiagnosed and undertreated, and up to 50% of alcohol-abstinent patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence relapse within the first year of treatment. Current treatments for the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in patients with alcohol use disorder have limited efficacy, and there is an urgent need for novel treatment strategies. Decreased cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain uptake of acetate were recently reported in heavy drinkers, relative to controls. Given the switch of metabolic fuel from glucose to acetate in the alcohol-dependent brain, we investigated the potential therapeutic benefit of a ketogenic diet in managing alcohol withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Male Sprague Dawley rats fed either ketogenic or regular diet were administered ethanol or water orally, twice daily for 6 days while the diet conditions were maintained. Abstinence symptoms were rated 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the last alcohol administration. Maintenance on a ketogenic diet caused a significant decrease in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms' "rigidity" and "irritability." Our preclinical pilot study suggests that a ketogenic diet may be a novel approach for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, François; Oez, Suzan; Stähli, Peter; Brenner, Hans Dieter; Jüni, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous trials on acupuncture in alcohol addiction were in outpatients and focused on relapse prevention. Rates of dropout were high and interpretation of results difficult. We compared auricular laser and needle acupuncture with sham laser stimulation in reducing the duration of alcohol withdrawal. Inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal were randomly allocated to laser acupuncture (n = 17), needle acupuncture (n = 15) or sham laser stimulation (n = 16). Attempts were made to blind patients, therapists and outcome assessors, but this was not feasible for needle acupuncture. The duration of withdrawal symptoms (as assessed using a nurse-rated scale) was the primary outcome; the duration of sedative prescription was the secondary outcome. Patients randomized to laser and sham laser had identical withdrawal symptom durations (median 4 days). Patients randomized to needle stimulation had a shorter duration of withdrawal symptoms (median 3 days; P = 0.019 versus sham intervention), and tended to have a shorter duration of sedative use, but these differences diminished after adjustment for baseline differences. The data from this pilot trial do not suggest a relevant benefit of auricular laser acupuncture for alcohol withdrawal. A larger trial including adequate sham interventions is needed, however, to reliably determine the effectiveness of any type of auricular acupuncture in this condition.

  4. Evolution of Metabolic Abnormalities in Alcoholic Patients during Withdrawal

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    X. Vandemergel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intoxication is accompanied by metabolic abnormalities. Evolution during the early withdrawal period has been poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of metabolic parameters during alcohol withdrawal. Patients and Methods. Thirty-three patients admitted in our department for alcohol withdrawal were prospectively included. Results. Baseline hypophosphatemia was found in 24% of cases. FEPO4 was reduced from 14.2 ± 9% at baseline to 7.3 ± 4.2% at day 3 (Pnl, respectively. No correlation was found between the sodium and CPK levels (P=0.75 nor between the CPK level and the amount of alcohol ingested (rs = 0.084, P=0.097. Baseline urate level was elevated and returned to normal after three days. Baseline magnesium concentration was normal and stable over time. Conclusion. Chronic alcohol intoxication was accompanied by phosphaturia, rapidly reversible after alcohol withdrawal and inversely correlated with albuminemia, slight hyponatremia, low levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D, elevated CPK level in about 30% of women, and hyperuricemia with rapid normalization.

  5. Psychosocial withdrawal characteristics of nicotine compared with alcohol and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hisatsugu; Hironaka, Naoyuki; Takada, Kohji; Miyasato, Katsumasa; Nakamura, Koichi; Yanagita, Tomoji

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the psychosocial characteristics of withdrawal from cigarette smoking in comparison with those from caffeine (CAF) and alcoholic (ALC) beverage withdrawal. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers at a medial level of dependence on both cigarettes (nicotine, NCT) and either CAF or ALC, as judged by the DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, participated in this study. The participants were required to abstain from smoking and either CAF or ALC for 7 days, each one after another, with a 7-day interval. The order of abstinence was counterbalanced among the participants. Psychosocial parameters, including a desire for substances, social activity function, well-being, withdrawal symptoms, and vital signs, were assessed during the withdrawal periods. The study protocol was approved by the Jikei University Review Board. The results indicated that there were no differences in the maximum level of desire for a substance and the influence on social activity function between NCT and other substances during the withdrawal periods. As for withdrawal symptoms, NCT caused a more intensive degree of irritability than CAF or ALC, and a more intensive degree of difficulty concentrating and restlessness than did withdrawal from ALC. However, the subjective well-being questionnaire indicated no differences in these symptoms between NCT and other substances. The present results suggest that there are no significant differences in psychosocial manifestations regarding the difficulty in abstaining from NCT, CAF, and ALC.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF DELIRIUM

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    Helena Korošec Jagodič

    2009-09-01

    Conclusions Most recommendations for management of delirium are based on the nonpharmacological supportive care and prevention of delirium. It is also necessary to identify and treat the underlying causes. Antipsychotics are the mainstay of symptomatic pharmacological treatment and have been shown to be effective in treating symptoms of both hyperactive and hypoactive delirium. Although efficacy rates between typical and atypical antipsychotic agents are similar, the later are associated with fewer extrapyramidal side effects. Benzodiazepines are usually preferred for withdrawal delirium or as an alternative or adjuvant to antipsychotics when these are ineffective or cause unacceptable side effects.

  7. Some aspects of hemodynamic disorders in patients with severe withdrawal syndrome

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    A. I. Gozhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension - the most common cardiovascular syndrome in many countries of the world. Up to 40-50% of the adult population of economically developed countries has an arterial pressure in excess of 140/90 mm Hg. Art. The author discusses the results of research conducted in 2010 -2012 inthe department of resuscitation and intensive care of theChernivtsiRegionalPsychiatric Hospital. 40 patients were examined: Group 1 - 20 patients diagnosed with withdrawal due to delirium alcohol. The results indicate significant hemodynamic disturbances in patients with withdrawal due to the use of delirium alcohol and patients with threatened delirium during hospitalization.

  8. The craving withdrawal model for alcoholism: Towards the DSM-V Improving the discriminant validity of alcohol use disorder diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the discriminant validity of the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 classification of alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an alternative classification, the craving withdrawal model (CWM). CWM requires craving and withdrawal for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence and raises the alcohol abuse

  9. Excited delirium: Consideration of selected medical and psychiatric issues

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    Edith Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Edith Samuel1, Robert B Williams1, Richard B Ferrell21Department of Psychology, Atlantic Baptist University, Moncton, New Brunswick Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: Excited delirium, sometimes referred to as agitated or excited delirium, is the label assigned to the state of acute behavioral disinhibition manifested in a cluster of behaviors that may include bizarreness, aggressiveness, agitation, ranting, hyperactivity, paranoia, panic, violence, public disturbance, surprising physical strength, profuse sweating due to hyperthermia, respiratory arrest, and death. Excited delirium is reported to result from substance intoxication, psychiatric illness, alcohol withdrawal, head trauma, or a combination of these. This communication reviews the history of the origins of excited delirium, selected research related to its causes, symptoms, management, and the links noted between it and selected medical and psychiatric conditions. Excited delirium involves behavioral and physical symptoms that are also observed in medical and psychiatric conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and catatonia. A useful contribution of this communication is that it links the state of excited delirium to conditions for which there are known and effective medical and psychiatric interventions.Keywords: excited delirium, excited states, cocaine misuse, restraint or in custody deaths

  10. Anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Christopher J; Niciu, Mark J; Drew, Shannon; Arias, Albert J

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholic patients suffer from harmful allostatic neuroplastic changes in the brain causing an acute withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of drinking followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome and an increased risk of relapse to heavy drinking. Benzodiazepines have long been the treatment of choice for detoxifying patients and managing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Non-benzodiazepine anticonvulsants (NBACs) are increasingly being used both for alcohol withdrawal management and for ongoing outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence, with the goal of either abstinence or harm reduction. This expert narrative review summarizes the scientific basis and clinical evidence supporting the use of NBACs in treating AWS and for reducing harmful drinking patterns. There is less evidence in support of NBAC therapy for AWS, with few placebo-controlled trials. Carbamazepine and gabapentin appear to be the most promising adjunctive treatments for AWS, and they may be useful as monotherapy in select cases, especially in outpatient settings and for the treatment of mild-to-moderate low-risk patients with the AWS. The body of evidence supporting the use of the NBACs for reducing harmful drinking in the outpatient setting is stronger. Topiramate appears to have a robust effect on reducing harmful drinking in alcoholics. Gabapentin is a potentially efficacious treatment for reducing the risk of relapse to harmful drinking patterns in outpatient management of alcoholism. Gabapentin's ease of use, rapid titration, good tolerability, and efficacy in both the withdrawal and chronic phases of treatment make it particularly appealing. In summary, several NBACs appear to be beneficial in treating AWS and alcohol use disorders.

  11. A Proactive Approach to High Risk Delirium Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Andres F; Post, Zachary D; Orozco, Fabio R; Lutz, Rex W; Ong, Alvin C

    2018-04-01

    Delirium is a common complication among elderly patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Its incidence has been reported from 4% to 53%. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services consider delirium following TJA a "never-event." The purpose of this study is to evaluate a simple perioperative protocol used to identify delirium risk patients and prevent its incidence following TJA. Our group developed a protocol to identify and prevent delirium in patients undergoing TJA. All patients were screened and scored in the preoperative assessment, on criteria such as age, history of forgetfulness, history of agitation or visual hallucinations, history of falls, history of postoperative confusion, and inability to perform higher brain functions. Patients were scored on performance in a simple mental examination. The patients were classified as low, medium, or high risk. Patients who were identified as high risk were enrolled in a delirium avoidance protocol that minimized narcotics and emphasized nursing involvement and fluids administration. Five of 7659 (0.065%) consecutive TJA patients from 2010 to 2015 developed delirium. A total of 422 patients were identified as high risk. All 5 patients who suffered delirium were within the high risk group. No low or medium risk patients suffered a delirium complication. Three (0.039%) patients suffered drug-induced delirium, 1 (0.013%) had delirium related to alcohol withdrawal, and 1 (0.013%) had delirium after a systemic infection. This protocol is effective in identifying patients at high delirium risk and diminishing the incidence of this complication by utilizing a simple screening tool and perioperative protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms

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    Marianna E. Jung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2, interferes with the EW-induced alteration of oxidative signaling pathways and thereby protects neurons, mitochondria, and behaviors. The current review attempts to provide integrated information at the levels of oxidative signaling mechanisms by which EW provokes brain injuries and E2 protects against it. Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17

  13. Combining the audit questionnaire and biochemical markers to assess alcohol use and risk of alcohol withdrawal in medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Jonathan M; Hawkes, Neil D

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often under-reported in patients admitted to general hospitals with acute illness. For alcohol-dependent individuals hospital admission results in an enforced period of abstinence with potential alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and possible life threatening complications. Early detection of alcohol use is therefore beneficial to patients and health services. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire in the acute medical setting, and the effect of combining routine biological markers-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) on its performance in the early identification of in-patients with alcohol use disorders and at risk of developing symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Prospective study in consecutive patients admitted to an acute medical admissions ward. All patients were screened using the AUDIT questionnaire and routine blood tests. Patients were then monitored for symptoms of withdrawal using clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar). Of the 874 patients screened using the AUDIT, 98 (11%) screened positive of whom 17 (2% of the 874) experienced clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms, when using serial CIWA-Ar. The AUDIT and serial CIWA-Ar detected all patients who went on to manifest acute withdrawal symptoms. There was no loss of sensitivity at an AUDIT cut-off of 13 or more compared with the lower cut-off of 8 or more. A positive predictive value of 17.3% for an AUDIT score of 8 or more in the detection of withdrawal, increased to 47.1% when found in combination with at least two abnormal biological markers whilst maintaining a sensitivity of 94.1% and specificity of 97.9%. These findings confirm that AUDIT is a useful alcohol screen in general medical settings and that its ability to correctly predict which patients will experience alcohol withdrawal is

  14. Social transfer of alcohol withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia in female prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Andre T; Smith, Monique L; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2018-03-27

    The expression of pain serves as a way for animals to communicate potential dangers to nearby conspecifics. Recent research demonstrated that mice undergoing alcohol or morphine withdrawal, or inflammation, could socially communicate their hyperalgesia to nearby mice. However, it is unknown whether such social transfer of hyperalgesia can be observed in other species of rodents. Therefore, the present study investigated if the social transfer of hyperalgesia occurs in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). We observe that adult female prairie voles undergoing withdrawal from voluntary two-bottle choice alcohol drinking display an increase in nociception. This alcohol withdrawal-induced hypersensitiity is socially transferred to female siblings within the same cage and female strangers housed in separate cages within the same room. These experiments reveal that the social transfer of pain phenomenon is not specific to inbred mouse strains and that prairie voles display alcohol withdrawal and social transfer-induced hyperalgesia.

  15. Preparing Nursing and Social Work Students to Care for Patients in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Sharon A; Brown, James R

    Alcohol and other drug abuse has become a national crisis with approximately 26% of general medical patients having alcohol-related problems. New nurses and social workers are often not prepared to care for patients with severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms because they lack experience in actual crisis situations. The purpose of this study was to prepare nursing and social work students to care for a patient undergoing an acute alcohol withdrawal process. Nine groups of 8-10 students participated in a 2.5-hour simulation event that included an alcohol withdrawal seizure, team meeting, and discharge of the patient. Students recognized the importance of all the professional roles and how each professional benefits patient care. Before the simulation, students thought they were prepared to care for patients experiencing alcohol withdrawal; however, the crisis of an alcohol seizure decreased the student's ability to perform skills and communicate effectively. These findings suggest that new nurses and social workers may not be prepared to care for the acute alcohol withdrawal patient.

  16. Are Alcohol Anti-relapsing and Alcohol Withdrawal Drugs Useful in Cannabinoid Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczkowska, Patrycja; Smaga, Irena; Filip, Małgorzata; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Cannabinoids are still classified as illegal psychoactive drugs despite their broad and increasingly acknowledged therapeutic potential. These substances are most famous for their wide recreational use, particularly among young adults to either alter the state of consciousness, intensify pleasure induced by other psychoactive substances or as an alternative to the previously abused drugs. It is important to emphasize that cannabinoids are often taken together with a variety of medications intended for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). These medications include disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone. In this paper, we summarize recent advances in the knowledge of possible beneficial effects and interactions between cannabinoids and drugs commonly used for treatment of AUD and AWS either comorbid or existing as a separate disorder.

  17. Managing acute alcohol withdrawal with Homoeopathy: A prospective, observational, multicentre exploratory study

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    Debadatta Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependence is a common social problem which may be associated with other risk factors and co-morbidities. Abrupt cessation of alcohol intake may provoke an acute alcohol withdrawal phase with varying degrees of signs and symptoms. In conventional medical system, specific pharmacological interventions are used for management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal (AAW. There exists a need to explore safe and holistic treatment of AAW. The present work reports the results of a prospective, observational, exploratory, multicentre trial (2008-2011 to assess the role of Homoeopathy in AAW. Materials and Methods: Individualised Homoeopathy was given to 112 patients reporting with AAW. The clinical assessment was done for 05 days using Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment Scale of Alcohol-Revised (CIWA-Ar. Post-withdrawal phase, quality of life of patients was assessed at end of 01 st , 03 rd and 06 th month using World Health Organisation quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF. Results and Analysis: There was a significant decrease in CIWA-Ar mean scores and increase in quality of life score (P < 0.001. The most common remedies used were Arsenicum album, Lycopodium clavatum, Belladonna, Nux vomica and Pulsatilla. Conclusion: The results of current observational pilot study suggest the promising use of Homoeopathy in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal. Further studies with large sample size and rigorous design are warranted.

  18. Phenobarbital for acute alcohol withdrawal: a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Jonathan; Clements, Carter; Simon, Barry; Vieaux, Jules; Graffman, Sarah; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Cisse, Bitou; Lam, Joseph; Alter, Harrison

    2013-03-01

    Acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AAWS) is encountered in patients presenting acutely to the Emergency Department (ED) and often requires pharmacologic management. We investigated whether a single dose of intravenous (i.v.) phenobarbital combined with a standardized lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol decreases intensive care unit (ICU) admission in ED patients with acute alcohol withdrawal. This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of i.v. phenobarbital (10 mg/kg in 100 mL normal saline) or placebo (100 mL normal saline). All patients were placed on the institutional symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol. The primary outcome was initial level of hospital admission (ICU vs. telemetry vs. floor ward). There were 198 patients enrolled in the study, and 102 met inclusion criteria for analysis. Fifty-one patients received phenobarbital and 51 received placebo. Baseline characteristics and severity were similar in both groups. Patients that received phenobarbital had fewer ICU admissions (8% vs. 25%, 95% confidence interval 4-32). There were no differences in adverse events. A single dose of i.v. phenobarbital combined with a symptom-guided lorazepam-based alcohol withdrawal protocol resulted in decreased ICU admission and did not cause increased adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Evaluation of selected socioeconomic factors in patients with acute ethanol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is commonly overused psychoactive substance in Poland and all around the world. It causes addiction, which occurs as a result of its chronic administration. One of the main symptoms of addiction is hunger due to psychoactive substance that prevents interruption of its adoption and contributes to relapse drinking. Acute poisoning with ethyl alcohol and alcohol withdrawal syndrome are diseases causing a potential danger to life. The prevalence of use and abuse of alcoholic beverages is a potential risk, causing health problems, including permanent damage of the central and peripheral nervous system and socio-economic problems. The aim of this study is to analyze certain aspects of the socio-economic situation of the patients hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome in 2010. 299 patients history was evaluated, among which 161 were treated for acute intoxication with ethanol and 138 due to alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Objects of interest were elements of subjective tests including: marital status of patients, their education and professional activity and the problem of homelessness. The study group consisted of 299 patients in age from 16 to 77 years, hospitalized in the Department of Toxicology in Raszeja City Hospital in Poznan due to acute ethanol intoxication or alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It was found that the largest group consisted of patients remaining married (42.81%) and unmarried (30.43%). Alcohol abuse affects people of all levels of education. In the present study, most patients had a vocational education (37.79%) and medium (23.08%). Patients were analyzed in terms of economic activity, among which about 40% were unemployed. In the whole group more than 10% of those were homeless. Ethyl alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal represents a significant hazard. As a result of reliance, patients lose control of alcohol consumption and they

  20. An alcohol withdrawal test battery measuring multiple behavioral symptoms in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metten, Pamela; Schlumbohm, Jason P; Huang, Lawrence C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hack, Wyatt R; Spence, Stephanie E; Crabbe, John C

    2018-05-01

    Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time. To permit eventual use of the battery in different strains of mice, we used male and female mice of a genetically heterogeneous stock developed from intercrossing eight inbred strains. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed using commonly used tests after administration of ethanol in vapor for 72 continuous hours. We found significant effects of ethanol withdrawal versus air-breathing controls on nearly all symptoms, spanning 4 days following ethanol vapor inhalation. Withdrawal produced hypothermia, greater neurohyperexcitability (seizures and tremor), anxiety-like behaviors using an apparatus (such as reduced transitions between light and dark compartments), anhedonia (reduced sucrose preference), Straub tail, backward walking, and reductions in activity; however, there were no changes in thermal pain sensitivity, hyper-reactivity to handling, or anxiety-like emergence behaviors in other apparatus. Using these data, we constructed a refined battery of withdrawal tests. Individual differences in severity of withdrawal among different tests were weakly correlated at best. This battery should be useful for identifying genetic influences on particular withdrawal behaviors, which should reflect the influences of different constellations of genes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Environmental enrichment may protect against neural and behavioural damage caused by withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Manoel Jorge

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use. The environmental enrichment (EE) has a protective effect on the neural and cognitive impairments induced by psychoactive drugs, including ethyl alcohol. The present study aims to determine the influence of withdrawal from intermittent long-term alcohol exposure on alcohol preference, emotional reactivity and neural aspects of early isolated or grouped reared rats kept under standard or complex environments and the influence of social isolation on these measures, as well. Our results point out new insights on this matter showing that the EE can attenuate the adverse effects of withdrawal and social isolation on rat's behavior. This effect is probably due to its protective action on the mPFC integrity, including the cingulate area 1 (Cg1), and the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic cortex (IL), what could account for the absence of changes in the emotional reactivity in EE alcohol withdrawal rats. We argue that morphological changes at these cortical levels can afford the emotional, cognitive and behavioural dysregulations verified following withdrawal from chronic alcohol intake. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Excitability of jcBNST neurons is reduced in alcohol-dependent animals during protracted alcohol withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szücs

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence and withdrawal has been shown to cause neuroadaptive changes at multiple levels of the nervous system. At the neuron level, adaptations of synaptic connections have been extensively studied in a number of brain areas and accumulating evidence also shows the importance of alcohol dependence-related changes in the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. At the same time, it is still largely unknown how such neural adaptations impact the firing and integrative properties of neurons. To address these problems, here, we analyze physiological properties of neurons in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST in animals with a history of alcohol dependence. As a comprehensive approach, first we measure passive and active membrane properties of neurons using conventional current clamp protocols and then analyze their firing responses under the action of simulated synaptic bombardment via dynamic clamp. We find that most physiological properties as measured by DC current injection are barely affected during protracted withdrawal. However, neuronal excitability as measured from firing responses under simulated synaptic inputs with the dynamic clamp is markedly reduced in all 3 types of jcBNST neurons. These results support the importance of studying the effects of alcohol and drugs of abuse on the firing properties of neurons with dynamic clamp protocols designed to bring the neurons into a high conductance state. Since the jcBNST integrates excitatory inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA and cortical inputs from the infralimbic and the insular cortices and in turn is believed to contribute to the inhibitory input to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA the reduced excitability of the jcBNST during protracted withdrawal in alcohol-dependent animals will likely affect ability of the jcBNST to shape the activity and output of the CeA.

  3. Distinct effects of protracted withdrawal on affect, craving, selective attention and executive functions among alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil De Sousa Uva, Mariana; Luminet, Olivier; Cortesi, Marie; Constant, Eric; Derely, Marc; De Timary, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of protracted alcohol withdrawal on affectivity, craving, selective attention and executive functions (EFs) in alcohol-dependent patients. Selective attention (The D2 Cancellation Test), flexibility (Trail Making Test), inhibition (Stroop Task), decision making (Iowa Gambling Task), craving (Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale) and state affectivity (Positive and Negative Affectivity Schedule) were assessed in alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-IV, n = 35) matched to non-alcohol-dependent participants (n = 22) at the onset (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: days 14-18) of protracted withdrawal during rehab. Alcohol-dependent patients' abilities to focus their attention on relevant information, to switch from one pattern to another, to inhibit irrelevant information and to make advantageous choices were lower than those of control participants during both times of a withdrawal cure. No effect of time emerged from analyses for selective attention and EF deficits. Conversely, significant differences between T1 and T2 were observed for craving and affect scores indicating a weakening of alcohol craving and negative affect as well as an improvement of positive affect among patients from onset to the end of cure. Control functions of the Supervisory Attentional System (Norman and Shallice, 1986) were impaired and did not improve during a 3-week withdrawal cure, whereas alcohol craving and negative state affectivity significantly improved in parallel during this period. Implications for understanding the clinical processes of withdrawal are discussed.

  4. Change in size, shape and radiocolloid uptake of the alcoholic liver during alcohol withdrawal, as demonstrated by single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, L.; Yansen Wang; Jacobsson, H.; Kimiaei, S.

    1994-01-01

    The volume of the total liver and separate right and left lobes was studied before and after 1 week of alcohol withdrawal in 16 consecutive alcoholics by means of single photon emission computed tomography after intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -human albumin colloid; the relative tissue distribution of radioactivity was also followed. The left liver lobe increased in volume more than the right lobe during drinking and decreased more rapidly after alcohol withdrawal. Median volume reductions during 1 week of alcohol withdrawal were: total liver 12%, left lob 26%, and right lobe 8%, indicating that half of the reduction to values of a control group was achieved during this first week. The volume of the right but not of the left lobe was significantly correlated to body size in alcoholics and in controls. The left lobe had a lower capacity to concentrate the radiocolloid than the right lobe in alcoholics and in controls. The liver/spleen, liver/bone marrow and liver/background radioactivity concentration ratios in the alcoholics increased during alcohol withdrawal We conclude that heavy drinking causes both an increased total liver volume and a change in liver shape, with a relatively more enlarged left right lobe, as well as a decreased capacity to concentrate radiocolloid. These changes are rapidly reversible during abstinence from alcohol. (au) (26 refs.)

  5. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiotracer transit measurements as an index of regional cerebral blood flow. Pt. 2. Results in acute alcohol withdrawal syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrzanski, T.

    1975-01-01

    The data obtained in 72 male chronic alcoholics with acute alcohol withdrawal syndroms give evidence that there is a significant correlation between the numerical value of the cerebral radiorheographic index and the severity of the psychopathological syndrome (especially of the clouding of sensorium) in these patients. (author)

  7. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  8. Is this ?complicated? opioid withdrawal?

    OpenAIRE

    Parkar, S.R.; Seethalakshmi, R; Adarkar, S; Kharawala, S

    2006-01-01

    Seven patients with opioid dependence admitted in the de-addiction centre for detoxification developed convulsions and delirium during the withdrawal phase. After ruling out all other possible causes of these complications, opioid withdrawal seemed to emerge as the most likely explanation. The unpredictability of the course of opioid dependence and withdrawal needs to be considered when treating patients with opioid dependence.

  9. Alcohol withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... areas have housing options that provide a supportive environment for those trying to stay sober. Permanent and ... Hurd, MD, Professor of Endocrinology and Health Care Ethics, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  10. Administration of memantine during withdrawal mitigates overactivity and spatial learning impairments associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal

  11. Negative Affect and Excessive Alcohol Intake Incubate during Protracted Withdrawal from Binge-Drinking in Adolescent, But Not Adult, Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M. Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is common in underage alcohol users, yet we know little regarding the biopsychological impact of binge-drinking during early periods of development. Prior work indicated that adolescent male C57BL6/J mice with a 2-week history of binge-drinking (PND28-41 are resilient to the anxiogenic effects of early alcohol withdrawal. Herein, we employed a comparable Drinking-in-the-Dark model to determine how a prior history of binge-drinking during adolescence (EtOHadolescents influences emotionality (assayed with the light-dark box, marble burying test, and the forced swim test and the propensity to consume alcohol in later life, compared to animals without prior drinking experience. For additional comparison, adult mice (EtOHadults with comparable drinking history (PND56-69 were subdivided into groups tested for anxiety/drinking either on PND70 (24 h withdrawal or PND98 (28 days withdrawal. Tissue from the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA was examined by immunoblotting for changes in the expression of glutamate-related proteins. EtOHadults exhibited some signs of hyperanxiety during early withdrawal (PND70, but not during protracted withdrawal (PND98. In contrast, EtOHadolescents exhibited robust signs of anxiety-l and depressive-like behaviors when tested as adults on PND70. While all alcohol-experienced animals subsequently consumed more alcohol than mice drinking for the first time, alcohol intake was greatest in EtOHadolescents. Independent of drinking age, the manifestation of withdrawal-induced hyperanxiety was accompanied by reduced Homer2b expression within the CeA and increased Group1 mGlu receptor expression within the AcbSh. The present data provide novel evidence that binge-drinking during adolescence produces a state characterized by profound negative affect and excessive alcohol consumption that incubates with the passage of time in withdrawal. These data extend our prior studies on the

  12. Evolution of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in self-neglecting alcoholics: preliminary results of relation with Wernicke-delirium and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, Jan W; van de Wetering, Ben J M; Zwart, Elles; Nieuwenhuis, K Gerrit A; Goossensen, M Anne

    2012-01-01

    We present a descriptive, retrospective study of initial symptoms, comorbidity, and alcohol withdrawal in 73 alcoholic patients with subsequent Korsakoff syndrome. In 25/73 (35%) of the patients the classic triad of Wernicke's encephalopathy with ocular symptoms, ataxia and confusion, was found. In at least 6/35 (17%) of the initial deliria (95% confidence interval: 10-25%) we observed no other underlying causes, thus excluding other somatic causes, medication, (recent) alcohol withdrawal, or intoxication. We suggest that these deliria may have been representing Wernicke's encephalopathy. A high frequency (15%) of diabetics may reflect a contributing factor of diabetes mellitus in the evolution of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Involvement of delta opioid receptors in alcohol withdrawal-induced mechanical allodynia in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongkronrusmee, Doungkamol; Chiang, Terrance; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-10-01

    As a legal drug, alcohol is commonly abused and it is estimated that 17 million adults in the United States suffer from alcohol use disorder. Heavy alcoholics can experience withdrawal symptoms including anxiety and mechanical allodynia that can facilitate relapse. The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, which stifles development of new therapeutics. Here we investigate whether delta opioid receptors (DORs) play an active role in alcohol withdrawal-induced mechanical allodynia (AWiMA) and if DOR agonists may provide analgesic relief from AWiMA. To study AWiMA, adult male wild-type and DOR knockout C57BL/6 mice were exposed to alcohol by a voluntary drinking model or oral gavage exposure model, which we developed and validated here. We also used the DOR-selective agonist TAN-67 and antagonist naltrindole to examine the involvement of DORs in AWiMA, which was measured using a von Frey model of mechanical allodynia. We created a robust model of alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and mechanical allodynia by orally gavaging mice with 3g/kg alcohol for three weeks. AWiMA was exacerbated and prolonged in DOR knockout mice as well as by pharmacological blockade of DORs compared to control mice. However, analgesia induced by TAN-67 was attenuated during withdrawal in alcohol-gavaged mice. DORs appear to play a protective role in the establishment of AWiMA. Our current results indicate that DORs could be targeted to prevent or reduce the development of AWiMA during alcohol use; however, DORs may be a less suitable target to treat AWiMA during active withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  15. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and prevention of relapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maurizio A; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Avanzi, Giancarlo; Brambilla, Romeo; Faggiano, Fabrizio

    2010-02-17

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption may lead to dependence, and to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in case of abrupt drinking cessation. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can prevent and suppress withdrawal symptoms, and improve the medium-term abstinence rate. A clear balance between effectiveness and harmfulness has not been yet established. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of GHB for treatment of AWS and prevention of relapse We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (October 2008), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (January 2005 - October 2008), EconLIT (1969 to February 2008), reference list of retrieved articles Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Controlled Prospective Studies (CPS) evaluating the efficacy and the safety of GHB vs placebo or other pharmacological treatments. Three authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of studies. Thirteen RCTs were included. Eleven studies were conducted in Italy.For withdrawal syndrome, comparing GHB 50mg with placebo, results from 1 study, 23 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: WMD -12.1 (95% CI, -15.9 to -8.29) and side effects were more frequent in the placebo group: RR 16.2 (95% CI, 1.04 to 254.9).In the comparison with Chlormetiazole, for GHB 50mg, results from 1 study, 21 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: MD -3.40 (95% CI -5.09 to -1.71), for GHB 100mg, results from 1 study, 98 participants favour anticonvulsants for side effects: RR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.85).At mid-term, comparing GHB with placebo, results favour GHB for abstinence rate (RR 5.35; 1.28-22.4), controlled drinking (RR 2.13; 1.07-5.54), relapses (RR 0.36; 0.21-0.63), and number of daily drinks (WMD -4.60; -6.18 to -3.02). GHB performed better than NTX and Disulfiram on abstinence (RR 2.59; 1.35-4.98, RR 1.66; 0.99-2.80 respectively). The association of GHB and NTX was better than NTX on abstinence (RR 12.2; 1.79-83.9), as well was the association of NTX, GHB and

  16. DELIRIUM PERIOPERATORIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Rodríguez, Dra.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Debido al cambio demográfico de las últimas décadas, los sistemas de salud se han visto enfrentados a atender a pacientes cada vez de mayor edad.El Delirium Perioperatorio (DPO es la más seria y más frecuente complicación cognitiva del paciente mayor. Su incidencia es entre 25 y 60%.El DPO es una entidad que condiciona una mayor mortalidad, un aumento del tiempo de hospitalización, genera complicaciones médicas y mayor necesidad postoperatoria de cuidados crónicos de enfermería, además de aumento de costos.Sus causas son multifactoriales, como edad avanzada, morbilidad previa -especialmente cerebral-, la magnitud del procedimiento a realizar, uso de medicamentos de alto riesgo, fenómenos inflamatorios desencadenados, entre otros.Su cuadro clínico incluye un curso fluctuante, alteración de la atención, memoria, irritabilidad, alteración del ciclo vigilia-sueño, agitación, alucinaciones visuales y auditivas.Las estrategias de tratamiento se centran en la prevención y temprano diagnóstico con intervenciones no farmacológicas, evitar drogas anticolinérgicas, evitar benzodiacepinas y buscar complicaciones o alteraciones metabólicas que lo pudieran haber desencadenado.El manejo multidisciplinario es crítico para optimizar el manejo del paciente y reducir las complicaciones y la mortalidad. SUMMARY: The health team has given care to elderly people due to an increasing number because in the demographic change around the world during the last decades.Delirium Postoperative (POD is the most frequent and serious surgical complication in elderly patients. The incidence POD is between 25 y 60%Delirium Postoperative can adversely affects outcomes, with longer hospital stay, increase medical complications, poorer long-term functional outcome and additional cost.The risk factors include advanced age, preoperative cognitive impairment, co-morbid illness, high risk medications use, inflammatory mechanisms, etc.POD has a

  17. What to Ask: Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources What to Ask: Delirium Tools and Tips Under recognition of delirium is a major problem. It is important to ... questions you can ask your healthcare professional about delirium. What is delirium? What are its symptoms? How ...

  18. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Lara S; Nathanson, Anna J; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K; Wilens, Allison R; Holly, Elizabeth N; Newman, Emily L; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2015-08-01

    Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20 % EtOH. Aggressive and nonaggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5-mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks of EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks of EtOH compared to 1 week of EtOH or 8 weeks of water. Five milligrams per kilogram of memantine increased glutamate in 8-week EtOH mice, but also in 1-week EtOH and water drinkers. These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior.

  19. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Contributes to Alcohol Withdrawal- Induced and Socially Transferred Hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monique L; Walcott, Andre T; Heinricher, Mary M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2017-01-01

    Pain is often described as a "biopsychosocial" process, yet social influences on pain and underlying neural mechanisms are only now receiving significant experimental attention. Expression of pain by one individual can be communicated to nearby individuals by auditory, visual, and olfactory cues. Conversely, the perception of another's pain can lead to physiological and behavioral changes in the observer, which can include induction of hyperalgesia in "bystanders" exposed to "primary" conspecifics in which hyperalgesia has been induced directly. The current studies were designed to investigate the neural mechanisms responsible for the social transfer of hyperalgesia in bystander mice housed and tested with primary mice in which hyperalgesia was induced using withdrawal (WD) from voluntary alcohol consumption. Male C57BL/6J mice undergoing WD from a two-bottle choice voluntary alcohol-drinking procedure served as the primary mice. Mice housed in the same room served as bystanders. Naïve, water-drinking controls were housed in a separate room. Immunohistochemical mapping identified significantly enhanced Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula (INS) of bystander mice compared to naïve controls, and in the dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH) of primary mice. Chemogenetic inactivation of the ACC but not primary somatosensory cortex reversed the expression of hyperalgesia in both primary and bystander mice. These studies point to an overlapping neural substrate for expression of socially transferred hyperalgesia and that expressed during alcohol WD.

  20. [Respiratory depression in delirium tremens patients treated with phenobarbital. A retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutzen, L.; Poulsen, L.M.; Ulrichsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Delirium tremens (DT) is the most severe manifestation of alcohol withdrawal which--if untreated--has a high rate of mortality. Barbiturates are the most effective drug but respiratory depression may occur. In the present study we investigated the frequency of respiratory problems...... to ketoacidosis. The death could not be attributed to the phenobarbital treatment. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found that the frequency of phenobarbital-induced respiratory depression was low. However, if the DT was complicated with pneumonia, life-threatening respiratory insufficiency could be the outcome...

  1. Pharmacological activation/inhibition of the cannabinoid system affects alcohol withdrawal-induced neuronal hypersensitivity to excitotoxic insults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rubio

    Full Text Available Cessation of chronic ethanol consumption can increase the sensitivity of the brain to excitotoxic damages. Cannabinoids have been proposed as neuroprotectants in different models of neuronal injury, but their effect have never been investigated in a context of excitotoxicity after alcohol cessation. Here we examined the effects of the pharmacological activation/inhibition of the endocannabinoid system in an in vitro model of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal followed by an excitotoxic challenge. Ethanol withdrawal increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-evoked neuronal death, probably by altering the ratio between GluN2A and GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. The stimulation of the endocannabinoid system with the cannabinoid agonist HU-210 decreased NMDA-induced neuronal death exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. This neuroprotection could be explained by a decrease in NMDA-stimulated calcium influx after the administration of HU-210, found exclusively in ethanol-withdrawn neurons. By contrast, the inhibition of the cannabinoid system with the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716 during ethanol withdrawal increased death of ethanol-withdrawn neurons without any modification of NMDA-stimulated calcium influx. Moreover, chronic administration of rimonabant increased NMDA-stimulated toxicity not only in withdrawn neurons, but also in control neurons. In summary, we show for the first time that the stimulation of the endocannabinoid system is protective against the hyperexcitability developed during alcohol withdrawal. By contrast, the blockade of the endocannabinoid system is highly counterproductive during alcohol withdrawal.

  2. [Severe rhabdomyolysis syndrome in the course of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and hyponatremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Magdalena; Tchórz, Michał; Szponar, Jarosław; Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Kołodziej, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis and associated kidney failure is a medical problem, often faced by doctors working in the centers of toxicology. Its most common cause is mechanical damage to the muscles, but predisposing factors include a big group of other pathologies and clinical conditions, including: electrolyte imbalance, immobility, infections, drug or psychoactive substances poisoning. The article presents an example of a patient with severe rhabdomyolysis syndrome caused by an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Based on our experience and scientific studies of other clinical centres the paper presents various causes of muscle damage, including the iatrogenic effects of ethanol intoxication treatment. The article explains the importance of a proper and quick treatment which prevents damage of internal organs, including kidney failure.

  3. Using the AUDIT-PC to predict alcohol withdrawal in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Anna; Ewen, Edward; Horton, Terry; Mooney, Ruth; Kolm, Paul; McGraw, Patty; Woody, George

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) occurs when alcohol-dependent individuals abruptly reduce or stop drinking. Hospitalized alcohol-dependent patients are at risk. Hospitals need a validated screening tool to assess withdrawal risk, but no validated tools are currently available. To examine the admission Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-(Piccinelli) Consumption (AUDIT-PC) ability to predict the subsequent development of AWS among hospitalized medical-surgical patients admitted to a non-intensive care setting. Retrospective case–control study of patients discharged from the hospital with a diagnosis of AWS. All patients with AWS were classified as presenting with AWS or developing AWS later during admission. Patients admitted to an intensive care setting and those missing AUDIT-PC scores were excluded from analysis. A hierarchical (by hospital unit) logistic regression was performed and receiver-operating characteristics were examined on those developing AWS after admission and randomly selected controls. Because those diagnosing AWS were not blinded to the AUDIT-PC scores, a sensitivity analysis was performed. The study cohort included all patients age ≥18 years admitted to any medical or surgical units in a single health care system from 6 October 2009 to 7 October 2010. After exclusions, 414 patients were identified with AWS. The 223 (53.9 %) who developed AWS after admission were compared to 466 randomly selected controls without AWS. An AUDIT-PC score ≥4 at admission provides 91.0 % sensitivity and 89.7 % specificity (AUC=0.95; 95 % CI, 0.94–0.97) for AWS, and maximizes the correct classification while resulting in 17 false positives for every true positive identified. Performance remained excellent on sensitivity analysis (AUC=0.92; 95 % CI, 0.90–0.93). Increasing AUDIT-PC scores were associated with an increased risk of AWS (OR=1.68, 95 % CI 1.55–1.82, pAUDIT-PC score is an excellent discriminator of AWS and could be an important component

  4. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens that are not fully reversed by withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Neves, João; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Cruz, Catarina; Madeira, M Dulce

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and acetylcholine-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seem to play a major role in the rewarding effects of alcohol. This study investigated the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and subsequent withdrawal and the expression of NPY and acetylcholine in the NAc, and the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Rats ingesting an aqueous ethanol solution over 6months and rats subsequently deprived from ethanol during 2months were used to estimate the total number and the somatic volume of NPY and cholinergic interneurons, and the numerical density of cholinergic varicosities in the NAc. The tissue content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and catecholamines were also determined. The number of NPY interneurons increased during alcohol ingestion and returned to control values after withdrawal. Conversely, the number and the size of cholinergic interneurons, and the amount of ChAT were unchanged in ethanol-treated and withdrawn rats, but the density of cholinergic varicosities was reduced by 50% during alcohol consumption and by 64% after withdrawal. The concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine were unchanged both during alcohol consumption and after withdrawal. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats significantly increased the number of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, the size of cholinergic neurons and the density of cholinergic varicosities. Present data show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to long-lasting neuroadaptive changes of the cholinergic innervation of the NAc and suggest that the cholinergic system is a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies in alcoholism and abstinence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenobarbital compared to benzodiazepines in alcohol withdrawal treatment: A register-based cohort study of subsequent benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. A total of 1063 patients treated with chlordiazepoxide and 1365 patients treated with phenobarbital were included. After one year, the outcome rates per 100 person-years in the phenobarbital versus the chlordiazepoxide cohort were 9.20 vs. 5.13 for use of benzodiazepine, 37.9 vs. 37.9 for alcohol recidivism and 29 vs. 59 for mortality. Comparing phenobarbital to chlordiazepoxide treated, the HR of subsequent use of benzodiazepines was 1.56 (95%CI 1.05-2.30). Similarly, the HR for alcohol recidivism was 0.99 (95%CI 0.84-1.16). Lastly, the HR for 30-days and 1 year mortality was 0.25 (95%CI 0.08-0.78) and 0.51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among patients receiving chlordiazepoxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the appropriate use of a CIWA-Ar alcohol withdrawal protocol in the general hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloma, Amanda S; Tucciarone, Jason M; Hayes, Edmund M; Bronson, Brian D

    2018-01-01

    The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment-Alcohol, Revised (CIWA-Ar) is an assessment tool used to quantify alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) severity and inform benzodiazepine treatment for alcohol withdrawal. To evaluate the prescribing patterns and appropriate use of the CIWA-Ar protocol in a general hospital setting, as determined by the presence or absence of documented AWS risk factors, patients' ability to communicate, and provider awareness of the CIWA-Ar order. This retrospective chart review included 118 encounters of hospitalized patients placed on a CIWA-Ar protocol during one year. The following data were collected for each encounter: patient demographics, admitting diagnosis, ability to communicate, and admission blood alcohol level; and medical specialty of the clinician ordering CIWA-Ar, documentation of the presence or absence of established AWS risk factors, specific parameters of the protocol ordered, service admitted to, provider documentation of awareness of the active protocol within 48 h of initial order, total benzodiazepine dose equivalents administered and associated adverse events. 57% of patients who started on a CIWA-Ar protocol had either zero or one documented risk factor for AWS (19% and 38% respectively). 20% had no documentation of recent alcohol use. 14% were unable to communicate. 19% of medical records lacked documentation of provider awareness of the ordered protocol. Benzodiazepine associated adverse events were documented in 15% of encounters. The judicious use of CIWA-Ar protocols in general hospitals requires mechanisms to ensure assessment of validated alcohol withdrawal risk factors, exclusion of patients who cannot communicate, and continuity of care during transitions.

  7. Side Effects - Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delirium is a confused mental state. Symptoms may include changes in thinking and sleeping. In cancer patients, it may be caused by medicine, dehydration, or happen at the end of life. Delirium may be mistaken for depression or dementia.

  8. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  9. Delirium in advanced disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Dylan

    2007-01-01

    Delirium in advanced disease, while common, is often not recognised or poorly treated. The aim of management of delirium is to assess and treat reversible causes in combination with environmental, psychological and pharmacological intervention to control symptoms. Delirium presents significant distress and impedes communication between patients and their families at the end of life. A structured approach to recognise, assess and manage delirium is essential for all clinicians caring for patie...

  10. Complicações psiquiátricas do uso crônico do álcool: síndrome de abstinência e outras doenças psiquiátricas Psychiatric complications of alcoholism: alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maciel

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de abstinência alcoólica é um quadro agudo, caracterizado por um conjunto de sinais e sintomas autolimitados, com gravidade variada, secundário à interrupção total ou parcial do consumo de álcool, podendo ser associado a inúmeros problemas clínicos e/ou outros transtornos psiquiátricos. O objetivo deste artigo é rever as principais complicações psiquiátricas secundárias à síndrome de abstinência alcoólica, como convulsões e delirium tremens, bem como algumas outras condições psiquiátricas associadas à dependência de álcool, como as síndromes de Wernicke Korsakoff e de Marchiava Bignami. Pretende-se, com isso, auxiliar no diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado, minimizando assim a morbidade e a mortalidade associadas a tais complicações.Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute condition secondary to total or partial reduction of alcohol consumption, characterized by self limited signs and symptoms and different degrees of severity. It can be complicated by several clinical and/or other psychiatric related problems. The objective of this article is to review the most important psychiatric complications to alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as other psychiatric disorders associated with alcohol dependence as Wernicke Korsakoff and Marchiava Bignami syndromes. We aim to promote early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, minimizing morbidity and mortality associated with them.

  11. DELIRIUM IN OLDER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popeo, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in the elderly that can occur in several different settings caused by several different processes. It is common and causes increased morbidity and mortality to those affected. This clinical review discusses the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of delirium in the elderly population. Several strategies to predict delirium are noted with the discussion of pharmacological and non-pharmacological trials of prevention and treatment. Diagnosis of delirium, specifically with the use of objective instruments, is discussed, as is the evidence for pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. Discussion of the neurobiology and genetic markers for delirium may elucidate further areas for future research. PMID:21748745

  12. Effects of repeated withdrawal from alcohol on recovery of cognitive impairment under abstinence and rate of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora; Welzel Márquez, Helga; Nakovics, Helmut; Heinz, Andreas; Mann, Karl; Flor, Herta

    2010-01-01

    Several authors suggest that withdrawal from alcohol could cause neurotoxic lesions in the frontal lobe and thereby affect cognitive function. In line with this, previous studies have demonstrated greater cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent patients with two or more previous detoxifications (Hi-detox) compared with patients with less than two detoxifications (Lo-detox). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated withdrawal from alcohol affects recovery of cognitive function and is related to relapse. Forty-eight alcohol-dependent patients (Hi-detox: n = 31, Lo-detox: n = 17) and 36 healthy controls underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test-battery. Patients were tested after completion of detoxification (T1) and 3 (T2, n = 35) and 6 (T3, n = 28) months after discharge. Healthy controls were tested at T1 (n = 36) and T2 (n = 16). Drinking behaviour was assessed at all times. Patients performed significantly worse than controls at T1 as well as T2 with regard to attention/executive function. Recovery of attention/executive function was observed within the second 3 months after discharge, but the Hi-detox group performed worse than the Lo-detox group. No association with relapse was observed. This study provides first evidence, that repeated withdrawal from alcohol might be associated with reduced brain plasticity as indicated by a delay of recovery from impairment of attention/executive function. However, little evidence was found for a direct influence of cognitive impairment on treatment success.

  13. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  14. Depressive symptoms and the risk of incident delirium in older hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvay, Gail J; Van Ness, Peter H; Bogardus, Sidney T; Zhang, Ying; Leslie, Douglas L; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Inouye, Sharon K

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether specific subsets of symptoms from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), assessed at hospital admission, were associated with the incidence of delirium. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients from the Delirium Prevention Trial. General medicine service at Yale New Haven Hospital, March 25, 1995, through March 18, 1998. Four hundred sixteen patients aged 70 and older who were at intermediate or high risk for delirium and were not taking antidepressants at hospital admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed GDS, and daily assessments of delirium were obtained using the Confusion Assessment Method. Of the 416 patients in the analysis sample, 36 (8.6%) developed delirium within the first 5 days of hospitalization. Patients who developed delirium reported 5.7 depressive symptoms on average, whereas patients without delirium reported an average of 4.2 symptoms. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was found that depressive symptoms assessing dysphoric mood and hopelessness were predictive of incident delirium, controlling for measures of physical and mental health. In contrast, symptoms of withdrawal, apathy, and vigor were not significantly associated with delirium. These findings suggest that assessing symptoms of dysphoric mood and hopelessness could help identify patients at risk for incident delirium. Future studies should evaluate whether nonpharmacological treatment for these symptoms reduces the risk of delirium.

  15. Platelet rebound effect of alcohol withdrawal and wine drinking in rats. Relation to tannins and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, J C; Berger, J L; Renaud, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated in rats fed a purified diet for 2 and 4 months whether wine drinking was associated with the rebound effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation observed after alcohol withdrawal. With 6% ethanol drinking or its equivalent in red or white wine, platelet aggregation was reduced similarly by 70% when the animals drank the alcoholic beverages up to the venipuncture. Depriving the rats of alcoholic beverages for 18 hours was associated with an increase in the platelet response of 124% in those receiving 6% ethanol, of 46% with white wine but a decrease of 59% in those with red wine. The protective effect of red wine on platelets could be reproduced by tannins (procyanidins) extracted from grape seeds or red wine and added to 6% ethanol, but not by glycerol or wine without alcohol. That was related to inhibition of the alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation as shown by the lowering of conjugated dienes, lipid peroxides, and the increase in vitamin E in plasma. Owing to tannins, the platelets of rats drinking red wine did not exhibit the rebound effect observed hours after alcohol drinking, eventually associated with sudden death and stroke in humans.

  16. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  17. DELIRIUM PADA PASIEN RAWAT INAP DENGAN SKIZOFRENIA: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ayu Dwi Pradnyawati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is psychiatric disorder characterized by conciousness state impairment,disorientation, and affective alteration, including cognitive and non-cognitive deficite, anddeveloped in acute onset. Delirium stand in organic mental disorder group, which has manysimilarity of signs and symptoms with psycotic mental disorder as schizophrenia. Delirium,particularly that is not related with alcohol and drug abuse, frequently found in elderly. Somecases of delirium among inpatient psychiatric patients have been reported, but just few furtherstudies have been held on those cases. This case report try to deliver a case of delirium in a65 y.o. inpatient paranoid type schizophrenia. This patient showed sign of severedisorientation during his treatment. In psychiatric assesment, stated male patient withinappropriate appearance, contact avoidance, decrease of conciousness, and severedisorientation. Mood/affect found irritable/appropriate. Patient experienced delution andhallucination. He suspected with undetected dementia as underlying disease.  

  18. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nest building is a novel method for indexing severity of alcohol withdrawal in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, G D; Huang, L C; Spence, S E; Schlumbohm, J P; Metten, P; Ozburn, A R; Crabbe, J C

    2016-04-01

    Withdrawal after chronic ethanol (EtOH) affects body temperature, goal-directed behavior and motor function in mice and increases general central nervous system excitability. Nest-building tests have been used to assay these states but to this point have not been employed as measures of EtOH withdrawal severity. We first refined nest-scoring methods using a genetically heterogeneous stock of mice (HS/Npt). Mice were then made physically dependent following three days of chronic EtOH vapor inhalation to produce average blood EtOH concentrations (BECs) of 1.89 mg/mL. EtOH withdrawal affected the progression of nest building over time when mice were tested 2-4 days after removal from three days of chronic exposure to EtOH. In a separate group of mice, chronic EtOH vapor inhalation (BECs 1.84 mg/mL) suppressed nest building over days 1-2 but not days 2-3 of withdrawal. In a following experiment, EtOH withdrawal dose-dependently slowed recovery of nest building for up to 32 h. Finally, we determined that long-lasting nest-building deficits extend to mice undergoing withdrawal from a high dose (4 g/kg) of acute EtOH. Sex differences for nest building were absent following EtOH exposure. In mice naïve to EtOH treatments, male mice had lower pre-test body temperatures and increased nest scores across a two-day testing period compared to females. These results suggest that nest building can be used to assess chronic and acute EtOH withdrawal severity in mice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Causes of the people death from drunkenness and alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Iu A; Paukov, V S; Kirillov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed causes of 1008 people death, who abused by alcohol. Among them 2 groups were separated out: people died due to drunkenness and due to alcoholism. The structure of the death was similar in the both groups, however depended on alcoholism stages. The major cause of the death in group of drunkenness people was acute heart insufficiency, less commonly--lung pathology, and very rarely--brain vessels pathology and liver cirrhosis. In group of people, who died due to alcoholism, lung pathology was the major cause of these deaths, acute heart insufficiency was occurred less commonly, and very rare brain pathology because of delirium tremens or alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as so liver cirrhosis with complications. Hemorrhagic pancreonecrosis after alcoholic excess was found out in both groups, but it was more often in people, who died due to drunkenness. Obtained results show importance of chronic alcoholism identification as a disease with several stages including drunkenness and alcoholism.

  1. Delirium in elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Sharon K.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Saczynski, Jane S.

    2014-01-01

    Delirium, an acute disorder of attention and cognition, is a common, serious, costly, under-recognized and often fatal condition for seniors. Its diagnosis requires a formal cognitive assessment and history of acute onset of symptoms. Given its typically complex multifactorial etiology, multicomponent nonpharmacologic risk factor approaches have proven to be the most effective strategy for prevention. To date, there is no convincing evidence that pharmacologic prevention or treatment is effective. Drug reduction for sedation and analgesia combined with nonpharmacologic approaches are recommended. Delirium may provide a window to elucidate brain pathophysiology, serving both as a marker of brain vulnerability with decreased reserve and a potential mechanism for permanent cognitive damage. As a potent patient safety indicator, delirium provides a target for system-wide process improvements. Public health priorities will include improvements in coding and reimbursement, improved research funding, and widespread education for clinicians and the public about the importance of delirium. PMID:23992774

  2. [Respiratory depression in delirium tremens patients treated with phenobarbital. A retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutzen, L.; Poulsen, L.M.; Ulrichsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Delirium tremens (DT) is the most severe manifestation of alcohol withdrawal which--if untreated--has a high rate of mortality. Barbiturates are the most effective drug but respiratory depression may occur. In the present study we investigated the frequency of respiratory problems...... cases occurred in the same patient at two different admissions. It was not considered necessary to move the patient to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three patients developed pneumonia and were moved to the ICU, one of whom developed a life-threatening sepsis. One patient with chronic emphysema died due...... to ketoacidosis. The death could not be attributed to the phenobarbital treatment. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found that the frequency of phenobarbital-induced respiratory depression was low. However, if the DT was complicated with pneumonia, life-threatening respiratory insufficiency could be the outcome...

  3. The three year course of alcohol use disorders in the general population: DSM-IV, ICD-10 and the Craving Withdrawal Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in a prospective general population study using three different classification systems: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual version IV (DSM-IV), International Classification of Diseases version 10 (ICD-10) and the craving withdrawal model

  4. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  5. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption, withdrawal and nerve growth factor on neuropeptide Y expression and cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Pedro A; Rocha, João P; Cardoso, Armando; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Madeira, M Dulce

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the vulnerability of the hippocampal formation (HF) to chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal. Among the brain systems that appear to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these conditions are the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-ergic and the cholinergic systems. Because these two systems seem to closely interact in the HF, we sought to study the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (6months) and subsequent withdrawal (2months) on the expression of NPY and on the cholinergic innervation of the rat dentate hilus. As such, we have estimated the areal density and the somatic volume of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, and the density of the cholinergic varicosities. In addition, because alcohol consumption and withdrawal are associated with impaired nerve growth factor (NGF) trophic support and the administration of exogenous NGF alters the effects of those conditions on various cholinergic markers, we have also estimated the same morphological parameters in withdrawn rats infused intracerebroventricularly with NGF. NPY expression increased after withdrawal and returned to control values after NGF treatment. Conversely, the somatic volume of these neurons did not differ among all groups. On other hand, the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was reduced by 24% in ethanol-treated rats and by 46% in withdrawn rats. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats increased the VAChT expression to values above control levels. These results show that the effects of prolonged alcohol intake and protracted withdrawal on the hilar NPY expression differ from those induced by shorter exposures to ethanol and by abrupt withdrawal. They also suggest that the normalizing effect of NGF on NPY expression might rely on the NGF-induced improvement of cholinergic neurotransmission in the dentate hilus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Delirium Research: Where Am I?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Delirium Research Where Am I? Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents The overlooked danger of delirium in hospitals In his mid-80s, Jerry (not ...

  7. Utility of the PRE-DELIRIC delirium prediction model in a Scottish ICU cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Lia; Elliott, Sara; Chohan, Sanjiv

    2016-08-01

    The PREdiction of DELIRium for Intensive Care (PRE-DELIRIC) model reliably predicts at 24 h the development of delirium during intensive care admission. However, the model does not take account of alcohol misuse, which has a high prevalence in Scottish intensive care patients. We used the PRE-DELIRIC model to calculate the risk of delirium for patients in our ICU from May to July 2013. These patients were screened for delirium on each day of their ICU stay using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU). Outcomes were ascertained from the national ICU database. In the 39 patients screened daily, the risk of delirium given by the PRE-DELIRIC model was positively associated with prevalence of delirium, length of ICU stay and mortality. The PRE-DELIRIC model can therefore be usefully applied to a Scottish cohort with a high prevalence of substance misuse, allowing preventive measures to be targeted.

  8. Effect of variations in treatment regimen and liver cirrhosis on exposure to benzodiazepines during treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Gershokovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored.

  9. Efficacy of transcranial magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroverov, A T; Zhukov, O B; Raigorodskii, Yu M

    2009-11-01

    A total of 54 patients with alcoholism were studied during abstinence. Of these, 29 patients in the experimental group received basal therapy supplemented with physical treatment consisting of transcranial dynamic magnetotherapy (TcDMT), while the control group of 25 patients received only basal therapy. Comparison of the status of patients in the experimental and control groups during treatment demonstrated advantages of TcDMT in relation to improving the functional state of the CNS, memory, and attention, the autonomic nervous system, and the psychoemotional status of the patients (with decreases in the severity of anxiety and depression).

  10. Computerized tomographic study on the brain of patients with alcohol dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akira; Tsuji, Motohiro; Nakamura, Michihiko; Nakajima, Teruo.

    1991-01-01

    One hundred ten patients with alcohol dependence and 56 psychiatric patients with either senile dementia, amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or chronic schizophrenia were investigated with a CT scan of the brain. The maximum width of the 3rd ventricle was measured, and the presence/absence of enlargement of the lateral ventricle and of atrophy of the frontal lobe was determined independently by 3 physicians. The width of the 3rd ventricle in alcoholic and the other patients examined was gradually enlarged with aging, and the width in these patients was significantly larger than that in the age-matched control patients who were selected from the patients with amphetamine psychosis, epilepsy or schizophrenia. The enlargement of the lateral ventricles observed in the alcoholic patients always accompanied the enlargement of the 3rd ventricle, but not vice versa. The alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy showed a higher incidence of withdrawal delirium than the patients without atrophy. These findings suggest that the chronic intake of alcohol might affect primarily the area around the 3rd ventricle, resulting in enlargement of this ventricle and consequential enlargement of the lateral ventricles and also that the alcoholic patients with frontal lobe atrophy could have a high risk for a manifestation of alcoholic withdrawal delirium. (author)

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  12. Consequences of delirium after cardiac operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogen-Koster, S.; Hensens, A.G.; Schuurmans, M.J.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium is a transient mental syndrome characterized by disturbances in consciousness, cognition, and perception. The risk that delirium will develop is increased in patients who undergo cardiac operations, especially the elderly. Generally, delirium during hospital admission is

  13. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  14. Age-related differences in anxiety-like behavior and amygdalar CCL2 responsiveness to stress following alcohol withdrawal in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathryn M; Knapp, Darin J; Park, Meredith A; Breese, George R

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral and neuroimmune vulnerability to withdrawal from chronic alcohol varies with age. The relation of anxiety-like behavior to amygdalar CCL2 responses following stress after withdrawal from chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) was investigated in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent and adult Wistar rats were exposed to CIA (three 5-day blocks of dietary alcohol separated by 2 days of withdrawal) at concentrations that created similar blood alcohol levels across age. Twenty-four hours into the final withdrawal, half of the rats were exposed to 1 h of restraint stress. Four hours post-stress, rats were used for behavior or tissue assays. Anxiety-like behavior was increased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 mRNA was increased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA and CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 co-localization with neuronal marker NeuN was decreased versus controls by CIA in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. CCL2 co-localization with astrocytic marker GFAP was decreased versus controls by CIA and CIA + stress in adolescents, but experimental groups did not differ from controls in adults. CCL2 co-localization with microglial marker Iba1 was decreased versus controls by stress alone in adolescents and by CIA + stress in adults. Changes in CCL2 protein might control behavior at either age but are particularly associated with CIA alone in adolescents and with CIA + stress in adults. That the number of CeA neurons expressing CCL2 was altered after CIA and stress is consistent with CCL2 involvement in neural function.

  15. Delirium in Pediatric Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita K; Bell, Michael J; Traube, Chani

    2017-10-01

    Delirium occurs frequently in the critically ill child. It is a syndrome characterized by an acute onset and fluctuating course, with behaviors that reflect a disturbance in awareness and cognition. Delirium represents global cerebral dysfunction due to the direct physiologic effects of an underlying medical illness or its treatment. Pediatric delirium is strongly associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, prolonged intensive care unit length of stay, longer time on mechanical ventilation, and increased cost of care. With heightened awareness, the pediatric intensivist can detect, treat, and prevent delirium in at-risk children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescent Mice Are Resilient to Alcohol Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety and Changes in Indices of Glutamate Function within the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaziya M; Coelho, Michal A; McGregor, Hadley A; Solton, Noah R; Cohen, Matan; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb), coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: (1) withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers; and (2) increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence). Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v) for 2 h/day), while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations (BACs); however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test (FST) compared to water

  17. Adolescent mice are resilient to alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety and changes in indices of glutamate function within the nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziya M Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Binge-drinking is the most prevalent form of alcohol abuse and while an early life history of binge-drinking is a significant risk factor for subsequent alcoholism and co-morbid affective disorders, relatively little is known regarding the biobehavioral impact of binge-drinking during the sensitive neurodevelopmental period of adolescence. In adult mice, a month-long history of binge-drinking elicits a hyper-glutamatergic state within the nucleus accumbens (Acb, coinciding with hyper-anxiety. Herein, we employed a murine model of binge-drinking to determine whether or not: 1 withdrawal-induced changes in brain and behavior differ between adult and adolescent bingers and 2 increased behavioral signs of negative affect and changes in Acb expression of glutamate-related proteins would be apparent in adult mice with less chronic binge-drinking experience (14 days, approximating the duration of mouse adolescence. Adult and adolescent male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 14-day binge-drinking protocol (5, 10, 20 and 40% alcohol (v/v for 2 h/day, while age-matched controls received water. At 24 h withdrawal, half of the animals from each group were assayed for negative affect, while tissue was sampled from the shell (AcbSh and core (AcbC subregions of the remaining mice for immunoblotting analyses. Adult bingers exhibited hyper-anxiety when tested for defensive marble burying. Additionally, adult bingers showed increased mGlu1, mGlu5, and GluN2b expression in the AcbSh and PKCε and CAMKII in the AcbC. Compared to adults, adolescent mice exhibited higher alcohol intake and blood alcohol concentrations; however, adolescent bingers did not show increased anxiety in the marble-burying test. Furthermore, adolescent bingers also failed to exhibit the same alcohol-induced changes in mGlu and kinase protein expression seen in the adult bingers. Irrespective of age, bingers exhibited behavioral hyperactivity in the forced swim test compared to water drinkers

  18. Assessing severity of delirium by the Delirium Observation Screening Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, Alice C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objective: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. Assessment of the severity of delirium is important for adjusting medication. The minimal dose of medication is preferable to prevent side effects. Only few nurse based severity measures are available.

  19. Brief review: delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz ED

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A significant number of patients develop a decline in cognitive function while hospitalized. Delirium in the intensive care increases mortality and healthcare costs and should be recognized and treated promptly (1,2. This is a brief review of delirium and important treatment options such as early percutaneous tracheostomy, neuroleptics, propofol, daily awakenings and reorientation by all team members. We recommend neither neuroimaging nor neurology consultation unless physical exam suggests an acute cerebral vascular accident or status epilepticus as the majority of these patients require no neurologic intervention and may be harmed by transportation to obtain additional testing. The DSM-5 defines delirium as a disturbance in attention (reduced ability to direct, focus, sustain, and shift attention and awareness (reduced orientation to the environment. The disturbance develops over a short period of time (usually hours to a few days, represents a change from baseline attention and awareness, and tends to fluctuate in severity ...

  20. Predisposing risk factors for delirium in living donor liver transplantation patients in intensive care units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Han Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delirium is one of the main causes of increased length of intensive care unit (ICU stay among patients who have undergone living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for delirium after LDLT as well as to investigate whether delirium impacts the length of ICU and hospital stay. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients who underwent LDLT during the period January 2010 to December 2012 at a single medical center were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU scale was used to diagnose delirium. Preoperative, postoperative, and hematologic factors were included as potential risk factors for developing delirium. RESULTS: During the study period, delirium was diagnosed in 37 (47.4% patients after LDLT. The mean onset of symptoms occurred 7.0±5.5 days after surgery and the mean duration of symptoms was 5.0±2.6 days. The length of stay in the ICU for patients with delirium (39.8±28.1 days was significantly longer than that for patients without delirium (29.3±19.0 days (p<0.05. Risk factors associated with delirium included history of alcohol abuse [odds ratio (OR = 6.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.85-22.06], preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.36-14.51, APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.71-2.56, and duration of endotracheal intubation ≥5 days (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.23. CONCLUSIONS: History of alcohol abuse, preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, APACHE II scores ≥16 and endotracheal intubation ≥5 days were predictive of developing delirium in the ICU following liver transplantation surgery and were associated with increased length of ICU and hospital stay.

  1. Incidence and risk factors for delirium development in ICU patients - a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanova, Marcela; Sklienka, Peter; Roman, Kula; Burda, Michal; Janoutova, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction and a frequent complication in critically ill patients. When present it significantly worsens the prognosis of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of delirium and risk factors for delirium in a mixed group of trauma, medical and surgical ICU patients. A prospective observational study was conducted in one of the six-bed Intensive Care Units of the University Hospital Ostrava in the Czech Republic during a 12-month period. We evaluated the incidence of delirium and its predisposing and precipitating risk factors. All patients were assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Of the total of 332 patients with a median APACHE II (the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) score of 12, who were evaluated for delirium, 48 could not be assessed using CAM-ICU (47 due to prolonged coma, 1 due to language barriers). The incidence of delirium was 26.1%, with trauma and medical patients being more likely to develop delirium than surgical patients. Risk of delirium was significantly associated with age ≥ 65 years, and alcohol abuse in their anamnesis, with APACHE II score on admission, and with the use of sedatives and/or vasopressors. Delirious patients who remained in the ICU for a prolonged period showed a greater need for ventilator support and had a greater ICU-mortality.

  2. The management of terminal delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a distressing and disturbing clinical event. Palliation of the symptoms by multi-component interventions can be effective. The goal of interventions is to raise the deliriant threshold by combined symptom relief, environmental, psychological and pharmacological interventions. Haloperidol remains the drug of choice for delirium. For intractable delirious symptoms at the end of life terminal sedation may be indicated.

  3. Delirium hos kritisk syge patienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Thomas; Pande-Rolfsen, Guri; Hagen, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Interest in and the quantity of publications on delirium in critically ill patients have grown increasingly over the last decade. Critically ill patients have traditionally been sedated to facilitate mechanical ventilation. This practice impeded the recognition of delirium in the critically ill p...

  4. Delirium as a complication of the surgical intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacek R

    2016-09-01

    (hypotension 40.41±30.23 hours versus normotension 70.47±54.98 hours; Mann–Whitney U=1,512; P<0.05, administration of antipsychotics compared to other drugs (antipsychotics 72.83±40.6, benzodiazepines 42.00±20.78, others drugs, mostly piracetam 46.96±18.42 hours; Kruskal–Wallis test: 17.39, P<0.0005, and history of alcohol abuse (with a history of abuse 73.63±45.20 hours, without a history of abuse 59.54±30.61 hours; Mann–Whitney U=1,840; P<0.05. One patient had suffered from complicated postoperative hypostatic pneumonia and died due to respiratory failure (patient with hypoactive subtype. According to the backward stepwise multiple regression, the best significant predictors of duration of the delirium were the hypotension, type of psychopharmacs, type of delirium, the daily dose of opioids, a combination of psychopharmacs, history of alcohol abuse, plasma level of potassium, anemia, hyperpyrexia, and plasma level of albumin, reaching statistical significance (analysis of variance: F=5.205; df=24; P<0.005; adjusted r2=0.637.Conclusion: The hyperactive type of delirium, hypotension, usage of antipsychotics, the higher daily dose of opioids, a combination of psychopharmacs, history of alcohol abuse, low blood levels of potassium, anemia, hyperpyrexia, and hypoalbuminemia in the CICUS were associated with longer duration of delirium.Keywords: delirium, care duration, intensive care, risk factors, treatment, antipsychotics

  5. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Heavy Alcohol Consumption Effects on Blood Pressure and on Kidney Structure Persist After Long-Term Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Heavy ethanol consumption is a risk factor for hypertension and prompts organ damage. There is no information regarding the impact of long-term heavy ethanol consumption on kidney structure and function linking to their hypertensive effects nor the repercussions after withdrawal. Methods: Rats were exposed to ethanol for 24 weeks and, afterwards, a group was assigned to withdrawal for 8 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured and serum biochemical parameters were quantified. Glomerular volume density, areal density of glomerular tuft and renal corpuscles were determined. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R protein expression was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four weeks of ethanol consumption causes atrophy of renal corpuscles and glomeruli and reduces the volume of glomeruli. Glomerular changes induced by ethanol consumption were still evident after withdrawal. Renal AT1R levels were increased in ethanol-treated rats and returned to control levels during withdrawal. Ethanol consumption also induced an increase in BP, uric acid and albumin levels. Upon withdrawal, systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased, but were still higher than in controls rats. Conclusion: Ethanol consumption induces changes in glomerular morphology associated with increased BP and AT1R expression. Long-term withdrawal was inefficient to restore the structural integrity of renal corpuscles and in lowering systolic pressure.

  7. DELIRIUM FROM THE GLIOCENTRIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis eSfera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is an acute state marked by disturbances in cognition, attention, memory, perception, and sleep-wake cycle which is common in elderly. Others have shown an association between delirium and increased mortality, length of hospitalization, cost, and discharge to extended stay facilities (1. Until recently it was not known that after an episode of delirium in elderly, there is a 63% probability of developing dementia at 48 months compared to 8% in patients without delirium (2(3. Currently there are no preventive therapies for delirium, thus elucidation of cellular and molecular underpinnings of this condition may lead to the development of early interventions and thus prevent permanent cognitive damage.In this article we make the case for the role of glia in the pathophysiology of delirium and describe an astrocyte-dependent central and peripheral cholinergic anti-inflammatory shield which may be disabled by astrocytic pathology, leading to neuroinflammation and delirium. We also touch on the role of glia in information processing and neuroimaging.

  8. Perceptions among primary caregivers about the etiology of delirium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study caregivers' perceptions about the cause of delirium and their distress caused by symptoms of delirium. Method: Adult caregivers of patients with delirium, who gave consent, were asked about their perceptions of the cause of delirium. Patients were assessed for delirium by using the delirium rating ...

  9. Missing link or not, mobilise against delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Valerie J; Casarin, Annalisa

    2014-01-31

    Delirium is known to be a predictor of adverse outcomes. In a prospective study Abelha and colleagues showed that postoperative delirium was an independent risk factor for deterioration in functional capacity following discharge. While evidence for causality remains elusive, there is no doubt that patients who develop delirium are left with new functional and cognitive impairment. Finding a pharmacological treatment for the prevention and treatment of delirium is a priority in delirium research and the results of ongoing trials are awaited. Early mobilisation of ICU patients has been demonstrated to decrease delirium and improve functional outcomes. Resources should be directed to appropriate, progressive mobilisation of all critically ill patients as a priority.

  10. Symptoms and aetiology of delirium: a comparison of elderly and adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Agarwal, M; Sharma, A; Mattoo, S K; Avasthi, A; Chakrabarti, S; Malhotra, S; Kulhara, P; Bas, D

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the symptoms of delirium as assessed by the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) and associated aetiologies in adult and elderly patients seen in a consultation-liaison service. METHODS. A total of 321 consecutive patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of delirium were assessed on the DRS-R-98 and a study-specific aetiology checklist. RESULTS. Of the 321 patients, 245 (76%) aged 18 to 64 years formed the adult group, while 76 (24%) formed the elderly group (≥ 65 years). The prevalence and severity of various symptoms of delirium as assessed using the DRS-R-98 were similar across the 2 groups, except for the adult group having statistically higher prevalence and severity scores for thought process abnormalities and lability of affect. For both groups and the whole sample, factor analysis yielded a 3-factor model for the phenomenology. In the 2 groups, the DRS-R-98 item loadings showed subtle differences across various factors. The 2 groups were similar for the mean number of aetiologies associated with delirium, the mean number being 3. However, the 2 groups differed with respect to hepatic derangement, substance intoxication, withdrawal, and postpartum causes being more common in the adult group, in contrast lung disease and cardiac abnormalities were more common in the elderly group. CONCLUSION. Adult and elderly patients with delirium are similar with respect to the distribution of various symptoms, motor subtypes, and associated aetiologies.

  11. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk for delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We implemented a delirium prevention policy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with a high risk of developing delirium, and evaluated if our policy resulted in quality improvement of relevant delirium outcome measures. Methods This study was a before/after evaluation of a delirium prevention project using prophylactic treatment with haloperidol. Patients with a predicted risk for delirium of ≥ 50%, or with a history of alcohol abuse or dementia, were identified. According to the prevention protocol these patients received haloperidol 1 mg/8 h. Evaluation was primarily focused on delirium incidence, delirium free days without coma and 28-day mortality. Results of prophylactic treatment were compared with a historical control group and a contemporary group that did not receive haloperidol prophylaxis mainly due to non-compliance to the protocol mostly during the implementation phase. Results In 12 months, 177 patients received haloperidol prophylaxis. Except for sepsis, patient characteristics were comparable between the prevention and the historical (n = 299) groups. Predicted chance to develop delirium was 75 ± 19% and 73 ± 22%, respectively. Haloperidol prophylaxis resulted in a lower delirium incidence (65% vs. 75%, P = 0.01), and more delirium-free-days (median 20 days (IQR 8 to 27) vs. median 13 days (3 to 27), P = 0.003) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Cox-regression analysis adjusted for sepsis showed a hazard rate of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.98) for 28-day mortality. Beneficial effects of haloperidol appeared most pronounced in the patients with the highest risk for delirium. Furthermore, haloperidol prophylaxis resulted in less ICU re-admissions (11% vs. 18%, P = 0.03) and unplanned removal of tubes/lines (12% vs. 19%, P = 0.02). Haloperidol was stopped in 12 patients because of QTc-time prolongation (n = 9), renal failure (n = 1) or

  13. Delirium in advanced age and dementia: A prolonged refractory course of delirium and lower functional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOETTGER, SOENKE; JENEWEIN, JOSEF; BREITBART, WILLIAM

    2017-01-01

    Objective The factors associated with persistent delirium, in contrast to resolved delirium, have not been studied well. The aim of our present study was to identify the factors associated with delirium resolution as measured by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and functional improvement as measured by the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale. Method All subjects were recruited from psychiatric referrals at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The two study instruments were performed at baseline (T1), at 2–3 days (T2), and at 4–7 days (T3). Subjects with persistent delirium were compared to those with resolved delirium in respect to sociodemographic and medical variables. Results Overall, 26 out of 111 patients had persistent delirium. These patients were older, predominantly male, and had more frequently preexisting comorbid dementia. Among cancer diagnoses and stage of illness, brain cancer and terminal illness contributed to persistent delirium or late response, whereas gastrointestinal cancer was associated with resolved delirium. Among etiologies, infection responded late to delirium management, usually at one week. Furthermore, delirium was more severe in patients with persistent delirium from baseline through one week. At baseline, MDAS scores were 20.1 in persistent delirium compared to 17 to 18.8 in resolved delirium (T2 and T3), and at one week of management (T3), MDAS scores were 15.2 and 4.7 to 7.4, respectively. At one week of management, persistent delirium manifested in more severe impairment in the domains of consciousness, cognition, organization, perception, psychomotor behavior, and sleep–wake cycle. In addition, persistent delirium caused more severe functional impairment. Significance of results In this delirium sample, advanced age and preexisting dementia, as well as brain cancer, terminal illness, infection, and delirium severity contributed to persistent delirium or late response, indicating a prolonged

  14. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  15. Delirium Associated With Fluoxetine Discontinuation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    Withdrawal symptoms on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation have raised clinical attention increasingly. However, delirium is rarely reported in the SSRI discontinuation syndrome. We report a case of delirium developing after fluoxetine discontinuation in a 65-year-old female patient with major depressive disorder. She experienced psychotic depression with limited response to treatment of fluoxetine 40 mg/d and quetiapine 100 mg/d for 3 months. After admission, we tapered fluoxetine gradually in 5 days because of its limited effect. However, delirious pictures developed 2 days after we stopped fluoxetine. Three days later, we added back fluoxetine 10 mg/d. Her delirious features gradually improved, and the clinical presentation turned into previous psychotic depression state. We gradually increased the medication to fluoxetine 60 mg/d and olanzapine 20 mg/d in the following 3 weeks. Her psychotic symptoms decreased, and there has been no delirious picture noted thereafter. Delirium associated with fluoxetine discontinuation is a much rarer complication in SSRI discontinuation syndrome. The symptoms of SSRI discontinuation syndrome may be attributable to a rapid decrease in serotonin availability. In general, the shorter the half-life of any medication, the greater the likelihood patients will experience discontinuation symptoms. Genetic vulnerability might be a potential factor to explain that SSRI discontinuation syndrome also occurred rapidly in people taking long-half-life fluoxetine. The genetic polymorphisms of both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways might be potentially associated with SSRI discontinuation syndrome.

  16. Subsyndromal delirium compared with delirium, dementia, and subjects without delirium or dementia in elderly general hospital admissions and nursing home residents

    OpenAIRE

    Sepulveda, Esteban; Leonard, Maeve; Franco, Jose G.; Adamis, Dimitrios; McCarthy, Geraldine; Dunne, Colum; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Gaviria, Ana M.; de Pablo, Joan; Vilella, Elisabet; Meagher, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Subsyndromal delirium (SSD) complicates diagnosis of delirium and dementia, although there is little research comparing their symptom profiles. Methods Cross-sectional study of 400 elderly patients' admission to a general hospital or nursing home diagnosed with delirium, SSD, dementia, or no-delirium/no-dementia (NDND). Symptom profiles were assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98). Results Twenty percent patients had delirium, 19.3% had SSD, 29.8% had dement...

  17. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  18. Impact of Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or alcohol abuse Dehydration Electrolyte or other body chemical disturbances Infections such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia Poisons Recent surgery Disrupted and/or insufficient sleep Treatment Treatment depends on the condition of the ...

  19. Is medical treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome a Stag Hunt? Challenges and opportunities in managing risk and uncertainty in addiction cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza RL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Roger Lee Mendoza School of Business, Wilmington University, New Castle, DE, USA Purpose: While the individual and social costs of alcoholism or alcohol use disorder are well established, few are aware that medical problems can arise during detoxification, some of which can be life-threatening. This study determines if sustained treatment for Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS might be based on the strategic choices and expectations of patients and health care providers alike, as well as the risk mitigation options available to them.Design/approach: AWS was modeled as a Stag Hunt to explain both risk and decision-making in medical treatments for detoxification, since it can deduce a set of equilibrium strategies available to both patient and provider. Modeling was based on a review of juried literature gathered from search engines with the use medical subject heading terms.Main findings: While there is little evidence that decision-making is shared between patient and physician in AWS treatments, the outcomes of their interactions depend on utility-maximizing choices each makes in anticipation of the other. Payoff-dominant and risk-dominant treatment outcomes are equally likely and equally cost-efficient, as conditioned by the presence (or absence of mutual trust and assurance in reciprocal transactions.Conclusion/value: Simulation games, such as the Stag Hunt, offer a viable framework to understand patient and provider incentives and health-affecting behaviors during treatments for addiction cessation. If both anticipate indefinitely interacting in the absence of any predetermined or foreseeable final visit, they can maximize future payoffs from mutual cooperation and accountability, which fosters health promotion. However, this study suggests that the effect of cooperation is distinct from the effect of time in AWS and other addiction-cessation programs. Keywords: health-affecting behaviors, healthcare provider, patient compliance, payoff

  20. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  1. Recognition of Delirium in Postoperative Elderly Patients : A Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Numan, Tianne; van den Boogaard, Mark; Kamper, Adriaan M.; Rood, Paul J.T.; Peelen, Linda M.; Slooter, Arjen J.C.

    Objectives: To evaluate to what extent delirium experts agree on the diagnosis of delirium when independently assessing exactly the same information and to evaluate the sensitivity of delirium screening tools in routine daily practice of clinical nurses. Design: Prospective observational

  2. "Diazepam loading": ¿Can a strategy for preventing alcohol withdrawal be used to treat benzodiazepine use disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Clara; Fortea, Adriana; Espinosa, Laura; Barrio, Pablo; Lligoña, Anna; Balcells-Olivero, Mercè

    2018-04-15

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are central nervous system (CNS) depressants which are widely used to treat insomnia and anxiety, despite having long-term adverse side effects. (Fortea González, Oriolo, Balcells Oliveró, Sánchez Del Valle & Castellvi, 2017). As with alcohol, continued use can lead to tolerance and dependence phenomena. Discontinuation in such cases can produce abstinence symptoms such as tremors, anxiety, seizures and, occasionally, death (Brett y Murnion, 2015).

  3. [Electroencephalography in delirium superimposed on dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemaaijer, Judith I; Wijnen, Viona J M; van Gool, W A

    2017-09-01

    Recognizing delirium superimposed on pre-existing cognitive impairment or dementia, 'delirium superimposed on dementia' (DSD), is challenging because signs of delirium might be interpreted as symptoms of pre-existing cognitive dysfunction.In this paper, we review the literature on the role of electrencephalography (EEG) in the differential diagnosis of delirium, dementia and DSD.Conventional EEG, applying twenty to thirty electrodes, taking thirty minutes registration, is not feasible in psychogeriatric patients. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to reliably detect delirium using only a limited number of EEG electrodes for a short period of time.With this, use of EEG in the detection of delirium in patients with cognitive impairment or clinically manifest dementia could be possible.

  4. Consensus and variations in opinions on delirium care: a survey of European delirium specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morandi, A.; Davis, D.; Taylor, J. K.; Bellelli, G.; Olofsson, B.; Kreisel, S.; Teodorczuk, A.; Kamholz, B.; Hasemann, W.; Young, J.; Agar, M.; de Rooij, S. E.; Meagher, D.; Trabucchi, M.; Maclullich, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    There are still substantial uncertainties over best practice in delirium care. The European Delirium Association (EDA) conducted a survey of its members and other interested parties on various aspects of delirium care. The invitation to participate in the online survey was distributed among the EDA

  5. Intensive care nurses' experiences and perceptions of delirium and delirium care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamoscik, Katarzyna; Godbold, Rosemary; Freeman, Pauline

    2017-06-01

    To explore nurses' experiences and perceptions of delirium, managing delirious patients, and screening for delirium, five years after introduction of the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care into standard practice. Twelve nurses from a medical-surgical intensive care unit in a large teaching hospital attended two focus group sessions. The collected qualitative data was thematically analysed using Braun and Clarke's framework (2006). The analysis identified seven themes: (1) Delirium as a Secondary Matter (2) Unpleasant Nature of Delirium (3) Scepticism About Delirium Assessment (4) Distrust in Delirium Management (5) Value of Communication (6) Non-pharmacological Therapy (7) Need for Reviewed Delirium Policy. Nurses described perceiving delirium as a low priority matter and linked it to work culture within the intensive care specialty. Simultaneously, they expressed their readiness to challenge this culture and to promote the notion of providing high-quality delirium care. Nurses discussed their frustrations related to lack of confidence in assessing delirium, as well as lack of effective therapies in managing this group of patients. They declared their appreciation for non-pharmacological interventions in treatment of delirium, suggested improvements to current delirium approach and proposed introducing psychological support for nurses dealing with delirious patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative proteomics of delirium cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, A; Hill, M; Hall, R J; MacLullich, A M; Raftery, M J; Tai, J; Yan, S; Caplan, G A

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common cause and complication of hospitalization in older people, being associated with higher risk of future dementia and progression of existing dementia. However relatively little data are available on which biochemical pathways are dysregulated in the brain during delirium episodes, whether there are protein expression changes common among delirium subjects and whether there are any changes which correlate with the severity of delirium. We now present the first proteomic analysis of delirium cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and one of few studies exploring protein expression changes in delirium. More than 270 proteins were identified in two delirium cohorts, 16 of which were dysregulated in at least 8 of 17 delirium subjects compared with a mild Alzheimer's disease neurological control group, and 31 proteins were significantly correlated with cognitive scores (mini-mental state exam and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation III). Bioinformatics analyses revealed expression changes in several protein family groups, including apolipoproteins, secretogranins/chromogranins, clotting/fibrinolysis factors, serine protease inhibitors and acute-phase response elements. These data not only provide confirmatory evidence that the inflammatory response is a component of delirium, but also reveal dysregulation of protein expression in a number of novel and unexpected clusters of proteins, in particular the granins. Another surprising outcome of this work is the level of similarity of CSF protein profiles in delirium patients, given the diversity of causes of this syndrome. These data provide additional elements for consideration in the pathophysiology of delirium as well as potential biomarker candidates for delirium diagnosis. PMID:25369144

  7. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Carum copticum on withdrawal syndrome in adult rats addicted to morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A honarvar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Long-term useofopioidcreates toleranceandphysical and psychologicaldependence. Discontinuation of the drug, creating ashortageofendogenousopioidsandwithdrawal syndromeemerges.Addictiontreatmentin traditional medicine isusing ofherbssuch asCarumcopticumthathas manytherapeutic effects. The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluatethe effects of hydro-alcoholic extractof Carumcopticum onwithdrawalsyndromein adult ratsaddictedto morphine. Material & Method: In this study70male Wistarratsdividedinto seven groups of 10, six groups were addicted by morphinesulfateinjection (the first 5days10 mg/kg, the second 5days15 mg/kg andon the dayfrom11 to21, 20mg/kg subcutaneouslyfor 21 days.Groups three, four and five were fed respectively 10%, 20% Carumcopticum extract and methadone (mg/kg 5 after addiction of animals until the end of period. Groups sixandseven were given respectively10%and 20% of Carumcopticumextractfrom the beginning to the end of treatment period orally.Group one(control andGrouptwo (morphine were fed daily 0.5 mL of saline orally to the end of the treatment period (day 21to 35.Datacollected from body weight, jumping, itchingand diarrhea ofanimals wereanalyzedby SPSS software, using Unpaired T test, ANOVA and LSD as post-hoc statistical tests. Finding: Comparing the mean of weight loose ofthe animals in different treatmentgroupson day21with 35showed statistical significant reduction in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%. On the day 21,itchingand jumping, in the group that received extract of Carumcopticum 10%,and the diarrhea, in the group that receivedthe extract ofCarumcopticum20%compared withthe control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05.On day35,Jumping and diarrheain thegroupsreceived theextract ofCarumcopticum10 and 20percent comparedwith the control groupshoweda significant decrease(P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, hydro-alcoholic extract of carumcopticum inconcentration of 10and 20

  8. Effect of delirium motoric subtypes on administrative documentation of delirium in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Lan N; Pham, Vy P; Shirkey, Beverly A; Swan, Joshua T

    2017-06-01

    This study compares the proportions of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with delirium detected using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) who received administrative documentation for delirium using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes, stratified by delirium motoric subtypes. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a surgical ICU from 06/2012 to 05/2013. Delirium was assessed twice daily and was defined as having ≥1 positive CAM-ICU rating. Delirious patients were categorized into hyperactive/mixed and hypoactive subtypes using corresponding Richmond Agitation Sedation Scales. Administrative documentation of delirium was defined as having ≥1 of 32 unique ICD-9-CM codes. Proportions were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test. Of included patients, 40 % (423/1055) were diagnosed with delirium, and 17 % (183/1055) had an ICD-9-CM code for delirium. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9-CM codes for delirium were 36 and 95 %. ICD-9-CM codes for delirium were available for 42 % (95 % CI 35-48 %; 105/253) of patients with hyperactive/mixed delirium and 27 % (95 % CI 20-34 %; 46/170) of patients with hypoactive delirium (relative risk = 1.5; 95 % CI 1.2-2.0; p = 0.002). ICD-9-CM codes yielded a low sensitivity for identifying patients with CAM-ICU positive delirium and were more likely to identify hyperactive/mixed delirium compared with hypoactive delirium.

  9. The Dilemma of Delirium in Older Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of delirium drug trials, but also suggests that changes in nursing and hospital protocols today could help prevent the ... is critical,” Dr. Flaherty said. Examples of such changes include ... hospitals and nursing facilities to prevent, treat, and manage delirium,” he ...

  10. Prolonged delirium misdiagnosed as a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fei; Salem, Haitham; Nagpal, Caesa; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2017-01-01

    Delirium can be conceptualized as an acute decline in cognitive function that typically lasts from hours to a few days. Prolonged delirium can also affect patients with multiple predisposing and/or precipitating factors. In clinical practice, prolonged delirium is often unrecognized, and can be misdiagnosed as other psychiatric disorders. We describe a case of a 59-year-old male presenting with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that was first misdiagnosed as a mood disorder in a general hospital setting. After prolonged delirium due to multiple factors was confirmed, the patient was treated accordingly with symptomatic management. He evolved with progressive improvement of his clinical status. Early diagnosis and management of prolonged delirium are important to improve patient prognosis and avoid iatrogenic measures.

  11. Delirium in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is characterized by impaired cognition with nonspecific manifestations. In critically ill patients, it may develop secondary to multiple precipitating or predisposing causes. Although it can be a transient and reversible syndrome, its occurrence in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients may be associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. This condition is often under-recognized by treating physicians, leading to inappropriate management. For appropriate management of delirium, early identification and risk factor assessment are key factors. Multidisciplinary collaboration and standardized care can enhance the recognition of delirium. Interdisciplinary team working, together with updated guideline implementation, demonstrates proven success in minimizing delirium in the ICU. Moreover, should the use of physical restraint be necessary to prevent harm among mechanically ventilated patients, ethical clinical practice methodology must be employed. This traditional narrative review aims to address the presentation, risk factors, management, and ethical considerations in the management of delirium in ICU settings.

  12. Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: The Delirium and Catatonia Prospective Cohort Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo E; Carlson, Richard; Duggan, Maria C; Pandharipande, Pratik; Girard, Timothy D; Wang, Li; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Francis, Andrew; Nicolson, Stephen E; Dittus, Robert S; Heckers, Stephan; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-11-01

    Catatonia, a condition characterized by motor, behavioral, and emotional changes, can occur during critical illness and appear as clinically similar to delirium, yet its management differs from delirium. Traditional criteria for medical catatonia preclude its diagnosis in delirium. Our objective in this investigation was to understand the overlap and relationship between delirium and catatonia in ICU patients and determine diagnostic thresholds for catatonia. Convenience cohort, nested within two ongoing randomized trials. Single academic medical center in Nashville, TN. We enrolled 136 critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors, randomized to two usual care sedation regimens. Patients were assessed for delirium and catatonia by independent and masked personnel using Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale mapped to Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criterion A for catatonia. Of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had only delirium, four (3%) had only catatonia, 42 (31%) had both, and 32 (24%) had neither. In a logistic regression model, more catatonia signs were associated with greater odds of having delirium. For example, patient assessments with greater than or equal to three Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 symptoms (75th percentile) had, on average, 27.8 times the odds (interquartile range, 12.7-60.6) of having delirium compared with patient assessments with zero Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria (25th percentile) present (p delirium, these data prompt reconsideration of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria for "Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition" that preclude diagnosing catatonia in the presence of delirium.

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  15. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  16. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Advancing the Neurophysiological Understanding of Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Mouhsin M; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Marcantonio, Edward R; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is a common problem associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. However, the brain dysfunction that leads some individuals to develop delirium in response to stressors is unclear. In this article, we briefly review the neurophysiologic literature characterizing the changes in brain function that occur in delirium, and in other cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on this literature, we propose a conceptual model for delirium. We propose that delirium results from a breakdown of brain function in individuals with impairments in brain connectivity and brain plasticity exposed to a stressor. The validity of this conceptual model can be tested using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in combination with Electroencephalography, and, if accurate, could lead to the development of biomarkers for delirium risk in individual patients. This model could also be used to guide interventions to decrease the risk of cerebral dysfunction in patients preoperatively, and facilitate recovery in patients during or after an episode of delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. The course of delirium in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John; Pathansali, Rohan; Hassan, Hardi; Ouldred, Emma; Cooper, Derek; Stewart, Robert; Macdonald, Alastair; Jackson, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    several studies have assessed delirium post-stroke but conflicting results have been obtained. Also, the natural history and outcome of delirium post-stroke need to be fully elucidated. eligible stroke patients were assessed for delirium on admission and for four consecutive weeks using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Risk factors for delirium were recorded. Our outcome measures were length of stay, inpatient mortality and discharge destination. of 110 eligible patients, 82 were recruited over 7 months. Delirium was detected in 23 patients (28%); 21 of these were delirious on their first assessment. Sixty-nine per cent of patients who had four weekly assessments were delirious at 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and two models were identified. With unsafe swallow in the analysis, delirium was associated with an unsafe swallow on admission (OR 28.4, Pstroke (OR 110.8, P = 0.01). With unsafe swallow removed from the analysis, delirium was associated with an admission C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5 mg/l (OR 10.2, P = 0.009), Barthel score stroke (OR 85.2, P = 0.01). Delirious patients had a higher mortality (30.4% vs. 1.7%, Pvs. 28.9 days, Pvs. 5.2%, OR 14, Pstroke. Most cases develop at stroke onset and remain delirious for an appreciable period. Delirium onset is associated with stroke severity (low admission Barthel), unsafe swallow on admission, poor vision pre-stroke and a raised admission CRP. Delirium is a marker of poor prognosis.

  20. Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Beliefs About Delirium Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhouse, Kimberly J; Vincent, Catherine; Foreman, Marquis D; Gruss, Valerie A; Corte, Colleen; Berger, Barbara

    2016-10-01

    Delirium, the most frequent complication of hospitalized older adults, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), can result in increased mortality rates and length of stay. Nurses are neither consistently identifying nor managing delirium in these patients. The purpose of this study was to explore ICU nurses' identification of delirium, actions they would take for patients with signs or symptoms of delirium, and beliefs about delirium assessment and management. In this cross-sectional study using qualitative descriptive methods guided by the theory of planned behavior, 30 ICU nurses' responses to patient vignettes depicting different delirium subtypes were explored. Descriptive and content analyses revealed that nurses did not consistently identify delirium; their actions varied in different vignettes. Nurses believed that they needed adequate staffing, balanced workload, interprofessional collaboration, and established policy and protocols to identify and manage delirium successfully. Research is needed to determine if implementing these changes increases recognition and decreases consequences of delirium. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  1. Delirium and refeeding syndrome in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark L; Pinhas, Leora; Nadeau, Pierre-Olivier; Katzman, Debra K

    2012-04-01

    To review the literature on delirium and refeeding syndrome in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and present case examples in an attempt to identify common clinical features and response to therapy. A comprehensive literature review was completed. In addition to the cases identified in the literature, we present two additional cases of our own. We identified a total of 10 cases (all female; mean age 19 years old, range 12-29 years); 2/3 of the cases had similar clinical features predating the delirium and during refeeding. Delirium, albeit rare, can be associated with the refeeding syndrome in low weight patients with AN. During the initial refeeding phase, close monitoring of medical, metabolic, and psychological parameters are important in establishing factors that may elevate risk. Early detection and treatment of delirium using nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic means are also important to help minimize the effects of this potentially deadly condition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk factors for delirium – characteristics of patients at risk of delirium in Geriatric Ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Otremba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delirium is an acute cognitive disorder comorbid with impaired consciousness and psychomotor activity. It occurs in 30–50% of patients in geriatric wards. It is the most common and least recognized syndrome in geriatrics. Objectives. The aim of the study was to formulate the characteristics of the patient’s risk of developing delirium in the Geriatric Ward. Material and methods . The study included all patients admitted to the Ward from 15 June 2013 until 15 June 2014 (n = 788. In 5% (n = 41 diagnosed symptoms of delirium. Assessment of the need for care – by Barthel, independence by IADL, the pain by VAS or DOLOPLUS, mental status by MMSE, the risk of falling by the “get up and go” test, occurrence of delirium by CAM, depth of delirium by DOM, agitation-sedation by RASS. Results. In the group with symptoms of delirium (n = 41 there were 76% (n = 31 female and 24% (n = 10 male. In 90% (n = 37 the mobility was impaired. By the Barthel 41% (n = 20 had ≤ 40 points, by IADL 78% (n = 32 had ≤ 16 points. 85% (n = 35 has high risk of falling. By VAS 71% (n = 26, (n = 36 – ≥ 4 points, the pain by DOLOPLUS – 16.7 points (15% of the group (n = 5. By MMSE 66% (n = 27 had ≤ 18 points. Delirium in an interview – 61% (n = 24. 61% (n = 26 had used ≥ 5 drugs. Incontinence – 56% (n = 25, bladder catheterization – 27% (n = 11. 83% (n = 34 had ≥ 10 risk factors for delirium. Conclusions . The patient at risk of delirium is the patient with concomitant: dementia, delirium in the past, urinary incontinence, limited mobility and pain, patients taking drugs ≥ 5, involving ≥ 10 risk factors for delirium.

  3. Symptoms of delirium predict incident delirium in older long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Detection of long-term care (LTC) residents at risk of delirium may lead to prevention of this disorder. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the presence of one or more Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium. Secondary objectives were to determine if the number or the type of symptoms predict incident delirium. The study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective study of delirium among older residents of seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for six months. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine if baseline symptoms predict incident delirium. Of 273 residents, 40 (14.7%) developed incident delirium. Mean (SD) time to onset of delirium was 10.8 (7.4) weeks. When one or more CAM core symptoms were present at baseline, the Hazard Ratio (HR) for incident delirium was 3.5 (95% CI = 1.4, 8.9). The HRs for number of symptoms present ranged from 2.9 (95% CI = 1.0, 8.3) for one symptom to 3.8 (95% CI = 1.3, 11.0) for three symptoms. The HR for one type of symptom, fluctuation, was 2.2 (95% CI = 1.2, 4.2). The presence of CAM core symptoms at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium in older LTC residents. These findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings.

  4. Hematoma epidurale in patients with delirium tremens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasper

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In this report we presented a case of diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of the patient with delirium tremens in the Psychiatric Ward of the Cantonal Hospital in Zenica. Neuroradiologic diagnostics had shown existance of epiduralhematoma. The patient was transfered to the Neurosurgery Ward for observation and treatment. Difficultieswith differential diagnostics were caused by already present state of delirium as well as an old neurological deficitrelated to right side hemiparesis.

  5. Do patients of delirium have catatonic features? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Ghosh, Abhishek; Ghormode, Deepak

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of catatonic symptoms, as per the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS), in patients with delirium and to evaluate the prevalence of catatonia as defined by the Bush Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument and DSM-5 criteria in patients with delirium. Two hundred five consecutive subjects with delirium were assessed on the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 98 version, the amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale and the BFCRS. On the BFCRS, two-fifths (n = 80; 39%) of the study participants had two or more catatonic symptoms. When the diagnosis of catatonic syndrome was considered, 32% and 12.7% were observed to have catatonia as per the Bush Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument and proposed DSM-5 criteria, respectively. Delirium with catatonic syndrome was more common in women and in those who had onset of delirium prior to hospitalization. Amongst the delirium subtypes, hypoactive delirium was more commonly associated with catatonic syndrome. The present study suggests that a substantial number of patients with delirium have catatonic symptoms and a significant proportion have catatonic syndrome. This high prevalence makes the concurrent diagnosis of delirium and catatonia plausible. The association of catatonia with a specific motor subtype of delirium could encourage the expansion or even modification of the existing subtypes of delirium. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Symptom communication during critical illness: the impact of age, delirium, and delirium presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Judith A; Sereika, Susan; Divirgilio, Dana; Nilsen, Marci; Demerci, Jill; Campbell, Grace; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-08-01

    Symptom communication is integral to quality patient care. Communication between patients and nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) is complicated by oral or endotracheal intubation and fluctuating neurocognitive status or delirium. We report the (a) prevalence of delirium and its subtypes in non-vocal, mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients; (b) impact of age on delirium; and (c) influence of delirium and age on symptom communication. Videorecorded interactions between patients (N = 89) and nurses (N = 30) were analyzed for evidence of patient symptom communication at four time points across 2 consecutive days. Delirium was measured at enrollment and following sessions. Delirium prevalence was 23.6% at enrollment and 28.7% across sessions. Participants age >60 were more likely to be delirious on enrollment and during observational sessions. Delirium was associated with self-report of pain, drowsiness, and feeling cold. Patients were significantly less likely to initiate symptom communication when delirious. Symptom identification should be carefully undertaken in older adults with or without delirium. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Evidence for a causative role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in an in vitro model of alcohol withdrawal hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M P; Monaghan, D T; Morrisett, R A

    1998-10-01

    Synaptic mechanisms underlying hyperexcitability due to withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure were investigated in a hippocampal explant model system using electrophysiological techniques. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure inhibited N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents by over 40%. Chronic ethanol exposure for 6 to 11 days at 35 or 75 mM induced no differences from control explants in the fast component of the population synaptic response (non-NMDAR-mediated). Prolonged field potential recordings (to 10 hr) were used to monitor the withdrawal process in vitro. Ethanol-exposed explants from both 35 and 75 mM groups displayed an increase (60% and 89%, respectively) in the NMDAR-mediated component of synaptic transmission on withdrawal from chronic exposure. Prolonged tonic-clonic electrographic seizure activity was consistently observed after ethanol withdrawal only after the increase in NMDAR function. This hyperexcitability was inhibited by the NMDAR antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid and returned once the NMDAR component was reestablished after antagonist washout. In situ hybridization studies suggest that expression of NR2B subunit mRNA may be enhanced in explants after chronic ethanol exposure. No lasting differences were observed in the NMDAR component after acute in vitro ethanol exposure and withdrawal. These data suggest that the occurance of ethanol withdrawal hyperexcitability in this system may be directly dependent on alterations in NMDAR function after chronic exposure. Since this region and others that contain ethanol sensitive NMDARs may serve as epileptic foci, long term alterations in NMDAR function may be expected to generate paroxysmal depolarizing shifts underlying ictal events after withdrawal from ethanol exposure.

  8. Documentation of delirium in the VA electronic health record

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Carol; Estrada, Nicollete; Weir, Charlene; Teng, Chia-Chen; Damal, Kavitha; Sauer, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is a life-threatening, clinical syndrome common among the elderly and hospitalized patients. Delirium is under-recognized and misdiagnosed, complicating efforts to study the epidemiology and construct appropriate decision support to improve patient care. This study was primarily conducted to realize how providers documented confirmed cases of delirium in electronic health records as a preliminary step for using computerized methods to identify patients with delirium from e...

  9. Delirium in elderly people: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia eMartins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present review aims to highlight this intricate syndrome, regarding diagnosis, pathophysiology, etiology, prevention and management in elderly people. The diagnosis of delirium is based on clinical observations, cognitive assessment, detailed family history, physical and neurological examination. Clinically, delirium occurs in hyperactive, hypoactive or mixed forms, based on psychomotor behaviour. As an acute confusional state, it is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, fluctuating course and an altered level of consciousness, global disturbance of cognition or perceptual abnormalities and evidence of a physical cause.In spite of pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium remaining unclear, current evidence suggests that disruption of neurotransmission, inflammation or acute stress responses might all contribute to the development of this ailment.It usually occurs as a result of a complex interaction of multiple risk factors, such as cognitive impairment/dementia, current hip fracture and presence of severe illness.Despite all of the above, delirium is frequently under-recognized and often misdiagnosed by health professionals. In particular, this happens due to its fluctuating nature, its overlap with dementia and the scarcity of routine formal cognitive assessment in general hospitals.It is also associated with multiple adverse outcomes that have been well documented, such as increased hospital stay, function/cognitive decline, institutionalization and mortality.In this context, early identification of delirium will be essential. Timely and optimal management of people with delirium, should be performed with identification of possible underlying causes, dealing with a suitable care environment and improving education of health professionals. All these can be important factors, which contribute to a decrease in adverse outcomes associated with delirium.

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Apolipoprotein E Levels in Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon A. Caplan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Delirium and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele are risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD, but the connection is unclear. We looked for an association. Methods: Inpatients with delirium (n = 18 were compared with LOAD outpatients (n = 19, assaying blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using multiplex ELISA. Results: The patients with delirium had a higher Confusion Assessment Method (CAM score (5.6 ± 1.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0; p < 0.001 and Delirium Index (13.1 ± 4.0 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2; p = 0.001 but a lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score (14.3 ± 6.8 vs. 20.8 ± 4.6; p = 0.003. There was a reduction in absolute CSF apolipoprotein E level during delirium (median [interquartile range]: 9.55 μg/mL [5.65–15.05] vs. 16.86 μg/mL [14.82–20.88]; p = 0.016 but no differences in apolipoprotein A1, B, C3, H, and J. There were no differences in blood apolipoprotein levels, and no correlations between blood and CSF apolipoprotein levels. CSF apolipoprotein E correlated negatively with the CAM score (r = –0.354; p = 0.034 and Delirium Index (r = –0.341; p = 0.042 but not with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE index, or the MMSE or Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE. Conclusion: Reduced CSF apolipoprotein E levels during delirium may be a mechanistic link between two important risk factors for LOAD.

  11. Studies on circadian rhythm disturbances and melatonin in delirium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonghe, A.-M.

    2014-01-01

    The circadian sleep/wake rhythm disturbances that are seen in delirium and the role of melatonin supplementation provide a new angle in delirium research. More research is needed to determine the role of melatonin in the pathophysiological mechanisms of delirium and to determine whether the

  12. Delirium in the Critically Ill Child: Assessment and Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rebecca S; Kenardy, Justin A; De Young, Alexandra C; Dow, Belinda L; Long, Debbie A

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature. In particular, our knowledge of how to assess delirium is complicated by challenges in recognizing symptoms of delirium in pediatric patients especially in critical and intensive care settings, and our understanding of its impact on acute and long-term functioning remains in its infancy. This paper focuses on (a) the challenges associated with assessing delirium in critically ill children, (b) the current literature on the outcomes of delirium including morbidity following discharge from PICU, and care-giver well-being, and (c) the importance of assessment in determining impact of delirium on outcome. Current evidence suggests that delirium is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and may play a detrimental role in a child's recovery after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Recommendations are proposed for how our knowledge and assessment of delirium in children could be improved.

  13. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit | Kallenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium poses a significant burden on our healthcare, with patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at an increased risk for developing this disorder. In addition, the ICU environment poses unique challenges in the assessment of delirium. It is paramount that the healthcare provider has an understanding of delirium in ICU, ...

  14. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  15. Using the Chinese version of Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale to describe postoperative delirium after hip surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyong eShi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS assesses severity of delirium. However, whether the MDAS can be used in a Chinese population is unknown. Moreover, the optimal postoperative MDAS cutoff point for describing postoperative delirium in Chinese remains largely to be determined. We therefore performed a pilot study to validate MDAS in the Chinese language and to determine the optimal postoperative MDAS cutoff point for delirium. Methods: Eighty-two patients (80 ± 6 years, 18% male who had hip surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and Mini-mental state examination (MMSE were administered in the patients before surgery. The CAM and MDAS were performed in the patients on the first, second, and fourth postoperative day. The reliability and validity of the MDAS were determined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the optimal Chinese version MDAS cutoff point for the identification of delirium. Results: The Chinese version of the MDAS had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.910. ROC analysis obtained an average optimal MDAS cutoff point of 7.5 in describing the CAM-defined postoperative delirium with an area under the ROC of 0.990 (95% CI 0.977-1.000, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The Chinese version of MDAS had good reliability and validity. The patients whose postoperative Chinese version of MDAS cutoff point was 7.5 would likely have postoperative delirium. These results have established a system for a future larger scale study.

  16. Delirium subtype identification and the validation of the Delirium Rating Scale--Revised-98 (Dutch version) in hospitalized elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Casteelen, Gerty; Schuurmans, Marieke J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Levi, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is the most common acute neuropsychiatric disorder in hospitalized elderly. The Dutch version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) appears to be a reliable method to classify delirium. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the

  17. Documentation of delirium in the VA electronic health record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is a life-threatening, clinical syndrome common among the elderly and hospitalized patients. Delirium is under-recognized and misdiagnosed, complicating efforts to study the epidemiology and construct appropriate decision support to improve patient care. This study was primarily conducted to realize how providers documented confirmed cases of delirium in electronic health records as a preliminary step for using computerized methods to identify patients with delirium from electronic health records. Methods The Mental Health Consult (MHC) team reported cases of delirium to the study team during a 6-month study period (December 1, 2009 - May 31, 2010). A chart extraction tool was developed to abstract documentation of diagnosis, signs and symptoms and known risk factors of delirium. A nurse practitioner, and a clinical pharmacist independently reviewed clinical notes during each patients hospital stay to determine if delirium and or sign and symptoms of delirium were documented. Results The MHC team reported 25 cases of delirium. When excluding MHC team notes, delirium was documented for 5 of the 25 patients (one reported case in a physician’s note, four in discharge summaries). Delirium was ICD-9 Coded for 7 of the 25 cases. Signs and symptoms associated with delirium were characterized in 8 physician notes, 11 discharge summaries, and 14 nursing notes, accounting for 16 of the 25 cases with identified delirium. Conclusions Documentation of delirium is highly inconsistent even with a confirmed diagnosis. Hence, efforts to use existing data to precisely estimate the prevalence of delirium or to conduct epidemiological studies based on medical records will be challenging. PMID:24708799

  18. Emergency Department Management of Delirium in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E.J. Gower, DO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of elderly patients are presenting to the emergency department. Numerousstudies have observed that emergency physicians often fail to identify and diagnose delirium in theelderly. These studies also suggest that even when emergency physicians recognized delirium, theystill may not have fully appreciated the import of the diagnosis. Delirium is not a normal manifestation ofaging and, often, is the only sign of a serious underlying medical condition. This article will review thesignificance, definition, and principal features of delirium so that emergency physicians may betterappreciate, recognize, evaluate, and manage delirium in the elderly.

  19. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in wine...

  20. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  1. Delirium screening in intensive care: A life saving opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamond, E; Murray, S; Gibson, C E

    2018-02-01

    Delirium is described as 'acute brain failure' and constitutes a medical emergency which presents a hazard for people cared for in intensive care units. The Scottish intensive care society audit group recommend that all people cared for in intensive care units be screened for signs of delirium so that treatment and management of complications can be implemented at an early stage. There is inconsistent evidence about when and how the assessment of delirium is carried out by nursing staff in the intensive care setting. This narrative review explores the pathophysiology and current practices of delirium screening in intensive care. Consideration is given to the role of the nurse in detecting and managing delirium and some barriers to routine daily delirium screening are critically debated. It is argued that routine delirium screening is an essential element of safe, effective and person centred nursing care which has potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Interface of Delirium and Dementia in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Tamara G.; Davis, Daniel; Growdon, Matthew E.; Albuquerque, Asha; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Delirium and dementia are two of the most common causes of cognitive impairment in older populations, yet their interrelationship remains poorly understood. Previous studies have documented that dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium; and delirium is an independent risk factor for subsequent dementia. However, a major area of controversy is whether delirium is simply a marker of vulnerability to dementia, whether the impact of delirium is solely related to its precipitating factors, or whether delirium itself can cause permanent neuronal damage and lead to dementia. Ultimately, it is likely that all of these hypotheses are true. Emerging evidence from epidemiological, clinicopathological, neuroimaging, biomarker, and experimental studies provide support for a strong interrelationship and for both shared and distinct pathological mechanisms. Targeting delirium for new preventive and therapeutic approaches may offer the sought-after opportunity for early intervention, preservation of cognitive reserve, and prevention of irreversible cognitive decline in ageing. PMID:26139023

  3. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opiate withdrawal; Oxycontin - opiate withdrawal; Hydrocodone - opiate withdrawal; Detox - opiates; Detoxification - opiates ... facilities set up to help people with detoxification (detox). In a regular hospital, if symptoms are severe. ...

  4. Alcoholic epilepsy. A definition and a description of other convulsions related to alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, H; Katoh, N

    1981-01-01

    The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.

  5. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  6. Recognition of Delirium in Postoperative Elderly Patients: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Tianne; van den Boogaard, Mark; Kamper, Adriaan M; Rood, Paul J T; Peelen, Linda M; Slooter, Arjen J C

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate to what extent delirium experts agree on the diagnosis of delirium when independently assessing exactly the same information and to evaluate the sensitivity of delirium screening tools in routine daily practice of clinical nurses. Prospective observational longitudinal study. Three medical centers in the Netherlands. Elderly postoperative adults (n = 167). A researcher examined participants daily (Postoperative Day 1-3) for delirium using a standardized cognitive assessment and interview including the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 as global impression without any cut-off values that was recorded on video. Two delirium experts independently evaluated the videos and clinical information from the last 24 hours in the participants' record and classified each assessment as delirious, possibly delirious, or not delirious. Interrater agreement between the delirium experts was determined using weighted Cohen's kappa. When there was no consensus, a third expert was consulted. Final classification was based on median score and compared with the results of the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit and Delirium Observation Scale that clinical nurses administered. Four hundred twenty-four postoperative assessments of 167 participants were included. The overall kappa was 0.61 (95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.68). There was no agreement between the experts for 89 (21.0%) assessments and a third delirium expert was needed for the final classification. Delirium screening that nurses performed detected 32% of the assessments that the experts diagnosed as (possibly) delirious. There was considerable disagreement in classification of delirium by experts who independently assessed exactly the same information, showing the difficulty of delirium diagnosis. Furthermore, the sensitivity of daily delirium screening by clinical nurses was poor. Future research should focus on development of objective instruments to diagnose delirium. © 2017, Copyright the

  7. Debating the Role of Arousal in Delirium Diagnosis: Should Delirium Diagnosis Be Inclusive or Restrictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Mark A; Flaherty, Joseph H; Rudolph, James L

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is common in acute, postacute, and long-term care settings, and it can be difficult to recognize, especially without deliberate mental status evaluation. Because delirium typically presents with altered arousal and arousal can be assessed within a matter of seconds, routine assessment of arousal offers an efficient means of delirium screening. Nevertheless, impaired arousal often precludes formal assessment of attention and awareness, the cardinal features of delirium per the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Here we debate the relative merits of "ruling in" as delirious noncomatose patients with impaired arousal (inclusive approach) vs reserving delirium diagnosis to patients in whom diagnostic criteria can be elicited (restrictive approach). Inclusivism provides efficiency and may prevent missing or delaying delirium diagnosis. The restrictive approach challenges the utility of ruling such patients in as delirious and advocates for identifying mental states that directly inform clinical care. Both positions, however, firmly emphasize the value of routine clinical assessment of arousal. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Belzile, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that nurse detection of delirium has low sensitivity compared to a research diagnosis. As yet, no study has examined the use of nurse-observed delirium symptoms combined with research-observed delirium symptoms to diagnose delirium. Our specific aims were: (1) to describe the effect of using nurse-observed symptoms on the prevalence of delirium symptoms and diagnoses in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and (2) to compare the predictive validity of delirium diagnoses based on the use of research-observed symptoms alone with those based on research-observed and nurse-observed symptoms. Residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities were recruited into a prospective study. Using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), research assistants (RAs) interviewed residents and nurses to assess delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were also abstracted independently from nursing notes. Outcomes measured at five month follow-up were: death, the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS), the Barthel ADL scale, and a composite outcome measure (death, or a 10-point decline in either the HDS or the ADL score). The prevalence of delirium among 235 LTC residents increased from 14.0% (using research-observed symptoms only) to 24.7% (using research- and nurse-observed symptoms). The relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for prediction of the composite outcome, after adjustment for covariates, were: 1.43 (0.88, 1.96) for delirium using research-observed symptoms only; 1.77 (1.13, 2.28) for delirium using research- and nurse-observed symptoms, in comparison with no delirium. The inclusion of delirium symptoms observed by nurses not only increases the detection of delirium in LTC facilities but improves the prediction of outcomes.

  9. Predicting Delirium Duration in Elderly Hip-Surgery Patients: Does Early Symptom Profile Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal J. Slor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium. We compared patients experiencing delirium of short duration (1 or 2 days with patients who had more prolonged delirium (≥3 days with regard to DRS-R-98 (Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 symptoms on the first delirious day. Delirium symptom profile was evaluated daily during the delirium course. Results. In a homogenous population of 51 elderly hip-surgery patients, we found that the severity of individual delirium symptoms on the first day of delirium was not associated with duration of delirium. Preexisting cognitive decline was associated with prolonged delirium. Longitudinal analysis using the generalised estimating equations method (GEE identified that more severe impairment of long-term memory across the whole delirium episode was associated with longer duration of delirium. Conclusion. Preexisting cognitive decline rather than severity of individual delirium symptoms at onset is strongly associated with delirium duration.

  10. Delirium followed by neuroleptic malignant syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are two uncommon syndromes that are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by the primary physicians as functional psychiatric disorders. The infrequency and the heterogeneity of clinical manifestation, progression and outcome with which those diagnoses are ...

  11. Hematoma Locations Predicting Delirium Symptoms After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Polnaszek, Kelly L; Berman, Michael D; Voss, Joel L

    2016-06-01

    Delirium symptoms are associated with later worse functional outcomes and long-term cognitive impairments, but the neuroanatomical basis for delirium symptoms in patients with acute brain injury is currently uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that hematoma location is predictive of delirium symptoms in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, a model disease where patients are typically not sedated or bacteremic. We prospectively identified 90 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent routine twice-daily screening for delirium symptoms with a validated examination. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping with acute computed tomography was used to identify hematoma locations associated with delirium symptoms (N = 89). Acute delirium symptoms were predicted by hematoma of right-hemisphere subcortical white matter (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and parahippocampal gyrus. Hematoma including these locations had an odds ratio for delirium of 13 (95 % CI 3.9-43.3, P delirium symptoms. Higher odds ratio for delirium was increased due to hematoma location. The location of neurological injury could be of high prognostic value for predicting delirium symptoms.

  12. Relationship between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreville, Philippe; Voyer, Philippe; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Persons with dementia frequently present behavioral and psychological symptoms as well as delirium. However, the association between these has received little attention from researchers and current knowledge in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between delirium and behavioral symptoms of dementia (BSD). Participants were 155 persons with a diagnosis of dementia, 109 (70.3%) of whom were found delirious according to the Confusion Assessment Method. BSD were assessed using the Nursing Home Behavior Problem Scale. Participants with delirium presented significantly more BSD than participants without delirium. More specifically, they presented more wandering/trying to leave, sleep problems, and irrational behavior after controlling for cognitive problems and use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines. Most relationships between participant characteristics and BSD did not differ according to the presence or absence of delirium, but some variables, notably sleep problems, were more strongly associated to BSD in persons with delirium. Although correlates of BSD in persons with delirium superimposed on dementia are generally similar to those in persons with dementia alone, delirium is associated with a higher level of BSD. Results of this study have practical implications for the detection of delirium superimposed on dementia, the management of behavioral disturbances in patients with delirium, and caregiver burden.

  13. Symptoms of depression and delirium assessed serially in palliative-care inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maeve; Spiller, Juliet; Keen, Jeremy; MacLullich, Alasdair; Kamholtz, Barbara; Meagher, David

    2009-01-01

    Delirium occurs in approximately 1 in 5 general hospital admissions and up to 85% of patients with terminal illness, but can be difficult to differentiation from other disorders, such as depression. The authors assessed and compared mood states as they relate to onset of delirium. Symptoms of depression and delirium were assessed in 100 consecutive palliative-care admissions immediately after admission and 1 week later. Overall, 51% experienced either major depression or delirium. Most patients with syndromal delirium also met criteria for major depressive illness, and 50% of those with depression had delirium or subsyndromal delirium (SSD). Delirium symptoms were less common in patients with major depression than depressive symptoms in patients with delirium or SSD. Delirium should be considered in patients with altered mood states, and screening for depression should initially rule out delirium. Sustained alterations in mood may be more frequent in delirium than previously recognized.

  14. Delirium in cardiac surgery : A study on risk-assessment and long-term consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogen-Koster, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium or acute confusion is a temporary mental disorder, which occurs frequently among hospitalized elderly patients. Patients who undergo cardiac surgery have an increased risk of developing delirium. Delirium is associated with many negative consequences. Therefore, prevention or

  15. Comparison of cognitive and neuropsychiatric profiles in hospitalised elderly medical patients with delirium, dementia and comorbid delirium-dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maeve; McInerney, Shane; McFarland, John; Condon, Candice; Awan, Fahad; O'Connor, Margaret; Reynolds, Paul; Meaney, Anna Maria; Adamis, Dimitrios; Dunne, Colum; Cullen, Walter; Trzepacz, Paula T; Meagher, David J

    2016-03-08

    Differentiation of delirium and dementia is a key diagnostic challenge but there has been limited study of features that distinguish these conditions. We examined neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological symptoms in elderly medical inpatients to identify features that distinguish major neurocognitive disorders. University teaching hospital in Ireland. 176 consecutive elderly medical inpatients (mean age 80.6 ± 7.0 years (range 60-96); 85 males (48%)) referred to a psychiatry for later life consultation-liaison service with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV delirium, dementia, comorbid delirium-dementia and cognitively intact controls. Participants were assessed cross-sectionally with comparison of scores (including individual items) for the Revised Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-R98), Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD) and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI-Q). The frequency of neurocognitive diagnoses was delirium (n=50), dementia (n=32), comorbid delirium-dementia (n=62) and cognitively intact patients (n=32). Both delirium and comorbid delirium-dementia groups scored higher than the dementia group for DRS-R98 and CTD total scores, but all three neurocognitively impaired groups scored similarly in respect of total NPI-Q scores. For individual DRS-R98 items, delirium groups were distinguished from dementia groups by a range of non-cognitive symptoms, but only for impaired attention of the cognitive items. For the CTD, attention (p=0.002) and vigilance (p=0.01) distinguished between delirium and dementia. No individual CTD item distinguished between comorbid delirium-dementia and delirium. For the NPI-Q, there were no differences between the three neurocognitively impaired groups for any individual item severity. The neurocognitive profile of delirium is similar with or without comorbid dementia and differs from dementia without delirium. Simple tests of attention and vigilance can help to distinguish between delirium and other presentations

  16. Clinical study predicting delirium duration in elderly hip-surgery patients: does early symptom profile matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Slor, Chantal J; Witlox, Joost; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Jansen, Rene W. M. M; van Stijn, Mireille F. M; Houdijk, Alexander P. J; van Gool, Willem A; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background. Features thatmay allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood.The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium) are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium.We compared patien...

  17. Predicting Delirium Duration in Elderly Hip-Surgery Patients: Does Early Symptom Profile Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Slor, Chantal J.; Witlox, Joost; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J.; Ploeg, Tjeerd van der; Jansen, Rene W. M. M.; van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology during the course of delirium) are associated with delirium duration. Methods. This study was conducted in prospectively identified cases of incident delirium. We compared patients experiencing deliriu...

  18. Adjunct Ketamine Use in the Management of Severe Ethanol Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizon, Anthony F; Lynch, Michael J; Benedict, Neal J; Yanta, Joseph H; Frisch, Adam; Menke, Nathan B; Swartzentruber, Greg S; King, Andrew M; Abesamis, Michael G; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2018-05-08

    Ketamine offers a plausible mechanism with favorable kinetics in treatment of severe ethanol withdrawal. The purpose of this study is to determine if a treatment guideline using an adjunctive ketamine infusion improves outcomes in patients suffering from severe ethanol withdrawal. Retrospective observational cohort study. Academic tertiary care hospital. Patients admitted to the ICU and diagnosed with delirium tremens by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V criteria. Pre and post guideline, all patients were treated in a symptom-triggered fashion with benzodiazepines and/or phenobarbital. Postguideline, standard symptom-triggered dosing continued as preguideline, plus, the patient was initiated on an IV ketamine infusion at 0.15-0.3 mg/kg/hr continuously until delirium resolved. Based upon withdrawal severity and degree of agitation, a ketamine bolus (0.3 mg/kg) was provided prior to continuous infusion in some patients. A total of 63 patients were included (29 preguideline; 34 postguideline). Patients treated with ketamine were less likely to be intubated (odds ratio, 0.14; p trend toward a shorter hospitalization.

  19. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  20. Impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal syndrome on social phobia and panic disorder in alcoholic inpatients Impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência de álcool sobre a fobia social e o transtorno de pânico em pacientes alcoolistas hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Barbosa Terra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal on the course of social phobia and panic disorder. METHOD: A group of 41 alcoholic inpatients undergoing detoxification therapy were interviewed using the SCID-I (DSM-IV and questions to detect fluctuations in the course of social phobia and panic disorder as a function of the different phases in alcohol dependence (intoxication, withdrawal, and lucid interval. RESULTS: Only 1 (2.4% patient presented panic disorder throughout life, and 9 (21.9% had panic attacks during alcohol intoxication or during the withdrawal syndrome. Sixteen (39% alcoholic patients showed social phobia with onset prior to drug use. However, drinking eventually became unable to alleviate social phobia symptoms or worsened such symptoms in 31.2% of social-phobic patients. While patients with social phobia reported a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms during alcohol intoxication, patients experiencing panic attacks worsened significantly during intoxication. In the withdrawal phase, patients with social phobia tended to have more and more intense phobic symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the impact of alcohol intoxication is different for social phobia as compared to panic disorder, at first decreasing the social-phobic symptoms but later aggravating them. In panic disorder, the impact of intoxication by alcohol is more harmful, at least in the short term.OBJETIVO: Estudar o impacto das fases de intoxicação e de abstinência do uso de álcool sobre o curso da fobia social e do transtorno de pânico. MÉTODO: Um grupo de 41 pacientes hospitalizados por dependência de álcool foi entrevistado com o SCID-I (DSM-IV, adicionado de perguntas para detectar as flutuações no curso da fobia social e do transtorno do pânico em função das diferentes fases do uso da droga (intoxicação, abstinência e intervalo lúcido. RESULTADOS: Apenas um (2,4% paciente, apresentou transtorno

  1. Emergency Department Management of Delirium in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn E.J. Gower, DO; Medley O’Keefe Gatewood, MD; Christopher S. Kang, MD

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of elderly patients are presenting to the emergency department. Numerous studies have observed that emergency physicians often fail to identify and diagnose delirium in the elderly. These studies also suggest that even when emergency physicians recognized delirium, they still may not have fully appreciated the import of the diagnosis. Delirium is not a normal manifestation of aging and, often, is the only sign of a serious underlying medical condition. This article will r...

  2. Delirium phenomenology: what can we learn from the symptoms of delirium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; de Jonghe, Jos; Schieveld, Jan; Leonard, Maeve; Meagher, David

    2008-09-01

    This review focuses on phenomenological studies of delirium, including subsyndromal and prodromal concepts, and their relevance to other elements of clinical profile. A Medline search using the keywords delirium, phenomenology, and symptoms for new data articles published in English between 1998 and 2008 was utilized. The search was supplemented by additional material not identified by Medline but known to the authors. Understanding of prodromal and subsyndromal concepts is still in its infancy. The characteristic profile can differentiate delirium from other neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinical (motoric) subtyping holds potential but more consistent methods are needed. Studies are almost entirely cross-sectional in design and generally lack comprehensive symptom assessment. Multiple assessment tools are available but are oriented towards hyperactive features and few have demonstrated ability to distinguish delirium from dementia. There is insufficient evidence linking specific phenomenology with etiology, pathophysiology, management, course, and outcome. Despite the major advancements of the past decade in many aspects of delirium research, further phenomenological work is crucial to targeting studies of causation, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis. We identified eight key areas for future studies.

  3. A psychometric evaluation of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Jenny; Wåhlin, Ingrid; Proczkowska, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Emergence delirium and emergence agitation have been a subject of interest since the early 1960s. This behavior has been associated with increased risk of injury in children and dissatisfaction with anesthesia care in their parents. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale is a commonly used instrument for codifying and recording this behavior. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale, focusing on the factor structure, in a sample of children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The reliability of the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale was also tested. One hundred and twenty-two children younger than seven years were observed at postoperative care units during recovery from anesthesia. Two or 3 observers independently assessed the children using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale. The factor analysis clearly revealed a one-factor solution, which accounted for 82% of the variation in the data. Internal consistency, calculated with Cronbach's alpha, was good (0.96). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, which was used to assess interrater reliability for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale sum score, was 0.97 (P Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale for assessing emergence delirium in children recovering from anesthesia after surgery or diagnostic procedures. The kappa statistics for the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale items essentially indicated good agreement between independent raters, supporting interrater reliability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Nursing and Patients with Delirium: a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Henao-Castaño

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This work sought to analyze the scientific production regarding delirium in patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU. Synthesis. Delirium (cognitive alteration occurs in acute and fluctuating manner in patients in ICU. It is a risk factor for mortality and prolonged stay in ICU. Its diagnosis is derived from an objective assessment with widely disseminated validated instruments, available in Spanish and other languages. Strategies to prevent delirium in ICU are documented. Conclusion. Implementation of these strategies to prevent, monitor, and control delirium in patients hospitalized in ICU must be a priority of nursing research in our setting.

  5. Objective assessment of attention in delirium: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoë; Brown, Laura J E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2014-12-01

    Inattention is a core feature of delirium, and valid assessment of attention is central to diagnosis. Methods of measuring attention in delirium can be divided into two broad categories: (i) objective neuropsychological testing; and (ii) subjective grading of behaviour during interview and clinical examination. Here, we review and critically evaluate studies of objective neuropsychological testing of attention in delirium. We examine the implications of these studies for delirium detection and monitoring in clinical practice and research, and how these studies inform understanding of the nature of attentional deficits in delirium. Searches of MEDLINE and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were performed to identify studies in which objective tests of attention had been administered to patients with delirium, who had been diagnosed using DSM or ICD criteria. Sixteen publications were identified. The attention tests administered in these studies were grouped into the following categories: measures of attention span, vigilance tests, other pen-and-paper tests (e.g. Trail Making Test) and computerised tests of speeded reaction, vigilance and sustained attention. Patients with delirium showed deficits on all tasks, although most tasks were not considered pure measures of attention. Five papers provided data on differential diagnosis from dementia. Cancellation tests, spatial span tests and computerised tests of sustained attention discriminated delirium from dementia. Five studies presented reliability or validity statistics. The existing evidence base on objective assessment of attention in delirium is small. Objective testing of attention is underdeveloped but shows considerable promise in clinical practice and research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evidence for the diagnostic criteria of delirium: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Dan G; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O

    2012-05-01

    Since the publication of DSM-III in 1980, the essential criteria for delirium have been reduced progressively through DSM-III-R to DSM-IV. As the field moves toward DSM-V and ICD-11, new data can shed light on the nosological changes that are needed so that diagnostic criteria can reflect empirical data. In this study, we reassess the existing or potential criteria for delirium. Phenomenological studies in recent years have informed the criteria for delirium, including the appropriateness of the term 'consciousness' as a core symptom of the diagnosis, additional symptoms of delirium that are frequent but are not currently part of the diagnostic criteria, subsyndromal delirium, motoric subtypes of delirium (hyperactive, hypoactive), and the association of delirium with dementia. Recent studies suggest that motoric subtypes should be included as a subtype for delirium but that subsyndromal delirium, although a useful research construct, should not be included in clinical diagnostic criteria given the frequent fluctuation in symptoms over short periods. In addition, though the core symptoms are probably adequate to make the diagnosis, clinicians must be aware of the frequency of other symptoms, for symptoms such as profound sleep disturbance or psychotic symptoms may dominate the clinical picture.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Before, During, and After Delirium: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott; Rustad, James K; Catalano, Glenn; Stern, Theodore A; Kozel, F Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Delirium and depression are often thought of as mutually exclusive conditions. However, several studies cite depression as a risk factor for delirium whereas others note that patients with delirium often manifest depressive symptoms. Whether these depressive symptoms persist after delirium resolves remains unclear. This article reviews published studies that have investigated the relationship between depression and delirium. Literature searches on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were conducted using search criteria "delirium" AND "depress⁎" as keywords or MeSH terms. Of 722 search results, 10 prospective cohort studies were identified for inclusion. These studies were categorized regarding the time of assessment for depressive symptoms. Included studies varied greatly (regarding their index population, their methods of assessment, and their timing of assessments). Of the studies, 3 involved patients undergoing hip fracture repair. They demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms both during delirium and after delirium ended. Conversely, the other studies did not find any statistically significant correlations between the 2 conditions. The literature suggests a correlation between depression and delirium in patients with hip fracture. Whether other specific populations have higher comorbidity is unclear. Unfortunately, studies varied widely in their methods, precluding a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, our review provides a foundation for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute Brain Failure: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management, and Sequelae of Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José R

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is the most common psychiatric syndrome found in the general hospital setting, with an incidence as high as 87% in the acute care setting. Delirium is a neurobehavioral syndrome caused by the transient disruption of normal neuronal activity secondary to systemic disturbances. The development of delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, cost of care, hospital-acquired complications, placement in specialized intermediate and long-term care facilities, slower rate of recovery, poor functional and cognitive recovery, decreased quality of life, and prolonged hospital stays. This article discusses the epidemiology, known etiological factors, presentation and characteristics, prevention, management, and impact of delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Blood Transfusion on Delirium Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, Vera; Beishuizen, Sara J; Scholtens, Rikie M; de Jonghe, Annemarieke; de Rooij, Sophia E; van Munster, Barbara C

    2016-08-01

    Both anemia and blood transfusion could be precipitating factors for delirium; hence in postoperative patients with anemia at high risk for delirium, it is controversial whether transfusion is the best option. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of anemia and delirium and the role of blood transfusion within the multicomponent prevention strategy of delirium. We conducted a substudy of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Four hundred fifteen patients aged 65 to 102 years old admitted for hip fracture surgery were enrolled. Delirium was assessed daily using criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Data on hemoglobin values and transfusion were collected from the electronic medical records. One hundred fifteen (32.5%) patients experienced delirium during hospitalization, 238 (57.5%) had a hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L (9.7 g/dL) at any time during hospitalization, and 140 (33.7%) received a blood transfusion. Anemia (a hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L [9.7 g/dL]) was associated with delirium (odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.86). Blood transfusion was a protective factor for delirium in patients with the lowest measured hemoglobin level ≤ 6.0 mmol/L (9.7 g/dL) (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70). Low hemoglobin level is associated with delirium, and receiving a blood transfusion is associated with a lower delirium incidence. It would be interesting to investigate the effect of blood transfusion as part of the multicomponent treatment of delirium in patients with anemia. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slor, Chantal J; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W M M; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Gool, Willem A; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F M

    2013-03-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and cognitive functioning were assessed preoperatively. During hospital admission, presence of delirium was assessed daily. Three months after hospital discharge, affective and global cognitive functioning was evaluated again in patients free from delirium at the time of this follow-up. This study compared baseline characteristics and affective functioning between patients with and without in-hospital delirium. We investigated whether in-hospital delirium is associated with increased anxiety and depressive levels, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms three months after discharge. Among 53 eligible patients, 23 (43.4%) patients experienced in-hospital delirium after hip fracture repair. Patients who had experienced in-hospital delirium showed more depressive symptoms at follow-up after three months compared to the 30 patients without in-hospital delirium. This association persisted in a multivariate model controlling for age, baseline cognition, baseline depressive symptoms, and living situation. The level of anxiety and symptoms of PTSD at follow-up did not differ between both groups. This study suggests that in-hospital delirium is associated with an increased burden of depressive symptoms three months after discharge in elderly patients who were admitted to the hospital for surgical repair of hip fracture. Symptoms of depression in patients with previous in-hospital delirium cannot be fully explained by persistent (sub)syndromal delirium or baseline cognitive impairment.

  11. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; McCurley, Jessica; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Fick, Donna M.; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Lee, Patricia; Jackson, James C.; Shenkin, Susan D.; Trabucchi, Marco; Schnelle, John; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wesley E.; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background Delirium commonly occurs in patients with dementia. Though several tools for detecting delirium exist, it is unclear which are valid in patients with delirium superimposed on dementia. Objectives Identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia Design We performed a systematic review of studies of delirium tools, which explicitly included patients with dementia. Setting In-hospital patients Participants Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. Measurements PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for articles in English published between January 1960 and January 2012. Results Nine studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Of the total of 1569 patients, 401 had dementia, and 50 had delirium superimposed on dementia. Six delirium tools were evaluated. One studyusing the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) with 85% patients with dementia showed a high specificity (96–100%) and moderate sensitivity (77%).Two intensive care unit studies that used the CAM for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) ICU reported 100% sensitivity and specificity for delirium among 23 dementia patients. One study using electroencephalography reported a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 91% among a population with 100% prevalence of dementia. No studies examined potential effects of dementia severity or subtype upon diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions The evidence base on tools for detection of delirium superimposed on dementia is limited, although some existing tools show promise. Further studies of existing or refined tools with larger samples and more detailed characterization of dementia are now required to address the identification of delirium superimposed on dementia. PMID:23039270

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuroinflammation in delirium: A role for interleukin-1β in delirium after hip fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, Eleanor; Hall, Roanna J; van Munster, Barbara C; de Vries, Annick; Howie, Sarah EM; Pearson, Andrew; Middleton, Scott D; Gillies, Fiona; Armstrong, Ian R; White, Tim O; Cunningham, Colm; de Rooij, Sophia E; MacLullich, Alasdair MJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective Exaggerated central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory responses to peripheral stressors may be implicated in delirium. This study hypothesised that the IL-1β family is involved in delirium, predicting increased levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of elderly patients with acute hip fracture. We also hypothesised that Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) would be increased, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) would be decreased. Methods Participants with acute hip fracture aged > 60 (N = 43) were assessed for delirium before and 3–4 days after surgery. CSF samples were taken at induction of spinal anaesthesia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used for protein concentrations. Results Prevalent delirium was diagnosed in eight patients and incident delirium in 17 patients. CSF IL-1β was higher in patients with incident delirium compared to never delirium (incident delirium 1.74 pg/ml (1.02–1.74) vs. prevalent 0.84 pg/ml (0.49–1.57) vs. never 0.66 pg/ml (0–1.02), Kruskal–Wallis p = 0.03). CSF:serum IL-1β ratios were higher in delirious than non-delirious patients. CSF IL-1ra was higher in prevalent delirium compared to incident delirium (prevalent delirium 70.75 pg/ml (65.63–73.01) vs. incident 31.06 pg/ml (28.12–35.15) vs. never 33.98 pg/ml (28.71–43.28), Kruskal–Wallis p = 0.04). GFAP was not increased in delirium. IFN-γ and IGF-1 were below the detection limit in CSF. Conclusion This study provides novel evidence of CNS inflammation involving the IL-1β family in delirium and suggests a rise in CSF IL-1β early in delirium pathogenesis. Future larger CSF studies should examine the role of CNS inflammation in delirium and its sequelae. PMID:25124807

  13. A relational ethical approach to end-of-life delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David Kenneth; Brajtman, Susan; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2014-08-01

    Delirium is a condition of acute onset and fluctuating course in which a person's level of consciousness and cognition become disturbed. Delirium is a common and distressing phenomenon in end-of-life care, yet it is underrecognized and undertreated. In this article, we review qualitative descriptions of the delirium experience in end-of-life care, found through a systematic search of academic databases, to generate insight into the intersubjective nature of the delirium experience. Our analysis of retrieved studies advances an understanding of the relational ethical dimensions of this phenomenon, that is, how delirium is lived by patients, families, and health care providers and how it affects the relationships and values at stake. We propose three themes that explain the distressing nature of delirium in palliative care: 1) experiences of relational tension; 2) challenges in recognizing the delirious person; and 3) struggles to interpret the meaning of delirious behaviors. By approaching end-of-life delirium from a perspective of relational ethics, attention is focused on the implications for the therapeutic relationship with patients and families when delirium becomes part of the dying trajectory. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of delirium in ICU patients : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Schoonhoven; Peter Pickkers; Mark van den Boogaard

    2010-01-01

    A psycho-organic disorder such as delirium is a frequently occurring and serious disorder especially on Intensive Care units. Nowadays, more attention is paid to this problem by physicians, nurses and by researchers, but assessment of delirium in all ICU patients is still not common practice. If

  15. Treatment of delirium with risperidone in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Yasuhiro; Kato, Masashi; Okuyama, Toru; Thurber, Steven

    2012-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications have frequently been regarded as the treatment of choice for delirium. This study examined the clinical efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of delirium in cancer patients, combined with a repeated assessment of underlying medical severity levels. The study included consecutive referrals of 29 delirious cancer patients (mean age, 68.9 ± 12.5 years; male, 69%) to the psychiatric consultation service. Risperidone was given orally once per day (mean dosage, 1.4 ± 1.3 mg/day). Study participants were assessed using quantitative standardized scales of cognitive function, delirium, and physical impairment at baseline and at the end of the study (seventh day). Risperidone with routine clinical management was effective for the treatment of delirium: 48% of the patients responded and 38% achieved remission. The reduction of delirium severity occurred in 79% of the patients. Changes in delirium severity were unrelated to age, gender, general cognitive dysfunction, or to severity of attendant medical conditions. In addition to changes in agitation and perceptional disturbances, risperidone was also effective for other specific delirium symptoms. Risperidone with routine clinical management is effective in the treatment of delirium in advanced cancer patients, independent of changes in the underlying medical condition. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Pharmacological interventions for delirium in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, Marija; Larsen, Laura Krone; Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    for the management and prevention of delirium in ICU patients. The conclusions of the reviews showed conflicting results. Despite this unclear evidence, antipsychotics, in particular, haloperidol is often the recommended pharmacological intervention for delirium in ICU patients. The objective of this overview...

  17. Clinical Perspective The diagnosis and treatment of delirium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium is commonly encountered in the setting of paediatric consultation-liaison psychiatry. However, it is commonly misdiagnosed as current operational diagnostic criteria may be difficult to apply in children. We present a practical approach to eliciting the signs and symptoms of delirium in children and a proposed ...

  18. The wave called delirium, from onset to consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    A major part of delirium research in elderly patients has been in heterogeneous populations. Patients develop delirium in the presence of an underlying medical condition which is the reason for hospital admission, which hinders baseline assessment of predisposing factors. In contrast, the research

  19. Diagnosing delirium in very elderly intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heriot, Natalie R; Levinson, Michele R; Mills, Amber C; Khine, Thinn Thinn; Gellie, Anthea L; Sritharan, Gaya

    2017-02-01

    To determine the incidence of delirium in elderly intensive care patients and to compare incidence using two retrospective chart-based diagnostic methods and a hospital reporting measure (ICD-10). Retrospective study. An ICU in a large metropolitan private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. English-speaking participants (n=348) 80+ years, admitted to ICU for >24 hours. Medical files of ICU patients admitted October 2009-October 2012 were retrospectively assessed for delirium using the Inouye chart review method, DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and ICD-10 coding data. General patient characteristics, first onset of delirium symptoms, source of delirium information, administration of delirium medication, hospital and ICU length of stay, 90 day mortality were documented. Delirium was found in 11-29% of patients, the highest incidence identified by chart review. Patients diagnosed with delirium had higher 90 day mortality, and those meeting criteria for all three methods had longer hospital and ICU length of stay. ICU delirium in the elderly is often under-reported and strategies are needed to improve staff education and diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting delirium in elderly outpatients with cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroomer-van Wijk, Anne J. M.; Jonker, Barbara W.; Kok, Rob M.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Luijendijk, Hendrika J.

    Background: Delirium may be more prevalent in elderly outpatients than has long been assumed. However, it may be easily missed due to overlap with dementia. Our aim was to study delirium symptoms and underlying somatic disorders in psycho-geriatric outpatients. Methods: We performed a case-control

  1. Epidemiology of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in critically ill patients, characterized by a disturbance in attention and cognition. Delirium is not an inevitable consequence of critical illness itself, however, it is associated with poor patient outcomes such as an increased ICU length of stay and

  2. Commentary: The Diagnosis of Delirium in Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, D. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric patients seem to be especially vulnerable to toxic, metabolic, or traumatic CNS insults and are at greater risk of delirium with fever regardless of the etiology. Developmental limitations, in the areas of communication and cognition, prevent a thorough evaluation of the young patient for delirium. Only the most severe cases are…

  3. Delirium Associated with Olanzapine Therapy in an Elderly Male with Bipolar Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ravi C.; Aggarwal, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic medications are commonly used to treat symptoms of delirium. Olanzapine has been successfully used in the treatment of delirium. However, there have been few case reports of delirium associated with olanzapine. We hereby report a case of delirium associated with olanzapine therapy. Possible risk factors and underlying pathogenesis is discussed.

  4. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  5. The diagnosis and management of delirium in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Susan Beckwitt; Jacobson, Julienne R; Tavaré, C Jane

    2013-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have been documented to be effective in the management of delirium in adults and older children, but despite considerable need, their use has been less studied in the very young. A retrospective chart review was undertaken to describe the use of atypical antipsychotics in controlling symptoms of delirium in infants and toddlers. All psychiatric inpatient consultations performed during a 3 year period were reviewed to identify children delirium. Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) scores were retrospectively calculated when the antipsychotic was initiated and discontinued, to confirm the diagnosis of delirium and evaluate symptom severity, and then to assess symptom response to pharmacologic intervention. There were 10 boys and 9 girls in the study population (ages 7-30 months, mean 20.5 months). Olanzapine (n=16) and risperidone (n=3) were used, and length of treatment and response were comparable for both medications. Mean DRS scores decreased significantly (pdelirium symptoms in very young pediatric patients.

  6. Should This Patient Receive Prophylactic Medication to Prevent Delirium?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tess, Anjala V; Mattison, Melissa L P; Leo, Joshua R; Reynolds, Eileen E

    2018-04-03

    In 2015, the American Geriatrics Society released recommendations for prevention and management of postoperative delirium, based on a systematic literature review and evaluation of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches by an expert panel. The guidelines recommend an interdisciplinary focus on nonpharmacologic measures (reorientation, medication management, early mobility, nutrition, and gastointestinal motility) for prevention and consideration of this strategy for acute management. They also recommend optimizing nonopioid medication as a means to manage pain and avoiding benzodiazepines other than to treat substance withdrawal. The authors concluded that evidence to recommend antipsychotics for prevention of delirium is insufficient but that these drugs may be considered for short-term treatment in the setting of imminent harm to the patient or caregivers or severe distress due to agitation. Patients should be given the lowest possible dose for the shortest duration when other nonpharmacologic measures have failed. In this Beyond the Guidelines, a psychiatrist and a geriatrician debate whether Mr. W, a 79-year-old man at high risk for postoperative delirium, should receive prophylactic antipsychotics with his next surgery. They review risk factors, appropriate evaluation, and potential benefits and harms of the various medications often used in this setting.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuroinflammation in delirium: a role for interleukin-1β in delirium after hip fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cape, Eleanor; Hall, Roanna J.; van Munster, Barbara C.; de Vries, Annick; Howie, Sarah E. M.; Pearson, Andrew; Middleton, Scott D.; Gillies, Fiona; Armstrong, Ian R.; White, Tim O.; Cunningham, Colm; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Maclullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory responses to peripheral stressors may be implicated in delirium. This study hypothesised that the IL-1β family is involved in delirium, predicting increased levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and decreased IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in the

  8. The efficacy of antipsychotics for prolonged delirium with renal dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asano S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe Department of Neuropsychiatry, School of Medicine Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization.Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523 consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists. We analyzed data from 177 inpatients with delirium who received psychiatric medication. We defined an “early improvement group” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication, and a “prolonged group” with delirium lasting for >3 days. Among the 83 inpatients with renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, we defined an “early improvement group with renal dysfunction” in which delirium resolved in ≤3 days after starting psychiatric medication and a “prolonged group with renal dysfunction” with delirium lasting for >3 days. We then examined differences between groups for different categorical variables.Results: Dose of antipsychotic medication at end point was significantly lower in the prolonged group with renal dysfunction than in the early improvement group with renal dysfunction.Conclusion: The results suggest that maintaining a sufficient dose of antipsychotics from an early stage may prevent prolongation of delirium even in inpatients with renal dysfunction. Keywords: antipsychotic, prolonged delirium, chronic kidney disease, pharmacokinetics 

  9. New horizons in the pathogenesis, assessment and management of delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclullich, Alasdair M. J.; Anand, Atul; Davis, Daniel H. J.; Jackson, Thomas; Barugh, Amanda J.; Hall, Roanna J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Meagher, David J.; Cunningham, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is one of the foremost unmet medical needs in healthcare. It affects one in eight hospitalised patients and is associated with multiple adverse outcomes including increased length of stay, new institutionalisation, and considerable patient distress. Recent studies also show that delirium strongly predicts future new-onset dementia, as well as accelerating existing dementia. The importance of delirium is now increasingly being recognised, with a growing research base, new professional international organisations, increased interest from policymakers, and greater prominence of delirium in educational and audit programmes. Nevertheless, the field faces several complex research and clinical challenges. In this article we focus on selected areas of recent progress and/or uncertainty in delirium research and practice. (i) Pathogenesis: recent studies in animal models using peripheral inflammatory stimuli have begun to suggest mechanisms underlying the delirium syndrome as well as its link with dementia. A growing body of blood and cerebrospinal fluid studies in humans have implicated inflammatory and stress mediators. (ii) Prevention: delirium prevention is effective in the context of research studies, but there are several unresolved issues, including what components should be included, the role of prophylactic drugs, and the overlap with general best care for hospitalised older people. (iii) Assessment: though there are several instruments for delirium screening and assessment, detection rates remain dismal. There are no clear solutions but routine screening embedded into clinical practice, and the development of new rapid screening instruments, offer potential. (iv) Management: studies are difficult given the heterogeneity of delirium and currently expert and comprehensive clinical care remains the main recommendation. Future studies may address the role of drugs for specific elements of delirium. In summary, though facing many challenges, the field continues

  10. Inattentive Delirium vs. Disorganized Thinking: A New Axis to Subcategorize PACU Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren F. Hight

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of patients for delirium in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU is confounded by the residual effects of the varied anesthetic and analgesic regimens employed during surgery and by the physiological consequences of surgery such as pain. Nevertheless, delirium diagnosed at this early stage has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The last decade has seen the emergence of the confusion assessment method-intensive care unit (CAM-ICU score as a quick practical method of detecting delirium in clinical situations. Nonetheless, this tool has not been specifically designed for use in this immediate postoperative setting.Methods: Patients enrolled in a larger observational study were administered the CAM-ICU delirium screening tool 15 min after the latter of return of responsiveness to command or arrival in the post-anesthesia care unit. Numerical pain rating scores were also recorded. In addition, we reviewed additional behavioral observations suggestive of disordered thinking, such as hallucinations, a non-reactive eyes-open state, or an inability to state a pain score.Results: Two-hundred and twenty-nine patients underwent CAM-ICU testing in PACU. 33 patients (14% were diagnosed with delirium according to CAM-ICU criteria; 25 of these were inattentive with low arousal, seven were inattentive with high arousal, and one was inattentive and calm and with disordered thinking. Using our extended criteria an additional eleven patients showed signs of disordered thinking. CAM-ICU delirium was associated with increased length of operation (p = 0.028, but a positive CAM-PACU designation was associated with both increased operation length and age (p = 0.003 and 0.010 respectively. Two of the CAM-ICU positive patients with inattention and high arousal reported high pain scores and were not classified as CAM-PACU positive.Conclusion: Disordered thinking is correlated with older patients and longer operations. The sensitivity of

  11. Delirium: uma perspectiva histórica Delirium a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Wacker

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O delirium corresponde a uma das primeiras doenças mentais descritas na literatura médica, há mais de 2.500 anos. Nas classificações psiquiátricas, permaneceu como categoria nosológica independente até o final do século XIX, quando foi redefinida com base nos seus aspectos fenomenológicos e etiológicos, precipitando a reclassificação das insanidades funcionais em psicoses. os estados confusionais passaram a se referir a uma síndrome mais ampla que incluía o delirium, enfatizando a desorganização dos processos cognitivos e do pensamento, e tendo no turvamento da consciência e na desorientação temporoespacial a condição de base. Com o objetivo de descrever a evolução histórica do conceito de delirium, foram realizados levantamentos da literatura médica através do sistema Medline, além da pesquisa em publicações literárias específicas sobre os temas história da medicina e história da psiquiatria. Partiu-se de algumas observações dogmáticas praticadas na Antigüidade e Idade Média, para atingir as definições e práticas atuais, oferecendo uma análise crítica dos critérios diagnósticos vigentes (DSM-III, DSM-IIIR, DSM-IV e CID-10. Não obstante a evolução conceitual, o delirium continua sendo mal compreendido, do ponto de vista fisiopatológico e são poucas as opções terapêuticas. o diagnóstico de delirium é ato eminentemente clínico: baseia-se na observação cautelosa das manifestações psíquicas e comportamentais dos pacientes acometidos, além da análise dos fatores predisponentes e precipitantes. É freqüente o seu subdiagnóstico em contextos clínicos e cirúrgicos. o diagnóstico do delirium é estabelecido em apenas 30% a 50% dos pacientes, sendo a omissão diagnóstica menos freqüente em serviços que contam com a interconsulta psiquiátrica. o delirium é uma das complicações mais comuns entre pacientes idosos hospitalizados e está associado a maior morbimortalidade. Isso

  12. Symptoms of delirium occurring before and after episodes of delirium in older long-term care residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric

    2012-12-01

    To describe Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to describe the mean number of symptoms before and after episodes by dementia status. Secondary analysis of data collected for a prospective cohort study of delirium, with repeated weekly assessments for up to 6 months. Seven LTC facilities in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. Forty-one older LTC residents who had at least one CAM-defined incident episode of delirium. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), CAM, Delirium Index (DI), Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Barthel Index, and Cornell Scale for Depression were completed at baseline. The MMSE, CAM, and DI were repeated weekly for 6 months. The frequency, mean number, type, and duration of CAM core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes were examined using descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, and survival analysis. CAM core symptoms of delirium preceded 38 (92.7%) episodes of delirium for many weeks; core symptoms followed 37 (90.2%) episodes for many weeks. Symptoms of inattention and disorganized thinking occurred most commonly. The mean number of symptoms was higher in residents with dementia but not significantly so. CAM core symptoms of delirium were frequent and protracted before and after most incident episodes of delirium in LTC residents with and without dementia. If replicated, these findings have potentially important implications for clinical practice and research in LTC settings. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. No association between the TaqI A1 RFLP of the D2 receptor gene and alcoholism in a Mexican population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Fuentes, C.; Carmarena, B.; Eroza, V. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The suggested association of the A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) human gene with alcoholism was studied by comparing the DRD2/TaqI genotypes of 36 healthy controls and 38 individuals who met the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence. All subjects were unrelated, with parents and grandparents of Mexican origin. The alcoholics in our sample suffered one of the following conditions: delirium tremens (16.6%), alcohol hallucinosis (56.6%) or uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal (26.4%). Eight-eight percent of the controls carried the A1 allele. The frequency of the DRD2 A1 allele in the Mexican urban sample (pA1 = 0.61) was 2 to 3-fold higher than reported in Caucasian populations from the USA and Europe, but similar to the allele frequencies found in defined Amerindian populations. There were not significant differences in the prevalence or allele frequency between alcoholics (pA1 = 0.64) and controls, regardless if the alcoholics were subtyped accordingly to severity, age of onset or positive family history. Alcoholics had higher scores than controls in the neuroticism (N) and psychoticism (P) subscales on the Eysenck personality test: alcoholics P = 6.2 {+-} 2.9, N = 16.0 {+-} 4.2 vs. controls P = 2.5 {+-} 2.3, N = 5.7 {+-} 5.1; p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. However, no relationship between personality traits and genotypes was found. Our results do not support a consistent association between the TaqI A1 RFLP for the DRD2 gene and alcoholism.

  14. Delirium: diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Martín Cardinal

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available EI delirium, conocido también con los nombres de estado confusional agudo, síndrome cerebral orgánico agudo, encefalopatía, psicosis toxica o falla cerebral aguda, hace parte de los trastornos por deterioro cognoscitivo, término que remplazo en el DSM-IV al de trastornos mentales orgánicos. La razón de este cambio fue principalmente filosófica, basado en que no se considera actualmente valida la dicotomía "orgánico vs. funcional".

  15. Delirium in fast-track colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurbegovic, Sorel; Andersen, Jens; Krenk, Lene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (PD) is a common but serious problem after major surgery with a multifactorial pathogenesis including age, pain, opioid use, sleep disturbances and the surgical stress response. These factors have been minimised by the "fast-track methodology" previously...... demonstrated to enhance recovery and reduce morbidity. METHODS: Clinical symptoms of PD were routinely collected three times daily from preoperatively until discharge in a well-defined enhanced recovery program after colonic surgery in 247 consecutive patients. RESULTS: Total median length of hospital stay...... postoperative recovery program may decrease the risk and duration of PD after colonic surgery....

  16. Acute Delirium due to Parenteral Tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Mondal, Supriya Kumar; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Saddichha, Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Tramadol is a widely used medication by physicians and is held to be a safe analgesic. It has been claimed to be helpful in the elderly and hepatic and renally compromised subjects. We would like to report a case of delirium in a middle-aged female with acute pain abdomen on tramadol while being treated in the surgical unit. The patient developed alteration in the level of consciousness and cognitive deficits following injectable dose of tramadol. She was diagnosed as a case of tramadol-induc...

  17. Evidence-Based Treatment of Delirium in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, William; Alici, Yesne

    2012-01-01

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric complication seen in patients with cancer, and it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Increased health care costs, prolonged hospital stays, and long-term cognitive decline are other well-recognized adverse outcomes of delirium. Improved recognition of delirium and early treatment are important in diminishing such morbidity. There has been an increasing number of studies published in the literature over the last 10 years regarding delirium treatment as well as prevention. Antipsychotics, cholinesterase inhibitors, and alpha-2 agonists are the three groups of medications that have been studied in randomized controlled trials in different patient populations. In patients with cancer, the evidence is most clearly supportive of short-term, low-dose use of antipsychotics for controlling the symptoms of delirium, with close monitoring for possible adverse effects, especially in older patients with multiple medical comorbidities. Nonpharmacologic interventions also appear to have a beneficial role in the treatment of patients with cancer who have or are at risk for delirium. This article presents evidence-based recommendations based on the results of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic studies of the treatment and prevention of delirium. PMID:22412123

  18. Detection of delirium by nurses among long-term care residents with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danjou Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a prevalent problem in long-term care (LTC facilities where advanced age and cognitive impairment represent two important risk factors for this condition. Delirium is associated with numerous negative outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. Despite its clinical importance, delirium often goes unrecognized by nurses. Although rates of nurse-detected delirium have been studied among hospitalized older patients, this issue has been largely neglected among demented older residents in LTC settings. The goals of this study were to determine detection rates of delirium and delirium symptoms by nurses among elderly residents with dementia and to identify factors associated with undetected cases of delirium. Methods In this prospective study (N = 156, nurse ratings of delirium were compared to researcher ratings of delirium. This procedure was repeated for 6 delirium symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed. Logistic regressions were conducted to identify factors associated with delirium that is undetected by nurses. Results Despite a high prevalence of delirium in this cohort (71.5%, nurses were able to detect the delirium in only a minority of cases (13%. Of the 134 residents not identified by nurses as having delirium, only 29.9% of them were correctly classified. Detection rates for the 6 delirium symptoms varied between 39.1% and 58.1%, indicating an overall under-recognition of symptoms of delirium. Only the age of the residents (≥ 85 yrs was associated with undetected delirium (OR: 4.1; 90% CI: [1.5–11.0]. Conclusion Detection of delirium is a major issue for nurses that clearly needs to be addressed. Strategies to improve recognition of delirium could result in a reduction of adverse outcomes for this very vulnerable population.

  19. Detecting delirium in elderly outpatients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroomer-van Wijk, Anne J M; Jonker, Barbara W; Kok, Rob M; van der Mast, Roos C; Luijendijk, Hendrika J

    2016-08-01

    Delirium may be more prevalent in elderly outpatients than has long been assumed. However, it may be easily missed due to overlap with dementia. Our aim was to study delirium symptoms and underlying somatic disorders in psycho-geriatric outpatients. We performed a case-control study among outpatients that were referred to a psychiatric institution between January 1st and July 1st 2010 for cognitive evaluation. We compared 44 cases with DSM-IV delirium (24 with and 20 without dementia) to 44 controls with dementia only. All participants were aged 70 years or older. We extracted from the medical files (1) referral characteristics including demographics, medical history, medication use, and referral reasons, (2) delirium symptoms, scored with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98, and (3) underlying disorders categorized as: drugs/intoxication, infection, metabolic/endocrine disturbances, cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system disorders, and other health problems. At referral, delirium patients had significantly higher numbers of chronic diseases and medications, and more often a history of delirium and a recent hospital admission than controls. Most study participants, including those with delirium, were referred for evaluation of (suspected) dementia. The symptoms that occurred more frequently in cases were: sleep disturbances, perceptual abnormalities, delusions, affect lability, agitation, attention deficits, acute onset, and fluctuations. Drug related (68%), infectious (61%), and metabolic-endocrine (50%) disturbances were often involved. Detection of delirium and distinction from dementia in older outpatients was feasible but required detailed caregiver information about the presence, onset, and course of symptoms. Most underlying disorders could be managed at home.

  20. Increased neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in delirium: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberts A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelique Egberts, Francesco US Mattace-Raso Section of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Aim: Delirium is a common and severe complication among older hospitalized patients. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, but it has been suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may play a role. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate levels of the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR – a marker of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress – in patients with and without delirium. Methods: This pilot study was performed within a retrospective chart review study that included acutely ill patients, 65 years and older, who were admitted to the ward of geriatrics of the Erasmus University Medical Center. All patients in whom the differential white blood cell (WBC counts as well as the C-reactive protein (CRP level were determined within 24 h after admission were included in the present study. Differences in NLR between patients with and without delirium were investigated using univariate analysis of variance, with adjustments for age, sex, comorbidities, CRP level, and total WBC count. Results: Eighty-six patients were included. Thirteen patients were diagnosed with delirium. In adjusted models, higher mean NLR values were found in patients with, than in those without, delirium (9.10 vs 5.18, P=0.003. Conclusion: In this pilot study, we found increased NLR levels in patients with delirium. This finding might suggest that an inadequate response of the immune system and oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of delirium. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between NLR and delirium. Keywords: delirium, pathology, biomarkers, leukocytes, immune system, brain 

  1. Rates of Delirium Diagnosis Do Not Improve with Emergency Risk Screening: Results of the Emergency Department Delirium Initiative Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendts, Glenn; Love, Jennefer; Nagree, Yusuf; Bruce, David; Hare, Malcolm; Dey, Ian

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether a bundled risk screening and warning or action card system improves formal delirium diagnosis and person-centered outcomes in hospitalized older adults. Prospective trial with sequential introduction of screening and interventional processes. Two tertiary referral hospitals in Australia. Individuals aged 65 and older presenting to the emergency department (ED) and not requiring immediate resuscitation (N = 3,905). Formal ED delirium screening algorithm and use of a risk warning card with a recommended series of actions for the prevention and management of delirium during the subsequent admission MEASUREMENTS: Delirium diagnosis at hospital discharge, proportion discharged to new assisted living arrangements, in-hospital complications (use of sedation, falls, aspiration pneumonia, death), hospital length of stay. Participants with a positive risk screen were significantly more likely (relative risk = 6.0, 95% confidence interval = 4.9-7.3) to develop delirium, and the proportion of at-risk participants with a positive screen was constant across three study phases. Delirium detection rate in participants undergoing the final intervention (Phase 3) was 12.1% (a 2% absolute and 17% relative increase from the baseline rate) but this was not statistically significant (P = .29), and a similar relative increase was seen over time in participants not receiving the intervention CONCLUSION: A risk screening and warning or action card intervention in the ED did not significantly improve rates of delirium detection or other important outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Mary Beth; Leeman, Lawrence; Hsi, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome is common due to the current opioid addiction epidemic. Infants born to women covertly abusing prescription opioids may not be identified as at risk until withdrawal signs present. Buprenorphine is a newer treatment for maternal opioid addiction and appears to result in a milder withdrawal syndrome than methadone. Initial treatment is with nonpharmacological measures including decreasing stimuli, however pharmacological treatment is commonly required. Opioid monotherapy is preferred, with phenobarbital or clonidine uncommonly needed as adjunctive therapy. Rooming-in and breastfeeding may decease the severity of withdrawal. Limited evidence is available regarding long-term effects of perinatal opioid exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Post-operative delirium is associated with increased 5-year mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Eliza E; Overbey, Douglas M; Jones, Teresa S; Jones, Edward L; Arcomano, Todd R; Moore, John T; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-12-01

    Post-operative delirium is associated with increased short term morbidity and mortality. Limited data exists on long term outcomes for older adults with postoperative delirium. We hypothesize that postoperative delirium is associated with increased 5-year mortality. Patients ≥50 years undergoing elective operations with planned intensive care unit (ICU) admissions were prospectively enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method ICU (CAM-ICU) was used to diagnose delirium. The primary outcome variable was 5-year mortality. 172 patients were enrolled with an average age of 64 years. The overall incidence of delirium was 44% (75/172). At 5-years post-operatively, mortality was higher (59%, 41/70) in patients with delirium compared to patients without delirium (13%, 12/94, p delirium were 7.35 fold greater (95% CI: 1.49-36.18). Postoperative delirium is associated with increased long term mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography in delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggstrom, Lucy R; Nelson, Julia A; Wegner, Eva A; Caplan, Gideon A

    2017-11-01

    Delirium is a common, serious, yet poorly understood syndrome. Growing evidence suggests cerebral metabolism is fundamentally disturbed; however, it has not been investigated using 2- 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in delirium. This prospective study thus explored FDG PET patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism in older inpatients with delirium. A particular emphasis was on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key region for attention, which is a central feature of delirium. Delirium scans were compared with post-delirium scans using visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis with NeuroQ; 13 participants (8 female, median 84 y) were scanned during delirium, and 6 scanned again after resolution. On visual analysis, cortical hypometabolism was evident in all participants during delirium (13/13), and improved with delirium resolution (6/6). Using NeuroQ, glucose metabolism was higher post-delirium in the whole brain and bilateral PCC compared to during delirium ( p delirium duration. This research found widespread, reversible cortical hypometabolism during delirium and PCC hypometabolism was associated with inattention during delirium.

  5. "Delirium Day": a nationwide point prevalence study of delirium in older hospitalized patients using an easy standardized diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Mazzone, Andrea; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Bo, Mario; Bianchetti, Angelo; Rozzini, Renzo; Zanetti, Ermellina; Musicco, Massimo; Ferrari, Alberto; Ferrara, Nicola; Trabucchi, Marco

    2016-07-18

    To date, delirium prevalence in adult acute hospital populations has been estimated generally from pooled findings of single-center studies and/or among specific patient populations. Furthermore, the number of participants in these studies has not exceeded a few hundred. To overcome these limitations, we have determined, in a multicenter study, the prevalence of delirium over a single day among a large population of patients admitted to acute and rehabilitation hospital wards in Italy. This is a point prevalence study (called "Delirium Day") including 1867 older patients (aged 65 years or more) across 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italian hospitals. Delirium was assessed on the same day in all patients using the 4AT, a validated and briefly administered tool which does not require training. We also collected data regarding motoric subtypes of delirium, functional and nutritional status, dementia, comorbidity, medications, feeding tubes, peripheral venous and urinary catheters, and physical restraints. The mean sample age was 82.0 ± 7.5 years (58 % female). Overall, 429 patients (22.9 %) had delirium. Hypoactive was the commonest subtype (132/344 patients, 38.5 %), followed by mixed, hyperactive, and nonmotoric delirium. The prevalence was highest in Neurology (28.5 %) and Geriatrics (24.7 %), lowest in Rehabilitation (14.0 %), and intermediate in Orthopedic (20.6 %) and Internal Medicine wards (21.4 %). In a multivariable logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05), Activities of Daily Living dependence (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.12-1.27), dementia (OR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.41-4.38), malnutrition (OR 2.01, 95 % CI 1.29-3.14), and use of antipsychotics (OR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.45-2.82), feeding tubes (OR 2.51, 95 % CI 1.11-5.66), peripheral venous catheters (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.06-1.87), urinary catheters (OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.30-2.29), and physical restraints (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.40-2.40) were associated with delirium. Admission

  6. Treatment for amphetamine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoptaw, Steven J; Kao, Uyen; Heinzerling, Keith; Ling, Walter

    2009-04-15

    Few studies examined treatments for amphetamine withdrawal, although it is a common problem among amphetamine users. Its symptoms, in particular intense craving, may be a critical factor leading to relapse to amphetamine use. In clinical practice, medications for cocaine withdrawal are commonly used to manage amphetamine withdrawal although the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of these two illicit substances are different. To assess the effectiveness of pharmacological alone or in combination with psychosocial treatment for amphetamine withdrawals on discontinuation rates, global state, withdrawal symptoms, craving, and other outcomes. MEDLINE (1966 - 2008), CINAHL (1982 - 2008), PsycINFO (1806 - 2008), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2008 issue 2), references of obtained articles. All randomised controlled and clinical trials evaluating pharmacological and or psychosocial treatments (alone or combined) for people with amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. Two authors evaluated and extracted data independently. The data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses. The Relative Risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess dichotomous outcomes. The Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) with 95% CI was used to assess continuous outcomes. Four randomised controlled trials (involving 125 participants) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Two studies found that amineptine significantly reduced discontinuation rates and improved overall clinical presentation, but did not reduce withdrawal symptoms or craving compared to placebo. The benefits of mirtazapine over placebo for reducing amphetamine withdrawal symptoms were not as clear. One study suggested that mirtazapine may reduce hyperarousal and anxiety symptoms associated with amphetamine withdrawal. A more recent study failed to find any benefit of mirtazapine over placebo on retention or on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. No medication is effective for treatment of amphetamine

  7. Assessment of delirium in the intensive care unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (3) Hyperactive – increased level of psychomotor activity evident by labile mood, agitation ... Anticholinergic drugs may be a risk factor for delirium and cholinesterase ... Neuroimaging has found reduced cerebral blood flow in delirious patients.

  8. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; Tieken, E.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. Methods: For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline

  9. Comparison of symptoms of delirium across various motoric subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sharma, Akhilesh; Aggarwal, Munish; Mattoo, Surendra K; Chakrabarti, Subho; Malhotra, Savita; Avasthi, Ajit; Kulhara, Parmanand; Basu, Debasish

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between delirium motor subtypes and other symptoms of delirium. Three hundred and twenty-one (n = 321) consecutive patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatry services were evaluated on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 version and amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale. Half of the patients had hyperactive subtype (n = 161; 50.15%) delirium. One-quarter of the study sample met the criteria for mixed subtype (n = 79; 24.61%), about one-fifth of the study sample met the criteria for hypoactive delirium subtype (n = 64; 19.93%), and only very few patients (n = 17; 5.29%) did not meet the required criteria for any of these three subtypes and were categorized as 'no subtype'. When the hyperactive and hypoactive subtypes were compared, significant differences were seen in the prevalence of perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect, thought process abnormality, motor agitation and motor retardation. All the symptoms were more common in the hyperactive subtype except for thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Compared to hyperactive subtype, the mixed subtype had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Significant differences emerged with regard to perceptual disturbances, delusions, lability of affect and motor agitation when comparing the patients with mixed subtype with those with hypoactive subtype. All these symptoms were found to be more common in the mixed subtype. No significant differences emerged for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on Delirium Rating scale-Revised-98 across the different motoric subtypes. Different motoric subtypes of delirium differ on non-cognitive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  10. Delirium in elderly patients: association with educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sónia; Paiva, José Artur; Simões, Mário R; Fernandes, Lia

    2017-04-01

    Among cognitive reserve markers, educational attainment is the most widely studied, with several studies establishing a strong association with risk of dementia. However, it has not yet been fully examined in delirium. This study aims to analyse the relationship between educational attainment and delirium. The study included elderly hospitalised patients admitted (≥48 h) into an intermediate care unit (IMCU) of Intensive Care Medicine Service. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Glasgow Coma Scale (total≤11), blindness/deafness, inability to communicate or to speak Portuguese. The European Portuguese Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used for delirium assessment. The final sample (n=157) had a mean age of 78.8 (SD=7.6) the majority being female (52.2%), married (51.5%) and with low educational level (49%). According to CAM, 21% of the patients had delirium. The delirium group presented the fewest years of education (median 1 vs. 4), with statistical significance (p=0.003). Delirium was more frequent among male patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.86; p=0.023], as well as those patients with lower education (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.95; p=0.016), and with respiratory disease (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.20-9.33; p=0.020), after controlling for age and medication. Similar to previous studies, these findings point to a negative correlation between education and delirium. This study appears as an attempt to contribute to the knowledge about the role of cognitive reserve in risk of delirium, particularly because is the first one that has been carried out in an IMCU, with lower educated elderly patients. Further studies are needed to clarify this relationship considering other markers (e.g. cognitive activities), which can contribute to the definition of preventive strategies.

  11. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Svenningsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study assessing the incidence of delirium in the ICU. Psychometrics were screened by validated tools in structured telephone interviews after 2 months (n=297 and 6 months (n=248 after ICU-discharge. Results. Delirium was detected in 54% of patients in the ICU and symptoms of PTSD in 8% (2 months and 6% (6 months after ICU-discharge. Recall of ICU stay was present in 93%. Associations between ICU-delirium and post-discharge PTSD-symptoms were weak and insignificant. Memories of delusions were significantly associated with anxiety after two months. Remaining associations between types of ICU-memories and prevalence of post-discharge symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were insignificant after adjusting for age. Incidence of ICU-delirium was unaffected by preadmission use of psychotropic drugs. Prevalence of PTSD-symptoms was unaffected by use of antipsychotics and sedation in the ICU. Conclusion. ICU-delirium did not increase the risk of PTSD-symptoms at 2 and 6 months after ICU discharge.

  12. Cerebrospinal Fluid Phosphate in Delirium after Hip Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane-Victoria Idland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Phosphate is essential for neuronal activity. We aimed to investigate whether delirium is associated with altered phosphate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with hip fracture were assessed for delirium before and after acute surgery. Prefracture dementia was diagnosed by an expert panel. Phosphate was measured in CSF obtained immediately before spinal anesthesia (n = 77 and in serum (n = 47. CSF from 23 cognitively healthy elderly patients undergoing spinal anesthesia was also analyzed. Results: Hip fracture patients with prevalent delirium had higher CSF phosphate concentrations than those without delirium (median 0.63 vs. 0.55 mmol/L, p = 0.001. In analyses stratified on dementia status, this difference was only significant in patients with dementia. Serum phosphate was ∼1 mmol/L; there was no association between serum phosphate concentration and delirium status. CSF phosphate did not correlate with serum levels. Conclusion: Patients with delirium superimposed on dementia have elevated phosphate levels.

  13. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Frydenberg, Morten; Videbech, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort. A prospective observational cohort study assessing the incidence of delirium in the ICU. Psychometrics were screened by validated tools in structured telephone interviews after 2 months (n = 297) and 6 months (n = 248) after ICU-discharge. Delirium was detected in 54% of patients in the ICU and symptoms of PTSD in 8% (2 months) and 6% (6 months) after ICU-discharge. Recall of ICU stay was present in 93%. Associations between ICU-delirium and post-discharge PTSD-symptoms were weak and insignificant. Memories of delusions were significantly associated with anxiety after two months. Remaining associations between types of ICU-memories and prevalence of post-discharge symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression were insignificant after adjusting for age. Incidence of ICU-delirium was unaffected by preadmission use of psychotropic drugs. Prevalence of PTSD-symptoms was unaffected by use of antipsychotics and sedation in the ICU. ICU-delirium did not increase the risk of PTSD-symptoms at 2 and 6 months after ICU discharge.

  14. Accuracy of nurse documentation of delirium symptoms in medical charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Philippe; Cole, Martin G; McCusker, Jane; St-Jacques, Sylvie; Laplante, Johanne

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study undertaken in an acute care hospital was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the documentation of nurse-reported delirium symptoms in medical charts. This is a descriptive study based on the clinical assessments of a study nurse and nursing notes in the medical charts of 226 delirious older patients newly admitted to an acute care hospital. The results of this prospective validation study indicated that documentation of delirium symptoms is poor. Disorientation, agitation and altered level of consciousness were the three symptoms yielding a higher level of sensitivity, but even so said symptoms were reported in less than a third of the medical charts. Univariate analysis suggested that higher comorbidity level, more severe symptoms of delirium and the use of physical restraints were associated with more valid documentation of delirium symptoms in medical charts. Lastly, this study corroborates results of previous studies, indicating that documentation of delirium symptoms in medical charts can be improved. Future study should target improving nurse documentation of delirium symptoms in medical charts.

  15. In-hospital delirium risk assessment, diagnosis and management; medications to avoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clegg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delirium is a common, but potentially preventable complication of acute illness that is associated with important adverse outcomes including increased length of hospital admission, risk of dementia and admission to long-term care. In-hospital risk assessment and diagnosis: Age over 65, severe illness, current hip fracture and presence of cognitive impairment or dementia are important risk factors for delirium. Assess people with any of these risk factors for recent changes or fluctuations in behaviour that might indicate delirium. If any indicators are present, complete a full cognitive assessment to confirm the diagnosis of delirium. In-hospital risk management: Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium in hospital by around one third and should be provided to people with any of the important risk factors that do not have delirium at admission. A medication review that considers both the number and type of prescribed medications is an important part of the multicomponent delirium prevention intervention. Which medications to avoid in people at risk of delirium: For people at risk of delirium, avoid new prescriptions of benzodiazepines or consider reducing or stopping these medications where possible. Opioids should be prescribed with caution in people at risk of delirium but this should be tempered by the observation that untreated severe pain can itself trigger delirium. Caution is also required when prescribing dihydropyridines and antihistamine H1 antagonists for people at risk of delirium and considered individual patient assessment is advocated. Conclusion: Delirium is common, distressing to patients, relatives and carers and is associated with important adverse outcomes. Multicomponent delirium prevention interventions can reduce the incidence of delirium by approximately one third and usually incorporate a medication review. Identification of which medications to avoid in people at

  16. Delirium assessment in intensive care units: practices and perceptions of Turkish nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsaban, Aysel; Acaroglu, Rengin

    2016-09-01

    As delirium in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is a serious problem that can result in increased mortality and morbidity, routine delirium assessment of all ICU patients is recommended. The severity, duration and outcome of the syndrome are directly related to nurses' continuous assessment of patients for signs and symptoms of delirium. However, studies indicate that very few nurses monitor for delirium as a part of their daily practices. The aim of this study was to identify current practices and perceptions of intensive care nurses regarding delirium assessment and to examine the factors that affect these practices and perceptions. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Data were collected from five Turkish public hospitals using a structured survey questionnaire. The study sample comprised 301 nurses who agreed to participate. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. More than half of the nurses performed delirium assessments. However, the proportion of nurses who use delirium assessment tools was quite low. Almost all of the nurses perceived delirium as a problem and serious problem for ICU patients. The patient group least monitored for delirium was that of unconscious patients. Statistically significant differences were found in the proportion of nurses who assessed delirium symptoms and whose care delivery system was patient-centred and perceived delirium as a serious problem. While a majority of ICU nurses perceived delirium as a problem and serious problem, the proportion of those who perform routine delirium assessments was less. It was found that delirium assessment practices of nurses were affected from their perceptions of delirium and the implementation of patient-centred care delivery. It is essential to develop strategies to encourage ICU nurses to perform delirium assessments through the use of delirium assessment tools. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  17. Delirium in the intensive care setting and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS): Drowsiness increases the risk and is subthreshold for delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettger, Soenke; Nuñez, David Garcia; Meyer, Rafael; Richter, André; Fernandez, Susana Franco; Rudiger, Alain; Schubert, Maria; Jenewein, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7.88 pmemory representing the core domains of delirium, or the temporal onset were very sensitive towards delirium, however lacked specificity. Conversely, delusions, perceptual abnormalities and lability of affect representing the non-core domain were very specific for delirium in the drowsy, however, not very sensitive. In the absence of delirium, drowsiness caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities. Drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold and caused more severe delirium, which was characterized by sleep-wake cycle and language abnormalities. Further, drowsiness by itself caused attentional impairment and language abnormalities, thus, with its disturbance in consciousness was subthreshold for delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Post-anaesthetic emergence delirium in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, L; Andersen, G; Møller, A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium (ED) after general anaesthesia (GA) is a well-known phenomenon, yet the risk factors are still unclear. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and independent predictors of ED and secondly to determine to which degree ED has any relevant, clinical...... consequences to medical staff as well as to patients. METHOD: This prospective, observational cohort study assessed adult patients emerging from GA in the operating room, using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). Signs of ED, defined as RASS≥1 along with possible clinical consequences were noted....... Patients with ED were re-evaluated in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) and concomitant patient and anaesthesia related factors were noted. RESULTS: Among the 1970 patients enrolled, 73 (3.7%) showed signs of ED when emerging from anaesthesia. When reassessed in PACU, the number had declined to 25...

  19. Biomarkers of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna eAndrosova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Elderly surgical patients frequently experience postoperative delirium (POD and the subsequent development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD. Clinical features include deterioration in cognition, disturbance in attention and reduced awareness of the environment and result in higher morbidity, mortality and greater utilization of social financial assistance. The aging Western societies can expect an increase in the incidence of POD and POCD. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have been studied on the molecular level albeit with unsatisfying small research efforts given their societal burden. Here, we review the known physiological and immunological changes and genetic risk factors, identify candidates for further studies and integrate the information into a draft network for exploration on a systems level. The pathogenesis of these postoperative cognitive impairments is multifactorial; application of integrated systems biology has the potential to reconstruct the underlying network of molecular mechanisms and help in the identification of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

  20. Dexmedetomidine infusion to facilitate opioid detoxification and withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya Prasad Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for acute intoxication, serious complication of overdose, or withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs. An acute withdrawal of drugs with addiction potential is associated with a sympathetic overactivity leading to marked psychomimetic disturbances. Acute intoxication or withdrawal of such drugs is often associated with life-threatening complications which require ICU admission and necessitate prolonged sedative analgesic medications, weaning from which is often complicated by withdrawal and other psychomimetic symptoms. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 (α2 agonist, has been used successfully to facilitate withdrawal and detoxification of various drugs and also to control delirium in ICU patients. Herein, we report a case of a chronic opioid abuse (heroin patient admitted with acute overdose complications leading to a prolonged ICU course requiring sedative-analgesic medication; the drug withdrawal-related symptoms further complicated the weaning process. Dexmedetomidine infusion was successfully used as a sedative-analgesic to control the withdrawal-related psychomimetic symptoms and to facilitate smooth detoxification and weaning from opioid and other sedatives.

  1. Motoric subtypes of delirium in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Results: On amended DMSS, hyperactive subtype (N = 45; 45.9% was the most common motoric subtype of delirium, followed by hypoactive subtype (N = 23; 23.5%, and mixed subtype (N = 21; 21.4%. On DRS-R-98, all patients fulfilled the criteria of ′acute (temporal onset of symptoms′, ′presence of an underlying physical disorder′ and ′difficulty in attention′. In the total sample, >90% of the patients had disturbances in sleep-wake cycle, orientation and fluctuation of symptoms. The least common symptoms were delusions, visuospatial disturbances and motor retardation. When compared to hypoactive group, significantly higher proportion of patients with hyperactive subtype had delusions, perceptual disturbances, and motor agitation. Whereas, compared to hyperactive subtype, significantly higher proportion of patients with hypoactive subtype had thought process abnormality and motor retardation. When the hyperactive and mixed motoric subtype groups were compared, patients with mixed subtype group had significantly higher prevalence of thought process abnormality and motor retardation. Comparison of hypoactive and mixed subtype revealed significant differences in the frequency of perceptual disturbances, delusions and motor agitation and all these symptoms being found more commonly in patients with the mixed subtype. Severity of symptoms were found to be significantly different across the various motoric subtypes for some of the non-cognitive symptoms, but significant differences were not seen for the cognitive symptoms as assessed on DRS-R-98. Conclusion: In elderly patients, motor subtypes of delirium differ from each other on non-cognitive symptom profile in terms of frequency and severity.

  2. Environmental factors predict the severity of delirium symptoms in long-term care residents with and without delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Vu, Minh; Ciampi, Antonio; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Belzile, Eric; Dyachenko, Alina

    2013-04-01

    To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability. Prospective, observational cohort study. Seven long-term care (LTC) facilities. Two hundred seventy-two LTC residents aged 65 and older with and without delirium. Weekly assessments (for up to 6 months) of the severity of delirium symptoms using the Delirium Index (DI), environmental risk factors, and number of medications. Baseline vulnerability measures included a diagnosis of dementia and a delirium risk score. Associations between environmental factors, medications, and weekly changes in DI were analyzed using a general linear model with correlated errors. Six potentially modifiable environmental factors predicted weekly changes in DI (absence of reading glasses, aids to orientation, family member, and glass of water and presence of bed rails and other restraints) as did the prescription of two or more new medications. Residents with dementia appeared to be more sensitive to the effects of these factors. Six environmental factors and prescription of two or more new medications predicted changes in the severity of delirium symptoms. These risk factors are potentially modifiable through improved LTC clinical practices. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Stop. Think. Delirium! A quality improvement initiative to explore utilising a validated cognitive assessment tool in the acute inpatient medical setting to detect delirium and prompt early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Angela; Harlan, Todd; Cobb, Janice

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the ability of nursing staff to detect delirium and apply early intervention to decrease adverse events associated with delirium. To characterise nursing practices associated with staff knowledge, delirium screening utilising the Modified Richmond Assessment Sedation Score (mRASS), and multicomponent interventions in an acute inpatient medical unit. Delirium incidence rates are up to 60% in frail elderly hospitalised patients. Under-recognition and inconsistent management of delirium is an international problem. Falls, restraints, and increased hospital length of stay are linked to delirium. A descriptive study. Exploration of relationships between cause and effect among cognitive screening, knowledge assessment and interventions. Success in identifying sufficient cases of delirium was not evident; however, multicomponent interventions were applied to patients with obvious symptoms. An increase in nursing knowledge was demonstrated after additional training. Delirium screening occurred in 49-61% of the target population monthly, with challenges in compliance and documentation of screening and interventions. Technological capabilities for trending mRASS results do not exist within the current computerised patient record system. Delirium screening increases awareness of nursing staff, prompting more emphasis on early intervention in apparent symptoms. Technological support is needed to effectively document and visualise trends in screening results. The study imparts future research on the effects of cognitive screening on delirium prevention and reduction in adverse patient outcomes. Evidence-based literature reveals negative patient outcomes associated with delirium. However, delirium is highly under-recognised indicating future research is needed to address nursing awareness and recognition of delirium. Additional education and knowledge transformation from research to nursing practice are paramount in the application of innovative strategies

  4. A Flipped Classroom Approach to Improving the Quality of Delirium Care Using an Interprofessional Train-the-Trainer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; James, Sandra-Li; Sinyi, Rebecca; Carroll, Aideen; Laidlaw, Jennifer; Yanofsky, Richard; Sheehan, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Given the prevalence and morbidity associated with delirium, there is a need for effective and efficient institutional approaches to delirium training in health care settings. Novel education methods, specifically the "flipped classroom" (FC) and "train-the-trainer" (TTT), have the potential to address these delirium training gaps. This study evaluates the effect of a TTT FC interprofessional delirium training program on participants' perceived ability to manage delirium, delirium knowledge, and clinicians' delirium assessment behaviors. FC Delirium TTT sessions were implemented in a large four-hospital network and consisted of presession online work and a 3-hour in-session component. The 156 TTT interprofessional participants who attended the sessions (ie, trainers) were expected to then deliver delirium training to their patient care units. Delirium care self-efficacy and knowledge test scores were measured before, after, and 6 months after the training session. Clinician delirium assessment rates were measured by chart audits before and 3 months after trainer's implementation of delirium training sessions. Delirium knowledge test scores (7.8 ± 1.6 versus 9.7 ± 1.2, P approach can improve participants' perceived delirium care skills and confidence, and delirium knowledge up to 6 months after the session. This approach provides a model for implementing hospitalwide delirium education that can change delirium assessment behavior while minimizing time and personnel requirements.

  5. Preoperative Risk Factors for Subsyndromal Delirium in Older Adults Who Undergo Joint Replacement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Dawn L; Lindseth, Glenda

    Older adults with subsyndromal delirium have similar risks for adverse outcomes following joint replacement surgery as those who suffer from delirium. This study examined relationships among subsyndromal delirium and select preoperative risk factors in older adults following major orthopaedic surgery. Delirium assessments of a sample of 62 adults 65 years of age or older were completed on postoperative Days 1, 2, and 3 following joint replacement surgery. Data were analyzed for relationships among delirium symptoms and the following preoperative risk factors: increased comorbidity burden, cognitive impairment, fall history, and preoperative fasting time. Postoperative subsyndromal delirium occurred in 68% of study participants. A recent fall history and a longer preoperative fasting time were associated with delirium symptoms (p ≤ .05). Older adults with a recent history of falls within the past 6 months or a longer duration of preoperative fasting time may be at higher risk for delirium symptoms following joint replacement surgery.

  6. Postoperative delirium after partial laryngectomy in a middle-aged patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiqian; Shen, Xia

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common occurrence in older patients. However, reports of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients are limited, and the underlying mechanism of delirium in this patient population is not clear. A 45-year-old man who developed postoperative delirium on the second day after partial laryngectomy. Interviews of the surgical team, patient, and patient's spouse revealed that the patient was psychologically stressed, but had not been diagnosed or treated. The patient also suffered impairment in physiological functioning and sleep disturbance after surgery. Postoperative delirium. The postoperative delirium was treated with an antipsychotic drug. The patient recovered well. Preoperative psychological stress, which is often undiagnosed and untreated, can increase the risk of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients undergoing laryngectomy. Therefore, screening for psychological stress and implementing strategies to prevent delirium should be considered for patients who undergo laryngectomy, even if they are not in high-risk older age groups.

  7. The Frequency, Characteristics, and Outcomes Among Cancer Patients With Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Ransing, Viraj; Yennu, Sriram; Wu, Jimin; Liu, Diane; Reddy, Akhila; Delgado-Guay, Marvin; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric condition seen in patients with severe illness, such as advanced cancer. Few published studies are available of the frequency, course, and outcomes of standardized management of delirium in advanced cancer patients admitted to acute palliative care unit (APCU). In this study, we examined the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of delirium in patients with advanced cancer admitted to an APCU. Medical records of 609 consecutive patients admitted to the APCU from January 2011 through December 2011 were reviewed. Data on patients' demographics; Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) score; palliative care specialist (PCS) diagnosis of delirium; delirium etiology, subtype, and reversibility; late development of delirium; and discharge outcome were collected. Delirium was diagnosed with MDAS score ≥7 and by a PCS using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition, Text Revision criteria. All patients admitted to the APCU received standardized assessments and management of delirium per best practice guidelines in delirium management. Of 556 patients in the APCU, 323 (58%) had a diagnosis of delirium. Of these, 229 (71%) had a delirium diagnosis on admission and 94 (29%) developed delirium after admission to the APCU. Delirium reversed in 85 of 323 episodes (26%). Half of patients with delirium (n = 162) died. Patients with the diagnosis of delirium had a lower median overall survival than those without delirium. Patients who developed delirium after admission to the APCU had poorer survival (p ≤ .0001) and a lower rate of delirium reversal (p = .03) compared with those admitted with delirium. More than half of the patients admitted to the APCU had delirium. Reversibility occurred in almost one-third of cases. Diagnosis of delirium was associated with poorer survival. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Development of a smartphone application for the objective detection of attentional deficits in delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Tieges, Zoe; Stiobhairt, Antaine; Scott, Katie; Suchorab, Klaudia; Weir, Alexander; Parks, Stuart; Shenkin, Susan; Maclullich, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundDelirium is an acute, severe deterioration in mental functioning. Inattention is the core feature, yet there are few objective methods for assessing attentional deficits in delirium. We previously developed a novel, graded test for objectively detecting inattention in delirium, implemented on a computerised device (Edinburgh Delirium Test Box (EDTB)). Although the EDTB is effective, tests on universally available devices have potential for greater impact. Here we assessed feasibilit...

  9. Detection of delirium by nurses among long-term care residents with dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Voyer, Philippe; Richard, Sylvie; Doucet, Lise; Danjou, Christine; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Delirium is a prevalent problem in long-term care (LTC) facilities where advanced age and cognitive impairment represent two important risk factors for this condition. Delirium is associated with numerous negative outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. Despite its clinical importance, delirium often goes unrecognized by nurses. Although rates of nurse-detected delirium have been studied among hospitalized older patients, this issue has been largely neglected...

  10. Increased Symptom Expression among Patients with Delirium Admitted to an Acute Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Maxine; Yennu, Sriram; Liu, Diane; Wu, Jimin; Reddy, Akhila; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric condition in very ill patients and those at the end of life. Previous case reports found that delirium-induced disinhibition may lead to overexpression of symptoms. It negatively affects communication between patients, family members, and the medical team and can sometimes lead to inappropriate interventions. Better understanding would result in improved care. Our aim was to determine the effect of delirium on the reporting of symptom severity in patients with advanced cancer. We reviewed 329 consecutive patients admitted to the acute palliative care unit (APCU) without a diagnosis of delirium from January to December 2011. Demographics, Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance status, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) on two time points were collected. The first time point was on admission and the second time point for group A was day one (+two days) of delirium. For group B, the second time point was within two to four days before discharge from the APCU. Patients who developed delirium and those who did not develop delirium during the entire course of admission were compared using chi-squared test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Paired t-test was used to assess if the change of ESAS from baseline to follow-up was associated with delirium. Ninety-six of 329 (29%) patients developed delirium during their admission to the APCU. The median time to delirium was two days. There was no difference in the length of stay in the APCU for both groups. Patients who did not have delirium expressed improvement in all their symptoms, while those who developed delirium during hospitalization showed no improvement in physical symptoms and worsening in depression, anxiety, appetite, and well-being. Patients with delirium reported no improvement or worsening symptoms compared to patients without delirium. Screening for delirium is important in patients who continue to report

  11. Fluctuations in sedation levels may contribute to delirium in ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, I; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU.......Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU....

  12. A Novel Computerized Test for Detecting and Monitoring Visual Attentional Deficits and Delirium in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cameron; Hendry, Kirsty; Wilson, Elizabeth S; Walsh, Timothy; Allerhand, Mike; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Tieges, Zoë

    2017-07-01

    Delirium in the ICU is associated with poor outcomes but is under-detected. Here we evaluated performance of a novel, graded test for objectively detecting inattention in delirium, implemented on a custom-built computerized device (Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU). A pilot study was conducted, followed by a prospective case-control study. Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh General ICU. A pilot study was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 20 patients. This was followed by a validation study in 30 selected patients with and without delirium (median age, 63 yr; range, 23-84) who were assessed with the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU on up to 5 separate days. Presence of delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU involves a behavioral assessment and a computerized test of attention, requiring patients to count slowly presented lights. Thirty patients were assessed a total of 79 times (n = 31, 23, 15, 8, and 2 for subsequent assessments; 38% delirious). Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU scores (range, 0-11) were lower for patients with delirium than those without at the first (median, 0 vs 9.5), second (median, 3.5 vs 9), and third (median, 0 vs 10.5) assessments (all p Delirium Test Box-ICU score less than or equal to 5 was 100% sensitive and 92% specific to delirium across assessments. Longitudinally, participants' Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU performance was associated with delirium status. These findings suggest that the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has diagnostic utility in detecting ICU delirium in patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale Score greater than -3. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has potential additional value in longitudinally tracking attentional deficits because it provides a range of scores and is sensitive to change.

  13. High C-Reactive Protein Predicts Delirium Incidence, Duration, and Feature Severity After Major Noncardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Dillon, Simon T; Inouye, Sharon K; Ngo, Long H; Fong, Tamara G; Jones, Richard N; Travison, Thomas G; Schmitt, Eva M; Alsop, David C; Freedman, Steven D; Arnold, Steven E; Metzger, Eran D; Libermann, Towia A; Marcantonio, Edward R

    2017-08-01

    To examine associations between the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) measured preoperatively and on postoperative day 2 (POD2) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. Prospective cohort study. Two academic medical centers. Adults aged 70 and older undergoing major noncardiac surgery (N = 560). Plasma CRP was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Delirium was assessed from Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) interviews and chart review. Delirium duration was measured according to number of hospital days with delirium. Delirium feature severity was defined as the sum of CAM-Severity (CAM-S) scores on all postoperative hospital days. Generalized linear models were used to examine independent associations between CRP (preoperatively and POD2 separately) and delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity; prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS, >5 days); and discharge disposition. Postoperative delirium occurred in 24% of participants, 12% had 2 or more delirium days, and the mean ± standard deviation sum CAM-S was 9.3 ± 11.4. After adjusting for age, sex, surgery type, anesthesia route, medical comorbidities, and postoperative infectious complications, participants with preoperative CRP of 3 mg/L or greater had a risk of delirium that was 1.5 times as great (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.1) as that of those with CRP less than 3 mg/L, 0.4 more delirium days (P delirium (3.6 CAM-S points higher, P delirium (95% CI = 1.0-2.4) as those in the lowest quartile (≤127.53 mg/L), had 0.2 more delirium days (P delirium (4.5 CAM-S points higher, P delirium incidence, duration, and feature severity. CRP may be useful to identify individuals who are at risk of developing delirium. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. The Diagnosis of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: An Emerging Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Arora, Rakesh C.; Caplan, Gideon A.; Kamholz, Barbara; Kolanowski, Ann; Fick, Donna Marie; Kreisel, Stefan; MacLullich, Alasdair; (UK), MRCP; Meagher, David; Neufeld, Karen; Pandharipande, Pratik P.; Richardson, Sarah; Slooter, Arjen J.C.; Taylor, John P.; Thomas, Christine; Tieges, Zoë; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Voyer, Philippe; Rudolph, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision does not provide guidance regarding specific tests for assessment of the cognitive process impaired in delirium. Importantly, the assessment or inclusion of preexisting cognitive impairment is also not addressed by these standards. The challenge of DSD gets more complex as types of dementia, particularly dementia with Lewy bodies, which has features of both delirium and dementia, are considered. The objective of this article is to critically review key elements for the diagnosis of DSD, including the challenge of neuropsychological assessment in patients with dementia and the influence of particular tests used to diagnose DSD. To address the challenges of DSD diagnosis, we present a framework for guiding the focus of future research efforts to develop a reliable reference standard to diagnose DSD. A key feature of a reliable reference standard will improve the ability to clinically diagnose DSD in facility-based patients and research studies. PMID:27650668

  15. A longitudinal study of delirium phenomenology indicates widespread neural dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Maeve; Adamis, Dimitrios; Saunders, Jean; Trzepacz, Paula; Meagher, David

    2015-04-01

    Delirium affects all higher cortical functions supporting complex information processing consistent with widespread neural network impairment. We evaluated the relative prominence of delirium symptoms throughout episodes to assess whether impaired consciousness is selectively affecting certain brain functions at different timepoints. Twice-weekly assessments of 100 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium in a palliative care unit used the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) and Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD). A mixed-effects model was employed to estimate changes in severity of individual symptoms over time. Mean age = 7 0.2 ± 10.5 years, 51% were male, and 27 had a comorbid dementia. A total of 323 assessments (range 2-9 per case) were conducted, but up to 6 are reported herein. Frequency and severity of individual DRS-R98 symptoms was very consistent over time even though the majority of patients (80%) experienced fluctuation in symptom severity over the course of hours or minutes. Over time, DRS-R98 items for attention (88-100%), sleep-wake cycle disturbance (90-100%), and any motor disturbance (87-100%), and CTD attention and vigilance were most frequently and consistently impaired. Mixed-effects regression modeling identified only very small magnitudes of change in individual symptoms over time, including the three core domains. Attention is disproportionately impaired during the entire episode of delirium, consistent with thalamic dysfunction underlying both an impaired state of consciousness and well-known EEG slowing. All individual symptoms and three core domains remain relatively stable despite small fluctuations in symptom severity for a given day, which supports a consistent state of impaired higher cortical functions throughout an episode of delirium.

  16. Relationship between cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms of delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajlakshmi, Aarya Krishnan; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-04-01

    To study relationship between the cognitive and the non-cognitive symptoms of delirium. Eighty-four patients referred to psychiatry liaison services and met DSM-IVTR criteria of delirium were assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-1998 (DRSR-98) and Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD). The mean DRS-R-98 severity score was 17.19 and DRS-R-98 total score was 23.36. The mean total score on CTD was 11.75. The mean scores on CTD were highest for comprehension (3.47) and lowest for vigilance (1.71). Poor attention was associated with significantly higher motor retardation and higher DRS-R-98 severity scores minus the attention scores. There were no significant differences between those with and without poor attention. Higher attention deficits were associated with higher dysfunction on all other domains of cognition on CTD. There was significant correlation between cognitive functions as assessed on CTD and total DRS-R-98 score, DRS-R-98 severity score and DRS-R-98 severity score without the attention item score. However, few correlations emerged between CTD domains and CTD total scores with cognitive symptom total score of DRS-R-98 (items 9-13) and non-cognitive symptom total score of DRS-R-98 (items 1-8). Our study suggests that in delirium, cognitive deficits are quite prevalent and correlate with overall severity of delirium. Attention deficit is a core symptom of delirium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new delirium phenotype with rapid high amplitude onset and nearly as rapid reversal: Central Coast Australia Delirium Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional models for delirium based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders and its 1990 offspring, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), were not designed to distinguish behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia from rapid cognitive decline. We examined a new diagnostic criterion for delirium plus exclusion of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and recent inattention with a 25% decline in digit span forward (DSF). This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing management of prevalent delirium in general medical with that in geriatric medical wards in a 370-bed hospital north of Sydney. Inclusion criteria were age ≥65 years and prevalent delirium in the emergency department based on: CAM; proof that CAM elements were not better explained by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia; proof of recent inattention on DSF; evidence of cognitive decline not due to sedatives or antipsychotics in the emergency department. Measurements included the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, 22-item), Selective IADL (8-item), Mini-Mental State Examination, DSF daily, Delirium Index daily, and Apathy Evaluation Scale. Pre-delirium scores from past cognitive tests and best scores were imputed after admission. Relative change (RC) was calculated as absolute change/test range and RC/MPC ratio was calculated as RC after admission/maximal possible change. A total of 130 subjects were recruited but 14 with subsyndromal delirium were excluded, leaving 116 subjects (mean age 83.6 years). Forty-eight percent had prior dementia. RC from pre-delirium to admission was 42% for the Mini-Mental State Examination, 41% for Selective IADL, 34% for 5-DSF, 54% for 6-DSF, and 37% for the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Improvements after admission (RC and RC/MPC ratios) were 32%/98% for 5-DSF, 54%/82% for 6-DSF, and 45%/80% for the Delirium Index. General medicine and geriatric medicine groups had similar outcomes. This

  18. Psychosis following Tramadol Withdrawal

    OpenAIRE

    Rajabizadeh, Ghodratolah; Kheradmand, Ali; Nasirian, Mansoureh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tramadol is a centrally acting opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to sever pain. It has more advantage and less opioid adverse effects than conventional opioid analgesia. Case Report: This article reports a patient with tramadol dependency that had psychosis after tramadol withdrawal. Conclusion: By the increase of tramadol usage for relief of chronic pain, tramadol abuse and dependency is increased. Some of tramadol withdrawal symptoms are not related to opioid, for example ...

  19. Predicting delirium duration in elderly hip-surgery patients: does early symptom profile matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, C.J.; Witlox, J.; Adamis, D.; Meagher, D.J.; van der Ploeg, T.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; van Stijn, M.F.M.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; van Gool, W.A.; Eikelenboom, P.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Features that may allow early identification of patients at risk of prolonged delirium, and therefore of poorer outcomes, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative delirium risk factors and delirium symptoms (at onset and clinical symptomatology

  20. Phenomenology of delirium among patients admitted to a coronary care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Sanjay; Grover, Sandeep; Bagga, Shiv; Sharma, Akhilesh

    2016-11-01

    To study the phenomenology and motor sub-types of delirium in patients admitted in a Coronary Care Unit (CCU). Three hundred and nine consecutive patients were screened for delirium, and those found positive for the same were evaluated by a psychiatrist on DSM-IVTR criteria to confirm the diagnosis. Those with a diagnosis of delirium were evaluated on the DRS-R-98 to study the phenomenology and on the amended Delirium Motor Symptom Scale (DMSS) to study the motor sub-types. Eighty-one patients were found to have delirium. Commonly seen symptoms of delirium included: disturbances in sleep-wake cycle, lability of affect, thought abnormality, disturbance in attention, disorientation, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Very few patients had delusions. More than half of the participants were categorized as having hyperactive (n = 46; 56.8%) followed by hypoactive sub-type (n = 21; 26%) and mixed sub-type (n = 9; 11.1%) of delirium. There were minor differences in the frequency and severity of symptoms of delirium between incidence and prevalence cases of delirium and those with different motoric sub-types. Delirium in CCU set-up is characterized by the symptoms of disturbances in sleep-wake cycle, lability of affect, thought abnormality, disturbance in attention, disorientation, short-term memory, and long-term memory. Hyperactive delirium is more common than hypoactive delirium.

  1. The neuropsychological sequelae of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture three months after hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witlox, Joost; Slor, Chantal J.; Jansen, René W. M. M.; Kalisvaart, Kees J.; van Stijn, Mireille F. M.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; Eikelenboom, Piet; van Gool, Willem A.; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a risk factor for long-term cognitive impairment and dementia. Yet, the nature of these cognitive deficits is unknown as is the extent to which the persistence of delirium symptoms and presence of depression at follow-up may account for the association between delirium and cognitive

  2. Delirium assessment in hospitalized elderly patients: Italian translation and validation of the nursing delirium screening scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedale, Valentina; Di Mauro, Stefania; Del Giorno, Giulia; Barilaro, Monica; Villa, Candida E; Gaudreau, Jean D; Ausili, Davide

    2017-08-01

    Delirium has a high incidence pathology associated with negative outcomes. Although highly preventable, half the cases are not recognized. One major cause of delirium misdiagnosis is the absence of a versatile instrument to measure it. Our objective was to translate the nursing delirium screening scale (Nu-DESC) and evaluate its performance in Italian settings. This was a methodological study conducted in two sequential phases. The first was the Italian translation of Nu-DESC through a translation and back-translation process. The second aimed to test the inter-rater reliability, the sensibility and specificity of the instrument on a convenience sample of 101 hospitalized elderly people admitted to relevant wards of the San Gerardo Hospital in Monza. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability, two examiners tested Nu-DESC on 20 patients concurrently without comparison. To measure the sensibility and specificity of Nu-DESC, the confusion assessment method was used as a gold standard measure. The inter-rater reliability (Cohen Kappa) was 0.87-an excellent agreement between examiners. The study of the ROC curve showed an AUC value of 0.9461 suggesting high test accuracy. Using 3 as a cut-off value, Nu-DESC showed 100 % sensibility and 76 % specificity. Further research is needed to test Nu-DESC on a larger sample. However, based on our results, Nu-DESC can be used in research and clinical practice in Italian settings because of its very good and similar performances to previous validation studies. The value of 3 appears to be the optimal cut-off in the Italian context.

  3. Preventing ICU Subsyndromal Delirium Conversion to Delirium With Low-Dose IV Haloperidol: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadheeb, Nada S; Skrobik, Yoanna; Schumaker, Greg; Pacheco, Manuel N; Roberts, Russel J; Ruthazer, Robin R; Devlin, John W

    2016-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of scheduled low-dose haloperidol versus placebo for the prevention of delirium (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist ≥ 4) administered to critically ill adults with subsyndromal delirium (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist = 1-3). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Three 10-bed ICUs (two medical and one surgical) at an academic medical center in the United States. Sixty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with subsyndromal delirium without complicating neurologic conditions, cardiac surgery, or requiring deep sedation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive IV haloperidol 1 mg or placebo every 6 hours until delirium occurred (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist ≥ 4 with psychiatric confirmation), 10 days of therapy had elapsed, or ICU discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar between the haloperidol (n = 34) and placebo (n = 34) groups. A similar number of patients given haloperidol (12/34 [35%]) and placebo (8/34 [23%]) developed delirium (p = 0.29). Haloperidol use reduced the hours per study day spent agitated (Sedation Agitation Scale ≥ 5) (p = 0.008), but it did not influence the proportion of 12-hour ICU shifts patients spent alive without coma (Sedation Agitation Scale ≤ 2) or delirium (p = 0.36), the time to first delirium occurrence (p = 0.22), nor delirium duration (p = 0.26). Days of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.80), ICU mortality (p = 0.55), and ICU patient disposition (p = 0.22) were similar in the two groups. The proportion of patients who developed corrected QT-interval prolongation (p = 0.16), extrapyramidal symptoms (p = 0.31), excessive sedation (p = 0.31), or new-onset hypotension (p = 1.0) that resulted in study drug discontinuation was comparable between the two groups. Low-dose scheduled haloperidol, initiated early in the ICU stay, does not prevent delirium and has little therapeutic advantage in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adults

  4. Delirium superimposed on dementia: phenomenological differences between patients with and without behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in a specialized delirium unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abengaña, Jennifer; Chong, Mei Sian; Tay, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Overlap between neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and delirium complicates diagnosis of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). This study sought to examine differences in delirium presentation and outcomes between DSD patients with and without pre-existing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This was a prospective cohort study of older adults with DSD admitted to a specialized delirium unit (December 2010-August 2012). We collected data on demographics, comorbidities, illness severity, delirium precipitants, and cognitive and functional scores. Delirium severity was assessed using Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) and Cognitive Assessment Method severity score (CAM-sev). Patients were categorized as DSD-BPSD+ and DSD-BPSD- based on elicited behavioral and psychological disturbances. We recruited 174 patients with DSD (84.4 +/-7.4 years) with 37 (21.3%) having BPSD. At presentation, delirium severity and symptom frequency on DRS-R98 were similar, but DSD-BPSD+ more often required only a single precipitant (40.5% vs. 21.9%, p = 0.07), and had significantly longer delirium duration (median days: 7 vs. 5, p delirium resolution, DSD-BPSD+ exhibited significant improvement in sleep-wake disturbances (89.2% vs. 54.1%, p symptoms except motor retardation were improved in DSD-BPSD-. Pharmacological restraint was more prevalent (62.2% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.03), and at higher doses (chlorpromazine equivalents 0.95 +/-1.8 vs. 0.40 +/-1.2, p delirium, with subsequent slower delirium recovery. Aggravation of sleep disturbance, labile affect, and motor agitation should raise suspicion for delirium among these patients.

  5. Delirium assessment in postoperative patients: Validation of the Portuguese version of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelha, Fernando; Veiga, Dalila; Norton, Maria; Santos, Cristina; Gaudreau, Jean-David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Portuguese version of the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) for use in critical care settings. We simultaneously and independently evaluated all postoperative patients admitted to a surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of both the Nu-DESC and the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) within 24 hours of admission by both the research staff physician and one bedside nurse. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Nu-DESC using sensitivity, specificity and ROC curve analyses. We assessed reliability between nurses and the research staff physician for Nu-DESC by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We assessed agreement and reliability between Nu-DESC and ICDSC by overall and specific proportions of agreement and by kappa statistics. Based on the ICDSC, we diagnosed delirium in 12 of the 78 patients. Reliability between nurses and the staff physician for total Nu-DESC score was high. Agreement between nurses and staff physician in the delirium diagnosis was perfect. The proportion of overall agreement between Nu-DESC and ICDSC in the delirium diagnosis was 0.88 and the kappa ranged from 0.79 to 0.93. Nu-DESC Sensitivity was 100 and specificity was 86%. The Portuguese version of the Nu-DESC appears to be an accurate and reliable assessment and monitoring instrument for delirium in critical care settings. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients: Educational Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Judith M; Van Aman, M Nancy; Schneiderhahn, Mary Elizabeth; Edelman, Robin; Ercole, Patrick M

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is an acute brain dysfunction associated with poor outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Critical care nurses play an important role in the prevention, detection, and management of delirium, but they must be able to accurately assess for it. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) instrument is a reliable and valid method to assess for delirium, but research reveals most nurses need practice to use it proficiently. A pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the success of a multimodal educational strategy (i.e., online learning module coupled with standardized patient simulation experience) on critical care nurses' knowledge and confidence to assess and manage delirium using the CAM-ICU. Participants (N = 34) showed a significant increase (p education. No statistical change in knowledge of delirium existed following the education. A multimodal educational strategy, which included simulation, significantly added confidence in critical care nurses' performance using the CAM-ICU. J Contin Nurs Educ. 2017;48(5):239-244. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Delirium and concomitant use of lithium+electroconvulsive therapy (ECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of lithium and E.C.T has always been accused to cause delirium in patients receiving such a combination. In this study incidence of delirium in patients who receive lithium+E.C.T. concurrently has been compared with those who have been treated with E.C.T. only. Of 49 patients who had Bipolar Mood Disorder (B.M.D. 1 disorder (manic episode 24 were given E.C.T.+lithium and 25 were treated with E.C.T. Only, 3 patients of the first group and 2 patients of the second group developed delirium. The difference between two groups was not statistically significant. Another finding was that all cases of delirium developed in patients who were above 35 years old (P value=0.001. These findings show that combination of E.C.T. and Lithium may not be so harmful as it was once considered. On the other hand it could be concluded that increased age may be a risk factor for delirium in such a combination.

  8. Characterizing and predicting rates of delirium across general hospital settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomas H; Hart, Kamber L; Perlis, Roy H

    2017-05-01

    To better understand variation in reported rates of delirium, this study characterized delirium occurrence rate by department of service and primary admitting diagnosis. Nine consecutive years (2005-2013) of general hospital admissions (N=831,348) were identified across two academic medical centers using electronic health records. The primary admitting diagnosis and the treating clinical department were used to calculate occurrence rates of a previously published delirium definition composed of billing codes and natural language processing of discharge summaries. Delirium rates varied significantly across both admitting diagnosis group (X 2 10 =12786, pdelirium (86/109764; 0.08%) and neurological admissions the greatest (2851/25450; 11.2%). Although the rate of delirium varied across the two hospitals the relative rates within departments (r=0.96, pdelirium varies significantly across admitting diagnosis and hospital department. Both admitting diagnosis and department of care are even stronger predictors of risk than age; as such, simple risk stratification may offer avenues for targeted prevention and treatment efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Features Associated with Delirium Motor Subtypes in Older Inpatients: Results of a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Meagher, David; Mazzone, Andrea; Bianchetti, Angelo; Ferrara, Nicola; Ferrari, Alberto; Musicco, Massimo; Trabucchi, Marco; Bellelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To date motor subtypes of delirium have been evaluated in single-center studies with a limited examination of the relationship between predisposing factors and motor profile of delirium. We sought to report the prevalence and clinical profile of subtypes of delirium in a multicenter study. This is a point prevalence study nested in the "Delirium Day 2015", which included 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italy. Delirium was detected using the 4-AT and motor subtypes were measured with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS). A multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with delirium subtypes. Of 429 patients with delirium, the DMSS was completed in 275 (64%), classifying 21.5% of the patients with hyperactive delirium, 38.5% with hypoactive, 27.3% with mixed and 12.7% with the non-motor subtype. The 4-AT score was higher in the hyperactive subtype, similar in the hypoactive, mixed subtypes, while it was lowest in the non-motor subtype. Dementia was associated with all three delirium motor subtypes (hyperactive, OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.2-8.7; hypoactive, OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2-6.5; mixed OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.2). Atypical antipsychotics were associated with hypoactive delirium (OR 0.23, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), while intravenous lines were associated with mixed delirium (OR 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-6.9). The study shows that hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype among hospitalized older patients. Specific clinical features were associated with different delirium subtypes. The use of standardized instruments can help to characterize the phenomenology of different motor subtypes of delirium. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The overlap of delirium with neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölttä, Eeva; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Laurila, Jouko V; Strandberg, Timo E; Tilvis, Reijo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2011-12-01

    To study the frequency of overlapping of delirium with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) among patients with dementia, and to investigate the prognostic value of delirium, multiple NPS without delirium, or neither during a 2-year follow-up. We assessed 425 consecutive patients in acute geriatric wards and in seven nursing homes in Helsinki. Those 255 suffering from dementia were examined for NPS of dementia described in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (delusions, hallucinations, agitation/aggression, depression/low mood, anxiety, euphoria/elation, apathy, disinhibition, irritability/mood changes, and aberrant motor behavior) and for delirium criteria according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Patients were categorized into three groups: delirium with or without multiple NPS (delirium group), multiple NPS without delirium (multiple NPS group), or having neither delirium nor multiple NPS (zero or only one NPS group). A total of 66 patients suffered from delirium according to the DSM-IV, 127 had multiple NPS without delirium, and 62 had neither multiple NPS nor delirium. In the delirium group 61 individuals (92.4%) were deceased or residing in permanent institutional care at the end of the 2-year follow up period, compared to 100 individuals (78.7%) in the multiple NPS group and 48 (77.4%) in the zero or one NPS group (Pearson χ² = 6.64, df 2, p = 0.036). In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, delirium was an independent predictor of this composite outcome (OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.4-13.6). Patient groups with symptoms of delirium and multiple NPS are highly overlapping. The presence of delirium indicates poor prognosis.

  11. An evolving approach to delirium: A mixed-methods process evaluation of a hospital-wide delirium program in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaidari, Abdullah Ao; Allen-Narker, Rosalind Ac

    2017-06-01

    A process evaluation was carried out to assess and potentially improve the design and implementation of a hospital-wide delirium program. A mixed-methods sequential-explanatory design was used; retrospective chart reviews for 100 older (75+) medical inpatients were conducted to measure nurses', doctors' and coders' adherence to key program processes following which interviews were conducted to identify potential barriers to implementation. Delirium occurred in 49% of patients. Chart reviews revealed suboptimal adherence to the delirium risk assessment (66%), the Short Confusion Assessment Method (50% on admission, 58% during admission), documentation of delirium in clinical records (80%) and discharge letters (38%) and coding for delirium (49%). The major barriers to implementation identified were failure to recruit non-nursing staff, unclear goals and instructions, difficulties using the Short-CAM, time constraints with competing priorities and lack of outcome expectancy. A new delirium program was needed based on these findings. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  12. Opioid antagonists with minimal sedation for opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M

    2017-05-29

    without indicating the level of care provided.The included studies were heterogeneous in terms of the type of opioid antagonist treatment regimen, the comparator, the outcome measures assessed, and the means of assessing outcomes. As a result, the validity of any estimates of overall effect is doubtful, therefore we did not calculate pooled results for any of the analyses.The quality of the evidence for treatment with an opioid antagonist-adrenergic agonist combination versus an alpha 2 -adrenergic agonist is very low. Two studies reported data on peak withdrawal severity, and four studies reported data on the average severity over the period of withdrawal. Peak withdrawal induced by opioid antagonists in combination with an adrenergic agonist appears to be more severe than withdrawal managed with clonidine or lofexidine alone, but the average severity over the withdrawal period is less. In some situations antagonist-induced withdrawal may be associated with significantly higher rates of treatment completion compared to withdrawal managed with adrenergic agonists. However, this result was not consistent across studies, and the extent of any benefit is highly uncertain.We could not extract any data on the occurrence of adverse events, but two studies reported delirium or confusion following the first dose of naltrexone. Delirium may be more likely with higher initial doses and with naltrexone rather than naloxone (which has a shorter half-life), but we could not confirm this from the available evidence.Insufficient data were available to make any conclusions on the best duration of treatment. Using opioid antagonists plus alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists is a feasible approach for managing opioid withdrawal. However, it is unclear whether this approach reduces the duration of withdrawal or facilitates transfer to naltrexone treatment to a greater extent than withdrawal managed primarily with an adrenergic agonist.A high level of monitoring and support is desirable for several

  13. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke: A safe alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ben PW

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke patients presence of delirium was assessed during the first week with the confusion assessment method. Severity was scored with the delirium rating scale (DRS. Sixty-two patients developed a delirium in the acute phase of stroke. Only patients with a severe and persistent delirium (defined as a DRS of 12 or more for more than 24 hours were enrolled in the present study. In total 26 fulfilled these criteria of whom 17 were treated with orally administered rivastigmine with a total dose between 3 and 12 mg a day. Eight patients could not be treated because of dysphagia and one because of early discharge. Results No major side effects were recorded. In 16 patients there was a considerable decrease in severity of delirium. The mean DRS declined from 14.8 on day one to 8.5 after therapy and 5.6 after tapering. The mean duration of delirium was 6.7 days (range; 2–17. Conclusion Rivastigmine is safe in stroke patients with delirium even after rapid titration. In the majority of patients the delirium improved after treatment. A randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the usefulness of rivastigmine in delirium after stroke. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1395

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for postoperative delirium in total joint arthroplasty patients: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenliang; Ke, Xiurong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Xiaoliang; Wang, Juncheng; Yang, Guojing; Xia, Haijie; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the incidence and clinical features of delirium after total joint arthroplasty, and to establish the potential risk factors for postoperative delirium. A total of 212 consecutive patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, who met the inclusion and exclusive criteria were enrolled. The general characteristics, preoperative and postoperative hematological variables were documented respectively. According to the presence of delirium, all patients were divided into the delirium group and non-delirium group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the possible predictors for postoperative delirium. At a minimum of 6months of follow-up, 35 patients were observed with postoperative delirium at an estimated total incidence of 16.5%. The incidence of delirium was statistically higher in hip arthroplasty (22.8%) than that in knee arthroplasty (7.1%). The multivariate regression analysis identified older age (OR=1.590, P=0.023), a history of stroke (OR=190.23, P=0.036), preoperative PaO 2 (OR=1.277, P=0.018) and equivalent fentanyl dose (OR=1.010, P=0.012) as the predictive factors for postoperative delirium after total joint arthroplasty. The incidence of postoperative delirium after total joint arthroplasty is higher than expected. Based on our findings, we suggest that the surgeons should focus on those patients who have these risk factors and ensure the appropriate management to avoid postoperative delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Implementing Delirium Screening in the Intensive Care Unit: Secrets to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Han, Jin Ho; Boehm, Leanne; Pun, Brenda T.; Ely, E. Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review delirium screening tools available for use in the adult and pediatric ICU, review evidence-based delirium screening implementation and to discuss common pitfalls encountered during delirium screening in the ICU. Data Sources Review of delirium screening literature and expert opinion. Results Over the past decade, tools specifically designed for use in critically ill adults and children have been developed and validated. Delirium screening has been effectively implemented across many ICUs settings. Keys to effective implementation include addressing barriers to routine screening, multi-faceted training such as lectures, case-based scenarios, one-on-one teaching and real-time feedback of delirium screening and interdisciplinary communication through discussion of a patient’s delirium status during bedside rounds and through documentation systems. If delirium is present clinicians should search for reversible or treatable causes since it is often multifactorial. Conclusion Implementation of effective delirium screening is feasible but requires attention to implementation methods, including a change in the current ICU culture that believes delirium is inevitable or a normal part of a critical illness, to a future culture that views delirium as a dangerous syndrome which portends poor clinical outcomes and which is potentially modifiable depending on the individual patients circumstances. PMID:23896832

  16. Ethical challenges and solutions regarding delirium studies in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lisa; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J; Davis, Daniel; Currow, David C; Bush, Shirley H; Barnes, Christopher; Hartwick, Michael; Agar, Meera; Simon, Jessica; Breitbart, William; MacDonald, Neil; Lawlor, Peter G

    2014-08-01

    Delirium occurs commonly in settings of palliative care (PC), in which patient vulnerability in the unique context of end-of-life care and delirium-associated impairment of decision-making capacity may together present many ethical challenges. Based on deliberations at the Studies to Understand Delirium in Palliative Care Settings (SUNDIPS) meeting and an associated literature review, this article discusses ethical issues central to the conduct of research on delirious PC patients. Together with an analysis of the ethical deliberations at the SUNDIPS meeting, we conducted a narrative literature review by key words searching of relevant databases and a subsequent hand search of initially identified articles. We also reviewed statements of relevance to delirium research in major national and international ethics guidelines. Key issues identified include the inclusion of PC patients in delirium research, capacity determination, and the mandate to respect patient autonomy and ensure maintenance of patient dignity. Proposed solutions include designing informed consent statements that are clear, concise, and free of complex phraseology; use of concise, yet accurate, capacity assessment instruments with a minimally burdensome schedule; and use of PC friendly consent models, such as facilitated, deferred, experienced, advance, and proxy models. Delirium research in PC patients must meet the common standards for such research in any setting. Certain features unique to PC establish a need for extra diligence in meeting these standards and the employment of assessments, consent procedures, and patient-family interactions that are clearly grounded on the tenets of PC. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Trzepacz, Paula T; Franco, Jose G; Meagher, David J; Lee, Yanghyun; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Furlanetto, Leticia M; Negreiros, Daniel; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Kean, Jacob; Leonard, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Principal components analysis applied to the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 contributes to understanding the delirium construct. Using a multisite pooled international delirium database, the authors applied confirmatory factor analysis to Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 scores from 859 adult patients evaluated by delirium experts (delirium, N=516; nondelirium, N=343). Confirmatory factor analysis found all diagnostic features and core symptoms (cognitive, language, thought process, sleep-wake cycle, motor retardation), except motor agitation, loaded onto factor 1. Motor agitation loaded onto factor 2 with noncore symptoms (delusions, affective lability, and perceptual disturbances). Factor 1 loading supports delirium as a single construct, but when accompanied by psychosis, motor agitation's role may not be solely as a circadian activity indicator.

  18. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2016-01-01

    Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test can be used as screening tools for delirium among inpatients with cancer, but even in synergy, they lack specificity. Combining cognitive testing and attention to nurses' records might improve detection, yet further studies are needed to create a more detailed patient...... Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious...

  19. Delirium en ancianos hospitalizados: Seguimiento de 18 meses Delirium in elderly inpatients: An 18 month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Vázquez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir la prevalencia de síndrome confusional agudo en ancianos hospitalizados, la evolución durante la internación y a los 18 meses. Se evaluó en forma prospectiva a pacientes de 70 años de edad o mayores, internados en el Servicio de Clínica Médica de nuestro hospital, entre septiembre de 2005 y mayo de 2006. Se utilizó una versión validada en español del Confussion Assessment Method para diagnosticar delirium. A los 18 meses se evaluó el estado vital, lugar de residencia, actividades de la vida diaria, dependencia de cuidadores y reinternaciones. Se evaluaron 194 pacientes y 74 fueron excluidos. De los 120 casos incluidos, 52 (43.3% presentaron delirium. La edad media fue de 82.6 años (DS: 7.4 en el grupo de pacientes con síndrome confusional agudo y de 80.4 años (DS: 5.6 en el grupo de pacientes sin delirium. Al comparar estos dos grupos encontramos diferencias significativas en las características, siendo más frecuentes en el grupo con delirium la residencia previa en un centro de tercer nivel (17.3% vs. 1.5%; p Delirium usually hardens care during hospitalization and increases morbidity during hospital stay and after discharge. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of delirium in elderly inpatients in a Buenos Aires hospital, its morbidity and mortality during hospital stay and the next 18 month follow-up. Patients aged 70 or older admitted to internal medicine unit between September 2005 and May 2006 were enrolled. Delirium was assessed with the Spanish version of Confusion Assessment Method. Demographic data, cause of admition and length of stay, destination after discharge and mortality were registered. A new evaluation was made 18 months after discharge. We evaluated 194 patients and 74 were excluded. Of the 120 included, 52 (43.3% presented delirium. We found significant differences between patients with and without delirium in previous placement in nursing home

  20. Detection of delirium and its symptoms by nurses working in a long term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Philippe; Richard, Sylvie; McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the ability of nurses to recognize delirium and its symptoms and to investigate the factors associated with undetected delirium. A prospective, observational study with repeated measurements over a 6-month period. Seven long term care settings in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada. Residents aged 65 and older, with or without dementia, admitted to long term care (not respite care) and able to communicate in English or French. Delirium and its symptoms were assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method. Ratings of delirium by nurses based on their observations during routine care were compared with delirium ratings by trained research assistants based on a one-time formal structured evaluation (Confusion Assessment Method and Mini Mental State Examination). This procedure was repeated for 10 delirium symptoms. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The method of generalized estimating equations was used to identify factors associated with undetected delirium. Research assistants identified delirium in 43 (21.3%) of the 202 residents. Nurses identified delirium in 51% of the cases identified by the research assistants. However, for cases without delirium according to the research assistants, nurses identified 90% of them correctly. Detection rates for delirium symptoms ranged from 25% to 66.7%. Undetected delirium was associated with lower number of depressive symptoms manifested by the resident. Detection of delirium is a major issue for nurses. Strategies to improve nurse recognition of delirium could well reduce adverse outcomes for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for post-stroke delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tae Sung; Lee, Jin Soo; Yoon, Jung Han; Moon, So Young; Joo, In Soo; Huh, Kyoon; Hong, Ji Man

    2017-03-23

    Post-stroke delirium is a common problem in the care of stroke patients, and is associated with longer hospitalization, high short-term mortality, and an increased need for long-term care. Although post-stroke delirium occurs in approximately 10 ~ 30% of patients, little is known about the risk factors for post-stroke delirium in patients who experience acute stroke. A total of 576 consecutive patients who experienced ischemic stroke (mean age, 65.2 years; range, 23-93 years) were screened for delirium over a 2-year period in an acute stroke care unit of a tertiary referral hospital. We screened for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method. Once delirium was suspected, we evaluated the symptoms using the Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. Neurological deficits were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at admission and discharge, and functional ability was assessed using the Barthel Index and modified Rankin Scale at discharge and 3 months after discharge. Thirty-eight (6.7%) patients with stroke developed delirium during admission to the acute stroke care unit. Patients with delirium were significantly older (70.6 vs. 64.9 years of age, P = .001) and smoked cigarettes more frequently (40% vs. 24%, P = .033) than patients without delirium. In terms of clinical features, the delirium group experienced a significantly higher rate of major hemispheric stroke (55% vs. 26%, P delirium were older age, history of cigarette smoking, and major hemispheric stroke. Abrupt cessation of cigarette smoking may be a risk factor for post-stroke delirium in ischemic stroke patients. The development of delirium after stroke is associated with worse outcome and longer hospitalization.

  2. Pediatric emergence delirium: Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, H David; Mervitz, Deborah; Cravero, Joseph P

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric emergence agitation/delirium (ED) is a cluster of behaviors seen in the early postanesthetic period with negative emotional consequences for families and increased utilization of healthcare resources. Many studies have looked at identifying risk factors for ED and at pharmacologic regimens to prevent ED. There are few published reports on treatment options and efficacy for established ED episodes, and essentially no data concerning current practice in the treatment of ED. We sought to elicit the experience and opinions of Canadian Pediatric Anesthesiologists on the incidence of ED in their practice, definitions and diagnostic criteria, preventative strategies, treatments, and their perceived efficacy. A web-based survey was sent to pediatric anesthesiologists working at academic health science centers across Canada. The participants were selected based on being members of the Canadian Pediatric Anesthesia Society (CPAS), which represents the subspecialty in Canada. All members of CPAS who had e-mail contact information available in the membership database were invited to participate. A total of 209 members out of the total of 211 fulfilled these criteria and were included in the study population. The response rate was 51% (106/209). Of respondents, 42% felt that ED was a significant problem at their institutions, with 45% giving medication before or during anesthesia to prevent the development of ED. Propofol was the most common medication given to prevent ED (68%) and to treat ED (42%). Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) was considered by 38% of respondents as a technique used to prevent ED. Medications used for treatment included propofol (42%), midazolam (31%), fentanyl (10%), morphine (7%), and dexmedetomidine (5%), with 87% of respondents rating effectiveness of treatment as 'usually works quickly with one dose'. We present information on current practice patterns with respect to prophylaxis and treatment of ED among a specialized group of pediatric

  3. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and... Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits entered into customs bonded warehouses as provided...

  4. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  5. Preventing ICU Subsyndromal Delirium Conversion to Delirium with Low Dose IV Haloperidol: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qadheeb, Nada S.; Skrobik, Yoanna; Schumaker, Greg; Pacheco, Manuel; Roberts, Russel; Ruthazer, Robin; Devlin, John W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of scheduled low-dose, haloperidol vs. placebo for the prevention of delirium [Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) ≥ 4)] administered to critically ill adults with subsyndromal delirium (ICDSC = 1-3). Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting Three 10-bed ICUs (2 medical; 1 surgical) at an academic medical center in the U.S. Patients Sixty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with subsyndromal delirium without complicating neurologic conditions, cardiac surgery or requiring deep sedation. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous haloperidol 1 mg or placebo every six hours until either delirium (ICDSC ≥ 4 with psychiatric confirmation), therapy ≥ 10 days or ICU discharge occurred. Measurements and Main Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the haloperidol (n=34) and placebo (n=34) groups. A similar number of patients given haloperidol [12/34 (35%)] and placebo [8/34 (23%)] patients developed delirium (p=0.29). Haloperidol use reduced the hours per study day spent agitated (SAS ≥ 5) (p=0.008), but did not influence the proportion of 12-hour ICU shifts patients’ spent alive without coma (SAS ≤ 2) or delirium (p=0.36), the time to first delirium occurrence (p=0.22) nor delirium duration (p=0.26). Days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.80), ICU mortality (p=0.55) and ICU patient disposition (p=0.22) were similar in the two groups. The proportion of patients who developed QTc-interval prolongation (p=0.16), extrapyramidal symptoms (p=0.31), excessive sedation (p=0.31) or new-onset hypotension (p=1.0) that resulted in study drug discontinuation was comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Low-dose scheduled haloperidol, initiated early in the ICU stay, does not prevent delirium and has little therapeutic advantage in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adults with subsyndromal delirium. PMID:26540397

  6. Postoperative delirium in elderly citizens and current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddareddygari Velayudha Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative delirium (POD represents an acute brain dysfunction in the postsurgical period. Perioperative physicians caring for the older adults are familiar with the care of dysfunction of organs such as lungs, heart, liver, or kidney in the perioperative setting, but they are less familiar with management of brain dysfunction. As early detection and prompt treatment of inciting factors are utmost important to prevent or minimize the deleterious outcomes of delirium. The purpose of this review is to prepare perioperative physicians with a set of current clinical practice recommendations to provide optimal perioperative care of older adults, with a special focus on specific perioperative interventions that have been shown to prevent POD. On literature search in EMBASE, CINAHL, and PUBMED between January 2000 and September 2015 using search words delirium, POD, acute postoperative confusion, and brain dysfunction resulted in 9710 articles. Among them, 73 articles were chosen for review, in addition, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, American Geriatric Society guidelines, hospital elderly life program-confusion assessment method training manual, New York geriatric nursing protocols, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision classification of mental disorders, Food and Drug Administration requests boxed warnings on older class of antipsychotic drugs 2008 and delirium in Miller's text book of anesthesia were reviewed and relevant information presented in this article.

  7. Patient with intractable delirium successfully treated with electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eske; Hageman, Ida

    2014-01-01

    and in this situation electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be a quick and efficient treatment. In this case report of a 26-year-old man a post-operative intractable delirium persisting for three weeks was efficiently and swiftly relieved by three consecutive ECTs. The patient was discharged without need for further...

  8. PROTEOMIC AND EPIGENOMIC MARKERS OF SEPSIS-INDUCED DELIRIUM (SID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis eSfera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In elderly population sepsis is one of the leading causes of intensive care unit (ICU admissions in the United States. Sepsis-induced delirium (SID is the most frequent cause of delirium in ICU (1. Together delirium and SID represent under recognized public health problems which place an increasing financial burden on the US health care system, currently estimated at 143 to 152 billion dollars per year (2. The interest in SID was recently reignited as it was demonstrated that, contrary to prior beliefs, cognitive deficits induced by this condition may be irreversible and lead to dementia (3-4. Conversely, it is construed that diagnosing SID early or mitigating its full blown manifestations may preempt geriatric cognitive disorders. Biological markers specific for sepsis and SID would facilitate the development of potential therapies, monitor the disease process and at the same time enable elderly individuals to make better informed decisions regarding surgeries which may pose the risk of complications, including sepsis and delirium.This article proposes a battery of peripheral blood markers to be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in sepsis and SID. Though each individual marker may not be specific enough, we believe that together as a battery they may achieve the necessary accuracy to answer two important questions: who may be vulnerable to the development of sepsis, and who may develop SID and irreversible cognitive deficits following sepsis?

  9. Delirium and Resistance: activist art and the crisis of capitalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sholette, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Delirium and Resistance: Activist Art and the Crisis of Capitalism is an investigation into specific cultural changes that have taken place in a period of intense socio-economic change and instability beginning roughly in the late 1970s with the era of globalization and counter-globalization

  10. Differential Diagnosis in Older Adults: Dementia, Depression, and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintner, Gary G.

    1995-01-01

    Examines three common disorders, dementia, depression, and delirium, which can be particularly difficult to diagnose in older adults. Presents three aspects that are helpful in making a decision: age-related differences, medical issues that need to be ruled out, and assessment methods particularly useful in the diagnostic process. (JPS)

  11. Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress after Intensive Care Delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Long-term psychological consequences of critical illness are receiving more attention in recent years. The aim of our study was to assess the correlation of ICU-delirium and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) anxiety and depression after ICU-discharge in a Danish cohort...

  12. Melatonin deficiency hypothesis in delirium: a synthesis of current evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin plays a major role in circadian sleep-wake rhythm in many mammals, including humans. Patients with acute confusional state or delirium, especially those with underlying cognitive impairment, frequently suffer from sleep disturbances and disturbed circadian rhythm. In

  13. Affective functioning after delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slor, Chantal J.; Witlox, Joost; Jansen, René W. M. M.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David J.; Tieken, Esther; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; van Gool, Willem A.; Eikelenboom, Piet; de Jonghe, Jos F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in elderly patients is associated with various long-term sequelae that include cognitive impairment and affective disturbances, although the latter is understudied. For a prospective cohort study of elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, baseline characteristics and affective and

  14. A study of symptom profile and clinical subtypes of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, David

    2012-01-01

    Delineating delirium phenomenology facilitates detection, understanding neuroanatomical endophenotypes, and patient management. This compendium reflects an integrated research plan executed over a five year period, employing detailed, standardized phenomenological assessments cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Motor activity studies were controlled and included both subjective and objective measures, aimed at identifying a new approach to defining this clinical subtype as a more pure motor...

  15. Delirium: Issues in diagnosis and management | Salawu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness, cognition and perception that occurs frequently in medically ill patients. Although it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, it is often not recognized and treated by physicians. Literature searches were conducted using MEDLINE with the following keywords/ phrases: ...

  16. Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, J.L.; Marcantonio, E.R.; Culley, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine if postoperative delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 7 days) and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 3 months). The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited 1218 subjects...

  17. Pilot prospective study of post-surgery sleep and EEG predictors of post-operative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joanna L; Nadler, Jacob W; Preud'homme, Xavier A; Fang, Eric; Daughtry, Rommie L; Chapman, Joseph B; Attarian, David; Wellman, Samuel; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    Delirium is a common post-operative complication associated with significant costs, morbidity, and mortality. We sought sleep/EEG predictors of delirium present prior to delirium symptoms to facilitate developing and targeting therapies. Continuous EEG data were obtained in 12 patients post-orthopedic surgery from the day of surgery until delirium assessment on post-operative day 2 (POD2). Diminished total sleep time (r=-0.68; pdelirium severity. Patients experiencing delirium slept 2.4h less and took 2h longer to fall asleep. Greater waking EEG delta power (r=0.84; pdelirium severity. Loss of sleep on night1 post-surgery is an early predictor of subsequent delirium. EEG Delta Power alterations in waking and sleep appear to be later indicators of impending delirium. Further work is needed to evaluate reproducibility/generalizability and assess whether sleep loss contributes to causing delirium. This first study to prospectively collect continuous EEG data for an extended period prior to delirium onset identified EEG-derived indices that predict subsequent delirium that could aid in developing and targeting therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  19. Environmental and Clinical Risk Factors for Delirium in a Neurosurgical Center: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Fumihiro; Mizunari, Takayuki; Yamada, Keiko; Kobayashi, Shiro; Murai, Yasuo; Morita, Akio

    2017-07-01

    Few reports of delirium-related risk factors have focused on environmental risk factors and clinical risk factors, such as white matter signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. We prospectively enrolled 253 patients admitted to our neurosurgical center between December 2014 and June 2015 and analyzed 220 patients (100 male patients; mean age, 64.1 years; age range, 17-92 years). An Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist score ≥4 points indicated delirium. We evaluated patient factors consisting of baseline characteristics and related factors, such as white matter lesions (WMLs), as well as the surrounding environment. Delirium occurred in 29/220 cases (13.2%). Regarding baseline characteristics, there were significant statistical correlations between delirium and age (P = 0.0187), Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised score (P = 0.0022) on admission, and WMLs (P delirium and stay in a neurosurgical care unit (P = 0.0245). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed statistically significant correlations of delirium with WMLs (P delirium (P = 0.026). WMLs in patients and the surrounding environment are risk factors for delirium in a neurosurgical center. To prevent delirium, clinicians must recognize risk factors, such as high-grade WMLs, and manage environmental factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alzheimer's-related cortical atrophy is associated with postoperative delirium severity in persons without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Annie M; Fong, Tamara G; Travison, Thomas G; Jones, Richard N; Gou, Yun; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha M; Marcantonio, Edward R; Alsop, David C; Inouye, Sharon K; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-11-01

    Patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have increased risk of developing delirium. This study investigated the relationship between a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived biomarker associated with preclinical AD and postoperative delirium. Participants were older adults (≥70 years) without dementia who underwent preoperative MRI and elective surgery. Delirium incidence and severity were evaluated daily during hospitalization. Cortical thickness was averaged across a published set of a priori brain regions to derive a measure known as the "AD signature." Logistic and linear regression was used, respectively, to test whether the AD signature was associated with delirium incidence in the entire sample (N = 145) or with the severity of delirium among those who developed delirium (N = 32). Thinner cortex in the AD signature did not predict incidence of delirium (odds ratio = 1.15, p = 0.38) but was associated with greater delirium severity among those who developed delirium (b = -1.2, p = 0.014). These results suggest that thinner cortices, perhaps reflecting underlying neurodegeneration due to preclinical AD, may serve as a vulnerability factor that increases severity once delirium occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed Recall and Working Memory MMSE Domains Predict Delirium following Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine C; Garvan, Cynthia; Hizel, Loren P; Lopez, Marcos G; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-01-01

    Reduced preoperative cognition is a risk factor for postoperative delirium. The significance for type of preoperative cognitive deficit, however, has yet to be explored and could provide important insights into mechanisms and prediction of delirium. Our goal was to determine if certain cognitive domains from the general cognitive screener, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), predict delirium after cardiac surgery. Patients completed a preoperative MMSE prior to undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Following surgery, delirium was assessed throughout ICU stay using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU delirium and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale. Cardiac surgery patients who developed delirium (n = 137) had lower total MMSE scores than patients who did not develop delirium (n = 457). In particular, orientation to place, working memory, delayed recall, and language domain scores were lower. Of these, only the working memory and delayed recall domains predicted delirium in a regression model adjusting for history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, age, sex, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. For each word not recalled on the three-word delayed recall assessment, the odds of delirium increased by 50%. For each item missed on the working memory index, the odds of delirium increased by 36%. Of the patients who developed delirium, 47% had a primary impairment in memory, 21% in working memory, and 33% in both domains. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve using only the working memory and delayed recall domains was 0.75, compared to 0.76 for total MMSE score. Delirium risk is greater for individuals with reduced MMSE scores on the delayed recall and working memory domains. Research should address why patients with memory and executive vulnerabilities are more prone to postoperative delirium than those with other cognitive limitations.

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  3. Postoperative delirium in intensive care patients: risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Dalila; Luis, Clara; Parente, Daniela; Fernandes, Vera; Botelho, Miguela; Santos, Patricia; Abelha, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) in Surgical Intensive Care patients is an important independent outcome determinant. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of POD. Prospective cohort study conducted during a period of 10 months in a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) with five intensive care beds. All consecutive adult patients submitted to major surgery were enrolled. Demographic data, perioperative variables, length of stay (LOS) and the mortality at PACU, hospital and at 6-months follow-up were recorded. Postoperative delirium was evaluated using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Descriptive analyses were conducted and the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the determinants of POD with calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its confidence interval 95% (95% CI). There were 775 adult PACU admissions and 95 patients had exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 680 patients, 128 (18.8%) developed POD. Independent determinants of POD identified were age, ASA-PS, emergency surgery and total amount of fresh frozen plasma administered during surgery. Patients with delirium had higher mortality rates, were more severely ill and stayed longer at the PACU and in the hospital. POD was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality There was a high incidence of delirium had a high incidence in intensive care surgical patients. POD was associated with worse severity of disease scores, longer LOS in hospital, and in PACU and higher mortality rates. The independent risk factors for POD were age, ASAPS, emergency surgery and the amount of plasma administered during surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for incident delirium in an acute general medical setting: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Emily Jane; Phillips, Nicole M; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2017-03-01

    To determine predisposing and precipitating risk factors for incident delirium in medical patients during an acute hospital admission. Incident delirium is the most common complication of hospital admission for older patients. Up to 30% of hospitalised medical patients experience incident delirium. Determining risk factors for delirium is important for identifying patients who are most susceptible to incident delirium. Retrospective case-control study with two controls per case. An audit tool was used to review medical records of patients admitted to acute medical units for data regarding potential risk factors for delirium. Data were collected between August 2013 and March 2014 at three hospital sites of a healthcare organisation in Melbourne, Australia. Cases were 161 patients admitted to an acute medical ward and diagnosed with incident delirium between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Controls were 321 patients sampled from the acute medical population admitted within the same time range, stratified for admission location and who did not develop incident delirium during hospitalisation. Identified using logistic regression modelling, predisposing risk factors for incident delirium were dementia, cognitive impairment, functional impairment, previous delirium and fracture on admission. Precipitating risk factors for incident delirium were use of an indwelling catheter, adding more than three medications during admission and having an abnormal sodium level during admission. Multiple risk factors for incident delirium exist; patients with a history of delirium, dementia and cognitive impairment are at greatest risk of developing delirium during hospitalisation. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should be aware of patients who have one or more risk factors for incident delirium. Knowledge of risk factors for delirium has the potential to increase the recognition and understanding of patients who are vulnerable to delirium. Early recognition and

  5. Delirium the under-recognised syndrome: survey of healthcare professionals' awareness and practice in the intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Abeer A; Wesley Ely, E

    2017-03-01

    To survey intensive care unit healthcare professionals' awareness and practice related to delirium. Despite the current evidence revealing the risks linked to delirium and advances in practice guidelines promoting delirium assessment, healthcare professionals show little sensitivity towards delirium and evident training needs. The study had a cross-sectional survey design. A sample of 168 intensive care unit healthcare professionals including nurses and physicians completed a semistructured questionnaire to survey their awareness, screening and management of delirium in intensive care units. The survey took place at 11 intensive care units from academic (university) and nonacademic (nonuniversity) governmental hospitals in Mansoura, Egypt. The mean score of delirium awareness was 64·4 ± 14·0 among intensive care unit healthcare professionals. Awareness of delirium was significantly lower when definition of delirium was not provided, among diploma nurses compared to bachelor degree nurses and physicians, among those who did not attend any workshop/lecture or read an article related to delirium and lastly, those who work in an intensive care unit when delirium. The survey found that only 26·8% of the healthcare professionals screen for delirium on a routine basis, and 14·3% reported attending workshops or lectures or reading an article related to delirium in the last year. In screening delirium, healthcare professionals did not use any tools, nor did they follow adopted protocols or guidelines to manage delirium. To manage delirium, 52·4% of the participants reported using sedatives, 36·9% used no drugs, and 10·7% reported using antipsychotics (primarily haloperidol). Intensive care unit healthcare professionals do not have adequate training or routine screening of delirium. There is an evident absence of using standardised tools or adapting protocols to monitor and manage delirium. This study has the potentials to shed some lights on the variables that

  6. Protocol for the Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia (DECIDE) study: A nested prospective longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sarah J; Davis, Daniel H J; Stephan, Blossom; Robinson, Louise; Brayne, Carol; Barnes, Linda; Parker, Stuart; Allan, Louise M

    2017-04-28

    Delirium is common, affecting at least 20% of older hospital inpatients. It is widely accepted that delirium is associated with dementia but the degree of causation within this relationship is unclear. Previous studies have been limited by incomplete ascertainment of baseline cognition or a lack of prospective delirium assessments. There is an urgent need for an improved understanding of the relationship between delirium and dementia given that delirium prevention may plausibly impact upon dementia prevention. A well-designed, observational study could also answer fundamental questions of major importance to patients and their families regarding outcomes after delirium. The Delirium and Cognitive Impact in Dementia (DECIDE) study aims to explore the association between delirium and cognitive function over time in older participants. In an existing population based cohort aged 65 years and older, the effect on cognition of an episode of delirium will be measured, independent of baseline cognition and illness severity. The predictive value of clinical parameters including delirium severity, baseline cognition and delirium subtype on cognitive outcomes following an episode of delirium will also be explored. Over a 12 month period, surviving participants from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study II-Newcastle will be screened for delirium on admission to hospital. At the point of presentation, baseline characteristics along with a number of disease relevant clinical parameters will be recorded. The progression/resolution of delirium will be monitored. In those with and without delirium, cognitive decline and dementia will be assessed at one year follow-up. We will evaluate the effect of delirium on cognitive function over time along with the predictive value of clinical parameters. This study will be the first to prospectively elucidate the size of the effect of delirium upon cognitive decline and incident dementia. The results will be used to inform future

  7. Delirium assessed by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale in advanced cancer patients admitted to an acute palliative/supportive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Cortegiani, Andrea; Casuccio, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Delirium is often unrecognized in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of delirium assessed by the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) and possible associated factors on admission to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (APSCU). The secondary outcome was to assess changes in MDAS and symptom burden at time of discharge. A consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients who were admitted to an APSCU was prospectively assessed for a period of 10 months. Patient demographics, including age, gender, primary diagnosis, Karnofsky status, stage of disease, and educational level were collected. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and the MDAS were measured at hospital admission and discharge. A total of 314 patients were surveyed. Of 292 patients with MDAS available at T0, 74 (25.3%) and 24 (8.2%) had a MDAS of 7-12 and ≥13, respectively. At discharge, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients with a MDAS ≥7/30. Higher values of MDAS were associated with age (p = .028), a lower Karnofsky status (p symptoms (p = .026), hospital stay (p = .038) and death (p Delirium is highly prevalent in patients admitted to APSCU, characterized by a low mortality due to early referral. Comprehensive assessment and treatment may allow a decrease in the level of cognitive disorders and symptom burden.

  8. Prevention of ICU delirium and delirium-related outcome with haloperidol: a study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent disorder in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with serious consequences. Therefore, preventive treatment for delirium may be beneficial. Worldwide, haloperidol is the first choice for pharmacological treatment of delirious patients. In daily clinical practice, a lower dose is sometimes used as prophylaxis. Some studies have shown the beneficial effects of prophylactic haloperidol on delirium incidence as well as on mortality, but evidence for effectiveness in ICU patients is limited. The primary objective of our study is to determine the effect of haloperidol prophylaxis on 28-day survival. Secondary objectives include the incidence of delirium and delirium-related outcome and the side effects of haloperidol prophylaxis. Methods This will be a multicenter three-armed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prophylactic intervention study in critically ill patients. We will include consecutive non-neurological ICU patients, aged ≥18 years with an expected ICU length of stay >1 day. To be able to demonstrate a 15% increase in 28-day survival time with a power of 80% and alpha of 0.05 in both intervention groups, a total of 2,145 patients will be randomized; 715 in each group. The anticipated mortality rate in the placebo group is 12%. The intervention groups will receive prophylactic treatment with intravenous haloperidol 1 mg/q8h or 2 mg/q8h, and patients in the control group will receive placebo (sodium chloride 0.9%), both for a maximum period of 28-days. In patients who develop delirium, study medication will be stopped and patients will subsequently receive open label treatment with a higher (therapeutic) dose of haloperidol. We will use descriptive summary statistics as well as Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, adjusted for covariates. Discussion This will be the first large-scale multicenter randomized controlled prevention study with haloperidol in ICU patients with a high risk of delirium, adequately

  9. Relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevuk U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Utkan Sevuk,1 Erkan Baysal,2 Nurettin Ay,3 Yakup Altas,2 Rojhat Altindag,2 Baris Yaylak,2 Vahhac Alp,3 Ertan Demirtas4 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 2Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 3Department of General Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Liv Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and is independently associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and higher costs. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms and affects up to 40% of elderly people. The relationship between cobalamin deficiency and the occurrence of delirium after cardiac surgery has not been examined in previous studies. We examined the relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery.Material and methods: A total of 100 patients with cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG were enrolled in this retrospective study. Control group comprised 100 patients without cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG. Patients aged 65 years or over were included. Diagnosis of delirium was made using Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Delirium severity was measured using the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98.Results: Patients with cobalamin deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of delirium (42% vs 26%; P=0.017 and higher delirium severity scores (16.5±2.9 vs 15.03±2.48; P=0.034 than patients without cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin levels were significantly lower in patients with delirium than patients without delirium (P=0.004. Delirium severity score showed a moderate correlation with cobalamin levels (Ρ=-0.27; P=0.024. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that

  10. Refeeding syndrome as an iatrogenic cause of delirium: a retrospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jason P; Chang, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome describes a pattern of electrolyte disturbances occurring after the reintroduction of nutrition to the malnourished patient; it is often associated with delirium. The authors investigated whether hospitalized elderly patients who develop delirium are more likely to have laboratory findings consistent with refeeding syndrome. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 100 patients over age 60. Charts were examined for indications of delirium and refeeding syndrome. Significantly lower serum levels of magnesium and phosphate were found in patients with delirium. Delirium was not associated with any significant difference in levels of potassium. This study supports an association between delirium in elderly patients and electrolyte changes consistent with those seen in refeeding syndrome.

  11. Risk Evaluation of Postoperative Delirium Using Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Elderly Patients with Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Yamasaki, Makoto; Sugimoto, Ken; Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Takiguchi, Shuji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-11-01

    The number of geriatric patients with esophageal cancer is increasing in step with the aging of the population. Geriatric patients have a higher risk of postoperative complications, including delirium that can cause a fall or impact survival. Therefore, it is very important that we evaluate risks of postoperative complications before surgery. The aim of this study was to predict postoperative delirium in elderly patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 91 patients aged 75 years and over who underwent esophagectomy between January 2006 and December 2014. We investigated the association between postoperative delirium and clinicopathological factors, including comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA). Postoperative delirium developed in 24 (26 %) patients. Postoperative delirium was significantly associated with low mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and high Geriatric Depression Scale 15 (GDS15), which are components of CGA, and psychiatric disorder (P patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Intervention by a multidisciplinary team using CGA might help prevent postoperative delirium.

  12. Sleep and delirium in unsedated patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, H C; Andersen, J H; Bendtsen, A O

    2016-01-01

    . Delirium assessment was done using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). RESULTS: Of four patients who were delirium free, only one had identifiable sleep on PSG. Sleep was disrupted with loss of circadian rhythm, and diminished REM sleep. In the remaining three patients...... the PSGs were atypical, meaning that no sleep signs were found, and sleep could not be quantified from the PSGs. Clinical total sleep time (ClinTST) ranged from 2.0-13.1 h in patients without delirium. Six patients with delirium all had atypical PSGs, so sleep could not be quantified. Short periods of REM......BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and delirium are major problems in the ICU. We aimed to assess the sleep quality by polysomnography (PSG) in relation to delirium in mechanically ventilated non-sedated ICU patients. METHODS: Interpretation of 24-h PSG and clinical sleep assessment in 14 patients...

  13. [Investigation of doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H B; Wang, X T; Tang, B; Zhu, Z N; Guo, H L; Li, Z Z; Sun, J H; Liu, D W

    2017-12-01

    Objective: To investigate doctors' and nurses' perceptions and implementation of delirium management in intensive care unit. Methods: A total of 197 doctors and nurses in 2 general ICUs and 3 special ICUs at Peking Union Medical College Hospital finished a self-designed questionnaire of delirium management. Results: There were 47 males and 150 females, 43 doctors and 154 nurses who participated in the survey.One hundred and twenty five participators were from general ICU and the others from special ICU. The ICU staff had a significant difference on the perceptions and implementation of delirium management( P delirium assessment" ( P delirium management,especially in special ICUs. Delirium management should be included as a routine care in ICU to improve patients' outcome.

  14. Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-05-01

    Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cognitive Reserve Model in the Development of Delirium: The Successful Aging After Elective Surgery Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizginer, Sevdenur; Marcantonio, Edward; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Shafi, Mouhsin; Schmitt, Eva M; Inouye, Sharon K; Jones, Richard N

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated the role of cognitive and brain reserve markers in modifying the risk of postoperative delirium associated with a pathophysiologic marker. The Successful Aging after Elective Surgery study (SAGES) enrolled 556 adults age ≥70 years without dementia scheduled for major surgery. Patients were assessed preoperatively and daily during hospitalization for delirium. We used C-reactive protein (CRP) as a pathophysiologic marker of inflammation, previously associated with delirium. Markers of reserve included vocabulary knowledge, education, cognitive activities, occupation type and complexity, head circumference, intracranial volume, and leisure activities. Vocabulary knowledge, cognitive activities, and education significantly modified the association of CRP and postoperative delirium ( P delirium associated with lower grade inflammatory processes, supporting the role of reserve in delirium.

  16. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Delirium in Cardiac Surgery ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shadvar

    2013-12-01

    Results: The prevalence of delirium in these patients was 23.5% (47 patients. The mean age of patients with delirium was more than other patients (P=0.001. The Incidence of delirium in the patients with cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB was higher than the patients without CPB (P=0.01. The Incidence of delirium in the patients with Atrial fibrillation was higher than patients without it (P=0.002. The Incidence of delirium in the patients with CVA history was higher than the patients without CVA history (P=0.032. The mean time of mechanical ventilation in the delirious patients was more than other patients (P=0.01. Conclusion: Older Age, CPB, history of CVA, Atrial Fibrillation, and prolonged mechanical ventilation are considered as the risk factors of delirium in cardiac surgery patients.

  17. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  18. Symptom profile as assessed on delirium rating scale-revised-98 of delirium in respiratory intensive care unit: A study from India

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    Akhilesh Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the phenomenology of delirium in patients admitted in a Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to RICU were screened for delirium using Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS, Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU assessment tool and those found positive for delirium were evaluated by a psychiatrist to confirm the diagnosis. Those with a diagnosis of delirium as per the psychiatrist were evaluated on Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98 to study phenomenology. Results: All the 75 patients fulfilled the criteria of “acute onset of symptoms” and “presence of an underlying physical disorder” as per the DRS-R-98. Commonly seen symptoms of delirium included disturbances in attention (100%, thought process abnormality (100%, fluctuation in symptoms (97.33% disturbance in, sleep-wake cycle, language disturbance (94.7%, disorientation (81.33%, and short-term memory impairments (73.33%. No patient had delusions and very few (5.3% reported perceptual disturbances. According to RASS subtyping, hypoactive delirium was the most common subtype (n = 34; 45.33%, followed by hyperactive subtype (n = 28; 37.33% and a few patients had mixed subtype of delirium (n = 13; 17.33%. Factor structure of DRS-R-98 symptoms yielded 3 factors (Factor-1: cognitive factor; Factor-2: motoric factor; Factor-3; thought, language, and fluctuation factor. Conclusion: The phenomenology of delirium in ICU patients is similar to non-ICU patients, but hypoactive delirium is the most common subtype.

  19. Phenibut (β-Phenyl-γ-aminobutyric Acid) Dependence and Management of Withdrawal: Emerging Nootropics of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Tania; Mgbako, Ofole; Katzman, Caroline; Grossman, Allison

    2018-01-01

    This case report describes the development of withdrawal from phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist. Although phenibut is not an FDA-approved medication, it is available through online retailers as a nootropic supplement. There are reports of dependence in patients that misuse phenibut. We report a case in which a patient experienced withdrawal symptoms from phenibut and was successfully treated with a baclofen taper. This case report highlights the development of phenibut use disorder with coingestion of alcohol and potential management for phenibut withdrawal. We believe clinicians must be aware of how phenibut dependence may present and how to manage the withdrawal syndrome.

  20. Phenibut (β-Phenyl-γ-aminobutyric Acid Dependence and Management of Withdrawal: Emerging Nootropics of Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ahuja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the development of withdrawal from phenibut, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-receptor type B agonist. Although phenibut is not an FDA-approved medication, it is available through online retailers as a nootropic supplement. There are reports of dependence in patients that misuse phenibut. We report a case in which a patient experienced withdrawal symptoms from phenibut and was successfully treated with a baclofen taper. This case report highlights the development of phenibut use disorder with coingestion of alcohol and potential management for phenibut withdrawal. We believe clinicians must be aware of how phenibut dependence may present and how to manage the withdrawal syndrome.

  1. Delirium diagnosis methodology used in research: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin J; Nelliot, Archana; Inouye, Sharon K; Ely, E Wesley; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Needham, Dale M

    2014-12-01

    To describe methodology used to diagnose delirium in research studies evaluating delirium detection tools. The authors used a survey to address reference rater methodology for delirium diagnosis, including rater characteristics, sources of patient information, and diagnostic process, completed via web or telephone interview according to respondent preference. Participants were authors of 39 studies included in three recent systematic reviews of delirium detection instruments in hospitalized patients. Authors from 85% (N = 33) of the 39 eligible studies responded to the survey. The median number of raters per study was 2.5 (interquartile range: 2-3); 79% were physicians. The raters' median duration of clinical experience with delirium diagnosis was 7 years (interquartile range: 4-10), with 5% having no prior clinical experience. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated in 70% of studies. Cognitive tests and delirium detection tools were used in the delirium reference rating process in 61% (N = 21) and 45% (N = 15) of studies, respectively, with 33% (N = 11) using both and 27% (N = 9) using neither. When patients were too drowsy or declined to participate in delirium evaluation, 70% of studies (N = 23) used all available information for delirium diagnosis, whereas 15% excluded such patients. Significant variability exists in reference standard methods for delirium diagnosis in published research. Increasing standardization by documenting inter-rater reliability, using standardized cognitive and delirium detection tools, incorporating diagnostic expert consensus panels, and using all available information in patients declining or unable to participate with formal testing may help advance delirium research by increasing consistency of case detection and improving generalizability of research results. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An observational study of community health care nurses’ knowledge about delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrour R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rachid Akrour,1 Henk Verloo2 1Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, 2Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Sion, Switzerland Background: Early detection of delirium among home-dwelling older patients is a substantial challenge for home health care providers. Despite an abundance of literature, recent studies still describe a widespread lack of knowledge about delirium and its underdetection in all types of health care settings.Aims and objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge of community health care nurses (CHNs about delirium in the Switzerland’s French-speaking region.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving 75 CHNs was conducted between February and July 2015. Data were collected using an autoadministered questionnaire based on the study by Malenfant and Voyer, exploring theoretical knowledge of delirium and its detection using clinical vignette case studies. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results: Forty-eight CHNs participated in the study; nearly all of them (44; 94% selected the correct definition of delirium, and most (36; 78% knew its four principal diagnostic criteria. Only 16 (34% participants selected the confusion assessment method (CAM as the recommended best practice delirium detection tool. Only 19 (40% and 23 (49% participants were able to correctly identify hypoactive and hyperactive delirium, respectively, from the clinical vignette case studies. The average score of CHNs on the Malenfant and Voyer’s questionnaire was 12.7 (SD 3.2.Conclusion: Participants showed moderate-to-low knowledge about delirium. The study identified a lack of knowledge on how to recognize the signs and symptoms of delirium and the absence of suitable delirium detection tools. Keywords: delirium knowledge questionnaire, geriatric syndromes, delirium detection tools, clinical vignettes 

  3. Delirium in palliative care: Detection, documentation and management in three settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jennifer; Hosker, Christian; Ward, Jason; Kite, Suzanne; Speechley, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is characterized by disturbances of consciousness and changes in cognition that develop rapidly and fluctuate. It is common in palliative care, affecting up to 88% of patients with advanced cancer, yet often remains insufficiently diagnosed and managed. This study sought to compare rates of screening, documentation, and management of delirium across three palliative care settings - two hospices and one hospital team - and to determine whether definitive documentation of delirium as a diagnosis is associated with improved management of the disorder. A retrospective review of patient case notes was performed in three U.K. palliative care settings for the presence of: cognitive screening tools on first assessment; the term "delirium" as a stated documented diagnosis; documented terms, descriptions, and synonyms suggestive of delirium; and management plans aimed at addressing delirium. We reviewed 319 notes. The prevalence of delirium as a documented diagnosis ranged from 0 to 8.4%, rising to 35.7-39.2% when both documented delirium and descriptions suggestive of delirium were taken into account. An abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was determined for 19.6 (H1) and 26.8% (H2) of hospice admissions and for 0% of hospital assessments. Symptoms suggestive of delirium were managed in 56.3% of cases in hospital, compared with 66.7 (H1) and 72.2% (H2) in hospices. Use of the term "delirium" was infrequent in both hospital and hospice palliative care settings, as was the use of routine screening. Many identified cases did not receive targeted management. The definitive use of the term as a diagnosis was associated with clearer management plans in hospital patients. The authors suggest that better screening and identification remains the first step in improving delirium management.

  4. Delirium in the elderly: A systematic review of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Carboni Tardelli Cerveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Delirium is a common disorder associated with poor prognosis, especially in the elderly. The impact of different treatment approaches for delirium on morbimortality and long-term welfare is not completely understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in elderly patients with delirium. METHODS: This systematic review compared pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients over 60 years old with delirium. Databases used were: MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL and LILACS from inception to January 6th, 2016. RESULTS: A total of ten articles were selected. The six non-pharmacological intervention studies showed no impact on duration of delirium, mortality or institutionalization, but a decrease in severity of delirium and improvement in medium-term cognitive function were observed. The most commonly used interventions were temporal-spatial orientation, orientation to self and others, early mobilization and sleep hygiene. The four studies with pharmacological interventions found that rivastigmine reduced the duration of delirium, improved cognitive function and reduced caregiver burden; olanzapine and haloperidol decreased the severity of delirium; droperidol reduced length of hospitalization and improved delirium remission rate. CONCLUSION: Although the pharmacological approach has been used in the treatment of delirium among elderly, there have been few studies assessing its efficacy, involving a small number of patients. However, the improvements in delirium duration and severity suggest these drugs are effective in treating the condition. Once delirium has developed, non-pharmacological treatment seems less effective in controlling symptoms, and there is a lack of studies describing different non-pharmacological interventions.

  5. Pathway from Delirium to Death: Potential In-Hospital Mediators of Excess Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Swami, Sunil; Gou, Ray Y; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-05-01

    (1) To determine the relationship of incident delirium during hospitalization with 90-day mortality; (2) to identify potential in-hospital mediators through which delirium increases 90-day mortality. Analysis of data from Project Recovery, a controlled clinical trial of a delirium prevention intervention from 1995 to 1998 with follow-up through 2000. Large academic hospital. Patients ≥70 years old without delirium at hospital admission who were at intermediate-to-high risk of developing delirium and received usual care only. (1) Incident delirium; (2) potential mediators of delirium on death including use of restraining devices (physical restraints, urinary catheters), development of hospital acquired conditions (HACs) (falls, pressure ulcers), and exposure to other noxious insults (sleep deprivation, acute malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia); (3) death within 90 days of admission. Among 469 patients, 70 (15%) developed incident delirium. These patients were more likely to experience restraining devices (37% vs 16%, P delirium was 4.2 (95% CI = 2.8-6.3) in bivariable analyses, increased in a graded manner with additional exposures to restraining devices, HACs, and other noxious insults, and declined by 10.9% after addition of these potential mediator categories, providing evidence of mediation. Restraining devices, HACs, and additional noxious insults were more frequent among patients with delirium, increased mortality in a graded manner, and were responsible for a significant percentage of the association of delirium with death. Additional efforts to prevent potential downstream mediators through which delirium increases mortality may help to improve outcomes among hospitalized older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. One-year mortality after hip fracture in older individuals: the effects of delirium and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Harvey, Lara; Brodaty, Henry; Draper, Brian; Close, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is common in older hip fracture patients, yet its association with mortality after hip fracture remains uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether delirium was associated with all-cause one-year mortality after hip fracture in older patients and whether the effect of delirium was independent of dementia status. A retrospective analysis of linked hospitalisation and mortality data for patients aged ≥65 years with a hip fracture during 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014 in New South Wales, Australia. The association between delirium and mortality after a hip fracture was assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression. There were 4,065 (14.6%) of 27,888 hip fracture hospitalisations identified with delirium during hospitalisation. Individuals with delirium had a higher age-adjusted rate of all-cause one-year mortality after hip fracture compared to individuals without delirium (35.3% versus 23.9%). After adjusting for covariates, the risk of all-cause mortality was increased at one-year post-admission for older individuals compared to those aged 65-69 years, for individuals with multiple comorbidities, dementia (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.14; 95%CI:1.08-1.20), delirium (HR: 1.19; 95%CI:1.12-1.26), and who had an Intensive Care Unit admission (HR: 1.44; 95%CI:1.31-1.59). Comorbid delirium did not add additional mortality risk for individuals with a hip fracture who have dementia. Delirium identified in hospital was associated with all-cause one-year mortality after hip fracture in older Australians without dementia. As delirium is potentially preventable, better systematic assessment and documentation of a hip fracture patient's cognitive state is warranted to select the most effective strategies to prevent and manage delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Delirium, a Symptom of UTI in the Elderly: Fact or Fable? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Seki A; Philbrick, John T

    2014-03-01

    In geriatrics, delirium is widely viewed as a consequence of and, therefore, a reason to initiate workup for urinary tract infection (UTI). There is a possibility that this association is overestimated. To determine the evidence behind this clinical practice, we undertook a systematic review of the literature linking delirium with UTI. A MEDLINE search was conducted from 1966 through 2012 using the MESH terms "urinary tract infection" and "delirium", limited to humans, age 65 and older. The search identified 111 studies. Of these, five met our inclusion criteria of being primary studies that addressed the association of UTI and delirium. The studies were four cross-sectional observational studies and one case series. No randomized control trials were identified. All studies were published between 1988 and 2011. Four collected data retrospectively and one prospectively, with study sizes ranging from 14 to 1,285. The methodological strength of the studies was evaluated using six standards adapted from a previous systematic review. Only two of the five studies adequately matched or statistically adjusted for differences in comparison groups. None of the studies evaluated subjects with equal intensity for the presence of delirium and UTI, nor did they have objective criteria for either diagnosis. In subjects with delirium, UTI rates ranged from 25.9% to 32% compared to 13% in those without delirium. In subjects with UTI, delirium rates ranged from 30% to 35%, compared to 7.7% to 8% in those without UTI. Few studies have examined the association between UTI and delirium. Though the studies examined conclude that there is an association between UTI and delirium, all of them had significant methodological flaws that likely led to biased results. Therefore, it is difficult to ascertain the degree to which urinary tract infections cause delirium. More research is needed to better define the role of UTI in delirium etiology.

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Dependence: The 2015 Recommendations of the French Alcohol Society, Issued in Partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Benjamin; Paille, François; Gillet, Claudine; Rigaud, Alain; Moirand, Romain; Dano, Corine; Dematteis, Maurice; Mann, Karl; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2016-01-01

    The latest French good practice recommendations (GPRs) for the screening, prevention, and treatment of alcohol misuse were recently published in partnership with the European Federation of Addiction Societies (EUFAS). This article aims to synthesize the GPRs focused on the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence. A four-member European steering committee defined the questions that were addressed to an 18-member multiprofessional working group (WG). The WG developed the GPRs based on a systematic, hierarchical, and structured literature search and submitted the document to two review processes involving 37 French members from multiple disciplines and 5 non-French EUFAS members. The final GPRs were graded A, B, or C, or expert consensus (EC) using a reference recommendation grading system. The treatment of alcohol dependence consists of either alcohol detoxification or abstinence maintenance programs or drinking reduction programs. The therapeutic objective is the result of a decision made jointly by the physician and the patient. For alcohol detoxification, benzodiazepines (BZDs) are recommended in first-line (grade A). BZD dosing should be guided by regular clinical monitoring (grade B). Residential detoxification is more appropriate for patients with a history of seizures, delirium tremens, unstable psychiatric comorbidity, or another associated substance use disorder (grade B). BZDs are only justified beyond a 1-week period in the case of persistent withdrawal symptoms, withdrawal events or associated BZD dependence (grade B). BZDs should not be continued for more than 4 weeks (grade C). The dosing and duration of thiamine (vitamin B1) during detoxification should be adapted to nutritional status (EC). For relapse prevention, acamprosate and naltrexone are recommended as first-line medications (grade A). Disulfiram can be proposed as second-line option in patients with sufficient information and supervision (EC). For reducing alcohol consumption, nalmefene is

  9. Management of Pediatric Delirium in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Patients: An International Survey of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveski, Sandra L; Pickler, Rita H; Lin, Li; Shaw, Richard J; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Redington, Andrew; Curley, Martha A Q

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians assess and manage delirium in patients following cardiac surgery. Descriptive self-report survey. A web-based survey of pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians who are members of the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians (physicians and nurses). None. One-hundred seventy-three clinicians practicing in 71 different institutions located in 13 countries completed the survey. Respondents described their clinical impression of the occurrence of delirium to be approximately 25%. Most respondents (75%) reported that their ICU does not routinely screen for delirium. Over half of the respondents (61%) have never attended a lecture on delirium. The majority of respondents (86%) were not satisfied with current delirium screening, diagnosis, and management practices. Promotion of day/night cycle, exposure to natural light, deintensification of care, sleep hygiene, and reorientation to prevent or manage delirium were among nonpharmacologic interventions reported along with the use of anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and medications for insomnia. Clinicians responding to the survey reported a range of delirium assessment and management practices in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Study results highlight the need for improvement in delirium education for pediatric cardiac intensive care clinicians as well as the need for systematic evaluation of current delirium assessment and management practices.

  10. Incidence and factors related to delirium in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Satomi; Takeda, Juliana Rumy Tsuchihashi; Carrara, Fernanda Souza Angotti; Cohrs, Cibelli Rizzo; Zanei, Suely Sueko Viski; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of delirium, compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with and without delirium, and verify factors related to delirium in critical care patients. Prospective cohort with a sample made up of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a university hospital. Demographic, clinical variables and evaluation with the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit to identify delirium were processed to the univariate analysis and logistic regression to identify factors related to the occurrence of delirium. Of the total 149 patients in the sample, 69 (46.3%) presented delirium during ICU stay, whose mean age, severity of illness and length of ICU stay were statistically higher. The factors related to delirium were: age, midazolam, morphine and propofol. Results showed high incidence of ICU delirium associated with older age, use of sedatives and analgesics, emphasizing the need for relevant nursing care to prevent and identify early, patients presenting these characteristics. Identificar a incidência de delirium, comparar as características demográficas e clínicas dos pacientes com e sem delirium e verificar os fatores relacionados ao delirium em pacientes internados em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI). Coorte prospectiva, cuja amostra foi constituída de pacientes internados em UTI de um hospital universitário. Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e da avaliação com o Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Unit para identificação de delirium foram processadas para análise univariada, e regressão logística para identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência do delirium. Do total de 149 pacientes da amostra, 69 (46,3%) apresentaram delirium durante a internação na UTI, observando-se que a média da idade, o índice de gravidade e o tempo de permanência nas UTI foram estatisticamente maiores. Os fatores relacionados ao delirium foram: idade, midazolam, morfina e propofol. Os

  11. Development of a smartphone application for the objective detection of attentional deficits in delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieges, Zoë; Stíobhairt, Antaine; Scott, Katie; Suchorab, Klaudia; Weir, Alexander; Parks, Stuart; Shenkin, Susan; MacLullich, Alasdair

    2015-08-01

    Delirium is an acute, severe deterioration in mental functioning. Inattention is the core feature, yet there are few objective methods for assessing attentional deficits in delirium. We previously developed a novel, graded test for objectively detecting inattention in delirium, implemented on a computerized device (Edinburgh Delirium Test Box (EDTB)). Although the EDTB is effective, tests on universally available devices have potential for greater impact. Here we assessed feasibility and validity of the DelApp, a smartphone application based on the EDTB. This was a preliminary case-control study in hospital inpatients (aged 60-96 years) with delirium (N = 50), dementia (N = 52), or no cognitive impairment (N = 54) who performed the DelApp assessment, which comprises an arousal assessment followed by counting of lights presented serially. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method and Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), and cognition with conventional tests of attention (e.g. digit span) and the short Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (OMCT). DelApp scores (maximum score = 10) were lower in delirium (scores (median(IQR)): 6 (4-7)) compared to dementia (10 (9-10)) and control groups (10 (10-10), p-values smartphone test for attentional assessment in hospital inpatients with possible delirium, with potential applications in research and clinical practice.

  12. Exploring the Knowledge Structure of Nursing Care for Older Patients With Delirium: Keyword Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Mi So

    2018-05-01

    Prevention of delirium is considered a critical part of the agenda for patient safety and an indicator of healthcare quality for older patients. As the incidence rate of delirium for older patients has increased in recent years, there has been a significant expansion in knowledge relevant to nursing care. The purposes of this study were to analyze the knowledge structure and trends in nursing care for older adults with delirium based on a keyword network analysis, and to provide a foundation for future research. Data analysis showed that knowledge structure in this area consists of three themes of research: postoperative acute care for older patients with delirium, prevention of delirium for older patients in intensive care units, and safety management for the improvement of outcomes for patients with delirium. Through research trend analysis, we found that research on care for patients with delirium has achieved both quantitative and qualitative improvements over the last decades. Concerning future research, we propose the expansion of patient- and family-centered care, community care, specific nursing interventions, and the integration of new technology into care for patients with delirium. These results provide a reference framework for understanding and developing nursing care for older adults with delirium.

  13. Incidence and predictors of postoperative delirium after cytoreduction surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plas, Matthijs; Hemmer, Patrick H J; Been, Lukas B; van Ginkel, Robert J; de Bock, Geertruida H; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

    2018-02-01

    Incidence of, and baseline characteristics associated with delirium in patients after cytoreduction surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC), were subject of investigation. The study was conducted among a consecutive series of prospectively included patients who underwent CRS-HIPEC at the University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, between February 2006 and January 2015. A chart-based instrument for delirium during hospitalization was used to identify patients with symptoms of delirium who were not diagnosed by a psychiatrist during admission. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Data of 136 patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 60 years (range: 18-76) and 50 (37%) patients were male. During hospitalization, 38 (28%) patients were diagnosed with delirium. Factors that differed significantly between the patients with and without delirium by univariate analysis were included in multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that after adjustment for age and complications other than delirium, having three or more organs resected and the CRP serum levels were independent predictors for delirium (OR: 3.97; 95% 1.24-12.76; OR: 1.01; 95% 1-1.01, respectively). This report shows an incidence of 28% of delirium, occurring after CRS-HIPEC and suggests a role for systemic inflammation in the development of postoperative delirium. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Delirium after lung transplantation: Association with recipient characteristics, hospital resource utilization, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yelizaveta; Mooney, Joshua; Dhillon, Gundeep; Lee, Roy; Maldonado, José R

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The factors associated with post-lung transplant delirium and its impact on outcomes are under characterized. The medical records of 163 consecutive adult lung transplant recipients were reviewed for delirium within 5 days (early-onset) and 30 hospital days (ever-onset) post-transplantation. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed factors associated with delirium. Multivariable negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association of delirium with ventilator duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and one-year mortality. Thirty-six percent of patients developed early-onset, and 44% developed ever-onset delirium. Obesity (OR 6.35, 95% CI 1.61-24.98) and bolused benzodiazepines within the first postoperative day (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.89) were associated with early-onset delirium. Early-onset delirium was associated with longer adjusted mechanical ventilation duration (P=.001), ICU LOS (Pdelirium was associated with longer ICU (Pdelirium was not significantly associated with one-year mortality (early-onset HR 1.65, 95% CI 0.67-4.03; ever-onset HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.63-4.55). Delirium is common after lung transplant surgery and associated with increased hospital resources. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic remodeling in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2015-08-05

    Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Trends in pharmacotherapy selection for the treatment of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The selection of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal remains a clinical challenge. Research continues into the underlying pathophysiology of dependence and withdrawal. A spectrum of clinical presentations of alcohol dependence is emerging, yet recommendations and guidelines have ...

  17. Time-dependent negative reinforcement of ethanol intake by alleviation of acute withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Christopher L; Fidler, Tara L; Murphy, Kevin V; Mulgrew, Jennifer A; Smitasin, Phoebe J

    2013-02-01

    Drinking to alleviate the symptoms of acute withdrawal is included in diagnostic criteria for alcoholism, but the contribution of acute withdrawal relief to high alcohol intake has been difficult to model in animals. Ethanol dependence was induced by passive intragastric ethanol infusions in C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice; nondependent control animals received water infusions. Mice were then allowed to self-administer ethanol or water intragastrically. The time course of acute withdrawal was similar to that produced by chronic ethanol vapor exposure in mice, reaching a peak at 7 to 9 hours and returning to baseline within 24 hours; withdrawal severity was greater in D2 than in B6 mice (experiment 1). Postwithdrawal delays in initial ethanol access (1, 3, or 5 days) reduced the enhancement in later ethanol intake normally seen in D2 (but not B6) mice allowed to self-infuse ethanol during acute withdrawal (experiment 2). The postwithdrawal enhancement of ethanol intake persisted over a 5-day abstinence period in D2 mice (experiment 3). D2 mice allowed to drink ethanol during acute withdrawal drank more ethanol and self-infused more ethanol than nondependent mice (experiment 4). Alcohol access during acute withdrawal increased later alcohol intake in a time-dependent manner, an effect that may be related to a genetic difference in sensitivity to acute withdrawal. This promising model of negative reinforcement encourages additional research on the mechanisms underlying acute withdrawal relief and its role in determining risk for alcoholism. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Concordance between DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for delirium diagnosis in a pooled database of 768 prospectively evaluated patients using the delirium rating scale-revised-98

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, David J; Morandi, Alessandro; Inouye, Sharon K; Ely, Wes; Adamis, Dimitrios; Maclullich, Alasdair J; Rudolph, James L; Neufeld, Karin; Leonard, Maeve; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Kriesel, Stefan; Thomas, Christine; Hasemann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5) provides new criteria for delirium diagnosis. We examined delirium diagnosis using these new criteria compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fourth edition (DSM-IV) in a large dataset of patients assessed for delirium and related presentations. Methods: Patient data (n = 768) from six prospectively collected cohorts, clinically assessed using DSM-IV and the Delirium Rating Scale-R...

  19. Cocaine-induced agitated delirium: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plush, Theodore; Shakespeare, Walter; Jacobs, Dorian; Ladi, Larry; Sethi, Sheeba; Gasperino, James

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine use continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Although many of the initial signs and symptoms of cocaine intoxication result from increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, this condition can present as a spectrum of acuity from hypertension and tachycardia to multiorgan system failure. Classic features of acute intoxication include tachycardia, arterial vasoconstriction, enhanced thrombus formation, mydriasis, psychomotor agitation, and altered level of consciousness. At the extreme end of this toxidrome is a rare condition known as cocaine-induced agitated delirium. This syndrome is characterized by severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction, hyperthermia, and acute neurologic changes frequently leading to death. We report a case of cocaine-induced agitated delirium in a man who presented to our institution in a paradoxical form of circulatory shock. Rapid evaluation, recognition, and proper management enabled our patient not only to survive but also to leave the hospital without neurologic sequelae. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. A case of rhabdomyolysis associated with severe opioid withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangahar, Deepali

    2015-08-01

    While the risk of opioid overdose is widely accepted, the dangers of opioid withdrawal are far less clearly defined. The purpose of this publication is to provide evidence against the erroneous clinical dictum that opioid withdrawal is never life-threatening. This case report (N = 1) illustrates an unfortunate, common scenario of a man abusing prescription opioids and heroin. His attempt at self-detoxification with buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in life-threatening opioid withdrawal. A detailed account of each day of his withdrawal period was documented by patient and family report and review of all medical records. The patient was contacted three months after hospitalization to verify information and determine progress in treatment and abstinence from drugs and alcohol. A review of the literature was completed on severe cases of precipitated and spontaneous opioid withdrawal followed by a discussion of the significance as it relates to this case. Given the widespread use of prescription opioids and opioid maintenance treatment, physicians should be aware of the complications of acute opioid withdrawal and should be equipped to treat these complications. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  1. Concordance between DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for delirium diagnosis in a pooled database of 768 prospectively evaluated patients using the delirium rating scale-revised-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meagher, David J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Inouye, Sharon K.; Ely, Wes; Adamis, Dimitrios; Maclullich, Alasdair J.; Rudolph, James L.; Neufeld, Karin; Leonard, Maeve; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Davis, Daniel; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Kreisel, Stefan; Thomas, Christine; Hasemann, Wolfgang; Timmons, Suzanne; O'Regan, Niamh; Grover, Sandeep; Jabbar, Faiza; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum; Kamholz, Barbara; van Munster, Barbara C.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; de Jonghe, Jos; Trzepacz, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fifth edition (DSM-5) provides new criteria for delirium diagnosis. We examined delirium diagnosis using these new criteria compared with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual fourth edition (DSM-IV) in a large dataset of patients assessed for delirium and

  2. The Incidence of Delirium in Patients After Surgery in Recovery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila M juybari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Delirium is an acute and transient disorder in the function of the brain. Although the main core of this syndrome is consciousness disorder and deficiencies in attention and concentration, the general deficiency is seen in all psychological areas of thinking, temperament, cognition, language, speaking, sleeping, and mental-motional and other cognitive areas. Delirium is often seen in recovery room and is a predictor of post-operative delirium in the general ward. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of delirium in patients after surgery in the recovery room.Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 patients after general and orthopedic surgery and in the recovery room of the educational-therapeutic center of Gorgan in 1389 using the DESC-Nu nursing delirium screening scale. Data was analyzed using chi-square descriptive and analytical statistics and T-test.Results: Among the 75 studied patients in the recovery room after orthopedic surgery and general surgery, 53.3% were women with a mean age of 48.7. The mean surgery duration was 129.21 minutes. 26.6% had been under spinal anesthesia and 73.3% had been under general anesthesia. Delirium was observed in 30.6% of all the patients. Delirium was observed in 21.3% of patients having orthopedic surgery and 9.3% of the patients having general surgery. Delirium had a significant statistical relation with the variables of age, gender, and type of surgery (p<0.05.Conclusion: This study showed that 30.6% of patients had delirium. Male and older patients having orthopedic surgery were more vulnerable. Therefore, usual assessment of delirium in recovery room to identify patients with delirium can be a guide of nurses’ appropriate care of patients after surgery.

  3. Korean Version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98: Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jian; Lee, Jinyoung; Kim, Hwi-Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Trzepacz, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were 1) to standardize the validity and reliability of the Korean version of Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98-K) and 2) to establish the optimum cut-off value, sensitivity, and specificity for discriminating delirium from other non-delirious psychiatric conditions. Methods Using DSM-IV criteria, 157 subjects (69 delirium, 29 dementia, 32 schizophrenia, and 27 other psychiatric patients) were enrolled. Subjects were evaluated using DRS-R98-K, DRS-K, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale. Results DRS-R98-K total and severity scores showed high correlations with DRS-K. They were significantly different across all groups (p=0.000). However, neither MMSE-K nor CGI-S distinguished delirium from dementia. All DRS-R98-K diagnostic items (#14-16) and items #1 and 2 significantly discriminated delirium from dementia. Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal consistency for DRS-R98-K total (r=0.91) and severity (r=0.89) scales. Interrater reliability (ICC between 0.96 and 1) was very high. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve of DRS-R98-K total score was 0.948 between the delirium group and all other groups and 0.873 between the delirium and dementia groups. The best cut-off scores in DRS-R98-K total score were 18.5 and 19.5 between the delirium and the other three groups and 20.5 between the delirium and dementia groups. Conclusion We demonstrated that DRS-R98-K is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing delirium severity and diagnosis and discriminating delirium from dementia and other psychiatric disorders in Korean patients. PMID:21519534

  4. A New Model of Delirium Care in the Acute Geriatric Setting: Geriatric Monitoring Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Mei

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common and serious condition, which affects many of our older hospitalised patients. It is an indicator of severe underlying illness and requires early diagnosis and prompt treatment, associated with poor survival, functional outcomes with increased risk of institutionalisation following the delirium episode in the acute care setting. We describe a new model of delirium care in the acute care setting, titled Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU where the important concepts of delirium prevention and management are integrated. We hypothesize that patients with delirium admitted to the GMU would have better clinical outcomes with less need for physical and psychotropic restraints compared to usual care. Methods/Design GMU models after the Delirium Room with adoption of core interventions from Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening bright light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythm and improve sleep in the elderly patients. The novelty of this approach lies in the amalgamation of these interventions in a multi-faceted approach in acute delirium management. GMU development thus consists of key considerations for room design and resource planning, program specific interventions and daily core interventions. Assessments undertaken include baseline demographics, comorbidity scoring, duration and severity of delirium, cognitive, functional measures at baseline, 6 months and 12 months later. Additionally we also analysed the pre and post-GMU implementation knowledge and attitude on delirium care among staff members in the geriatric wards (nurses, doctors and undertook satisfaction surveys for caregivers of patients treated in GMU. Discussion This study protocol describes the conceptualization and implementation of a specialized unit for delirium management. We hypothesize that such a model of care will not only result in better clinical outcomes for the elderly patient with delirium compared to usual geriatric care

  5. Symptoms of delirium: an exploratory factor analytic study among referred patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2011-01-01

    Factor analytic studies of delirium symptoms among patients referred through consultation-liaison psychiatric services are rare. We examined the factor structure of delirium symptoms in referred patients and determined whether combining items from several delirium rating scales influenced the factor structure of delirium symptoms. Eighty-six patients with delirium (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) referred though the consultation-liaison services were assessed with structured rating scales. Nineteen symptom items extracted from the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and the Confusional State Evaluation Scale were subjected to an exploratory (principal component) factor analysis. A second such analysis was conducted on 15 items of the DRS-R-98 for comparison. Compared with prior studies, patients were younger and the majority had hyperactive delirium. Principal components analysis identified two factors: (1) a "cognitive" factor comprising of disturbances in language, thought processes, orientation, attention, short- and long-term memory, visuospatial ability, consciousness (awareness) and perseveration accounted for 28.9% of the variance and (2) a "behavioral" factor consisting of sleep-wake cycle disturbances, delusions, perceptual disturbances, motor agitation, affect-lability, distractibility, irritability and temporal onset accounted for 18.9% of the variance. An identical factor structure was obtained with the DRS-R-98 items. Similar to previous factor analytic studies, the present study supported the existence of two principal dimensions of delirium, cognitive and behavioral. Additionally, it extended the results of earlier investigations to a wider group of patients with delirium, suggesting that these dimensions might provide important clues to the neurobiology of delirium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic effects of delirium motor subtypes in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino-Silva, Thiago Junqueira; Campora, Flavia; Curiati, Jose Antonio Esper; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between delirium motor subtypes and hospital mortality and 12-month mortality in hospitalized older adults. Prospective cohort study conducted from 2009 to 2015. Geriatric ward of a university hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 consecutive admissions of acutely ill patients aged 60 years and over. We excluded admissions for end-of-life care, with missing data on the main variables, length of stay shorter than 48 hours, or when consent to participate was not given. Delirium was detected using the Confusion Assessment Method and categorized in hypoactive, hyperactive, or mixed delirium. Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital, and time to death in 12 months (for the discharged sample). Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission and included socio-demographic, clinical, functional, cognitive, and laboratory variables. Further clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Multivariate analyses used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders. We included 1,409 admissions, with a mean age of 80 years. The proportion of in-hospital deaths was 19%, with a cumulative mortality of 38% in 12 months. Delirium occurred in 47% of the admissions. Hypoactive delirium was the predominant motor subtype (53%), followed by mixed delirium (30%) and hyperactive delirium (17%). Hospital mortality rates were respectively 33%, 34% and 15%. We verified that hypoactive and mixed delirium were independently associated with hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios of 2.43 (95%CI = 1.64-3.59) and 2.31 (95%CI = 1.53-3.50). Delirium motor subtypes were not independently predictive of 12-month mortality. One in three acutely ill hospitalized older adults who suffered hypoactive or mixed delirium died in the hospital. Clinicians should be aware that hypoactive symptoms of delirium, whether shown exclusively or in alternation with hyperactive symptoms, are indicative of a worse

  7. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE PAIN AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Cyrus M; Tabloski, Patricia A; Travison, Thomas G; Jones, Richard N; Schmitt, Eva M; Puelle, Margaret R; Inloes, Jennifer B; Saczynski, Jane S; Marcantonio, Edward R; Meagher, David; Reid, M Carrington; Inouye, Sharon K

    2014-11-01

    Preoperative pain and depression predispose patients to delirium. Our goal was to determine whether pain and depressive symptoms interact to increase delirium risk. We enrolled 459 persons without dementia aged ≥70 years scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery. At baseline, participants reported their worst and average pain within seven days and current pain on a 0-10 scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and chart. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method and chart. We examined the relationship between preoperative pain, depressive symptoms and delirium using multivariable analysis of pain and delirium stratified by presence of depressive symptoms. Delirium, occurring in 23% of the sample, was significantly higher in those with depressive symptoms at baseline than those without (relative risk, RR, 1·6, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1·2-2·3). Preoperative pain was associated with an increased adjusted risk for delirium across all pain measures (RR from 1·07-1·08 per point of pain). In stratified analyses, patients with depressive symptoms had a 21% increased risk for delirium for each one-point increase in worst pain score, demonstrating a significant interaction ( P =0·049). Similarly, a significant 13% increased risk for delirium was demonstrated for a one-point increase in average pain score, but the interaction did not achieve statistical significance. Preoperative pain and depressive symptoms demonstrated increased risk for delirium independently and with substantial interaction, suggesting a cumulative impact. Thus, pain and depression are vulnerability factors for delirium that should be assessed before surgery. U.S. National Institute on Aging.

  8. Identification of patients with cancer with a high risk to develop delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neefjes, Elisabeth C W; van der Vorst, Maurice J D L; Verdegaal, Bertha A T T; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Berkhof, Johannes; Verheul, Henk M W

    2017-08-01

    Delirium deteriorates the quality of life in patients with cancer, but is frequently underdiagnosed and not adequately treated. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence of delirium and its risk factors in patients admitted to the hospital for treatment or palliative care in order to develop a prediction model to identify patients at high risk for delirium. In a period of 1.5 years, we evaluated the risk of developing delirium in 574 consecutively admitted patients with cancer to our academic oncology department with the Delirium Observation Screening Scale. Risk factors for delirium were extracted from the patient's chart. A delirium prediction algorithm was constructed using tree analysis, and validated with fivefold cross-validation. A total of 574 patients with cancer were acutely (42%) or electively (58%) admitted 1733 times. The incidence rate of delirium was 3.5 per 100 admittances. Tree analysis revealed that the predisposing factors of an unscheduled admittance and a metabolic imbalance accurately predicted the development of delirium. In this group the incidence rate of delirium was 33 per 100 patients (1:3). The AUC of the model was 0.81, and 0.65 after fivefold cross-validation. We identified that especially patients undergoing an unscheduled admittance with a metabolic imbalance do have a clinically relevant high risk to develop a delirium. Based on these factors, we propose to evaluate preventive treatment of these patients when admitted to the hospital in order to improve their quality of life. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The NEECHAM Confusion Scale and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale: Capacity to discriminate and ease of use in clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Marieke J. Schuurmans; L.A. van Gemert

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequent form of psychopathology in elderly hospitalized patients; it is a symptom of acute somatic illness. The consequences of delirium include high morbidity and mortality, lengthened hospital stay, and nursing home placement. Early recognition of delirium symptoms

  10. The Neecham Confusion Scale and the Delirium Observation Screening Scale: capacity to discriminate and ease of use in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert van, Liesbeth A.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delirium is a frequent form of psychopathology in elderly hospitalized patients; it is a symptom of acute somatic illness. The consequences of delirium include high morbidity and mortality, lengthened hospital stay, and nursing home placement. Early recognition of delirium symptoms

  11. Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): treatment options and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilke, Gary M; Bozeman, William P; Dawes, Donald M; Demers, Gerard; Wilson, Michael P

    2012-04-01

    The term Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) has traditionally been used in the forensic literature to describe findings in a subgroup of patients with delirium who suffered lethal consequences from their untreated severe agitation.(1-5) Excited delirium syndrome, also known as agitated delirium, is generally defined as altered mental status and combativeness or aggressiveness. Although the exact signs and symptoms are difficult to define precisely, clinical findings often include many of the following: tolerance to significant pain, rapid breathing, sweating, severe agitation, elevated temperature, delirium, non-compliance or poor awareness to direction from police or medical personnel, lack of fatiguing, unusual or superhuman strength, and inappropriate clothing for the current environment. It has become increasingly recognized that individuals displaying ExDS are at high risk for sudden death, and ExDS therefore represents a true medical emergency. Recently the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) published the findings of a white paper on the topic of ExDS to better find consensus on the issues of definition, diagnosis, and treatment.(6) In so doing, ACEP joined the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME) in recognizing ExDS as a medical condition. For both paramedics and physicians, the difficulty in diagnosing the underlying cause of ExDS in an individual patient is that the presenting clinical signs and symptoms of ExDS can be produced by a wide variety of clinical disease processes. For example, agitation, combativeness, and altered mental status can be produced by hypoglycemia, thyroid storm, certain kinds of seizures, and these conditions can be difficult to distinguish from those produced by cocaine or methamphetamine intoxication.(7) Prehospital personnel are generally not expected to differentiate between the multiple possible causes of the patient's presentation, but rather simply to recognize that the patient has a medical emergency

  12. Meta-Analysis Reveals Significant Association of the 3'-UTR VNTR in SLC6A3 with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Fan, Rongli; Li, Ming D

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have analyzed the association of 3'-untranslated region variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in SLC6A3 with alcohol dependence (AD), the results remain controversial. This study aimed to determine whether this variant indeed has any genetic effect on AD by integrating 17 reported studies with 5,929 participants included. The A9-dominant genetic model that considers A9-repeat and non-A9 repeat as 2 genotypes and compared their frequencies in alcoholics with that in controls was adopted. Considering the potential influence of ethnicity, differences in diagnostic criteria of AD, and alcoholic subgroups, stratified meta-analyses were conducted. There existed no evidence for the presence of heterogeneity among the studied samples, indicating the results under the fixed-effects model are acceptable. We found a significant association of VNTR A9 genotypes with AD in all ethnic populations (pooled odds ratio [OR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.25; p = 0.045) and the Caucasian population (pooled OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.31; p = 0.036). We also found VNTR A9 genotypes to be significantly associated with alcoholism as defined by the DSM-IV criteria (pooled OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.03, 1.36; p = 0.02). Further, we found a significant association between VNTR A9 genotypes and alcoholism associated with alcohol withdrawal seizure or delirium tremens (pooled OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.24, 1.92; p = 1.0 × 10(-4) ). In all these meta-analyses, no evidence of publication bias was detected. We concluded that the VNTR polymorphism has an important role in the etiology of AD, and individuals with at least 1 A9 allele are more likely to be dependent on alcohol than persons carrying the non-A9 allele. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freter Susan H

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge and long-term (by 6 month incomplete recovery of function following delirium. Methods In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at baseline, at hospital discharge and at six months. Results Of 77 patients, vital and functional status at 6 months was known for 71, of whom 21 (30% had died. Incomplete functional recovery, defined as ≥10 point decline in the Barthel Index, compared to pre-morbid status, was present in 27 (54% of the 50 survivors. Factors associated with death or loss of function at hospital discharge were frailty, absence of agitation (hypoactive delirium, a cardiac cause and poor recognition of delirium by the treating service. Frailty, causes other than medications, and poor recognition of delirium by the treating service were associated with death or poor functional recovery at 6 months. Conclusion Pre-existing frailty, cardiac cause of delirium, and poor early recognition by treating physicians are associated with worse outcomes. Many physicians view the adverse outcomes of delirium as intractable. While in some measure this might be true, more skilled care is a potential remedy within their grasp.

  14. Improving delirium care in the intensive care unit: The design of a pragmatic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Siu L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium prevalence in the intensive care unit (ICU is high. Numerous psychotropic agents are used to manage delirium in the ICU with limited data regarding their efficacy or harms. Methods/Design This is a randomized controlled trial of 428 patients aged 18 and older suffering from delirium and admitted to the ICU of Wishard Memorial Hospital in Indianapolis. Subjects assigned to the intervention group will receive a multicomponent pharmacological management protocol for delirium (PMD and those assigned to the control group will receive no change in their usual ICU care. The primary outcomes of the trial are (1 delirium severity as measured by the Delirium Rating Scale revised-98 (DRS-R-98 and (2 delirium duration as determined by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU. The PMD protocol targets the three neurotransmitter systems thought to be compromised in delirious patients: dopamine, acetylcholine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. The PMD protocol will target the reduction of anticholinergic medications and benzodiazepines, and introduce a low-dose of haloperidol at 0.5-1 mg for 7 days. The protocol will be delivered by a combination of computer (artificial intelligence and pharmacist (human intelligence decision support system to increase adherence to the PMD protocol. Discussion The proposed study will evaluate the content and the delivery process of a multicomponent pharmacological management program for delirium in the ICU. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00842608

  15. Persistent Delirium in Chronic Critical Illness as a Prodrome Syndrome before Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Anna; Blinderman, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium. Despite both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to improve his delirium, the patient ultimately continued to have symptoms of delirium and subsequently died in the CTICU. Efforts to reconsider the goals of care, given his family's understanding of his values, were met with resistance as his cardiothoracic surgeon believed that he had a reasonable chance of recovery since his organs were not in failure. This case description raises the question of whether we should consider persistent delirium as a prodrome syndrome before death in patients with CCI. Study and analysis of a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiothoracic surgery who was hemodynamically stable with persistent delirium. Further studies of the prevalence and outcomes of prolonged or persistent agitated delirium in patients with chronic critical illness are needed to provide prognostic information that can assist patients and families in receiving care that accords with their goals and values.

  16. Clinical subtypes of delirium and their relevance for daily clinical practice: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, S. E.; Schuurmans, M. J.; van der Mast, R. C.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.

    2005-01-01

    Background Delirium is a disorder that besides four essential features consists of different combinations of symptoms. We reviewed the clinical classification of clusters of symptoms in two or three delirium subtypes. The possible implications of this subtype classification may be several. The

  17. Pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with an increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Pasinska, Paulina; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra; Szyper, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Slowik, Agnieszka; Dziedzic, Tomasz

    2017-08-09

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be interrelated to delirium. We aimed to investigate an association between pre-stroke neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of delirium in stroke patients. We included 606 patients (median age: 73, 53% female) with stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted within 48 hours from symptoms onset. We assessed delirium on a daily basis during the first 7 days of hospitalization. To make diagnosis of delirium we used DSM-5 criteria. We used Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms occurring within 4 weeks prior to stroke. We diagnosed delirium in 28.2% of patients. On univariate analysis, higher score of pre-stroke depression (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03), apathy (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.44-3.45, P delirium. On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, stroke severity, right hemisphere lesion, pre-stroke cognitive decline, pre-stroke disability and infections, higher apathy score (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.17-3.50, P = 0.01), but no other neuropsychiatric symptoms, remained independent predictor of delirium. We conclude that pre-stroke apathy symptoms are associated with increased risk of delirium in stroke patients.

  18. The neuropsychological sequelae of delirium in elderly patients with hip fracture three months after hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witlox, J.; Slor, C.J.; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Kalisvaart, K.J.; van Stijn, M.F.M.; Houdijk, A.P.J.; Eikelenboom, P.; van Gool, W.A.; de Jonghe, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Delirium is a risk factor for long-term cognitive impairment and dementia. Yet, the nature of these cognitive deficits is unknown as is the extent to which the persistence of delirium symptoms and presence of depression at follow-up may account for the association between

  19. Serum S100B in elderly patients with and without delirium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Korse, Catharina M.; Bonfrer, Johannes M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Elevation of S100B has been shown after various neurologic diseases with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of S100B of patients with and without delirium and investigate the possible associations with different subtypes of delirium. Methods:

  20. Beyond Grand Rounds: A Comprehensive and Sequential Intervention to Improve Identification of Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Ravishankar; Dix, Edward F.; Drew, Janet E.; Diamond, James J.; Inouye, Sharon K.; Roehl, Barbara J. O.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Delirium is a widespread concern for hospitalized seniors, yet is often unrecognized. A comprehensive and sequential intervention (CSI) aiming to effect change in clinician behavior by improving knowledge about delirium was tested. Design and Methods: A 2-day CSI program that consisted of progressive 4-part didactic series,…

  1. Udvikling og behandling af delirium hos kritisk syge børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Olesen, Marie; Afshari, Arash

    2012-01-01

    Delirium is a common and often under-recognised neuropsychiatric disorder in paediatric critical care, secondary to a general medical condition. Paediatric delirium (PD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality and prolonged stay at the intensive care unit. This review introduces the reader...

  2. Serum S100B in elderly patients with and without delirium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munster, B.C. van; Korevaar, J.C.; Korse, C.M.; Bonfrer, J.M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Rooij, S.E. de

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Elevation of S100B has been shown after various neurologic diseases with cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of S100B of patients with and without delirium and investigate the possible associations with different subtypes of delirium. Methods:

  3. Nu-DESC DK: the Danish version of the nursing delirium screening scale (nu-DESC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Holgersen, Trine Hedegaard; Jensen, Joen Juel; Gaudreau, Jean-David; Radtke, Finn Michael

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is one of the most common complications among elderly hospitalized patients, postoperative patients and patients on intensive care units with a prevalence between 11 and 80%. Delirium is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Reliable instruments are required to detect delirium at an early time point. The Nursing-Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) is a screening tool with high sensitivity and good specificity. However, there is currently no official translation after ISPOR guidelines of any Danish delirium assessment tools available. Thereby hampering the implementation of 2017 ESA-Guidelines on postoperative Delirium in the clinical routine. The aim of this study is to provide an official translation and evaluation of the Nu-DESC into Danish following the ISPOR process. The Nu-DESC was translated after International Society for Pharmacoecomonics and Outcome Research (ISPOR) guidelines to Danish after permission of the original author, and is evaluated by medical staff and finally approved by the original author. All steps of the ISPOR guideline were consecutively followed, without any major problems. The evaluation of the Nu-DESC DK regarding its intelligibility and feasibility showed no statistically significant differences between nurses and medical doctors ratings. The translation was authorized and approved by the original author. This study provides the Nu-DESC DK, an official Danish delirium screening instrument, which can detect all psychomotor types of delirium.

  4. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  5. Validation of a Delirium Risk Assessment Using Electronic Medical Record Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, James L; Doherty, Kelly; Kelly, Brittany; Driver, Jane A; Archambault, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Identifying patients at risk for delirium allows prompt application of prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies; but is rarely done. Once delirium develops, patients are more likely to need posthospitalization skilled care. This study developed an a priori electronic prediction rule using independent risk factors identified in a National Center of Clinical Excellence meta-analysis and validated the ability to predict delirium in 2 cohorts. Retrospective analysis followed by prospective validation. Tertiary VA Hospital in New England. A total of 27,625 medical records of hospitalized patients and 246 prospectively enrolled patients admitted to the hospital. The electronic delirium risk prediction rule was created using data obtained from the patient electronic medical record (EMR). The primary outcome, delirium, was identified 2 ways: (1) from the EMR (retrospective cohort) and (2) clinical assessment on enrollment and daily thereafter (prospective participants). We assessed discrimination of the delirium prediction rule with the C-statistic. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and discharge to rehabilitation. Retrospectively, delirium was identified in 8% of medical records (n = 2343); prospectively, delirium during hospitalization was present in 26% of participants (n = 64). In the retrospective cohort, medical record delirium was identified in 2%, 3%, 11%, and 38% of the low, intermediate, high, and very high-risk groups, respectively (C-statistic = 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.80-0.82). Prospectively, the electronic prediction rule identified delirium in 15%, 18%, 31%, and 55% of these groups (C-statistic = 0.69; 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.77). Compared with low-risk patients, those at high- or very high delirium risk had increased length of stay (5.7 ± 5.6 vs 3.7 ± 2.7 days; P = .001) and higher rates of discharge to rehabilitation (8.9% vs 20.8%; P = .02). Automatic calculation of delirium risk using an EMR algorithm identifies patients at

  6. Delirium During Postacute Nursing Home Admission and Risk for Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosar, Cyrus M; Thomas, Kali S; Inouye, Sharon K; Mor, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    To identify the rate of delirium present during admission to postacute care (PAC) in the nursing home setting and to determine whether patients with delirium had higher risk for adverse outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. US Medicare- and Medicaid-certified nursing homes, 2011 to 2014. Individuals admitted to all US nursing homes for PAC, aged ≥65 years, and without prior history of nursing home residence (n = 5,588,702). Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 admission assessments identified delirium based upon Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) items. Robust Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (aRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death following PAC admission, and for 30-day discharge outcomes including re-hospitalization from PAC, discharge home, and functional improvement. Delirium was identified in 4.3% of new postacute nursing home admissions. Mortality within 30 days of PAC admission was observed in 16.3% of patients with delirium and 5.8% of patients without delirium (aRR = 2.27, CI = 2.24-2.30). The rate of 30-day readmission from PAC was 21.3% for patients with delirium compared with 15.1% among patients without delirium (aRR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.40, 1.43). 26.9% of patients with delirium were discharged home within 30 days of admission compared to 52.5% of patients without delirium (aRR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.57, 0.58). 48.9% of patients with delirium showed functional improvement at discharge compared to 59.9% of patients without delirium (aRR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.82, 0.83). Patients with delirium present upon PAC admission were at high risk for mortality and 30-day re-hospitalization and were less likely to have timely discharge to home or to improve in physical function at discharge. Early identification and care planning for individuals with delirium at PAC admission may be essential to improve outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Derik; Klages, Eckard; Welzel, Helga; Mann, Karl; Croissant, Bernhard

    2005-06-01

    Opioid withdrawal, stress or cues associated with opioid consumption can induce opioid craving. If opioids are not available, opioid-dependent patients usually search for alternative drugs. Because several non-opioid drugs stimulate the endogenous opioidergic system, this concept may explain their frequent use by opioid-dependent patients. We hypothesized that non-opioid drugs alleviate opioid withdrawal symptoms and are therefore consumed by opioid addicts. We asked 89 opioid-dependent patients participating in an out-patient opioid maintenance program to estimate the potential of several non-opioid drugs in being able to alleviate opioid withdrawal. We applied a five-point Lickert scale (1 = very good reduction of opioid withdrawal; 5 = no reduction of opioid withdrawal). Patients could also indicate a worsening of opioid withdrawal. Values (mean +/- SD) were: for benzodiazepines, 3.2 +/- 1.1; tricyclic antidepressants, 3.6 +/- 1.1; cannabis, 3.6 +/- 1.0; alcohol, 4.1 +/- 1.1; cocaine, 4.2 +/- 1.1; amphetamine, 4.4 +/- 0.9; nicotine, 4.7 +/- 0.7; and caffeine, 4.9 +/- 0.5. A worsening of opioid withdrawal was reported by 62% of the patients for cocaine, 62% for amphetamine, 50% for caffeine, 37.5% for cannabis, 27% for nicotine, 26% for alcohol, 8% for tricyclic antidepressants and 3% for benzodiazepines. Our study shows a low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms. The data basis of this study was good and the sample was suitable to be asked for estimations of drug-drug interactions. Of the patients, 26 - 62% even reported a worsening of opioid withdrawal for cannabis, alcohol, cocaine and amphetamine. Only benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants were reported to have a moderate positive effect on opioid withdrawal.

  8. Afghanistan after NATO Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojor Laviniu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of a conflict, called by some American analysts as “America’s Longest War”, after the withdrawal of the majority of NATO military forces, requires a careful analysis of the conditions and security environment that ISAF mission, International Security Afghan Forces, leaves as legacy to the Afghan military forces. The transfer of authority towards a strong government, recognized by most Afghan provinces, and benefiting from the support of national military forces able to cope with terrorist and insurgent threats on its own, are the minimum and necessary conditions leading the country towards a stable and secure environment and towards a sustainable development. Given these realities, any approach on the consequences of the transition towards self-sustainable governance becomes interesting and timely for any military political study. These are the prospects that we propose in our paper.

  9. Pantoprazole-Induced Delirium: Review of a Case and Associated Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Anupriya; Viswanathan, Ramaswamy; Tusher, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently prescribed antiulcer agents in hospitals and are shown to be safer than H-2 blockers. We present a case report of PPI-induced delirium, regarding which not much has been written in the literature. We present a case of a 93-year-old woman with no known past psychiatric history, who was hospitalized for syncope workup and who developed delirium after a double dose of pantoprazole. Very few reports of PPI-induced delirium exist in the literature. In this case report, we attempt to highlight the mechanism of PPI induced delirium which in our case was most likely due to the primary effects of PPI and drug-drug interactions. Given the paucity of literature on this topic, we encourage further research into relationship between PPI and delirium and urge caution while using PPIs in geriatric population.

  10. Effects of a screening and treatment protocol with haloperidol on post-cardiotomy delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder Pedersen, Sofie; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Balslev Jørgensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Post-cardiotomy delirium is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. No gold standard exists for detecting delirium, and evidence to support the choice of treatment is needed. Haloperidol is widely used for treating delirium, but indication, doses and therapeutic...... targets vary. Moreover, doubt has been raised regarding overall efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a combination of early detection and standardized treatment with haloperidol on post-cardiotomy delirium, with the hypothesis that the proportion of delirium- and coma-free days...... could be increased. Length of stay (LOS), complications and 180-day mortality are reported. METHODS: Prospective interventional cohort study. One hundred and seventeen adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included before introduction of a screening and treatment protocol with haloperidol...

  11. Phenomenological and neuropsychological profile across motor variants of delirium in a palliative care unit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Maeve

    2011-01-01

    Studies using composite measurement of cognition suggest that cognitive performance is similar across motor variants of delirium. The authors assessed neuropsychological and symptom profiles in 100 consecutive cases of DSM-IV delirium allocated to motor subtypes in a palliative-care unit: Hypoactive (N=33), Hyperactive (N=18), Mixed (N=26), and No-Alteration motor groups (N=23). The Mixed group had more severe delirium, with highest scores for DRS-R-98 sleep-wake cycle disturbance, hallucinations, delusions, and language abnormalities. Neither the total Cognitive Test for Delirium nor its five neuropsychological domains differed across Hyperactive, Mixed, and Hypoactive motor groups. Most patients (70%) with no motor alteration had DRS-R-98 scores in the mild or subsyndromal range even though they met DSM-IV criteria. Motor variants in delirium have similar cognitive profiles, but mixed cases differ in expression of several noncognitive features.

  12. South Korean Family Caregiver Involvement in Delirium Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to describe the effect of an educational program on RN-initiated efforts to involve family caregivers in delirium care. A descriptive qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 12 RNs who participated in a one group, pre-post evaluation of a delirium educational program, and a nominated sample of six family caregivers of patients who had been cared for by RNs in the program participated in individual, in-depth interviews. The qualitative findings indicated that the inclusion of a delirium brochure in ward orientation on admission, with reinforcement during shift changes, and RN-initiated engagement with family caregivers promoted family caregiver involvement in delirium prevention. Further studies in South Korea are needed to determine which family-centered nursing care interventions are culturally appropriate and most effective for RNs and family caregivers in delirium care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(12), 44-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Delirium in the acute phase after stroke: comparison between methods of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Maria Teresa; Pardini, Matteo; Balestrino, Maurizio; Finocchi, Cinzia; Malfatto, Laura; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gandolfo, Carlo; Serrati, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, very common in hospitalized people with medical and neurological conditions. The identification of delirium after stroke is not an easy task and validated psychometric instruments are needed to correctly identify it. We decided to verify if (1) formal training in DSM-V criteria is needed to correctly identify post-stroke delirium, (2) if the use of a brief psychometric instrument such as 4AT improves its identification, (3) the applicability of these scales in the stroke setting. In the first phase of this study we retrospectively studied 102 acute stroke patients in Stroke Units of San Martino Hospital (Genova, Italy) to evaluate delirium with clinical criteria, first by a neurologist without a formal training in DSM-V criteria and after training. Then, we enrolled 100 new acute stroke patients who underwent screening for delirium using 4AT scale and DSM-V criteria. In the first phase, DSM-V criteria training significantly increased the ability to capture delirium (5 vs. 15%). In the second phase, the 4AT was used for delirium screening revealing a 52% of cases of delirium, the same observed by the consensus diagnosis of two senior neurologists (that was 50%). In the second phase, the use of 4AT scale allowed to capture post-stroke delirium as well as the consensus diagnosis by two neurologists. The identification of post-stroke delirium is not an easy task and requires both formal training in DSM-V criteria as well as the application of brief scales, such as the 4AT.

  14. Delirium Frequency and Risk Factors Among Patients With Cancer in Palliative Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenel, Gülcin; Uysal, Neşe; Oguz, Gonca; Kaya, Mensure; Kadioullari, Nihal; Koçak, Nesteren; Karaca, Serife

    2017-04-01

    Introductıon: Delirium is a complex but common disorder in palliative care with a prevalence between 13% and 88% but a particular frequency at the end of life yet often remains insufficiently diagnosed and managed. The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of delirium and identify factors associated with delirium at palliative care unit. Two hundred thirteen consecutive inpatients from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2013, were studied prospectively. Age, gender, Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), length of stay in hospital, and delirium etiology and subtype were recorded. Delirium was diagnosed with using Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision ( DSM-IV TR) criteria. The incidence of delirium among the patients with cancer was 49.8%. Mean age was 60.3 ± 14.8 (female 41%, male 59%, PPS 39.8%, PPI 5.9 ± 3.0, length of stay in hospital 8.6 ± 6.9 days). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that use of opioids, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, steroids, polypharmacy, infection, malnutrition, immobilization, sleep disturbance, constipation, hyperbilirubinemia, liver/renal failure, pulmonary failure/hypoxia, electrolyte imbalance, brain cancer/metastases, decreased PPS, and increased PPI were risk factors. Subtypes of delirium included hypoactive 49%, mixed 41%, and hyperactive 10%. The communicative impediments associated with delirium generate distress for the patient, their family, and health care practitioners who might have to contend with agitation and difficulty in assessing pain and other symptoms. To manage delirium in patients with cancer, clinicians must be able to diagnose it accurately and undertake appropriate assessment of underlying causes.

  15. Screening for postoperative delirium in patients with acute hip fracture: Assessment of predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskderelioglu, Asli; Onder, Ozlem; Gucuyener, Melike; Altay, Taskin; Kayali, Cemil; Gedizlioglu, Muhtesem

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors of delirium during the early postoperative period after hip fracture surgery. Furthermore, we investigated the accuracy of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) for detection and assessment of delirium in orthopedic patients. We consecutively recruited patients aged 65 years or older undergoing hip fracture surgery. The presence of delirium was determined daily by two of the authors according to the CAM-ICU criteria. A further evaluation was made with the reference standard Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition criteria for delirium. Their cognitive function was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination, and possible depressive mood with the Beck Depression Inventory. Baseline characteristics, as well as the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification and clinical outcomes, were analyzed for a correlation with accompanying delirium. Among 109 patients, 20 (18.3%) were diagnosed with delirium. The concurrent validity of CAM-ICU was good (kappa = 0.84). Specificity was 98.9%, and sensitivity was 80%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that Mini-Mental State Examination (P = 0.001; odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.86) and Beck Depression Inventory scores (P = 0.001; odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.22) correlated with the occurrence of delirium. The present results show that CAM-ICU is highly sensitive and specific to identify delirium in hip fracture patients in the postoperative period. Among all of the risk factors, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were strongly associated with postoperative delirium. We suggest that a preoperative assessment of cognition and depression might be useful for identifying patients with a higher risk of postoperative delirium. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 919-924. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Preoperative cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels and the risk of postoperative delirium in elderly hip fracture patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging and neurodegenerative disease predispose to delirium and are both associated with increased activity of the innate immune system resulting in an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the brain. We examined whether hip fracture patients who develop postoperative delirium have altered levels of inflammatory mediators in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) prior to surgery. Methods Patients were 75 years and older and admitted for surgical repair of an acute hip fracture. CSF samples were collected preoperatively. In an exploratory study, we measured 42 cytokines and chemokines by multiplex analysis. We compared CSF levels between patients with and without postoperative delirium and examined the association between CSF cytokine levels and delirium severity. Delirium was diagnosed with the Confusion Assessment Method; severity of delirium was measured with the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. Mann–Whitney U tests or Student t-tests were used for between-group comparisons and the Spearman correlation coefficient was used for correlation analyses. Results Sixty-one patients were included, of whom 23 patients (37.7%) developed postsurgical delirium. Concentrations of Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (P=0.021), Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (P=0.032) and Interleukin-6 (P=0.005) were significantly lower in patients who developed delirium postoperatively. Conclusions Our findings fit the hypothesis that delirium after surgery results from a dysfunctional neuroinflammatory response: stressing the role of reduced levels of anti-inflammatory mediators in this process. Trial registration The Effect of Taurine on Morbidity and Mortality in the Elderly Hip Fracture Patient. Registration number: NCT00497978. Local ethical protocol number: NL16222.094.07. PMID:24093540

  17. Low plasma leptin level at admission predicts delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicheng; Lei, Xiaobao; Ai, Chenmu; Li, Tao; Chen, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU. Patients were examined at least twice daily and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained after ICU entry. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Delirium occurred in 30.4% (102/336) of patients. Patients who developed delirium showed significantly lower leptin level at ICU entry than those who did not (6.1±3.2 vs. 9.2±5.9ng/mL; Pdelirium (OR, 0.865; 95%CI, 0.802-0.934; Pdelirium included increasing age (OR, 1.050; 95%CI, 1.020-1.080; P=0.001) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score (OR, 1.148; 95%CI, 1.092-1.208; Pdelirium had a prolonged duration of ICU stay and higher mortality. Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was associated with the occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium after major vascular surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah Joy; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-10-01

    Although postoperative delirium is a common complication and increases patient care needs, little is known about the predictors and outcomes of delirium in patients having vascular surgery. This review aimed to determine the incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium in vascular surgical patients. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2016 on delirium after vascular surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of delirium. Secondary outcomes were contributing prognostic factors and impact of delirium. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool for systematic reviews of prognostic studies, and MOOSE guidelines for reviews of observational studies. Quantitative analyses of extracted data were conducted using meta-analysis where possible to determine incidence of delirium and prognostic factors. A qualitative review of outcomes was performed. Fifteen articles were eligible for inclusion. Delirium incidence ranged between 5% and 39%. Meta-analysis found that patients with delirium were older than those without delirium (OR 3.6, pdelirium included increased age (OR 1.04, pdelirium. Data were limited on the impact of procedure complexity, endovascular compared to open surgery or type of anaesthetic. Postoperative delirium occurs frequently, resulting in major morbidity for vascular patients. Improved quality of prognostic studies may identify modifiable peri-operative factors to improve quality of care for vascular surgical patients.

  19. 27 CFR 22.113 - Receipt of tax-free alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of tax-free alcohol. 22.113 Section 22.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Withdrawal and...

  20. Determining the need for team-based training in delirium management: A needs assessment of surgical healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Tehrani, Hedieh; Kacikanis, Anna; Tan, Adrienne; Hawa, Raed; Anderson, Ruthie; Okrainec, Allan; Abbey, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of delirium in surgical units is a serious quality concern, given its impact on morbidity and mortality. While successful delirium management depends upon interdisciplinary care, training needs for surgical teams have not been studied. A needs assessment of surgical units was conducted to determine perceived comfort in managing delirium, and interprofessional training needs for team-based care. We administered a survey to 106 General Surgery healthcare professionals (69% response rate) with a focus on attitudes towards delirium and team management. Although most respondents identified delirium as important to patient outcomes, only 61% of healthcare professionals indicated that a team-based approach was always observed in practice. Less than half had a clear understanding of their role in delirium care, while just over half observed team communication of delirium care plans during handover. This is the first observation of clear gaps in perceived team performance in a General Surgery setting.

  1. Control rod withdrawal monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuya, Mitsuo.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the power ramp even if a plurality of control rods are subjected to withdrawal operation at a time, by reducing the reactivity applied to the reactor. Constitution: The control rod withdrawal monitoring device is adapted to monitor and control the withdrawal of the control rods depending on the reactor power and the monitoring region thereof is divided into a control rod group monitoring region a transition region and a control group monitoring not interfere region. In a case if the distance between a plurality of control rods for which the withdrawal positions are selected is less than a limiting value, the coordinate for the control rods, distance between the control rods and that the control rod distance is shorter are displayed on a display panel, and the withdrawal for the control rods are blocked. Accordingly, even if a plurality of control rods are subjected successively to the withdrawal operation contrary to the control rod withdrawal sequence upon high power operation of the reactor, the power ramp can be prevented. (Kawakami, Y.)

  2. ICU architectural design affects the delirium prevalence: a comparison between single-bed and multibed rooms*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Pedro; Guardian, Lilian; Tiengo, Tatiane; Dos Santos, Lucio Souza; Junior, Pedro Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Delirium risk factors are related to the patients' acute and chronic clinical condition, treatment, and environment. The environmental risk factors are essentially determined by the ICU architectural design. Although there are countless architectural variations among the ICUs, all can be classified as single- or multibed rooms. Our objectives were to compare the ICU delirium prevalence and characteristics (coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and delirium motoric subtypes) of critically ill patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. Retrospective. ICU of a teaching oncologic hospital with 31 beds. Twenty-three beds distributed in one multibed room with 13 beds and other with 10 beds. Eight beds distributed in single-bed rooms. All adult patients admitted from February to November 2011. None. We evaluated 1,587 patients and included 1,253 patients. Patients' characteristics at ICU admission and their outcomes along the ICU stay were not different between patients admitted in single- or multibed rooms. One hundred sixty-three patients (13.0%) had delirium, and the prevalence was significantly lower in patients admitted in single-bed rooms (6.8% × 15.1%; p < 0.01). This lower prevalence occurred in patients admitted due to a medical (11.0% × 25.6%; p < 0.01) or postoperative (5.0% × 11.4%; p < 0.01) reason. However, the coma/delirium-free days, the first day in delirium, and the delirium motoric subtypes were not different between the single- and multibed rooms. The risk factors associated with delirium were admission in multibed rooms (odds ratio, 4.03; 95% CI, 2.13-7.62), older age, ICU-acquired infection, and higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. Critically ill patients admitted in single-bed rooms have a lower prevalence of delirium than those admitted in multibed rooms. However, coma/delirium-free days, first day in delirium, and motoric subtypes were not different.

  3. The protocol of the Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium; LUCID: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerland, Bjørn Erik; Hov, Karen Roksund; Bruun Wyller, Vegard; Qvigstad, Eirik; Skovlund, Eva; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir

    2015-02-10

    Delirium affects 15% of hospitalised patients and is linked with poor outcomes, yet few pharmacological treatment options exist. One hypothesis is that delirium may in part result from exaggerated and/or prolonged stress responses. Dexmedetomidine, a parenterally-administered alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist which attenuates sympathetic nervous system activity, shows promise as treatment in ICU delirium. Clonidine exhibits similar pharmacodynamic properties and can be administered orally. We therefore wish to explore possible effects of clonidine upon the duration and severity of delirium in general medical inpatients. The Oslo Study of Clonidine in Elderly Patients with Delirium (LUCID) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, parallel group study with 4-month prospective follow-up. We will recruit 100 older medical inpatients with delirium or subsyndromal delirium in the acute geriatric ward. Participants will be randomised to oral clonidine or placebo until delirium free for 2 days (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria), or after a maximum of 7 days treatment. Assessment of haemodynamics (blood pressure, heart rate and electrocardiogram) and delirium will be performed daily until discharge or a maximum of 7 days after end of treatment. The primary endpoint is the trajectory of delirium over time (measured by Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale). Secondary endpoints include the duration of delirium, use of rescue medication for delirium, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clonidine, cognitive function after 4 months, length of hospital stay and need for institutionalisation. LUCID will explore the efficacy and safety of clonidine for delirium in older medical inpatients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01956604. EudraCT Number: 2013-000815-26.

  4. [Knowledge and implementation of the S3 guideline on delirium management in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, T; V Dossow, V; Hofmann-Kiefer, K

    2016-10-01

    Delirium is a common complication in critical care. The syndrome is often underestimated due to its potentially no less dangerous course as a hypoactive delirium. Therefore, current guidelines ask for a structured, regular and routine screening in all intensive care units. If delirium is diagnosed, symptomatic therapy should be initiated promptly. The aim of the current study was to evaluate recent German anesthetists' strategies regarding delirium care compared to the German guidelines for sedation and delirium in intensive care. In an online survey German hospitals' senior anesthetists (n = 922) were interviewed anonymously between May and June 2015 regarding guideline use in delirium management in German intensive care units. In 33 direct questions the anesthetists were invited to answer items regarding the structure of their hospitals, intensive care and delirium therapy in order to review their knowledge of the German delirium guidelines that expired in 2014. The 249 senior anesthetists who responded to the survey, can be associated with (or represent) a quarter of German intensive care beds and cases, respectively. In every tenth clinic that runs an intensive care unit the guideline was unknown. In three of four intensive care units physicians specified a preferred delirium score, the CAM-ICU (49.4 %) is used most frequently. With knowledge of the guidelines more often a recommended delirium score is used (p = 0.017). However, only 53.6 % of the respondents ascertain a score every eight hours and 36 % have no facility for standardized documentation in the records. At intensive care rounds, a possible diagnosis of delirium is an inherent part in only 34.9 % of the responders even with guideline knowledge. The particular gold standard for the therapy of delirium (alphaagonists for vegetative symptoms; 89.6 %, benzodiazepines for anxiety, 77.5 %; antipsychotics in 86.7 % for psychotic symptoms) is implemented more often with growing knowledge of

  5. Does using a femoral nerve block for total knee replacement decrease postoperative delirium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjo Sakura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of peripheral nerve blocks on postoperative delirium in older patients has not been studied. Peripheral nerve blocks may reduce the incidence of postoperative opioid use and its side effects such as delirium via opioid-sparing effect. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in patients who underwent total knee replacement. Baseline cognitive function was assessed using the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Postoperative delirium was measured using the Confusion Assessment Method postoperatively. Incidence of postoperative delirium was compared in two postoperative management groups: femoral nerve block ± patient-controlled analgesia and patient-controlled analgesia only. In addition, pain levels (using numeric rating scales and opioid use were compared in two groups. Results 85 patients were studied. The overall incidence of postoperative delirium either on postoperative day one or day two was 48.1%. Incidence of postoperative delirium in the femoral nerve block group was lower than patient controlled analgesia only group (25% vs. 61%, P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to postoperative pain level or the amount of intravenous opioid use. Conclusions Femoral nerve block reduces the incidence of postoperative delirium. These results suggest that a larger randomized control trial is necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  6. A Clinical Update on Delirium: From Early Recognition to Effective Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Cerejeira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by altered consciousness and attention with cognitive, emotional and behavioural symptoms. It is particularly frequent in elderly people with medical or surgical conditions and is associated with adverse outcomes. Predisposing factors render the subject more vulnerable to a congregation of precipitating factors which potentially affect brain function and induce an imbalance in all the major neurotransmitter systems. Early diagnosis of delirium is crucial to improve the prognosis of patients requiring the identification of subtle and fluctuating signs. Increased awareness of clinical staff, particularly nurses, and routine screening of cognitive function with standardized instruments, can be decisive to increase detection rates of delirium. General measures to prevent delirium include the implementation of protocols to systematically identify and minimize all risk factors present in a particular clinical setting. As soon as delirium is recognized, prompt removal of precipitating factors is warranted together with environmental changes and early mobilization of patients. Low doses of haloperidol or olanzapine can be used for brief periods, for the behavioural control of delirium. All of these measures are a part of the multicomponent strategy for prevention and treatment of delirium, in which the nursing care plays a vital role.

  7. Delirium associated with concomitant use of duloxetine and bupropion in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Szu-Pin; Tsai, Chia-Jui; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yu

    2017-03-01

    Delirium is common in daily practice. Drug-induced delirium constitutes approximately one-third of all cases of delirium. In cases characterized by the limited efficacy of a single antidepressant, a combination of two antidepressants is required, which may induce a complex drug-drug interaction. We reviewed a case of duloxetine- and bupropion-related delirium in an elderly male patient in our clinical practice. The patient was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and was treated with duloxetine. However, he developed delirium 10 days after bupropion was added to his treatment regimen. Three days after the cessation of bupropion, his delirious condition gradually improved. Duloxetine and bupropion are both cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors that may result in a higher level of hydroxybupropion. An increased level of hydroxybupropion may cause the elevation of dopamine and a risk of subsequent delirium. We should be aware of the risk of delirium induced by drug-drug interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. Delirium in Hospitalized Children with Cancer: Incidence and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Chani; Ariagno, Sydney; Thau, Francesca; Rosenberg, Lynne; Mauer, Elizabeth A; Gerber, Linda M; Pritchard, David; Kearney, Julia; Greenwald, Bruce M; Silver, Gabrielle

    2017-12-01

    To assess the incidence of delirium and its risk factors in hospitalized children with cancer. In this cohort study, all consecutive admissions to a pediatric cancer service over a 3-month period were prospectively screened for delirium twice daily throughout their hospitalization. Demographic and treatment-related data were collected from the medical record after discharge. A total of 319 consecutive admissions, including 186 patients and 2731 hospital days, were included. Delirium was diagnosed in 35 patients, for an incidence of 18.8%. Risk factors independently associated with the development of delirium included age Delirium was associated with increased hospital length of stay, with median length of stay for delirious patients of 10 days compared with 5 days for patients who were not delirious during their hospitalization (P delirium was a frequent complication during admissions for childhood cancer, and was associated with increased hospital length of stay. Multi-institutional prospective studies are warranted to further characterize delirium in this high-risk population and identify modifiable risk factors to improve the care provided to hospitalized children with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of nonpharmacological training on delirium identification and intervention strategies of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk Birge, Ayşegül; Tel Aydin, Hatice

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nonpharmacological intervention training on delirium recognition and the intervention strategies of intensive care (ICU) nurses. This is a quasi-experimental study conducted using a pretest-posttest design. The study sample included a total of 95 patients staying in the medical ICU of a university hospital and 19 nurses working in these units. The data were collected using the Patient and Nurse Introduction, Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, and Delirium Risk Factors, and Non-pharmacological Interventions in Delirium Prevention Forms. Delirium was identified in 26.5% and 20.9% of the patients in the pre- and posttraining phase, respectively. Patients with delirium had a longer duration of stay in the ICU, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score and a higher number of medications in daily treatment (pdelirium increased 8.5-fold by physical restriction and 3.4-fold by the presence of hypo/hypernatremia. The delirium recognition rate of nurses increased from 7.7% to 33.3% in the post-training phase. Our study results show that training can increase the efficiency of ICU nurses in the management of delirium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of Delirium Among Patients Having Cancer Injected With Different Opioids for the First Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rei; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tetsu; Shino, Michihiro; Matsumoto, Teruaki; Mori, Keita; Omae, Katsuhiro; Osaka, Iwao

    2017-07-01

    Despite the risk of drug-induced delirium, it is difficult to avoid the use of opioids in palliative care. However, no previous study has carefully investigated how the development of delirium varies among patients injected with different opioids for the first time. To reveal the difference in the incidence of delirium between different opioids. The incidence of delirium was compared among 114 patients who had started morphine, oxycodone, or fentanyl injection at Shizuoka Cancer Center between June 2012 and September 2014. The incidence of delirium was 28.9% in the morphine group (n = 38), 19.5% in the oxycodone group (n = 41), and 8.6% in the fentanyl group (n = 35). There was a significant difference between the morphine and fentanyl groups (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.04) but not between the morphine and oxycodone groups (P = 0.43) nor between the oxycodone and fentanyl groups (P = 0.21). The incidence of delirium after the commencement of fentanyl injection was significantly lower, suggesting that fentanyl is a useful opioid injection drug from the perspective of delirium risk.

  11. Delirium in the geriatric unit: proton-pump inhibitors and other risk factors.

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    Otremba, Iwona; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Delirium remains a major nosocomial complication of hospitalized elderly. Predictive models for delirium may be useful for identification of high-risk patients for implementation of preventive strategies. Evaluate specific factors for development of delirium in a geriatric ward setting. Prospective cross-sectional study comprised 675 consecutive patients aged 79.2±7.7 years (66% women and 34% men), admitted to the subacute geriatric ward of a multiprofile university hospital after exclusion of 113 patients treated with antipsychotic medication because of behavioral disorders before admission. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including a structured interview, physical examination, geriatric functional assessment, blood sampling, ECG, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray, Confusion Assessment Method for diagnosis of delirium, Delirium-O-Meter to assess delirium severity, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale to assess sedation or agitation, visual analog scale and Doloplus-2 scale to assess pain level were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed five independent factors associated with development of delirium in geriatric inpatients: transfer between hospital wards (odds ratio [OR] =2.78; confidence interval [CI] =1.54-5.01; P=0.001), preexisting dementia (OR =2.29; CI =1.44-3.65; Pfall incidents (OR =1.76; CI =1.17-2.64; P=0.006), and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR =1.67; CI =1.11-2.53; P=0.014). Transfer between hospital wards, preexisting dementia, previous delirium incidents, previous fall incidents, and use of proton-pump inhibitors are predictive of development of delirium in the geriatric inpatient setting.

  12. The importance of early recognition and timely treatment of delirium in intensive care units

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    Stašević-Karličić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is connected to bad short-term (the increase in hospital mortality rate and hospital days and long-term outcomes (disfunctionality, institutionalisation, cognitive damage and post hospital-release dementia. The objective of this study is to determine whether there are possible incompatibilities of treatment of delirium with the recommendations in the guides of good clinical practice from developed countries. The grounded method was used in the study. The so called principal sampling of 17 psychiatrists, anesthesiologists and registered nurses was conducted. Afterwards, the unstructured interviews with the selectees were conducted, transcribed and analyzed immediately through coding, category and concept detection. Having completed this, the theoretical sampling of new interview examinees was conducted. Their analysis enabled the concepts to be linked into a working theory and graphically displayed. The new sampling, the new interviews and their analysis were then continued interactively until the saturation of the working theory was achieved and the final version of the theory was formulated based on the findings reached through the interviews. Having completed the principal sampling and coding of the transcripts led the researches to the saturation of the theory through the separation of eight categories: A - Delirium as a sign of system infection, B - Therapy - Anaesthesiologists administer benzodiazepines, whereas psychiatrists administer antipsychotics, C - An inconspicuous onset of delirium is overlooked, D - Bleeding as the cause of delirium, E -Anticholinergics as a cause of delirium, F - Misunderstanding the nature of delirium by anaesthesiologists, G -Being aware that the patient is vitally endangered, and H - The nurses apply enhanced health care measures. Delirium is a syndrome which can be prevented in 30 -40% of cases (50. An etiological treatment would help avoid complicating delirium's clinical picture and would very much

  13. Delirium symptoms during hospitalization predict long-term mortality in patients with severe pneumonia.

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    Aliberti, Stefano; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Belotti, Mauro; Morandi, Alessandro; Messinesi, Grazia; Annoni, Giorgio; Pesci, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Delirium is common in critically ill patients and impact in-hospital mortality in patients with pneumonia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of delirium symptoms during hospitalization in patients with severe pneumonia and their impact on one-year mortality. This was an observational, retrospective, cohort study of consecutive patients admitted to the respiratory high dependency unit of the San Gerardo University Hospital, Monza, Italy, between January 2009 and December 2012 with a diagnosis of severe pneumonia. A search through the charts looking for ten key words associated with delirium (confusion, disorientation, altered mental status, delirium, agitation, inappropriate behavior, mental status change, inattention, hallucination, lethargy) was performed by a multidisciplinary team. The primary endpoint was mortality at one-year follow-up. Secondary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. A total of 172 patients were enrolled (78 % males; median age 75 years). At least one delirium symptom was detected in 53 patients (31 %) during hospitalization. The prevalence of delirium symptoms was higher among those who died during hospitalization vs. those who survived (44 vs. 27 %, p = 0.049, respectively). Seventy-one patients (46 %) died during the one-year follow-up. The prevalence of at least one delirium symptom was higher among those who died than those who survived during the one-year follow-up (39 vs. 21 %, p = 0.014, respectively). At the multivariable logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, comorbidities and severe sepsis, the presence of at least one delirium symptom during hospitalization was an independent predictor of one-year mortality (OR 2.35; 95 % CI 1.13-4.90; p = 0.023). Delirium symptoms are independent predictors of one-year mortality in hospitalized patients with severe pneumonia. Further studies should confirm our results using prospective methods of collecting data.

  14. In geriatric patients, delirium symptoms are related to the anticholinergic burden.

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    Naja, Moustafa; Zmudka, Jadwiga; Hannat, Sanaa; Liabeuf, Sophie; Serot, Jean-Marie; Jouanny, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Anticholinergic drugs are widely prescribed for elderly patients and could induce several neuropsychological disorders, especially delirium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anticholinergic burden and delirium symptoms. A total of 102 patients aged over 75 years (86.3 ± 5.8 years, 53 women and 49 men) hospitalized in a geriatric medicine department were included in this prospective study. Anticholinergic burden was assessed by classifying drug use into three levels (low, medium or high). An overall, weighted score was established. Delirium symptoms were measured with the Confusion Assessment Method on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 15 and 21. Covariates studied were comorbidities (Charlson), health status, activities of daily living, nutrition (albumin), cognition, length of stay and mortality. A total of 51.6% of the patients were taking anticholinergic drugs at home (2.13 ± 1.34). Length of stay was 14.5 ± 9.9 days. Prevalence of delirium symptoms ranged on days between 34.8 and 60%. Anticholinergic burden was correlated with the appearance of delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were associated with greater mortality (16.1 and 3.7 % in patients with and without delirium symptoms; P = 0.049), a longer hospital stay (18.09 ± 11.34 vs 11.75 ± 7.80 days, P = 0.001), greater dependence on discharge (activities of daily living score: 1.57 ± 1.56 vs 3.41 ± 1.45, P delirium symptoms and mortality. Prevention of delirium symptoms requires its reduction. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Incidence of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty-an Asian perspective.

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    Huang, Juncheng; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2017-08-01

    Very little is known in the literature with regards to the incidence of postoperative delirium following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Asians and the associated surgical factors. We conducted a retrospective study on incidence of postoperative delirium following TKA in Asians. One thousand sixteen knees of 954 consecutive patients who underwent TKA by the senior author of this study in the year 2006 were included in this review. All written and electronic medical records for patients were screened. Delirium was recorded to be present based on clinical entry onto the patients' inpatient hospital notes and a diagnosis made by psychiatrist based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.18.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The incidence of postoperative delirium in our patients undergoing TKA was 0.59%. Six patients had a confirmed diagnosis of delirium postoperatively. We noted an association between a higher mean age (P<0.0001), a lower body mass index (P<0.0001), Chinese ethnicity (P=0.002), male gender (P=0.002) and chronic opioid use (P<0.0001) with incidence of post-operative delirium. We also noted a higher proportion of post-operative DVT (P<0.0001) and wound infection (P<0.0001) in the delirium group. The incidence of postoperative delirium in Asians undergoing TKA in our institution is very low at 0.59%. Advanced age, lower body mass index, Chinese ethnicity, male gender and preoperative chronic opioid use may be associated with developing postoperative delirium.

  16. Emergence delirium with transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia reversed by flumazenil in a pediatric patient.

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    Drobish, Julie K; Kelz, Max B; DiPuppo, Patricia M; Cook-Sather, Scott D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple factors may contribute to the development of emergence delirium in a child. We present the case of a healthy 12-year-old girl who received preoperative midazolam with the desired anxiolytic effect, underwent a brief general anesthetic, and then exhibited postoperative delirium, consisting of a transient associative agnosia and expressive aphasia. Administration of flumazenil led to immediate and lasting resolution of her symptoms. We hypothesize that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-mediated effects, most likely related to an atypical offset of midazolam, are an important subset of emergence delirium that is amenable to pharmacologic therapy with flumazenil.

  17. Delirium in the geriatric unit: proton-pump inhibitors and other risk factors

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    Otremba I

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Otremba, Krzysztof Wilczyński, Jan SzewieczekDepartment of Geriatrics, School of Health Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, PolandBackground: Delirium remains a major nosocomial complication of hospitalized elderly. Predictive models for delirium may be useful for identification of high-risk patients for implementation of preventive strategies.Objective: Evaluate specific factors for development of delirium in a geriatric ward setting.Methods: Prospective cross-sectional study comprised 675 consecutive patients aged 79.2±7.7 years (66% women and 34% men, admitted to the subacute geriatric ward of a multiprofile university hospital after exclusion of 113 patients treated with antipsychotic medication because of behavioral disorders before admission. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including a structured interview, physical examination, geriatric functional assessment, blood sampling, ECG, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray, Confusion Assessment Method for diagnosis of delirium, Delirium-O-Meter to assess delirium severity, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale to assess sedation or agitation, visual analog scale and Doloplus-2 scale to assess pain level were performed.Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed five independent factors associated with development of delirium in geriatric inpatients: transfer between hospital wards (odds ratio [OR] =2.78; confidence interval [CI] =1.54–5.01; P=0.001, preexisting dementia (OR =2.29; CI =1.44–3.65; P<0.001, previous delirium incidents (OR =2.23; CI =1.47–3.38; P<0.001, previous fall incidents (OR =1.76; CI =1.17–2.64; P=0.006, and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR =1.67; CI =1.11–2.53; P=0.014.Conclusion: Transfer between hospital wards, preexisting dementia, previous delirium incidents, previous fall incidents, and use of proton-pump inhibitors are predictive of development of delirium in the geriatric inpatient setting.Keywords: delirium

  18. Validation of a Consensus Method for Identifying Delirium from Hospital Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elvira; Du, Xinyi; McGrath, Keith; Coveney, Sarah; O'Regan, Niamh; Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Allan, Louise; Wilson, Dan; Inouye, Sharon K.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.; Meagher, David; Brayne, Carol; Timmons, Suzanne; Davis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of trajectories of cognitive decline. Therefore, analyses of existing cohort studies measuring cognitive outcomes could benefit from methods to ascertain a retrospective delirium diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate such a method for delirium detection using routine medical records in UK and Ireland. Methods A point prevalence study of delirium provided the reference-standard ratings for delirium diagnosis. Blinded to study results, clinical vignettes were compiled from participants' medical records in a standardised manner, describing any relevant delirium symptoms recorded in the whole case record for the period leading up to case-ascertainment. An expert panel rated each vignette as unlikely, possible, or probable delirium and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From 95 case records, 424 vignettes were abstracted by 5 trained clinicians. There were 29 delirium cases according to the reference standard. Median age of subjects was 76.6 years (interquartile range 54.6 to 82.5). Against the original study DSM-IV diagnosis, the chart abstraction method gave a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 7.8 (95% CI 5.7–12.0) and the negative LR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.40–0.47) for probable delirium (sensitivity 0.58 (95% CI 0.53–0.62); specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.90–0.95); AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.89)). The method diagnosed possible delirium with positive LR 3.5 (95% CI 2.9–4.3) and negative LR 0.15 (95% CI 0.11–0.21) (sensitivity 0.89 (95% CI 0.85–0.91); specificity 0.75 (95% CI 0.71–0.79); AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.89)). Conclusions This chart abstraction method can retrospectively diagnose delirium in hospitalised patients with good accuracy. This has potential for retrospectively identifying delirium in cohort studies where routine medical records are available. This example of record linkage between hospitalisations and epidemiological data may lead to

  19. Validation of a consensus method for identifying delirium from hospital records.

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    Elvira Kuhn

    Full Text Available Delirium is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of trajectories of cognitive decline. Therefore, analyses of existing cohort studies measuring cognitive outcomes could benefit from methods to ascertain a retrospective delirium diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate such a method for delirium detection using routine medical records in UK and Ireland.A point prevalence study of delirium provided the reference-standard ratings for delirium diagnosis. Blinded to study results, clinical vignettes were compiled from participants' medical records in a standardised manner, describing any relevant delirium symptoms recorded in the whole case record for the period leading up to case-ascertainment. An expert panel rated each vignette as unlikely, possible, or probable delirium and disagreements were resolved by consensus.From 95 case records, 424 vignettes were abstracted by 5 trained clinicians. There were 29 delirium cases according to the reference standard. Median age of subjects was 76.6 years (interquartile range 54.6 to 82.5. Against the original study DSM-IV diagnosis, the chart abstraction method gave a positive likelihood ratio (LR of 7.8 (95% CI 5.7-12.0 and the negative LR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.40-0.47 for probable delirium (sensitivity 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.62; specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.95; AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89. The method diagnosed possible delirium with positive LR 3.5 (95% CI 2.9-4.3 and negative LR 0.15 (95% CI 0.11-0.21 (sensitivity 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.91; specificity 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79; AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.89.This chart abstraction method can retrospectively diagnose delirium in hospitalised patients with good accuracy. This has potential for retrospectively identifying delirium in cohort studies where routine medical records are available. This example of record linkage between hospitalisations and epidemiological data may lead to further insights into the inter-relationship between acute

  20. Partial and No Recovery from Delirium in Older Hospitalized Adults: Frequency and Baseline Risk Factors.

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    Cole, Martin G; Bailey, Robert; Bonnycastle, Michael; McCusker, Jane; Fung, Shek; Ciampi, Antonio; Belzile, Eric; Bai, Chun

    2015-11-01

    To determine the frequency and baseline risk factors for partial and no recovery from delirium in older hospitalized adults. Cohort study with assessment of recovery status approximately 1 and 3 months after enrollment. University-affiliated, primary, acute-care hospital. Medical or surgical inpatients aged 65 and older with delirium (N = 278). The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Index (DI), and activities of daily living (ADLs) were completed at enrollment and each follow-up. Primary outcome categories were full recovery (absence of CAM core symptoms of delirium), partial recovery (presence of ≥1 CAM core symptoms but not meeting criteria for delirium), no recovery (met CAM criteria for delirium), or death. Secondary outcomes were changes in MMSE, DI, and ADL scores between the baseline and last assessment. Potential risk factors included many clinical and laboratory variables. In participants with dementia, frequencies of full, partial, and no recovery and death at first follow-up were 6.3%, 11.3%, 74.6%, and 7.7%, respectively; in participants without dementia, frequencies were 14.3%, 17%, 50.9%, and 17.9%, respectively. In participants with dementia, frequencies at the second follow-up were 7.9%, 15.1%, 57.6%, and 19.4%, respectively; in participants without dementia, frequencies were 19.2%, 20.2%, 31.7%, and 28.8%, respectively. Frequencies were similar in participants with prevalent and incident delirium and in medical and surgical participants. The DI, MMSE, and ADL scores of many participants with partial and no recovery improved. Independent baseline risk factors for delirium persistence were chart diagnosis of dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 2.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.38, 4.56), presence of any malignancy (OR = 5.79, 95% CI = 1.51, 22.19), and greater severity of delirium (OR =9.39, 95% CI = 3.95, 22.35). Delirium in many older hospitalized adults appears to be much more protracted than previously

  1. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium

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    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and cost. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely unknown, partially owing to lack of animal model(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors. The mice were tested at 24 hours before and at 6, 9 and 24 hours after the Anesthesia/Surgery. Composite Z scores were calculated. Cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondria permeability transient pore, was used to determine potential mitochondria-associated mechanisms of these behavioral changes. Anesthesia/Surgery selectively impaired behaviors, including latency to eat food in buried food test, freezing time and time spent in the center in open field test, and entries and duration in the novel arm of Y maze test, with acute onset and various timecourse. The composite Z scores quantitatively demonstrated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced behavior impairment in mice. Cyclosporine A selectively ameliorated the Anesthesia/Surgery-induced reduction in ATP levels, the increases in latency to eat food, and the decreases in entries in the novel arm. These findings suggest that we could use a battery of behavior tests to establish a mouse model to study postoperative delirium. PMID:27435513

  2. Melanoma brain metastases presenting as delirium: a case report

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    Sofia Morais

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic tumours sometimes present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, however psychiatric symptoms as rarely the first clinical manifestation. Cutaneous melanoma is the third most common cause of brain metastasis, with known risk factors increasing the chance of such central nervous system metastization. Objectives We present a clinical report of delirium as the first clinical manifestation of melanoma brain metastases, illustrating the relevance of an adequate and early differential diagnosis. Methods In addition to describing the clinical case, searches were undertaken in PubMed and other databases using keywords such as “brain metastasis”, “melanoma”, “agitation”, “psychiatric” and “delirium”. Results We here report the case of a 52-year-old female patient evaluated by Liaison Psychiatry after sudden onset of delirium while admitted at the Gastroenterology Department to study a hypothesis of pancreatitis. A head CT scan identified brain metastases, and after further examination, including brain biopsy, melanoma brain metastization was confirmed. Discussion Some of the diagnostic challenges of psychiatric symptoms associated with secondary brain tumours are discussed, underlining the importance of an adequate differential diagnosis when working in Psychiatry Liaison.

  3. Comparison and Analysis of Delirium Induced by Histamine H2 Receptor Antagonists and Proton Pump Inhibitors in Cancer Patients

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    Shiro Fujii

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: H2 blockers have been reported to be responsible for drug-induced delirium. We compared the incidence of delirium between two groups of patients who were treated with H2 blockers (H2 group or proton pump inhibitors (PPI group for anastomotic ulcer prevention following surgical treatment of esophageal cancer. Method: The incidence and severity of delirium were retrospectively compared in patients of the H2 group (30 cases; age, 65.2 ± 8.1 years and the PPI group (30 cases; 65.2 ± 6.5 years. The diagnosis of delirium was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Delirium severity was rated on the Delirium Rating Scale (DRS. Results: The incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the PPI group than in the H2 group (p = 0.047. In the 11 patients from the H2 group who developed delirium, discontinuation of H2 blockers resulted in a significant reduction in the DRS score (p = 0.009. In three patients for whom H2 blockers were discontinued, DRS scores decreased by 50% or more three days after discontinuation compared to the prediscontinuation score. Conclusions: These results suggested that switching antiulcer drugs from H2 blockers to PPIs reduced delirium and thus provided an appropriate coping method for drug-induced delirium from antiulcer drugs.

  4. Effect of Magnesium Level to the Development of Delirium in Patients Under Sedation in Intensive Care Unit

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    Zümrüt Ela Aslan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Delirium is a state not to be neglected which can cause severe consequences that is related to critical illness in intensive care unit with acute cerebral dysfunction. Magnesium (Mg plays an important role in many physiological events affecting the brain. In this study, we retrospectively investigated the incidence of delirium development and its relationship with the serum Mg levels. Material and Method: Patients who admitted to intensive care unit (ICU were divided in to two groups according to their serum Mg levels (0.7 normomagnesemia. Delirium was assessed using Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale and Confusion Assessment Method for ICU. We identified the duration of mechanical ventilation, applied sedation, age, gender, sepsis, shock, malignancy, ICU requirement after operation, admission SOFA score, admission APACHE II score, admission of Mg and mean Mg levels as secondary outcome measures whether they affected delirium incidence. Results: A total of 178 patients were assessed, 72 of them were found delirium positive. The incidence of delirium was found 45% in patients with hypomagnesaemia; this was found 25% in patients with normomagnesaemia. Duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and mortality rate were found higher in patients with delirium than those in individuals without delirium. Conclusion: We retrospectively investigated delirium incidence in critically ill patients and the percentage was found remarkably high. Our findings were parallel with the other studies that, delirium has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality rates.

  5. Early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium: a prospective cohort study in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery.

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    de Jonghe, Jos F M; Kalisvaart, Kees J; Dijkstra, Marty; van Dis, Huib; Vreeswijk, Ralph; Kat, Martin G; Eikelenboom, Piet; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Gool, Willem A

    2007-02-01

    The authors investigated prodromal delirium symptoms in elderly patients undergoing hip surgery. This was a prospective cohort study in the setting of a large medical school-affiliated general hospital in Alkmaar, The Netherlands. Participants were patients undergoing hip surgery aged 70 and older at risk for delirium. Before surgery, patients were randomized to low-dose prophylactic haloperidol treatment or placebo. Daily assessments were based on patient interviews with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Digit Span test. The Delirium Rating Scale-Revised (DRS-R-98) was used to measure early symptoms during the prodromal phase before the onset of delirium. Data of 66 patients with delirium were compared with those of 35 at-risk patients who did not develop delirium: 14 of 66 patients (21%) had delirium on the day of surgery or early the day after, 32 of 66 (48%) on the second day, 14 of 66 on the third, and six of 66 (9%) on the fourth. The average DRS-R-98 total scores on day -4 to day -1 before delirium were 1.9 for the comparison group patients and 5.0, 4.3, 5.8, and 10.7 for patients with postoperative delirium. Multivariate analysis showed that the early symptoms memory impairments, incoherence, disorientation, and underlying somatic illness predict delirium. Most elderly patients undergoing hip surgery with postoperative delirium already have early symptoms in the prodromal phase of delirium. These findings are potentially useful for screening purposes and for optimizing prevention strategies targeted at reducing the incidence of postoperative delirium.

  6. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

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    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Poststroke delirium incidence and outcomes: validation of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitasova, Adela; Kostalova, Milena; Bednarik, Josef; Michalcakova, Radka; Kasparek, Tomas; Balabanova, Petra; Dusek, Ladislav; Vohanka, Stanislav; Ely, E Wesley

    2012-02-01

    To describe the epidemiology and time spectrum of delirium using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and to validate a tool for delirium assessment in patients in the acute poststroke period. A prospective observational cohort study. The stroke unit of a university hospital. A consecutive series of 129 patients with stroke (with infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 women and 72 men; mean age, 72.5 yrs; age range, 35-93 yrs) admitted to the stroke unit of a university hospital were evaluated for delirium incidence. None. Criterion validity and overall accuracy of the Czech version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) were determined using serial daily delirium assessments with CAM-ICU by a junior physician compared with delirium diagnosis by delirium experts using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria that began the first day after stroke onset and continued for at least 7 days. Cox regression models using time-dependent covariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, prestroke dementia, National Institutes of Stroke Health Care at admission, first-day Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and asphasia were used to understand the relationships between delirium and clinical outcomes. An episode of delirium based on reference Diagnostic and Statistical Manual assessment was detected in 55 patients with stroke (42.6%). In 37 of these (67.3%), delirium began within the first day and in all of them within 5 days of stroke onset. A total of 1003 paired CAM-ICU/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders daily assessments were completed. Compared with the reference standard for diagnosing delirium, the CAM-ICU demonstrated a sensitivity of 76% (95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI 93% to 100%), an overall accuracy of 94% (95% CI 88% to 97%), and high interrater reliability (κ = 0.94; 95% CI 0

  8. Propofol-Based Palliative Sedation to Treat Antipsychotic-Resistant Agitated Delirium.

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    Covarrubias-Gómez, Alfredo; López Collada-Estrada, Maria

    Delirium is a common problem in terminally ill patients that is associated with significant distress and, hence, considered a palliative care emergency. The three subtypes of delirium are hyperactive, hypoactive, and mixed, depending on the level of psychomotor activity and arousal disturbance. When agitated delirium becomes refractory in the setting of imminent dying, the agitation may be so severe that palliative sedation (PS) is required. Palliative sedation involves the administration of sedative medications with the purpose of reducing level of consciousness for patients with refractory suffering in the setting of a terminal illness. Propofol is a sedative that has a short duration of action and a very rapid onset. These characteristics make it relatively easy to titrate. Reported doses range from 50 to 70 mg per hour. The authors present a case of antipsychotic-resistant agitated delirium treated with a propofol intravenous infusion.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors related to haloperidol use for delirium in adult intensive care patients

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    Collet, Marie O; Caballero, Jesús; Sonneville, Romain

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. METHODS: All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed...... the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use. RESULTS: We included 1260 patients from 99 ICUs in 13 countries. Delirium...... occurred in 314/1260 patients [25% (95% confidence interval 23-27)] of whom 145 received haloperidol [46% (41-52)]. Other interventions for delirium were benzodiazepines in 36% (31-42), dexmedetomidine in 21% (17-26), quetiapine in 19% (14-23) and olanzapine in 9% (6-12) of the patients with delirium...

  10. Acute traumatic and depressive symptoms in family members of hospitalized individuals with delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Robert B; Rosenthal, Lisa J

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized symptoms of acute stress and depression in caregivers present during the hospitalization of a loved one with delirium. This is an observational, cross-sectional analysis of caregivers of patients hospitalized with delirium. Standardized questionnaires were used in caregiver interviews to assess psychological reactions to traumatic situations and understanding of medical care. Of the 40 caregivers recruited, half had significant symptoms of acute stress and 12.5% of caregivers were highly symptomatic across all domains related to trauma. Elevated acute stress was positively correlated with both past or current depression and prior mental health treatment (p delirium as having a negative impact on their lives were also at elevated risk (p delirium are at elevated risk for experiencing severe acute traumatic and depressive symptoms, and this response might place them at risk for developing traumatic disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. [Delirium or behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in the elderly patient: diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breil, D

    2010-09-08

    Acute confusional state, delirium, occurs in up to 80% of patients in the intensive care unit and is also a common, life-threatening and potentially preventable clinical syndrome among persons who are 65 years of age or older in general hospital. The cause of acute confusional state is typically multifactorial. Delirium and dementia are highly interrelated and dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium. So the key steps to distinguish between delirium and behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are to address all evident causes, e.g. dementia, dehydration, infection, polymedication and to prevent complications and treat behavioral symptoms. First nonpharmacologic approaches should be instituted, including a calm, comfortable environment with the use of orienting influences. Pharmacologic management should be reserved for patients whose symptoms would threaten their own safety or the safety of other persons. Therapeutic drug options include modern antidepressants and neuroleptics.

  12. Defining delirium for the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, David J; Maclullich, Alasdair M J; Laurila, Jouko V

    2008-09-01

    The development of ICD-11 provides an opportunity to update the description of delirium according to emerging data that have added to our understanding of this complex neuropsychiatric syndrome. Synthetic article based on published work considered by the authors to be relevant to the definition of delirium. The current DSM-IV definition of delirium is preferred to the ICD-10 because of its greater inclusivity. Evidence does not support major changes in the principal components of present definitions but a number of key issues for the updated definition were identified. These include better account of non-cognitive features, more guidance for rating contextual diagnostic items, clearer definition regarding the interface with dementia, and accounting for illness severity, clinical subtypes and course. Development of the ICD definition of delirium can allow for more targeted research and clinical effort.

  13. Depression as an independent predictor of postoperative delirium in spine deformity patients undergoing elective spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Lydon, Emily; Sergesketter, Amanda; Kaakati, Rayan; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Depression is the most prevalent affective disorder in the US, and patients with spinal deformity are at increased risk. Postoperative delirium has been associated with inferior surgical outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. The relationship between depression and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing spine surgery is relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if depression is an independent risk factor for the development of postoperative delirium in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for deformity. METHODS The medical records of 923 adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing elective spine surgery at a single major academic institution from 2005 through 2015 were reviewed. Of these patients, 255 (27.6%) patients had been diagnosed with depression by a board-certified psychiatrist and constituted the Depression group; the remaining 668 patients constituted the No-Depression group. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and intra- and postoperative complication rates were collected for each patient and compared between groups. The primary outcome investigated in this study was rate of postoperative delirium, according to DSM-V criteria, during initial hospital stay after surgery. The association between depression and postoperative delirium rate was assessed via multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Patient demographics and comorbidities other than depression were similar in the 2 groups. In the Depression group, 85.1% of the patients were taking an antidepressant prior to surgery. There were no significant between-group differences in intraoperative variables and rates of complications other than delirium. Postoperative complication rates were also similar between the cohorts, including rates of urinary tract infection, fever, deep and superficial surgical site infection, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, urinary retention, and proportion of patients transferred to the intensive care unit. In

  14. Strategies for prevention of postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions. Methods The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay. Results We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1

  15. Delirium pathophysiology: An updated hypothesis of the etiology of acute brain failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José R

    2017-12-26

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium. Available data suggest that numerous pathological factors may serve as precipitants for delirium, each having differential effects depending on patient-specific patient physiological characteristics (substrate). On the basis of an extensive literature search, a newly proposed theory, the systems integration failure hypothesis, was developed to bring together the most salient previously described theories, by describing the various contributions from each into a complex web of pathways-highlighting areas of intersection and commonalities and explaining how the variable contribution of these may lead to the development of various cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions characteristic of delirium. The specific cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the specific delirium picture result from a combination of neurotransmitter function and availability, variability in integration and processing of sensory information, motor responses to both external and internal cues, and the degree of breakdown in neuronal network connectivity, hence the term acute brain failure. The systems integration failure hypothesis attempts to explain how the various proposed delirium pathophysiologic theories interact with each other, causing various clinically observed delirium phenotypes. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of delirium may eventually assist in designing better prevention and management approaches. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The utility of the clock drawing test in detection of delirium in elderly hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; O'Neill, Donagh; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-09-01

    Delirium is common neuropsychiatric condition among elderly inpatients. The clock drawing test (CDT) has been used widely as bedside screening tool in assessing cognitive impairment in elderly people. Previous studies which evaluate its usefulness in delirium reported conflicting results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of CDT to detect delirium in elderly medical patients. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. All acute medical admissions 70 years of age and above were approached within 72 hours of admission for recruitment. Patients eligible for inclusion were assessed four times, twice weekly during admission. Assessment included Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-98R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) II, and CDT. Data was analysed using a linear mixed effect model. Three hundred and twenty-three assessments with the CDT were performed on 200 subjects (50% male, mean age 81.13; standard deviation: 6.45). The overall rate of delirium (CAM+) during hospitalisation was 23%. There was a significant negative correlation between the CDT and DRS-R98 scores (Pearson correlation r = -0.618, p < 0.001), CDT and CAM (Spearman's rho = -0.402, p < 0.001) and CDT and total MoCA score (Pearson's r = 0.767, p < 0.001). However, when the data were analysed longitudinally controlling for all the factors, we found that cognitive function and age were significant factors associated with CDT scores (p < .0001): neither the presence nor the severity of delirium had an additional significant effect on the CDT. CDT score reflects cognitive impairment, independently of the presence or severity of delirium. The CDT is not a suitable test for delirium in hospitalised elderly patients.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  18. Old people with femoral neck fracture : delirium, malnutrition and surgical methods - an intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Hip fracture is a global and a growing public health problem. More women than men sustain hip fractures, the incidence increases exponentially with age and mean age is above 80. About one third of hip-fracture patients suffer from dementia and are prone to develop acute confusional state (delirium). Delirium is one of the most common complications after hip-fracture surgery, and seriously impacts on morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition is also common in hip-fracture patients and is associate...

  19. Haloperidol for delirium in critically ill patients - protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O

    2018-01-01

    , relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....

  20. Acute Kidney Injury as a Risk Factor for Delirium and Coma during Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Edward D; Fissell, William H; Tripp, Christina M; Blume, Jeffrey D; Wilson, Matthew D; Clark, Amanda J; Vincz, Andrew J; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Girard, Timothy D

    2017-06-15

    Acute kidney injury may contribute to distant organ dysfunction. Few studies have examined kidney injury as a risk factor for delirium and coma. To examine whether acute kidney injury is associated with delirium and coma in critically ill adults. In a prospective cohort study of intensive care unit patients with respiratory failure and/or shock, we examined the association between acute kidney injury and daily mental status using multinomial transition models adjusting for demographics, nonrenal organ failure, sepsis, prior mental status, and sedative exposure. Acute kidney injury was characterized daily using the difference between baseline and peak serum creatinine and staged according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Mental status (normal vs. delirium vs. coma) was assessed daily with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Among 466 patients, stage 2 acute kidney injury was a risk factor for delirium (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.26) and coma (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.25-3.34) as was stage 3 injury (OR for delirium, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.57-4.16) (OR for coma, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.85-6.03). Daily peak serum creatinine (adjusted for baseline) values were also associated with delirium (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55) and coma (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20-1.74). Renal replacement therapy modified the association between stage 3 acute kidney injury and daily peak serum creatinine and both delirium and coma. Acute kidney injury is a risk factor for delirium and coma during critical illness.

  1. Incidence and correlates of delirium in a West African mental health clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ola, B.A.; Crabb, J.; Krishnadas, R.; Erinfolami, A.R.; Olagunju, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:\\ud \\ud \\ud To determine the incidence of delirium in those patients presenting to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria and to examine if any demographic or clinical variables were correlated with this diagnosis.\\ud \\ud \\ud Method \\ud \\ud \\ud A prospective survey design; 264 consecutive new referrals to a psychiatric clinic in Nigeria were assessed for the presence of delirium using a standardised diagnostic scale. Data was analysed for normality and appropriate statistical test employed...

  2. Current approach to diagnosis and treatment of delirium after cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Adam S.; Weiner, Menachem M.; Arora, Rakesh C.; Chung, Insung; Deshpande, Ranjit; Varghese, Robin; Augoustides, John; Ramakrishna, Harish

    2016-01-01

    Delirium after cardiac surgery remains a common occurrence that results in significant short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. It continues to be underdiagnosed given its complex presentation and multifactorial etiology; however, its prevalence is increasing given the aging cardiac surgical population. This review highlights the perioperative risk factors, tools to assist in diagnosing delirium, and current pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy options. PMID:27052077

  3. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  4. Congestive heart failure as a determinant of postoperative delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Daniela; Luís, Clara; Veiga, Dalila; Silva, Hugo; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is a frequent post-surgical complication that is associated with increased mortality and poor patient outcomes. POD is a complex disorder with multiple risk factors such as pre-existing patient comorbidities and perioperative complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POD and to identify risk factors for the development of POD in a post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). We enrolled 97 adult patients admitted to a PACU over a five-day period (start date September 6, 2010). Patient demographics and intraoperative and postoperative data were collected. Patients were followed for the development of delirium using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Descriptive analyses of variables were used to summarize data, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables; the chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparisons. Univariate analysis was performed using simple binary logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The significance level for multiple comparisons was controlled by applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and variables were deemed significant if p≤0.0025. Six percent of patients developed POD. These patients were older and more likely to have higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status (83 vs. 22% with ASA III/IV, p=0.004) as well as a higher frequency of congestive heart failure (50 vs. 3%, p=0.003) and a higher Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score (33 vs. 6% with RCRI ≥2, p=0.039). The duration of anesthesia for patients with POD was also longer and they received a greater volume of crystalloids, colloids, and erythrocytes during surgery. Congestive heart disease was an independent risk factor for POD (OR 29.3, 95% CI 4.1-210.6; p<0.001). In addition, patients who developed POD had higher in-hospital mortality and longer PACU and hospital stays. Patients who developed POD had longer

  5. Intraoperative tight glucose control using hyperinsulinemic normoglycemia increases delirium after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Leif; Duncan, Andra E; Yared, Jean-Pierre; Hesler, Brian D; You, Jing; Deogaonkar, Anupa; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative delirium is common in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Tight glucose control has been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the authors sought to determine the effect of tight intraoperative glucose control using a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp approach on postoperative delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The authors enrolled 198 adult patients having cardiac surgery in this randomized, double-blind, single-center trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tight intraoperative glucose control with a hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemic clamp (target blood glucose, 80 to 110 mg/dl) or standard therapy (conventional insulin administration with blood glucose target, battery. The authors considered patients to have experienced postoperative delirium when Confusion Assessment Method testing was positive at any assessment. A positive Confusion Assessment Method was defined by the presence of features 1 (acute onset and fluctuating course) and 2 (inattention) and either 3 (disorganized thinking) or 4 (altered consciousness). Patients randomized to tight glucose control were more likely to be diagnosed as being delirious than those assigned to routine glucose control (26 of 93 vs. 15 of 105; relative risk, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.37; P = 0.03), after adjusting for preoperative usage of calcium channel blocker and American Society of Anesthesiologist physical status. Delirium severity, among patients with delirium, was comparable with each glucose management strategy. Intraoperative hyperinsulinemic-normoglycemia augments the risk of delirium after cardiac surgery, but not its severity.

  6. Lived experience of the intensive care unit for patients who experienced delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorne, Karen; Gaudine, Alice; Meadus, Robert; Solberg, Shirley

    2015-11-01

    Delirium is a common occurrence for patients in the intensive care unit and can have a profound and lasting impact on them. Few studies describe the experience of intensive care patients who have had delirium. To understand the lived experience of intensive care for critically ill patients who experienced delirium. The study participants consisted of 7 men and 3 women, 46 to 70 years old, who had delirium according to the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. The van Manen method of hermeneutic phenomenology was used, and data collection entailed audio recorded semistructured interviews. Four themes were detected: "I can't remember," "Wanting to make a connection," "Trying to get it straight," and "Fear and safety concerns." Nurses working in intensive care units need to assess patients for delirium, assess the mental status of patients who have delirium, and help patients and patients' families learn about and deal with the psychological effects of the intensive care unit experience. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  7. Biomarkers of delirium as a clue to diagnosis and pathogenesis of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnia, J W; Oudman, E

    2013-12-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) and Korsakoff's syndrome are considered to be different stages of the same disorder due to thiamine deficiency, which is called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS). The earliest biochemical change is the decrease of α-ketoglutarate-dehydrogenase activity in astrocytes. According to autopsy-based series, mental status changes are present in 82% of WE cases. The objective of the present review is to identify possible underlying mechanisms relating the occurrence of delirium to WKS. Studies involving delirium in WKS, however, are rare. Therefore, first, a search was done for candidate biomarkers of delirium irrespective of the clinical setting. Secondly, the results were focused on identification of these biomarkers in reports on WKS. In various settings, 10 biochemical and/or genetic biomarkers showed strong associations with the occurrence of delirium. For WKS three of these candidate biomarkers were identified, namely brain tissue cell counts of CD68 positive cells as a marker of microglial activation, high cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels, and MHPG, a metabolite of norepinephrine. Based on current literature, markers of microglial activation may present an interesting patho-etiological relationship between thiamine deficiency and delirium in WKS. In WKS cases, changes in astroglia and microglial proliferation were reported. The possible loss-of-function mechanisms following thiamine deficiency in WKS are proposed to come from microglial activation, resulting in a delirium in the initial phase of WKS. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  8. Incidence of delirium in postoperative patients treated with total knee and hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Santana Bosmak

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Delirium is a common disorder that can potentiate mortality and comorbidity rates of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Patients undergoing major orthopedic surgeries, such as knee and hip arthroplasty, are particularly vulnerable as they often have multiple risk factors for this disorder. Method: Descriptive study of the incidence of delirium in patients treated with total knee and hip arthroplasty, given the advanced age and comorbidities in this population. We evaluated the medical records of patients who had previously undergone the designated surgeries for identification of postoperative delirium. Results: We observed in this study an incidence of 8.92% of delirium, mostly affecting females with a mean age of 73 years and hypertension. Conclusion: The incidence of delirium in our study is similar to that observed in the general population, according to the literature. We found no correlation with sleep disorders, smoking or diabetes mellitus in this study, even though the importance of these factors for the onset of delirium is well-established in the literature.

  9. Sleep Disruption at Home As an Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Oliver M; Gelrich, Lisa; MacLullich, Alasdair M; Driessen, Martin; Thomas, Christine; Kreisel, Stefan H

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether sleep disruption at home or in hospital is an independent risk factor for postoperative delirium in older adults undergoing elective surgery. Prospective cohort study. German teaching hospital. Individuals aged 65 and older undergoing elective arthroplasty (N = 101). Preoperative questionnaires were used to assess sleep disruption at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Actigraphy was used to objectively measure sleep disruption in the hospital before and after surgery. Delirium was assessed daily after surgery using the Confusion Assessment Method and, if there was uncertainty, validated according to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), criteria. Twenty-seven participants developed postoperative delirium. Those with sleep disruption at home were 3.26 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.34-7.92, P = .009). Participants with sleep disruption in hospital were 1.21 times as likely to develop postoperative delirium as those without (95% CI = 1.03-1.41, P = .02). When adjusting for other variables, risk remained significant for sleep disruption at home (risk ratio (RR) = 3.90, 95% CI = 2.14-7.11, P delirium than those without. Sleep disruption in the hospital may further heighten this risk. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Factors Associated with Post-Surgical Delirium in Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

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    Yadollah Jannati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study is to determine the incidence of delirium and the associated factors in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Methods: This is an Analytic-descriptive study conducted on 404 patients undergoing elective open heart surgery in Fatemeh Zahra Heart Center, Sari, over the period of 6 months from July to December 2011. Sampling was achieved in a nonrandomized targeted manner and delirium was assessed using NeeCham questionnaire. A trained nurse evaluated the patients for delirium and completed the risk factor checklist on days 1 to 5 after surgery. Data analyses were accomplished using survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression on SPSS software version 15. Results: We found that variables, including ventilation time, increased drainage during the first 24 hours, the need for re-operation in the first 24 hours, dysrhythmias, use of inotropic agents, increased use of analgesics, increased arterial carbon dioxide, lack of visitors, and use of physical restrainers were associated with the development of delirium. In addition, we found a delirium incidence of 29%. Conclusion: Diagnosis of cognitive disorders is of utmost value; therefore, further studies are required to clarify the risk factors because controlling them will help prevent delirium.

  11. Barriers to delirium assessment in the intensive care unit: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Gabby

    2018-02-01

    Delirium is a common syndrome that has both short and long-term negative outcomes for critically ill patients. Many studies over several years have found a knowledge gap and lack of evidence-based practice from critical care personnel, but there has been little exploration of the reasons for this. To identify the perceived barriers to delirium assessment and management among critical care nurses. A literature review of published studies to examine barriers to effective delirium assessment using a comprehensive search strategy. Five relevant studies identified for review. Few studies have investigated barriers to delirium assessment and management, but several themes reoccur throughout the literature. The perceived time consuming nature of the assessment tools is cited by many, as is the lack of medical prioritisation of results. Lack of education on delirium appears to be a significant factor and reinforces some of the stated misconceptions. Many barriers exist to prevent effective assessment and management of delirium, but several of these are due to a lack of understanding or unfamiliarity with the condition and the assessment tools as well as lack of medical prioritisation of the results. Further research is needed on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Delirium and the Family Caregiver: The Need for Evidence-based Education Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Meredith K; Gugliucci, Marilyn R

    2015-06-01

    Delirium, an acute confusional state, is experienced by many older adults. Although there is substantial research on risk factors and etiology, we hypothesized that there is a dearth of information on educating the family caregivers of delirious older patients. A date-specific (2000-2013) literature review of articles, written in English, was conducted in several major databases using keyword searches. This systematic review focused on 2 objectives: (1) investigate published studies on the impact of delirium on the family regarding caring for a loved one; and (2) determine if there are interventions that have provided family caregivers with education and/or coping skills to recognize and/or manage delirium. A systematic elimination provided outcomes that met both objectives. Thirty articles addressed impact on family caregivers (objective 1); only 7 addressed caregiver education regarding the delirious state of a loved one (objective 2). Few studies consider the impact of delirium on family caregivers and even fewer studies focus on how to manage delirium in loved ones. With increased risks to older adult patients, high cost of care, and the preventable nature of delirium, family caregiver education may be an important tactic to improve outcomes for both patient and caregiver. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Angka Kejadian Delirium dan Faktor Risiko di Intensive Care Unit Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhman Adiwinata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delirium ditandai dengan perubahan status mental, tingkat kesadaran, serta perhatian yang akut dan fluktuatif. Keadaan ini merupakan kelainan yang serius berhubungan dengan pemanjangan lama perawatan di Intensive Care Unit (ICU, biaya yang lebih tinggi, memperlambat pemulihan fungsional, serta peningkatan morbiditas dan mortalitas. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui angka kejadian delirium dan faktor risiko terjadinya delirium di ICU Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin (RSHS Bandung. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan selama tiga bulan (Januari–Maret 2015 di ICU RSHS Bandung. Metode penelitian ini deskriptif observasional secara kohort prospektif, menggunakan alat ukur Confusion Assessment Method-Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, sebelumnya dilakukan penilaian dengan Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS pada pasien yang tersedasi. Hasil penelitian ini dari 105 pasien, 22 pasien dieksklusikan, dari 83 pasien didapatkan 31 pasien positif delirium, angka kejadian 37%. Faktor-faktor risiko pada pasien positif delirium terdiri atas geriatri 15 dari 31, pemakaian ventilator 12 dari 31, pemberian analgesik morfin 9 dari 31, sepsis atau infeksi 9 dari 31, kelainan jantung 8 dari 31, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II skor tinggi 8 dari 31, kelainan ginjal 7 dari 31 laboratorium abnormal 7 dari 31, pemberian sedasi midazolam 6 dari 31 kelainan endokrin 5 dari 31, pemberian analgesik fentanil 2 dari 31, dan strok 1 dari 31. Simpulan, angka kejadian delirium di ICU RSHS Bandung cukup tinggi sebesar 37% dengan faktor risiko terbesar adalah pasien geriatrik.

  14. Palliative care nurses' recognition and assessment of patients with delirium symptoms: a qualitative study using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Annmarie; Agar, Meera; Lobb, Elizabeth; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Delirium is prevalent in palliative care inpatient settings and management is often challenging. Despite nurses' integral patient care role, little is known about palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise, assess and respond to patients' delirium symptoms. To explore the experiences, views and practices of inpatient palliative care nurses in delirium recognition and assessment. 30 nurses from nine Australian specialist palliative care inpatient services. Critical incident technique (CIT) guided a series of semi-structured interviews. Prior to interviews participants were given a vignette of a palliative care inpatient with an unrecognised hypoactive delirium, to prompt their recollection and recounting of a similar clinical incident. Clearly recalled and described incidents were analysed using thematic content analysis. 20 of 30 participants recalled and described 28 relevant delirium incidents. Two themes and six sub-themes provide a general description of participants' experiences, views and practice in delirium recognition and assessment. Participants experience distress related to caring for patients with delirium and express compassion and empathy for delirious patients. Enhancing their delirium knowledge, strengthening collaborative multidisciplinary team relationships and better communication are important supports. Some participants, usually those in advance practice roles, describe more comprehensive assessment capabilities that incorporate clinical expertise with whole person awareness, yet systematic and structured delirium screening and assessment processes and application of the delirium diagnosis criteria are largely missing. Use of ambiguous terminology to describe delirium symptoms contributes to ineffective practice. The findings of this study expands our understanding of how palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise and assess patients' delirium symptoms in the inpatient setting could be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study.

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    Thiago J Avelino-Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults.This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method. Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD. The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates. Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001. DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios (HRs of 2.14 (95% CI

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors for Delirium among Mechanically Ventilated Patients in an African Intensive Care Setting: An Observational Multicenter Study

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    Arthur Kwizera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Delirium is common among mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU. There are little data regarding delirium among mechanically ventilated patients in Africa. We sought to determine the burden of delirium and associated factors in Uganda. Methods. We conducted a multicenter prospective study among mechanically ventilated patients in Uganda. Eligible patients were screened daily for delirium using the confusional assessment method (CAM-ICU. Comparisons were made using t-test, chi-squares, and Fisher’s exact test. Predictors were assessed using logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. Of 160 patients, 81 (51% had delirium. Median time to onset of delirium was 3.7 days. At bivariate analysis, history of mental illness, sedation, multiorgan dysfunction, neurosurgery, tachypnea, low mean arterial pressure, oliguria, fevers, metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, anaemia, physical restraints, marital status, and endotracheal tube use were significant predictors. At multivariable analysis, having a history of mental illness, sedation, respiratory acidosis, higher PEEP, endotracheal tubes, and anaemia predicted delirium. Conclusion. The prevalence of delirium in a young African population is lower than expected considering the high mortality. A history of mental illness, anaemia, sedation, endotracheal tube use, and respiratory acidosis were factors associated with delirium.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Care Programs for the Delirium Management in Patients after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG

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    Safoora Fallahpoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is one of the common problems of cognitive impairment after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG that its prevention, timely detection, and treatment require a care and management program to be controlled. The present research has studied a care program for the management of delirium in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This research was performed by action research methodology during a fivestage cycle in two groups of 50 persons (without interference and with intervention. In both groups, the patients were evaluated every 8 hours by CAM-ICU tool in hours (6, 14 and 22 for the occurrence of delirium after surgery until they were in Intensive Care Unit (ICU. In the intervention group, the developed program was implemented in three areas of delirium management before, during, and after the surgery. Then, the collected information was analyzed in two groups using descriptive and analytical statistics in SPSS 20 software. Delirium was observed at least once in 68% of patients without the intervention and 38% of patients with intervention after surgery. The ratio of delirium incidence was significantly lower in the intervention group (P<0.05. In addition, the total number of delirium in ICU was significantly lower for patients in the intervention group (P<0.05.The developed program for reducing the incidence of delirium in hospitalized patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG was confirmed. This means that its applying will lead to a reduction in delirium.

  18. Acute confusional state/delirium: An etiological and prognostic evaluation

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    Dheeraj Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute confusional state/delirium is a frequent cause of hospital admission, in the elderly. It is characterized by an acute fluctuating impairment of cognitive functions and inattention. Recognition and prompt treatment is crucial to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with it. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we determined the etiology and prognostic factors of an acute confusional state. A total of 52 patients of acute confusional state were clinically evaluated. All patients were also subjected to a battery blood biochemical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and neuroimaging. Disability was assessed by using modified Barthel index (MBI. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Results: The mean age of our cohort was 65.04 ± 10.6 years. 32 (61.5% patients were male. In 33 patients, we were able to identify possible precipitating cause of an acute confusional state. In the rest of the patients results of all the tests were normal. Leukocytosis and hyponatremia were frequent factors associated with delirium. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 10.73 ± 3.6 days (range 5-21 days. Patients with an abnormal work-up (possible precipitating cause had significantly lower mortality, less duration of hospital stay and less severe disability after 3 months. Age, underlying illness, serum creatinine, abnormal neuroimaging and MBI were identified as a significant prognostic indicator. 18 (34.6% of our patients died, of these in 10 patients we could not find a precipitating cause. Conclusion: Patients, in whom a cause was found out, had better prognosis in terms of lesser mortality and the duration of hospital stay.

  19. Effectiveness of multi-component non-pharmacologic delirium interventions: A Meta-analysis

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    Hshieh, Tammy T.; Yue, Jirong; Oh, Esther; Puelle, Margaret; Dowal, Sarah; Travison, Thomas; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Delirium, an acute disorder with high morbidity and mortality, is often preventable through multi-component non-pharmacologic strategies. The efficacy of these strategies for preventing subsequent adverse outcomes has been limited to small studies. Objective Evaluate available evidence on multi-component non-pharmacologic delirium interventions in reducing incident delirium and preventing poor outcomes associated with delirium. Data Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 1, 1999–December 31, 2013. Study Selection Studies examining the following outcomes were included: delirium incidence, falls, length of stay, rate of discharge to a long-term care institution, change in functional or cognitive status. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two experienced physician reviewers independently and blindly abstracted data on outcome measures using a standardized approach. The reviewers conducted quality ratings based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria for each study. Main Outcomes and Measures We identified 14 interventional studies. Results for outcomes of delirium, falls, length of stay and institutionalization data were pooled for meta-analysis but heterogeneity limited meta-analysis of results for outcomes of functional and cognitive decline. Overall, eleven studies demonstrated significant reductions in delirium incidence (Odds Ratio 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval 0.38–0.58). The four randomized or matched (RMT) studies reduced delirium incidence by 44% (95% CI 0.42–0.76). Rate of falls decreased significantly among intervention patients in four studies (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25–0.60); in the two RMTs, the fall rate was reduced by 64% (95% CI 0.22–0.61). Lengths of stay and institutionalization rates also trended towards decreases in the intervention groups, mean difference −0.16 days shorter (95% CI −0.97–0.64) and odds of institutionalization 5% lower (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.71–1

  20. Gaps in patient care practices to prevent hospital-acquired delirium.

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    Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Marrie, Thomas; Rolfson, Darryl; Coke, William; Camicioli, Richard; Duggan, D'Arcy; Launhardt, Bonnie; Fisher, Bruce; Gordon, Debbie; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Magee, Bernice; Wiens, Cheryl

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the current patient care practices that address the predisposing and precipitating factors contributing to the prevention of hospital-acquired delirium in the elderly. Prospective cohort (observational) study. Patients 65 years of age and older who were admitted to medical teaching units at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton over a period of 7 months and who were at risk of delirium. Medical teaching units at the University of Alberta. Demographic data and information on predisposing factors for hospital-acquired delirium were obtained for all patients. Documented clinical practices that likely prevent common precipitants of delirium were also recorded. Of the 132 patients enrolled, 20 (15.2%) developed hospital-acquired delirium. At the time of admission several predisposing factors were not documented (eg, possible cognitive impairment 16 [12%], visual impairment 52 [39.4%], and functional status of activities of daily living 99 [75.0%]). Recorded precipitating factors included catheter use, screening for dehydration, and medications. Catheters were used in 35 (26.5%) patients, and fluid intake-and-output charting assessed dehydration in 57 (43.2%) patients. At the time of admission there was no documentation of hearing status in 69 (52.3%) patients and aspiration risk in 104 (78.8%) patients. After admission, reorientation measures were documented in only 16 (12.1%) patients. Although all patients had brief mental status evaluations performed once daily, this was not noted to occur twice daily (which would provide important information about fluctuation of mental status) and there was no formal attention span testing. In this study, hospital-acquired delirium was also associated with increased mortality (P < .004), increased length of stay (P < .007), and increased institutionalization (P < .027). Gaps were noted in patient care practices that might contribute to hospital-acquired delirium and also in measures to identify the development

  1. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,237 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 7,855 Mgal/d (55 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,383 Mgal/d (45 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,167 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,216 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (682 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Pasco County (1,822 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (through either public supply or private domestic wells) for 17.699 million residents (93 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.375 million residents (7 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita water use for 2012 was estimated at 136 gallons per day.

  2. Buprenorphine for managing opioid withdrawal.

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    Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; White, Jason M; Mbewe, Dalitso

    2017-02-21

    Managed withdrawal is a necessary step prior to drug-free treatment or as the endpoint of substitution treatment. To assess the effects of buprenorphine versus tapered doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists, symptomatic medications or placebo, or different buprenorphine regimens for managing opioid withdrawal, in terms of the intensity of the withdrawal syndrome experienced, duration and completion of treatment, and adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 11, 2016), MEDLINE (1946 to December week 1, 2016), Embase (to 22 December 2016), PsycINFO (1806 to December week 3, 2016), and the Web of Science (to 22 December 2016) and handsearched the reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials of interventions using buprenorphine to modify the signs and symptoms of withdrawal in participants who were primarily opioid dependent. Comparison interventions involved reducing doses of methadone, alpha 2 -adrenergic agonists (clonidine or lofexidine), symptomatic medications or placebo, and different buprenorphine-based regimens. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 27 studies involving 3048 participants. The main comparators were clonidine or lofexidine (14 studies). Six studies compared buprenorphine versus methadone, and seven compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction. We assessed 12 studies as being at high risk of bias in at least one of seven domains of methodological quality. Six of these studies compared buprenorphine with clonidine or lofexidine and two with methadone; the other four studies compared different rates of buprenorphine dose reduction.For the comparison of buprenorphine and methadone in tapered doses, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of intensity of withdrawal or adverse effects. However, information reported by the individual studies was suggestive of buprenorphine and methadone having similar capacity to

  3. Identifying the barriers and enablers to palliative care nurses' recognition and assessment of delirium symptoms: a qualitative study.

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    Hosie, Annmarie; Lobb, Elizabeth; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Delirium is underrecognized by nurses, including those working in palliative care settings where the syndrome occurs frequently. Identifying contextual factors that support and/or hinder palliative care nurses' delirium recognition and assessment capabilities is crucial, to inform development of clinical practice and systems aimed at improving patients' delirium outcomes. The aim of the study was to identify nurses' perceptions of the barriers and enablers to recognizing and assessing delirium symptoms in palliative care inpatient settings. A series of semistructured interviews, guided by critical incident technique, were conducted with nurses working in Australian palliative care inpatient settings. A hypoactive delirium vignette prompted participants' recall of delirium and identification of the perceived factors (barriers and enablers) that impacted on their delirium recognition and assessment capabilities. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Thirty participants from nine palliative care services provided insights into the barriers and enablers of delirium recognition and assessment in the inpatient setting that were categorized as patient and family, health professional, and system level factors. Analysis revealed five themes, each reflecting both identified barriers and current and/or potential enablers: 1) value in listening to patients and engaging families, 2) assessment is integrated with care delivery, 3) respecting and integrating nurses' observations, 4) addressing nurses' delirium knowledge needs, and 5) integrating delirium recognition and assessment processes. Supporting the development of palliative care nursing delirium recognition and assessment practice requires attending to a range of barriers and enablers at the patient and family, health professional, and system levels. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Delirium in the Emergency Department and Its Extension into Hospitalization (DELINEATE) Study: Effect on 6-month Function and Cognition.

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    Han, Jin H; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Liu, Xulei; Schnelle, John F; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-06-01

    The natural course and clinical significance of delirium in the emergency department (ED) is unclear. We sought to (1) describe the extent to which delirium in the ED persists into hospitalization (ED delirium duration) and (2) determine how ED delirium duration is associated with 6-month functional status and cognition. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary care, academic medical center. ED patients ≥65 years old who were admitted to the hospital. The modified Brief Confusion Assessment Method was used to ascertain delirium in the ED and hospital. Premorbid and 6-month function were determined using the Older American Resources and Services Activities of Daily Living (OARS ADL) questionnaire which ranged from 0 (completely dependent) to 28 (completely dependent). Premorbid and 6-month cognition were determined using the short form Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) which ranged from 1 to 5 (severe dementia). Multiple linear regression was performed to determine if ED delirium duration was associated with 6-month function and cognition adjusted for baseline OARS ADL and IQCODE, and other confounders. A total of 228 older ED patients were enrolled. Of the 105 patients who were delirious in the ED, 81 (77.1%) patients' delirium persisted into hospitalization. For every ED delirium duration day, the 6-month OARS ADL decreased by 0.63 points (95% CI: -1.01 to -0.24), indicating poorer function. For every ED delirium duration day, the 6-month IQCODE increased 0.06 points (95% CI: 0.01-0.10) indicating poorer cognition. Delirium in the ED is not a transient event and frequently persists into hospitalization. Longer ED delirium duration is associated with an incremental worsening of 6-month functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Delirium in awake patients with mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit

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    Ángela María Henao Castaño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar la incidencia de delirium en pacientes despiertos que reciben profilaxis primaria durante la ventilación mecánica en la unidad de cuidados intensivos en la Clínica Palermo, Bogotá-Colombia. Metodología: estudio descriptivo transversal. Se exploró la relación del delirium con la enfermedad médica, la profilaxis primaria, la historia personal y asocia - ción con delirium. El tamaño de la muestra (n = 102 se calculó teniendo en cuenta la frecuencia de pacientes despiertos en ventilación mecánica con una estancia media hospitalaria de 7 días. Análisis estadísticos univariado, bivariado y multivariado. Resultados: el delirium se presentó en 8 de cada 102 pacientes (22 % se observaron diferencias significativas entre los que deliraron y los que no deliran por edad y Marshall. Relaciones significativas entre el delirium y el Apache II, Tiss 28, y Marshall no se han demostrado a través de la regresión logística. Conclusiones: la edad (más de 60 años es un factor predisponente para la presencia de delirium, así como los antecedentes de tabaquismo. La administración de medicamentos para la profilaxis primaria no mostró ninguna asociación con la ausencia de delirium en pacientes despiertos en ventilación mecánica en la UCI

  6. Association of cumulative dose of haloperidol with next-day delirium in older medical ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Margaret A; Araujo, Katy L B; Murphy, Terrence E

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the association between cumulative dose of haloperidol and next-day diagnosis of delirium in a cohort of older medical ICU patients, with adjustment for its time-dependent confounding with fentanyl and intubation. Prospective, observational study. Medical ICU at an urban, academic medical center. Age 60 years and older admitted to the medical ICU who received at least one dose of haloperidol (n = 93). Of these, 72 patients were intubated at some point in their medical ICU stay, whereas 21 were never intubated. None. Detailed data were collected concerning time, dosage, route of administration of all medications, as well as for important clinical covariates, and daily status of intubation and delirium using the confusion assessment method for the ICU and a chart-based algorithm. Among nonintubated patients, and after adjustment for time-dependent confounding and important covariates, each additional cumulative milligram of haloperidol was associated with 5% higher odds of next-day delirium with odds ratio of 1.05 (credible interval [CI], 1.02-1.09). After adjustment for time-dependent confounding and covariates, intubation was associated with a five-fold increase in odds of next-day delirium with odds ratio of 5.66 (CI, 2.70-12.02). Cumulative dose of haloperidol among intubated patients did not change their already high likelihood of next-day delirium. After adjustment for time-dependent confounding, the positive associations between indicators of intubation and of cognitive impairment and next-day delirium became stronger. These results emphasize the need for more studies regarding the efficacy of haloperidol for treatment of delirium among older medical ICU patients and demonstrate the value of assessing nonintubated patients.

  7. The effects of a tailored intensive care unit delirium prevention protocol: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyoung-Ja; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    A decreased incidence of delirium following the application of non-pharmacologic intervention protocols to several patient populations has been previously reported. However, few studies have been conducted to examine the effects of their application to intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To examine the effects of applying a tailored delirium preventive protocol, developed by the authors, to ICU patients by analyzing its effects on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, ICU readmission, and length of ICU stay in a Korean hospital. A single-blind randomized controlled trial. A 1049-bed general hospital with a 105-bed ICU. Sixty and 63 ICU patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups, respectively. The researchers applied the delirium prevention protocol to the intervention group every day for the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization. Delirium incidence, mortality, and re-admission to the ICU during the same hospitalization period were analyzed by logistic regression analysis; the 7- and 30-day in-hospital mortality by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis; and length of ICU stay was assessed by linear regression analysis. Application of the protocol had no significant effect on delirium incidence, in-hospital mortality, re-admission to the ICU, or length of ICU stay. Whereas the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality was not significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.10-1.09), we found a significantly decreased 7-day in-hospital mortality in the intervention group after protocol application (HR: 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01-0.72). Application of a tailored delirium prevention protocol to acute stage patients during the first 7 days of ICU hospitalization appeared to reduce the 7-day in-hospital risk of mortality only for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of inattention in the context of delirium screening: one size does not fit all!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Landreville, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Savoie, Maryse; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Richard, Sylvie; Bédard, Annick

    2016-08-01

    Despite its high prevalence and deleterious consequences, delirium often goes undetected in older hospitalized patients and long-term care (LTC) residents. Inattention is a core symptom of this syndrome. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of ten simple and objective attention tests that would enable efficient delirium screening among this population. This was a secondary analysis (n = 191) of a validation study conducted in one acute care hospital (ACH) and one LTC facility among older adults with, or without, cognitive impairment. The attention test tasks (n = 10) were drawn from the Concentration subscale the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS). Delirium was defined as meeting the criteria for DSM-5 delirium. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was used to determine the presence of delirium symptoms. The Months of the Year Backward (MOTYB) test, which 57% of participants completed successfully, showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity (82.6%; 95% CI [61.2-95.0], and 62.5%; 95% CI [54.7-69.8] respectively) for the entire group. Subgroup analyses revealed that no test had both sensitivity and specificity over 50% in participants with cognitive impairment indicated in their medical chart. Our results revealed that these tests varied greatly in performance and none can be earmarked to become a single-item screening tool for delirium among older patients and residents with, or without, cognitive impairment. The presence of premorbid cognitive impairment may necessitate more extensive assessments of delirium, especially when a change in general status or mental state is observed.

  9. Worsening Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegenerative Pathology Progressively Increase Risk for Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Skelly, Donal T.; Murray, Carol; Hennessy, Edel; Bowen, Jordan; Norton, Samuel; Brayne, Carol; Rahkonen, Terhi; Sulkava, Raimo; Sanderson, David J.; Rawlins, J. Nicholas; Bannerman, David M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Cunningham, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Background Delirium is a profound neuropsychiatric disturbance precipitated by acute illness. Although dementia is the major risk factor this has typically been considered a binary quantity (i.e., cognitively impaired versus cognitively normal) with respect to delirium risk. We used humans and mice to address the hypothesis that the severity of underlying neurodegenerative changes and/or cognitive impairment progressively alters delirium risk. Methods Humans in a population-based longitudinal study, Vantaa 85+, were followed for incident delirium. Odds for reporting delirium at follow-up (outcome) were modeled using random-effects logistic regression, where prior cognitive impairment measured by Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (exposure) was considered. To address whether underlying neurodegenerative pathology increased susceptibility to acute cognitive change, mice at three stages of neurodegenerative disease progression (ME7 model of neurodegeneration: controls, 12 weeks, and 16 weeks) were assessed for acute cognitive dysfunction upon systemic inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Synaptic and axonal correlates of susceptibility to acute dysfunction were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In the Vantaa cohort, 465 persons (88.4 ± 2.8 years) completed MMSE at baseline. For every MMSE point lost, risk of incident delirium increased by 5% (p = 0.02). LPS precipitated severe and fluctuating cognitive deficits in 16-week ME7 mice but lower incidence or no deficits in 12-week ME7 and controls, respectively. This was associated with progressive thalamic synaptic loss and axonal pathology. Conclusion A human population-based cohort with graded severity of existing cognitive impairment and a mouse model with progressing neurodegeneration both indicate that the risk of delirium increases with greater severity of pre-existing cognitive impairment and neuropathology. PMID:25239680

  10. [Delirium in stroke patients : Critical analysis of statistical procedures for the identification of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nydahl, P; Margraf, N G; Ewers, A

    2017-04-01

    Delirium is a relevant complication following an acute stroke. It is a multifactor occurrence with numerous interacting risk factors that alternately influence each other. The risk factors of delirium in stroke patients are often based on limited clinical studies. The statistical procedures and clinical relevance of delirium related risk factors in adult stroke patients should therefore be questioned. This secondary analysis includes clinically relevant studies that give evidence for the clinical relevance and statistical significance of delirium-associated risk factors in stroke patients. The quality of the reporting of regression analyses was assessed using Ottenbacher's quality criteria. The delirium-associated risk factors identified were examined with regard to statistical significance using the Bonferroni method of multiple testing for forming incorrect positive hypotheses. This was followed by a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance. Nine clinical studies were included. None of the studies fulfilled all the prerequisites and assumptions given for the reporting of regression analyses according to Ottenbacher. Of the 108 delirium-associated risk factors, a total of 48 (44.4%) were significant, whereby a total of 28 (58.3%) were false positive after Bonferroni correction. Following a literature-based discussion on clinical relevance, the assumption of statistical significance and clinical relevance could be found for only four risk factors (dementia or cognitive impairment, total anterior infarct, severe infarct and infections). The statistical procedures used in the existing literature are questionable, as are their results. A post-hoc analysis and critical appraisal reduced the number of possible delirium-associated risk factors to just a few clinically relevant factors.

  11. The effect of chronotherapy on delirium in critical care - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Roseanne; McLeod, Anne

    2017-05-15

    Delirium is highly prevalent within critical care and is linked to adverse clinical outcomes, increased mortality and impaired quality of life. Development of delirium is thought to be caused by multiple risk factors, including disruption of the circadian rhythm. Chronotherapeutic interventions, such as light therapy, music and use of eye shades, have been suggested as an option to improve circadian rhythm within intensive care units. This review aims to answer the question: Can chronotherapy reduce the prevalence of delirium in adult patients in critical care? This study is a systematic review of quantitative studies. Six major electronic databases were searched, and a hand search was undertaken using selected key search terms. Research quality was assessed using the critical appraisal skills programme tools. The studies were critically appraised by both authors independently, and data were extracted. Four themes addressing the research question were identified and critically evaluated. Six primary research articles that investigated different methods of chronotherapy were identified, and the results suggest that multi-component non-pharmacological interventions are the most effective for reducing the prevalence of delirium in critical care. The melatonergic agonist Ramelteon demonstrated statistically significant reductions in delirium; however, the reliability of the results in answering the review question was limited by the research design. The use of bright light therapy (BLT) and dynamic light application had mixed results, with issues with the research design and outcomes measured limiting the validity of the findings. Multi-component non-pharmacological interventions, such as noise and light control, can reduce delirium in critical care, whereas other interventions, such as BLT, have mixed outcomes. Melatonin, as a drug, may be a useful alternative to sedative-hypnotics. Chronotherapy can reduce the incidence of delirium within critical care, although

  12. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G;